Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...

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***** Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional methods of monitor*****g likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance requires the sustained monitoring ***** *****, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. ***** surveillance or wiretapping often ***** a cooper*****tive witness, a police undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, and/or a warrant to listen to ***** suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect can be unreliable and difficult and vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on the nature of the subject it can also be dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

***** the proper ***** protocols when conducting these various forms of ***** ***** essential for members ***** the force. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological ass*****tance, such as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They have extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy ***** they often involve the ***** home, where *****re is an expectation of privacy not assumed in ***** open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that telephone ***** was technically a search and by 1972, ***** Court was rul*****g that every single phone and wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime ***** been or is about to be committed (***** 2007). Computer surveillance *****ten has even more onerous ***** specific legal restrictions.

To meet the cost challenges of the future while still complying with ***** safety needs of the public and ***** financial needs of departments, police departments, ***** at smaller venues ***** as college campuses, are attempting to adapt the environment to more effective policing, even before ***** occurs. These strategies ***** CPTED (Crime prevention ***** environmental design) stress that ra*****r than coping with the ***** difficulties of conventional surveillance, where a ***** ***** e*****sily 'shake' an officer on foot—provided that a likely crimin*****l can be identified in the first place—police departments should shift*****g to a philosophy of environmental design-based ***** (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention strategy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by fe*****ures that maximize v*****ibility ***** people, parking *****as and building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets; fr*****t porches; adequate nighttime lighting" (***** 2008).

Creating a sense of b*****rriers, a system ********** known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles of CPTED likewise does not require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is dependant upon the psychological concept of the broken window, namely that by creating barriers ***** define private property lines, intruders are less likely to break in—in o*****r


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