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Abortion: Pro-Choice

It is better if abortion remains legal since it ensures that women can undergo abortions in safe environments. Abortion is unacceptable in many religious organizations. It is deemed wrong and immoral. Religious organizations have joined in the debate against abortion, and they want the practice eliminated. They do not realize that if this is done it would discriminate against all…

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Abortion: Pro-Choice Argument Ever Since the Landmark

Abortion: Pro-Choice Argument Ever since the landmark 1973 Supreme Court decision of Roe v. Wade, abortion has been the source of heated debate in the United States. On one hand, the religious right-funded anti-abortion "pro-choice" lobby has continually attempted to undermine the Roe ruling through state legislation seeking to exploit any perceived legal ambiguities; on the other hand, pro-choice proponents seek to prevent religious radicals from injecting their religious beliefs into what is (or, at least, what should be) strictly a personal secular issue. Legal challenges to Roe have included state statutes requiring parental and spousal notification and mandatory waiting periods as reconditions of terminating a pregnancy medically. At the same time, the quasi-terrorists who purposely disrupt business at licensed medical facilities by tormenting patients arriving for treatment assert that First Amendment rights protect their intrusions into private affairs of others that are already emotionally difficult enough as "free speech." In several high-profile cases, religious fanatics have actually attempted to prevent patients from entering the facilities, fire bombed medical clinics, and purposely published the private information of physicians in the deliberate hope of inspiring vigilante attacks on them. In at least one relatively recent instance, they succeeded, with deadly results. Legal Issues: The primary source of moral objection to abortion is the general religious prohibition against birth control by any means, and the specific religious belief that human life begins at conception. Because the United States Constitution guarantees religious freedom and the separation of Church and State, both views are perfectly acceptable as private religious expressions, and neither view is appropriate for inclusion in any way in secular laws that restrict the rights of others who do not share those religious beliefs. To understand the indefensibility of allowing the religious belief about the origin of life to shape secular law, one need only consider the perfectly analogous situation of criminalizing male masturbation, which is also specifically prohibited by the Catholic Church because it constitutes the "sin" of spilling seed instead of multiplying fruitfully. Undoubtedly, a fetus does become a person sometime well before birth, at which point it is entitled to the same protections of law as it enjoys after birth. However, for the purpose of defining where "personhood" begins in-utero is an objective issue best left for secular science and medical ethicists rather than ancient religious dogma to determine. In all likelihood, there is no specific moment in time…

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Pro-Choice: The Abortion Issue --

However, few would extend personhood to a fetus to such an extent -- moreover, just because something is alive does not mean that it is or should be entitled to the full range of rights as a human being. After all, trees, animals, and even yeast is technically 'alive,' however none of these things are considered persons in the sense that they fulfill the sentient capacity of life deemed to be significant enough to override a fully fledged human being's right to life, or in this case, the woman's right to decide to dispose of her body as she chooses. Lastly, it has also been argued that abortion should be prohibited because without the body of the mother, the fetus cannot survive outside of the womb. Advances in medical technology to extend the viability of premature babies have only fueled this debate, as younger and younger babies survive after premature laborers of their (willing) mothers. Advocates argue that society has a responsibility to protect the health and the existences of its smallest viable members, for as long as possible. But again, to take this argument to its most logical extent -- merely because my body can sustain, for instance, the jeopardized life of another, if I grant him or her part of my kidney, does that mean that the state has the right to compel me to give of my physical self, to give an ailing individual one of my viable organs, even if it may prolong the life of another human being who is ill? Of course, it is commendable of me if I give my physical self and risk my medical life for the sake of another human being, as a woman does during pregnancy and labor. But even if one grants that a fetus is a human being, should the state have the right to compel a woman to use her body to sustain fetal life against the woman's will? Even if the fetus is the result of a voluntary act or an involuntary act, to condemn an innocent woman to a physical risk, simply because she is a female rather than a male who has engaged in an accidentally procreative risk of sexual congress, is to compel a woman to risk her life against her will. It is also an act of sexual discrimination, because the male in question does not have to risk his life,…

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Abortion Pro-Choice

Pro-choice is the right choice because everyone has a right to their opinions and beliefs, western society's values, morals and ethics. Furthermore, sometimes women find themselves in difficult situations where abortion is the only option." Abortion is also an issue of personal freedom. Who should make that choice? Should the government decide when you are going to have kids? Should…

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Abortion - Pro-Life Why Abortions Should Be

Abortion - Pro-Life Why Abortions Should be Illegal Ever since the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade, (1973), which made abortion legal in the United States, the issue has been at the center of heated public debate. More than thirty years later, the controversy about abortion is still a hot topic. In this essay, I shall argue why abortion should be made illegal by refuting some of the pro-abortionist arguments and outline the current legal status of the controversial 'partial-birth abortion' issue. It is often argued by supporters of abortion that when an unwanted pregnancy is aborted, the fetus is just a blob of tissue which cannot be considered a living being. Science tells us a different story. The baby has a beating heart, tiny little fingers and toes by just 18 days after fertilization. Most abortions are performed after nine weeks of pregnancy. By that time the baby is a distinct and unique human being who has a right to life just as any other living person. Another oft-repeated pro-abortion argument is that a woman has a right of control over her own body and, therefore, should have the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies. This line of argument further suggests that making abortion illegal would be a violation of a fundamental right and a "freedom of choice." The answer to this argument is that one has the right of control over but only until such a right does not interfere with another's right. By terminating a pregnancy, a woman is ending the life of another human being which is the same as killing one's own child. Surely, no one should have such "freedom of choice." It has also been observed that most women who opt for abortion do not have accurate information about fetal development and about practical alternatives to abortion. It is believed that if women have such information available most of them would choose not to have an abortion. The third pro-abortion argument is that the births of "unwanted" babies would only increase poverty and misery in the world and add to the social problems. Such an……

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Abortion Pros and Cons Abortion: Pros and

Abortion Pros and Cons Abortion: Pros and Cons Abortion from a purely moral or ethical perspective can never be endorsed. However, in some medical conditions where the life of the mother is at stake abortion as a life saving intervention is certainly approved. Irrespective of the methods used abortion leaves a great psychological stigma and guilt feeling. A more prudent…

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Pro-Choice Issues in Focus the Debate Over

Pro-Choice Issues in Focus The debate over abortion has been a contentious issues in the United States since well before the Supreme Court handed down a ruling on the issue on January 23, 1973. That ruling, Roe v. Wade, which basically decriminalized abortion, has become a lightning rod for those opposed to abortion. Meantime, what are the issues that pro-choice organizations put forward to advance their cause? This paper reviews the issue and advocates for the woman's right to choose. The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade asserted that a Texas law banning abortion was unconstitutional. Overturning that Texas law in effect decriminalized abortion in the majority of the other 49 states because those states "differed little from the Texas statute" (Munson, 2008, p. 547). Specifically the High Court ruling meant that during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, known as the "first trimester," the states are prohibited from restricting a woman's right to choose whether she wants to carry the pregnancy to its conclusion or not, according to Munson (p. 547). As Munson reports on page 548, "…no other topic in medical ethics has attracted more attention or so polarized public opinion" than abortion. Due to the legal, social, religions and moral questions surrounding abortion, it has remained a flashpoint for controversy and debate. Prior to the High Court's decision in 1973, many abortions were conducted in less than sterile environments. Many abortions were conducted by "Back-alley abortionists with dirty hands and un-clean instruments," Munson explains; moreover, a woman who was known to have undergone an abortion procedures back in the day when it was illegal was looked down upon and her reputation was degraded. One of the key social questions embraced by the pro-choice community is offered by Munson (p. 551): "Suppose that a woman becomes pregnant unintentionally" but she decides that carrying the pregnancy through to birth "will be harmful to her career or her way of life." Does she have "a moral duty" to make sure the child is born? Pro-choice voices will say no to that question, in a loud, unified voice. Meanwhile, some states in the U.S. have passed legislation that to varying degrees attempts to make it very difficult for a woman to get an abortion. A case in point is South Dakota; in 2006, the legislature passed HB 1215, a bill that outlawed "abortion in all circumstances, from the moment of…

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Should Abortion Be Legal

¶ … Abortion be Legal: Abortion has become one of the most controversial topics in the modern society since it's permitted in some countries and prohibited in others. In the United States, the issue received much attention following the Supreme Court's decision in Roe v. Wade case that legalized the practice in the country. While the ruling has continued to receive much support, abortion is still a major controversial issue in America that has attracted huge debates in the recent past. The controversy has contributed to the emergence of pro and anti-abortion groups that have raised divergent opinions. Generally, the debate on whether abortion should be legal continues to segregate Americans after the U.S. Supreme Court declared it an essential right in 1973. The controversy has elicited varying arguments from pro-choice and pro-life groups. Arguments in Support of Abortion: The proponents of abortion, who are commonly known as pro-choice argue that the procedure is a fundamental right that should not be restricted by either governmental or religious authorities. Therefore, pro-choice activists and groups believe that this fundamental right overshadows any claims of the right of a fetus or embryo. They have also argued that pregnant women are likely to choose unsafe illegal abortions in the absence of a legal option. However, different points have been raised among the pro-choice activists since some of them believe that the procedure should be used as the last option whereas others support unlimited access to abortion regardless of the existing circumstances ("Should Abortion Be Legal?" 2013). The other arguments raised by these activities include accepting the procedure in situations like incest, rape, or when it places the life of a woman at risk. In essence, pro-choice activists derive their support for this practice from the 1973 Supreme Court ruling that declared the procedure a fundamental right. Arguments against Abortion: Most of the prominent pro-life or anti-abortion organizations and activists base their arguments on religious ideology because they are composed of different mainstream faith groups. These activists have continued to state that women deserve empowerment rather than abortion. Therefore, women should be given more support and options that enable them to choose life despite of the underlying circumstances. They argue that the murder of a fetus or embryo is wrong and cannot be justified by any circumstance. They compare abortion to killing any child at any stage of development, which is morally unacceptable. According to…

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Abortion Pros and Cons

When empathy and caring permeate the healthcare system, such psychological problems are not an issue (Cockrill & Weitz, 2010). Likewise, when society ceases stigmatizing women for having abortions, emotional and psychological distress will also not be a factor. Instead, women would be congratulated because they would have prevented the needless suffering of yet another unwanted human being. The con position asserts that the fetus is a full human being with rights equal to that of the mother. Because of this belief, it is concluded that an abortion is murder. If abortion were killing a human being, then it would be understandable that the "murder" argument would hold true. However, a fetus is a fetus. It has the potential to become a human being, but so does the egg inside the mother's body and the sperm inside the man's. Finally, the con position points to the Hippocratic Oath ("Should Abortion Be Legal?" 2014). All doctors have to say the Hippocratic Oath, which does in fact expressly forbid abortions. The most vocal cons of abortion come from religious sects, the individuals who belong to them, and other irrational groups. For example, one politician in Australia claims that rapists and pedophiles are in favor of abortion because it destroys evidence of their crime, and therefore abortion should be illegal (Gordon & Cook, 2014). Many con positions on abortion promote the belief that the woman is to blame for the pregnancy regardless of whether she was raped or whether the condom broke. The view is that abortion is categorically wrong, no matter what the circumstances or consequences. The con position assumes that abortion is categorically wrong because of perceived moral or religious beliefs. Conclusion Based on an analysis of pros and cons, it seems there are far more pros, and far more reasonable arguments for abortion. Abortion is a fact of life, albeit an unfortunate one. However, women will have abortions whether they are legal or not. Abortions therefore need to be safe and legal. Furthermore, abortions do not reflect immorality; the greater immorality is the subjugation of women through enforced pregnancy and the proliferation of overpopulation. Abortion is a necessary procedure for terminating an unwanted pregnancy. Without abortion, women would be forced to carry a child to term, which is an untenable situation in any civilized country. An abortion is the right to choose whether or not to carry a child to term,…

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Abortion Including Rape and Incest

Abortion, Including Rape and Incest: One of the major, contentious moral issues facing the modern American society is the practice of abortion that attracted huge debates and controversies. Much of the debates and controversies have been based on the elective assumption in which pro-choice abortions are the only kind. However, there are other types of abortions such as those performed for therapeutic reasons. The main examples of the therapeutic abortions are those performed when the pregnancy poses a serious threat to the mother life or the mental stability of the pregnant women. Nonetheless, there are serious concerns and debates that emerge when considering the issue of abortion in cases of rape or incest. Actually, a Republican Congressional Candidate recently became the center of increased criticism for comments he made regarding exceptions for abortions such as cases for rape and incest. Suggestions for Exceptions for Abortions: In the past few years, many individuals including those who main goal is to assist girls and women who are victims of sexual abuse and assault believe that abortion is the best alternative or solution in situations where pregnancy occurs as a result of sexual abuse or assault. This is despite of the fact that research indicates that many women who become pregnant through such incidents don't want abortion since they consider abortion as a measure that only compounds their trauma (Sobie par, 2). However, there is a general agreement between both sides of the debate that many women who become pregnant through sexual abuse or assault want abortions. This premise is based on the argument that women in such incidents say that they want abortions since it will help them in putting the assault or abuse behind them. The women also argue that abortions would help them to recover more quickly and avoid the extra trauma that emerges from giving birth to the child of a rapist. The argument for abortion in cases of incest pregnancies is even stronger as research indicates that incest victims rarely voluntarily agree to abortion. Rather than considering the pregnancy as unwanted, the victim of incest is more likely to view the pregnancy as a means of getting out of the incestuous relationship. These victims do not voluntarily agree to abortion because they consider birth of the child as a means of exposing the incestuous sexual activity. Furthermore, the pregnant woman is likely to see in her pregnancy the…

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Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice

¶ … Life You Take: My Take on Abortion Abortion is murder and murder is a dangerous thing, as we have recently discovered with the conviction of Scott Roeder. Reoder was a staunch believer in pro-life and while his methods were wrong, his beliefs regarding life were right. It is my view that abortion is wrong because it takes the life of another. Just because that "other" cannot be seen or cannot speak up for itself, does not mean it does not have a right to live. The baby is alive or it would not need to be killed. The debate is a moral not a legal one. I believe that conception begins at birth not at three months or six months. Dr. Fritz Baumgartner agrees with this notion stating, "There is no more appropriate moment to begin calling a human "human" than the moment of fertilization. And don't let anyone tell you otherwise, because it would be a degradation of factual embryology to say it would be any other moment" (Baumgartner). Former Pope John Paul also supports this notion. He writes, "No one more absolutely innocent could be imagined" (Giovanni). Unborn babies are "defenseless, even to the point of lacking that minimal form of defense" (Giovanni). Life is scared and it begins with the union of sperm and egg. Pro-abortionists like to call the baby a fetus or viable tissue but it is still alive. If every "body" has rights, then the baby must have the same rights as the mother. I believe the baby, born or unborn, has rights. Pro-abortion supporters rely on the argument that a woman's body belongs to none other than her. This fact is true; her body does belong to her but that fact does not give her the right to kill the other body growing inside of her. I think John Finnis makes an……

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Pro-Life Abortion

Abortion (Pro Life) Not many people disagree when a law is passed that is objective and does not impact religious beliefs and value systems. For example, some individuals protested the speed limit of 55 mph on many federal highways. However, the situation changes significantly when people view the law, or intended law, as acceptable or unacceptable due to different ethical…

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Demerits of Abortion

¶ … Abortion Should be Illegal The recent past has witnessed heated debates on whether abortion should be legalized in different countries across the globe or not. People often have different views on what is right on the topic or wrong. As such, the topic raises concerns for many people globally. The reasons as to why people have an abortion or oppose it vary significantly. The variation in the views has attracted significant political attention with some political activists strongly arguing that abortion should be legalized while others argue for its abolition (Carroll 125). However, I strongly believe that abortion should not be legalized at all cost. The reason why women should not have an abortion relates to the basic human values. It is appreciable that, the unborn baby has not responsibility to the mother's situation. As such, the unborn requires the provision of rights and opportunities to live, grow, and develop like a normal human being. Women should be humanitarian and become egoistic with the unborn babies. Various alternatives exist for these women. Giving the children opportunities to be adopted by the families in need of children is one among the alternatives available for these women. Therefore, abortion should not be their only option of handling the challenges associated with the unexpected pregnancies. It is also appreciable that nearly all religions prohibit abortion. Religious bodies consider abortion as murder. For example, the Christian religion prohibits abortion and considers it as murder as stated in the Christian doctrines. Abortion has short- and long-term effects on the health of the mother. Abortion predisposes the mother to negative health effects such as excessive bleeding (hemorrhage), increased risk of infections, severe pain, and shock among other short-term effects to the health of the mother. Similarly, abortion has long-term negative effects to the mother such as increased risk of birth complications in the future pregnancies, diseases of the reproductive system, increased risk of infertility and depression. Apart from the health effects identified above, empirical evidence shows that an abortion increases the risks of reproductive cancers such as cancer among the victims of abortion. These health effects affect the health and health outcomes of an individual (TFP 1). Abortion has negative effects on the mental well being of an individual. The mental problems arise from the fact that, an individual knows that an abortion is murdering an innocent soul. Thus, it predisposes them to depression…

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Why Has Abortion Created Serious Debates and Controversies Among the Mainline Christians

¶ … abortion created serious debates and controversies among the mainline Christians? Pro-life vs. Pro-choice The Roman Catholic and the Southern American Baptist Convention Approaching matters from a historical point-of-view makes it possible for this paper to provide insight regarding Christian attitudes in the contemporary society and how they were shaped through time. Abortion represents one of the most contentious…

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Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion Notwithstanding

In Virginia the Republican-dominated legislature earlier this year wrote legislation that requires "women to have a transvaginal ultrasound before they may have an abortion," (Glionna, 2012). The idea behind this legislation is apparently that when a woman sees the picture created by the ultrasound she will see a fetus and perhaps feel so guilty she won't want to carry through…

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Abortion Nature Intends That an

Metaphysics professor at Harvard University Judith Jarvis Thompson wrote "A Defense of Abortion," which appeared in the Journal of Philosophy and Public Affairs (1971). She argued that a woman's inalienable right to life, privacy and security includes the right to terminate a pregnancy she considers a threat to her sense of well-being. Thompson compares the condition of an unwanted pregnancy…

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Abortion Ever Since in the 1973 Supreme

Abortion Ever since in the 1973 Supreme Court, the divergence over the validity of abortion and the right of nations to bound women's right to use to this process has been one of the most obstinate arguments in American politics. Though the combat appears to have been remunerated mainly throughout lawsuits and the subsequent legal judgments the shade of abortion…

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Canadian Abortion

Legal Abortion in Canada Unlike the U.S. where feminism has been defending a woman's right to a legal abortion since the 1980s, the Canadian movement has made some significant gains. Abortion was decriminalized and abortion clinics were established in Canada as a result of directly challenging federal and provincial governments. Pro-choice groups worked towards legalization for six years. On January 28, 1988, the Supreme Court of Canada declared Section 251 of the Criminal Code unconstitutional. Section 251 restricted conditions under which abortions could be performed and not be considered an indictable offense. The procedure had to be performed in an accredited hospital and could only be done with the written consent of a therapeutic abortion committee. The committee was composed of at least three doctors, who had to find demonstrable evidence that a pregnancy was endangering either the life or health of the pregnant woman. Usually, health was interpreted to mean mental health (Weir, 1994), and women often said they would kill themselves if they were forced to complete the pregnancy. Before de-criminalization, inequality was a primary feature of Canadian women's access to safe and legal abortions (Palley, 2006; Weir, 1994). During the 1980s anti-choice groups were mobilizing to pressure hospitals into abolishment of abortion services. This pressure combined with the punitive criminal law meant that great variability existed regionally in the availability of abortion services. The delay between the first visit to the doctor and the actual procedure averaged about 8 weeks! "No abortions were performed in certain provinces, and in others abortion services were narrowly circumscribed" (Weir, 1994, p. 253). Section 251 was passed in 1969. This law criminalized abortion under any circumstances but in an accredited hospital with a therapeutic abortion committee. Activism in opposition to that law began in 1970 when Dr. Henry Morgentaler was arrested for doing abortions without the consent of an abortion committee and outside of an accredited hospital. He performed the abortions as an act of civil disobedience, and when he was prosecuted in Quebec in 1973, 1975 and 1976, all three juries refused to convict him as a criminal. In 1976 a newly elected Parti Quebecois government refused to continue with the prosecutions of Dr. Morgentaler, and English Canadian activism subsided because the new government promised there would be no further cases brought before the Court for violation of Section 251 (Albert, 2005). Although Section 251 was a federal law, cases…

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Why Abortion Is Immoral by Don Marquis

¶ … Abortion is Immoral -- by Don Marquis Don Marquis insists in the first paragraph of his essay that abortion is "seriously immoral" and he is clearly upset that his point-of-view has "received little support in the recent philosophical literature" (Marquis, 1989, p. 183). Granted, his essay was crafted twenty-two years ago, but from the vigorous, even aggressive argument he puts forward, one can conclude that his passion has not died out in 2011. Marquis uses his narrative skills in the first few pages to generally conclude that both the pro-choice and the pro-life positions have valid points. Along the way, he touts his own intellectual skills -- possibly to justify his moral position or to show that he is a serious student of ethics -- with statements like, "As everyone who has taken a bit of logic knows…" (Marquis, 184). It's easy to wonder just how many students have taken courses in logic, and to speculate that Marquis is trying to distance his views from the average citizen. The anti-abortionist position ("It is always prima facie wrong to take a human life") is "too broad, according to Marquis (185). And the "pro-choicer" position ("It is prima facie wrong to kill only rational agents") is "too narrow in scope," he continues (185). As an alert reader goes through this essay, it is clear that Marquis is arguing that both the pro-choice and the pro-life (he doesn't use "pro-life"; rather he uses "anti-abortionist") both have serious flaws in their moral and ethical positions on the subject of abortion -- and that in fact, there are "symmetries in the two positions" (186). Marquis calls the dual moral mistakes "a standoff" in a number of instances (in other words, both arguments are weak and wrong); again, he is preparing the reader for what he will deliver later in the essay -- a more substantive ethical / philosophical reason as to why abortion is immoral. "The moral generalizations of both sides are not quite correct," Marquis asserts (188), because both arguments are "accidental generalizations" and both sides "do not touch on the essence of the matter (Marquis'……

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Women's Right to Abortion the

The fetus, of course, is inexorably attached to the mother by the umbilicus and is totally dependant on the body of the woman for its life support. It is, therefore, well within the rights of a woman to choose abortion in the early stages of pregnancy. In short, any society that denies the right of women to abortion implicitly recognizes the second-class status of women. It unfairly takes away the fundamental right of an individual to control her own body and relegates women to the demeaning position of birth-giving machines. References "Legal Abortion: Arguments Pro & Con." (2005). Westchester Coalition for Legal Abortion, Inc. (WCLA) Online. Retrieved on August 22, 2005 from http://www.wcla.org/articles/procon.html Kopaczynski, G. (1995). No Higher Court: Contemporary Feminism and the Right to Abortion. Chapter 5: "Pro-Choice Feminism," pp. 181-201. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press. Of course, no one can deny that a fetus at conception is a "potential human being." But so are millions of sperms; hence if we recognize abortion as murder, masturbation should logically……

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Public Funding of Abortion Clinic

Public Funding of Abortion Clinic Public funding for abortion clinics Abortion has been a strongly debated issue all over the world with more and more people arguing for the promotion of pro-choice for its obvious advantages. However, there are also many people that feel that abortion is killing a life. The debate on public funding of abortion clinics lies behind the argument for or against abortion since the two are interrelated. Public funding of abortion clinics has many advantages which outweigh the disadvantages. It is for these advantages that it is felt that abortion clinics should be funded from public funds. Roe v. Wade The Roe v. Wade case of the year 1973 decriminalized abortion. This ruling came after the discoveries that even though abortion was illegal, many women who were desperate were willing to pay huge fees for their abortions even from practitioners who were untrained and unlicensed. There were many women who endured severe medical complications as a result of these abortions that were illegal which led to the Roe v. Wade decision (Roe v. Wade, 1973) The Roe v. Wade ruling gave different guidelines for various trimesters. During the first trimester, it advocated for pro-choice. During the second trimester, abortion can be carried out to protect the mother's life and during the last trimester, abortion is prohibited unless when it preserves the life or the health of the mother. This ruling was the beginning of the pro-choice argument giving women a right to decide whether they wanted to get an abortion or to continue the pregnancy. The cost of abortion The exact cost of carrying out an abortion depends greatly on several factors such as the trimester of the pregnancy, the type of facility, the physician carrying out the abortion, the type of procedure and lastly the anesthetic used. In general, women pay hundreds or even thousands of dollars for an abortion. Paying this cost has never been an issue for the middle and upper class women who are usually covered by their insurance plans. However, for the lower class women, they have to result to cheap facilities which do not observe the necessary standards. Although the cost of abortion has only risen slightly over the years as a result of inflation, the lower class women have a greater burden on their shoulders as a result of the increasing cost of living. Therefore when it comes to…

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Reducing Abortion and Protecting Contraception

Reducing Abortion and Protecting Contraception Policy Issue Paper Policy Issue Paper: Reducing Elective Abortions and Protecting Access to Contraception Policy Issue Paper: Reducing Elective Abortions and Protecting Access to Contraception On February 12, 2013, U.S. District Judge Neil Wake ruled unconstitutional an Arizona law that prohibited any health care provider who offers abortions services from receiving Medicaid reimbursements (Rau, 2013).…

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Abortion Debate With the Growing

Their attitude was perfectly captured by Mr. Clinton when he said that he wanted abortion to remain "safe, legal and rare." It is extremely important for pro-lifers to fully understand the views of pro-abortion group in order to reach some consensus on the issue and also to minimize incidents of the abortion-related violence. There are few conditions under which a woman should be allowed to seek abortion. These reasons and conditions have already been discussed above. Conclusion Pro-abortion rights quarter knows that it has not made much progress in the last 30 years but the reason is not lack of sound arguments but the fact that this issue has become highly politicized in recent years. I believe that women should be have abortion rights however their decision to seek abortion should reflect more than just irresponsible behavior. In other words, a woman's decision to terminate her pregnancy must be accompanied by sound reasons so they are not accused of avoiding responsibility. This is the only way we can keep abortion legal but rare. References Special Report: The war that never ends - Abortion in America; To come., The Economist, 01-18-2003, pp 25 Berer M., Making Abortion Safe and Legal: The Ethics and Dynamics of Change., Reproductive Health Matters, 11-01-1993, pp 5-10 Muller, Jerry Z, The conservative case for abortion: family values vs. family planning. (The New Republic: 1995). 27-28 Katha Pollit, Abortion in American History; (The Atlantic Monthly: 1997). 111-115. ROE V.……

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Partial Birth Abortion, Many Pro-Choice

Condoning the act of partial birth abortion is condoning murder. It is allowing a doctor to kill a child who most likely would have lived had it been born at that same age. Courts have recently allowed testimony by medical experts that the fetus does feel pain during the partial birth abortion until it dies (Neumeister, 2004). The judge who allowed the testimony believed it would help him assess the current debate around the humanity of partial birth abortion (Neumeister, 2004). He said it will help him assess "Congress' factual findings that partial-birth abortion is a 'brutal and inhumane procedure' and that 'during the partial-birth abortion procedure, the child will fully experience the pain associated with piercing his or her skull and sucking out his or her brain (Neumeister, 2004)." Conclusion partial birth abortion is nothing less than killing a baby and disposing of its body. Society has strict laws and rules protecting the rights of humans. Susan Smith murdered her children and went to prison. A woman in Texas drowned all five of her children in a bath tub and will probably never see the light of day again. Throughout the nation, mothers who murder their children are held accountable for those actions. People need to realize that piercing the skull of a fetus, that otherwise could have lived outside of the mother's body, and killing it by sucking its brains out is no different than drowning it in the bathtub after it has been born. Partial birth abortion is wrong, and should never be allowed to occur. References Judge to let witness say fetus feels abortion pain The Record (Bergen County, NJ); 3/23/2004; LARRY NEUMEISTER, THE ASSOCIATED PRESS The Record (Bergen County, NJ) What is a Partial-Birth Abortion? http://www.ewtn.com/library/ISSUES/PARTBIRT.TXT…

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Kantian Perspectives on Morality

This individual practically admits that there are better things in life but that he or she needs to refrain from getting involved in them because he or she has the duty to behave morally. Question 2 Although Kant was especially specific with regard to moral duties and to the degree to which a person can be considered to behave morally, it would be especially difficult to determine whether or not he would agree to an abortion. When regarding matters from his direct perspective (the position of a man who had a limited understanding of the condition of the fetus before it develops into a fully-grown infant), it would be safe to say that the German philosopher would be pro-choice. Kant would probably focus on the woman's position with regard to the matter and as long as she would be supportive toward having an abortion the individuals performing it would behave morally -- as they choose to act in the woman's best interest (assuming that she believes there is no other solution for the problem). Kant's understanding of a pregnancy was certainly limited and he could not have possibly considered that a woman can give birth and the baby can develop normally at an earlier stage in the pregnancy. Taking this into account, he would have likely considered that the moral thing to do in such a situation would be to allow the woman to get an abortion. When considering a situation in which Kant would be familiarized with contemporary ideas, it would be more likely that he would oppose to the idea of abortion. He would be probable to consider that a fetus is a human being and that it would thus be against moral ideas to perform an abortion. The German philosopher would consider that there is no difference whatsoever between committing murder and performing an abortion. From his perspective, a person should not concentrate on the final effect of his or her actions and thus act accordingly, as he or she should focus on all effects associated with his or her performances. Kant would surely be against the expression 'you have to break some eggs in order to make an omelet.' Kantian thinking supports the idea that in order to behave morally people would have to be selfless in doing everything they do. As a consequence, a woman wanting an abortion would have to consider the fact that…

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Cons of Abortion After Three

The United States recognizes the diminished decision-making capacities of minors in many areas. Those under 21 are not allowed to alcohol. Before they turn 18, children cannot vote, join the army, or even call a psychic hotline without their parents' permission. However, some states allow children to make the decision to have an abortion, to end a life, without allowing…

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Abortion in the United States

Abortion in the United States (Pro-Choice) Abortion has evoked considerable debate and controversy throughout history. In the United States too, it has been a subject of heated debate through most of its history. In recent times, "pro-choice" and "pro-life" movements have taken diametrically opposite positions on the ethical, legal and medical aspects of the issue. Both sides present seemingly valid…

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Abortion Debate Pros and Cons

Studies indicate that "emotional responses to legally induced abortion are largely positive" (Pourezza & Batebi, 2011). This is not a religious issue, but a woman's issue. It has to do with emotional and physical well-being, and a woman's personal belief in her ability to care fore a child at that particular time (Balogh, 2009). A man cannot understand the experiences that a woman goes through during pregnancy (Pickering, 2003). The fact is that most legislators are men, and they cannot adequately express what it is for an unprepared woman to endure a pregnancy. It is better for the child if the mother wants to take a pregnancy full term rather than being forced to carry a child full term. Women who have been raped, faced incest or have been molested in some other fashion should not be required to carry a child which will remind them of the situation. The psychological damage due to this will carry more weight than if she aborted the pregnancy (Pourezza & Batebi, 2011). It is the law of the United States that a woman has a constitutional right to privacy given by the 14th Amendment. This was upheld in a majority vote of the Supreme Court in the Roe vs. Wade decision in 1973. The law has not changed. Women are more likely to die from the procedure if abortions are deemed illegal and they use illicit means to obtain one. Abortion Cons: From a women's health perspective: Researchers in one research study found that 48.7% of women experienced an eating disorder, 60.5% depression, 43.7% decreased self-esteem, and 37.5% guilt (Pourezza & Batebi, 2011). The child has no "choice" in the matter (Balogh, 2009). The mother's choice is said to end when she makes the decision to have sex whether that sex is protected or not. The unreliability of condoms and other methods of pregnancy prevention are well documented (Gavriluta, 2010). The life is not the mother's to take. Each life is sacred no matter what circumstances it is currently undergoing (Pickering, 2003). Allowing abortion cheapens life as a whole. It is a slippery slope which has no known end. If the evil of abortion continues, what is to stop the courts or legislators from taking away a debilitated (mentally or otherwise disabled, elderly, chronically ill) person's right to make their own decisions regarding end-of-life. It becomes a bureaucratic decision. Women have been known…

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Abortion Both the Pro-Life and

S. pro-choice policy): Both groups use religion as a tool to promote fear and terror as they attempt to dismantle basic human and civil rights. Both groups target feminism as a symbol of Western progress, and ultimately, both groups threaten democracy itself by attempting to force their distorted religious views onto the modern world in an effort to dismantle freedom and civil liberties." The proliferation of domestic religious terror is similar to the rise of Islamic monistic theocracies and Jihad. In both cases, a truly religious person would never approve of the gross misuse of religion to justify terrorism. Indeed, Islamic and Operation Rescue extremists seem to be just as motivated by political and social factors as they are by religion. Groups such as Operation Rescue/Operation Save America represent a dangerous threat not only to a woman's right to choose, but also to broader freedoms such as the separation of church from state and the right to choose one's own sexual orientation. Their agenda has gained tremendous political support and is quickly making headway into mainstream media. Legally, providers of abortion services have enjoyed some reprieve from violent activities conducted by anti-abortion groups through enforcement of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act and application of RICO to financially cripple violent movements. However, these protections cannot be taken for granted as terrorists find ways to exploit religion to justify illegal violence, calling to question if the law can continue to protect a woman's right to choice. Bibliography Ackerman, S. (2001, August). The most biased name in news. Extra! Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.fair.org/extra/0108/fox-main.html Burghardt, T. "No place to hide" campaign fizzles. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.etext.org/Politics/Arm.The.Spirit/Antifa/or.no-place.april-1995 Clinton, conspiracism, and the continuing culture war. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.publiceye.org/conspire/clinton/Clintonculwar8-02.html Fredericks, K. (1993). Anti-choice terrorism in the U.S. Green Left Weekly. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/1993/94/94p28.htm Johnson, D. (1998, April 21). Jury rules that anti-abortion leaders violated racketeering laws. New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2004 from Web site: http://www.operationsaveamerica.org/wwworn/legal/nytimes.htm Operation Rescue changes name, widens focus. Catholic World News. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.cwnews.com/news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=10173 Operation Rescue Colorado. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.nyx.net/~pfaustin/orco.html Operation Save America claims attacks on America "rebuke" for U.S. pro-choice policy (2001, September 13). Feminist Daily News. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.feminist.org/news/newsbyte/uswirestory.asp?id=5797 Promise Keepers holds no promise…

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Pro Life Abortion May Be in the

Pro Life Abortion may be in the news more today than in times past, but it is certainly not a new issue. Abortion may well be as old as pregnancy itself, as there is some evidence of abortion-like behavior among animals in the natural world. In prehistoric and ancient times, medicine women and witches would see to women's pregnancies and…

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Defense of Abortion the Author

A descriptive assumption is a belief about the way the world is, and in this case the world from the point-of-view of pro-choice does not want to see a woman die in order to save her fetus. And a value assumption is related to how the world should be. Through the act of using the anti-abortion's "slippery slope" (at all costs, a fetus must not be aborted notwithstanding the mother's life because we don't kill babies) against the anti-abortion argument is very effective. "Everyone has a right to life, hence, the unborn person has a right to life…" If this is true, Thompson argues, what if it's true that a woman has a right to life, but she is deathly sick and all she needs is the "touch of Henry Fonda's cool hand" on her "fevered brow"? That said, the commonly held view (that she has a right to life) butts up against the evaluative assumption as to how the world should be. "I have no right at all against anybody that [Fonda] should do this for me," Thompson asserts, shooting down the premise that the fetus always has the right to life. Thompson's way of attacking weak premises is impressive, and her arguments are valid. She takes into account the objections and assertions of those on the other side. She makes a good point on page 8 when she uses the analogy of an open window that allows a burglar to come inside. She examines the word "right" in that context with. The anti-abortion movement says all humans have the "right" to life (and believe the fetus is immediately to be considered a human being). If the room is stuffy, and so the woman opens the window to allow fresh air inside, and a burglar climes in, "…it would be absurd to say, 'Ah, now he can stay, she's given him a right to the use of her house" because she is partly responsible for his appearance. But she did not invite him in and he is an intruder so he has no "right" to be there notwithstanding the open window. Taking this further, when a woman is raped, she did not invite that sperm into her body to create a fetus. "Unborn persons whose existence is due to rape have no right to the use of their mothers' bodies, and thus aborting them is not depriving them of…

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Abortion One of the Most Contentious Socio-Political

Abortion One of the most contentious socio-political issues in the United States today, is that of abortion. There is really no reason why it should be a political issue, but proponents of abortion have averred that there needs to be a constitutional amendment that protects the right to abortion, despite the fact that the precedence for legal abortion was already…

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Abortion and Frozen Fertilized Human Eggs

Abortion and Frozen Fertilized Human Eggs Fertilized human eggs, such as those which are frozen and stored in fertility clinics, are believed by some people to already be a human child in essence. To many religious groups that oppose abortion and claim to be "pro-life," these zygotes should have the same rights as a human infant brought to term. According to these religious groups, God grants the child an immortal soul at the time of conception, not at the time of birth. This is actually a belief that has been held by many cultures throughout history, and some Asian cultures actually celebrate the conception day rather than the birth day of the child to mark age. These religious groups do not believe it is moral to dispose of fertilized human eggs, even when they are only comprised of a few cells. The question for many people is whether these zygotes are "morally protectable entities, or are they more like other disposable tissues cleaned from the human body?" (Green) It would seem that the moral obligation, then, of religious people who believe that a fertilized human egg cell has the same right to life as an infant child, would be to rescue fertilized egg cells that in danger. There are "spare' embryos created during invitro fertilization procedures." (Richards) Most in vitro fertilization clinics assist women in getting pregnant by taking eight egg cells from the mother, fertilizing all eight, then implanting half of the fertilized cells into the mother. The other four zygotes are usually frozen and put into storage for future use if the initial procedure fails. This leads to tens of thousands of zygotes being put into storage. Eventually, the zygotes will deteriorate, or "die" if left in storage for a prolonged period of time. These institutions may also dispose of these zygotes eventually. Therefore, to those who believe a zygote has a soul and the same moral rights as a child, there are tens of thousands of human lives in danger. One analogy that can be used is that of finding a child drowning. A person who believes that life is sacred would be morally obligated to rescue the child rather than to let him drown. The same is true for the frozen zygotes; there is……

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Abortion the Issue of Late-Term Abortions Has

Abortion The issue of late-term abortions has been widely contested, and has yet to receive a consistent resolution. Pro-lifers find such a procedure an abhorrence, whereas those in favor of allowing a woman the choice to do with her body as she pleases generally seem to support this measure. This issue becomes most controversial, it seems, in the case in which the fetus that is potentially aborted (or in many cases actually is aborted) becomes viable. In this specific instance, when such a fetus becomes viable, it becomes clear that this procedure is akin to killing babies. However, it is necessary to emphasize the fact that viability in fetuses is an extremely subjective term, and one in which clear boundaries or definitions are not established. Therefore, while killing viable fetuses is a form of child murder, it is difficult to discern just when this process occurs in the stage of development of the purported child. However, it would be premature to come to the conclusion that every last late-term abortion should be outlawed because a percentage of them involve the killing of viable fetuses. In instances in which the life of the mother is threatened, for example, late-term abortions become a morally defensible operation for the simple fact that not performing such an action is in essence condoning the murder of the mother. It is always difficult to place a value judgment on life, but the mother should have the right to choose whether or not she lives or dies due to childbirth -- especially since she can choose. The question of morality is difficult when it comes to comparing late term abortions to earlier term abortions. Many people find the latter operations more moral for the simple fact that the fetus is not yet viable and is in a stage of life so rudimentary that it cannot rightfully even be considered alive. Most people find later term abortions less moral since they may involve a viable fetus. The case of Alicja Tysiac is a sad one, and one which functions as a critical case study that many pro-choice adherents could utilize to their……

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Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues in Contemporary

Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues In contemporary American society, elective abortion remains one of the most controversial political, social, and moral issues. While the debate is often reduced to matters of religious belief, the issues are also addressable through purely secular ethical concepts. In that regard, the deontological, utilitarian, and virtue-based ethical perspectives may yield very different answers to the…

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Abortion Debate in 1973, Through

In addition to the abstract debate, however, only the pro-choice side has presented an argument based on real, tangible social needs. Abortions will continue, whether or not Roe vs. Wade is overturned. The only question is the safety of the women involved. There are no easy answers in this debate, but, as Roiphe observes, "the morality of abortion lies in our capacity to make distinctions of quality, to balance one good against another, one evil against another" (144). Because the individual and social evils of an unwanted pregnancy clearly outbalance vague definitions of fetal personhood, a woman's right to abortion must thus be protected. Works Cited Alcorn, Randy. Prolife Answers to ProChoice Arguments. Oregon: Multnomah Publishers, 2001 Allan Guttmacher Institute. "Induced Abortions." Facts in Brief. 2002. Alan Guttmacher Institute. 4 December 2002 www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html. Dlouhy, Jennifer. "House Passes Abortion Bill Despite Democrats Protest over Health, Constitution." CQ Weekly 27 July 2002: 2055. Eilperin, Juliet. "Unborn Victims Act Wins in House; Foes Call It Attack on Abortion Rights." Washington Post 27 April 2001: A1. Page, Clarence. "Right to Choose Struggling With a Dilemma." Chicago Tribune 20 August 1995: 3. Politt, Katha. "Abortion in American History." Atlantic Monthly May 1997: 111-115. Roiphe, Anne. "Feminists Should Support Abortion Rights." Feminism: Opposing Viewpoints. Jennifer A. Hurley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001. Schroedel, Jean Reith. Is the Fetus a Person? A Comparison of Policies Across the Fifty States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000. Ward, Dr. Roy……

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Abortion Has Been Practiced in Every Society

Abortion has been practiced in every society that has been studied, and in the United States was legal until the mid-1800s (National Abortion Federation). As a fundamental part of a free society, access to medically sound and safe abortion practices must be preserved. When abortion is outlawed, the practice simply moves underground. At the very least, abortion rights should be maintained to protect public health and prevent women from seeking what are known as "back alley" abortions by untrained individuals or even self-administered pregnancy terminations. However, abortion is a reasonable and in some cases ethical response to an unwanted pregnancy. Bringing a child into the world without preparation is more immoral than removing the few cells that comprise the embryo: which is not a fetus. Moreover, many women become pregnant due to rape or incest and to carry that child would exacerbate the trauma. Abortion should remain legal in cases that preserve the physical health of the mother, to preserve the mental health of the mother, in cases of rape and incest, when the unborn child had medical problems or birth defects, or for social and/or economic reasons. According to Seletz, abortion is "one of the most common and safest surgical procedures performed in the United States." When abortion is illegal it leads to health complications and in many cases, death. In South America, an estimated five thousand women each year die due to unsanitary or unsafe illegal abortions (Ross). If the government protects its citizens against harmful drugs and crime, then it should also step in to prevent the practice of unsafe abortion. Doctors and other qualified health professionals must be performing the service. The only way to keep abortion safe is to keep abortion legal. When abortion is banned like it is in some South American countries, women who are pregnant risk their lives to obtain a procedure that should be made safe and legal. Abortion may also be indicated in preserving the mental health of the woman. An unwanted pregnancy places undue mental strain on a person who might already be suffering from trauma due to being raped. Even if the woman was not raped, she might have gotten pregnant because of contraceptive failure, which does occur. Condoms, which are necessary to prevent sexually transmitted diseases as well as pregnancy, have an estimated 15% failure rate; even the birth control pill……

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Dr. Henry Morgentaler: A Pioneer in Securing

Dr. Henry Morgentaler: A Pioneer in Securing Safe Abortions in Canada This paper compares two scholarly journal articles with two newspaper articles, regarding abortion rights pioneer, Dr. Henry Morgentaler. A summary of one journal article is also presented. Scholarly Journal vs. Newspaper Comparison: Dr. Henry Morgentaler is discussed in each of the four selected articles. The Humanist (1992) article was the first scholarly article reviewed. In it, Dr. Morgentaler's accomplishments and personal biography are presented in a concise and factual manner. It is noted that Dr. Morgentaler is one of the leading supporters of abortion rights, but this is discussed in a historical context acknowledging the humanist aspect of his work without passing judgment on the topic itself. Moulton's (2003) article detailed Dr. Morgentaler's 2003 legal action against the province of New Brunswick. Once again, in a non-biased manner, the author describes Dr. Morgentaler's belief that New Brunswick was in violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Canada Health Act by specifying that only abortions performed in hospitals were covered. In contrast, Mills (2007) article also discusses current litigation brought forth by Dr. Morgentaler against New Brunswick, again for violating civil rights for refusing to pay for abortions performed at clinics. However, the article also focused not on the legal issues at hand, but on the demonstrators who had situated themselves outside the court room. Interestingly, the bulk of the article is made up of select quotes from Dr. Morgentaler, Jula Hughes from the Faculty of Law at the University of New Brunswick, and a spokesman for the Right to Life group. Lastly, although Jeffs (2007) was passionate in his writing, it was clearly biased in response to his Pro-Life views. He discusses the 38th anniversary of the acquisition of abortion rights and the damage he feels it has done to both Canada and Canadian women specifically. He describes his first meeting of Dr. Morgentaler and the candlelight vigil he attended in protest. His anti-abortion rights views are further dramatized by his citing of his 12-year-old son characterizing Dr. Morgentaler as not being an honorable man. It is interesting to compare the scholarly journal articles vs. those from newspapers. The journal articles focus on facts and historic details. There appears to be a conscious effort not to form an opinion, but rather to simply provide information to the readers. In contrast, the newspaper articles, particularly that…

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Moral Impermissibility of Abortion

Moral Impermissibility of Abortion Albert Camus, French philosopher and one of the youngest Nobel Prize winners for literature said that "freedom is nothing else but a chance to be better" ("Freedom quotes- Albert Camus"). The question is: to what extent are we willing to take the chance and truly be better, while being free? How many of us perceive freedom…

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Bible and Law Abortion

Bible and Law - Abortion Bible and Law Abortion has been defined as an act of voluntarily terminating pregnancy, which leads to the embryo's death. Abortion has become a very controversial topic in most countries because it is becoming more rampant as time goes by. Within the society, there are different opposing and proposing groups. And each of them has…

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