Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...

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Statement of the Problem

***** ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure sores, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, ********** due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of ***** is a common problem in long term care of the elderly. A recent report by a n*****tional pressure ulcer organization estimates ***** prevalence of PUs in acute ***** at about 15%, with about a 7% *****cidence *****fter admission (National ***** Ulcer ********** Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress to the patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the ********** medical care community to find ways ***** reduce their prevalence and incidence. Two commonly suggested solutions to the PU problem include identifying patients at risk using risk assessment methods and initi*****ing preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, 2002). In order for long term care staff to identify patients at risk they must be educated in assessment of the risk ***** developing *****. One risk assessment method used in this area is the Braden Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara ***** and Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to ***** r*****k factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, Braden, Laguzza, & Holman, *****).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt to evaluate the effect of training ***** in a long-term care facility in the use of the ***** Scale on ulcer incidence. It will do this by examining three ***** *****fore and after training in the use of the Braden Scale: (1) the overall ***** of ulcers, (2) the average ulcer development time, ***** (3) the average ulcer healing time.

Definiti***** ***** Terms

***** Scale -- a risk ***** method for the ***** of pressure ulcers that examines various factors and assigns a ***** value ***** ***** potential *****.

Retrospective Data -- data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in a *****.

Prospective Data -- data ***** events ***** after a subject is enrolled in a study.

Qu*****si-Experimental -- a ***** of quantitative research design that ***** causality; it does not include random selection of ********** or control groups.


Chronological presentation of the theoretical and ***** basis for the study

The Braden Scale is a r*****k assessment method for the development of pressure ***** that was formulated in 1987 (Bergstrom et al.). Since that time, a l*****rge number of studies have been done to try ***** determine if ***** sc*****e is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those patients ***** ***** develop pressure ulcers. Work by Braden herself indicates that the scale does have clinical utility, predictive utility, and extends to various healthcare settings (***** ***** Bergstrom, 1989; *****, Braden, Kemp, Champagne, &


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