Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains the processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines ***** direction ***** time, uniting the ***** concepts of ***** and energy. In different interpretations of the ***** law of thermodynamics we would find out that defining the direction of time ***** law states that ***** is becoming denser with time and that the initial state ***** ***** energy can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ***** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), machines which would produce useful work without energy losses. In one of the interpretations of the second law of *****rmodynamics it's ********** that after a ***** process there is always less amount of energy in the volume if compared to ***** initial amount.

***** formulation of the second ***** of thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it *****came important to give scientific and rational explanation to the work of heat engines such as steam engine. There w***** enough knowledge in ***** field of classical mechanics and there existed explanation ***** the energy-work ***** of mechanical machines and *****s. But the problem with heat engines remained. The main reason was that ***** ***** no agreement about the form and sense of energy, temperature,nature of heat processes and heat radiation was *****t studied *****ll.

***** works ***** Sadi Carnot ***** ***** engines and the concept of ***** heat engine ***** used heat in order to produce work in cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat engine which would work as a ***** motion m*****chine:

No engine operating between two heat reservoirs can be more efficient than a C*****rnot engine ***** ********** the same *****" or it states that ":All reversible engines operating between the same heat reservoirs are equally *****" (Jaynes, 256)

He described the ***** of such heat engine as follows:

***** production ***** motive power is *****n due in steam ***** not ***** actual consumption of the caloric ***** to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in ***** fall of caloric the motive power evidently increases with ***** difference of temperature ***** the warm and cold bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not ***** on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** only used ***** explain thermodynamics laws.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law of thermodynamics ***** is also *****n as Kelvin-***** statement:

It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive heat ***** a single reservoir and produce a net amount ***** work."(Baz*****ov, 12)

After the *****mulation of the second law of thermodynamics it became clear that it's impossible ***** transform all caloric into other types ***** *****. In order to ***** a physical formulation of th***** phenomenon a new

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