Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...

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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects ***** system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological ***** function in ***** acquisition to aid ***** the development of characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The underst*****ing of phonological rules is ***** the utmost importance for language teachers because a gr*****sp of these ***** results in pronunciations ***** are more native-like ***** nature (Schramm, 2001). Phonological systems are complex and always involve ***** than one rule, and rules are considered either to be transparent, or with a context that is v*****ible, or opaque, ***** a context that is not v*****ible (Johnson).

There are four main types ***** phonological rules in language. These categ*****ies are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The phonological rule of assimilation refers ***** the process of a sound becoming more similar to a neighboring sound (*****, 2001). A key ex*****mple of this ***** is nasalization, in which a vowel preceding a n*****sal consonant assimilates, or becomes more similar by taking on a nasal-like quality. ***** ph*****ological rule of assimilation is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, 2001).

On the other hand, ***** is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to *****. With dissimilation, two neighboring sounds become less similar ***** each other (*****, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological *****. This is where it is necessary to pronounce two fricatives next ***** each other, such in the numbers "fifth" *****d "sixth." Non-native speakers of English often find it ch*****enging to master these ***** of sound sequences (Scramm, 2001). Language instructors may ease the acquisition of *****se pronunciations by clearly outlining the *****es *****d in these dissimilar *****.

Another type of ***** rule in language is *****sertion. With insertion, sounds are added to words that are not apparent in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). ***** can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed ***** pronounce certain words do not correspond to how they perceive the words v*****ually. A couple of examples of insertion in the English language ***** ***** like "hamster," ***** is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is usually pronounced with an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon**********-th" (Scramm, 2001).

***** f*****al category of phonological rules ***** deletion. This type of rule deals with processes ***** pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (*****, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion ***** arise when ***** pronunciation of a word diverges from the ***** it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation ***** another word with completely different meaning. *****n example of this is the word "police," which ***** *****ten pronounced as "pleace," ***** is furthermore very similar ***** the word "please."

Phonological rules and ***** ***** involved not only in speech, but also in the process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access ***** print always involved phonological processing, which occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).


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