Study "Abortion / Pro-Life / Pro-Choice" Essays 1-54

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Abortion: Pro-Choice Research Paper

… It is better if abortion remains legal since it ensures that women can undergo abortions in safe environments.

Abortion is unacceptable in many religious organizations. It is deemed wrong and immoral. Religious organizations have joined in the debate against abortion,… [read more]

Abortion: Pro-Choice Argument Ever Since the Landmark Term Paper

… Abortion: Pro-Choice Argument

Ever since the landmark 1973 Supreme Court decision of Roe v. Wade, abortion has been the source of heated debate in the United States. On one hand, the religious right-funded anti-abortion "pro-choice" lobby has continually attempted to… [read more]

Pro-Choice: The Abortion Issue Term Paper

… However, few would extend personhood to a fetus to such an extent -- moreover, just because something is alive does not mean that it is or should be entitled to the full range of rights as a human being. After all, trees, animals, and even yeast is technically 'alive,' however none of these things are considered persons in the sense that they fulfill the sentient capacity of life deemed to be significant enough to override a fully fledged human being's right to life, or in this case, the woman's right to decide to dispose of her body as she chooses.

Lastly, it has also been argued that abortion should be prohibited because without the body of the mother, the fetus cannot survive outside of the womb. Advances in medical technology to extend the viability of premature babies have only fueled this debate, as younger and younger babies survive after premature laborers of their (willing) mothers. Advocates argue that society has a responsibility to protect the health and the existences of its smallest viable members, for as long as possible. But again, to take this argument to its most logical extent -- merely because my body can sustain, for instance, the jeopardized life of another, if I grant him or her part of my kidney, does that mean that the state has the right to compel me to give of my physical self, to give an ailing individual one of my viable organs, even if it may prolong the life of another human being who is ill? Of course, it is commendable of me if I give my physical self and risk my medical life for the sake of another human being, as a woman does during pregnancy and labor. But even if one grants that a fetus is a human being, should the state have the right to compel a woman to use her body to sustain fetal life against the woman's will? Even if the fetus is the result of a voluntary act or an involuntary act, to condemn an innocent woman to a physical risk, simply because she is a female rather than a male who has engaged in an accidentally procreative risk of sexual congress, is to compel a woman to risk her life against her will. It is also an act of sexual discrimination, because the male in question does not have to risk his life, his physical health, his social status, or his standing in the community. He can tell no one, and suffers none of the same punishment as the female, except perhaps the financial task of providing for the child, should the woman decide to keep the baby she gives birth to at the end of her term? If she does not, the father has no such concerns for the infant put up for adoption, and even if she does decide to keep the baby, the financial drain upon the father is hardly comparable to that of the physical toll upon the woman's… [read more]

Abortion Pro-Choice Term Paper

… Pro-choice is the right choice because everyone has a right to their opinions and beliefs, western society's values, morals and ethics. Furthermore, sometimes women find themselves in difficult situations where abortion is the only option." Abortion is also an issue… [read more]

Abortion - Pro-Life Why Abortions Term Paper

… Abortion - Pro-Life

Why Abortions Should be Illegal

Ever since the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade, (1973), which made abortion legal in the United States, the issue has been at the center of heated public debate. More than thirty years later, the controversy about abortion is still a hot topic. In this essay, I shall argue why abortion should be made illegal by refuting some of the pro-abortionist arguments and outline the current legal status of the controversial 'partial-birth abortion' issue.

It is often argued by supporters of abortion that when an unwanted pregnancy is aborted, the fetus is just a blob of tissue which cannot be considered a living being. Science tells us a different story. The baby has a beating heart, tiny little fingers and toes by just 18 days after fertilization. Most abortions are performed after nine weeks of pregnancy. By that time the baby is a distinct and unique human being who has a right to life just as any other living person.

Another oft-repeated pro-abortion argument is that a woman has a right of control over her own body and, therefore, should have the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies. This line of argument further suggests that making abortion illegal would be a violation of a fundamental right and a "freedom of choice." The answer to this argument is that one has the right of control over but only until such a right does not interfere with another's right. By terminating a pregnancy, a woman is ending the life of another human being which is the same as killing one's own child. Surely, no one should have such "freedom of choice." It has also been observed that most women who opt for abortion do not have accurate information about fetal development and about practical alternatives to abortion. It is believed that if women have such information available most of them would choose not to have an abortion.

The third pro-abortion argument is that the births of "unwanted" babies would only increase poverty and misery in the world and add to the social problems. Such an… [read more]

Abortion Pros and Cons Thesis

… Abortion Pros and Cons

Abortion: Pros and Cons

Abortion from a purely moral or ethical perspective can never be endorsed. However, in some medical conditions where the life of the mother is at stake abortion as a life saving intervention… [read more]

Pro-Choice Issues in Focus the Debate Research Paper

… Pro-Choice Issues in Focus

The debate over abortion has been a contentious issues in the United States since well before the Supreme Court handed down a ruling on the issue on January 23, 1973. That ruling, Roe v. Wade, which basically decriminalized abortion, has become a lightning rod for those opposed to abortion. Meantime, what are the issues that pro-choice organizations put forward to advance their cause? This paper reviews the issue and advocates for the woman's right to choose.

The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade asserted that a Texas law banning abortion was unconstitutional. Overturning that Texas law in effect decriminalized abortion in the majority of the other 49 states because those states "differed little from the Texas statute" (Munson, 2008, p. 547). Specifically the High Court ruling meant that during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, known as the "first trimester," the states are prohibited from restricting a woman's right to choose whether she wants to carry the pregnancy to its conclusion or not, according to Munson (p. 547).

As Munson reports on page 548, "…no other topic in medical ethics has attracted more attention or so polarized public opinion" than abortion. Due to the legal, social, religions and moral questions surrounding abortion, it has remained a flashpoint for controversy and debate. Prior to the High Court's decision in 1973, many abortions were conducted in less than sterile environments. Many abortions were conducted by "Back-alley abortionists with dirty hands and un-clean instruments," Munson explains; moreover, a woman who was known to have undergone an abortion procedures back in the day when it was illegal was looked down upon and her reputation was degraded.

One of the key social questions embraced by the pro-choice community is offered by Munson (p. 551): "Suppose that a woman becomes pregnant unintentionally" but she decides that carrying the pregnancy through to birth "will be harmful to her career or her way of life." Does she have "a moral duty" to make sure the child is born? Pro-choice voices will say no to that question, in a loud, unified voice.

Meanwhile, some states in the U.S. have passed legislation that to varying degrees attempts to make it very difficult for a woman to get an abortion. A case in point is South Dakota; in 2006, the legislature passed HB 1215, a bill that outlawed "abortion in all circumstances, from the moment of fertilization, and offered no exceptions for circumstances or rape, incest, or when the health of the woman was endangered" (Cooper, 2006, p. 2). The law specifically stated that a legal human being exists at "that point in time when a male human sperm penetrates the zona pellucia of a female human ovum" (Cooper, p. 2).

Planned Parenthood initially intended to sue the legislature and challenge the constitutionality of the legislation, instead a coalition… [read more]

Abortion Pros and Cons Essay

… When empathy and caring permeate the healthcare system, such psychological problems are not an issue (Cockrill & Weitz, 2010). Likewise, when society ceases stigmatizing women for having abortions, emotional and psychological distress will also not be a factor. Instead, women would be congratulated because they would have prevented the needless suffering of yet another unwanted human being.

The con position asserts that the fetus is a full human being with rights equal to that of the mother. Because of this belief, it is concluded that an abortion is murder. If abortion were killing a human being, then it would be understandable that the "murder" argument would hold true. However, a fetus is a fetus. It has the potential to become a human being, but so does the egg inside the mother's body and the sperm inside the man's. Finally, the con position points to the Hippocratic Oath ("Should Abortion Be Legal?" 2014). All doctors have to say the Hippocratic Oath, which does in fact expressly forbid abortions.

The most vocal cons of abortion come from religious sects, the individuals who belong to them, and other irrational groups. For example, one politician in Australia claims that rapists and pedophiles are in favor of abortion because it destroys evidence of their crime, and therefore abortion should be illegal (Gordon & Cook, 2014). Many con positions on abortion promote the belief that the woman is to blame for the pregnancy regardless of whether she was raped or whether the condom broke. The view is that abortion is categorically wrong, no matter what the circumstances or consequences. The con position assumes that abortion is categorically wrong because of perceived moral or religious beliefs.


Based on an analysis of pros and cons, it seems there are far more pros, and far more reasonable arguments for abortion. Abortion is a fact of life, albeit an unfortunate one. However, women will have abortions whether they are legal or not. Abortions therefore need to be safe and legal. Furthermore, abortions do not reflect immorality; the greater immorality is the subjugation of women through enforced pregnancy and the proliferation of overpopulation.

Abortion is a necessary procedure for terminating an unwanted pregnancy. Without abortion, women would be forced to carry a child to term, which is an untenable situation in any civilized country. An abortion is the right to choose whether or not to carry a child to term, and the fetus has no rights because it is simply a cluster of cells. The arguments against abortion have no logical sense, and they stem from religious superstitions that have no place in law.

However, it is helpful to evaluate the pros and cons of abortion to understand how the debate is formulated from both sides. The abortion debate seems outmoded and anachronistic, but it wages on, even in civilized nations. If anything, abortion needs to become more widely available and accessible for women. Women living in rural communities need improved access to abortion, and all women should be able… [read more]

Should Abortion Be Legal Essay

… ¶ … Abortion be Legal:

Abortion has become one of the most controversial topics in the modern society since it's permitted in some countries and prohibited in others. In the United States, the issue received much attention following the Supreme Court's decision in Roe v. Wade case that legalized the practice in the country. While the ruling has continued to receive much support, abortion is still a major controversial issue in America that has attracted huge debates in the recent past. The controversy has contributed to the emergence of pro and anti-abortion groups that have raised divergent opinions. Generally, the debate on whether abortion should be legal continues to segregate Americans after the U.S. Supreme Court declared it an essential right in 1973. The controversy has elicited varying arguments from pro-choice and pro-life groups.

Arguments in Support of Abortion:

The proponents of abortion, who are commonly known as pro-choice argue that the procedure is a fundamental right that should not be restricted by either governmental or religious authorities. Therefore, pro-choice activists and groups believe that this fundamental right overshadows any claims of the right of a fetus or embryo. They have also argued that pregnant women are likely to choose unsafe illegal abortions in the absence of a legal option.

However, different points have been raised among the pro-choice activists since some of them believe that the procedure should be used as the last option whereas others support unlimited access to abortion regardless of the existing circumstances ("Should Abortion Be Legal?" 2013). The other arguments raised by these activities include accepting the procedure in situations like incest, rape, or when it places the life of a woman at risk. In essence, pro-choice activists derive their support for this practice from the 1973 Supreme Court ruling that declared the procedure a fundamental right.

Arguments against Abortion:

Most of the prominent pro-life or anti-abortion organizations and activists base their arguments on religious ideology because they are composed of different mainstream faith groups. These activists have continued to state that women deserve empowerment rather than abortion. Therefore, women should be given more support and options that enable them to choose life despite of the underlying circumstances. They argue that the murder of a fetus or embryo is wrong and cannot be justified by any circumstance. They compare abortion to killing any child at any stage of development, which is morally unacceptable. According to these activists, there is no difference between killing an unborn child and killing a person ("Should Abortion Be Legal?" 2011).

The basis of pro-life arguments is that abortion should be considered as murder because it primarily involves the killing of an innocent human life. it's scientifically proven that the life of an individual starts at fertilization, which implies that abortion is killing a human. Moreover, doctors who perform an abortion break the Hippocratic Oath in which they are required not… [read more]

Abortion Including Rape and Incest Essay

… Abortion, Including Rape and Incest:

One of the major, contentious moral issues facing the modern American society is the practice of abortion that attracted huge debates and controversies. Much of the debates and controversies have been based on the elective… [read more]

Demerits of Abortion Essay

… ¶ … Abortion Should be Illegal

The recent past has witnessed heated debates on whether abortion should be legalized in different countries across the globe or not. People often have different views on what is right on the topic or wrong. As such, the topic raises concerns for many people globally. The reasons as to why people have an abortion or oppose it vary significantly. The variation in the views has attracted significant political attention with some political activists strongly arguing that abortion should be legalized while others argue for its abolition (Carroll 125). However, I strongly believe that abortion should not be legalized at all cost.

The reason why women should not have an abortion relates to the basic human values. It is appreciable that, the unborn baby has not responsibility to the mother's situation. As such, the unborn requires the provision of rights and opportunities to live, grow, and develop like a normal human being. Women should be humanitarian and become egoistic with the unborn babies. Various alternatives exist for these women. Giving the children opportunities to be adopted by the families in need of children is one among the alternatives available for these women. Therefore, abortion should not be their only option of handling the challenges associated with the unexpected pregnancies. It is also appreciable that nearly all religions prohibit abortion.

Religious bodies consider abortion as murder. For example, the Christian religion prohibits abortion and considers it as murder as stated in the Christian doctrines. Abortion has short- and long-term effects on the health of the mother. Abortion predisposes the mother to negative health effects such as excessive bleeding (hemorrhage), increased risk of infections, severe pain, and shock among other short-term effects to the health of the mother. Similarly, abortion has long-term negative effects to the mother such as increased risk of birth complications in the future pregnancies, diseases of the reproductive system, increased risk of infertility and depression. Apart from the health effects identified above, empirical evidence shows that an abortion increases the risks of reproductive cancers such as cancer among the victims of abortion. These health effects affect the health and health outcomes of an individual (TFP 1).

Abortion has negative effects on the mental well being of an individual. The mental problems arise from the fact that, an individual knows that an abortion is murdering an innocent soul. Thus, it predisposes them to depression due to the negative thoughts that affect the emotional and psychological status on an individual negatively. As stated by Carroll, (56), such individuals must not necessarily confess their acts, but the mistake, guilt, or circumstances reveal their behaviors. Abortion creates an unnoticed crisis globally. It destroys the natural bond that exists between a mother and her child. The destruction of the unborn results in the dissolution of the precious bonding glue binding the mother and child… [read more]

Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice Essay

… ¶ … Life You Take: My Take on Abortion

Abortion is murder and murder is a dangerous thing, as we have recently discovered with the conviction of Scott Roeder. Reoder was a staunch believer in pro-life and while his methods were wrong, his beliefs regarding life were right. It is my view that abortion is wrong because it takes the life of another. Just because that "other" cannot be seen or cannot speak up for itself, does not mean it does not have a right to live. The baby is alive or it would not need to be killed. The debate is a moral not a legal one.

I believe that conception begins at birth not at three months or six months. Dr. Fritz Baumgartner agrees with this notion stating, "There is no more appropriate moment to begin calling a human "human" than the moment of fertilization. And don't let anyone tell you otherwise, because it would be a degradation of factual embryology to say it would be any other moment" (Baumgartner). Former Pope John Paul also supports this notion. He writes, "No one more absolutely innocent could be imagined" (Giovanni). Unborn babies are "defenseless, even to the point of lacking that minimal form of defense" (Giovanni). Life is scared and it begins with the union of sperm and egg. Pro-abortionists like to call the baby a fetus or viable tissue but it is still alive. If every "body" has rights, then the baby must have the same rights as the mother.

I believe the baby, born or unborn, has rights. Pro-abortion supporters rely on the argument that a woman's body belongs to none other than her. This fact is true; her body does belong to her but that fact does not give her the right to kill the other body growing inside of her. I think John Finnis makes an… [read more]

Pro-Life Abortion Term Paper

… Abortion (Pro Life)

Not many people disagree when a law is passed that is objective and does not impact religious beliefs and value systems. For example, some individuals protested the speed limit of 55 mph on many federal highways. However,… [read more]

Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion Notwithstanding Term Paper

… In Virginia the Republican-dominated legislature earlier this year wrote legislation that requires "women to have a transvaginal ultrasound before they may have an abortion," (Glionna, 2012). The idea behind this legislation is apparently that when a woman sees the picture… [read more]

Why Has Abortion Created Serious Debates and Controversies Among the Mainline Christians Research Paper

… ¶ … abortion created serious debates and controversies among the mainline Christians?

Pro-life vs. Pro-choice

The Roman Catholic and the Southern American Baptist Convention

Approaching matters from a historical point-of-view makes it possible for this paper to provide insight regarding… [read more]

Abortion Nature Intends Term Paper

… Metaphysics professor at Harvard University Judith Jarvis Thompson wrote "A Defense of Abortion," which appeared in the Journal of Philosophy and Public Affairs (1971). She argued that a woman's inalienable right to life, privacy and security includes the right to… [read more]

Reducing Abortion and Protecting Contraception Research Paper

… Reducing Abortion and Protecting Contraception

Policy Issue Paper

Policy Issue Paper: Reducing Elective Abortions and Protecting Access to Contraception

Policy Issue Paper: Reducing Elective Abortions and Protecting Access to Contraception

On February 12, 2013, U.S. District Judge Neil Wake ruled… [read more]

Public Funding of Abortion Clinic Term Paper

… Public Funding of Abortion Clinic

Public funding for abortion clinics

Abortion has been a strongly debated issue all over the world with more and more people arguing for the promotion of pro-choice for its obvious advantages. However, there are also… [read more]

Why Abortion Is Immoral by Don Marquis Article Critique

… ¶ … Abortion is Immoral -- by Don Marquis

Don Marquis insists in the first paragraph of his essay that abortion is "seriously immoral" and he is clearly upset that his point-of-view has "received little support in the recent philosophical literature" (Marquis, 1989, p. 183). Granted, his essay was crafted twenty-two years ago, but from the vigorous, even aggressive argument he puts forward, one can conclude that his passion has not died out in 2011. Marquis uses his narrative skills in the first few pages to generally conclude that both the pro-choice and the pro-life positions have valid points. Along the way, he touts his own intellectual skills -- possibly to justify his moral position or to show that he is a serious student of ethics -- with statements like, "As everyone who has taken a bit of logic knows…" (Marquis, 184). It's easy to wonder just how many students have taken courses in logic, and to speculate that Marquis is trying to distance his views from the average citizen.

The anti-abortionist position ("It is always prima facie wrong to take a human life") is "too broad, according to Marquis (185). And the "pro-choicer" position ("It is prima facie wrong to kill only rational agents") is "too narrow in scope," he continues (185). As an alert reader goes through this essay, it is clear that Marquis is arguing that both the pro-choice and the pro-life (he doesn't use "pro-life"; rather he uses "anti-abortionist") both have serious flaws in their moral and ethical positions on the subject of abortion -- and that in fact, there are "symmetries in the two positions" (186). Marquis calls the dual moral mistakes "a standoff" in a number of instances (in other words, both arguments are weak and wrong); again, he is preparing the reader for what he will deliver later in the essay -- a more substantive ethical / philosophical reason as to why abortion is immoral.

"The moral generalizations of both sides are not quite correct," Marquis asserts (188), because both arguments are "accidental generalizations" and both sides "do not touch on the essence of the matter (Marquis'… [read more]

Abortion Ever Since in the 1973 Supreme Term Paper

… Abortion

Ever since in the 1973 Supreme Court, the divergence over the validity of abortion and the right of nations to bound women's right to use to this process has been one of the most obstinate arguments in American politics.… [read more]

Canadian Abortion Term Paper

… Legal Abortion in Canada

Unlike the U.S. where feminism has been defending a woman's right to a legal abortion since the 1980s, the Canadian movement has made some significant gains. Abortion was decriminalized and abortion clinics were established in Canada… [read more]

Women's Right to Abortion Term Paper

… The fetus, of course, is inexorably attached to the mother by the umbilicus and is totally dependant on the body of the woman for its life support. It is, therefore, well within the rights of a woman to choose abortion in the early stages of pregnancy.

In short, any society that denies the right of women to abortion implicitly recognizes the second-class status of women. It unfairly takes away the fundamental right of an individual to control her own body and relegates women to the demeaning position of birth-giving machines.


"Legal Abortion: Arguments Pro & Con." (2005). Westchester Coalition for Legal Abortion, Inc. (WCLA) Online. Retrieved on August 22, 2005 from

Kopaczynski, G. (1995). No Higher Court: Contemporary Feminism and the Right to Abortion. Chapter 5: "Pro-Choice Feminism," pp. 181-201. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press.

Of course, no one can deny that a fetus at conception is a "potential human being." But so are millions of sperms; hence if we recognize abortion as murder, masturbation should logically… [read more]

Abortion Debate With the Growing Term Paper

… Their attitude was perfectly captured by Mr. Clinton when he said that he wanted abortion to remain "safe, legal and rare."

It is extremely important for pro-lifers to fully understand the views of pro-abortion group in order to reach some consensus on the issue and also to minimize incidents of the abortion-related violence. There are few conditions under which a woman should be allowed to seek abortion. These reasons and conditions have already been discussed above.


Pro-abortion rights quarter knows that it has not made much progress in the last 30 years but the reason is not lack of sound arguments but the fact that this issue has become highly politicized in recent years. I believe that women should be have abortion rights however their decision to seek abortion should reflect more than just irresponsible behavior. In other words, a woman's decision to terminate her pregnancy must be accompanied by sound reasons so they are not accused of avoiding responsibility. This is the only way we can keep abortion legal but rare.


Special Report: The war that never ends - Abortion in America; To come., The Economist, 01-18-2003, pp 25

Berer M., Making Abortion Safe and Legal: The Ethics and Dynamics of Change., Reproductive Health Matters, 11-01-1993, pp 5-10

Muller, Jerry Z, The conservative case for abortion: family values vs. family planning. (The New Republic: 1995). 27-28

Katha Pollit, Abortion in American History; (The Atlantic Monthly: 1997). 111-115.

ROE V.… [read more]

Kantian Perspectives on Morality Essay

… This individual practically admits that there are better things in life but that he or she needs to refrain from getting involved in them because he or she has the duty to behave morally.

Question 2

Although Kant was especially specific with regard to moral duties and to the degree to which a person can be considered to behave morally, it would be especially difficult to determine whether or not he would agree to an abortion. When regarding matters from his direct perspective (the position of a man who had a limited understanding of the condition of the fetus before it develops into a fully-grown infant), it would be safe to say that the German philosopher would be pro-choice.

Kant would probably focus on the woman's position with regard to the matter and as long as she would be supportive toward having an abortion the individuals performing it would behave morally -- as they choose to act in the woman's best interest (assuming that she believes there is no other solution for the problem). Kant's understanding of a pregnancy was certainly limited and he could not have possibly considered that a woman can give birth and the baby can develop normally at an earlier stage in the pregnancy. Taking this into account, he would have likely considered that the moral thing to do in such a situation would be to allow the woman to get an abortion.

When considering a situation in which Kant would be familiarized with contemporary ideas, it would be more likely that he would oppose to the idea of abortion. He would be probable to consider that a fetus is a human being and that it would thus be against moral ideas to perform an abortion. The German philosopher would consider that there is no difference whatsoever between committing murder and performing an abortion. From his perspective, a person should not concentrate on the final effect of his or her actions and thus act accordingly, as he or she should focus on all effects associated with his or her performances. Kant would surely be against the expression 'you have to break some eggs in order to make an omelet.'

Kantian thinking supports the idea that in order to behave morally people would have to be selfless in doing everything they do. As a consequence, a woman wanting an abortion would have to consider the fact that she needs to give birth to her child as a means of doing something moral for him or her. She should not allow herself to be guided by her interests and should only concentrate on what would be best for the world as a whole. A person should generally concentrate on doing actions that are beneficial for the world, with an abortion or a chain of abortions obviously damaging the social order through the ideas they entail.

All things considered, while abortion might seem like the moral thing to do when considering particular ideas, it would be safe to say… [read more]

Cons of Abortion Term Paper

… The United States recognizes the diminished decision-making capacities of minors in many areas. Those under 21 are not allowed to alcohol. Before they turn 18, children cannot vote, join the army, or even call a psychic hotline without their parents'… [read more]

Partial Birth Abortion, Many Pro-Choice Term Paper

… Condoning the act of partial birth abortion is condoning murder. It is allowing a doctor to kill a child who most likely would have lived had it been born at that same age.

Courts have recently allowed testimony by medical experts that the fetus does feel pain during the partial birth abortion until it dies (Neumeister, 2004).

The judge who allowed the testimony believed it would help him assess the current debate around the humanity of partial birth abortion (Neumeister, 2004).

He said it will help him assess "Congress' factual findings that partial-birth abortion is a 'brutal and inhumane procedure' and that 'during the partial-birth abortion procedure, the child will fully experience the pain associated with piercing his or her skull and sucking out his or her brain (Neumeister, 2004)."

Conclusion partial birth abortion is nothing less than killing a baby and disposing of its body. Society has strict laws and rules protecting the rights of humans. Susan Smith murdered her children and went to prison. A woman in Texas drowned all five of her children in a bath tub and will probably never see the light of day again. Throughout the nation, mothers who murder their children are held accountable for those actions. People need to realize that piercing the skull of a fetus, that otherwise could have lived outside of the mother's body, and killing it by sucking its brains out is no different than drowning it in the bathtub after it has been born. Partial birth abortion is wrong, and should never be allowed to occur.


Judge to let witness say fetus feels abortion pain

The Record (Bergen County, NJ); 3/23/2004; LARRY NEUMEISTER, THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

The Record (Bergen County, NJ)

What is a Partial-Birth Abortion? [read more]

Abortion in the United States Term Paper

… Abortion in the United States (Pro-Choice)

Abortion has evoked considerable debate and controversy throughout history. In the United States too, it has been a subject of heated debate through most of its history. In recent times, "pro-choice" and "pro-life" movements… [read more]

Abortion Debate Pros and Cons Research Paper

… Studies indicate that "emotional responses to legally induced abortion are largely positive" (Pourezza & Batebi, 2011).

This is not a religious issue, but a woman's issue. It has to do with emotional and physical well-being, and a woman's personal belief in her ability to care fore a child at that particular time (Balogh, 2009).

A man cannot understand the experiences that a woman goes through during pregnancy (Pickering, 2003). The fact is that most legislators are men, and they cannot adequately express what it is for an unprepared woman to endure a pregnancy.

It is better for the child if the mother wants to take a pregnancy full term rather than being forced to carry a child full term.

Women who have been raped, faced incest or have been molested in some other fashion should not be required to carry a child which will remind them of the situation. The psychological damage due to this will carry more weight than if she aborted the pregnancy (Pourezza & Batebi, 2011).

It is the law of the United States that a woman has a constitutional right to privacy given by the 14th Amendment. This was upheld in a majority vote of the Supreme Court in the Roe vs. Wade decision in 1973. The law has not changed.

Women are more likely to die from the procedure if abortions are deemed illegal and they use illicit means to obtain one.

Abortion Cons:

From a women's health perspective: Researchers in one research study found that 48.7% of women experienced an eating disorder, 60.5% depression, 43.7% decreased self-esteem, and 37.5% guilt (Pourezza & Batebi, 2011).

The child has no "choice" in the matter (Balogh, 2009).

The mother's choice is said to end when she makes the decision to have sex whether that sex is protected or not. The unreliability of condoms and other methods of pregnancy prevention are well documented (Gavriluta, 2010).

The life is not the mother's to take. Each life is sacred no matter what circumstances it is currently undergoing (Pickering, 2003).

Allowing abortion cheapens life as a whole. It is a slippery slope which has no known end. If the evil of abortion continues, what is to stop the courts or legislators from taking away a debilitated (mentally or otherwise disabled, elderly, chronically ill) person's right to make their own decisions regarding end-of-life. It becomes a bureaucratic decision.

Women have been known to die from the procedure.


Balogh, L. (2009). The public debate on the religiosity of the public debate of bioethics in the U.S.A. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 8(23), 3-12.

Gavriluta, N. (2010). Abortion and challenges of applied ethics. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 9(26), 238-243.

Pickering, B.A. (2003). Women's voices as evidence: Personal testimony in pro-choice films. Argumentation and Advocacy, 40(1), 1-33.

Pourreza, A., & Batebi, A. (2011). Psychology… [read more]

Abortion Both the Pro-Life Term Paper

… S. pro-choice policy):

Both groups use religion as a tool to promote fear and terror as they attempt to dismantle basic human and civil rights. Both groups target feminism as a symbol of Western progress, and ultimately, both groups threaten democracy itself by attempting to force their distorted religious views onto the modern world in an effort to dismantle freedom and civil liberties."

The proliferation of domestic religious terror is similar to the rise of Islamic monistic theocracies and Jihad. In both cases, a truly religious person would never approve of the gross misuse of religion to justify terrorism. Indeed, Islamic and Operation Rescue extremists seem to be just as motivated by political and social factors as they are by religion.

Groups such as Operation Rescue/Operation Save America represent a dangerous threat not only to a woman's right to choose, but also to broader freedoms such as the separation of church from state and the right to choose one's own sexual orientation. Their agenda has gained tremendous political support and is quickly making headway into mainstream media. Legally, providers of abortion services have enjoyed some reprieve from violent activities conducted by anti-abortion groups through enforcement of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act and application of RICO to financially cripple violent movements. However, these protections cannot be taken for granted as terrorists find ways to exploit religion to justify illegal violence, calling to question if the law can continue to protect a woman's right to choice.


Ackerman, S. (2001, August). The most biased name in news. Extra! Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

Burghardt, T. "No place to hide" campaign fizzles. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

Clinton, conspiracism, and the continuing culture war. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

Fredericks, K. (1993). Anti-choice terrorism in the U.S. Green Left Weekly. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

Johnson, D. (1998, April 21). Jury rules that anti-abortion leaders violated racketeering laws. New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2004 from Web site:

Operation Rescue changes name, widens focus. Catholic World News. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

Operation Rescue Colorado. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

Operation Save America claims attacks on America "rebuke" for U.S. pro-choice policy (2001, September 13). Feminist Daily News. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

Promise Keepers holds no promise for women. (1997, July 13). Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

Shaw, D. (1990, July 1) Abortion bias seeps into news. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

The battle to defend abortion clinics: organizing against Operation Rescue. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

The rise of the Religious Right in the Republican party. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site:

Violence & harassment at U.S. abortion clinics. Retrieved May 15, 2004 from Web site: [read more]

Pro Life Abortion Term Paper

… Pro Life

Abortion may be in the news more today than in times past, but it is certainly not a new issue. Abortion may well be as old as pregnancy itself, as there is some evidence of abortion-like behavior among… [read more]

Defense of Abortion Essay

… A descriptive assumption is a belief about the way the world is, and in this case the world from the point-of-view of pro-choice does not want to see a woman die in order to save her fetus. And a value… [read more]

Abortion the Issue of Late-Term Abortions Term Paper

… Abortion

The issue of late-term abortions has been widely contested, and has yet to receive a consistent resolution. Pro-lifers find such a procedure an abhorrence, whereas those in favor of allowing a woman the choice to do with her body as she pleases generally seem to support this measure. This issue becomes most controversial, it seems, in the case in which the fetus that is potentially aborted (or in many cases actually is aborted) becomes viable. In this specific instance, when such a fetus becomes viable, it becomes clear that this procedure is akin to killing babies. However, it is necessary to emphasize the fact that viability in fetuses is an extremely subjective term, and one in which clear boundaries or definitions are not established. Therefore, while killing viable fetuses is a form of child murder, it is difficult to discern just when this process occurs in the stage of development of the purported child.

However, it would be premature to come to the conclusion that every last late-term abortion should be outlawed because a percentage of them involve the killing of viable fetuses. In instances in which the life of the mother is threatened, for example, late-term abortions become a morally defensible operation for the simple fact that not performing such an action is in essence condoning the murder of the mother. It is always difficult to place a value judgment on life, but the mother should have the right to choose whether or not she lives or dies due to childbirth -- especially since she can choose.

The question of morality is difficult when it comes to comparing late term abortions to earlier term abortions. Many people find the latter operations more moral for the simple fact that the fetus is not yet viable and is in a stage of life so rudimentary that it cannot rightfully even be considered alive. Most people find later term abortions less moral since they may involve a viable fetus.

The case of Alicja Tysiac is a sad one, and one which functions as a critical case study that many pro-choice adherents could utilize to their… [read more]

Abortion One of the Most Contentious Socio-Political Research Proposal

… Abortion

One of the most contentious socio-political issues in the United States today, is that of abortion. There is really no reason why it should be a political issue, but proponents of abortion have averred that there needs to be… [read more]

Abortion and Frozen Fertilized Human Eggs Term Paper

… Abortion and Frozen Fertilized Human Eggs

Fertilized human eggs, such as those which are frozen and stored in fertility clinics, are believed by some people to already be a human child in essence. To many religious groups that oppose abortion and claim to be "pro-life," these zygotes should have the same rights as a human infant brought to term. According to these religious groups, God grants the child an immortal soul at the time of conception, not at the time of birth. This is actually a belief that has been held by many cultures throughout history, and some Asian cultures actually celebrate the conception day rather than the birth day of the child to mark age. These religious groups do not believe it is moral to dispose of fertilized human eggs, even when they are only comprised of a few cells. The question for many people is whether these zygotes are "morally protectable entities, or are they more like other disposable tissues cleaned from the human body?" (Green)

It would seem that the moral obligation, then, of religious people who believe that a fertilized human egg cell has the same right to life as an infant child, would be to rescue fertilized egg cells that in danger. There are "spare' embryos created during invitro fertilization procedures." (Richards) Most in vitro fertilization clinics assist women in getting pregnant by taking eight egg cells from the mother, fertilizing all eight, then implanting half of the fertilized cells into the mother. The other four zygotes are usually frozen and put into storage for future use if the initial procedure fails. This leads to tens of thousands of zygotes being put into storage. Eventually, the zygotes will deteriorate, or "die" if left in storage for a prolonged period of time. These institutions may also dispose of these zygotes eventually. Therefore, to those who believe a zygote has a soul and the same moral rights as a child, there are tens of thousands of human lives in danger. One analogy that can be used is that of finding a child drowning. A person who believes that life is sacred would be morally obligated to rescue the child rather than to let him drown. The same is true for the frozen zygotes; there is… [read more]

Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues in Contemporary Term Paper

… Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues

In contemporary American society, elective abortion remains one of the most controversial political, social, and moral issues. While the debate is often reduced to matters of religious belief, the issues are also addressable through purely… [read more]

Abortion Debate in 1973 Term Paper

… In addition to the abstract debate, however, only the pro-choice side has presented an argument based on real, tangible social needs. Abortions will continue, whether or not Roe vs. Wade is overturned. The only question is the safety of the women involved. There are no easy answers in this debate, but, as Roiphe observes, "the morality of abortion lies in our capacity to make distinctions of quality, to balance one good against another, one evil against another" (144).

Because the individual and social evils of an unwanted pregnancy clearly outbalance vague definitions of fetal personhood, a woman's right to abortion must thus be protected.

Works Cited

Alcorn, Randy. Prolife Answers to ProChoice Arguments. Oregon: Multnomah Publishers, 2001

Allan Guttmacher Institute. "Induced Abortions." Facts in Brief. 2002. Alan Guttmacher Institute. 4 December 2002

Dlouhy, Jennifer. "House Passes Abortion Bill Despite Democrats Protest over Health, Constitution." CQ Weekly 27 July 2002: 2055.

Eilperin, Juliet. "Unborn Victims Act Wins in House; Foes Call It Attack on Abortion Rights." Washington Post 27 April 2001: A1.

Page, Clarence. "Right to Choose Struggling With a Dilemma." Chicago Tribune 20 August 1995: 3.

Politt, Katha. "Abortion in American History." Atlantic Monthly May 1997: 111-115.

Roiphe, Anne. "Feminists Should Support Abortion Rights." Feminism: Opposing Viewpoints. Jennifer A. Hurley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

Schroedel, Jean Reith. Is the Fetus a Person? A Comparison of Policies Across the Fifty States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Ward, Dr. Roy… [read more]

Abortion and Women's Rights Research Paper

… Abortion and Women's Rights

One controversy that pans the socio-political and cultural paradigm in the late 20th and early 21st century is that of the overall morality of abortion. The abortion debate, in fact, surrounds the legal and moral status… [read more]

Abortion Is One of the Most Ethically Term Paper

… Abortion is one of the most ethically charged issues nowadays. The present work is focused on exploring the major ethical concerns revolving around pro-life and pro-choice tendencies for the purpose of revealing ethical basis of each, common ground for both, and potential guidelines.

Opinions differ on this present matter, ranging from arguments in favor of the fetus having full moral status of a person, to arguments that fetuses are only partly human (and partly entitled to a set of rights), to an even a more radical stance claiming that moral status depends on "capacity for moral agency, hence fetuses are similar to animals corresponding to their gestational stage" (Sperling).

The most important ethical debates raised by abortion ensue around the issues of personhood (strongly advocated by pro-life supporters) and the right to life (largely claimed by both pro-life and pro-choice supporters).

Personhood is the principle built around determining the exact moment of intrauterine development when a fetus can be deemed a person, for the purpose of establishing that a later abortion would be, according to Christian and deontological ethics, synonymous with murder. On the other hand, marking the viability of a human fetus in a certain stage of biological development is yet unaccomplished and a difficult task, due to its "dependency on scientific knowledge, which is dynamic and changing" (Sperling).

Furthermore, the rather conservative outlook allows abortion solely on the condition that the mother's life is endangered; hence this approach follows along the lines of situation ethics theory and the so-called doctrine of double effect, where the primary voluntary action is saving the woman's life, but the accompanying unintentional action is termination of pregnancy.

The right to life capitalizes on the freedom of choice that a human being, whether adult or fetal, is entitled to. The liberal interpretation of this theory suggests that mother's choice of abortion is permissible regardless of fetal development, with a strong emphasis on… [read more]

Bible and Law Abortion Research Paper

… Bible and Law - Abortion

Bible and Law

Abortion has been defined as an act of voluntarily terminating pregnancy, which leads to the embryo's death. Abortion has become a very controversial topic in most countries because it is becoming more… [read more]

Abortion Has Been Practiced in Every Society Term Paper

… Abortion has been practiced in every society that has been studied, and in the United States was legal until the mid-1800s (National Abortion Federation). As a fundamental part of a free society, access to medically sound and safe abortion practices must be preserved. When abortion is outlawed, the practice simply moves underground. At the very least, abortion rights should be maintained to protect public health and prevent women from seeking what are known as "back alley" abortions by untrained individuals or even self-administered pregnancy terminations. However, abortion is a reasonable and in some cases ethical response to an unwanted pregnancy. Bringing a child into the world without preparation is more immoral than removing the few cells that comprise the embryo: which is not a fetus. Moreover, many women become pregnant due to rape or incest and to carry that child would exacerbate the trauma. Abortion should remain legal in cases that preserve the physical health of the mother, to preserve the mental health of the mother, in cases of rape and incest, when the unborn child had medical problems or birth defects, or for social and/or economic reasons.

According to Seletz, abortion is "one of the most common and safest surgical procedures performed in the United States." When abortion is illegal it leads to health complications and in many cases, death. In South America, an estimated five thousand women each year die due to unsanitary or unsafe illegal abortions (Ross). If the government protects its citizens against harmful drugs and crime, then it should also step in to prevent the practice of unsafe abortion. Doctors and other qualified health professionals must be performing the service. The only way to keep abortion safe is to keep abortion legal. When abortion is banned like it is in some South American countries, women who are pregnant risk their lives to obtain a procedure that should be made safe and legal.

Abortion may also be indicated in preserving the mental health of the woman. An unwanted pregnancy places undue mental strain on a person who might already be suffering from trauma due to being raped. Even if the woman was not raped, she might have gotten pregnant because of contraceptive failure, which does occur. Condoms, which are necessary to prevent sexually transmitted diseases as well as pregnancy, have an estimated 15% failure rate; even the birth control pill… [read more]

Dr. Henry Morgentaler: A Pioneer in Securing Term Paper

… Dr. Henry Morgentaler: A Pioneer in Securing Safe Abortions in Canada

This paper compares two scholarly journal articles with two newspaper articles, regarding abortion rights pioneer, Dr. Henry Morgentaler. A summary of one journal article is also presented.

Scholarly Journal vs. Newspaper Comparison:

Dr. Henry Morgentaler is discussed in each of the four selected articles. The Humanist (1992) article was the first scholarly article reviewed. In it, Dr. Morgentaler's accomplishments and personal biography are presented in a concise and factual manner. It is noted that Dr. Morgentaler is one of the leading supporters of abortion rights, but this is discussed in a historical context acknowledging the humanist aspect of his work without passing judgment on the topic itself.

Moulton's (2003) article detailed Dr. Morgentaler's 2003 legal action against the province of New Brunswick. Once again, in a non-biased manner, the author describes Dr. Morgentaler's belief that New Brunswick was in violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Canada Health Act by specifying that only abortions performed in hospitals were covered.

In contrast, Mills (2007) article also discusses current litigation brought forth by Dr. Morgentaler against New Brunswick, again for violating civil rights for refusing to pay for abortions performed at clinics. However, the article also focused not on the legal issues at hand, but on the demonstrators who had situated themselves outside the court room. Interestingly, the bulk of the article is made up of select quotes from Dr. Morgentaler, Jula Hughes from the Faculty of Law at the University of New Brunswick, and a spokesman for the Right to Life group.

Lastly, although Jeffs (2007) was passionate in his writing, it was clearly biased in response to his Pro-Life views. He discusses the 38th anniversary of the acquisition of abortion rights and the damage he feels it has done to both Canada and Canadian women specifically. He describes his first meeting of Dr. Morgentaler and the candlelight vigil he attended in protest. His anti-abortion rights views are further dramatized by his citing of his 12-year-old son characterizing Dr. Morgentaler as not being an honorable man.

It is interesting to compare the scholarly journal articles vs. those from newspapers. The journal articles focus on facts and historic details. There appears to be a conscious effort not to form an opinion, but rather to simply provide information to the readers. In contrast, the newspaper articles, particularly that of Jeffs (2007) is far more biased and emotional.

Even Mills (2007) doesn't provide actual facts about the impending litigation, but instead focuses on the more emotional statements provided by clearly biased parties.

Summary of Scholarly Article:

Moulton (2007) discusses Dr. Morgentaler's 2003 litigation against the province of New Brunswick. Dr.… [read more]

Moral Impermissibility of Abortion Term Paper

… Moral Impermissibility of Abortion

Albert Camus, French philosopher and one of the youngest Nobel Prize winners for literature said that "freedom is nothing else but a chance to be better" ("Freedom quotes- Albert Camus"). The question is: to what extent… [read more]

Abortion / Abortion Debate Term Paper

… The phrase was originated by Cardinal Bernardin to describe the ethical stand that all life is worthuy of protection and that it is ethically correct to protect life at all stages. However, there are a number of instances where the taking of life is socially acceptable and the moral considerations are not defined in terms of 'rights'. Seen from this vantage point, abortion is seen as a moral predicament and social problem with antecedents that can be identified as well as addressed outside of the moral arena.

Among these 'middle ground positions' are during the course of war when killing becomes not only acceptable but necessary and expected. Another middle ground position is when killing becomes neccesary as a matter of self-protection. Quite often, the need to save the expectant mother is another position where the death of a child is thought to be socially acceptable.

The extreme range of emotions that are involved in the debate concerning abortion can be difficult for the woman in a situation where she must choose. In Milwaukee there exists a program where Catholic women who choose to have an abortion can go for counseling, to accept the sacrement and to enter into the process of reconcialiation after the abortion has been performed. A woman must be referred by a priest but any services and all interactions are confidential. While the Cathiolic church is, basically, opposed to abortion, it also teaches that a person may choose to follow their conscience after consideration, study and prayer. The right to autonomy is recognized by the Church in matters of morality when one considers the Church to be a 'guiding influence' rather than an arbiter of the moral. In this instance, disallowing legal abortions is not the issue. Allowing for free choice and providing moral guidance and support is the issue. The alienation felt by a Catholic woman in this situation involves an element of is self-division. The process of reconciliation is between the individual and God but also reconciliation of the self to itself (Matthewes, 1998). Such a program becomes a valuable resource for the health care provider is able to refer a patient for continued care.


Matthewes, Charles T. (1998, Jan). Pluralism, Otherness, and… [read more]

Navigating Abortion Care Ethics for Nursing Professionals Thesis

… From the perspective of the NRLC, the 3,000 mother-helping centers that have been established around the country undermine the proposition that unwanted children actually exist. These centers provide crisis intervention for pregnant women, including medical assistance, educational opportunities, housing, and… [read more]

Abortion Is Every Woman A-Level Outline Answer

… B. Pro-life arguments focused on the rights of the fetus.

1. Life begins at conception, argued the pro-life side, not at a subsequent viability date.

2. According to the Constitution, the authorities should ensure that no harm is ever done to any individual

3. Pro-life activists also argue that there is no clear stipulation in the Constitution in favor of (a) right of privacy for the mother or (b) the Federal Government's right to overturn a State legal decision.

C. Pro-choice and pro-RW decision arguments focused on the right of the woman/mother.

1. Compulsory motherhood violates the right of women under the Thirteenth Amendment.

2. The State cannot force the woman, under any condition, including prior health-related concerns/risks, to remain pregnant.

III. Debate on the Roe v. Wage decision remains ongoing, with little change between the two sides in their opinion to overturn or not the decision

A. From 1989 to 2013, the pro-decision side fluctuated from 58 to 53%, while the side against the decision went from 31 to 29%.

B. Pro-life arguments include moral, social and religious elements.

1. Adoption is always an option

2. Pregnancy does interfere with her ability to work or attend school

3. Abortion should not be used as another form of contraception.

4. Abnormalities and health risks are rare.

5. Life begins at the moment of fertilization

C. Pro-choice arguments take into consideration the rights of the woman.

1. Eliminates unqualified abortions

2. The individual is not developed at the time of conception

3. The right of the woman to control her body

4. It is necessary to decrease the number of unwanted children in the world

5. Abortion can and should be used… [read more]

Against Abortion Essay

… ¶ … against Abortion

Abortion is not an acceptable procedure because it harms women, it goes against the will of God, and it takes the life of a human being.

Erika Bachiochi, who writes for Crisis Magazine, a publication of the Catholic News Agency, argues that abortions harm women; that is her main point. The harm is done to women through abortions includes psychological harm, physical harm, and even death, since abortions can lead to suicide. Bachiochi, who has a Masters degree in Theology from Boston College, asserts that a study in the scholarly Journal of Anxiety Disorders found that "…women who aborted their unintended pregnancies were 30% more likely to subsequently report all the symptoms…" of anxiety disorder than women who did not abort their unintended pregnancy (Bachiochi, 2005). Citing another study in the peer-reviewed American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Bachiochi explains that women who had abortions were 17% more likely to report mental health issues than women who carried their pregnancies to full term. Hence, given the reasons that Bachiochi presents in this paragraph, abortion is not just a moral or ethical issue -- it harms women and that is unacceptable.

An essay by Patrick Lee and Robert P. George -- published in Princeton Pro-Life -- asserts that the choice of having an abortion is an "objectively immoral" decision (Lee, et al., 2005). What they mean by objectively immoral does not imply that the woman having the abortion necessarily is immoral -- because she may have a conscience that tells her it is okay -- but what she has done, by objective standards, is immoral, according to the authors. Because a living thing is killed, a moral issue is automatically attached to that killing, the authors explain. Therefore, the fact that a living thing has been destroyed -- no matter the rationalization or justification -- is in itself evidence of an immoral decision.

Lee and George also team up to assert that notwithstanding the pro-choice argument that the embryo is not a human being yet, the embryo "…is human: it has the genetic makeup characteristic of human beings" and it is "…a complete or whole organism, though immature" (Lee, 2005). That embryo, from the point of conception, is fully programmed through… [read more]

Abortion Aborting a Living Human Term Paper

… With today's modern technology, communications are flashed around the world in a matter of seconds. What one country or society finds acceptable can be totally abhorrent to another society. Ultimately it should come down to the individual to make the correct moral choices. The still small voice within each human, guides us all. If killing another human is wrong, and that action will reverberate throughout the individual's life taking such an action, then society will likely suffer because of it. Passing moral judgments on others is a societal function, and in this case should take place in order to stop such actions from happening. As Kang and Glassman wrote concerning moral thought, it should be "referred to as cultural capital -- stable, internalized signs showing that an individual is (or should be) considered a member of a given social group" (p. 22) and furthermore that "moral action is related to social capital, based in levels of trust and reciprocity in carrying out community-oriented goals" (p. 22).

Trust, community-oriented goals, and stable, internalized signs can be regarded as signs that society has its collective head on straight, and that the actions of all are dedicated to moral obligations such as the protection of all human beings, even though little ones that need it most.


Abortion; (2012) accessed on June 3, 2012 at:

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 1142a12-16.

Embryo; (2012) accessed on June 3, 2012 at:

Hursthouse, R.; Virtue theory and abortion, Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 1 -- 11

Kang, M.J. & Glassman, M.; (2010) Moral action as social capital, moral thought as cultural capital, Journal of Moral Education, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 21-36

Noonan, J.; (1970) An almost absolute value in history, The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 51 -- 59

Thomson, J.J.; (1996) A defense of abortion, Philosophy & Public Affairs, Vol. 1, Issue 1, (reprinted in Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics, (5th ed) Munson, R. (ed) Belmont: Wadsworth) pp. 69-80

Warren, M.A.; (1996) On the moral… [read more]

Abortion in the Book Book Report

… They trace the current legal situation from its origins in the 19th century and the beginnings of women's suffrage and the battle for women's equal rights in America. Further, they equate equality for women with the ability to choose whether or not to continue a pregnancy to term. Men, upon learning that they have biologically fathered a child, have the option of running away and abandoning their pregnant partner. Unlike man who can flee, the woman, does not have the option of running away from her responsibility. By giving women the right to choose whether or not to carry the fetus to full term, the government is giving women equality with men. That is why feminism and the abortion debate have been so tightly aligned. It is not merely a question of morality and ethics and whether or not abortion is murdered. The topic of abortion is symbolic of the debate between men and women over the right to determine her future. Whether or not the woman wishes to become a mother should be just that; it should align with her wishes. Woman should not be forced to give birth to a child that she does not want and cannot care for simply because sex yielded pregnancy. The book illustrates exactly this debate and shows how intricately laced the question of feminism is with the question of abortion rights. Abortion is not just about giving birth, it is about fighting the far-reaching oppressive regime of the patriarchy of the United States of America.

Works Cited:

Pat Grogan and… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Abortion Thesis

… ¶ … Abortion

In APA Format

The world has changed drastically over the past few years; the culture across the globe has drastically changed. There are far too many abortions taking place these days when compared to the previous years. Abortion is mainly opted by women who choose to avoid becoming pregnant and most of such women are unmarried women. Undergoing abortion is a very difficult step to take for any woman and it takes a lot of guts to take the decision. This paper will throw light upon the pros and cons of abortion.

Abortion according to many is a very big sin, killing the unborn is an unmerciful act. The irresponsible people in the society, without thinking about the circumstances put themselves in a situation which is extremely undesirable. Everyone must act and behave responsibly to avoid a situation which is undesirable and abortion is without a doubt an undesirable situation for any human being to be in. The biggest con of abortion is that it an unmerciful act, the unborn infant does not deserve to die; there is no mistake of the infant for which the infant should be punished. "Half the percentage of women obtaining abortions is below 25." (Pros and Cons of Abortion, 6 December 2008). This is the age when the people are sexually active and it is highly immoral to involve yourself in a relation without accepting the responsibility which the relation brings with it and opting for abortion is refusing to accept the responsibility. No society appreciates women opting for abortion because it is an immoral act and the same is its biggest con.

Some women use abortion as a type of birth control. They sleep with men and do not use protection and think nothing of it to go to the clinic as many as five times in their life to have an abortion. A con against abortion is the nagging thought that a woman went to a clinic, had an abortion, and thus the world was prevented from seeing the birth of the only person capable of attaining a leadership role and initiating a peace accord between warring factions in the Middle East, thus preventing decades of strife and murder. A stable home life is not a guarantee of talent, and illegitimate children have shown themselves to be very bright on occasion, Lawrence of Arabia for one." (Pros and Cons of Abortion, 6 December 2008)

Abortion is a very big risk to the health of the woman who opts to undergo abortion. Miscarriages are one of the biggest risks involved when a woman opts for abortion; the biggest risk is to the life of the woman who opts for abortion. There is a high possibility of a woman losing her life when she opts to undergo abortion.… [read more]

Abortion it Is Not Unreasonable to Expect Thesis

… Abortion

It is not unreasonable to expect that states with a high proportion of democrats will also have a reasonably higher number of abortions performed than those states with a high proportion of republican or conservative voters. The liberal democratic… [read more]

Elective Abortion Thesis

… Nursing

Elective Abortion and Nursing

Within the discipline of professional nursing, nurses are divided when it comes to their opinions concerning elective abortion. Just as there are pro-life and pro-choice supporters in the general population, there pro-life nurses and pro-choice… [read more]

Against Abortion Term Paper

… Against Abortion

There is a clear mention in the Bible that abortion is wrong. The Bible teaches that humans are different from other types of life, as humans are made in the very image of God. The accounts of the… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Abortion in Review Term Paper

… Ethics and Morality; Abortion

In review of the two organizations regarding abortion - NRLC and NARAL, there appears to be a varying degree of different arguments from each side. There is also an abundance of opinions that are politically charged, ethically driven, morally substantiated and overall supported by a plethora of information.

NRLC is the National Right to Life Coalition and is entirely comprised of values supporting the banning of abortion and heightening the awareness through pro-life agendas. NRLC's primary argument lies in their belief that babies or "fetuses" are human beings and are innocent lives. It is because of this belief that the sole objective of the NRLC is to protect these innocent lives.

The NARAL is a pro-choice, non-profit foundation aimed at promoting the choice of mothers to terminate their pregnancies. The NARAL's main objective lies in their belief that a women has the right to privacy and the right to choose what to do with her body and the body of her child.

Using cognitive research and analysis methods to assess each of the two sides websites, there was no lack of information readily available. Though the NARAL provides substantial support for their opinions, I was more apt to agree with the arguments made by NRLC.

NRLC provided information that I was not previously aware of. Some of this information detailed the functions of a child at the age where most children are killed by abortion. These "fetuses" are able to laugh, smile, suck their thumb, and do a variety of different things that only a human can do. They are human, and they are alive. To stop them from being alive is… [read more]

Against Abortion. The Writer Explores the Moral Term Paper

… ¶ … against abortion. The writer explores the moral and medical issues of abortion and argues that abortion should not be legal as each person is a gift. There were four sources used to complete this paper.

Statistical research indicates… [read more]

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