Essay - Privatization of the Prison System and the Impact of the...


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Copyright Notice

PRIVATIZATION OF THE PRISON SYSTEM AND THE IMPACT ***** THE DIFFERENTIATION OF SENTENCING IN POWDER VERSUS CRACK COCAINE *****FENSE AND THE ***** ON AFRICAN AMERICAN OFFENDERS

I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE POLICY

In 1986 and 1988, the U.S. Congress passed federal sentencing laws related to crack cocaine that differentiated the sentences imposed upon defendants in powder and ***** cocaine related offenses in what is known as ***** 'Anti-Drug Abuse Act of **********. These stricter ***** guidelines were ***** to address the emerging issue of crack cocaine which w***** perceived to be."..a social menace that *****as categorically different from ***** cocaine in its physiological and psychotropic effects." Crack cocaine is powder cocaine mixed with banking soda ***** then cooked into hard rocks, which are then broken up into smaller pieces and sold to those who use the drug by smoking it. Crack cocaine is cheaper than ***** cocaine ***** aroused great public concern when it first h***** ***** streets in the United States. According ***** Alfred Blumstein ***** Carnegie Mellon University, as reported by Coyle (2002) in the work entitled: "Race and Class Penalties ***** Crack Cocaine Sentencing" crack cocaine began as an innovation in the drug market "crack distribution rights *****d boundaries were apportioned amongst competitors with the use of violence." (Coyle, 2002) The follow*****g table relates ***** median street-level dealer ***** quantities and mandatory minimum imposed by the Anti-Drug ***** ***** 1986.

***** Street-Level Drug Quantities and Mandatory Minimums

Drug

Median Drug Weight

Mandatory Minimum

Crack *****

52 grams

10 years

Powder Cocaine

340 *****

Source: Coyle (2002

Congress created the United States Sentencing Commission in 1984 for ***** purpose of developing federal sentencing ***** for the purpose of bringing about a reduction ***** sentencing disparity. By 1994 in alliance with provisions set out in the Omnibus Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, the ***** was instructed to conduct a study relating to different penalties in powder- and crack-coca*****e sentencing. The study lasted ***** duration of one year with recommendations by the Commission to ***** U.S. Congress ***** revise the crack/powder 100:1 ***** disparity due to findings that due to ***** small differences in the two forms ***** coca*****e that such sentencing disparities were not justifiable. Commission advised an equalization (1:1) of the quantity ratio that would require mandatory ***** relating to the two forms of cocaine. Commission recommendations included advisement ***** guidelines in ***** sentencing should be based upon criteria other than the type ***** drug for determination of the lengths ***** sentences. These recommendations were rejected by the U.S. Congress along with refusal to make changes ***** ***** law and ***** in fact the first such move ***** ***** history of the United ***** Sentencing Commission since *****' *****mation. Once again, recommendations were made in April 1997 regarding the disparity in ***** between crack- and powder-cocaine that the *****ial sentencing should be balanced through provision of a range of 2:1 to 15:1 for ***** to choose ***** among. This new recommendation "was based on both raising

. . . . [END OF DISSERTATION PREVIEW]

Download complete paper (and others like it)    |    Order a brand new, custom paper

© 2001–2017   |   Dissertation about Privatization of the Prison System and the Impact of the   |   Thesis Paper Example