Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...


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How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional ***** of monitor*****g likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance ********** the sustained monitoring of suspects, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. Audio surveillance or wiretapping ********** requires a cooper*****tive witness, a police undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, *****nd/***** a warrant to listen to the suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect can be unreliable and difficult and vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on ***** nature of the subject it can also ***** dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

Following the proper ***** protocols when conducting these various forms ***** ***** ***** essential for members of the **********. This is particularly important when using those forms ***** surveillance involving technological assistance, ***** as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They ***** extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy ***** they often involve the ***** home, where there is an expectation of privacy not assumed in ***** open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that tele***** ***** was technically a search and by 1972, ***** Court was rul*****g that every single phone and wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime ***** been or is about to be committed (O'Connor 2007). Computer surveillance ***** has even more onerous ***** specific legal restrictions.

***** meet the cost challenges ***** the future while still complying with ***** safety needs of the public and ***** financial ***** of departments, ***** departments, ***** at smaller venues such as college campuses, are attempting ***** adapt the environment to more effective policing, even before ***** occurs. These strategies ***** CPTED (Crime pr*****tion ***** environmental design) stress that rather than coping with the ***** difficulties of conventional *****, where a ***** can easily 'shake' an *****ficer on foot—provided that a likely criminal can be identified in the first place—police departments should shift*****g to a philosophy of environmental design-based surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED ***** a crime prevention strategy ***** a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by fe*****ures that maximize visibility of people, parking areas and building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking *****; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets; front porches; adequate night***** lighting" (***** 2008).

Creating a sense of barriers, a system also known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles ***** CPTED likewise does ***** require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is dependant upon the psychological concept of ***** broken window, namely that by creating barriers ***** define private property lines, intruders are less likely ***** break in—in other

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