Essay - Theories of Personality Development Most Personality Theories Discuss Development in...


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Theories of Personality Development

Most personality theories discuss development in terms of specific, progressive stages. Piaget and Erikson's theories of personality development follow a similar structure. However, the fundamental difference between the two theories lies ***** the fact that while Piaget explained ***** from a motor and cognitive perspective, Erikson approached the subject from the view point ***** social development (AllPsych, 2004).

Piaget's "Theory of Cognitive Development" describes the specific stages that children go through, as their cognitive ability to understand relationships develops. Thus, Piaget's theory explains how personality develops as: infants learn to manipulate objects ***** are within their current sensory perception and then go on to underst***** the concept of object permanency (sensorimo*****r stage); children begin to interact with ***** environment through ***** use ***** words and images though they are able to focus only one aspect of a stimulus (preoperational stage); older children ***** to develop their cognitive ability and learn the concept ***** grouping of concrete ***** (***** operations stage); teenagers develop a more abstract view of the world, using concepts such as conservation, reversibility and ***** idea of cause ***** effect (formal operations stage). In *****, Piaget explained the processes ***** which personality is formed. *****'s work is valuable as it enables parents and teachers to facil*****ate and monitor a child's cognitive *****, thereby laying the foundation for a he*****lthy adult personality.

In contrast, ***** "Theory of Psychosocial Development" concerns itself with ***** ***** socialize and how this affects their sense of self. According to *****, a ***** personality *****s through eight distinct stages, each of which involves a different psychosocial crisis and has two possible outcomes. The successful completion of ***** stage results in a healthy personality whereas failure to ne*****tiate any ***** particular ***** leads to a reduced ********** to complete other stages *****, therefore, a less healthy personality and ***** ***** *****. The eight psychosocial crises or ***** that Erikson defined are: trust versus mistrust; autonomy versus shame and doubt; initiative versus guilt; industry ***** inferiority; identity versus role confusion; intimacy ***** isolation; generativity versus stagnation; and ego integrity versus despair. Like Piaget, Erikson's theory also explains the *****ors that influence personality development albeit through a framework of psychosocial factors. *****, this *****ory too is immensely ***** as it enables ***** and teachers to help a child ********** n*****tiate each psychosocial crisis and thereby develop a he*****lthy sense of self.

Piaget and Erikson's work is valuable but is limited since the ***** is on explaining the process through ***** pers*****ality develops. Thus, both ***** stop short of explaining final personality ***** and their functioning. For ***** re*****on, I agree with Carl Jung's ***** theory ***** than any other ***** it offers an explanation of how the individual psyche works, by itself, and in terms ***** its relation to ***** universe. *****n fact, I find that Jung's personality typology explains my own personality accurately as a "ESFJ" or "Extroverted Feeling with Sensing" type. With a score of extroverted 56%, Sensing 22%, Feeling 56%,

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