Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...

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***** of the Problem

***** ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure s*****es, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, *****ten due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of ***** is a common problem in long term c*****re of the elderly. A recent report by a n*****tional pressure ulcer organization estimates the prevalence of PUs in acute care at about 15%, with ***** a 7% ********** *****fter admission (National ***** Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress to the patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the long-term medical care community ***** find ways to reduce ***** prevalence ***** incidence. Two commonly suggested *****lutions to the PU problem include identifying *****s at risk using risk as*****sment methods and initi*****ing preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, *****). In order ***** long term care staff to identify patients at risk they must be educated in assessment of the risk for developing *****. One ***** assessment method used in this area is the Braden Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara Braden and Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to ***** r*****k factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, *****, Laguzza, & Holman, 1987).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt to evaluate the effect of training staff in a long-term care facility ***** the use of ***** Braden Scale on ulcer incidence. It will do ***** by examining three ***** be*****e and after ***** in the use ***** the Braden Scale: (1) the overall ***** of ulcers, (2) the average ulcer *****ment time, and (3) the ***** ulcer healing time.

Definition ***** Terms

Braden Scale -- a ***** assessment method for the development of pressure ********** that examines various factors ***** ***** a ***** value ***** ***** potential risk.

Retrospective Data -- data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in a *****.

Prospective Data -- data concern*****g events occurring after a subject ***** enrolled in a study.

Quasi-Experimental -- a method of qu*****ntitative research design that examines causality; it does not include random selection ***** subjects or control groups.


Chronological presentation of the theoretical and ***** basis for the study

The Braden Scale is a r*****k assessment method ***** the development ***** pressure ulcers that was *****ulated in *****987 (Bergstrom et al.). S*****ce that *****, a l*****rge number of studies have been done to try to determine if the scale is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those ***** ***** will develop pressure *****. Wo***** by Braden herself indicates that the ***** does have clinical utility, predictive utility, and extends ***** various healthcare settings (Braden & *****, 1989; Bergstrom, Braden, Kemp, Champagne, &


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