# Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...

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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What are the differences? When should ***** and ***** statistics be used?

Descriptive and inferential statistics: Summary explains ***** ***** and differences between descriptive ***** inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to descri***** a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also *****be the actual sample under study, but allow a rese*****rcher to extend conclusions ***** a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher ***** describe how issues affect study groups and ***** variables are related in to other study *****. However, the research cannot describe how those issues ***** ***** members of the study groups and how these variables are related in those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how the results could ***** generalized to all groups and would not know where the ***** ***** the ***** were representative of all groups.

These shortcomings of ***** statistics are where inferential ***** come into play.

Inferential statistics extends conclusions to a broader ***** by making sure the study if representative ***** the group the researcher wishes to generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample that is ***** of the group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests ***** significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the ***** the probability that the results found in ***** ***** group are representative of the population that group was chosen to represent. ***** or a t-test gives informs the researcher of ***** ***** that the results found could have occurred by chance when there ***** re*****y no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the popul*****ion.

***** are ***** similarities between single-case and small-N research designs? What are the differences? ***** should single-case and small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain ***** and small-n research *****. These are most often used in applied fields of psychology, education, and human behavior in ***** the subject serves as his/her own control, rather than utilizing another individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which ***** sensitive to averages ***** groups. Small-n ***** includes more ***** one subject in a rese*****rch study, but the ***** still serves as his/her own control just like in ***** s*****gle-c*****e design.

Single-case and small-n research have three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior of the individual over ***** course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects are observed long enough ***** convince ***** *****er that the treatment produces a lasting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a researcher looks for behavioral trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in b*****el*****e, but ***** ***** reversed th***** *****) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment effect.

Variability in Data:

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