Study "Abortion / Pro-Life / Pro-Choice" Essays 56-110

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All Sides and Issues of Abortion Term Paper

… ¶ … Abortion

The topic of abortion is one of the most controversial and one of the most emotional dilemmas confronted by modern societies. The concept of abortion refers to terminating pregnancy which is intentional with an objective other than… [read more]

Ethics of Abortion Term Paper

… Abortion Debate

The topic of abortion has become one of the most crucial moral, political and religious issues of the end of the 20th and the early 21st centuries. And the debate continues, especially now with the more conservative administration. Decisions pro-or con are often made emotionally without any consideration of the facts and the ability to clearly explain both sides of the issue. The hope is that both sides can objectively evaluate the issue and, following the democratic philosophy of this country, determine an answer that is best for the common good.

The issue of abortion is normally debated first on religious beliefs. For example, the Catholic Bishops in 1998 strongly came out against abortion based on the fact that human life is sacred from the moment of conception until natural death. Thus, abortion, according to religious practices, is immoral in the eyes of the Church. As Pope John Paul II stated in 1995, "Both as Americans and as followers of Christ, American Catholics must be committed to the defense of life."

Individuals who refute the Catholic Church on religious grounds, such as John Swomley (1999), professor emeritus of social ethics at St. Paul School of Theology in Missouri, debate the Bishops' statement by saying, "Nowhere in the Scriptures is there any reference to sacredness or sanctity or respect for fetal life." Ultimately, therefore, women should have the right to control their own destiny.

Similarly, another strong argument for and against abortion is founded on whether or not it violates human rights. Gargaro (2000), a pro-life advocate, writes that abortion is wrong because it entails the killing of human life. Since the baby has a different genetic makeup than its mother, its life has to be seen as separate and to be protected. "Right away, some will say that abortion is not a matter of life and death, arguing that a fetus is not a 'person,' or a 'human being.'" However, medical studies prove that the fetus is a living organism from conception on, she states.

Those who offer rebuttal to this life-at-conception philosophy, state that there is "life" from the moment of conception in the sense that it is a biological entity that alters food and oxygen into energy and its cells divide and grow. However, the truer question is whether it is a "person"? There the disagreement comes. Webster's Dictionary defines a person as "an individual or existing as an indivisible whole; existing as a distinct entity." From the moment of conception, the living entity does not have a human consciousness nor is it physically independent. Thus, abortion is not murder, because it is not an independent person.

Another disagreement area concerning abortion is whether or not it can ever be justified, as in cases of incest or rape or fear of harmful abortion practices. Forsythe (1999), who is president of Americans United for Life based in Chicago, wrote in Christianity Today that calling abortion a "necessary evil" is just another way for pro-choice individuals to keep… [read more]

Christian Beliefs and Abortion Term Paper

… However, the canon laws of the church on abortion remained unchanged for a long time until Pope Pius IX dropped the distinction between the "fetus animatus" and "fetus inanimatus" in 1869 -- ending the tolerant approach of the church towards abortion, which continues to this day.

The current Christian belief about abortion is largely based on the anti-abortion references in the scriptures in which life was considered to be a sacred gift from God, the womb being an inviolable place and the idea that life starts at the time of conception. At the same time, the Christian anti-abortion groups have also included some popularized scientific beliefs about pregnancies and abortion in their arsenal to counter the "pro-choice" and feminist arguments in favor of abortion.

For example, the "freedom of choice" pro-abortion argument that a woman has a right of control over her own body and, therefore, should have the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies is countered by the contention that an unborn child is a distinctly separate individual and no one has the right or 'freedom' to end the life of another individual. Hence, restriction on abortion is by no means a violation of 'fundamental rights' of a woman as such 'freedom of choice' does not apply to terminating the life of another individual, i.e., the unborn fetus. The Christian churches and religious pro-life groups now also frequently quote scientific evidence that an unborn fetus has a beating heart, tiny little fingers and toes by just 18 days after fertilization and is not just "a blob of tissue" to be callously discarded.

Another 'feminist' argument about abortion rights, i.e., that the women should have the right to abortion so that they are not disadvantaged viz a viz the men in the job market is also bitterly opposed by the Christian groups. They believe that women's main purpose in life is to participate in "the miracle of life" and the perception in our society about the incompatibility of successful working women with pregnancy is termed by them as a "fallout of our society's failed value system." (Terwilliger, para on "Abortion.")

The opposition to abortion among the Christians is, as should be expected, not absolutely consistent; it is strongest in evangelical, fundamentalist, or pentecostal churches (e.g. Baptists, Assemblies of God), as opposed to the 'mainline' liberal churches such as Methodist, Presbyterian, and Epicospalian. Some of the evangelical churches, for instance, take the extreme position that abortion is not permissible even in cases of rape and incest, arguing that one sin (rape) does not justify another sin (abortion). On the other hand, most mainline churches and ministers favor legal abortions in instances of rape, incest, or when the health of the mother is jeopardized. None, however, support abortion on demand as is the position of the pro-choice groups. (Jelen, 134-142)


The Christian beliefs about abortion have completed a full circle since the biblical times. Initially, the Christian church was firmly opposed to all forms of abortion and considered it a dire sin.… [read more]

Abortion Term Paper

… By any norms, this is not only a crime, but the lowest immoral act than one can sink to. If one adds the health risks than women having abortions have and the promiscuity among teenagers that abortion often encourages and there is a complete picture of what abortion is all about.


1. Physical Health Risks of Abortion. Scientific Studies Reveal Significant Risk. On the Internet at

2 H.L. Howe, et al., "Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40," International Journal of Epidemiology, 18(2):300-304 (1989)

3. Sharvy, B. The morality of abortion. A critique. On the Internet at

4. Abortion morality. Letters to the Editor. The Miami Herald. November 2004. On the Internet at

Sharvy, B. The morality of abortion. A critique. On the Internet at




Abortion morality. Letters to the Editor. The Miami Herald. November 2004. On the Internet at

Sharvy, B. The morality of abortion. A critique. On the Internet at

Physical Health Risks of Abortion. Scientific Studies Reveal Significant Risk. On the Internet at Also in H.L. Howe, et al., "Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40," International Journal of Epidemiology, 18(2):300-304 (1989)… [read more]

Abortion a Modest Proposal Term Paper

… Many girls arguing for abortion will admit, for example, "I wish my mother had aborted me." These girls were not given a choice to be aborted when their mother was pregnant; the choice was taken out of their hands. Allowing the mother to take herself out of the situation along with the fetus will give that choice back to her. Laws have, in the past, allowed abortion only as a means of preventing the death of the mother, even when the mother wanted to die, which is counterproductive. "California has legalized 'therapeutic abortion' in 1967, women had to go before a panel of doctors and plead their cases in order to have legally sanctioned, in-hospital procedures. They had to say they'd commit suicide unless they had an abortion." (Baird-Windle) Why not just assist the girls in committing suicide in a medically sound way? Additionally, abortion is a popular option for those seeking to combat the growing problems of overpopulation in the world. With birth rates growing at an astounding rate, supporting birth control methods of many sorts is necessary to avoid disastrous conditions in the world that would lead to hunger, disease, and misery throughout the world populations. It is believed that sacrificing or preventing one life through abortion (depending on the individual's perspective) is actually saving lives. With this in mind, it is easy to see the benefits of ending the mother as well as the fetus, as this will lead to twice the impact on slowing the population growth. Organizations such as the Voluntary Human Extinction Movement will point out that, "Having babies" is not so much the problem -- having adults is what's causing the problems." (Knight) Many women also choose abortion as means of avoiding the pain and suffering that would be involved in completing the pregnancy and child-birthing process, as well as the pain that the child will experience later in life. They may not realize, however, that current abortion procedures are painful and terrifying for the mother, and some speculate for the fetus as well. The physical suffering during and immediately following, as well as the post-partum-like depression and mental anguish caused by imbalanced hormones, can come as an unpleasant surprise to unprepared patients. Additionally, women who have had an abortion are far more likely to develop painful and recurring disorders involving the reproductive organs and also sexual dysfunction. This pain could be easily avoided through a simple and painless procedure that would allow both the mother and unborn child to avoid the pain of separation… [read more]

Life Legal and Ethical Issues Term Paper

… Obstacles to the practice are the healthcare industry's fear of legal reprisal. One expert writes, "An additional obstacle to withdrawing therapy that has already begun is a fear of legal liability. Many worry that stopping treatment, even when ethically justifiable, will constitute wrongful killing" (Berger, 1990, p. 29).

Ultimately, the choice to die remains with the patient and the patient's family, and it is a difficult decision to make because of the ethics involved. Some find it a principle of the "greatest good," as Joseph Fletcher discusses in his case on the morality of euthanasia. He notes, "The Christian love ethic, searching seriously for a social policy, forms a coalition with the utilitarian principle of the 'greatest good of the greatest number.' Of course it reshapes it into the 'most love for the most neighbors'" (Fletcher 19). Thus, euthanasia only benefits the patient, and may actually harm the overall relationship and function of the family, and so ethically, it is a difficult decision. In addition, the American Medical Association (AMA) does not approve of euthanasia, so a doctor carrying out the wishes of a family could face censure, disbarment, or even murder charges. Ethically, many people believe euthanasia is simply another word for murder, and it should never be legalized. Again, the question, who is responsible for life, man, or God? comes into play. The legal issue here is also clear. Currently, euthanasia is illegal, and despite repeated attempts at legalization, only Oregon has actually voted to legalize it in their state.

In conclusion, how we begin our lives and end our lives are some of the most difficult ethical and legal problems facing Americans today. If the beginning and the end are so difficult to decide, they how will we ever manage to make the rest of our lives meaningful and important? We must decide the legality of these problems, so we can go about living the rest of our lives to the fullest.


Alexander, Mary S. (1993). Defining the abortion debate. ETC.: A review of general semantics 50.3: 271+.

Berger, Joyce, ed. (1990). To die or not to die? Cross-disciplinary, cultural, and legal perspectives on the right to choose death. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Fletcher, Joseph. (1967). Moral responsibility: Situation ethics at work. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.

Jacoby, Kerry N.…… [read more]

Ethics of Abortion Term Paper

… In the Doe case the financial stress of the patient was outlined for the judge panel.

1) She was a 22-year-old Georgia citizen, married, and nine weeks pregnant. She had three living children. The two older ones had been placed in a foster home because of Doe's poverty and inability to care for them. The youngest, born July 19, 1969, had been placed for adoption. Her husband had recently abandoned her and she was forced to live with her indigent parents and their eight children. She and her husband, however, had become reconciled. He was a construction worker employed only sporadically. She had been a mental patient at the State Hospital. She had been advised that an abortion could be performed on her with less danger to her health than if she gave birth to the child she was carrying. She would be unable to care for or support the new child (U.S. Supreme Court DOE v. BOLTON, 410 U.S. 179 (1973)

410 U.S. 179 ("

This is something that can be decided ethically by a doctor. If he or she believes that birth and raising a child will have a negative impact on society, as well as the patient herself it is perfectly ethical to provide the requested service of an abortion.

The appeal that was filed in the case of Doe said that there had been many constitutional rights violated including: "This invaded her [410 U.S. 179, 186] rights of privacy and liberty in matters related to family, marriage, and sex, and deprived her of the right to choose whether to bear children. This was a violation of rights guaranteed her by the First, Fourth, Fifth, Ninth, and Fourteenth Amendments. The statutes also denied her equal protection and procedural due process and, because they were unconstitutionally vague, deterred hospitals and doctors from performing abortions. She sued "on her own behalf and on behalf of all others similarly situated (U.S. Supreme Court DOE v. BOLTON, 410 U.S. 179 (1973)

410 U.S. 179 ("

This entire mind set, that the future mental health and financial health of the mother will have a direct impact on the life of the child provides the green light for this current case to be granted an abortion. The doctor in the current case can perform the abortion based on the statements given by the patient that the undue financial burden would be difficult for her.


The issue of abortion is one that is heated and emotional. The law allows for the performance of abortion, and in many instances it is left to the doctor to determine the mental health state of the patient requesting the procedure. If the doctor is charged with making sure the patient is of sound enough mind and body to handle having an abortion then the doctor should also be given the leeway to determine the serious mental and physical impact that a forced term will cause. This case is one in which it will be ethical to give… [read more]

Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues Term Paper

… Asides the fact that there are inevitable side effects for any kind of pharmaceutical preparation there are two main aspects to be considered when we discuss the safety of the drug. The main contentious issue is that the drug was… [read more]

Abortion Term Paper

… They are of the view that human fetus must be given a chance of life as it deserves to live as much as any normal living human being. For example, if I told you that there is a poor family with seven children and the mother is pregnant with the eighth baby, she is unhealthy and wire thin, would you say it is wise or reasonable for her to opt for abortion. Well if your answer was yes, you just killed the world famous symphony composer, Beethoven. Anti-abortion circles argue that while a woman has right to decide her future, she must not be given the right to completely destroy the future of another human being. Even if a woman feels she is incapable of providing for the child, it is better to give the baby up for adoption than completely kill all chances of a bright and normal future for that child.

Teleological view that the decision regarding a controversial subject should be based on the question of ends justifying the means. Teleological arguments essentially focus on circumstances and it is maintained that if a mother feels that she might not be able to provide the child with the very best, it is only fair and sensible to terminate the pregnancy. This theory does not support any one side of the abortion issue; it is only concerned with the consequences of the action. If it is felt that ends would ultimately justify the means than abortion should be allowed otherwise there is no reason to kill the human fetus.

Deontological view however focuses on our duty to our fellow human beings, to the society and to God. This can be described as a theory based on religious and ethical beliefs and therefore it judges the subject of abortion in this manner only. This view essentially the pro-life stand because our responsibility towards God and our fellow human beings would not allow abortion.

After carefully studying both sides of the issue, I feel that a person should be extremely careful when faced with a decision as tough as terminating pregnancy. It is easy to dismiss the issue as personal matter, but it can have far reaching impact on the society in the long run. We all want a society based on ethical and moral principles, then it is absolutely unwise to not seek to resolve the issue of abortion effectively. I believe that if a mother is aware of her rights to choose, she then must understand that the baby she is carrying would also want that right, and even a choice between life and death, who would prefer latter over the former. This means that people should be careful when faced with tempting situations because their action in weak moments can bear in unwanted consequences.


1) S. Boyd, "Give us liberty: The approval of RU-486 isn't about morals, it's about options," at:

2) Michael Kinsley, ESSAY: The New Politics of Abortion., Time, 07-17-1989, pp 96

3)… [read more]

Abortion Rights Research Paper

… Abortion is by definition a feminist issue because only women can become pregnant. However, abortion is also a human rights issue. All sides of the abortion debate frame abortion in terms of human rights, with anti-choice activists claiming the rights of the fetus trump those of the woman, and pro-choice activists claiming the rights of the woman trump those of the fetus. Because a woman is a human being and a fetus is not yet a human being, it seems that abortion should be a relatively straightforward legal matter, even if not a straightforward ethical one. Religious fanatics and the morally self-righteous can believe whatever they want, but those beliefs cannot and should not impinge upon the law. Unfortunately, the law has become severely tainted by corrupt politics that have lost sight of fundamental constitutional rights and freedoms. A patriarchal society provides the structural supports under which conservative, anti-woman, anti-choice activists have been permitted to flourish. Restricting access to abortion is necessary for the preservation of patriarchy, whereas empowering women with the right to choose categorically subverts an anti-woman social and political structure.

Restricting abortion is a cornerstone of the preservation of patriarchy, because if women were given equal protection under the law, it would be an admission that women are equal to men. As it stands, conservatives have deemed that a cluster of cells has more rights than women. Conservatives seek to restrict access to abortion even in cases in which the woman's life is in danger, because the woman's life is not considered as worthy of whatever grows in her uterus (Ginty). The law now protects those who wish to restrict the rights of half of the American population, because the legal system is part of the patriarchal political and social structure. When Ginty asks, "How did we get to the point where 258 right-wing bishops -- all (supposedly) celibate male clerics -- are prohibiting doctors from practicing medicine and denying women essential reproductive care," the answer is that we have always been this way. Women were unable to vote until relatively recently, and anti-choice provisions in statewide legislation perpetuates the patriarchal values that underwrite most of conservative American discourse.

Abortion is a feminist issue because some women are dying because of lack of access to medical care using unethical and unprofessional practices. As a result of a patriarchal medical system, "substandard care" is "becoming rampant in the U.S., threatening women's health and women's lives," (Ginty 426). This is why abortion is more than a feminist issue; it is a human rights issue. Patriarchy infringes on the rights of women. As Ginty points out, 47 states and the District of Colombia "now allow individuals or entities to refuse women reproductive health services," (426). Denying people fundamental rights such as access to health care seems preposterous, but under a patriarchal system, it is a matter of course. A patriarchal system places women lower on the social,…… [read more]

Constitution Changing Abortion Guidelines Research Paper

… The level of life protection in America is also less compared to any other country in the Western world. Today in America abortion is much more similar to slavery (Sarah, K. 2010). Abortion has become the central to the lives of many American people, no matter its social cost or the victimization of the citizens who are weak and vulnerable it is time for the Congress and judicial systems to change these laws that are slowly crippling the United States of America


The American people have to understand abortion; this will make them realize that abortion is anti-human, anti-life and that it is anti-woman. It is time the American people go after the minds and hearts that are armed with knowledge and animated by compassion.


Chris Meyers. Fetal Position: A Rational Approach to the Abortion Debate. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2014|EJ3010869101&u=gotitans&zid=8964d7a809f6af6e50266c6770742729

Edward, Lazarus. The Lingering Problems with Roe v. Wade, 2002. Retrieved on May 20, 2014

Sarah Kliff, Remember Roe!, NEW SWEE K. MAGAZINE, 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2014… [read more]

Why Abortion Should Not Be Allowed Essay

… According to NHS, all clinical procedures carry some degree of risk. Some of the most common or prominent risks during the abortion process are womb damage, cervical damage, and hemorrhage (NHS). After an abortion, as the NHS further points out, womb infection remains one of the main risks. Repeated abortions according to NHS could also result in miscarriages as a result of the damage occasioned to the cervix. It is also important to note that apart from the largely medical complications identified above, abortion could also result to a lot of mental anguish and pain later on in life. Indeed, "approximately 15-25% of women who undergo induced abortion suffer from guilt feelings, anxiety, depression, sensations of loss, anger, decrease in self-esteem, nightmares and hallucinations" (Steinberg 3).

For fairness sake, it would be prudent to examine (and fault) two of the most prominent arguments that have been advanced by those in support of abortion. One such argument is that individuals ought to be granted full and absolute autonomy over their bodies. Proponents of this argument "assert that a woman's right to self-determination, liberty and bodily integrity means that she should be able to decide not to continue with the pregnancy at whatever stage (and for whatever reason)" (Hendrick). This argument is however faulty on various fronts. For those demanding control over their bodies, they ought to come to the realization that control extends to the making of rational decisions, including prevention of unwanted pregnancies. Another argument that has been advanced by proponents of abortion is what is referred to as the right to self-defense approach. This approach according to Hendrick maintains that when threatened in some way, an individual (in this case a woman) reserves the right to protect herself. As rational as this argument may seem at first instance, it is inherently faulty and without any sound basis. It beats commonsense as to why an unborn baby would be viewed as an intruder while in the first place, its conception was as direct consequence of the actions and decision of the individual who now insists on terminating it. While the right to self-defense approach could be deemed reasonable in those instances where the health of the mother is at risk or where the woman in question was raped, it would be hard to advance such an argument in an instance where the pregnancy came about as a result of irresponsible behavior (Hendrick).

Works Cited

Hendrick, Judith. Law and Ethics in Children's Nursing. Iowa: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.

NHS. "Abortion -- Risks." NHS, 7 June 2012. Web. 20 April. 2014.

Saad, Lydia. "Pro-Choice Americans at Record-Low 41%." 23 May 2012. Web. 20 April. 2014.

Schwarz, Stephen D. Understanding Abortion: From Mixed Feelings to Rational Thought. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2011. Print.

Schwarzwalder, Rob. "The Best Pro-Life Arguments for Secular Audiences." Family Research Council, 2014. Web. 20 April. 2014.

Steinberg, Avraham. Encyclopedia…… [read more]

Anti-Abortion Rule Natural Law Term Paper

… But, there is a mutual agreement between developmental biologists and the Roman Catholic believers that moment of conception is the moment of beginning of a human life and personhood as there is a set of markers that show the beginning of a human life.

Natural law has thereby argued that in the face of death and threat to life, and in order to save her own life, a woman can undergo the procedures for aborting the fetus. This exception has only been given by the natural law if death of the fetus is not being directly intended. Nonetheless, if death of an unborn child is being directly intended as a result of the use of medical procedures that include chemotherapy and hysterectomy, abortion occurring in such case is indefensible and is considered illegal.

In the end, it is important to add that the lives of millions of unborn fetuses and embryos cannot be simply left on the shoulders of personal quaintness and political battering.


Natural law is based on the purpose that we have in life as humans. In natural law, first precept is the preservation of an innocent which leads to the second most important precept, do not abort. Second precept is purely based on the deontological principles and there is no denying based on these principles that abortion is illegal and immoral. Abortion is not abortion as it is clear from the second precept of the natural law. Natural law has clearly said that killing an innocent is not an option thereby there is no pondering over it. But here the natural law has highlighted that the abortion can be thought over in certain conditions whereas these conditions have been defined in clear words as rape, incest or a threat to the life of the mother. Other than these conditions, abortion is an illegal act.


Feinberg, S.J., and Feinberg, D.P. (2010). Ethics for a Brave New World. Edition 2. Crossway.

Kainz, P.H.…… [read more]

Abortion Rights: In Dew vs. Brownmiller Essay

… Abortion rights: In Dew vs. Brownmiller, the debate rages on if every woman were to follow pro-life activist Diane Dew's logic in her essay "It's a child, not a choice," than she would be obligated to have as many children as possible -- every potential child could be the next Michelangelo or Edison, writes Dew. According to Dew's point-of-view, convenience -- including the ability or desire to have a child -- should play no role in determining whether a child should be brought to term. Quality of life is meaningless, both for the mother and for the child. What matters is life itself. Equally disturbing is Dew's line of argumentation based on a Christian perspective, which states that a convenience should have no role in determining whether a child should be brought into the world, as Christ's birth was not convenient for the Virgin Mary. This is despite the fact that the United States is not a Christian nation, merely a nation that tolerates the practice of Christianity -- and all religions -- within its borders.

Dew certainly had the right, under the laws of the land, to choose to have a child despite her husband's unemployment. But pro-choice activists would ask why should she have the right, based upon her fundamentalist Christian principles, to dictate other women's reproductive choices? Even with the legal prerogative to have an abortion, Dew did not choose to do so, undercutting her own logic that every woman with the option to choose abortion will invariable decide to terminate the pregnancy. Dew is proud of the fact that she risked giving birth to a child with severe deformities, after suffering the German measles during pregnancy. Her living quarters at the time exhibited conditions that might cause some social workers to intervene to protect the welfare of a child: "No running water. No heat. Canned goods froze in the cupboard. Water in the sink (from snow I had melted) became solid overnight. I was 1,000 miles from family and didn't have a friend in town…after one beating that put me in bed for weeks, I almost lost the baby. My husband left shortly after the baby was born." Dew argues that because she sees bringing a new life into the world under such conditions as noble, others should do the same. What if Dew had other children? Would it have been fair to them to add another mouth to feed to the family?

The feminist Susan Brownmiller points out that abortion has always been practiced in the United States and elsewhere. The question is if abortions shall be done safely or unsafely, legally or illegally. When women face dire and desperate circumstances, Brownmiller states that they should not be forced to risk their lives to exercise control over their reproductive health. While Dew condemns the amount of money abortion doctors make, Brownmiller points out that unscrupulous practitioners often made far more when abortion was illegal in the majority of states of the union, and they often… [read more]

Controversy Abortion the Right to Privacy Research Paper


The Right to Privacy

Contrary to what many people believe, there is no constitutional right to privacy per se (Dershowitz, 2002). The modern right to privacy first came to be recognized in connection with a series of U.S. Supreme Court cases that were decided during the civil rights era. Specifically, in the principle case Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), the Supreme Court struck down a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives, ruling that the Constitution did protect a right of privacy despite the fact that no such white was actually described (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005).

To reach that conclusion, the court decided that the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment was the source of an umbrella or "penumbra" of protections that emanated from the Constitution to protect fundamentally private matters such as the choice by a married couple to use contraceptives (Dershowitz, 2002). This concept was also instrumental in the later landmark decision in Roe v. Wade (1973) that established that states could not prohibit elective abortions within the first trimester or during the second trimester except with respect to regulating certain medical issues (Clapman, 2003; Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005).

Autonomy over One's Body -- The Most Fundamental of all Privacy Rights

It is difficult to imagine a more important personal right than the autonomous control over one's physical person. In fact, the principal basis of the justification for government authority is as the most effective way of ensuring that individuals do not violate one another's rights. In that regard, it is appropriate for the government to regulate all forms of "personal" choices and actions that unjustly interfere with the identical rights of other people. It is relatively obvious why government should be entitled to regulate individual behavior that harms others; however, it is not as clear what (if any) is the basis of any right of government authorities to regulate or proscribe purely private choices that do not impose at all on the right of any other person. That argument applies to refusing life-saving medical treatment, physician-assisted suicide, and elective abortion.

All Pro-Choice advocates recognize that a fetus becomes a person at some point before birth. Secular ethicists also argue for erring on the safe side, but they recognize earlier periods of gestation (such as when the fetus is not even recognizably formed) when a fetus should not yet be considered a person with moral and civil rights. In a practical sense, the Roe decision already allows states to regulate abortion during the period of human gestation where the fetus can reasonably by said to have the rights of a person by objective scientific criteria. Therefore, the philosophical and ethical basis of argument over abortion is not objective or scientific but religious, because its fundamental issue if the religious belief that a human being is created at the moment of conception (Dershowitz, 2002).

A Conflict between Fundamental Rights -- Free Speech vs. Privacy

Free speech and freedom of religion are two… [read more]

Wade vs. Roe Abortion Term Paper

… ¶ … Roe v. Wade: An Enduring Constitutional Controversy

Socio-political Background of Case

In the years preceding the landmark case of Roe v. Wade in 1973, the United States underwent a great deal of social upheaval (Cohen, 2005). Much of… [read more]

Abortion Throughout History Term Paper

… Abortion

Throughout history, abortion has been the subject of a lot of controversy, with it having both people supporting it and rejecting it. Even though it did not get sufficient attention until the last few centuries, the act has been… [read more]

Abortion Issue in the United States Research Proposal

… Abortion Issue in the United States

Though there is a theoretical separation between Church and State which is said to serve the inherently spiritual but politically secular United States, there is nonetheless an inextricable relationship between the moral codes which guide both sectors. Indeed, it may often be difficult if not impossible to fully distinguish where such moral motives can be said to derive from political imperatives or from religious ones when speaking on such sociologically prevalent issues as those concerning law and order, civil liberty and the sanctity of human life. Perhaps no such issue is as salient in modern discourse as that of abortion, which by no mere incidence of its commonality throughout human history, but by its very implications to our conception of that which defines life, is unlikely ever to be settled in such a fashion as to end our collective disagreement on terms. However, by pitting against one another arguments supposing the wrongness of abortion and consequently discounting such wrongness, it is clear that there is a greater rational foundation for the political perspective taken by pro-choice candidates, which opposes legal obstruction to the right to an abortion.

According to the position paper on the subject offered by the California Medical Association in 1973, "the term abortion refers to 'any procedure performed primarily for the purposes of terminating a pregnancy." (CMA, 42) That this runs afoul of the Christian authored premise that 'life begins at conception' serves as the primary cause for its centrality in a cultural conflict that has taken on greater implications in the political and public spheres of discourse. Indeed, the abortion debate in the United States in particular is highlighted by a stark cultural divide between those in the religious right typically affiliating with the Republic party and frequently with the Christian faith. These characteristics tend to describe those individuals and groups who have defined abortion as a political issue rather than as a medial or privacy rights issue. It is this latter view that is taken by abortion-rights activists, who contend that the moral perspective taken by pro-life activists and lobby group is an imposition of personal values and faith on the law. The argument is thus grounded in the belief that laws opposing freedom of the right to decide for one's self is fundamentally unconstitutional.

This is a view that would be further reinforced by the historically significant 1973 court decision known simply today as Roe vs. Wade. Here, "the United States Supreme Court lifted all restrictions on a woman's right to a physician-performed abortion during the first three months of pregnancy, saying that during the first three months, the decision to have an abortion lies with the woman and her physician; the woman has a 'right of privacy' in which the State cannot interfere." (CMA, 42) In a very substantial way, this court decision would demonstrate the law to have rejected as legally relevant the spiritually inclined view that life…… [read more]

Abortion Is a Social Issue and Problem Thesis

… Abortion is a social issue and problem that has elicited a great amount of controversy and debate in countries and societies throughout the world. The central general concern which this debate revolves around is the issue of social norms and… [read more]

Life One of the First Reasons Term Paper

… ¶ … Life

One of the first reasons why we should know that abortion is wrong is how those that support it had to change the name. While supporting the act of killing a baby in the womb should be called pro-abortion, it has conveniently been changed to pro-choice to avoid the ugly word and thus, the truth of what is really going on when an abortion occurs. Abortion is unacceptable not only because it is murder but because it degrades life and leads to a society that is not sensitive to life at all. Abortion has become an easy answer to a difficult problem. Since abortion has become the choice of so many, it is simply easier to say that what is being killed in the womb is not a "life" than face the reality that it is a "life." The bottom line is that abortion is wrong and just because the law says it is a legal procedure does not make it right.

One of the arguments that pro-abortion supporters delve into is the fact that a woman's body is her own and she should be in charge of what happens to it. This is a strong charge but it just does not justify killing another life. It is also a weak argument. While the mother's body belongs to the mother, whom does the baby's body belong to? John Finnis answers this question emphatically noting, "the child's body and not the woman's" (Finnis 70). He adds that the arguments are "mere (understandable) bias, mere (understandable) self-interested refusal to listen to the very same claim ('This body is my body') when it is made by or on behalf of another person" (70). In other words, this argument only works for the pro-abortionists when they want it to work. What they refuse to see is the fact that the baby's body belongs to the baby and not the mother. By using their argument against them, abortion is wrong.

Another argument that pro-abortion advocates will use is that we do not know when life actually begins. Those in favor of abortion will maintain that the fetus is nothing more than a mass of cells that cannot live on its own. What pro-abortion proponents fail to recognize is that there are many other human beings that fall into the same category and we do not kill them. For example, many human beings are disabled and cannot survive, or live, on their own. Even young children are incapable of living on their own. By the same standards, we should kill them too.

While…… [read more]

Hospital Ethics Term Paper

… Hospital Ethics

TO DO or NOT to DO


Pro-life and pro-choice advocates clash over this issue, which centers on life or human life and what it really means (Oliver 2005). As Mother Theresa and Yasser Arafat said, personhood refers… [read more]

Orthodox Jews Term Paper

… Orthodox Jews and Abortion

Orthodox Jews

It is true that Judaism does not assign the same status to the unborn child as to life after birth, and thus abortion is permissible, indeed mandatory, when the mother's life is threatened, however… [read more]

Defending a Women's Right Term Paper

… The Catholic Church opposes abortion at any time after fertilization of the egg, even where it is medically necessary to save a woman's life or where pregnancy results from a brutal rape.

Meanwhile, this completely medieval preoccupation with beliefs about… [read more]

Legality of Abortion Research Proposal

… Most of the time, couples who adopt do so because they cannot on their own because of medical conditions. Other couples adopt because they themselves may have been adopted and want to provide a stable, loving home for another adopted child. The point is, whatever the reasons, there are a great deal of loving couples and existing families that are literally fighting for the opportunities to love and care for a child. Therefore, adoption is another choice, and a legal choice, for undesired pregnancies instead of abortion.

In a world where abortion is universally legal, the penalty for abuse of abortion must depend on the women who do it. Just because a service such as abortion may be made legal, it does not mean that access to abortion is given without consideration. For example, if there is no physical or severe/extreme psychological reason that the child cannot be carried to term, then it should be and they should be denied access to the procedure. Legal abortion clinics could work in conjunction with the state or nation, as well as with local agencies so that healthy pregnant women receive some kind of minimal health assistance and coordination with local adoption agencies.

Legal abortion would require some kind of basic regulation. Without some kind of safety net or basic regulation of hypothetically legal abortion, if irresponsible and reckless women are getting repeated abortions because of bad choices instead of better and healthier living, then hysterectomies may be an additional provision provided by legal abortion clinics. Then, for those women there will never again be a need for an abortion or birth control in any form. That kind of excessive recklessness is a clue that those kind of women would be poor mothers anyway. Furthermore, universally legal abortions would diminish a number of extreme health problems due to excessive or poorly performed abortions. There are often medical traumas that result because of poorly, quickly, or otherwise ill-performed abortions. Legal abortions reduce traumas post-procedure.

Regarding the question of whether abortion should be legal, consider that just because alcohol and cigarettes are legal, does not mean that everyone uses them. Additionally, just because alcohol and cigarettes are legal, does not mean they are available everywhere and available to everyone at any time. Abortion should be legal. It does not mean every woman will use one each time. And if it is legal, it does not mean it will be incredibly easy to get one for every woman all the time. A significant number of women want this option. Through the project, I hope to learn about the individual contribution to abortion as well as the societal contribution to the need or presence of abortion. It should be present for those who want it and for those who do not want it, they do not have to use it. Keeping it illegal is dangerous for the women who get them, the doctors that perform them, and the people who protest them. Abortion is not a cure-all… [read more]

Sexuality Deviance Social Stratification Research Paper

… ¶ … incest taboo found in every society?

The incest taboo is found in every society, with close relatives generally excluded as possible partners. However, given that there is tremendous variation between cultures about how to define incest, with some… [read more]

Supreme Court in Many Respects, the Justice Research Paper

… Supreme Court

In many respects, the justice behind the Supreme Court decisions is nearly as important as the decisions themselves. It is said that no one knows how a justice will act once joining this illustrious 12-panel legislative body, and that has been true time and time again. When Justice Stevens, who just announced his retirement after 34 years, was first nominated, the liberals were concerned about his previous conservative decisions. In fact, Stevens not only became a centrist, but someone who carefully reviewed both sides of an issue before making his final decision. As the New York Times (2010) said, Justice Stevens "may be the last justice from a time when ability and independence, rather than perceived ideology, were viewed as the crucial qualifications for a seat on the court." Stevens authored over 400 majority opinions on nearly every issue thinkable, such as immigration, abortion, death penalty, school prayer, campaign finance, and term limits. One of the most noteworthy decisions, which continued the impact of an earlier decision, was his distinct ruling and arbitration actions in the review of Roe v Wade in 1992 with Planned Parenthood V Casey.

In the original highly controversial Roe v Wade, by a vote of 7 to 2, the Supreme Court overturned a Texas law prohibiting abortions not necessary to save the woman's life and decided that "any governmental interference with [a woman's] right is subject to strict judicial scrutiny." It also recognized a state's right to "regulate the abortion procedure after the first trimester of pregnancy in ways necessary to promote women's health" and stated that "after the point of fetal viability -- approximately 24 to 28 weeks -- a state may, to protect the potential life of the fetus, prohibit abortions not necessary to preserve the woman's life or health" (As cited in Stanton, 2005).

Despite the ruling, abortion has continued to be a very emotional topic in American politics. During the decade after the Court's decisions, Roe v. Wade was regularly upheld except for using public funding for the abortion. However, in the 1990s, as the country and Court became more conservative, the rulings started shifting. In Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey in 1992, by a 5 to4 ruling the Court once again affirmed "the essential holding" of Roe v. Wade, but upheld a provision of the Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act that required "physicians to provide patients with anti-abortion information to discourage women from obtaining abortions." More critically, the four opposing views came from Justices Rehnquist, Scalia, Thomas, and White, who voted to "uphold the challenged (state) provisions and overturn Roe completely, stating that it was wrongly decided and the Constitution does not protect the right to choose." Only Blackman and Stevens voted to continue to "protect the right to choose as a fundamental right under Roe by subjecting state restrictions to strict scrutiny"

Across the country, momentum was building to reverse the original Roe v Wade. For example, a summary paper produced by NARAL-Pro-Choice America, "Roe v.… [read more]

Readings in Moral Philosophy Term Paper

… ¶ … Moral Philosophy

First Reading: Why Abortion is Immoral

Author Don Marquis's view justifies the immorality of abortion on identical grounds with that of the immorality of killing an adult human being. Akin to killing an adult human which… [read more]

Abortion and Class Bias Term Paper

… Removing abortion policy from constitutional jurisdiction and placing it under the jurisdiction of individual states raises the danger of violating the rights of poor women to safe medical care. This risks unequal application of the constitutional right to privacy. While some states like California passed broad abortion-rights legislation ensuring the right to abortion should the Supreme Court overturn Roe vs. Wade (Sappenfield), this would not help a woman in Missouri who is too ill or too poor to travel.

In conclusion, in the 1950s through the 1960s, state law has proven inadequate in protecting a woman's right to privacy, medical care and decisions regarding pregnancy. The best way to ensure equal protection for all women - whether rich or poor - is to ensure that abortion remains protected through Constitutional law.

Works Cited

Andryszewski, Tricia. 1996. Abortion: Rights, Option and Choices. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, Inc.

Guernsey, JoAnn Bren. 1993. Abortion: Understanding the Controversy. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company.

Politt, Katha. 1997. "Abortion in American History." Atlantic Monthly May: 111-115.

Sappenfield, Mark. 2002. "California Passes Broad Abortion-Rights Legislation." Christian Science Monitor. September 13: 2+.

Swomley, John. 2002. "Analysis of the Roman Catholic Bishops' November 1998 Political Pastoral Statement 'Living the Gospel of Life: A Challenge to American…… [read more]

Women's Issues the Right Article Review

… However, an individual may not have access to a provider that offers abortions, and such individuals would become marginalized by ANDA.

Additionally, Lopez weakens her argument by simplistically dismissing opposing viewpoints as "ha (ving) the monopoly on drama" (p. 40). She criticizes Stark for stating that the bill "should really be called the First Step Toward Outlawing Abortion Act" (p. 40). However, Lopez is even more "dramatic" than Stark, insulting Hilary Clinton with the back-handed compliment that "Common sense and fairness, evidently, do not always elude the junior senator from New York" (p. 43). Similarly, Lopez states, with regard to the pro-choice opponents to ANDA, that "It is desperation -- being on the losing end of the debate, watching the emanations and penumbras of a culture of life have more and more influence -- that makes them advocate less freedom for their opponents. Specifically, Lopez simplifies the viewpoints of the pro-life community to the point of distortion. The opponents of ANDA do not advocate less freedom for their opponents but rather more freedom -- the freedom of the individual to have the ability to receive an abortion if they so desire. Lopez implies that ANDA opponents wish harm upon the pro-ANDA camp, when in fact the pro-choice community advocates freedom for everyone. By resorting to personal insults, Lopez distracts from the central issues involved in ANDA.

Perhaps Lopez's greatest logical fallacy is her implicit belief that the hospital invariably acts in the best interest of the individual. If one gives the hospital the right to choose whether or not to perform abortions, the hospital will act in its own best interests. The only way for people to ensure that their basic human rights are protected is to place freedom in the hands of the public rather than the institution.


Lopez, K.J. (Fall 2002). "The Right to Choose? Really?" The…… [read more]

Procedure by Another Name Essay

… Ethic Involved in the Partial Birth Abortion Issues

When a pregnant woman learns that her baby is dying inside her, and that might put her own live in the balance, even though that discovery wasn't made until her 8th month of pregnancy, is it ethical or moral for her to have an abortion? On the other hand, does the government (state, federal, regional or local) have the moral authority to tell the pregnant woman she can't have a late-term abortion even though she may die if she doesn't have that abortion? These issues and other relative to partial-birth (or late-term) abortions will be reviewed and critiqued in this paper. Both sides of the issue will be presented.

What was the Decision Scenario ethical problem in this case?

Tammy Watts learned during her eighth month of pregnancy that her baby had trisomy 13, which is an abnormality in the chromosomal make up "that causes severe deformities" with no hope the child will be alive when it is born. Technically the procedure she asked to have performed was "intact dilation and extraction"; also known as the partial-birth abortion procedure. Watts and other women that had partial-birth abortions due to life-and-death matters testified before Congress that they may have died if they had not gone through with the late term abortion. One of the women who testified was Vikki Stella, who stated that "No women have these procedures for trivial reasons… they have them because it's their own choice."

What was the Supreme Court's decision against partial-birth abortions based on?

According to Professor Tim O'Brien (from Nova Southeastern University Law School) "The Court did acknowledge that women have a constitutional right to choose abortion," but the Court also asserted that the government "has a legitimate interest in protecting potential human life," O'Brien told Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) anchor Bob Abernethy. Abernethy reminded O'Brien that the five justices in the majority are Roman Catholic; he asked O'Brien what the justices would say if they were asked about their religious ethics vis-a-vis this abortion issue. O'Brien replied, "I'm sure they would say that religion had nothing to do with it" that they were simply interpreting the Constitution. The reason many pro-choice leaders were upset with the Court's 2007 decision against partial-birth abortions is that a few years ago they "rejected a similar ban" on a 5-4 vote. Of course, what O'Brien didn't say was that in the interim, George W. Bush appointed to conservatives to the High Court as two other justices retired.

What are the competing ethical issues in this matter?

Opposition to the Court's ethics: The court case in question was Gonzales vs. Carhart, 2007 and it was for all to see a purely political statement by the five Republicans (who also happen to be Roman Catholics) who represent the majority on the High Court G.W. Bush, who was elected on the strength of a huge number of conservative Christians, placed two of the five majority members there, both (Catholics and Republicans) find… [read more]

American History - Roe V Wade Research Proposal

… American History - Roe v Wade


In 1969, Norma McCorvey became pregnant and sought to terminate the pregnancy through surgical abortion but was unable to because in her home state of Texas, abortion… [read more]

Woman's Right to Choose Is Important Essay

… ¶ … woman's right to choose is important, to society and to women in general. There are two distinct camps on the debate on abortion in America. One supports a woman's right to choose what to do with her body, while the other supports the rights of the unborn child. Both sides have arguments and assessments to convince others about their positions. It has legally been a woman's right to choose an abortion or not since Roe vs. Wade passed in 1972, and that is the grounds of this argument today. As one writer notes, "Roe ignited an ongoing debate about the proper regulation of abortion. What many regard as the nation's most divisive issue has taken on a language of its own, based on the Court's decision in Roe, subsequent eases, and prevailing social and legal thought" (Roy 339). Even today, people debate the relevance of abortion, and the warrant of its relevance in society.

Those who support a right to choose claim that a woman's body is her own, and she should have the right to choose what to do with it. Statistics show that in 1972, 586,760 abortions were performed in this country, while in 1995, 1,210,883 were performed (CDC). Proponents argue that these children would have been unwanted, would probably have grown up in poverty, and were often born to young, unmarried women who had little of the backing necessary from society or their families to successfully raise these children.

The qualifiers and rebuttals to this pro-choice argument are many, as well. One of their main points is religious opposition to abortion on moral and spiritual grounds. Another author notes, "The primary argument against the right to choose has it that 'personhood' begins at 'conception,' that fertilized eggs, embryos, and fetuses are 'persons' or 'unborn persons.' This is a view with very little historical precedent, essentially a Vatican invention in the latter part of the nineteenth century" (Doerr 40). The Catholic Church vehemently opposes abortion, and does not condone it for any of its members, and many other groups object on moral grounds, as well. While it is clear abortion is a very personal and moral decision,…… [read more]

Obama and Mccain Ethics Essay

… McCain/Obama Comparison

One ethical issue that separates Barack Obama and John McCain is the matter of abortion. This is probably one of the most divisive ethical and political issues in the country. Some votes feel so strongly about the pro-life pro-choice matter that they will vote solely on this issue. The issue has undergone a rejuvenation of sorts with the selection of Sarah Palin as John McCain's Republican running mate for the presidential election.

The history of this issue goes back to the early nineteenth century. Abortions were not criminal offenses "before the 'quickening' of the fetus" (Bardes 128). During the last part of the century, however, abortions were considered illegal with severe punishment. By 1973, abortions were illegal in most states. However, with the issue of an individual's right to privacy, the Supreme Court accepted the argument in favor of Jane Roe, who claimed it was her right to privacy to have an abortion. The court did not address the issue of when life begins they only agreed that a woman has the right to choose. In 1973, the court decided that privacy is a broad enough term to include pregnant women. Since then, the issue is debated fiercely.

Abortion is usually one of the main issues that divide liberals and conservatives. Liberals tend to favor freedom and choice and conservatives tend to favor life. As it might be guessed, candidates usually stand divided on this issue. According to his website, Barack Obama understands that "abortion is a divisive issue, and... has been a consistent champion of reproductive choice and will make preserving women's rights under Roe v. Wade a priority as President" ( McCain's website illustrates a very different view of choice. According to his website, he believes "Roe v. Wade is a flawed decision that must be overturned, and as president he will nominate judges who understand that courts should not be in the business of legislating from the bench" ( There is a difference between these candidates. When we hear that people are voting issues instead of people, this is one of the issues for which they will vote.

This issue is relevant during election cycles because the president has the power to nominate Supreme Court judges. This selection could affect the future of the country many years down the line considering that judges can serve life terms. Voters that are passionate about this issue will consider this fact when they vote. A more liberal president can nominate liberal judges that can vote liberally for decades if they become a Supreme Court justice just like a conservative president can do just the opposite. Many voters see this issue as one that hangs in the balance and will cast their votes for the man or woman that believers the way they do.

Both sides of this issue have equally powerful interest group representation. Liberals have many feminists and others that believe it should be a woman's right to choose. Those on this side of the issue believe… [read more]

U.S. Government Interfere With Existing Federal Law Term Paper

… ¶ … U.S. government interfere with existing federal law that gives the decision to abort a child or not to abort the woman's along to make, in her own private way? The first point-of-view in this paper will be to… [read more]

Roe vs. Wade Term Paper

… Political Science

Roe V. Wade

Roe vs. Wade is the controversial Supreme Court ruling established in January 1973. In simple terms, the ruling allowed women to get abortions from their doctors or medical facilities during the first trimester (the first three months of pregnancy). The decision said denying abortions denied a constitutional guarantee to the right to privacy. It gave women the right to choose what to do with their own bodies, and it has been controversial ever since. The camps are divided into "pro-choice," who want the ruling upheld, and "pro-life," who want to see the ruling overturned on moral, religious, and the rights of the unborn child issues.

The Supreme Court should not overturn Roe vs. Wade, because women should be able to choose to have a child or not. The rights of the mother outweigh the rights of the unborn child. If the mother's health is an issue, the mother has the right to choose her health over the child, and to attempt another pregnancy at another time. In addition, from a legal standpoint, Roe vs.…… [read more]

Euthanasia Should Non-Profit Organizations Be the Mouthpiece Term Paper

… Euthanasia

Should non-profit organizations be the mouthpiece for those who cannot speak for themselves?

President Kaunda of Zambia once said [1]: "Inability of those in power to still the voices of their own conscience is the great force leading to… [read more]

Supreme Court Case Planned Parenthood vs. Casey Term Paper

… Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)

Argued April 22, 1992; Decided June 29, 1992

Background of the Casey Supreme Court

Supreme Court which heard Planned Parenthood v. Casey consisted of Justices Rehnquist, Scalia, Souter, O'Connor, Kennedy, Blackmun, Stevens, White and Thomas.… [read more]

Social Philosophy of Martin Luther Term Paper

… Perhaps equally significant is the means why which Kings attempts to achieve his goals. King is a staunch supporter of the peaceful protest. He tells his supporters to remain nonviolent at all times-to never strike back, no matter what injustices are performed. In the same letter, King writes, "I have earnestly opposed violent tension, but there is a type of constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth, ..., we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood" (King 1963). King realizes the need to create tension-to draw attention to his cause, yet he understands imperatively the need to remain peaceful. The nonviolent approach will almost always draw sympathy over time, while the violent one increases hostilities and polarizes groups.

The second source of King's philosophy is a speech he gave to striking sanitation workers in Memphis, TN. Like the letter to his civil rights constituents, he emphasizes the need for peaceful protest in order to obtain civil rights and liberties. In his speech, King points out the detrimental effects that violence can have on a peaceful protest, "That's always the problem with a little violence. You know what happened the other day, and the press dealt only with the window-breaking. I read the articles. They very seldom got around to mentioning the fact that one thousand, three hundred sanitation workers were on strike, and that Memphis is not being fair to them, and that Mayor Loeb is in dire need of a doctor. They didn't get around to that" (King 1968).

King's social philosophy was one that sought to bring equality to all men. He wanted an end brought to the injustices of the South, and the principles and enumerations of the Constitution rightfully respected. Of paramount importance in his quest, King believed, was the use of nonviolent protest. He acknowledged the need for tension and attention, but also recognized the harm that violent action could entail.

Like King, modern day proponents and opponents of abortion seek their "definition" of civil rights and civil liberties. Some believe the fetus is entitled to the protections afforded the rest of the country's citizens. Others believe the fetus is not a living entity, and that the mother has a right to choose the fate of the fetus inside of her. Regardless of who is right or wrong, the ultimate outcome of this disagreement will more than likely result from the side, which causes tension, yet does it nonviolently. The fact that both sides have failed to adapt this successful social philosophy is evident in the fact that neither side seems to be clearly "winning the war."

Works Cited

King Jr., Martin Luther. 1963. "Letter From Birmingham Jail." Almaz Website.

King Jr., Martin Luther. 1968. "I've Been to the Mountaintop."… [read more]

Heather D's Decision Case Study

… Selective abortion, from a medical standpoint, has its place. For example, to ensure success of IV treatment, multiple embryos are often implanted. This decreases the cost to the couple and also the stress upon the woman's body. However, to ensure a healthy pregnancy, some embryos usually must be eliminated, given the risks of multiple births.

Heather and her husband have several options. The first is that they can put aside their moral qualms and use selective implantation. Psychologically, this is likely to be less traumatic for Heather and her husband, although medically and morally it is not dissimilar to an early abortion. Heather can also elect a selective abortion after the fact, if the fetus is positive for the disease. If the fetus is not positive for Huntington's, then the couple can simply proceed with the pregnancy.

The second option is to carry the pregnancy to term without any screening, but Heather has indicated she does not find this acceptable. It should be noted that Huntington's disease does not develop until the person is in middle age, although the ethical questions of bringing a child to term that will have a severely shortened lifespan remain. Additionally, Heather and her husband may need to consider the possibility that the child may become dependent upon them for the rest of its life in middle age, if he develops the disorder. The third option is adoption, which avoids the moral qualms altogether. However, regardless of what she chooses, given her fifty percent risk of developing Huntington's, before embarking upon a pregnancy and having a child she might not be able to raise into adulthood, Heather…… [read more]

Ethical Egoism and Abortion Research Paper

… The formula of universal law seems to offer a method for evaluating maxims of abortion that eschews the contentious question of whether the fetus is a person. This method also appears to render unnecessary the task of locating one duty… [read more]

Anti-Abortion "Any Country That Accepts Term Paper

… Anti-Abortion

"Any country that accepts abortion is not teaching its people to love but to use violence to get what they want. This is why the greatest destroyer of love and peace is abortion." Mother Teresa

The issues relating to abortion and pro-life hold moral ramifications and just as important the damage it does to the body of the female having the abortion. There are other reasons for not having an abortion including human emotions, psychological state, and medical aspects. Is it worth destroying not only the life of one child but possibly ruining the chance to ever give birth? I argue the risks and the after effects caused by abortions are just as wrong as the abortion itself. One has to wonder if morals even exist anymore.

Literature Review

As an adopted child, I can relate to the issue of anti-abortion from a personal level, "that could have been me." I intend to demonstrate the reasons for being pro-life form the aspects of moral ethics and especially in the terms of the lasting after effects. Abortions can play on the physical and emotional states of the woman long after the procedure is done. (2010) in the web article, "Reasons against Abortion," reports the following reasons:

Abortion is considered strictly against the ethics of a civil society, as it is akin to murder. It punishes the innocent inborn child, by taking away its right to live.

The visible complications arising from abortion are recurrent miscarriages, premature or still births, blocked fallopian tubes and weakened cervix. It can even weaken a woman's reproductive system.

Abortion may lessen the chances of a woman conceiving easily in the future.

Abortion is considered to be one of the reasons for increased cases of breast, uterine and cervical cancer in women.

A woman may incur stress-related problems after undergoing an abortion. Apart from that, she may also fall prey to depression, if she suffers from the guilt of killing her unborn child.

Any one of these should be compelling enough to make a person stop and think about what they are doing.

An embryo is a living, breathing, and growing life form. To say that it is not alive or a human being is wrong. A child is not an adult but a growing human being that will turn out to be an adult. An embryo is growing inside the mother to be the child. Sarah Brown was born severely disabled due to a failed abortion. A loving family adopted Sarah and even though she could not see, talk, or walk; raised her in their home. She loved music, turning her head to the sound and she loved people. She changed the lives of the family and brought a lot of joy. Sarah died at 5 years old from complications due to the late term abortion attempt (Wichita Eagle, 1998). Many parents are out there that do not have or cannot have children. They would love to adopt a child but the…… [read more]

Abortion Visual Images Work Term Paper

… Abortion

Visual images work particularly well in conveying the essential points of the pro-life stance: nothing can be more disheartening and disturbing than a picture of a bloody baby or dead fetus. The Abortion Gallery on the Internet provides particularly powerful visual imagery that conveys the central message that abortion is immoral. Vivid, poignant, full-color photographs of aborted embryos and fetuses are displayed on a simple black background flanked by towers of flame. If the individual thumbnails are not enough to get the viewer thinking deeply on the subject of abortion, clicking on an image will render it in larger size. The primary purpose of the Abortion Gallery, therefore, is to rely on the impact of visual images to argue against the practice of abortion. Pictures portray what words cannot: the horrific consequences of abortion and its essentially being murder. With the abortion issue, logic and reasoning rarely make much of an impact on changing someone's mind. Visual imagery, on the other hand, can work wonders. The images portrayed on the Abortion Pages evoke such emotions as fear, anger, and horror. The conviction that the practice of abortion is wrong is essentially an emotional one, which is why visual images prove particularly powerful.

The realm of the visual transcends logic and reasoning and goes straight for the gut. This is especially true in the case of the online Abortion Gallery. There, a visitor finds dozens of horrifying pictures of aborted embryos and fetuses. The texture and color of these pictures is gruesome, evoking the horrendous nature of the abortion act. Any person considering getting an abortion will look at these images and realize that they will be inflicting the same onto their unborn baby. Some of the pictures show the embryos in relation to adult human hands, emphasizing the fact that we adults should be protective custodians of all human life. The website also includes ultrasounds that depict the unborn child sucking its thumb. Some of the photos are particularly gory, almost like scenes from a horror film. Therefore, the same emotions that one associates with horror films are conveyed through this website.

As abortion is one of the most controversial and sensitive issues facing American culture today, the Abortion Pages are situated at the forefront of the modern debate. Moreover, as they are arranged on a website, they offer the entire world a peek at the crime of abortion. The Internet…… [read more]

Bioethics Definitions Autonomy: "Personal Rule Essay

… Bioethics Definitions

Autonomy: "personal rule of the self that is free from both controlling interferences by others and from personal limitations that prevent meaningful choice" (Pantilat 2008).

Non-maleficence: Not intending to cause harm to others -- 'to do no harm' according to Hippocratic principles

Beneficence: "Beneficence is action that is done for the benefit of others. Beneficent actions can be taken to help prevent or remove harms or to simply improve the situation of others" (Pantilat 2008).

Fidelity: Being faithful to the commitment made to one's professional ethics and to the patient under care

Reparation: Making someone 'whole' again, after an injury has been done, or making amends in a way to specifically address the harms that were done by the perpetrator's wrong

Palliative care: Care focused upon relieving the pain of patients suffering from serious illnesses, versus curing them

Meta-ethics: The branch of ethics that strives to understand the principles behind ethical systems, versus practical questions

Normative ethics: The study of ethics in practice

Justice: Treating patients fairly and equitably, regardless of who they are (including their ability to pay, race or ethnicity, gender, age, etcetera).

Falsification: According to Popper, for a statement to be considered scientific truth, it must be falsifiable (able to be proven false)

Fabrication: Falsifying data or other evidence for nefarious purposes such as self-enrichment

Ethics: Formal systems by which individuals make decisions about right and wrong

Morality: The ideas about right and wrong established by consensus over time with in a society

Virtue ethics: Ethics that focuses upon building a good character to generate good actions

Deontological: Ethical worldview that focuses upon obeying timeless principles applicable to all occasions

Utilitarianism: Ethical system that focuses in doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people

Consequentialism: Ethical system that focuses on the consequences of actions, versus their intentions

Advanced directive: A medical directive issued detailing what should be done if the person is no longer capable of making decisions for him or herself

Medical power of attorney: "a document, signed by a competent adult, i.e., "principal," designating a person that the principal trusts to make health care decisions on the principal's behalf should the principal be unable to make such decisions. The individual chosen to act on the principal's behalf is referred to as an agent" (Medical power of attorney, 1999, Texas Medical Association)

Ethical egoism: The idea that the ethical agent's first responsibility is to act in his or her own self-interest

Ethical altruism: The idea that people have a moral obligation to help others

Pluripotent: "Pluripotent cells can give rise to all of the cell types that make up the body; embryonic stem cells are considered pluripotent" (What is the difference between totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent, 2013, NY State stem cell science).

Totipotent: "Totipotent cells can form all the cell types in a body, plus the extraembryonic, or placental, cells" (What is the difference between totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent, 2013, NY State stem cell science).

Therapeutic cloning: Cloning specific cells to heal… [read more]

Abortion Donna Only Half the Patients Term Paper

… Abortion


Only half the patients who go into an abortion clinic come out alive."

Author Unknown 1980

Abortion is immoral, cannot be justified under any circumstances and is associated with several complications. The definition of a fetus according to… [read more]

Abortion to Poverty Term Paper

… The best instance is the Thornburg Case, which enjoys the privilege of precedence. In the case, court decided that abortions were not to be restricted. A different alternative was more effective, where women were to be informed on abortion and… [read more]

Abortion Term Paper

… Evaluation and Assessment of the Alternatives

The above mentioned policy alternatives are outlined on the idea that it is the government's responsibility to provide welfare support to the underprivileged groups and that public and socio-economic welfare must be given a… [read more]

Abortion in Politics the Argument Term Paper

… (Davis et al. 283-306)

The separation of State and the Church implies, in principle, the recognition of the existence of a separate and independent civil society of the State. Second, is a relative notion between two realities which require the… [read more]

When Does Life Begin? Term Paper

… ¶ … life begin?

The issue of whether life begins at conception or at a later time is one of constant deliberation in today's society. The arguments for both sides of the issue stem from years of research in human biology, stem cells, abortion, DNA, and ethical issues. In the end, the research has shown convincingly that "life" does not begin at conception, but rather, during the third trimester of life.

According to Mary Ann Warren, there are two senses of being human. First, there is a genetic human, or one that holds the genetic makeup of a human. Secondly, there is a human that is a person, and thus has rights by morality. Warren believes that being a genetic human is not equal to being a person, and that those with only a sense of genetic humanity cannot be said to have "life." To be a person, Warren argues, a genetic person must be conscious of objects, events, or internal conditions, particularly in terms of pain sensation, must be able to develop reason, must be able to achieve self-motivated behaviors, independent of genetic or external control, must be able to communicate in some way, and must be self-aware (Warren, 223). Warren's point, then, is that life begins at the point where the genetic human becomes a person that is capable of feelings, thinking, reasoning, and communicating. Thus, life begins far after conception.

Biologically, during the first twenty-four weeks, the fetus requires a mother's womb in order to survive. Organs are being developed, including the brain and lungs, and the body is being fed by the mother. Without the womb, the child would perish, since the organs are simply not developed enough to enable survival. Until the lungs are capable…… [read more]

Abortion on Our Communities Term Paper

… Methodology

The methodology for the research will be on the basis of secondary research. Internet is going to be the major source of information along with journals and other published magazines of public policy issues and other related topics. The Primary research method will be based on a questionnaire with close ended questions.

Tentative Bibliography

1. Adler, N.E., David, H.P., Major, B.N., Roth, S.H., Russo, N.F., and Wyatt, D.E. (1990). Psychological responses after abortion. Science 248:41-44.

2. David, H.P., Dytrych, Z., Matejcek, Z., and Schuller, V. (1988). Born Unwanted: Developmental Effects of Denied Abortion. New York: Springer-Verlag.

3. Devereux, G. (1955). A Study of Abortion in Primitive Society. New York: Julian Press.

4. Forrest, J.D. And Henshaw, S.K. (1987). The harassment of U.S. abortion providers. Family Planning Perspectives 19:9-13.

5. Ginsburg, F.D. (1989). Contested Lives: The Abortion Debate in an American Community. Berkeley: University of California Press.

6. Grobstein, C. (1988). Science and the Unborn. New York: Basic Books.

7. Kolata, G. (1992). In late abortions, decisions are painful and options few. The New York Times, January 5.

8. Luker, K. (1984). Abortion & the Politics of Motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press.

9. Tietze, C. (1975). The effect of legalization of abortion on population growth and public health. Family Planning Perspectives 7:123.

Tentative Questionnaire

Personal View

1. What is your gender ( ) male ( ) female

2. What is your age ( ) 18-25 ( ) 25-40 ( ) 40-60 ( ) 60 above

3. What is your political affiliation ( ) Democrat ( ) Republican ( ) Others

4. What is your level of education ( ) High School ( ) College ( ) University ( ) Doctorate

5. What is your income bracket ( ) 10-20, 000 per annum ( ) 20-30, 000 per annum ( ) 30- 40,000 per year ( ) above

Knowledge of Abortion

1. Do you believe that abortion is…… [read more]

Abortion Means the Early Removal Term Paper

… This hard work should be complemented by public policies to decrease the number of unplanned pregnancies. By education and improved access to and use of contraceptives, this can be achieved.

Moral Issues of Abortion

If we concentrate more on the morals of the measures rather than the legitimacy, then America's sour and discordant argument over abortion can become more fruitful. Many pro-abortion advocates have cuddled the idea that it is an ethically unbiased act that should never bring about censure, condemnation or embarrassment in order to safeguard women's abortion rights from legislative or judicial restrictions. There are some arguments that though this method may be diplomatically successful, it is incorrect and doubtfully misleading. Abortion always involves trade-offs and harmonizing, and these involve morals. It is the duty of a moral person to implement legal rights correctly. Implementing this legal right includes the removal of some form of human life. This hurls some considerable influence on one side of the scales. If that side does not come upon lawful counter-weight from the other side, if the morals are trivial, or unimportant, or effortlessly convened with less significant results, then an abortion is still permissible, but may also be immoral.

Personal Observations:

Simply because an act is legally permissible does not imply it is always correct, responsible or moral. Abortion must be secure as a woman's health is at danger, lawful as it is a personal choice, and, of course, atypical, as though it is lawful it is often morally wrong.

End Notes:

Defining abortion. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 February 2005

Deflem, Mathieu. 1998. The Boundaries of Abortion Law: Systems Theory from Parsons to Luhmann and Habermas. Social Forces. Vol: 76; No: 3; pp: 775-818. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 February 2005

Deflem, Mathieu. 1998. The Boundaries of Abortion Law: Systems Theory from Parsons to Luhmann and Habermas.

Deflem, Mathieu. 1998. The Boundaries of Abortion Law: Systems Theory from Parsons to Luhmann and Habermas.

Ravindran J. Unwanted pregnancy -- medical and ethical dimensions. 2003 March. Med J. Malaysia. Vol: 58; Suppl A: pp: 23-35. Retrieved from db=PubMed& list_uids=14556348& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 10 February 2005

Adolescents Need Safe and Legal Abortion. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 February 2005

Ravindran J. Unwanted pregnancy -- medical and ethical dimensions. 2003 March. Med J. Malaysia. Vol: 58; Suppl A: pp: 23-35.

Bruce, Deanna; Benatar, Sarah. Policy Update on Safe and Legal Abortion, 30 Years after Roe v. Wade. IWPR Publication #B241. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 February 2005

Bruce, Deanna; Benatar, Sarah. Policy Update on Safe and Legal Abortion, 30 Years after Roe v. Wade. IWPR Publication #B241. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 February 2005

Bruce, Deanna; Benatar, Sarah. Policy Update on Safe and Legal Abortion, 30 Years after Roe v. Wade. IWPR Publication #B241.

The Abortion Dilemma: Legal Isn't Always Ethical. 9 November 2004. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 February 2005


Adolescents Need Safe and Legal Abortion. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 February 2005

Bruce, Deanna; Benatar,… [read more]

Abortion in This Day Term Paper

… A woman knows that she is pregnant and therefore capable of producing and sustaining life. This is powerful, even for the woman who has not planned the pregnancy. For women who have been impregnated though rape or forcible sexual intercourse, it would likely seem the them that out of a horrible and violent act, something good has happened - the creation of a new life. The woman who feels that abortion is the most acceptable choice, perhaps because she simply wants to be done with the pregnancy and never think about it again, will soon find that this pregnancy and this choice will stay with her for the rest of her life. The woman who has an abortion is always the mother of the terminated fetus. A woman who carries an unplanned pregnancy through to the end and then gives the baby up for adoption knows that the relationship with the child is essentially over once the adoption is complete and may even have a greater sense of closure than does the woman who has abortion. The woman who has an abortion may have physical problems from the medical procedure that will cause problems later on when planned and wanted pregnancies are anticipated, while women who deliver and then give the baby up for adoption are proven in their ability to reproduce. Imagine the guilt for a woman who has an abortion and then cannot naturally conceive or maintain a pregnancy through to term in later years. In addition, the woman who decides to give a baby from an unplanned pregnancy up for adoption is giving the greatest gift of love she possibly can - not only to the baby that she feels she cannot adequately raise or love, but also to the family who seeks a child for adoption. The mother who gives her baby up for adoption knows that her baby is above all a wanted baby by the adopting family. She can know for the rest of her life that she was able to give a special gift to someone that many cannot or will not do. And she can have closure with the baby in that way, knowing that the adoptive families are screened in a way that natural pregnancies can never be, and she can be secure in the fact that she did what was likely the best for herself and for her baby. In conclusion, it would appear that despite all statistics to the contrary, it is most likely easier for any woman in the long run to give an unwanted baby up for adoption rather than abort it.


Zabin, Laurie Schwab, et al. (1989). "When Urban Adolescents Chose Abortion: Effects on Education, Psychological Status, and Subsequent Pregnancy." Family Planning Perspectives, 21(6), 248-255.

Russo, Nancy Felipe & Kristin L. Zierk. (1992). "Abortion, Childbearing, and Women's Well-Being." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23(4), 269-280

Major, Brenda, et al. (2000). "Psychological Responses of Women after First-Trimester Abortion." Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(8), 777-784

Rogers J.… [read more]

Should Abortion Be Made Legal? The Abortion Debate Essay

… Abortion Debate: Should Abortion be Made Legal?

The abortion debate often revolves around the appropriateness of terminating a pregnancy before the normal process of childbirth. As some rule out that it is inappropriate in any possible scenario, others posit that it is only allowed if a mother's life is at risk, while others argue that depending on a given culture, there are a range of circumstances where it is morally acceptable. Unlike actions such as jaywalking, which are considered illegal but not immoral, and wrongs such as adultery that are considered immoral yet not necessarily illegal, Boonin (2003) states that when it comes to abortion the moral obligation is more fundamental. The National Institute of Health, NIH (2015) defines abortion as the deliberate removal of a fetus from the womb of a female through their agency or at their request, which often results in the death of the fetus.

Although there are numerous differing opinions on the legality of abortion, millions of women still go through with the procedure every day. According to Berek (2007), worldwide, approximately 46 million women have abortions and of these, half are illegal and considered unsafe by the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, in places where abortion is illegal, complications are a common feature because the women often go to any lengths to have it done; 78,000 women worldwide dying each year in the process. Where it is legal, the procedure is reasonably safe although often condemned by the society. By deciding on whether abortion is legal or illegal, societies have a huge part to play in the wellness of mothers. The main aim of this text is to analyze the dilemma on whether abortion ought to be legalized or not. It looks at the pros and cons of abortion, the legal and ethical implications, as well as the major and minor parties affected.

The dilemma

Berek (2007) states that although societies cannot put a stop abortion, they have a significant role to play in determining whether it will be dangerous or safe, which often depends on whether it is illegal or not. However, abortion becomes a sensitive topic particularly because it involves: the nature of human rights, personal autonomy, and the exercise of state authority over personal choices. For instance, much of the debate about legalizing abortion involves debating whose opinion matters the most when it comes to making the decision. Whereas the mother carries the child and faces all potential health risks involved, some posit that the father also plays a huge part in the conception and should have a say in the…… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Abortion Essay

… ¶ … loss of one's life is one of the greatest losses that one can experience, at least according to Marquis (p. 469). The author of this paper will even go one step further and state that the loss of one's life is the greatest loss that one can experience, even if it is willingly given up (as in euthanasia). If that premise holds true, if it can be accepted by society that losing one's life is the greatest loss of them all, then arbitrarily taking one's life without the acknowledged willingness or acquiescence of the victim is morally wrong and cannot be justified under any circumstances. This is especially true with the lives of those who are unable to provide an acknowledgement or acquiescence in any form; verbally, physically, or even with sign language. Those victims, of course, are primarily still-in-the-womb fetuses.

Marquis expounds upon the assumption that most philosophers who happen to be affiliated with institutions of higher education on a secular basis seems to find that the anti-abortion position is either an irrational religious dogma or a conclusion generated by a seriously flawed argument (p. 468). While Marquis does not address specific arguments for the permissibility of abortion, he does seek to render impotent those philosophers by establishing an argument that is neither flawed nor philosophically untenable. This author agrees with the argument that Marquis presents in that abortion is always an immoral act and therefore should not be permissible in any circumstances. This author sees abortion as the greatest tragedy of the 21st century, and argues (along with Marquis) that denying a person's right to life at any stage of that life is the greatest loss that the individual can face, and that in order to be justified in taking that life, the individual must give permission or acknowledgement.

Thomson, on the other hand, argues that in some certain cases abortion is not immoral and should be permissible. Thomson (p. 445) states that unless the father or mother assumes the responsibility for the fetus, after the baby is born, then they do not have responsibility for it. What a specious argument that is. To clarify, Thomson states that if the parents take every precaution to keep from getting pregnant, and do so anyway, they do not any responsibility for that fetus until they have taken it home from the hospital and assumed that responsibility. That is an argument that cannot be made without serious contradiction, and here's the reason why; if the couple had taken "every" precaution then that baby would not have been created in the first place. Every precaution has to include abstinence from the act of creating the baby and that means no sexual intercourse. Just by engaging in the act of sexual intercourse with each other provides reason…… [read more]

Federal Law Abortion Term Paper

… Religious Aspects

The freedom of religion is a guaranteed right in the U.S. Constitution and should be protected fervently and constantly. The abortion issue is deeply religious for many of those who believe that life is something spiritual and important. Groups of people can demand that this practice of killing fetuses is immoral and intolerable on religious grounds within reason. The federal government has not right to stop these sects of people who hold such beleifes and desire to make a community for themselves. Religion and politics is a tricky minefield and should not be held as a distraction to other more pressing issues for the federal government. Norrander & Wilcox (1999) agreed when they wrote " because several religious groups (most notably evangelical Protestants and Catholics) condemn abortion, many legislators have strong personal views on the issue that may conflict with those of their constituents. Indeed, political elites are far more divided on abortion than the mass public and take more extreme positions, " (p.709).

The Moral Argument

Life is the most mysterious idea conceivable. To eradicate life without due process suggests that life is inherently evil and that there is no room to improve, grow and evolve. The act of abortion suggests much about the society it is practiced in and there is no question that the devaluation of life is an inescapable product of such pro-abortion philosophy. Motherhood is not something to be disregarded as unimportant or unnecessary and to diminish the importance of it also suggests a diminishing of women and their natural role in society. Embracing life and the mystery behind its conception should be treated with high reverence and equal respect. The federal government has no right to regulate morals one way or the other and is best left out of this contentious debate.


Boonstra, H.D. (2007). The heart of the matter: public funding of abortion for poor women in the United States. Guttmacher Policy Review, 10(1), 12-16.

Forsythe, C.D., & Presser, S.B. (2005). Restoring Self-Government on Abortion: A Federalism Amendment. Tex. Rev. L. & Pol., 10, 301.

Norrander, B., & Wilcox, C. (1999). Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of…… [read more]

Teenage Abortion Case Study

… Teen abortion issues are very difficult to address, because of the difficulties that are seen on both sides of the dilemma. For those who are under the age of 18, there are considerations regarding their right to privacy vs. their… [read more]

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