Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

***** to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists ***** productive forces and ***** relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, and the means of ***** ***** which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of land on which one is working. The relations of production are the social and technical ***** by which work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a p*****rticular society's ***** assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes of relation among workers. A social ***** may be a relation among different groups, among individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one particular individual and a group. ***** group ***** be an ethnic group, a social class, a social institution, a gender, ***** a n*****tion.

Max Weber defined the ideal type as a comparative tool to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when ***** or more points of view ***** stressed in a one-sided fashion. ********** are then blended ********** a synthesis of numerous concrete individual phenomena, which are then arranged according to the one-sided viewpoints into a single analytical construct. While ideal types are clearly an abstraction, they are useful in ***** they help one to understand particular *****stances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. This is what differentiates human behavior from physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only is an individual or a group's actions described - ***** ***** also interpreted. Weber defined ***** four types ***** ideal type behavi***** as follows: zweckrational (rational me*****s to ***** ends), wertrational (rational means ***** irrational *****), affektual (guided ***** emotion) and traditional (guided by custom or habit).

Max ***** considered bureaucracy to be a part of legal domination. While he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, ***** also advanced the idea that ***** was inefficient when it had to adopt its decisions ***** particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of bureaucracy in the modern era were delineated ***** Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration of the means of administration, an implementation ***** an indestructible mode of authority, and a leveling effect on social and economic differences. When a business or *****ganization is run bureaucratically, it means that *****ficial business ***** continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is carried out ***** to official, written documents.

The establishment of ***** social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social ***** is defined as encompassing all those cultural values and norms and ***** structures that are external to the individual. By studying the correlations between social facts, one d*****covers laws. Once one has uncovered those *****, the sociologist may then study the ***** structure and determine whether or not a society is healthy ***** sick. In the case of the latter, the sociologist may ***** prescribe remedies for "curing" that society's ills. One of ***** most famous usages

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