"Abortion / Pro-Life / Pro-Choice" Essays

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Abortion: Pro-Choice Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,603 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


It is better if abortion remains legal since it ensures that women can undergo abortions in safe environments.

Abortion is unacceptable in many religious organizations. It is deemed wrong and immoral. Religious organizations have joined in the debate against abortion, and they want the practice eliminated. They do not realize that if this is done it would discriminate against all… [read more]

Abortion: Pro-Choice Argument Ever Since the Landmark Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,072 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Abortion: Pro-Choice Argument

Ever since the landmark 1973 Supreme Court decision of Roe v. Wade, abortion has been the source of heated debate in the United States. On one hand, the religious right-funded anti-abortion "pro-choice" lobby has continually attempted to undermine the Roe ruling through state legislation seeking to exploit any perceived legal ambiguities; on the other hand, pro-choice proponents seek to prevent religious radicals from injecting their religious beliefs into what is (or, at least, what should be) strictly a personal secular issue.

Legal challenges to Roe have included state statutes requiring parental and spousal notification and mandatory waiting periods as reconditions of terminating a pregnancy medically. At the same time, the quasi-terrorists who purposely disrupt business at licensed medical facilities by tormenting patients arriving for treatment assert that First Amendment rights protect their intrusions into private affairs of others that are already emotionally difficult enough as "free speech." In several high-profile cases, religious fanatics have actually attempted to prevent patients from entering the facilities, fire bombed medical clinics, and purposely published the private information of physicians in the deliberate hope of inspiring vigilante attacks on them. In at least one relatively recent instance, they succeeded, with deadly results.

Legal Issues:

The primary source of moral objection to abortion is the general religious prohibition against birth control by any means, and the specific religious belief that human life begins at conception. Because the United States Constitution guarantees religious freedom and the separation of Church and State, both views are perfectly acceptable as private religious expressions, and neither view is appropriate for inclusion in any way in secular laws that restrict the rights of others who do not share those religious beliefs. To understand the indefensibility of allowing the religious belief about the origin of life to shape secular law, one need only consider the perfectly analogous situation of criminalizing male masturbation, which is also specifically prohibited by the Catholic Church because it constitutes the "sin" of spilling seed instead of multiplying fruitfully.

Undoubtedly, a fetus does become a person sometime well before birth, at which point it is entitled to the same protections of law as it enjoys after birth. However, for the purpose of defining where "personhood" begins in-utero is an objective issue best left for secular science and medical ethicists rather than ancient religious dogma to determine. In all likelihood, there is no specific moment in time where the fetus makes the transition from non-personhood to personhood. First, fetal development (like post- birth development) occurs in stages and not sudden "instants"; second, as with later development, specific individuals grow, develop, and mature at different rates. Roe preceded the evolution of advanced medical technologies capable of determining exactly where specific elements of human consciousness emerge, but in principle, Roe relies on this distinction as expressed in three trimesters of human gestation.

Moral Issues and Modern Medical Ethics:

Whereas the legal rights of the unborn fetus depend on the stage of "viability" outside the womb, the moral issue depends… [read more]

Pro-Choice: The Abortion Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, few would extend personhood to a fetus to such an extent -- moreover, just because something is alive does not mean that it is or should be entitled to the full range of rights as a human being. After all, trees, animals, and even yeast is technically 'alive,' however none of these things are considered persons in the sense that they fulfill the sentient capacity of life deemed to be significant enough to override a fully fledged human being's right to life, or in this case, the woman's right to decide to dispose of her body as she chooses.

Lastly, it has also been argued that abortion should be prohibited because without the body of the mother, the fetus cannot survive outside of the womb. Advances in medical technology to extend the viability of premature babies have only fueled this debate, as younger and younger babies survive after premature laborers of their (willing) mothers. Advocates argue that society has a responsibility to protect the health and the existences of its smallest viable members, for as long as possible. But again, to take this argument to its most logical extent -- merely because my body can sustain, for instance, the jeopardized life of another, if I grant him or her part of my kidney, does that mean that the state has the right to compel me to give of my physical self, to give an ailing individual one of my viable organs, even if it may prolong the life of another human being who is ill? Of course, it is commendable of me if I give my physical self and risk my medical life for the sake of another human being, as a woman does during pregnancy and labor. But even if one grants that a fetus is a human being, should the state have the right to compel a woman to use her body to sustain fetal life against the woman's will? Even if the fetus is the result of a voluntary act or an involuntary act, to condemn an innocent woman to a physical risk, simply because she is a female rather than a male who has engaged in an accidentally procreative risk of sexual congress, is to compel a woman to risk her life against her will. It is also an act of sexual discrimination, because the male in question does not have to risk his life, his physical health, his social status, or his standing in the community. He can tell no one, and suffers none of the same punishment as the female, except perhaps the financial task of providing for the child, should the woman decide to keep the baby she gives birth to at the end of her term? If she does not, the father has no such concerns for the infant put up for adoption, and even if she does decide to keep the baby, the financial drain upon the father is hardly comparable to that of the physical toll upon the woman's… [read more]

Abortion Pro-Choice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Pro-choice is the right choice because everyone has a right to their opinions and beliefs, western society's values, morals and ethics. Furthermore, sometimes women find themselves in difficult situations where abortion is the only option." Abortion is also an issue of personal freedom. Who should make that choice? Should the government decide when you are going to have kids? Should… [read more]

Abortion - Pro-Life Why Abortions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Abortion - Pro-Life

Why Abortions Should be Illegal

Ever since the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade, (1973), which made abortion legal in the United States, the issue has been at the center of heated public debate. More than thirty years later, the controversy about abortion is still a hot topic. In this essay, I shall argue why abortion should be made illegal by refuting some of the pro-abortionist arguments and outline the current legal status of the controversial 'partial-birth abortion' issue.

It is often argued by supporters of abortion that when an unwanted pregnancy is aborted, the fetus is just a blob of tissue which cannot be considered a living being. Science tells us a different story. The baby has a beating heart, tiny little fingers and toes by just 18 days after fertilization. Most abortions are performed after nine weeks of pregnancy. By that time the baby is a distinct and unique human being who has a right to life just as any other living person.

Another oft-repeated pro-abortion argument is that a woman has a right of control over her own body and, therefore, should have the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies. This line of argument further suggests that making abortion illegal would be a violation of a fundamental right and a "freedom of choice." The answer to this argument is that one has the right of control over but only until such a right does not interfere with another's right. By terminating a pregnancy, a woman is ending the life of another human being which is the same as killing one's own child. Surely, no one should have such "freedom of choice." It has also been observed that most women who opt for abortion do not have accurate information about fetal development and about practical alternatives to abortion. It is believed that if women have such information available most of them would choose not to have an abortion.

The third pro-abortion argument is that the births of "unwanted" babies would only increase poverty and misery in the world and add to the social problems. Such an…… [read more]

Abortion Pros and Cons Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (1,903 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Abortion Pros and Cons

Abortion: Pros and Cons

Abortion from a purely moral or ethical perspective can never be endorsed. However, in some medical conditions where the life of the mother is at stake abortion as a life saving intervention is certainly approved. Irrespective of the methods used abortion leaves a great psychological stigma and guilt feeling. A more prudent… [read more]

Pro-Choice Issues in Focus the Debate Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Pro-Choice Issues in Focus

The debate over abortion has been a contentious issues in the United States since well before the Supreme Court handed down a ruling on the issue on January 23, 1973. That ruling, Roe v. Wade, which basically decriminalized abortion, has become a lightning rod for those opposed to abortion. Meantime, what are the issues that pro-choice organizations put forward to advance their cause? This paper reviews the issue and advocates for the woman's right to choose.

The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade asserted that a Texas law banning abortion was unconstitutional. Overturning that Texas law in effect decriminalized abortion in the majority of the other 49 states because those states "differed little from the Texas statute" (Munson, 2008, p. 547). Specifically the High Court ruling meant that during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, known as the "first trimester," the states are prohibited from restricting a woman's right to choose whether she wants to carry the pregnancy to its conclusion or not, according to Munson (p. 547).

As Munson reports on page 548, "…no other topic in medical ethics has attracted more attention or so polarized public opinion" than abortion. Due to the legal, social, religions and moral questions surrounding abortion, it has remained a flashpoint for controversy and debate. Prior to the High Court's decision in 1973, many abortions were conducted in less than sterile environments. Many abortions were conducted by "Back-alley abortionists with dirty hands and un-clean instruments," Munson explains; moreover, a woman who was known to have undergone an abortion procedures back in the day when it was illegal was looked down upon and her reputation was degraded.

One of the key social questions embraced by the pro-choice community is offered by Munson (p. 551): "Suppose that a woman becomes pregnant unintentionally" but she decides that carrying the pregnancy through to birth "will be harmful to her career or her way of life." Does she have "a moral duty" to make sure the child is born? Pro-choice voices will say no to that question, in a loud, unified voice.

Meanwhile, some states in the U.S. have passed legislation that to varying degrees attempts to make it very difficult for a woman to get an abortion. A case in point is South Dakota; in 2006, the legislature passed HB 1215, a bill that outlawed "abortion in all circumstances, from the moment of fertilization, and offered no exceptions for circumstances or rape, incest, or when the health of the woman was endangered" (Cooper, 2006, p. 2). The law specifically stated that a legal human being exists at "that point in time when a male human sperm penetrates the zona pellucia of a female human ovum" (Cooper, p. 2).

Planned Parenthood initially intended to sue the legislature and challenge the constitutionality of the legislation, instead a coalition…… [read more]

Abortion Pros and Cons Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


When empathy and caring permeate the healthcare system, such psychological problems are not an issue (Cockrill & Weitz, 2010). Likewise, when society ceases stigmatizing women for having abortions, emotional and psychological distress will also not be a factor. Instead, women would be congratulated because they would have prevented the needless suffering of yet another unwanted human being.

The con position asserts that the fetus is a full human being with rights equal to that of the mother. Because of this belief, it is concluded that an abortion is murder. If abortion were killing a human being, then it would be understandable that the "murder" argument would hold true. However, a fetus is a fetus. It has the potential to become a human being, but so does the egg inside the mother's body and the sperm inside the man's. Finally, the con position points to the Hippocratic Oath ("Should Abortion Be Legal?" 2014). All doctors have to say the Hippocratic Oath, which does in fact expressly forbid abortions.

The most vocal cons of abortion come from religious sects, the individuals who belong to them, and other irrational groups. For example, one politician in Australia claims that rapists and pedophiles are in favor of abortion because it destroys evidence of their crime, and therefore abortion should be illegal (Gordon & Cook, 2014). Many con positions on abortion promote the belief that the woman is to blame for the pregnancy regardless of whether she was raped or whether the condom broke. The view is that abortion is categorically wrong, no matter what the circumstances or consequences. The con position assumes that abortion is categorically wrong because of perceived moral or religious beliefs.


Based on an analysis of pros and cons, it seems there are far more pros, and far more reasonable arguments for abortion. Abortion is a fact of life, albeit an unfortunate one. However, women will have abortions whether they are legal or not. Abortions therefore need to be safe and legal. Furthermore, abortions do not reflect immorality; the greater immorality is the subjugation of women through enforced pregnancy and the proliferation of overpopulation.

Abortion is a necessary procedure for terminating an unwanted pregnancy. Without abortion, women would be forced to carry a child to term, which is an untenable situation in any civilized country. An abortion is the right to choose whether or not to carry a child to term, and the fetus has no rights because it is simply a cluster of cells. The arguments against abortion have no logical sense, and they stem from religious superstitions that have no place in law.

However, it is helpful to evaluate the pros and cons of abortion to understand how the debate is formulated from both sides. The abortion debate seems outmoded and anachronistic, but it wages on, even in civilized nations. If anything, abortion needs to become more widely available and accessible for women. Women living in rural communities need improved access to abortion, and all women should be able… [read more]

Should Abortion Be Legal Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Abortion be Legal:

Abortion has become one of the most controversial topics in the modern society since it's permitted in some countries and prohibited in others. In the United States, the issue received much attention following the Supreme Court's decision in Roe v. Wade case that legalized the practice in the country. While the ruling has continued to receive much support, abortion is still a major controversial issue in America that has attracted huge debates in the recent past. The controversy has contributed to the emergence of pro and anti-abortion groups that have raised divergent opinions. Generally, the debate on whether abortion should be legal continues to segregate Americans after the U.S. Supreme Court declared it an essential right in 1973. The controversy has elicited varying arguments from pro-choice and pro-life groups.

Arguments in Support of Abortion:

The proponents of abortion, who are commonly known as pro-choice argue that the procedure is a fundamental right that should not be restricted by either governmental or religious authorities. Therefore, pro-choice activists and groups believe that this fundamental right overshadows any claims of the right of a fetus or embryo. They have also argued that pregnant women are likely to choose unsafe illegal abortions in the absence of a legal option.

However, different points have been raised among the pro-choice activists since some of them believe that the procedure should be used as the last option whereas others support unlimited access to abortion regardless of the existing circumstances ("Should Abortion Be Legal?" 2013). The other arguments raised by these activities include accepting the procedure in situations like incest, rape, or when it places the life of a woman at risk. In essence, pro-choice activists derive their support for this practice from the 1973 Supreme Court ruling that declared the procedure a fundamental right.

Arguments against Abortion:

Most of the prominent pro-life or anti-abortion organizations and activists base their arguments on religious ideology because they are composed of different mainstream faith groups. These activists have continued to state that women deserve empowerment rather than abortion. Therefore, women should be given more support and options that enable them to choose life despite of the underlying circumstances. They argue that the murder of a fetus or embryo is wrong and cannot be justified by any circumstance. They compare abortion to killing any child at any stage of development, which is morally unacceptable. According to these activists, there is no difference between killing an unborn child and killing a person ("Should Abortion Be Legal?" 2011).

The basis of pro-life arguments is that abortion should be considered as murder because it primarily involves the killing of an innocent human life. it's scientifically proven that the life of an individual starts at fertilization, which implies that abortion is killing a human. Moreover, doctors who perform an abortion break the Hippocratic Oath in which they are required not…… [read more]

Abortion Including Rape and Incest Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,381 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Abortion, Including Rape and Incest:

One of the major, contentious moral issues facing the modern American society is the practice of abortion that attracted huge debates and controversies. Much of the debates and controversies have been based on the elective assumption in which pro-choice abortions are the only kind. However, there are other types of abortions such as those performed for therapeutic reasons. The main examples of the therapeutic abortions are those performed when the pregnancy poses a serious threat to the mother life or the mental stability of the pregnant women. Nonetheless, there are serious concerns and debates that emerge when considering the issue of abortion in cases of rape or incest. Actually, a Republican Congressional Candidate recently became the center of increased criticism for comments he made regarding exceptions for abortions such as cases for rape and incest.

Suggestions for Exceptions for Abortions:

In the past few years, many individuals including those who main goal is to assist girls and women who are victims of sexual abuse and assault believe that abortion is the best alternative or solution in situations where pregnancy occurs as a result of sexual abuse or assault. This is despite of the fact that research indicates that many women who become pregnant through such incidents don't want abortion since they consider abortion as a measure that only compounds their trauma (Sobie par, 2). However, there is a general agreement between both sides of the debate that many women who become pregnant through sexual abuse or assault want abortions. This premise is based on the argument that women in such incidents say that they want abortions since it will help them in putting the assault or abuse behind them. The women also argue that abortions would help them to recover more quickly and avoid the extra trauma that emerges from giving birth to the child of a rapist.

The argument for abortion in cases of incest pregnancies is even stronger as research indicates that incest victims rarely voluntarily agree to abortion. Rather than considering the pregnancy as unwanted, the victim of incest is more likely to view the pregnancy as a means of getting out of the incestuous relationship. These victims do not voluntarily agree to abortion because they consider birth of the child as a means of exposing the incestuous sexual activity. Furthermore, the pregnant woman is likely to see in her pregnancy the hope of bearing a child with whom she can develop a truly loving relationship than the exploiting relationship she has been trapped to.

However, the main concern with the girl's or woman's perspective of the pregnancy as an alternative for releasing her from the incestuous situation, the pregnancy poses serious threats and risks to the abuser. Moreover, the pregnancy also poses some threat to the pathological secrecy that may include other family members who are afraid to acknowledge the sexual abuse or assault. As a result of the dual threat to the abuser and pathological secrecy, the victim of incest… [read more]

Demerits of Abortion Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (952 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Abortion Should be Illegal

The recent past has witnessed heated debates on whether abortion should be legalized in different countries across the globe or not. People often have different views on what is right on the topic or wrong. As such, the topic raises concerns for many people globally. The reasons as to why people have an abortion or oppose it vary significantly. The variation in the views has attracted significant political attention with some political activists strongly arguing that abortion should be legalized while others argue for its abolition (Carroll 125). However, I strongly believe that abortion should not be legalized at all cost.

The reason why women should not have an abortion relates to the basic human values. It is appreciable that, the unborn baby has not responsibility to the mother's situation. As such, the unborn requires the provision of rights and opportunities to live, grow, and develop like a normal human being. Women should be humanitarian and become egoistic with the unborn babies. Various alternatives exist for these women. Giving the children opportunities to be adopted by the families in need of children is one among the alternatives available for these women. Therefore, abortion should not be their only option of handling the challenges associated with the unexpected pregnancies. It is also appreciable that nearly all religions prohibit abortion.

Religious bodies consider abortion as murder. For example, the Christian religion prohibits abortion and considers it as murder as stated in the Christian doctrines. Abortion has short- and long-term effects on the health of the mother. Abortion predisposes the mother to negative health effects such as excessive bleeding (hemorrhage), increased risk of infections, severe pain, and shock among other short-term effects to the health of the mother. Similarly, abortion has long-term negative effects to the mother such as increased risk of birth complications in the future pregnancies, diseases of the reproductive system, increased risk of infertility and depression. Apart from the health effects identified above, empirical evidence shows that an abortion increases the risks of reproductive cancers such as cancer among the victims of abortion. These health effects affect the health and health outcomes of an individual (TFP 1).

Abortion has negative effects on the mental well being of an individual. The mental problems arise from the fact that, an individual knows that an abortion is murdering an innocent soul. Thus, it predisposes them to depression due to the negative thoughts that affect the emotional and psychological status on an individual negatively. As stated by Carroll, (56), such individuals must not necessarily confess their acts, but the mistake, guilt, or circumstances reveal their behaviors. Abortion creates an unnoticed crisis globally. It destroys the natural bond that exists between a mother and her child. The destruction of the unborn results in the dissolution of the precious bonding glue binding the mother and child…… [read more]

Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (623 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Life You Take: My Take on Abortion

Abortion is murder and murder is a dangerous thing, as we have recently discovered with the conviction of Scott Roeder. Reoder was a staunch believer in pro-life and while his methods were wrong, his beliefs regarding life were right. It is my view that abortion is wrong because it takes the life of another. Just because that "other" cannot be seen or cannot speak up for itself, does not mean it does not have a right to live. The baby is alive or it would not need to be killed. The debate is a moral not a legal one.

I believe that conception begins at birth not at three months or six months. Dr. Fritz Baumgartner agrees with this notion stating, "There is no more appropriate moment to begin calling a human "human" than the moment of fertilization. And don't let anyone tell you otherwise, because it would be a degradation of factual embryology to say it would be any other moment" (Baumgartner). Former Pope John Paul also supports this notion. He writes, "No one more absolutely innocent could be imagined" (Giovanni). Unborn babies are "defenseless, even to the point of lacking that minimal form of defense" (Giovanni). Life is scared and it begins with the union of sperm and egg. Pro-abortionists like to call the baby a fetus or viable tissue but it is still alive. If every "body" has rights, then the baby must have the same rights as the mother.

I believe the baby, born or unborn, has rights. Pro-abortion supporters rely on the argument that a woman's body belongs to none other than her. This fact is true; her body does belong to her but that fact does not give her the right to kill the other body growing inside of her. I think John Finnis makes an…… [read more]

Pro-Life Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Abortion (Pro Life)

Not many people disagree when a law is passed that is objective and does not impact religious beliefs and value systems. For example, some individuals protested the speed limit of 55 mph on many federal highways. However, the situation changes significantly when people view the law, or intended law, as acceptable or unacceptable due to different ethical… [read more]

Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion Notwithstanding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,142 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


In Virginia the Republican-dominated legislature earlier this year wrote legislation that requires "women to have a transvaginal ultrasound before they may have an abortion," (Glionna, 2012). The idea behind this legislation is apparently that when a woman sees the picture created by the ultrasound she will see a fetus and perhaps feel so guilty she won't want to carry through… [read more]

Why Has Abortion Created Serious Debates and Controversies Among the Mainline Christians Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … abortion created serious debates and controversies among the mainline Christians?

Pro-life vs. Pro-choice

The Roman Catholic and the Southern American Baptist Convention

Approaching matters from a historical point-of-view makes it possible for this paper to provide insight regarding Christian attitudes in the contemporary society and how they were shaped through time. Abortion represents one of the most contentious… [read more]

Abortion Nature Intends Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Metaphysics professor at Harvard University Judith Jarvis Thompson wrote "A Defense of Abortion," which appeared in the Journal of Philosophy and Public Affairs (1971). She argued that a woman's inalienable right to life, privacy and security includes the right to terminate a pregnancy she considers a threat to her sense of well-being. Thompson compares the condition of an unwanted pregnancy… [read more]

Reducing Abortion and Protecting Contraception Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (3,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Reducing Abortion and Protecting Contraception

Policy Issue Paper

Policy Issue Paper: Reducing Elective Abortions and Protecting Access to Contraception

Policy Issue Paper: Reducing Elective Abortions and Protecting Access to Contraception

On February 12, 2013, U.S. District Judge Neil Wake ruled unconstitutional an Arizona law that prohibited any health care provider who offers abortions services from receiving Medicaid reimbursements (Rau, 2013).… [read more]

Public Funding of Abortion Clinic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,206 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Public Funding of Abortion Clinic

Public funding for abortion clinics

Abortion has been a strongly debated issue all over the world with more and more people arguing for the promotion of pro-choice for its obvious advantages. However, there are also many people that feel that abortion is killing a life. The debate on public funding of abortion clinics lies behind the argument for or against abortion since the two are interrelated. Public funding of abortion clinics has many advantages which outweigh the disadvantages. It is for these advantages that it is felt that abortion clinics should be funded from public funds.

Roe v. Wade

The Roe v. Wade case of the year 1973 decriminalized abortion. This ruling came after the discoveries that even though abortion was illegal, many women who were desperate were willing to pay huge fees for their abortions even from practitioners who were untrained and unlicensed. There were many women who endured severe medical complications as a result of these abortions that were illegal which led to the Roe v. Wade decision (Roe v. Wade, 1973)

The Roe v. Wade ruling gave different guidelines for various trimesters. During the first trimester, it advocated for pro-choice. During the second trimester, abortion can be carried out to protect the mother's life and during the last trimester, abortion is prohibited unless when it preserves the life or the health of the mother. This ruling was the beginning of the pro-choice argument giving women a right to decide whether they wanted to get an abortion or to continue the pregnancy.

The cost of abortion

The exact cost of carrying out an abortion depends greatly on several factors such as the trimester of the pregnancy, the type of facility, the physician carrying out the abortion, the type of procedure and lastly the anesthetic used. In general, women pay hundreds or even thousands of dollars for an abortion. Paying this cost has never been an issue for the middle and upper class women who are usually covered by their insurance plans. However, for the lower class women, they have to result to cheap facilities which do not observe the necessary standards.

Although the cost of abortion has only risen slightly over the years as a result of inflation, the lower class women have a greater burden on their shoulders as a result of the increasing cost of living. Therefore when it comes to the procurement of an abortion, they do not have much of a choice as to which facility or physician to choose.

Denying funding for abortion leads to an increase in the number of illegal abortions that are conducted making the women that procure these cheap abortion services endure more hidden costs in terms of the complications that ensure. There is also a social cost on the society when the women are forced to bear children against their will. They become parents who are unable to support their own children. Therefore, they try to find a way to procure the abortion… [read more]

Why Abortion Is Immoral by Don Marquis Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (708 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Abortion is Immoral -- by Don Marquis

Don Marquis insists in the first paragraph of his essay that abortion is "seriously immoral" and he is clearly upset that his point-of-view has "received little support in the recent philosophical literature" (Marquis, 1989, p. 183). Granted, his essay was crafted twenty-two years ago, but from the vigorous, even aggressive argument he puts forward, one can conclude that his passion has not died out in 2011. Marquis uses his narrative skills in the first few pages to generally conclude that both the pro-choice and the pro-life positions have valid points. Along the way, he touts his own intellectual skills -- possibly to justify his moral position or to show that he is a serious student of ethics -- with statements like, "As everyone who has taken a bit of logic knows…" (Marquis, 184). It's easy to wonder just how many students have taken courses in logic, and to speculate that Marquis is trying to distance his views from the average citizen.

The anti-abortionist position ("It is always prima facie wrong to take a human life") is "too broad, according to Marquis (185). And the "pro-choicer" position ("It is prima facie wrong to kill only rational agents") is "too narrow in scope," he continues (185). As an alert reader goes through this essay, it is clear that Marquis is arguing that both the pro-choice and the pro-life (he doesn't use "pro-life"; rather he uses "anti-abortionist") both have serious flaws in their moral and ethical positions on the subject of abortion -- and that in fact, there are "symmetries in the two positions" (186). Marquis calls the dual moral mistakes "a standoff" in a number of instances (in other words, both arguments are weak and wrong); again, he is preparing the reader for what he will deliver later in the essay -- a more substantive ethical / philosophical reason as to why abortion is immoral.

"The moral generalizations of both sides are not quite correct," Marquis asserts (188), because both arguments are "accidental generalizations" and both sides "do not touch on the essence of the matter (Marquis'…… [read more]

Abortion Ever Since in the 1973 Supreme Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,432 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Ever since in the 1973 Supreme Court, the divergence over the validity of abortion and the right of nations to bound women's right to use to this process has been one of the most obstinate arguments in American politics. Though the combat appears to have been remunerated mainly throughout lawsuits and the subsequent legal judgments the shade of abortion… [read more]

Canadian Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,247 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Legal Abortion in Canada

Unlike the U.S. where feminism has been defending a woman's right to a legal abortion since the 1980s, the Canadian movement has made some significant gains. Abortion was decriminalized and abortion clinics were established in Canada as a result of directly challenging federal and provincial governments. Pro-choice groups worked towards legalization for six years. On January 28, 1988, the Supreme Court of Canada declared Section 251 of the Criminal Code unconstitutional. Section 251 restricted conditions under which abortions could be performed and not be considered an indictable offense. The procedure had to be performed in an accredited hospital and could only be done with the written consent of a therapeutic abortion committee. The committee was composed of at least three doctors, who had to find demonstrable evidence that a pregnancy was endangering either the life or health of the pregnant woman. Usually, health was interpreted to mean mental health (Weir, 1994), and women often said they would kill themselves if they were forced to complete the pregnancy.

Before de-criminalization, inequality was a primary feature of Canadian women's access to safe and legal abortions (Palley, 2006; Weir, 1994). During the 1980s anti-choice groups were mobilizing to pressure hospitals into abolishment of abortion services. This pressure combined with the punitive criminal law meant that great variability existed regionally in the availability of abortion services. The delay between the first visit to the doctor and the actual procedure averaged about 8 weeks! "No abortions were performed in certain provinces, and in others abortion services were narrowly circumscribed" (Weir, 1994, p. 253).

Section 251 was passed in 1969. This law criminalized abortion under any circumstances but in an accredited hospital with a therapeutic abortion committee. Activism in opposition to that law began in 1970 when Dr. Henry Morgentaler was arrested for doing abortions without the consent of an abortion committee and outside of an accredited hospital. He performed the abortions as an act of civil disobedience, and when he was prosecuted in Quebec in 1973, 1975 and 1976, all three juries refused to convict him as a criminal. In 1976 a newly elected Parti Quebecois government refused to continue with the prosecutions of Dr. Morgentaler, and English Canadian activism subsided because the new government promised there would be no further cases brought before the Court for violation of Section 251 (Albert, 2005). Although Section 251 was a federal law, cases were prosecuted in the provinces. Abortion was de-criminalized, but women continued to fight in Quebec for better access to abortion services and for public medical insurance coverage for abortions done in clinics and health centers (Palley, 2006).

By the 1980s in English Canadian cities, anti-choice groups had stepped up their opposition to legal abortion and their political activities had greatly increased. Feminist health care workers were experiencing problems with abortion referrals. In Toronto work began on building a clinic. Dr. Morgentaler announced that he would build two clinics separate from hospitals and without any therapeutic abortion committees. Technically, such "freestanding"… [read more]

Women's Right to Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (382 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The fetus, of course, is inexorably attached to the mother by the umbilicus and is totally dependant on the body of the woman for its life support. It is, therefore, well within the rights of a woman to choose abortion in the early stages of pregnancy.

In short, any society that denies the right of women to abortion implicitly recognizes the second-class status of women. It unfairly takes away the fundamental right of an individual to control her own body and relegates women to the demeaning position of birth-giving machines.


"Legal Abortion: Arguments Pro & Con." (2005). Westchester Coalition for Legal Abortion, Inc. (WCLA) Online. Retrieved on August 22, 2005 from http://www.wcla.org/articles/procon.html

Kopaczynski, G. (1995). No Higher Court: Contemporary Feminism and the Right to Abortion. Chapter 5: "Pro-Choice Feminism," pp. 181-201. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press.

Of course, no one can deny that a fetus at conception is a "potential human being." But so are millions of sperms; hence if we recognize abortion as murder, masturbation should logically…… [read more]

Abortion Debate With the Growing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,544 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Their attitude was perfectly captured by Mr. Clinton when he said that he wanted abortion to remain "safe, legal and rare."

It is extremely important for pro-lifers to fully understand the views of pro-abortion group in order to reach some consensus on the issue and also to minimize incidents of the abortion-related violence. There are few conditions under which a woman should be allowed to seek abortion. These reasons and conditions have already been discussed above.


Pro-abortion rights quarter knows that it has not made much progress in the last 30 years but the reason is not lack of sound arguments but the fact that this issue has become highly politicized in recent years. I believe that women should be have abortion rights however their decision to seek abortion should reflect more than just irresponsible behavior. In other words, a woman's decision to terminate her pregnancy must be accompanied by sound reasons so they are not accused of avoiding responsibility. This is the only way we can keep abortion legal but rare.


Special Report: The war that never ends - Abortion in America; To come., The Economist, 01-18-2003, pp 25

Berer M., Making Abortion Safe and Legal: The Ethics and Dynamics of Change., Reproductive Health Matters, 11-01-1993, pp 5-10

Muller, Jerry Z, The conservative case for abortion: family values vs. family planning. (The New Republic: 1995). 27-28

Katha Pollit, Abortion in American History; (The Atlantic Monthly: 1997). 111-115.

ROE V.…… [read more]

Kantian Perspectives on Morality Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,098 words)
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This individual practically admits that there are better things in life but that he or she needs to refrain from getting involved in them because he or she has the duty to behave morally.

Question 2

Although Kant was especially specific with regard to moral duties and to the degree to which a person can be considered to behave morally, it would be especially difficult to determine whether or not he would agree to an abortion. When regarding matters from his direct perspective (the position of a man who had a limited understanding of the condition of the fetus before it develops into a fully-grown infant), it would be safe to say that the German philosopher would be pro-choice.

Kant would probably focus on the woman's position with regard to the matter and as long as she would be supportive toward having an abortion the individuals performing it would behave morally -- as they choose to act in the woman's best interest (assuming that she believes there is no other solution for the problem). Kant's understanding of a pregnancy was certainly limited and he could not have possibly considered that a woman can give birth and the baby can develop normally at an earlier stage in the pregnancy. Taking this into account, he would have likely considered that the moral thing to do in such a situation would be to allow the woman to get an abortion.

When considering a situation in which Kant would be familiarized with contemporary ideas, it would be more likely that he would oppose to the idea of abortion. He would be probable to consider that a fetus is a human being and that it would thus be against moral ideas to perform an abortion. The German philosopher would consider that there is no difference whatsoever between committing murder and performing an abortion. From his perspective, a person should not concentrate on the final effect of his or her actions and thus act accordingly, as he or she should focus on all effects associated with his or her performances. Kant would surely be against the expression 'you have to break some eggs in order to make an omelet.'

Kantian thinking supports the idea that in order to behave morally people would have to be selfless in doing everything they do. As a consequence, a woman wanting an abortion would have to consider the fact that she needs to give birth to her child as a means of doing something moral for him or her. She should not allow herself to be guided by her interests and should only concentrate on what would be best for the world as a whole. A person should generally concentrate on doing actions that are beneficial for the world, with an abortion or a chain of abortions obviously damaging the social order through the ideas they entail.

All things considered, while abortion might seem like the moral thing to do when considering particular ideas, it would be safe to say… [read more]

Cons of Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,489 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The United States recognizes the diminished decision-making capacities of minors in many areas. Those under 21 are not allowed to alcohol. Before they turn 18, children cannot vote, join the army, or even call a psychic hotline without their parents' permission. However, some states allow children to make the decision to have an abortion, to end a life, without allowing… [read more]

Partial Birth Abortion, Many Pro-Choice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Condoning the act of partial birth abortion is condoning murder. It is allowing a doctor to kill a child who most likely would have lived had it been born at that same age.

Courts have recently allowed testimony by medical experts that the fetus does feel pain during the partial birth abortion until it dies (Neumeister, 2004).

The judge who allowed the testimony believed it would help him assess the current debate around the humanity of partial birth abortion (Neumeister, 2004).

He said it will help him assess "Congress' factual findings that partial-birth abortion is a 'brutal and inhumane procedure' and that 'during the partial-birth abortion procedure, the child will fully experience the pain associated with piercing his or her skull and sucking out his or her brain (Neumeister, 2004)."

Conclusion partial birth abortion is nothing less than killing a baby and disposing of its body. Society has strict laws and rules protecting the rights of humans. Susan Smith murdered her children and went to prison. A woman in Texas drowned all five of her children in a bath tub and will probably never see the light of day again. Throughout the nation, mothers who murder their children are held accountable for those actions. People need to realize that piercing the skull of a fetus, that otherwise could have lived outside of the mother's body, and killing it by sucking its brains out is no different than drowning it in the bathtub after it has been born. Partial birth abortion is wrong, and should never be allowed to occur.


Judge to let witness say fetus feels abortion pain

The Record (Bergen County, NJ); 3/23/2004; LARRY NEUMEISTER, THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

The Record (Bergen County, NJ)

What is a Partial-Birth Abortion?

http://www.ewtn.com/library/ISSUES/PARTBIRT.TXT… [read more]

Abortion in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Abortion in the United States (Pro-Choice)

Abortion has evoked considerable debate and controversy throughout history. In the United States too, it has been a subject of heated debate through most of its history. In recent times, "pro-choice" and "pro-life" movements have taken diametrically opposite positions on the ethical, legal and medical aspects of the issue. Both sides present seemingly valid… [read more]

Abortion Debate Pros and Cons Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (980 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Studies indicate that "emotional responses to legally induced abortion are largely positive" (Pourezza & Batebi, 2011).

This is not a religious issue, but a woman's issue. It has to do with emotional and physical well-being, and a woman's personal belief in her ability to care fore a child at that particular time (Balogh, 2009).

A man cannot understand the experiences that a woman goes through during pregnancy (Pickering, 2003). The fact is that most legislators are men, and they cannot adequately express what it is for an unprepared woman to endure a pregnancy.

It is better for the child if the mother wants to take a pregnancy full term rather than being forced to carry a child full term.

Women who have been raped, faced incest or have been molested in some other fashion should not be required to carry a child which will remind them of the situation. The psychological damage due to this will carry more weight than if she aborted the pregnancy (Pourezza & Batebi, 2011).

It is the law of the United States that a woman has a constitutional right to privacy given by the 14th Amendment. This was upheld in a majority vote of the Supreme Court in the Roe vs. Wade decision in 1973. The law has not changed.

Women are more likely to die from the procedure if abortions are deemed illegal and they use illicit means to obtain one.

Abortion Cons:

From a women's health perspective: Researchers in one research study found that 48.7% of women experienced an eating disorder, 60.5% depression, 43.7% decreased self-esteem, and 37.5% guilt (Pourezza & Batebi, 2011).

The child has no "choice" in the matter (Balogh, 2009).

The mother's choice is said to end when she makes the decision to have sex whether that sex is protected or not. The unreliability of condoms and other methods of pregnancy prevention are well documented (Gavriluta, 2010).

The life is not the mother's to take. Each life is sacred no matter what circumstances it is currently undergoing (Pickering, 2003).

Allowing abortion cheapens life as a whole. It is a slippery slope which has no known end. If the evil of abortion continues, what is to stop the courts or legislators from taking away a debilitated (mentally or otherwise disabled, elderly, chronically ill) person's right to make their own decisions regarding end-of-life. It becomes a bureaucratic decision.

Women have been known to die from the procedure.


Balogh, L. (2009). The public debate on the religiosity of the public debate of bioethics in the U.S.A. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 8(23), 3-12.

Gavriluta, N. (2010). Abortion and challenges of applied ethics. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 9(26), 238-243.

Pickering, B.A. (2003). Women's voices as evidence: Personal testimony in pro-choice films. Argumentation and Advocacy, 40(1), 1-33.

Pourreza, A., & Batebi, A. (2011). Psychology…… [read more]

Abortion Both the Pro-Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,040 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. pro-choice policy):

Both groups use religion as a tool to promote fear and terror as they attempt to dismantle basic human and civil rights. Both groups target feminism as a symbol of Western progress, and ultimately, both groups threaten democracy itself by attempting to force their distorted religious views onto the modern world in an effort to dismantle freedom and civil liberties."

The proliferation of domestic religious terror is similar to the rise of Islamic monistic theocracies and Jihad. In both cases, a truly religious person would never approve of the gross misuse of religion to justify terrorism. Indeed, Islamic and Operation Rescue extremists seem to be just as motivated by political and social factors as they are by religion.

Groups such as Operation Rescue/Operation Save America represent a dangerous threat not only to a woman's right to choose, but also to broader freedoms such as the separation of church from state and the right to choose one's own sexual orientation. Their agenda has gained tremendous political support and is quickly making headway into mainstream media. Legally, providers of abortion services have enjoyed some reprieve from violent activities conducted by anti-abortion groups through enforcement of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act and application of RICO to financially cripple violent movements. However, these protections cannot be taken for granted as terrorists find ways to exploit religion to justify illegal violence, calling to question if the law can continue to protect a woman's right to choice.


Ackerman, S. (2001, August). The most biased name in news. Extra! Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.fair.org/extra/0108/fox-main.html

Burghardt, T. "No place to hide" campaign fizzles. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.etext.org/Politics/Arm.The.Spirit/Antifa/or.no-place.april-1995

Clinton, conspiracism, and the continuing culture war. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.publiceye.org/conspire/clinton/Clintonculwar8-02.html

Fredericks, K. (1993). Anti-choice terrorism in the U.S. Green Left Weekly. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/1993/94/94p28.htm

Johnson, D. (1998, April 21). Jury rules that anti-abortion leaders violated racketeering laws. New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2004 from Web site: http://www.operationsaveamerica.org/wwworn/legal/nytimes.htm

Operation Rescue changes name, widens focus. Catholic World News. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.cwnews.com/news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=10173

Operation Rescue Colorado. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.nyx.net/~pfaustin/orco.html

Operation Save America claims attacks on America "rebuke" for U.S. pro-choice policy (2001, September 13). Feminist Daily News. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.feminist.org/news/newsbyte/uswirestory.asp?id=5797

Promise Keepers holds no promise for women. (1997, July 13). Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.feminist.org/news/pressstory.asp?id=4573

Shaw, D. (1990, July 1) Abortion bias seeps into news. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://swissnet.ai.mit.edu/~rauch/nvp/media/shaw1.html

The battle to defend abortion clinics: organizing against Operation Rescue. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.refuseandresist.org/ab/052401nypcc.html

The rise of the Religious Right in the Republican party. Retrieved May 16, 2004 from Web site: http://www.theocracywatch.org/

Violence & harassment at U.S. abortion clinics. Retrieved May 15, 2004 from Web site: http://www.religioustolerance.org/abo_viol.htm… [read more]

Pro Life Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,818 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Pro Life

Abortion may be in the news more today than in times past, but it is certainly not a new issue. Abortion may well be as old as pregnancy itself, as there is some evidence of abortion-like behavior among animals in the natural world. In prehistoric and ancient times, medicine women and witches would see to women's pregnancies and… [read more]

Defense of Abortion Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


A descriptive assumption is a belief about the way the world is, and in this case the world from the point-of-view of pro-choice does not want to see a woman die in order to save her fetus. And a value assumption is related to how the world should be. Through the act of using the anti-abortion's "slippery slope" (at all costs, a fetus must not be aborted notwithstanding the mother's life because we don't kill babies) against the anti-abortion argument is very effective.

"Everyone has a right to life, hence, the unborn person has a right to life…"

If this is true, Thompson argues, what if it's true that a woman has a right to life, but she is deathly sick and all she needs is the "touch of Henry Fonda's cool hand" on her "fevered brow"? That said, the commonly held view (that she has a right to life) butts up against the evaluative assumption as to how the world should be. "I have no right at all against anybody that [Fonda] should do this for me," Thompson asserts, shooting down the premise that the fetus always has the right to life.

Thompson's way of attacking weak premises is impressive, and her arguments are valid. She takes into account the objections and assertions of those on the other side. She makes a good point on page 8 when she uses the analogy of an open window that allows a burglar to come inside. She examines the word "right" in that context with. The anti-abortion movement says all humans have the "right" to life (and believe the fetus is immediately to be considered a human being). If the room is stuffy, and so the woman opens the window to allow fresh air inside, and a burglar climes in, "…it would be absurd to say, 'Ah, now he can stay, she's given him a right to the use of her house" because she is partly responsible for his appearance. But she did not invite him in and he is an intruder so he has no "right" to be there notwithstanding the open window.

Taking this further, when a woman is raped, she did not invite that sperm into her body to create a fetus. "Unborn persons whose existence is due to rape have no right to the use of their mothers' bodies, and thus aborting them is not depriving them of anything they have - right to and hence is not unjust killing" (p. 8).

In conclusion, Thompson takes on the anti-abortion arguments one-by-one and uses her narrative effectively to counter those arguments. She uses the acorn analogy effectively. An acorn is not a tree, hence, logically, a newly fertilized ovum and a "newly implanted clump of cells" does not create a human being. She firmly grabs an anti-abortion premise and rather than ruthlessly trying to tear it down, she presents logic through analogy and juxtaposition to secure her point. There will not be -- any time soon -- end to… [read more]

Abortion the Issue of Late-Term Abortions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



The issue of late-term abortions has been widely contested, and has yet to receive a consistent resolution. Pro-lifers find such a procedure an abhorrence, whereas those in favor of allowing a woman the choice to do with her body as she pleases generally seem to support this measure. This issue becomes most controversial, it seems, in the case in which the fetus that is potentially aborted (or in many cases actually is aborted) becomes viable. In this specific instance, when such a fetus becomes viable, it becomes clear that this procedure is akin to killing babies. However, it is necessary to emphasize the fact that viability in fetuses is an extremely subjective term, and one in which clear boundaries or definitions are not established. Therefore, while killing viable fetuses is a form of child murder, it is difficult to discern just when this process occurs in the stage of development of the purported child.

However, it would be premature to come to the conclusion that every last late-term abortion should be outlawed because a percentage of them involve the killing of viable fetuses. In instances in which the life of the mother is threatened, for example, late-term abortions become a morally defensible operation for the simple fact that not performing such an action is in essence condoning the murder of the mother. It is always difficult to place a value judgment on life, but the mother should have the right to choose whether or not she lives or dies due to childbirth -- especially since she can choose.

The question of morality is difficult when it comes to comparing late term abortions to earlier term abortions. Many people find the latter operations more moral for the simple fact that the fetus is not yet viable and is in a stage of life so rudimentary that it cannot rightfully even be considered alive. Most people find later term abortions less moral since they may involve a viable fetus.

The case of Alicja Tysiac is a sad one, and one which functions as a critical case study that many pro-choice adherents could utilize to their…… [read more]

Abortion One of the Most Contentious Socio-Political Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (2,008 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



One of the most contentious socio-political issues in the United States today, is that of abortion. There is really no reason why it should be a political issue, but proponents of abortion have averred that there needs to be a constitutional amendment that protects the right to abortion, despite the fact that the precedence for legal abortion was already… [read more]

Abortion and Frozen Fertilized Human Eggs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Abortion and Frozen Fertilized Human Eggs

Fertilized human eggs, such as those which are frozen and stored in fertility clinics, are believed by some people to already be a human child in essence. To many religious groups that oppose abortion and claim to be "pro-life," these zygotes should have the same rights as a human infant brought to term. According to these religious groups, God grants the child an immortal soul at the time of conception, not at the time of birth. This is actually a belief that has been held by many cultures throughout history, and some Asian cultures actually celebrate the conception day rather than the birth day of the child to mark age. These religious groups do not believe it is moral to dispose of fertilized human eggs, even when they are only comprised of a few cells. The question for many people is whether these zygotes are "morally protectable entities, or are they more like other disposable tissues cleaned from the human body?" (Green)

It would seem that the moral obligation, then, of religious people who believe that a fertilized human egg cell has the same right to life as an infant child, would be to rescue fertilized egg cells that in danger. There are "spare' embryos created during invitro fertilization procedures." (Richards) Most in vitro fertilization clinics assist women in getting pregnant by taking eight egg cells from the mother, fertilizing all eight, then implanting half of the fertilized cells into the mother. The other four zygotes are usually frozen and put into storage for future use if the initial procedure fails. This leads to tens of thousands of zygotes being put into storage. Eventually, the zygotes will deteriorate, or "die" if left in storage for a prolonged period of time. These institutions may also dispose of these zygotes eventually. Therefore, to those who believe a zygote has a soul and the same moral rights as a child, there are tens of thousands of human lives in danger. One analogy that can be used is that of finding a child drowning. A person who believes that life is sacred would be morally obligated to rescue the child rather than to let him drown. The same is true for the frozen zygotes; there is…… [read more]

Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues in Contemporary Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,437 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues

In contemporary American society, elective abortion remains one of the most controversial political, social, and moral issues. While the debate is often reduced to matters of religious belief, the issues are also addressable through purely secular ethical concepts. In that regard, the deontological, utilitarian, and virtue-based ethical perspectives may yield very different answers to the… [read more]

Abortion Debate in 1973 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,752 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In addition to the abstract debate, however, only the pro-choice side has presented an argument based on real, tangible social needs. Abortions will continue, whether or not Roe vs. Wade is overturned. The only question is the safety of the women involved. There are no easy answers in this debate, but, as Roiphe observes, "the morality of abortion lies in our capacity to make distinctions of quality, to balance one good against another, one evil against another" (144).

Because the individual and social evils of an unwanted pregnancy clearly outbalance vague definitions of fetal personhood, a woman's right to abortion must thus be protected.

Works Cited

Alcorn, Randy. Prolife Answers to ProChoice Arguments. Oregon: Multnomah Publishers, 2001

Allan Guttmacher Institute. "Induced Abortions." Facts in Brief. 2002. Alan Guttmacher Institute. 4 December 2002 www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html.

Dlouhy, Jennifer. "House Passes Abortion Bill Despite Democrats Protest over Health, Constitution." CQ Weekly 27 July 2002: 2055.

Eilperin, Juliet. "Unborn Victims Act Wins in House; Foes Call It Attack on Abortion Rights." Washington Post 27 April 2001: A1.

Page, Clarence. "Right to Choose Struggling With a Dilemma." Chicago Tribune 20 August 1995: 3.

Politt, Katha. "Abortion in American History." Atlantic Monthly May 1997: 111-115.

Roiphe, Anne. "Feminists Should Support Abortion Rights." Feminism: Opposing Viewpoints. Jennifer A. Hurley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

Schroedel, Jean Reith. Is the Fetus a Person? A Comparison of Policies Across the Fifty States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Ward, Dr. Roy…… [read more]

Abortion and Women's Rights Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,461 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Abortion and Women's Rights

One controversy that pans the socio-political and cultural paradigm in the late 20th and early 21st century is that of the overall morality of abortion. The abortion debate, in fact, surrounds the legal and moral status of the fetus, which has not been established from either a medical or a moral viewpoint. Again, from a utilitarian… [read more]

Abortion Is One of the Most Ethically Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Abortion is one of the most ethically charged issues nowadays. The present work is focused on exploring the major ethical concerns revolving around pro-life and pro-choice tendencies for the purpose of revealing ethical basis of each, common ground for both, and potential guidelines.

Opinions differ on this present matter, ranging from arguments in favor of the fetus having full moral status of a person, to arguments that fetuses are only partly human (and partly entitled to a set of rights), to an even a more radical stance claiming that moral status depends on "capacity for moral agency, hence fetuses are similar to animals corresponding to their gestational stage" (Sperling).

The most important ethical debates raised by abortion ensue around the issues of personhood (strongly advocated by pro-life supporters) and the right to life (largely claimed by both pro-life and pro-choice supporters).

Personhood is the principle built around determining the exact moment of intrauterine development when a fetus can be deemed a person, for the purpose of establishing that a later abortion would be, according to Christian and deontological ethics, synonymous with murder. On the other hand, marking the viability of a human fetus in a certain stage of biological development is yet unaccomplished and a difficult task, due to its "dependency on scientific knowledge, which is dynamic and changing" (Sperling).

Furthermore, the rather conservative outlook allows abortion solely on the condition that the mother's life is endangered; hence this approach follows along the lines of situation ethics theory and the so-called doctrine of double effect, where the primary voluntary action is saving the woman's life, but the accompanying unintentional action is termination of pregnancy.

The right to life capitalizes on the freedom of choice that a human being, whether adult or fetal, is entitled to. The liberal interpretation of this theory suggests that mother's choice of abortion is permissible regardless of fetal development, with a strong emphasis on…… [read more]

Bible and Law Abortion Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (4,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Bible and Law - Abortion

Bible and Law

Abortion has been defined as an act of voluntarily terminating pregnancy, which leads to the embryo's death. Abortion has become a very controversial topic in most countries because it is becoming more rampant as time goes by. Within the society, there are different opposing and proposing groups. And each of them has… [read more]

Abortion Has Been Practiced in Every Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (789 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Abortion has been practiced in every society that has been studied, and in the United States was legal until the mid-1800s (National Abortion Federation). As a fundamental part of a free society, access to medically sound and safe abortion practices must be preserved. When abortion is outlawed, the practice simply moves underground. At the very least, abortion rights should be maintained to protect public health and prevent women from seeking what are known as "back alley" abortions by untrained individuals or even self-administered pregnancy terminations. However, abortion is a reasonable and in some cases ethical response to an unwanted pregnancy. Bringing a child into the world without preparation is more immoral than removing the few cells that comprise the embryo: which is not a fetus. Moreover, many women become pregnant due to rape or incest and to carry that child would exacerbate the trauma. Abortion should remain legal in cases that preserve the physical health of the mother, to preserve the mental health of the mother, in cases of rape and incest, when the unborn child had medical problems or birth defects, or for social and/or economic reasons.

According to Seletz, abortion is "one of the most common and safest surgical procedures performed in the United States." When abortion is illegal it leads to health complications and in many cases, death. In South America, an estimated five thousand women each year die due to unsanitary or unsafe illegal abortions (Ross). If the government protects its citizens against harmful drugs and crime, then it should also step in to prevent the practice of unsafe abortion. Doctors and other qualified health professionals must be performing the service. The only way to keep abortion safe is to keep abortion legal. When abortion is banned like it is in some South American countries, women who are pregnant risk their lives to obtain a procedure that should be made safe and legal.

Abortion may also be indicated in preserving the mental health of the woman. An unwanted pregnancy places undue mental strain on a person who might already be suffering from trauma due to being raped. Even if the woman was not raped, she might have gotten pregnant because of contraceptive failure, which does occur. Condoms, which are necessary to prevent sexually transmitted diseases as well as pregnancy, have an estimated 15% failure rate; even the birth control pill…… [read more]

Dr. Henry Morgentaler: A Pioneer in Securing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (903 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Dr. Henry Morgentaler: A Pioneer in Securing Safe Abortions in Canada

This paper compares two scholarly journal articles with two newspaper articles, regarding abortion rights pioneer, Dr. Henry Morgentaler. A summary of one journal article is also presented.

Scholarly Journal vs. Newspaper Comparison:

Dr. Henry Morgentaler is discussed in each of the four selected articles. The Humanist (1992) article was the first scholarly article reviewed. In it, Dr. Morgentaler's accomplishments and personal biography are presented in a concise and factual manner. It is noted that Dr. Morgentaler is one of the leading supporters of abortion rights, but this is discussed in a historical context acknowledging the humanist aspect of his work without passing judgment on the topic itself.

Moulton's (2003) article detailed Dr. Morgentaler's 2003 legal action against the province of New Brunswick. Once again, in a non-biased manner, the author describes Dr. Morgentaler's belief that New Brunswick was in violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Canada Health Act by specifying that only abortions performed in hospitals were covered.

In contrast, Mills (2007) article also discusses current litigation brought forth by Dr. Morgentaler against New Brunswick, again for violating civil rights for refusing to pay for abortions performed at clinics. However, the article also focused not on the legal issues at hand, but on the demonstrators who had situated themselves outside the court room. Interestingly, the bulk of the article is made up of select quotes from Dr. Morgentaler, Jula Hughes from the Faculty of Law at the University of New Brunswick, and a spokesman for the Right to Life group.

Lastly, although Jeffs (2007) was passionate in his writing, it was clearly biased in response to his Pro-Life views. He discusses the 38th anniversary of the acquisition of abortion rights and the damage he feels it has done to both Canada and Canadian women specifically. He describes his first meeting of Dr. Morgentaler and the candlelight vigil he attended in protest. His anti-abortion rights views are further dramatized by his citing of his 12-year-old son characterizing Dr. Morgentaler as not being an honorable man.

It is interesting to compare the scholarly journal articles vs. those from newspapers. The journal articles focus on facts and historic details. There appears to be a conscious effort not to form an opinion, but rather to simply provide information to the readers. In contrast, the newspaper articles, particularly that of Jeffs (2007) is far more biased and emotional.

Even Mills (2007) doesn't provide actual facts about the impending litigation, but instead focuses on the more emotional statements provided by clearly biased parties.

Summary of Scholarly Article:

Moulton (2007) discusses Dr. Morgentaler's 2003 litigation against the province of New Brunswick. Dr.…… [read more]

Moral Impermissibility of Abortion Term Paper

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Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Moral Impermissibility of Abortion

Albert Camus, French philosopher and one of the youngest Nobel Prize winners for literature said that "freedom is nothing else but a chance to be better" ("Freedom quotes- Albert Camus"). The question is: to what extent are we willing to take the chance and truly be better, while being free? How many of us perceive freedom… [read more]

Abortion / Abortion Debate Term Paper

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The phrase was originated by Cardinal Bernardin to describe the ethical stand that all life is worthuy of protection and that it is ethically correct to protect life at all stages. However, there are a number of instances where the taking of life is socially acceptable and the moral considerations are not defined in terms of 'rights'. Seen from this vantage point, abortion is seen as a moral predicament and social problem with antecedents that can be identified as well as addressed outside of the moral arena.

Among these 'middle ground positions' are during the course of war when killing becomes not only acceptable but necessary and expected. Another middle ground position is when killing becomes neccesary as a matter of self-protection. Quite often, the need to save the expectant mother is another position where the death of a child is thought to be socially acceptable.

The extreme range of emotions that are involved in the debate concerning abortion can be difficult for the woman in a situation where she must choose. In Milwaukee there exists a program where Catholic women who choose to have an abortion can go for counseling, to accept the sacrement and to enter into the process of reconcialiation after the abortion has been performed. A woman must be referred by a priest but any services and all interactions are confidential. While the Cathiolic church is, basically, opposed to abortion, it also teaches that a person may choose to follow their conscience after consideration, study and prayer. The right to autonomy is recognized by the Church in matters of morality when one considers the Church to be a 'guiding influence' rather than an arbiter of the moral. In this instance, disallowing legal abortions is not the issue. Allowing for free choice and providing moral guidance and support is the issue. The alienation felt by a Catholic woman in this situation involves an element of is self-division. The process of reconciliation is between the individual and God but also reconciliation of the self to itself (Matthewes, 1998). Such a program becomes a valuable resource for the health care provider is able to refer a patient for continued care.


Matthewes, Charles T. (1998, Jan). Pluralism, Otherness, and…… [read more]

Navigating Abortion Care Ethics for Nursing Professionals Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (5,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


From the perspective of the NRLC, the 3,000 mother-helping centers that have been established around the country undermine the proposition that unwanted children actually exist. These centers provide crisis intervention for pregnant women, including medical assistance, educational opportunities, housing, and when available, job training. In addition, the NRLC reports that there are up to 36 couples waitlisted for every adoption… [read more]

Abortion Is Every Woman A-Level Outline Answer

A-Level Outline Answer  |  2 pages (564 words)
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B. Pro-life arguments focused on the rights of the fetus.

1. Life begins at conception, argued the pro-life side, not at a subsequent viability date.

2. According to the Constitution, the authorities should ensure that no harm is ever done to any individual

3. Pro-life activists also argue that there is no clear stipulation in the Constitution in favor of (a) right of privacy for the mother or (b) the Federal Government's right to overturn a State legal decision.

C. Pro-choice and pro-RW decision arguments focused on the right of the woman/mother.

1. Compulsory motherhood violates the right of women under the Thirteenth Amendment.

2. The State cannot force the woman, under any condition, including prior health-related concerns/risks, to remain pregnant.

III. Debate on the Roe v. Wage decision remains ongoing, with little change between the two sides in their opinion to overturn or not the decision

A. From 1989 to 2013, the pro-decision side fluctuated from 58 to 53%, while the side against the decision went from 31 to 29%.

B. Pro-life arguments include moral, social and religious elements.

1. Adoption is always an option

2. Pregnancy does interfere with her ability to work or attend school

3. Abortion should not be used as another form of contraception.

4. Abnormalities and health risks are rare.

5. Life begins at the moment of fertilization

C. Pro-choice arguments take into consideration the rights of the woman.

1. Eliminates unqualified abortions

2. The individual is not developed at the time of conception

3. The right of the woman to control her body

4. It is necessary to decrease the number of unwanted children in the world

5. Abortion can and should be used…… [read more]

Against Abortion Essay

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¶ … against Abortion

Abortion is not an acceptable procedure because it harms women, it goes against the will of God, and it takes the life of a human being.

Erika Bachiochi, who writes for Crisis Magazine, a publication of the Catholic News Agency, argues that abortions harm women; that is her main point. The harm is done to women through abortions includes psychological harm, physical harm, and even death, since abortions can lead to suicide. Bachiochi, who has a Masters degree in Theology from Boston College, asserts that a study in the scholarly Journal of Anxiety Disorders found that "…women who aborted their unintended pregnancies were 30% more likely to subsequently report all the symptoms…" of anxiety disorder than women who did not abort their unintended pregnancy (Bachiochi, 2005). Citing another study in the peer-reviewed American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Bachiochi explains that women who had abortions were 17% more likely to report mental health issues than women who carried their pregnancies to full term. Hence, given the reasons that Bachiochi presents in this paragraph, abortion is not just a moral or ethical issue -- it harms women and that is unacceptable.

An essay by Patrick Lee and Robert P. George -- published in Princeton Pro-Life -- asserts that the choice of having an abortion is an "objectively immoral" decision (Lee, et al., 2005). What they mean by objectively immoral does not imply that the woman having the abortion necessarily is immoral -- because she may have a conscience that tells her it is okay -- but what she has done, by objective standards, is immoral, according to the authors. Because a living thing is killed, a moral issue is automatically attached to that killing, the authors explain. Therefore, the fact that a living thing has been destroyed -- no matter the rationalization or justification -- is in itself evidence of an immoral decision.

Lee and George also team up to assert that notwithstanding the pro-choice argument that the embryo is not a human being yet, the embryo "…is human: it has the genetic makeup characteristic of human beings" and it is "…a complete or whole organism, though immature" (Lee, 2005). That embryo, from the point of conception, is fully programmed through…… [read more]

Abortion Aborting a Living Human Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


With today's modern technology, communications are flashed around the world in a matter of seconds. What one country or society finds acceptable can be totally abhorrent to another society. Ultimately it should come down to the individual to make the correct moral choices. The still small voice within each human, guides us all. If killing another human is wrong, and that action will reverberate throughout the individual's life taking such an action, then society will likely suffer because of it. Passing moral judgments on others is a societal function, and in this case should take place in order to stop such actions from happening. As Kang and Glassman wrote concerning moral thought, it should be "referred to as cultural capital -- stable, internalized signs showing that an individual is (or should be) considered a member of a given social group" (p. 22) and furthermore that "moral action is related to social capital, based in levels of trust and reciprocity in carrying out community-oriented goals" (p. 22).

Trust, community-oriented goals, and stable, internalized signs can be regarded as signs that society has its collective head on straight, and that the actions of all are dedicated to moral obligations such as the protection of all human beings, even though little ones that need it most.


Abortion; (2012) accessed on June 3, 2012 at: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/abortion

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 1142a12-16.

Embryo; (2012) accessed on June 3, 2012 at: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/abortion

Hursthouse, R.; Virtue theory and abortion, Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 1 -- 11

Kang, M.J. & Glassman, M.; (2010) Moral action as social capital, moral thought as cultural capital, Journal of Moral Education, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 21-36

Noonan, J.; (1970) An almost absolute value in history, The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 51 -- 59

Thomson, J.J.; (1996) A defense of abortion, Philosophy & Public Affairs, Vol. 1, Issue 1, (reprinted in Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics, (5th ed) Munson, R. (ed) Belmont: Wadsworth) pp. 69-80

Warren, M.A.; (1996) On the moral…… [read more]

Abortion in the Book Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


They trace the current legal situation from its origins in the 19th century and the beginnings of women's suffrage and the battle for women's equal rights in America. Further, they equate equality for women with the ability to choose whether or not to continue a pregnancy to term. Men, upon learning that they have biologically fathered a child, have the option of running away and abandoning their pregnant partner. Unlike man who can flee, the woman, does not have the option of running away from her responsibility. By giving women the right to choose whether or not to carry the fetus to full term, the government is giving women equality with men. That is why feminism and the abortion debate have been so tightly aligned. It is not merely a question of morality and ethics and whether or not abortion is murdered. The topic of abortion is symbolic of the debate between men and women over the right to determine her future. Whether or not the woman wishes to become a mother should be just that; it should align with her wishes. Woman should not be forced to give birth to a child that she does not want and cannot care for simply because sex yielded pregnancy. The book illustrates exactly this debate and shows how intricately laced the question of feminism is with the question of abortion rights. Abortion is not just about giving birth, it is about fighting the far-reaching oppressive regime of the patriarchy of the United States of America.

Works Cited:

Pat Grogan and…… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Abortion Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (934 words)
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¶ … Abortion

In APA Format

The world has changed drastically over the past few years; the culture across the globe has drastically changed. There are far too many abortions taking place these days when compared to the previous years. Abortion is mainly opted by women who choose to avoid becoming pregnant and most of such women are unmarried women. Undergoing abortion is a very difficult step to take for any woman and it takes a lot of guts to take the decision. This paper will throw light upon the pros and cons of abortion.

Abortion according to many is a very big sin, killing the unborn is an unmerciful act. The irresponsible people in the society, without thinking about the circumstances put themselves in a situation which is extremely undesirable. Everyone must act and behave responsibly to avoid a situation which is undesirable and abortion is without a doubt an undesirable situation for any human being to be in. The biggest con of abortion is that it an unmerciful act, the unborn infant does not deserve to die; there is no mistake of the infant for which the infant should be punished. "Half the percentage of women obtaining abortions is below 25." (Pros and Cons of Abortion, 6 December 2008). This is the age when the people are sexually active and it is highly immoral to involve yourself in a relation without accepting the responsibility which the relation brings with it and opting for abortion is refusing to accept the responsibility. No society appreciates women opting for abortion because it is an immoral act and the same is its biggest con.

Some women use abortion as a type of birth control. They sleep with men and do not use protection and think nothing of it to go to the clinic as many as five times in their life to have an abortion. A con against abortion is the nagging thought that a woman went to a clinic, had an abortion, and thus the world was prevented from seeing the birth of the only person capable of attaining a leadership role and initiating a peace accord between warring factions in the Middle East, thus preventing decades of strife and murder. A stable home life is not a guarantee of talent, and illegitimate children have shown themselves to be very bright on occasion, Lawrence of Arabia for one." (Pros and Cons of Abortion, 6 December 2008)

Abortion is a very big risk to the health of the woman who opts to undergo abortion. Miscarriages are one of the biggest risks involved when a woman opts for abortion; the biggest risk is to the life of the woman who opts for abortion. There is a high possibility of a woman losing her life when she opts to undergo abortion.…… [read more]

Abortion it Is Not Unreasonable to Expect Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



It is not unreasonable to expect that states with a high proportion of democrats will also have a reasonably higher number of abortions performed than those states with a high proportion of republican or conservative voters. The liberal democratic vote has always been supportive of women's right to choose for their selves how to best manage their body and… [read more]

Elective Abortion Thesis

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Elective Abortion and Nursing

Within the discipline of professional nursing, nurses are divided when it comes to their opinions concerning elective abortion. Just as there are pro-life and pro-choice supporters in the general population, there pro-life nurses and pro-choice nurses, some of whom feel very strongly about their beliefs. Because a nurse has an ethical responsibility to care for patients in need, it is important to address the issue of whether nurses are obligated to care for patients who undergo elective abortion surgery.

2008 study by Wilson and Haynie (2008) examined the basic social processes experienced by women who sought recovery assistance following an elective abortion. The researchers felt that nursing research on this topic was importance because abortion is reported to be the second most common surgery performed in the United States.

The study (Wilson and Haynie, 2008) revealed that the majority of these women suffered in silence because they were afraid that others would judge them. Thus, the researchers argued, nurses have many opportunities to provide recovery assistance following an elective abortion, in all clinical settings. In order to better facilitate this process, the researchers felt that nurses understand the experience of women as they recognize the negative outcomes and seek recovery assistance.

Williams confirmed that nurses must provide caring assistance to patients who undergo elective abortion surgery. According to Williams (2001): "Women with a history of elective abortion experienced grief in terms of loss of control, death anxiety, and dependency. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the intensity of grief in women who had a history of elective abortion and the comparison group, there was an overall trend toward higher grief intensities in the abortion group. Presence of living children, perceived pressure to have the abortion, and the number of abortions appear to affect the intensity of the short-term grief response."

Because many women experience very strong emotional distress during and following their abortion experience, it is important the nurses who assist in abortions provide care and empathy, regardless of their own personal beliefs and ethics (Wilson and Haynie, 2008). All of the study's participants described significant negative changes in personal behaviors after their experiences.

Nursing organizations across the country agree that providing care to abortion patients is a critical aspect of nursing. However, various statements call out that a nurse has the right to whatever opinion she holds and that it is up to each individual nurse to decide if they do not want to work in a place the performs abortions. For example, the New York State Nurses Association Position Statement on Abortion (2008) was created in response to legislative activity concerning abortion law, as well as requests from the professional nursing community. Nurses had requested clarity in regard to their rights and responsibilities and the rights of their patients who underwent elective abortions.

According to the New York State Nurses Association recognizes that abortion is a controversial issue, in which nurses and patients are in the center of. The association holds… [read more]

Against Abortion Term Paper

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Against Abortion

There is a clear mention in the Bible that abortion is wrong. The Bible teaches that humans are different from other types of life, as humans are made in the very image of God. The accounts of the creation of man and women in Genesis reveal that God created man in his image; in the divine image he… [read more]

Ethics and Morality Abortion in Review Term Paper

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Ethics and Morality; Abortion

In review of the two organizations regarding abortion - NRLC and NARAL, there appears to be a varying degree of different arguments from each side. There is also an abundance of opinions that are politically charged, ethically driven, morally substantiated and overall supported by a plethora of information.

NRLC is the National Right to Life Coalition and is entirely comprised of values supporting the banning of abortion and heightening the awareness through pro-life agendas. NRLC's primary argument lies in their belief that babies or "fetuses" are human beings and are innocent lives. It is because of this belief that the sole objective of the NRLC is to protect these innocent lives.

The NARAL is a pro-choice, non-profit foundation aimed at promoting the choice of mothers to terminate their pregnancies. The NARAL's main objective lies in their belief that a women has the right to privacy and the right to choose what to do with her body and the body of her child.

Using cognitive research and analysis methods to assess each of the two sides websites, there was no lack of information readily available. Though the NARAL provides substantial support for their opinions, I was more apt to agree with the arguments made by NRLC.

NRLC provided information that I was not previously aware of. Some of this information detailed the functions of a child at the age where most children are killed by abortion. These "fetuses" are able to laugh, smile, suck their thumb, and do a variety of different things that only a human can do. They are human, and they are alive. To stop them from being alive is…… [read more]

Against Abortion. The Writer Explores the Moral Term Paper

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¶ … against abortion. The writer explores the moral and medical issues of abortion and argues that abortion should not be legal as each person is a gift. There were four sources used to complete this paper.

Statistical research indicates that America is the leading nation in the incidence of abortion with more than 1 million being performed annually. In… [read more]

All Sides and Issues of Abortion Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Abortion

The topic of abortion is one of the most controversial and one of the most emotional dilemmas confronted by modern societies. The concept of abortion refers to terminating pregnancy which is intentional with an objective other than to give birth to a live born infant or to remove a dead fetus. (Definitions and associated Formulas) The common… [read more]

Ethics of Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,119 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Abortion Debate

The topic of abortion has become one of the most crucial moral, political and religious issues of the end of the 20th and the early 21st centuries. And the debate continues, especially now with the more conservative administration. Decisions pro-or con are often made emotionally without any consideration of the facts and the ability to clearly explain both sides of the issue. The hope is that both sides can objectively evaluate the issue and, following the democratic philosophy of this country, determine an answer that is best for the common good.

The issue of abortion is normally debated first on religious beliefs. For example, the Catholic Bishops in 1998 strongly came out against abortion based on the fact that human life is sacred from the moment of conception until natural death. Thus, abortion, according to religious practices, is immoral in the eyes of the Church. As Pope John Paul II stated in 1995, "Both as Americans and as followers of Christ, American Catholics must be committed to the defense of life."

Individuals who refute the Catholic Church on religious grounds, such as John Swomley (1999), professor emeritus of social ethics at St. Paul School of Theology in Missouri, debate the Bishops' statement by saying, "Nowhere in the Scriptures is there any reference to sacredness or sanctity or respect for fetal life." Ultimately, therefore, women should have the right to control their own destiny.

Similarly, another strong argument for and against abortion is founded on whether or not it violates human rights. Gargaro (2000), a pro-life advocate, writes that abortion is wrong because it entails the killing of human life. Since the baby has a different genetic makeup than its mother, its life has to be seen as separate and to be protected. "Right away, some will say that abortion is not a matter of life and death, arguing that a fetus is not a 'person,' or a 'human being.'" However, medical studies prove that the fetus is a living organism from conception on, she states.

Those who offer rebuttal to this life-at-conception philosophy, state that there is "life" from the moment of conception in the sense that it is a biological entity that alters food and oxygen into energy and its cells divide and grow. However, the truer question is whether it is a "person"? There the disagreement comes. Webster's Dictionary defines a person as "an individual or existing as an indivisible whole; existing as a distinct entity." From the moment of conception, the living entity does not have a human consciousness nor is it physically independent. Thus, abortion is not murder, because it is not an independent person.

Another disagreement area concerning abortion is whether or not it can ever be justified, as in cases of incest or rape or fear of harmful abortion practices. Forsythe (1999), who is president of Americans United for Life based in Chicago, wrote in Christianity Today that calling abortion a "necessary evil" is just another way for pro-choice individuals to keep… [read more]

Christian Beliefs and Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,340 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, the canon laws of the church on abortion remained unchanged for a long time until Pope Pius IX dropped the distinction between the "fetus animatus" and "fetus inanimatus" in 1869 -- ending the tolerant approach of the church towards abortion, which continues to this day.

The current Christian belief about abortion is largely based on the anti-abortion references in the scriptures in which life was considered to be a sacred gift from God, the womb being an inviolable place and the idea that life starts at the time of conception. At the same time, the Christian anti-abortion groups have also included some popularized scientific beliefs about pregnancies and abortion in their arsenal to counter the "pro-choice" and feminist arguments in favor of abortion.

For example, the "freedom of choice" pro-abortion argument that a woman has a right of control over her own body and, therefore, should have the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies is countered by the contention that an unborn child is a distinctly separate individual and no one has the right or 'freedom' to end the life of another individual. Hence, restriction on abortion is by no means a violation of 'fundamental rights' of a woman as such 'freedom of choice' does not apply to terminating the life of another individual, i.e., the unborn fetus. The Christian churches and religious pro-life groups now also frequently quote scientific evidence that an unborn fetus has a beating heart, tiny little fingers and toes by just 18 days after fertilization and is not just "a blob of tissue" to be callously discarded.

Another 'feminist' argument about abortion rights, i.e., that the women should have the right to abortion so that they are not disadvantaged viz a viz the men in the job market is also bitterly opposed by the Christian groups. They believe that women's main purpose in life is to participate in "the miracle of life" and the perception in our society about the incompatibility of successful working women with pregnancy is termed by them as a "fallout of our society's failed value system." (Terwilliger, para on "Abortion.")

The opposition to abortion among the Christians is, as should be expected, not absolutely consistent; it is strongest in evangelical, fundamentalist, or pentecostal churches (e.g. Baptists, Assemblies of God), as opposed to the 'mainline' liberal churches such as Methodist, Presbyterian, and Epicospalian. Some of the evangelical churches, for instance, take the extreme position that abortion is not permissible even in cases of rape and incest, arguing that one sin (rape) does not justify another sin (abortion). On the other hand, most mainline churches and ministers favor legal abortions in instances of rape, incest, or when the health of the mother is jeopardized. None, however, support abortion on demand as is the position of the pro-choice groups. (Jelen, 134-142)


The Christian beliefs about abortion have completed a full circle since the biblical times. Initially, the Christian church was firmly opposed to all forms of abortion and considered it a dire sin.… [read more]

Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,556 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


By any norms, this is not only a crime, but the lowest immoral act than one can sink to. If one adds the health risks than women having abortions have and the promiscuity among teenagers that abortion often encourages and there is a complete picture of what abortion is all about.


1. Physical Health Risks of Abortion. Scientific Studies Reveal Significant Risk. On the Internet at http://www.w-cpc.org/abortion/physical.html

2 H.L. Howe, et al., "Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40," International Journal of Epidemiology, 18(2):300-304 (1989)

3. Sharvy, B. The morality of abortion. A critique. On the Internet at http://www.efn.org/~bsharvy/abortion.html

4. Abortion morality. Letters to the Editor. The Miami Herald. November 2004. On the Internet at http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/editorial/letters/10278784.htm?1c

Sharvy, B. The morality of abortion. A critique. On the Internet at http://www.efn.org/~bsharvy/abortion.html




Abortion morality. Letters to the Editor. The Miami Herald. November 2004. On the Internet at http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/editorial/letters/10278784.htm?1c

Sharvy, B. The morality of abortion. A critique. On the Internet at http://www.efn.org/~bsharvy/abortion.html

Physical Health Risks of Abortion. Scientific Studies Reveal Significant Risk. On the Internet at http://www.w-cpc.org/abortion/physical.html. Also in H.L. Howe, et al., "Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40," International Journal of Epidemiology, 18(2):300-304 (1989)

http://www.w-cpc.org/abortion/physical.html… [read more]

Abortion a Modest Proposal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
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Many girls arguing for abortion will admit, for example, "I wish my mother had aborted me." These girls were not given a choice to be aborted when their mother was pregnant; the choice was taken out of their hands. Allowing the mother to take herself out of the situation along with the fetus will give that choice back to her. Laws have, in the past, allowed abortion only as a means of preventing the death of the mother, even when the mother wanted to die, which is counterproductive. "California has legalized 'therapeutic abortion' in 1967, women had to go before a panel of doctors and plead their cases in order to have legally sanctioned, in-hospital procedures. They had to say they'd commit suicide unless they had an abortion." (Baird-Windle) Why not just assist the girls in committing suicide in a medically sound way? Additionally, abortion is a popular option for those seeking to combat the growing problems of overpopulation in the world. With birth rates growing at an astounding rate, supporting birth control methods of many sorts is necessary to avoid disastrous conditions in the world that would lead to hunger, disease, and misery throughout the world populations. It is believed that sacrificing or preventing one life through abortion (depending on the individual's perspective) is actually saving lives. With this in mind, it is easy to see the benefits of ending the mother as well as the fetus, as this will lead to twice the impact on slowing the population growth. Organizations such as the Voluntary Human Extinction Movement will point out that, "Having babies" is not so much the problem -- having adults is what's causing the problems." (Knight) Many women also choose abortion as means of avoiding the pain and suffering that would be involved in completing the pregnancy and child-birthing process, as well as the pain that the child will experience later in life. They may not realize, however, that current abortion procedures are painful and terrifying for the mother, and some speculate for the fetus as well. The physical suffering during and immediately following, as well as the post-partum-like depression and mental anguish caused by imbalanced hormones, can come as an unpleasant surprise to unprepared patients. Additionally, women who have had an abortion are far more likely to develop painful and recurring disorders involving the reproductive organs and also sexual dysfunction. This pain could be easily avoided through a simple and painless procedure that would allow both the mother and unborn child to avoid the pain of separation… [read more]

Life Legal and Ethical Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Obstacles to the practice are the healthcare industry's fear of legal reprisal. One expert writes, "An additional obstacle to withdrawing therapy that has already begun is a fear of legal liability. Many worry that stopping treatment, even when ethically justifiable, will constitute wrongful killing" (Berger, 1990, p. 29).

Ultimately, the choice to die remains with the patient and the patient's family, and it is a difficult decision to make because of the ethics involved. Some find it a principle of the "greatest good," as Joseph Fletcher discusses in his case on the morality of euthanasia. He notes, "The Christian love ethic, searching seriously for a social policy, forms a coalition with the utilitarian principle of the 'greatest good of the greatest number.' Of course it reshapes it into the 'most love for the most neighbors'" (Fletcher 19). Thus, euthanasia only benefits the patient, and may actually harm the overall relationship and function of the family, and so ethically, it is a difficult decision. In addition, the American Medical Association (AMA) does not approve of euthanasia, so a doctor carrying out the wishes of a family could face censure, disbarment, or even murder charges. Ethically, many people believe euthanasia is simply another word for murder, and it should never be legalized. Again, the question, who is responsible for life, man, or God? comes into play. The legal issue here is also clear. Currently, euthanasia is illegal, and despite repeated attempts at legalization, only Oregon has actually voted to legalize it in their state.

In conclusion, how we begin our lives and end our lives are some of the most difficult ethical and legal problems facing Americans today. If the beginning and the end are so difficult to decide, they how will we ever manage to make the rest of our lives meaningful and important? We must decide the legality of these problems, so we can go about living the rest of our lives to the fullest.


Alexander, Mary S. (1993). Defining the abortion debate. ETC.: A review of general semantics 50.3: 271+.

Berger, Joyce, ed. (1990). To die or not to die? Cross-disciplinary, cultural, and legal perspectives on the right to choose death. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Fletcher, Joseph. (1967). Moral responsibility: Situation ethics at work. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.

Jacoby, Kerry N.…… [read more]

Ethics of Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,162 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In the Doe case the financial stress of the patient was outlined for the judge panel.

1) She was a 22-year-old Georgia citizen, married, and nine weeks pregnant. She had three living children. The two older ones had been placed in a foster home because of Doe's poverty and inability to care for them. The youngest, born July 19, 1969, had been placed for adoption. Her husband had recently abandoned her and she was forced to live with her indigent parents and their eight children. She and her husband, however, had become reconciled. He was a construction worker employed only sporadically. She had been a mental patient at the State Hospital. She had been advised that an abortion could be performed on her with less danger to her health than if she gave birth to the child she was carrying. She would be unable to care for or support the new child (U.S. Supreme Court DOE v. BOLTON, 410 U.S. 179 (1973)

410 U.S. 179 (http://www.priestsforlife.org/government/supremecourt/7301doevbolton.htm)."

This is something that can be decided ethically by a doctor. If he or she believes that birth and raising a child will have a negative impact on society, as well as the patient herself it is perfectly ethical to provide the requested service of an abortion.

The appeal that was filed in the case of Doe said that there had been many constitutional rights violated including: "This invaded her [410 U.S. 179, 186] rights of privacy and liberty in matters related to family, marriage, and sex, and deprived her of the right to choose whether to bear children. This was a violation of rights guaranteed her by the First, Fourth, Fifth, Ninth, and Fourteenth Amendments. The statutes also denied her equal protection and procedural due process and, because they were unconstitutionally vague, deterred hospitals and doctors from performing abortions. She sued "on her own behalf and on behalf of all others similarly situated (U.S. Supreme Court DOE v. BOLTON, 410 U.S. 179 (1973)

410 U.S. 179 (http://www.priestsforlife.org/government/supremecourt/7301doevbolton.htm)."

This entire mind set, that the future mental health and financial health of the mother will have a direct impact on the life of the child provides the green light for this current case to be granted an abortion. The doctor in the current case can perform the abortion based on the statements given by the patient that the undue financial burden would be difficult for her.


The issue of abortion is one that is heated and emotional. The law allows for the performance of abortion, and in many instances it is left to the doctor to determine the mental health state of the patient requesting the procedure. If the doctor is charged with making sure the patient is of sound enough mind and body to handle having an abortion then the doctor should also be given the leeway to determine the serious mental and physical impact that a forced term will cause. This case is one in which it will be ethical to give… [read more]

Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,913 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Asides the fact that there are inevitable side effects for any kind of pharmaceutical preparation there are two main aspects to be considered when we discuss the safety of the drug. The main contentious issue is that the drug was introduced without sufficient clinical tests in the U.S. In fact the approval was mainly based on the results of the… [read more]

Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,087 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They are of the view that human fetus must be given a chance of life as it deserves to live as much as any normal living human being. For example, if I told you that there is a poor family with seven children and the mother is pregnant with the eighth baby, she is unhealthy and wire thin, would you say it is wise or reasonable for her to opt for abortion. Well if your answer was yes, you just killed the world famous symphony composer, Beethoven. Anti-abortion circles argue that while a woman has right to decide her future, she must not be given the right to completely destroy the future of another human being. Even if a woman feels she is incapable of providing for the child, it is better to give the baby up for adoption than completely kill all chances of a bright and normal future for that child.

Teleological view that the decision regarding a controversial subject should be based on the question of ends justifying the means. Teleological arguments essentially focus on circumstances and it is maintained that if a mother feels that she might not be able to provide the child with the very best, it is only fair and sensible to terminate the pregnancy. This theory does not support any one side of the abortion issue; it is only concerned with the consequences of the action. If it is felt that ends would ultimately justify the means than abortion should be allowed otherwise there is no reason to kill the human fetus.

Deontological view however focuses on our duty to our fellow human beings, to the society and to God. This can be described as a theory based on religious and ethical beliefs and therefore it judges the subject of abortion in this manner only. This view essentially the pro-life stand because our responsibility towards God and our fellow human beings would not allow abortion.

After carefully studying both sides of the issue, I feel that a person should be extremely careful when faced with a decision as tough as terminating pregnancy. It is easy to dismiss the issue as personal matter, but it can have far reaching impact on the society in the long run. We all want a society based on ethical and moral principles, then it is absolutely unwise to not seek to resolve the issue of abortion effectively. I believe that if a mother is aware of her rights to choose, she then must understand that the baby she is carrying would also want that right, and even a choice between life and death, who would prefer latter over the former. This means that people should be careful when faced with tempting situations because their action in weak moments can bear in unwanted consequences.


1) S. Boyd, "Give us liberty: The approval of RU-486 isn't about morals, it's about options," Salon.com at: http://www.salon.com/mwt/feature

2) Michael Kinsley, ESSAY: The New Politics of Abortion., Time, 07-17-1989, pp 96

3)… [read more]

Abortion Rights Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (975 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Abortion is by definition a feminist issue because only women can become pregnant. However, abortion is also a human rights issue. All sides of the abortion debate frame abortion in terms of human rights, with anti-choice activists claiming the rights of the fetus trump those of the woman, and pro-choice activists claiming the rights of the woman trump those of the fetus. Because a woman is a human being and a fetus is not yet a human being, it seems that abortion should be a relatively straightforward legal matter, even if not a straightforward ethical one. Religious fanatics and the morally self-righteous can believe whatever they want, but those beliefs cannot and should not impinge upon the law. Unfortunately, the law has become severely tainted by corrupt politics that have lost sight of fundamental constitutional rights and freedoms. A patriarchal society provides the structural supports under which conservative, anti-woman, anti-choice activists have been permitted to flourish. Restricting access to abortion is necessary for the preservation of patriarchy, whereas empowering women with the right to choose categorically subverts an anti-woman social and political structure.

Restricting abortion is a cornerstone of the preservation of patriarchy, because if women were given equal protection under the law, it would be an admission that women are equal to men. As it stands, conservatives have deemed that a cluster of cells has more rights than women. Conservatives seek to restrict access to abortion even in cases in which the woman's life is in danger, because the woman's life is not considered as worthy of whatever grows in her uterus (Ginty). The law now protects those who wish to restrict the rights of half of the American population, because the legal system is part of the patriarchal political and social structure. When Ginty asks, "How did we get to the point where 258 right-wing bishops -- all (supposedly) celibate male clerics -- are prohibiting doctors from practicing medicine and denying women essential reproductive care," the answer is that we have always been this way. Women were unable to vote until relatively recently, and anti-choice provisions in statewide legislation perpetuates the patriarchal values that underwrite most of conservative American discourse.

Abortion is a feminist issue because some women are dying because of lack of access to medical care using unethical and unprofessional practices. As a result of a patriarchal medical system, "substandard care" is "becoming rampant in the U.S., threatening women's health and women's lives," (Ginty 426). This is why abortion is more than a feminist issue; it is a human rights issue. Patriarchy infringes on the rights of women. As Ginty points out, 47 states and the District of Colombia "now allow individuals or entities to refuse women reproductive health services," (426). Denying people fundamental rights such as access to health care seems preposterous, but under a patriarchal system, it is a matter of course. A patriarchal system places women lower on the social,…… [read more]

Constitution Changing Abortion Guidelines Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,511 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


The level of life protection in America is also less compared to any other country in the Western world. Today in America abortion is much more similar to slavery (Sarah, K. 2010). Abortion has become the central to the lives of many American people, no matter its social cost or the victimization of the citizens who are weak and vulnerable it is time for the Congress and judicial systems to change these laws that are slowly crippling the United States of America


The American people have to understand abortion; this will make them realize that abortion is anti-human, anti-life and that it is anti-woman. It is time the American people go after the minds and hearts that are armed with knowledge and animated by compassion.


Chris Meyers. Fetal Position: A Rational Approach to the Abortion Debate. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2014 http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ReferenceDetailsPage/DocumentToolsPortletWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&jsid=35fb63d25e859534bf4b3e83a1612fd7&action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE|EJ3010869101&u=gotitans&zid=8964d7a809f6af6e50266c6770742729

Edward, Lazarus. The Lingering Problems with Roe v. Wade, 2002. Retrieved on May 20, 2014 http://writ.corporate.findlaw.com/lazarus/20021003.html

Sarah Kliff, Remember Roe!, NEW SWEE K. MAGAZINE, 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2014 http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/04/15/remember-roe.html… [read more]

Why Abortion Should Not Be Allowed Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


According to NHS, all clinical procedures carry some degree of risk. Some of the most common or prominent risks during the abortion process are womb damage, cervical damage, and hemorrhage (NHS). After an abortion, as the NHS further points out, womb infection remains one of the main risks. Repeated abortions according to NHS could also result in miscarriages as a result of the damage occasioned to the cervix. It is also important to note that apart from the largely medical complications identified above, abortion could also result to a lot of mental anguish and pain later on in life. Indeed, "approximately 15-25% of women who undergo induced abortion suffer from guilt feelings, anxiety, depression, sensations of loss, anger, decrease in self-esteem, nightmares and hallucinations" (Steinberg 3).

For fairness sake, it would be prudent to examine (and fault) two of the most prominent arguments that have been advanced by those in support of abortion. One such argument is that individuals ought to be granted full and absolute autonomy over their bodies. Proponents of this argument "assert that a woman's right to self-determination, liberty and bodily integrity means that she should be able to decide not to continue with the pregnancy at whatever stage (and for whatever reason)" (Hendrick). This argument is however faulty on various fronts. For those demanding control over their bodies, they ought to come to the realization that control extends to the making of rational decisions, including prevention of unwanted pregnancies. Another argument that has been advanced by proponents of abortion is what is referred to as the right to self-defense approach. This approach according to Hendrick maintains that when threatened in some way, an individual (in this case a woman) reserves the right to protect herself. As rational as this argument may seem at first instance, it is inherently faulty and without any sound basis. It beats commonsense as to why an unborn baby would be viewed as an intruder while in the first place, its conception was as direct consequence of the actions and decision of the individual who now insists on terminating it. While the right to self-defense approach could be deemed reasonable in those instances where the health of the mother is at risk or where the woman in question was raped, it would be hard to advance such an argument in an instance where the pregnancy came about as a result of irresponsible behavior (Hendrick).

Works Cited

Hendrick, Judith. Law and Ethics in Children's Nursing. Iowa: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.

NHS. "Abortion -- Risks." NHS, 7 June 2012. Web. 20 April. 2014.

Saad, Lydia. "Pro-Choice Americans at Record-Low 41%." 23 May 2012. Web. 20 April. 2014.

Schwarz, Stephen D. Understanding Abortion: From Mixed Feelings to Rational Thought. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2011. Print.

Schwarzwalder, Rob. "The Best Pro-Life Arguments for Secular Audiences." Family Research Council, 2014. Web. 20 April. 2014.

Steinberg, Avraham. Encyclopedia…… [read more]

Anti-Abortion Rule Natural Law Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,844 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But, there is a mutual agreement between developmental biologists and the Roman Catholic believers that moment of conception is the moment of beginning of a human life and personhood as there is a set of markers that show the beginning of a human life.

Natural law has thereby argued that in the face of death and threat to life, and in order to save her own life, a woman can undergo the procedures for aborting the fetus. This exception has only been given by the natural law if death of the fetus is not being directly intended. Nonetheless, if death of an unborn child is being directly intended as a result of the use of medical procedures that include chemotherapy and hysterectomy, abortion occurring in such case is indefensible and is considered illegal.

In the end, it is important to add that the lives of millions of unborn fetuses and embryos cannot be simply left on the shoulders of personal quaintness and political battering.


Natural law is based on the purpose that we have in life as humans. In natural law, first precept is the preservation of an innocent which leads to the second most important precept, do not abort. Second precept is purely based on the deontological principles and there is no denying based on these principles that abortion is illegal and immoral. Abortion is not abortion as it is clear from the second precept of the natural law. Natural law has clearly said that killing an innocent is not an option thereby there is no pondering over it. But here the natural law has highlighted that the abortion can be thought over in certain conditions whereas these conditions have been defined in clear words as rape, incest or a threat to the life of the mother. Other than these conditions, abortion is an illegal act.


Feinberg, S.J., and Feinberg, D.P. (2010). Ethics for a Brave New World. Edition 2. Crossway.

Kainz, P.H.…… [read more]

Abortion Rights: In Dew vs. Brownmiller Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,042 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Abortion rights: In Dew vs. Brownmiller, the debate rages on if every woman were to follow pro-life activist Diane Dew's logic in her essay "It's a child, not a choice," than she would be obligated to have as many children as possible -- every potential child could be the next Michelangelo or Edison, writes Dew. According to Dew's point-of-view, convenience -- including the ability or desire to have a child -- should play no role in determining whether a child should be brought to term. Quality of life is meaningless, both for the mother and for the child. What matters is life itself. Equally disturbing is Dew's line of argumentation based on a Christian perspective, which states that a convenience should have no role in determining whether a child should be brought into the world, as Christ's birth was not convenient for the Virgin Mary. This is despite the fact that the United States is not a Christian nation, merely a nation that tolerates the practice of Christianity -- and all religions -- within its borders.

Dew certainly had the right, under the laws of the land, to choose to have a child despite her husband's unemployment. But pro-choice activists would ask why should she have the right, based upon her fundamentalist Christian principles, to dictate other women's reproductive choices? Even with the legal prerogative to have an abortion, Dew did not choose to do so, undercutting her own logic that every woman with the option to choose abortion will invariable decide to terminate the pregnancy. Dew is proud of the fact that she risked giving birth to a child with severe deformities, after suffering the German measles during pregnancy. Her living quarters at the time exhibited conditions that might cause some social workers to intervene to protect the welfare of a child: "No running water. No heat. Canned goods froze in the cupboard. Water in the sink (from snow I had melted) became solid overnight. I was 1,000 miles from family and didn't have a friend in town…after one beating that put me in bed for weeks, I almost lost the baby. My husband left shortly after the baby was born." Dew argues that because she sees bringing a new life into the world under such conditions as noble, others should do the same. What if Dew had other children? Would it have been fair to them to add another mouth to feed to the family?

The feminist Susan Brownmiller points out that abortion has always been practiced in the United States and elsewhere. The question is if abortions shall be done safely or unsafely, legally or illegally. When women face dire and desperate circumstances, Brownmiller states that they should not be forced to risk their lives to exercise control over their reproductive health. While Dew condemns the amount of money abortion doctors make, Brownmiller points out that unscrupulous practitioners often made far more when abortion was illegal in the majority of states of the union, and they often… [read more]

Controversy Abortion the Right to Privacy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,176 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



The Right to Privacy

Contrary to what many people believe, there is no constitutional right to privacy per se (Dershowitz, 2002). The modern right to privacy first came to be recognized in connection with a series of U.S. Supreme Court cases that were decided during the civil rights era. Specifically, in the principle case Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), the Supreme Court struck down a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives, ruling that the Constitution did protect a right of privacy despite the fact that no such white was actually described (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005).

To reach that conclusion, the court decided that the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment was the source of an umbrella or "penumbra" of protections that emanated from the Constitution to protect fundamentally private matters such as the choice by a married couple to use contraceptives (Dershowitz, 2002). This concept was also instrumental in the later landmark decision in Roe v. Wade (1973) that established that states could not prohibit elective abortions within the first trimester or during the second trimester except with respect to regulating certain medical issues (Clapman, 2003; Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005).

Autonomy over One's Body -- The Most Fundamental of all Privacy Rights

It is difficult to imagine a more important personal right than the autonomous control over one's physical person. In fact, the principal basis of the justification for government authority is as the most effective way of ensuring that individuals do not violate one another's rights. In that regard, it is appropriate for the government to regulate all forms of "personal" choices and actions that unjustly interfere with the identical rights of other people. It is relatively obvious why government should be entitled to regulate individual behavior that harms others; however, it is not as clear what (if any) is the basis of any right of government authorities to regulate or proscribe purely private choices that do not impose at all on the right of any other person. That argument applies to refusing life-saving medical treatment, physician-assisted suicide, and elective abortion.

All Pro-Choice advocates recognize that a fetus becomes a person at some point before birth. Secular ethicists also argue for erring on the safe side, but they recognize earlier periods of gestation (such as when the fetus is not even recognizably formed) when a fetus should not yet be considered a person with moral and civil rights. In a practical sense, the Roe decision already allows states to regulate abortion during the period of human gestation where the fetus can reasonably by said to have the rights of a person by objective scientific criteria. Therefore, the philosophical and ethical basis of argument over abortion is not objective or scientific but religious, because its fundamental issue if the religious belief that a human being is created at the moment of conception (Dershowitz, 2002).

A Conflict between Fundamental Rights -- Free Speech vs. Privacy

Free speech and freedom of religion are two… [read more]

Wade vs. Roe Abortion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Roe v. Wade: An Enduring Constitutional Controversy

Socio-political Background of Case

In the years preceding the landmark case of Roe v. Wade in 1973, the United States underwent a great deal of social upheaval (Cohen, 2005). Much of this upheaval pertained to fighting for attainment of civil rights: African-Americans fought to be treated equally and even subsections of… [read more]

Abortion Throughout History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,447 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Throughout history, abortion has been the subject of a lot of controversy, with it having both people supporting it and rejecting it. Even though it did not get sufficient attention until the last few centuries, the act has been practiced from the early ages, when people used various devices to terminate pregnancies. Whether it is discussed by the general… [read more]

Abortion Issue in the United States Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (984 words)
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Abortion Issue in the United States

Though there is a theoretical separation between Church and State which is said to serve the inherently spiritual but politically secular United States, there is nonetheless an inextricable relationship between the moral codes which guide both sectors. Indeed, it may often be difficult if not impossible to fully distinguish where such moral motives can be said to derive from political imperatives or from religious ones when speaking on such sociologically prevalent issues as those concerning law and order, civil liberty and the sanctity of human life. Perhaps no such issue is as salient in modern discourse as that of abortion, which by no mere incidence of its commonality throughout human history, but by its very implications to our conception of that which defines life, is unlikely ever to be settled in such a fashion as to end our collective disagreement on terms. However, by pitting against one another arguments supposing the wrongness of abortion and consequently discounting such wrongness, it is clear that there is a greater rational foundation for the political perspective taken by pro-choice candidates, which opposes legal obstruction to the right to an abortion.

According to the position paper on the subject offered by the California Medical Association in 1973, "the term abortion refers to 'any procedure performed primarily for the purposes of terminating a pregnancy." (CMA, 42) That this runs afoul of the Christian authored premise that 'life begins at conception' serves as the primary cause for its centrality in a cultural conflict that has taken on greater implications in the political and public spheres of discourse. Indeed, the abortion debate in the United States in particular is highlighted by a stark cultural divide between those in the religious right typically affiliating with the Republic party and frequently with the Christian faith. These characteristics tend to describe those individuals and groups who have defined abortion as a political issue rather than as a medial or privacy rights issue. It is this latter view that is taken by abortion-rights activists, who contend that the moral perspective taken by pro-life activists and lobby group is an imposition of personal values and faith on the law. The argument is thus grounded in the belief that laws opposing freedom of the right to decide for one's self is fundamentally unconstitutional.

This is a view that would be further reinforced by the historically significant 1973 court decision known simply today as Roe vs. Wade. Here, "the United States Supreme Court lifted all restrictions on a woman's right to a physician-performed abortion during the first three months of pregnancy, saying that during the first three months, the decision to have an abortion lies with the woman and her physician; the woman has a 'right of privacy' in which the State cannot interfere." (CMA, 42) In a very substantial way, this court decision would demonstrate the law to have rejected as legally relevant the spiritually inclined view that life…… [read more]

Abortion Is a Social Issue and Problem Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,941 words)
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Abortion is a social issue and problem that has elicited a great amount of controversy and debate in countries and societies throughout the world. The central general concern which this debate revolves around is the issue of social norms and values. From a sociological perspective the issue of abortion can be analyzed in terms of the conflict model of society… [read more]

Life One of the First Reasons Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (861 words)
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¶ … Life

One of the first reasons why we should know that abortion is wrong is how those that support it had to change the name. While supporting the act of killing a baby in the womb should be called pro-abortion, it has conveniently been changed to pro-choice to avoid the ugly word and thus, the truth of what is really going on when an abortion occurs. Abortion is unacceptable not only because it is murder but because it degrades life and leads to a society that is not sensitive to life at all. Abortion has become an easy answer to a difficult problem. Since abortion has become the choice of so many, it is simply easier to say that what is being killed in the womb is not a "life" than face the reality that it is a "life." The bottom line is that abortion is wrong and just because the law says it is a legal procedure does not make it right.

One of the arguments that pro-abortion supporters delve into is the fact that a woman's body is her own and she should be in charge of what happens to it. This is a strong charge but it just does not justify killing another life. It is also a weak argument. While the mother's body belongs to the mother, whom does the baby's body belong to? John Finnis answers this question emphatically noting, "the child's body and not the woman's" (Finnis 70). He adds that the arguments are "mere (understandable) bias, mere (understandable) self-interested refusal to listen to the very same claim ('This body is my body') when it is made by or on behalf of another person" (70). In other words, this argument only works for the pro-abortionists when they want it to work. What they refuse to see is the fact that the baby's body belongs to the baby and not the mother. By using their argument against them, abortion is wrong.

Another argument that pro-abortion advocates will use is that we do not know when life actually begins. Those in favor of abortion will maintain that the fetus is nothing more than a mass of cells that cannot live on its own. What pro-abortion proponents fail to recognize is that there are many other human beings that fall into the same category and we do not kill them. For example, many human beings are disabled and cannot survive, or live, on their own. Even young children are incapable of living on their own. By the same standards, we should kill them too.

While…… [read more]

Hospital Ethics Term Paper

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Hospital Ethics

TO DO or NOT to DO


Pro-life and pro-choice advocates clash over this issue, which centers on life or human life and what it really means (Oliver 2005). As Mother Theresa and Yasser Arafat said, personhood refers to "the nature of someone like us and entitled to the same protection of the law." The first issue focuses… [read more]

Orthodox Jews Term Paper

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Orthodox Jews and Abortion

Orthodox Jews

It is true that Judaism does not assign the same status to the unborn child as to life after birth, and thus abortion is permissible, indeed mandatory, when the mother's life is threatened, however the practice in general is forbidden (Feder pp).

Orthodox Judaism alone has maintained scrupulous adherence to Jewish law, according to… [read more]

Defending a Women's Right Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,979 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Catholic Church opposes abortion at any time after fertilization of the egg, even where it is medically necessary to save a woman's life or where pregnancy results from a brutal rape.

Meanwhile, this completely medieval preoccupation with beliefs about what life is obscures any genuine moral concepts that matter in an objective sense. In many respects, the supposed sanctity… [read more]

Legality of Abortion Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Most of the time, couples who adopt do so because they cannot on their own because of medical conditions. Other couples adopt because they themselves may have been adopted and want to provide a stable, loving home for another adopted child. The point is, whatever the reasons, there are a great deal of loving couples and existing families that are literally fighting for the opportunities to love and care for a child. Therefore, adoption is another choice, and a legal choice, for undesired pregnancies instead of abortion.

In a world where abortion is universally legal, the penalty for abuse of abortion must depend on the women who do it. Just because a service such as abortion may be made legal, it does not mean that access to abortion is given without consideration. For example, if there is no physical or severe/extreme psychological reason that the child cannot be carried to term, then it should be and they should be denied access to the procedure. Legal abortion clinics could work in conjunction with the state or nation, as well as with local agencies so that healthy pregnant women receive some kind of minimal health assistance and coordination with local adoption agencies.

Legal abortion would require some kind of basic regulation. Without some kind of safety net or basic regulation of hypothetically legal abortion, if irresponsible and reckless women are getting repeated abortions because of bad choices instead of better and healthier living, then hysterectomies may be an additional provision provided by legal abortion clinics. Then, for those women there will never again be a need for an abortion or birth control in any form. That kind of excessive recklessness is a clue that those kind of women would be poor mothers anyway. Furthermore, universally legal abortions would diminish a number of extreme health problems due to excessive or poorly performed abortions. There are often medical traumas that result because of poorly, quickly, or otherwise ill-performed abortions. Legal abortions reduce traumas post-procedure.

Regarding the question of whether abortion should be legal, consider that just because alcohol and cigarettes are legal, does not mean that everyone uses them. Additionally, just because alcohol and cigarettes are legal, does not mean they are available everywhere and available to everyone at any time. Abortion should be legal. It does not mean every woman will use one each time. And if it is legal, it does not mean it will be incredibly easy to get one for every woman all the time. A significant number of women want this option. Through the project, I hope to learn about the individual contribution to abortion as well as the societal contribution to the need or presence of abortion. It should be present for those who want it and for those who do not want it, they do not have to use it. Keeping it illegal is dangerous for the women who get them, the doctors that perform them, and the people who protest them. Abortion is not a cure-all… [read more]

Sexuality Deviance Social Stratification Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,261 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … incest taboo found in every society?

The incest taboo is found in every society, with close relatives generally excluded as possible partners. However, given that there is tremendous variation between cultures about how to define incest, with some cultures permitting sexual relationships between relatives as close as brother and sister. Some suggest that incest taboos are cultural implementations… [read more]

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