Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

According to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists ***** productive forces and the relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, and the means of ***** - which can be anything from tools ***** materials to the type of land on ***** one is working. The relations of production are the social and technical ***** by which work ***** carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a particular society's ***** assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes ***** relation among **********. A social relation may ***** a rel*****tion among different groups, among individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one ***** individual and a group. This group ***** be ********** ethnic group, a social class, a ***** institution, a gender, ***** a nation.

Max Weber defined the ideal type as a comparative tool to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when ***** or more points of view are stressed in a one-sided f*****hion. ********** are then blended in***** a synthesis ***** numerous concrete ***** phenomena, which are ***** arranged accord*****g to the one-sided viewpoints into a single *****nalytical construct. While ***** types are clearly an abstraction, they are useful in ***** they help one to understand particular instances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. This is what differentiates human behavior from physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an individual or a group's actions described - they are also interpreted. Weber ***** the four ***** of ideal type ***** as follows: zweckrational (rational me*****s to ***** ends), wertrational (rational means ***** irrational ends), affektual (guided ***** emotion) and traditional (***** by custom or habit).

***** Weber considered bureaucracy to be a part of legal domination. ***** he initially ***** that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, he also advanced t***** idea that ***** was inefficient when it had to adopt its decisions ***** particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of bureaucracy in the modern era were del*****eated by Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration of the means of administration, an implementation ***** an indestructible mode of authority, and a leveling effect on social and ec*****omic differences. When a business or *****g*****nization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business is continually conducted. Bureaucratic business ***** ***** out according to official, written documents.

The establishment of the social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social fact is defined as encompassing all those cultural values ***** norms and social structures that are external to the individual. By studying the correlations between social facts, one discovers laws. Once ***** has uncovered those laws, the sociologist may then study the social structure and determine whether or not a society is he*****lthy or sick. In the case ***** the latter, the sociologist may *****n prescribe remedies for "curing" that ***** ills. One of ***** most famous usages

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