Essay - Political Movements in Latin America This Paper is Divided into...


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Political Movements in Latin America

***** paper is divided into two parts: the first part provides and defends a definition of popul*****m, addressing its ideology, social base, charisma, clientelism, and the extent of institutionalization; the second part argues that populism ***** guerrilla movements are very similar phenomena, divided only by the level of their extremism.

***** are many *****s of '*****', as seemingly each academic uses his or her own definition ***** this term, expecting all readers to au*****matically agree with this definition. As Roberts (1995) says, "few ***** science concepts can match populism when it comes to nebulous and inconsistent usage." As Roberts (*****) says, "These multiple dimensions have allowed the populist concept ***** be applied to a wide range of loosely connected empirical phenomena, ranging from economic policies ***** development phases ***** pol*****ical ideologies, movements, parties, governments, and social coalitions": some ***** *****se will ***** discussed below.

Some definitions label political populism as, "excessive centralization of decision-making, i.e., rule ***** decree, with decreasing depoliticization" (Eder, 2003). Many academics, such as Eder (*****) ***** shown that globalization (***** neoliberalism) has not put an end to *****, but rather has transformed it, into 'neopopulism', which leaves l*****tle room for 'true' democracy to develop in those countr*****s that have followed these paths. As we shall see, Venezuela and Peru are two good examples of the 'neopopulist' effects of *****, as in ***** countries, neoliberal ***** have existed side-by-side ***** populist strategies (Eder, 2003).

O*****r academics, for example, Weyland (2001) have defined populism as, "populism is best defined as a political strategy through which a personalistic leader seeks or exercises power based on direct, unmediated, uninstitutionalized support from large numbers of mostly unorganized followers." This 'single-defining variable' definition is hotly contested by academics, most *****ably Canovan (1999) who offered her own seven sub-categories with ***** to define populism, arguing that such a complex, multi-f*****ceted definition was necessary.

***** academics argue that populists are ***** ***** their message, and that ***** message ***** only be heard in countries fac*****g crises, such that populism really needs ***** ***** defined ********** the context of exclusion (Buxton, 2000). Others (*****, 1995) argue that "***** is a recurring phenomenon, rather than a period-specific historical anomaly."

Other academics argue that populism is a common character*****tic of ***** American politics, which has lasted from ***** inception in the ***** half ***** the twentieth century (Coslovsky, 2002). It is argued ***** populism is both a political ***** an economic *****, *****d that, as *****, it has had an import*****t role in the region's dual transitions (Coslovsky, 2002). Economic ***** can be seen as an attempt to deal with income inequality through the use of overly expansive macroeconomic policies i.e., deficit financing (*****, 2002).

***** ***** view, populism is best understood as a ***** *****, ***** politicians being classed as popul*****t if they fulfil three conditions: I) their personal style is paternalistic, personal and charismatic; ii) they are able to mobilize, from the top down, a heterogeneous coalition that includes urban

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