Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...

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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What ***** the differences? When should ***** and inferential statistics be used?

Descriptive and ***** statistics: Summary explains the ***** and differences ********** descriptive ***** inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also ***** the actual sample under study, but allow a researcher ***** extend conclusions to a bro*****der population.

With descriptive statistics, a researcher ***** describe how issues affect study groups and how variables are related in to other study *****. However, the research cannot describe ***** those issues affect ***** members of the study groups and how these variables are related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how ***** results could ***** generalized ***** all ***** ***** would not know where the groups in the ***** were representative of all groups.

These shortcomings of ***** statistics ***** where inferential statistics come into play.

Inferential ***** extends ***** to a broader population by making sure the study if representative of the group ***** researcher wishes to generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample that is ***** of the group to which the researcher plans to *****. Tests ***** significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the ***** the probability that the ***** found in the study group are representative of ***** population that group was chosen ***** represent. Chi-Sqaure or a t-test gives informs the researcher of ***** probability ***** the results ***** could have occurred by chance when *****re ***** re*****y no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the population.

***** are ***** similarities ***** single-case and small-N research designs? What are the differences? ***** should single-case ***** small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain single-case and small-n research *****. These are most *****ten ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, and human behavior in which the subject serves as his/her own control, ra*****r than utiliz*****g another individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which ***** sensitive to averages ***** groups. Small-n research includes more than one subject in a rese*****rch study, but the subject still ***** as his/her own control just like in the single-case design.

Single-case and small-n research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior of the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects are observed long enough to convince ***** *****er that the ***** produces a lasting effect.

Baseline *****: Before the treatment is implemented, a researcher looks for ********** trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in basel*****e, but the treatment reversed th***** trend) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a ***** *****.

Variability in Data:


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