Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...

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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains ***** processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation ***** energy but also defines the direction of time, uniting the ***** concepts of time and energy. In different interpretations of ***** ***** law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the ***** of time ***** law states ***** energy ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state ***** ***** ***** can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ***** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work without energy losses. In one of ***** interpretations ***** the second law of thermodynamics it's *****d that after a ***** process there is always less amount of ***** in the volume if compared to ***** initial *****.

***** formulation of the second law ***** thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it became ***** ***** give scient*****ic and rational explanation to the work of heat engines such as steam engine. There was enough knowledge in ***** field ***** classical mechanics ***** there existed explanation of the energy-work ***** of mechanical machines and engines. But the problem w*****h heat engines remained. The main reason was that there ***** no agreement about the form and sense of energy, temperature,nature of ***** processes and heat radiation was *****t studied *****ll.

***** works of Sadi Carnot ***** heat engines and the concept of ***** ***** engine ***** used heat in order to produce work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat ***** which would work as a perpetual motion machine:

No engine operating between two heat reservoirs ***** be more efficient than a Carnot engine ***** between the same *****" or it states that ":All reversible engines operating between the ***** heat reservoirs are equally *****" (Jaynes, 256)

He described the work of such heat engine as follows:

The production ***** motive power is *****n due in steam eng*****es not ***** actual consumption of the caloric but to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body and in the fall of caloric the motive power evidently increases with the difference ***** temperature ***** ***** ***** and cold bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not used on practice and ar considered to be ideal and is ***** ***** to explain thermodynamics *****.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law of thermodynamics ***** is also known as Kelvin-Plank statement:

***** is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive he*****t ***** a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the formulation ***** the second law of thermodynamics it became clear that it's impossible ***** transform all caloric into other types ***** *****. In order to give a physical formulation of ***** phenomenon a new


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