Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...

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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects the system of sound, including ***** semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological rules function in ***** acquisition to aid in the development ***** characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The underst*****ing of phonological rules is ***** the utmost importance for language teachers because a grasp of these ***** results in pronunciations ***** are more native-like ***** nature (Schramm, 2001). Phonological systems are complex and always involve more than one rule, and *****s ***** considered either to be transparent, or with a context that is v*****ible, or opaque, with a ***** that is not v*****ible (Johnson).

There are four main types ***** phonological rules in language. These categ*****ies are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The phonological rule of assimilation refers to the process of a sound becoming more simil*****r ***** a neighboring sound (*****, 2001). A key example of this rule is nasalization, in ***** a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes m*****e similar by taking on a nasal-like quality. The phonological rule ***** ***** is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, 2001).

***** the other h*****, ***** is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring ***** beco***** less similar to each other (Scramm, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological *****. This is where it is necessary ***** pronounce two fricatives next to each other, such in the numbers "fifth" *****d "sixth." Non-native speakers ***** Engl*****h often find it challenging to master these ***** of ***** sequences (Scramm, 2001). Language instructors may ease the ***** of *****se pronunciations by clearly outlining the *****es involved in ********** dissimilar sounds.

Another type of phonological rule in language is insertion. With insertion, sounds ***** added to words that are not app*****nt in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). Th***** can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed to pronounce certain words do not correspond ***** how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples of insertion in the English language are words like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," ***** is ***** pronounced with an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon*****t-th" (Scramm, 2001).

***** f*****al category ***** phonological rules ***** deletion. This type of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds ***** left out, or deleted (*****, 2001). ***** the process of deletion, confusion may arise when ***** ***** ***** a word diverges from the way it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another ***** with completely different meaning. An example of this is the word "police," which ***** ********** pronounced as "pleace," which is furthermore ***** similar to the ***** "ple*****e."

Phonological rules ***** ***** are ***** not only in speech, but also in ***** process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access ***** print always involved phonological processing, ***** occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).


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