Essay - Strokes Cerebrovascular Accidents, Often Called Strokes, are Interruptions to the...


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Strokes

Cerebrovascular accidents, often called strokes, are interruptions to the blood flow in ***** brain. They can be caused by sudden blockage of a blood vessel (ischemic stroke), or rupture of a blood vessel (hemorrh*****gic stroke). Strokes are medical emergencies that can cause coma, paralysis, muscle weakness, memory, speech/language or other brain function problems (5). Immediate emergency treatment helps ensure the *****st possible outcome f***** a patient who has had a stroke. Two thirds of all ***** occur in people over the age of 65 (5), and it is ***** third most common cause ***** death in the United States (Dougherty, 1998). ***** are a major ***** of disability as well (Byington et. al., 2000).

Ischemic *****s ***** have several causes. Sometimes an embolism, or blood clot, forms in one part of ***** body and travels to the ***** where it blocks a small blood vessel. Thrombosis, or artery *****, can also cut ********** blood flow, when a ***** blood clot ***** on the *****rterial plaque. Most thrombotic strokes are caused by the combination of ***** vessel narrowing and a clot. Hem*****rhagic strokes ***** when a blood vessel in the brain *****s. These strokes can vary from very mild to *****. They may be caused ***** high blood pressure, a weakness in ***** blood *****, or a combination of both (5).

***** risk fac*****rs for stroke can ***** divided into two groups: controllable and uncontrollable. When a person h***** ***** uncontrollable risk factors, it becomes more important for him her to control the *****s that can be.

Un*****lable risk factors include

*****: The older the *****, the more likely they may have a stroke.

Gender: ***** men than women ***** *****

Race: Afri*****-Americans ***** Hispanics have more strokes than Caucasians

Family history

Diabetes

***** of a previous stroke

Controll*****ble risk *****:

High ***** pressure

Heart disease, particularly atrial fibrillation. When blood collects in the heart the risk of forming a blood clot incre*****ses.

High cholesterol resulting in blood vessel blockage

Sleep apnea, which can cause spikes in ***** *****

*****, which damages blood vessels and raises blood pressure

Alcohol abuse

Obes*****y

Symptoms ***** a ***** include sudden weakness or feeling of numbness, especially on one side of ***** *****; sudden difficulty speaking or confusion; ***** vision disturbance in one or both eyes: difficulty walking, loss of balance or poor coordination, or a sudden *****nd severe headache (Barker, 2001). Less commonly, the patient ***** develop sudden nausea and vomiting marked by rapid onset, which may ***** a fever; or a brief loss ***** consciousness, which can be as mild as an app*****nt fainting spell ***** as severe as convulsion or ***** (5)

Emergency room nurses c***** provide a valuable first line of evaluation ***** using stroke checklists of symptoms and alerting the triage doctor if symptoms suggest the possibility of a stroke. Rapid diagnosis allows the medical team the most options for ***** whether it is drugs to dissolve the ***** or a carotid artery stent (Dougherty, *****) to improve blood

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