Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains ***** processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines the direction of time, uniting the ***** concepts of time and energy. In different interpretations of ***** ***** law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the direction of time the law states ***** energy ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state of the ***** can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ***** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work without energy losses. In one ***** ***** interpretations of the second law of thermodynamics it's ********** that after a work process there is always less amount of energy in the volume if compared to ***** initial amount.

The formulation of the second law of thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it *****came ***** to give scientific ***** rational explanation to the ***** ***** heat engines such ***** steam engine. There was enough knowledge in ***** field of classical mechanics and ***** existed explanation ***** the *****-work processes of mechanical machines and *****s. But ***** problem w*****h heat engines remained. The main reason was that there was no agreement about the form and sense of energy, temperature,nature of heat processes and heat radiation was *****t studied well.

The works ***** Sadi Carnot about ***** engines and the concept of ***** heat engine which used heat in order to produce work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat ***** which would ***** as a ***** motion machine:

No engine operating between two ***** reservoirs ***** be more efficient than a C*****rnot engine operating between the same reservoirs" or it states that ":All reversible ********** operating ***** the ***** heat reservoirs are equally efficient" (Jaynes, 256)

He described the work of such heat engine as follows:

The production of motive power is *****n due in steam eng*****es not ***** actual consumption ***** the caloric ***** to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body and in ***** fall of caloric the motive ***** evidently increases with the difference of temperature between the warm and ***** bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not ***** on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** ***** used ***** explain thermodynamics laws.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation ***** the second law of thermodynamics ***** is also *****n as *****-***** statement:

***** is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive heat from a single reservoir and produce a net amount ***** work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the *****ulation of ***** second law of thermodynamics ***** became clear that it's impossible to transform all caloric in***** other types ***** energy. In order to ***** a physical formulation of ***** phenomenon a new

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