Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...


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Processors

***** have evolved into more powerful and more productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors ***** chip microprocessors (CMP) where as a result, *****re should be code parallelization and ***** for *****s to work within a constrained power budget. The key to designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) per*****mance and high throughput (multithreaded) performance ***** to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount of ***** expended to process each *****), according to the amount of parallelism available in the software (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, *****s must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

Thus, the parallel programs must ***** able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitigating the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from ***** parallelization will be limited by the amount of time ***** system spends processing the sequential part of the code

Improving perf*****mance within the constraints of a power budget: Advances in power technology now lags behind advances in transistor technology, making power/thermal issues an increasingly critical design (and performance) constraint

Satisfying the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor ***** within a fixed power budget

***** tr*****ditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric *****s - rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced ***** allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of energy per retired instruction, based on ***** avail***** thread-level *****ism (***** et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a c*****servative square relationship between power and performance. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how ***** assign ***** and parallel processes to a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce the ***** operating voltage or frequency ***** a processor, it does emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., 2007)" The main usefulness of AMP is *****s ***** ***** when programs shift rapidly between sequential ********** parallel phases, there is significant overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. ***** these cases, a static AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The ********** of ***** tests provided three result categories (Annavaram et al., 2007):

***** par*****lel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly better on multiple, low-power *****

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent ***** 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

Highly ***** programs: Spent about 31 ***** to 54 percent of execution ***** in sequential processing, they also shifted rapidly ***** ***** and parallel processing

AMP is the new generation ***** microprocessors ***** EPI (energy per *****) throttling will be an essential aspect of future ***** multiprocessors, *****d intend to continue exploring the prom*****e of this approach to improve

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