Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...

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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes


The positive effects of sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level ***** athletic competition. When the athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an athletic competition, *****y approach the event with more confidence, *****d are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and higher physical demand tasks. The ***** showed support for a hypothesis that ***** in ***** appear*****g to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced ***** with the FSS than those having a high number of cognitive elements. (Kim, R*****ldo, Singer, 1996)

This field ***** received a large amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for ***** Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part ***** the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Educati*****. Also involved in this field is ***** National Academy of Sciences/ ***** Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-the-science publications: Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), and ***** the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance, edited ***** Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts ***** also *****icipated in by the "Army Research Institute (ARI) which approached the National Academy of Sciences/ National ***** ***** to assess the effect of some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, 1991, p. vii). "In particular, L*****ers chapter (*****) titled "Optimizing Individual Performance" discussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, *****-behavioral interventions, peak performance, and other topics ***** address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (Kim, Raldo, *****, 1996)

According to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on the future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans for bringing those possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situ*****tion toward an envisioned future one, the anticipation ***** management of emotions and ***** initiation ***** maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are fundamental tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) research in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation ********** sport, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices am*****g ***** (for review, see Singer, Murphey, ***** Tennant, 1993). Olympic, professional, and intercollegiate ********** have been found ***** use specific categories of *****-behavioral strategies to manage emotions and improve performance. Of ***** many skills that athletes possess, one of the most intriguing is the ability to envision the *****, ***** then regulate our behavior and emotions so as to bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future *****s ***** been explored in virtually every area of psychology, but often is used in addressing the professional ***** athlete, or the person who is undergoing other levels of psychological intervention. (Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and *****, *****)



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