Essay - Political Movements in Latin America This Paper is Divided into...

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Political Movements in Latin America

***** paper is divided into two parts: the first part provides and defends a definition of popul*****m, addressing its ideology, social base, charisma, clientelism, and the extent of institutionalization; the second part argues that populism and guerrilla movements are very similar phenomena, divided only by the level of their extremism.

***** are many *****s of '*****', as seemingly each academic uses his or her own definition of this term, expecting all readers to automatically agree with this definition. As Roberts (1995) says, "few ***** science concepts can match populism when it comes to nebulous and inconsistent usage." As Roberts (*****) says, "These multiple dimensions have allowed the populist concept ***** be applied to a wide range ***** loosely connected empirical phenomena, ranging from economic policies and development ph*****es to political ideologies, movements, parties, governments, and social coalitions": some of these will be discussed below.

***** definitions label political ***** as, "excessive centralization ***** decision-making, i.e., rule ***** decree, with decreasing depoliticization" (Eder, 2003). Many academics, such as Eder (*****) have shown that globalization (***** neoliberalism) h***** not put an end to populism, but rather has transformed it, into 'neopopulism', which leaves little room for 'true' democracy to develop in those countr*****s that have followed these paths. As we shall see, Venezuela and Peru are two good examples of the 'neopopulist' effects of globalization, as ***** ***** countries, neoliberal ***** have existed side-by-side with populist strategies (Eder, 2003).

O*****r academics, for example, Weyland (2001) have defined populism as, "populism is best ***** as a politic*****l strategy through which a personal*****tic leader seeks or exercises power based on direct, unmediated, uninstitutionalized support ***** large numbers of mostly unorganized followers." This 'single-defining variable' definition is hotly contested by *****, most notably Canovan (1999) who offered her own seven sub-categories ***** which to define populism, arguing that such a complex, multi-faceted definition was necessary.

***** academics argue that populists are defined by their message, and that their message can only be heard in ***** fac*****g crises, such that populism really needs to ***** defined within the context of exclusion (Buxton, 2000). Others (Roberts, 1995) argue that "***** is a recurring phenomenon, r*****ther than a period-specific historical anomaly."

Other academics argue that populism is a common character*****tic of ***** American politics, which has lasted from its inception in the ***** half of the twentieth century (Coslovsky, 2002). It is argued that populism is both a political and an economic *****, and that, as such, it has had an important role in the region's dual transitions (Coslovsky, 2002). Economic ***** can be seen as an attempt to deal with income inequality through ***** use ***** overly exp*****sive macroeconomic policies i.e., deficit financing (Coslovsky, 2002).

In this view, populism is best understood as a politic*****l *****, ***** politicians being classed as popul*****t if they fulfil three conditions: I) their personal style is paternal*****tic, ***** and charismatic; ii) ***** are able to mobilize, from the top down, a heterogeneous coalition that includes urban


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