Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...


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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes

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The positive effects ***** sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When ***** athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an ***** competition, they approach the event with more confidence, ********** are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and ***** physical dem***** tasks. The ***** showed support for a hypo*****sis that ***** in ***** appearing to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced ***** with the FSS than those having a high number ***** cognitive elements. (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** field ***** received a l*****rge amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part of ***** Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Also involved in this field is the National Academy of Sciences/ National Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-*****-science publications: Enhancing Human *****: Issues, Theories, and *****, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), and ***** the Mind's Eye: ***** Human Performance, edited ***** Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts ***** also *****icipated in by the "Army Research Institute (ARI) which approached ***** National Academy of Sciences/ ***** Research ***** to assess the effect ***** some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, 1991, p. vii). "In particular, Landers chapter (*****) titled "Optimiz*****g Individual Performance" discussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, cognitive-behavioral interventi*****s, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (*****, Raldo, *****, 1996)

According to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on the future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans ***** bringing ***** possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situ*****tion toward an envisioned future one, the anticipation ***** management of emotions and the initiation and maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are funda***** tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) ***** in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation within *****, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices am*****g athletes (for review, see Singer, Murphey, & Tennant, 1993). Olympic, pr*****essional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found ***** use specific categories of cognitive-behavioral strategies to manage emotions ***** improve *****. Of ***** many skills that athletes possess, one ***** the most intriguing is the ability to envision ***** *****, and then regulate our behavior and emotions so as to bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future *****s h***** ***** explored in virtually every area of psyc*****ology, but often is used in addressing the professional ***** athlete, or the person who is undergoing o*****r levels of psychological intervention. (Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and *****, 1998)

Psychologists

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