Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...

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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains ***** processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines ***** direction ***** time, uniting the physical concepts of ***** and energy. In different interpretations of the ***** law of thermodynamics we would find out that defining the direction ***** time ***** law states ***** energy ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state of ***** ***** can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ***** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), machines which would produce useful work without energy losses. In one of the interpretations ***** the second law of thermodynamics it's stated that after a work process there is always less amount of ***** in the volume if compared to ***** initial *****.

***** formulation of the second law ***** thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it became important to give scientific ***** rational explanation to ***** work of heat engines such ***** steam engine. There was enough knowledge in the field of classical mechanics and ***** existed ***** ***** ***** energy-work ***** of mechanical machines and *****s. But the problem with heat engines remained. The main reason ***** that there was no agreement about the form ***** sense of energy, temperature,nature of heat processes and heat radiation was not studied well.

***** works ***** Sadi Carnot ***** ***** engines and the concept of Carnot heat engine which used heat in order to ***** work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat ***** which would ***** as a perpetual motion machine:

***** engine operating between two ***** reservoirs can be more efficient than a ***** engine ***** *****tween the s*****me reservoirs" or it states that ":All reversible engines operating between the same heat reservoirs are equally efficient" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the work of such heat engine as follows:

The production ***** motive power is *****n due in steam eng*****es not ***** actual consumption of the caloric but to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in ***** fall of caloric the motive ***** evidently incre*****es with ***** difference of temperature between the warm and cold bodies, ***** we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

In fact Carnot engine is not ***** on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** ***** used ***** explain thermodynamics laws.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics ***** is also known as Kelvin-***** statement:

It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive he*****t ***** a single reservoir *****nd produce a net amount ***** work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the *****ulation of ***** ***** law of thermodynamics ***** became clear that it's impossible ***** trans*****m all caloric into other types of energy. In order to give a physical formulation of ***** phenomenon a new


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