Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains ***** processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation ***** energy but also defines the direction of time, uniting the ***** concepts of ***** and energy. In different interpretations of ***** second law of thermodynamics we would find out that defining the ***** ***** time ***** law states that ***** ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state of the energy can not be returned as ***** time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ***** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work without energy losses. In one ***** ***** interpretations of the second law of thermodynamics it's *****d that after a ***** process there is always less amount of energy in the volume if compared to the initial amount.

The formulation of the second law ***** thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it *****came important to give scientific ***** rational explanation to the work of heat engines such as steam engine. There was enough knowledge in ***** field ***** classical mechanics and there existed explanation of the energy-work ***** of mechanical machines and *****. But the problem w*****h heat *****s remained. The main reason was that ***** was no agreement about the form and sense of energy, temperature,nature of heat processes and heat radiation was not studied *****ll.

The works ***** Sadi Carnot about ***** engines and the concept of ***** heat engine ***** used heat in order to produce work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat engine which would ***** as a perpetual motion machine:

No engine operating between two heat reservoirs can be more efficient than a C*****rnot engine ***** between the same reservoirs" or it states that ":All reversible engines operating ***** the same heat reservoirs are equally *****" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the work of such heat engine as follows:

The production of motive power is *****n due in steam engines not to actual consumption of the caloric but to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in the fall of caloric the motive power evidently increases with the difference of temperature between ***** ***** and cold bodies, ***** we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

In fact Carnot engine is not used on practice and ar considered to be ideal and is only ***** to explain thermodynamics laws.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law of thermodynamics which ***** also *****n as *****-Plank statement:

It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive he*****t from a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the formulation of ***** second law of thermodynamics it became clear that ********** impossible ***** transform all caloric into other types of *****. In order to ***** a physical formulation of ***** phenomenon a new

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