"Advertising / Marketing / Sales" Essays

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Proctor and Gamble's Gain Laundry Detergent Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (738 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Proctor and Gamble's Gain Laundry Detergent

Today, major manufacturers of consumer goods such as laundry detergent are faced with some tough choices when it comes to marketing their various brands. In fact, the promotion of one cheaper brand of detergent to a target market may well diminish sales of another more expensive brand manufactured by the same provider unless careful thought is given to the four Ps and the effectiveness of any marketing initiative monitored to ensure it is accomplishing what is intended. This paper provides a discussion of these issues as they apply to Proctor and Gamble's Gain brand laundry detergent, including a background on the brand as well as a marketing application and analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Background on the Brand

Gain detergent is manufactured and marketed by the Procter & Gamble Company's Household Care global business unit (GBU) (Proctor & Gamble, 2008). This GBU also markets other laundry care product brands such as Tide, Ariel, Dawn, and Downy (Proctor & Gamble). Today, Proctor & Gamble is promoting an entire range of alternatives using the Gain brand as a launch pad, including liquid detergents, liquid fabric softeners and dryer sheets. If fact, as shown in Table 1 below, the company lists the following Gain-related products on its Web site.

Table 1.

Gain-related laundry products.


Company description

Gain "Original Fresh"

The same great scent you fell in love with. This Original Fresh scent miracle inspired many Gain scents over the years without changing its appeal. Ahhh. You can always count on Gain!

Gain "Fresh Awakenings"

Who needs that morning cup of Joe when you've got Fresh Awakenings beckoning you from the closet, drawers, hamper or sheets. it's the great scent you'll wake up to enjoy.

Gain "Island Fresh"

Your passport to the tropics - without the huge lines, lost luggage and turbulence. Why travel when we've got the freshness of palm trees and sunshine all bottled up?

Gain "Outdoor Sunshine"

Release the hounds on your tough laundry jobs with this bright and shiny Gain. It packs that extra punch for whites with a gust of the great outdoors.

2X Ultra Gain

Ultra Gain HE is 2X concentrated…… [read more]

Web Analytics Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (573 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Web Analytics

DontDateCreeps.com needs a powerful community-building strategy. Traditional Web forums or bulletin boards would be insufficient and perhaps even inappropriate for the dating services format. Users need to interact one-on-one with each other and not in a public forum. A DontDateCreeps.com forum or bulletin board might be helpful for technical support or site-specific questions but not for the social networking features the site provides. Rather, the community building strategy of DontDateCreeps.com will closely resemble that of Facebook and other similar social networking Web sites.

A social networking function for DontDateCreeps.com will serve its customers as well as increase revenues by encouraging regular logons. The more robust the community, the more likely its members are to stay abreast of their contacts, avail themselves of advertised products and services from third-party sites, and request paid services. DontDateCreeps.com members who take advantage of the community will also be more likely to tell their friends and family members about the site and thereby increase membership without spending on advertising revenues. Moreover, DontDateCreeps.com members who logon regularly are more likely to click through to advertisements that support the Web site.

2. The DontDateCreeps.com community will include standard features like profile pictures, photo albums, and flexible profile data sections. Users can customize what information to include in their profile, and can also control who can view their profile in a preferences menu. The profile should be the center point of the DontDateCreeps.com interactive services. Users want to learn as much as possible about prospective partners and so DontDateCreeps.com may need to partner with developers who can create stable applications that encourage information sharing such as fun quizzes or games.

Users can customize their list of friends so that their favorite online…… [read more]

Colors and Websites Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (538 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Business - Marketing


In some respects, website design is very different from traditional types of advertising that preceded the Internet age. In other respects, web design incorporates many standard elements of advertising concepts and communications used throughout the advertising industry. Use of color is one example of traditional advertising considerations that applies to website design at least as much as it applied to traditional advertising media.

In Western culture, certain colors are associated with masculinity and others with femininity; very often, this distinction begins even before birth, with the choices of color schemes for nurseries and infant care accessories (Howard 2005). In principle, these distinctions are completely arbitrary, but by the time potential customers are capable of being reached by targeted initiatives, color choice does have an effect on advertising success. The Internet marketing environment may be even more susceptible to the effect of color choices because, unlike other media, the Internet is completely under the control of the consumer. Whereas television viewers (for one example) control their choice of programs, they do not typically exercise a choice of one advertisement over another.

Internet marketing differs fundamentally from this model because the consumer does not watch advertising content passively; instead, the consumer actively chooses the website to be viewed and chooses when to navigate away from the advertising vehicle in favor of another website (Belch & Belch 1998).

Beyond the cultural significance of masculinity and femininity in colors, there are also psychological components that contribute to the unconscious preferences and patterns exhibited by consumers; this appears to be equally true in modern…… [read more]

Target Marketing Product Management and Issues Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (397 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



Because we can purchase products from all over the world at our local stores, we live in a global marketplace. Because we can look for international job posts offered by multinational corporations, we live in a global marketplace. We can now buy medical services abroad, proving that the global marketplace is a way of life.

Nivea maintains brand consistency in several ways: by repeating some of the same images of models using their products, of repeating similar themes such as smiling people, and also of promoting similar skin care products to different geographic and cultural locations. The color scheme and overall look of the products remains the same in spite of language variations on product labels. However, cultural differences do influence Nivea's marketing strategies. For example, "whitening" products are common in the Asian market whereas "tanning" products are common in the North American and European markets.

I have at least ten different Proctor and Gamble products in my household. They include deodorant, dish soap, laundry soap, and razors. However, I had to look at the P&G Web site to find out which other products I might have without knowing they were made by a Proctor and Gamble…… [read more]

Marketing on the Internet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,438 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Rockwell's Cafe and Bakery E-Marketing Assessment

Small and medium businesses (SMB) often see the Internet as a luxury, not a necessity, and as a result significantly reduce the opportunities they have to attract, sell and serve new customers. Traditional marketing of using print media is what many SMBs rely on as the foundation of their marketing strategies. Citing limited… [read more]

Cultural Barriers Cultural and Language Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Cultural Barriers

Cultural and Language Barriers in Marketing

Social Networking through such sites as MySpace and Facebook has become a popular and virally spreading interest in the United States. Such online contexts for community and group orientation and networking have originated in the U.S. And have generated remarkable success and innovative applicztion there. Their spread to other parts of the globe have only been gradual though, with the companies experiencing varying degress of success by recontextualizing in countries such as France and Germany. According to a recent research endeavor by Comscore, the first ranking site in these two countries, "MySpace did a good job. It was due to their local presence and ability to present local pages in the local language. It supports the theory that culture and language are strong factors to be dealt with in marketing and advertisement." (Van Elsas, 1) by contrast, Facebook ranks fourth in the two countries, behind two services which are generated locally. The primary linguistic basis of these services indicates that the success with which linguistic specialization is attended in each local community with be tantamount to overall success in new markets.

An interesting example of language barriers in marketing comes to us from the world of sports. The National Hockey League is especially unique as it operates in concurrence between the U.S. And Canada but draws players from literally all over the world. Broadcast primarily in English speaking and French-Canadian regions, the league nonetheless features such stars as Eastern European Washington Capitals player Alexander Ovechkin. Reebok is marketing a jersey for the player in which the Russian spelling of his name is featured, selling a product in the English market with Russian writing displayed on the back. The item can be viewed…… [read more]

Harley Davidson Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (839 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Harley Davidson motorcycle company has marketed their products mainly to men, conveying a macho image for their burly big bikes. Doing so has earned the Harley Davisdon company a stellar reputation in the industry among its target demographic, and brand recognition remains high. A shift in the company's marketing and business plans during the 1980s led to the Harley Davidson image becoming a status symbol as well as a luxury item to differentiate their products from competitors' motorcycles. To further boost both sales and profits, and to solidify its market share, the Harley Davidson company is striving to appeal to the female demographic. Doing so will entail a new marketing mix and messages, based on a thorough examination of the target consumer group in terms of psychographics. The Harley Davidson sportster may hold the key to a successful marketing campaign: a product that can be clearly differentiated from more macho motorcycles while retaining the company's traditional masculine image.

Situation Analysis

Marketing objectives involve increasing female participation in Harley Davidson Owners Groups (HOGs) and positioning the Harley Davidson sportster with greater appeal to female consumers. Strategies include keeping female consumers in mind when packaging the Harley Davidson sportster. Researching core consumer values will help the Harley Davidson company design more effective marketing and advertising campaigns. In particular, psychographics data will be compiled, revealing specific psychological variables relevant to the female consumer group. Maslow's hierarchy of needs may be a helpful tool when investigating what motivates the female motorcycle-riding demographic. The Harley Davidson company can hold onto some of its traditional appeal as the motorcycle of choice for Americans who value independence and freedom, even while attracting more females into HOGs. Finally, the Harley Davidson company must discover ways of differentiating their sportster from competitor products that also target a female consumer group. Competitive considerations can maximize the already fully established image of the Harley Davidson as the motorcycle of choice of patriotic Americans, those who value traditional American freedoms. Doing so will inevitably entail capitalizing on the strong image of the Harley Davidson as a status symbol. Moreover, the sportster is functional in urban as well as suburban and rural environments and therefore geography may only slightly alter the marketing message, which will focus on universal American values such as freedom and strength. The SWOT analysis is as follows:

Strengths: Strong brand awareness, reputation, and familiarity with the Harley Davidson product line

Weaknesses: Harley Davidson also commands a macho image, which may isolate female consumers. Therefore, the sportster must be…… [read more]

Restaurant Bar and Grill Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (948 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Expanding a restaurant business requires a multifaceted marketing program. Three elements should be considered - public relations, pre-promotion and advertising. The objectives will be to generate interest in the new location(s). The idea of expanding the existing business rather than starting a new venture is to capitalize on the existing business' strengths. Internal strengths can be capitalized upon regardless of the name of the venture, so the key strength being capitalized upon by expansion is the brand identity. It is therefore crucial that this is woven throughout the expansion strategy.

The first aspect of the program is going to be public relations. This works in concert with paid advertising by providing publicity at a lower cost and higher credibility. It also helps to build buzz in advance of new location openings. Local media in the new markets should be alerted to the upcoming openings. Focus on differentiating the restaurant from the competition - what does your restaurant do better than others. Try to leverage opportunities to get key staff into the public eye - the executive chef onto a local cooking show or star bartender onto an entertainment show.

Upon opening each new location, throw a grand opening party for local media and dignitaries. Such a party should come in around $10,000 when food and staff costs are included. The direct payback will be minimal, but these are influencers, people whose recommendations can spur a lot of business throughout their entire circle of friends, family and acquaintances. If successful, there will be an initial boost in business that will then continue to trickle through the region as word of mouth spreads. It can be difficult to measure the impact of this strategy, but methods such as feedback forms or gentle questioning from front-of-house staff should be explored because you are developing a long-term expansion plan and want to ensure that this strategy is effective, since it can be costly.

The public relations part of the plan should have the longest time frame. As one restaurant PR firm puts it, "brands are best built with a long-term public relations plan, not a short-term advertising blitz." The shift towards becoming an expanding business requires such long-term strategies, whereas a single location restaurant typically does not.

The second aspect is going to be pre-promotion. If we assume that the new location is going to be situated within the same broad geographical area as the first one, the advertising program should start before opening, targeting existing customers. The goal is to develop some anticipation, and take advantage of the opportunity to generate word-of-mouth publicity in advance of opening. This type of advertising is inexpensive, because the target audience is already captive, at your restaurant. The menu should highlight the upcoming expansion, and signage within the restaurant should as well. Advertising in the washrooms should be included. The…… [read more]

Target Integrated Marketing Communications Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (672 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Target Integrated Marketing Communications Analysis

From Target's unique value proposition (Anderson, Narus, van Rossum, 2006) of "Expect More, Pay Less" serves as the foundation of its differentiation and marketing strategies to the operational efficiencies the company has fine-tuned through its supply chains and store operations (Bowers, 2006), Target consistently exceeds its customers' expectations. Having combined the strengths of providing an attractive, comfortable, and slightly upscale shopping experience with vibrantly decorated displays and the use of the Target bull's eye logo, the company has successfully differentiated its brand vs. other discounters including Wal-Mart (Moon, 2005). A recent study by Fortune Magazine in fact put the Target logo in first place as the most recognizable as well (Cendrowski, 2008).

Creating an Integrated Marketing Strategy based on Solid Segmentation

Target has an extensive series of market research efforts in place that provide insights into their primary customer segment of young, well-educated families with median incomes of $57,000 (Moon, 2005), many of which are well-educated (44%), with a median age of 45, with 39% having children at home and 90% are female, often homemakers helping to keep their families on budget (Heller, 2006). As a result of the solid median income of Target's customer base, the branding messaging of giving consumers more than they expect works because the company has enlisted several leading-edge brands to substantiate their commitment to value. These brands include Cherokee, Eddie Bauer, Fieldcrest, Isaac, Mossimo, Sean Conway, Smith & Hawken and many others. Target's branding mix further reinforces the brand and solidifies its value proposition by exceeding the expectation of style available at discount prices for its customers (Carpenter, Moore, Fairhurst, 2005).

Target has successfully capitalized on the need of consumers to feel fashionable and in step with current trends while at the same time being fiscally responsible. This has been accomplished through the continual attention and intensity of effort to streamline the sourcing of popular yet affordable clothing and retail product lines while at the same time concentrating on keeping the branding fresh, vibrant and…… [read more]

Internship What Is an Internship? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,999 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



What is an Internship?

An internship is usually an unpaid job or assignment that allows an individual the opportunity to experience work, in their filed of study prior to the completion of their studies or just after graduation as a form of post graduate studies. Internships are generally a very desirable step in education as they are a sort… [read more]

Customer Relationship Management Systems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,176 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


product, place, promotion, and price. Today, some suggest that companies should organize and manage around the 4 C's: customer value, lower costs, better convenience, and better communication. Discuss the causes and the benefits of such a shift in focus.

The foundational elements of marketing have long been based on the synchronization of the 4Ps in the development, execution and monitoring of marketing strategies. Product, price, promotion and place or distribution succinctly defines the critical components of any marketing strategy (Constantinides, 2006). This has been so pervasive that entire corporations build their strategic planning and market planning activities on the 4Ps of marketing, often including the ability to track performance over time for each of these aspects of a marketing strategy (Birnik, Bowman, 2007). Studies have been completed to specifically on the effectiveness of using these components of a marketing strategy in conjunction with one another, showing pricing is the most complex in keeping in balance to all other factors in the mix (Grapentine, 2006). Despite the standardization of corporations on the 4Ps, marketing myopia has set in to many companies (Levitt, 2004) and their focus gets diffused and distracted from the main objectives they set out to accomplish. Arguably the 4Ps do not completely and conclusively define the current set of market and competitive forces that are impacting companies. In addition, the 4Ps do not capture the aspects of customer value and the fact that the Internet has enabled entirely new approaches to connecting and collaborating with customers. While the 4Ps do capture the essential functional areas required to create a marketing strategy (Grapentine, 2006) it does not provide a framework for defining and measuring lifetime customer value.

Because of these factors and the paradigm shift that has occurred in the creation, execution, and monitoring of marketing strategies, customer value, lower costs, better convenience and better communication have become the new 4Ps or marketing, and are called the 4Cs. The aspect of customer value has specifically led to entirely new market segmentation models, in addition to the creation of entirely new approaches to maximizing customer loyalty over the long-term. In addition, lower costs have become commonplace, starting in the most commoditized industries, and have increasingly become pervasive in higher- margin, more differentiated industries as well. Managing marketing to costs is critical as the gulf between traditional advertising media including print and television get undercut by the costs of using the Internet and electronic media for advertising. Costs also are part of the unique value proposition of companies who operate in highly commoditized industries as well. Better convenience is a direct result of the use of the Internet for streamlining supply chains and making products and services more accessible on the one hand, and the increasing time pressures consumers are under continually on the other. Convenience became critical when the majority of married couples had both spouses working in either part-time and full-time jobs; as a result of these time pressure convenience and the quality of its consistent delivery is a… [read more]

Juicing the Orange by Pat Fallon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (646 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Juicing the Orange by Pat Fallon

Fallon, Pat & Fred Sean. Juicing the Orange. Harvard Business School Press, 2006.

Juicing the Orange by Pat Fallon and Fred Sean is an examination of how a boutique advertising agency was able to stay on top by making creativity its source of competitive leverage. The authors are the founders of Fallon Worldwide, one of the top advertising firms in the world. The title refers to the need to use a unique product image and market segmentation to stay afloat in a hyper-competitive marketplace. A business needs to juice the orange, to distill its lifeblood and essence into a concentrated, easily understood format to make its advertising successful. An orange does not need to become an apple to succeed against its competitors, rather it simply needs to do what it does very well, and communicate that message, whether it is selling small luxury cars like BMW or cool jeans to teens like Levi Strauss.

The book uses a series of case studies of the clients with whom the authors have worked including Citibank "life is more than just money," United Airlines, and Holiday Inn. Over and over again, these examples demonstrate that no matter how tried, true, and tested the brand, it is necessary for a marketer to work from the ground up and break all previous molds when crafting a public appeal. The goal is not to do what your competitors are doing, otherwise by the time you launch your campaign, you will already be out of date.

One of the most interesting case studies of companies that the advertising agency has worked with is that of BMW, itself a "small company in the land of giants," an independent, international small car firm that has flourished against all odds in a large American market (Fallon & Sean 125). When the company came to the agency it had already negotiated a deal with MGM to tie in…… [read more]

Store Layout and Design Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,920 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Store Layout and Design Analysis

Store Introduction:

recent visit to one of the newest IKEA U.S. locations in Portland Oregon, inspired this analysis. The brand itself is a European import that stresses high quality design forward house wares and furniture at low prices. The store specializes in design forward, customizable furnishings for the home and office that are in many… [read more]

Brand Reinvention: The New Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (951 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


In one recent commercial, entitled "Dreams," a young boy in a go-cart is shown mastering a series of difficult athletic endeavors, and then giving himself a medal. The boy is fit, but at no point during the advertisement is he seen consuming McDonald's food. This stands in sharp contrast to a 1996 Winter Olympics McDonald's endorsement advertisement, where ordering Extra Value meals are depicted as Olympic events, as 'called' by an observing sports announcer.

For McDonald's, to associate eating its food with athletic excellence has become impossible, given its current association with 'junk food.' To counteract this image, McDonald's has once again begun to stress its status as value-based company, with its new dollar menu, rather than as a substitute for family cooking. It has also taken the emphasis off health claims about its food, and simply stressed the tastiness of the food, and its indulgent -- but not uncontrollable -- pleasure. It is hard to imagine McDonald's today succeeding with its first McRib advertisement, showing a father buying "a big sack" of McRib's according to the announcer's voice, and tearing into the bag before he arrives home. Today, on the rare occasions when it does use inspirational advertising with children as its focus, it stresses the 'good' it does as a company, sponsoring a patriotic event, rather than making health claims. Despite the drumbeat of negative publicity, McDonald's continues to thrive as a company, and has even introduced a larger, more caloric, and more expensive 1/3 pound hamburger. This could be seen as a return to McDonald's roots -- but with a difference, because even McDonald's will not market this as a substitute for mom's home cooking or as something addictive that causes consumers to tear into the bag immediately upon purchasing the food. Perhaps this is the ultimate lesson of McDonald's brand reinvention -- no brand with a strong image can be totally reconfigured (hence the failure of the McLean and healthier McDonald's options), instead reconfiguring the core elements of the product that made it so popular in the first place (greasy good taste, convenience) and eliminating the more objectionable elements like marketing to kids is one possible strategy for a company that is struggling with its image.

Works Cited

Dreams." YouTube. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5184llMCDwA

School is Hard." YouTube. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rtdrjt_1zUU

McDonald's Recital Commercial." YouTube. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-2yklZeEbFE&feature=related

McDonald's 1996 Winter Olympics Commercial." YouTube. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dHiVhCqqvUw

McDonald's McRib Sandwich Commercial." YouTube. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6sH5IbNyrE&feature=related… [read more]

Consumer Behavior Emotion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,622 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Consumer Behavior

Emotion and consumer behavior

The study of consumer behavior is essential to the contemporary business advertiser and marketer. It is essential to determine the way that consumers perceive products and make decisions based on feelings and emotional perceptions. While targeting consumers is usually based on information and logical choice theory and analysis, modern marketers and psychologist have also… [read more]

Coke, Pepsi, Rc, Sam's Cola Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Business - Consumer Behavior


Carbonated cola drinks are very similar in terms of ingredients and formula, but the major companies like Pepsi and Coca Cola that dominate the market invest tremendous resources in marketing efforts designed to appeal to consumers and promote brand loyalty. Smaller companies like RC Cola emphasize cost savings and wholesalers like Sam's Club target consumers who tend to purchase so-called "off-brands" and "store brands" in bulk for even more economical prices.

Because the products are so similar and practically indistinguishable in any objective sense, Coca Cola and Pepsi marketing efforts must rely on indirect references and image association rather than on any actual differences in product quality or other quantifiable differences, such as their relative concentration of cola nuts (Howard 2005).

Therefore, advertising campaigns for both products focus on indirect inferences, such as the connection between use of their product and attractiveness to the opposite gender, perception of trendiness, and association with high-profile role models like professional athletes and sports franchises.

Because their advertising relates more to imagery and association rather than to tangible product qualities and claims, consumers do not necessarily have specific expectations about them that are capable of being satisfied or frustrated. More than anything else, their choice of product simply reflects their desire to affiliate with the role models and imagery promoted by product advertising campaigns. Curiously, practical elements like pricing are much less likely to motivate product choice among the lowest income consumers than among consumers with the highest income (Stanley 1996).

Consumer Profile #1:

Cheryl Williams is a lower-middle-class working mother of four living in…… [read more]

Strategy Five Point Strategy for Silver Dollar Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (479 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Strategy

Five Point Strategy for Silver Dollar Jeans

In devising a branding strategy for Silver Dollar Jeans, the unique approaches to communicating, social networking, evaluating brands, and recommending them for teenagers must first be taken into account. Studies show that teenagers rely more on social networking applications to learn about brands vs. consumers in their 20s or 30s who have full-time jobs (Miller, 2003). In addition, teenagers are more brand-loyal and actively praise their brands online on Facebook and MySpace websites as well (Hein, 2007). In devising a branding strategy for Silver Dollar Jeans, the role of social networking beyond blogs, embracing Facebook and MySpace is essential.

The five point plan for turning Silver Dollar Jeans into a household name including the following strategic elements. First, Silver Dollar Jeans needs to align with strong brands that teenagers have positive opinions of, which is dominated by music and entertainment ((Hein, 2007). Creating an independent music label and signing emerging bands, and offering their music from the Silver Dollar Jeans website will generate traffic to the site and opt-in registrations about store openings, special promotions, and concert dates as well. The second point of the five point plan is to create an exclusive reputation for the jeans, showing celebrities wearing them while they go through their daily routines. Teenagers, specifically teenage girls are highly influenced by entertainment celebrities' choice of fashion (Grant & Stephen, 2005). Having Hannah Montana or…… [read more]

Tivo &amp Dvr Effects Cartel: A Formal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,826 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Tivo & DVR Effects

Cartel: "A formal or informal arrangement of companies that attempt to eliminate competition between themselves by agreeing to common prices, quality standards, advertising and the like. (Alexander, Owers, Carveth, Hollifield, & Greco, 2004, p. 284)

Cost per point (CPP): Cost per point is a method of evaluating media efficiency and represents a ratio based on how… [read more]

Cutco: Image: Cutco Is the Largest Manufacturer SWOT

SWOT  |  1 pages (406 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Image: CUTCO is the largest manufacturer and marketer of high-quality kitchen cutlery and accessories in the United States and Canada. Vector Marketing is the exclusive marketer of CUTCO product.

Applying the highest standards of excellence to the purchasing, kitchen cutlery

Culture: Strong commitment to help promote a sustainable social, ecological, and economic model for production and trade of kitchen knifes and other kitchenware.

Competitive Advantage: Cutco offers high-quality kitchen cutlery and accessories in the United States and Canada.


Petite packs a punch this summer as CUTCO Cutlery unveils its newest knife - the 5" Petite Santoku. This smaller version of the 7" Santoku espouses the qualities of its original Asian-inspired favorite with a compact construction.

S.W.O.T Analysis:


In 2006 sales of CUTCO were over $175 million

More than 100 kitchen cutlery products are sold under the CUTCO name, as well as a variety of kitchen gadgets, utensils and flatware. The company also carries a line of cookware, sporting and pocket knives and garden tools.

CUTCO has been purchased by more than 14 million satisfied customers.

Over 700 manufacturing and administrative people are employed at the Alcas/CUTCO/Vector headquarters in Olean, N.Y.

CUTCO products are marketed directly, by appointment only, to consumers…… [read more]

Cosmetics Export to Japan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,729 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Cosmetics Exports to Japan

Cosmetics Export to Japan

Gaillie's is an American producer of cosmetics for both men and women, but specialized in the women's cosmetics segment. The company produces and sells a wide variety of high quality products to American and European consumers. Their future strategic focus is that of expanding the business onto the Japanese market. The product… [read more]

NBC Takes Programming Off Itunes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,883 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


NBC Takes Programming off of Apple iTunes
NBC's decision to discontinue its relationship with Apple regarding the
distribution of its popular television shows is symptomatic of the evolving
conflicts between content providers on the one hand and device
manufacturers on the other. NBC executives contend that Apple's
commoditization of the music industry will not happen to television
programs, as… [read more]

Consumer Behavior Consumer Behaviour the Intent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Consumer Behavior

Consumer Behaviour

The intent of this analysis is to compare three dominant globally-recognized brands and specifically ascertain the brand names' performance on influencing consumers. In assessing the performance of specific globally recognized brands, relying on a framework to organize the analysis, and for purposes of this paper, the ten attributes as defined by Keller (2000) will be used.… [read more]

Hawaiian Punch Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (652 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Hawaiian Punch

Case Analysis

Kate Hoedebeck has a difficult task to revitalize the Hawaiian Punch brand while simultaneously bringing the product into the Cadbury-Schweppes distribution structure. If growth is the goal, and the current segment of juice drinks is stagnant, Hoedebeck needs to extend the brand beyond its current muddled message. Given that she has few resources, she will have to pick her strategies carefully.

This analysis will argue that Hoedebeck should grow dealer/broker sales and deemphasize concentrate. This appears counterintuitive at first: the investment required for new brand extensions is lower in DSD, and the top-line gross margins are higher.

The primary reasons for pursuing this strategy are as follows:

The margin picture could look worse for Broker/Warehouse, as little is disclosed about the assets required to produce the contribution margin. It seems likely that the Return on Assets for HP Broker/Warehouse is even worse than the gross contribution after marketing (16% versus 53%). The effective counterargument to this is that, now a part of a larger soft-drinks manufacturer, the fixed plant and expertise, distribution and sales are already there, and HP can take advantage of the larger infrastructure at less cost per unit delivered.

Strategies to pursue

New fruit flavors and packaging has failed to take off. They simply add cost and complexity to the line, and cost a lot ($250 per flavor) to get stocked on shelves. Since HP's advertising budget is only 2% of the fruit juice category, they don't have the scale to develop significant consumer interest in other flavors, and the brands don't seem to sell themselves directly to the consumer with packaging. The suggestion to introduce "Hispanic" flavors is more of the same -- inadequate budget to pursue it, poor previous experience.

Since the fruit drink segment is stagnant and 100% fruit is growing HP may want to consider a lateral move into that segment.

100% fruit drink based on similar tropical fruits would take advantage of HP's image…… [read more]

Consumer Behavior Consumer Behaviour Core Values Evolve Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,255 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Consumer Behavior

Consumer Behaviour

Core values evolve over time. What do you think are the 3-5 core values that best describe Canadians now?

Of the many divergent values that Canadians have today, the top five reflect how rapidly Canada is changing both demographically and economically today. With the influx of immigrants, the debate of immigration policies, and the corresponding question of economic growth being either fuelled or hindered by this dynamic, the core set of values emerges for Canadians. The most pressing core value for Canadians today is the assurance of a democratic process and the continual inclusion of Quebec as a province is just one of the many issues surrounding this value. Canadians seem to be highly focused on the democratic process as a result of the influx of immigrants as well. Second, a mistrusting of government and its increasing bureaucracy is also a core value. Third, the value of tolerance, again relating to the increasingly high level of immigration happening in specific Canadian provinces is also a core value in the country today. As core values continue to support the democratic process, the value of economic growth and human rights also is very important to the majority of Canadians. In general, Canadians seem to be preoccupied with how the assimilation of immigrants and the continual support for a democratic process. The personal values of compassion, spirituality, creativity, learning, making a difference and caring for the disadvantaged and elderly dominate the values at an individual level.

The "metrosexual" is a big buzzword in marketing - but is it real or just media hype? Do you see men in your age group changing their idea about acceptable interests for males (eg, home design, cooking, etc.)?

The concept of metrosexual is an attempt to commoditize a specific type of consumer to streamline the positioning and marketing process. Metrosexuals have been portrayed as both androgynous as well as gay, yet rarely are they portrayed as rugged heterosexual individualists who care more for functionality than affectation and presentation of products. While men in my age group have taken to getting liposuction, face lifts, facials including botox injections, and wearing tight designer-cut jeans and slacks, these are aspects of the metrosexual definition that pertain to a heightened sense of self-aggrandizement. Perhaps men older than me exhibiting these behaviours are revelling in the chance to alleviate their midlife crises by immersing themselves in these pursuits. In any case, the term metrosexual and its non-threatening androgynous (and at times gay) definition has made it acceptable for men in my age group and older to take extraordinary steps to slow or reverse the aging process while at the same time exploring the sides of their personalities that may have been deemed too feminine in the past. I don't think metrosexuals evolved as a distinct market segment, I think it is the convergence of broader trends towards men becoming more androgynous as a result of a multitude of factors including the pressure to be more politically correct and… [read more]

Consumer Behavior in His 2005 Book, Blink Term Paper

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Consumer Behavior

in his 2005 book, Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking, author Malcolm Gladwell argues that hallowed marketing research techniques like focus groups are ineffective. According to Gladwell, we usually react to products quickly and without much conscious thought, so it's better to simply solicit consumers' first impressions rather than getting them to think at length about why they buy. What's your position on this issue?

The power of intuition and having an innate sense of what is consistent and congruent with our own needs, and further, what aligns with our own strengths are illustrated in the book Blink (Gladwell, 2005). it's a fascinating book to read as it provides an entirely different perspective on how people overall and consumers specifically make decisions. The author uses examples of how military campaigns made through intuition and embodying the concepts defined are much more effective compared to their intricately over-planned counterparts. The author makes a convincing argument throughout the book of using basic intuition to accomplish goals, sense both opportunities and threats, and in general interpret the surrounding environment.

After having read the book, I agree with the fundamental precepts of how intuition is more powerful than thorough analysis. Asking consumers for their first impressions and their intuition of the perceived value of products also replicates the actual purchasing process. The research Gladwell (2005) cites from a commercial perspective is compelling as well, further strengthening the argument…… [read more]

Marketing Milka and Ferrero Rocher Life Term Paper

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Milka and Ferrero Rocher

Life is like a box of chocolates -- you never know what you're going to get."

Forest Gump in "Forest Gump" (1994) (http://www.lakechamplainchocolates.com/ChocolateConnoisseur/Chocolate-Quotes.aspx) This line is perhaps one of the most well-known quotes about chocolate. It has become famous due to its being uttered in the movie "Forest Gump," by the main character, as an… [read more]

Frito Case Frito Lay's Inc.: Chip Dip Term Paper

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Frito Case

Frito Lay's Inc.:

Chip Dip vs. Vegetable Dip

Frito Lay's Inc. is an integrating part of the PepsiCo Inc. And it is specialized on producing and selling salty snacks. Frito Lay's places onto the market a wide variety of salty snacks, from crackers and pretzels to potato or corn chips. A current feature of the salty snack market… [read more]

Invent a Consumer Good Term Paper

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¶ … invent a consumer good and 2 make the demand for that good tip. Referring to Gladwell's book "The Tipping Point"

The Revolutionary Multifunctional Flower Pot

The beneficial role of plants outside the home as well as inside the home is undoubted. Plants in all their forms absorb the carbon dioxide and release the vital oxygen. The need for more plants is becoming more and more obvious in the world today, moreover when deforestations are destroying the natural balance. However a solution to protect the entire environment is pretty difficult to find, we should approach the issue from a limited stand point and then expand. For instance, we should increase the number of plants we have at home, within the house and in our gardens. But the busy world we live in might prevent us from properly taking care of the plants, which in the end die. A revolutionary product to solve this problem is the Multifunctional Flower Pot.

The Product

The invented product will be called the Multifunctional Flower Pot and it will be designed for nature lovers, environmentalists and simple people who desire to have flowers in their apartments but find it difficult to care for them. The new product is characterized by numerous features, such as functionality, colour, size, costs, packaging, warranty and additional services.

Functionality of the product

As the name implies, the Multifunctional Flower Pot is meant to do more than host plants. The new pot will be designed with two additional features. First, there is the water container at the basis of the pot. The water container will be designed in a pleasant manner that will successfully integrate in the pot's overall image. The dimensions of the container will be established proportionally to the dimensions of the pot and will occupy about 20% of the entire flower pot.

The objective of the built-in water container is to have the plants in the pot watered. The owner will establish the watering times depending on the plant, such as every other day for roses or every other week for cacti. The container is designed with a built-in pump that will release water into the soil above at the times established by the owner. Some might object to the basis placement of the container, arguing that the pump will be unable to uniformly spread the water across the entire soil. However, this is not the case, as the built in pomp has a great strength and will uniformly water the soil at the basis as well as at the top of the flower pot. The water container will be designed with a miniature clock that can be used by the owner to set the watering times.

Also, aside from the container clock, the owner could also use the built-in micro-computer, the second integrated component of the Multifunctional Flower Pot. This micro-computer will have a small screen placed on the front side of the pot and will indicate the level of light, the space around the plant… [read more]

Search Me the Surprise Success of Google by Neil Taylor Term Paper

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Search Me

Taylor, Neil. Search Me: The Surprise Success of Google. Cyan Books, 2006.

I'll have a Coke, please,' people say when they really mean a soda -- even if the store's sign only reads 'Pepsi.' People talk about Hoovering up a living room, or a family dinner, rather than vacuuming up a rug or eating everything on their plate.… [read more]

Harley Davidson, Inc Term Paper

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Harley Davidson Inc.

Harley Davidson is one of the oldest American motorcycle companies. In fact for many years it was the only motorcycle manufacturer that was entirely American, with the exception of Harley-Davidson partnering with Asian and European companies that utilized different brand development. The company's roots began in 1901 with a completed design, from William S. Harley, for an engine that could be attached to a bicycle. In 1903 Harley partnered with Arthur Davidson to bring their first completed bikes to the public. The company had early success in the racing circuit and was also able to expand, with evolving motorcycle designs and a larger headquarters. The business slump that occurred in the private markets during WWI were countered by significant sales to the U.S. military. In 1920 Harley-Davidson is the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Again in WWII there is a suspension of private production but the years of development of engines and motorcycles by Harley-Davidson gives them a market edge for selling bikes to the military. H-D success has largely been associated with success in racing, partnerships with motorcycle enthusiast organizations as well as the building of an inclusive system where the company sponsors enthusiast publications and organizations, such as H.O.G. (Harley Owners Group) a Harley enthusiast club that by the year 2000 boasted 500,000 members and currently boasts over a million members worldwide, as well as with the development of enthusiasm through military personnel exposure during war years. In 1987 H-D went public with a listing on the New York Stock Exchange. (Harley-Davidson Website "History") Harley-Davidson Inc. is a parent company of several acquired and built organizations including Buell Motorcycle Company, Harley-Davidson Financial Services, Harley-Davidson Motor Company. The company produces a wide range of products including motorcycles, parts, accessories, apparel and other general merchandise as well as financial support for retailers and consumers. (Harley-Davidson Investor Relations "Facts Sheet")(Harley-Davidson "Annual Report 2006")

The industry in general is one that has been growing steadily with new innovations and the development of a niche market for recreational vehicles of every type and size. H-D competes mostly with offshore industry leaders such as Kawasaki, Honda and Suzuki but provides a specific type of bike that is different than the rest and has 100+ years of brand recognition to bolster their accessory and clothing line sales. H-D produces 37 heavy duty bikes and 8 light duty bikes (under the Buell motorcycle division), offering something for every level of rider. (Harley-Davidson Investor Relations "Facts Sheet")

Harley-Davidson Investor Relations "Facts Sheet")

The growth of the industry in general is essential to the growth of H-D and its strength in the market, additionally the fact that it is the only large scale U.S. based manufacturer of motorcycles aides its sales and the enthusiasm of the consumer. The companies standing in the industry bolsters sales significantly and its inclusive financial program also helps aide those who have interest in franchise attainment or simply in purchasing high end motorcycles. It has also adapted well to… [read more]

Short-Term Finance Term Paper

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¶ … Finance

F/X Digital -- Extreme Television Viewing

Watching the F/X Channel is about living on the edge and watching extreme behavior, on the streets, or in the operating room. It is about people pursuing the extremes of beauty on "Nip/Tuck" and the dangers of pursuing criminals on the extreme limits of society as depicted in shows like "Cops." To raise the level of viewer excitement about the F/X channel's revamping and its new embrace of digital technology, Fox TV must create a sense of pulse-pounding, heart-palpitating excitement in the preliminary 'buzz' generated for this promotional campaign for F/X Digital. Watching F/X in a digital format means the viewer is, if only vicariously, living on the edge. As the F/X channel is about special effects and extreme living, the promotional campaign must stress that digital technology is about watching television in an 'extreme' fashion.

To communicate this message, more than the standard press release is demanded. A billboard proclaiming the new look of the channel is a good idea -- but also a companion promotional event featuring people bungee from the billboard when the billboard's image is unveiled. This event would set the tone for the advertising and marketing campaign. Hiring extreme sport athletes to engage in feats of daring in an F/X-inspired tournament would be another possible promotion to raise awareness about the introduction of the cutting-edge digital technology to the channel's format.

Even print advertising for the campaign can have an added edge to it -- showing a mirrored fold-out poster-sized magazine advertisement that conveyed an arrangement of slick and eye-catching images of the television programs and movies offered by the channel would be better than a standard magazine page ad. Some adolescents might want to use the poster to hang in the rooms or lockers, and younger people are a critical part of the channel's demographic. A hologram or even a 3D advertisement would take conventional print magazine advertisements to the 'next level.' Of course newspaper advertisements could not have as slick a component to the texture of the actual ad, thus having large, page-wide advertisements might be necessary to convey the hugeness, and again the extremity of the…… [read more]

Social Sciences. In General, Qualitative Research Looks Term Paper

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¶ … social sciences. In general, qualitative research looks to gain an in-depth understanding of both human behavior and the reasons for human behavior. In other words, qualitative research focuses on the why and the how of decision making.

One pattern of human behavior is the effect advertising has on an individual's patterns of consumption. This paper focuses on how… [read more]

Sensodyne Term Paper

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Sensodyne is one of the most well-known brands when it comes to dental products. A registered mark of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), the world's largest pharmaceutical company, Sensodyne has developed as a powerful health product on the market, with an inclination towards the niche market (individuals with gum or teeth sensitivities). Sales have remained at a constant level, mainly due to the… [read more]

Lord &amp Taylor Executive Summary Term Paper

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Lord & Taylor

Executive Summary for Lord & Taylor Retailing Strategy

In defining the future direction of Lord & Taylor's retailing strategy, it is critical that the branding, messaging, multi-channel selling, supply chain, and retailing strategies all be synchronized around a common objective of communicating vitality, high energy, and style that is synonymous with professional women in the 35-55 age group. Professional women in this age group see time as a critical resource that needs to be made the most of. These women value the quality, lasting style, and what their purchases say about their ability to achieve first and foremost, which equates into a premium branding and pricing strategy for Lord & Taylor. The days of couponing and testing the depths of pricing to drive sales need to be over now. In shifting all strategies to support the vitality and high energy of high achieving professional women, its' critical that the existing, and often highly loyal customers not be alienated. To keep the existing customer base connected to the brand, a series of CRM and customer analytics applications are needed to tailor marketing and promotional campaigns that present the new, vital image to the existing customers so they can be the first to see how the changes still include their preferred brands as well.

In creating a synchronized strategy that ties together the entire operations of Lord & Taylor to support and accentuate this new, higher-end and high energy branding position, the controllable factors of designers, suppliers, and, direct marketing, and the remodeling of specific stores that have dated interiors needs to be first addressed (Schlesinger, 2). The uncontrollable aspects of price competition, growth of high-end specialty boutiques, and the onslaught of competition from mass merchandisers including Wal-Mart at the low-end all need to be taken into account in defining a unique identity for Lord & Taylor. The controllable factors in turn need to be addressed through the use of strategies that encompass supply chains, designers, marketing and promotional plans, and the development of entirely new approach to being more focused on how to support and promote the new branding messaging and strategy. The uncontrollable factors of price and competition in both niche-based boutiques and mass merchandisers can be alleviate through building a strong brand with a reputation for executing on the promises it makes to customers; namely the retailing of high quality apparel, accessories and products that personify and support a high-energy, high-achieving lifestyle.

In conjunction with a more vibrant, vital brand to appeal to high-achieving professional women in the 35-55 age group, there is the need to fine-tune the forecasting model Lord & Taylor has relied on. Clearly the need for more agility in responding to consumers' more mercurial…… [read more]

Simulation Market Research Simulation the Jury Term Paper

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Market Research Simulation

The Jury of Executive Opinion technique of forecasting is extremely popular among managers in several leading companies. What are some reasons for this preference?

The Jury of Executive Opinion is actually a part of a broader series of techniques that are very popular with managers who compete in industries where little previous past sales data exist for comparable or competitive products. As a result of the lack of data in these emerging markets, little causal data exist, making it difficult to define strategies that deliver the intended results. This technique seeks to provide expert-level insights into marketing and sales problems that are unknown at the time of planning. The use of Jury of Executive Opinion is typically completed during three or four meetings with industry experts who are asked to evaluate and forecast one or just a few critical variables. Most commonly used for new product forecasting for products in entirely new markets, the Jury of Executive Opinion gathers executive-level and industry-level insights of a product group. The consolidation of expert opinions is next completed to yield a bottoms-up forecast. The shortcomings of this approach are its statistical validity and the fact that it's difficult at times to break out individual product categories using this technique.

Is it a good idea to use various sales forecasting techniques in the context of a company entering a new market? Why or why not?

Yes, it is an excellent idea to use a variety of sales forecasting techniques when defining new market entrance strategies. As the simulation showed, and as exhibited in Figures 1 and 2, the use of multiple techniques in evaluating market sizes can explain variability much more clearly than simply using on forecasting techniques. Multiple forecasting techniques also can deliver a much greater level of insight into specific markets as well. From the simulation, Figures 1 and 2 show the variability define through using the Consultant Survey Forecast for sizing the beer demand in Lamarco and the use of Jury of Executive opinion for defining beer forecasts in Seravo.

Figure 1: Forecasting Techniques Figure 2: Validation of Correct Results

In addition to these benefits, there is also the need for using multiple sales forecasting techniques to quantify the market size of a new market as there are variations in the market itself that just a single technique may not completely capture. Multiple forecasts are needed…… [read more]

NASCAR the National Association for Stock Car Term Paper

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The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is one of America's favorite past times, but predominantly synonymous as such with areas of the Midwest, South and Southeast. NASCAR has only recently begun its uproar into the homes and new raceways of other areas of the country as its popularity is beginning to spread to areas that only several years before held very little recognition for the sport. With this growing popularity, the NASCAR division in every respect has been forced to adapt to an ever demanding change in order to accommodate much of the diversity which accompanies such growth.

As of just this last month, the fourth name change for NASCAR's top division in 60 years has recently been implemented. This name started as the Grand National Division and later became the Winston Cup in 1972, then it was modified to the Nextel Cup in 2004 (Guthrie, the Detroit News, 2007). This most recent change was agreed upon by contract for 10 years and stipulated an allowance for one name change. Many in the sport expect the continuum of these changes as the sport continues to grow - some unhappily expecting. In any instance, the growth has meant more spectatorship for the sport, which in-turn means more money and incurs a greater level of interested sponsorship with advertising revenues. Bigger name companies are buying out the old; previously uninterested corporations are looking to take their stab at putting their name on a hopeful, race-winning car/driver. The sponsorships for particular racing events, such as the Daytona Cup, are being replaced by new sponsors. With the example of Daytona, which has been sponsored by Pepsi for the last 50 years, it is now being replaced by Coca-Cola.

In consideration of all this flurry of altering times for NASCAR, the branding and advertising has changed its image and positioning and expanded its target markets. This change in their target market characteristics has required a collaborative perception to the branding and advertising types and methods. The connection between the branding and advertising is directly related to the overall interest of the majority of the NASCAR spectatorship, with focus included to accommodate the interests of the new and growing spectatorship reform coming into the interest of the sport. As newer mediums of spectatorships arrive, the products/brands to which will most apparently and successfully appeal to their interests is taken into full consideration. Previously, branding was targeted at the social, professional, hobbyist, and leisurely interests of groups making up the spectatorship in the predominant areas where NASCAR was formerly confined by its expanse of popularity. Brands such as Budweiser, Caterpillar, NAPA, DeWalt, Smith & Wesson, and Hardee's - a fast food chain found only in certain Southern states - were directly marketable to the interests and availability of the particular individual types that made up the spectatorship of previous years. The four interactions of branding and advertising are mass marketing, relevance over differentiation, growing revenue and not market share, and associating people as part… [read more]

Luxury the Consumer Term Paper

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The Consumer

Describe briefly how the article views the role of the consumer in terms of freedom of choice in consumption situations. Is the article's view consistent with the traditional marketing ideal of consumers being independent agents with the full capacity for personal decisions?

This article views the consumer, at least the in-tune and savvy consumer as really having little freedom of choice in consumption. To "fit in" in society or in their area of society, they must consume the same things that others in their sector admire, from tennis shoes to automobiles and homes. The consumerism of the 21st century is all about fitting in and acceptance, rather than making a statement by being unique and different. Thus, consumers really have little choice - their choices are made for them by what is trendy in society, hence the proliferation of granite countertops, luxury SUVs, and huge houses that dominate the markets today. As the author states, "Because what you buy becomes more important than what you make, luxury is not a goal; for many it is a necessity" (Author).

Traditionally,…… [read more]

Branding Term Paper

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¶ … Branding is one of the ways in which marketing impacts consumer identity, often in a very personal way. Growing up, whether an adolescent wears Nike sneakers or a less premium brand of shoe 'says' something about his or her coolness and status. Wearing Lucky or Seven jeans vs. jeans from Sears communicates a wearer's sense of style, concern about fashion, and her economic class. Although all of these articles of clothing fulfill the same basic function of covering the human body, because of the social resonance given to these names by successful advertising and marketing, the brand names of particular products come to say something about the individual wearing them, and thus people develop brand loyalty.

For some very resonant brand names, just to say that someone 'shops at Whole Foods and sips lattes from Starbucks' suggests that the individual comes from a different demographic and has different ethical concerns than an individual who shops at Wal-Mart and drinks Dunkin' Doughnuts coffee every morning. However, even the most successful brand must change with the times or lose its brand equity, the real and perceived value of…… [read more]

Exclusive Distribution or Selective Term Paper

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Exclusive vs. Intensive Distribution Strategies

Many manufacturers initially offer distributors exclusive or highly selective distribution of their products for a given geographic or business-related territory. In fact this is one of the most common approaches manufacturers just launching their indirect channel strategies use to gain a foothold in distribution. The benefits to the distributor are many, including a complete lack of pricing and availability competition on the identical product(s) from the same manufacturer, no channel conflict, and a virtual monopoly on sales of that specific product in the region given. Of course there are competitive products often carried by the same distributor, yet a newly released or launched products often has the latest product attributes and features, and therefore can command higher gross margins or profits.

Often as manufacturers grow and realize that either existing distributors they have are not fully selling to the potential the manufacturer sees in their specific regions, or believes that another distributor in the same area can sell into a slightly different…… [read more]

Consumer Decision-Making Process Term Paper

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Consumer Decision-Making Process

In marketing, understanding consumer behavior is vitally important. Indeed, consumers drive markets, and understanding their behavior can determine the success of the marketing effort. According to the marketing literature, there are generally six stages a buyer goes through in the decision to purchase a product or service. Furthermore, these stages are affected by elements such as personal, psychological and social factors. Marketers need to take all these into account to create successful marketing strategies.

The six stages of the consumer buying decisions include problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, decision, and post-purchase evaluation. It is also important to recognize that, depending upon the complexity of the purchasing decision, these stages are not necessarily included in every purchase process, nor is purchase necessarily the outcome of the process.

Problem recognition entails the consumer's understanding that there is a need or lack that must be filled. The consumer will then embark upon a search for products or services that can fill this need. If necessary, the consumer's internal search or memory is supplemented by an external search, which may include friends and family, as well as a further search of for example public sources. For this stage, it is important for marketers to impress the public with the quality of products and services, which will then be perpetuated by word of mouth.

Another important stage, from the marketing perspective, is the evaluation of alternatives. A buyer compares similar products and services offered by different companies in order to make a purchasing decision. In this stage, it is important to impress the customer with the best value for money. This is an important concept, as offering a product or service at a price that is too low may affect the consumer's perception of value negatively, while a price that is too high may discourage the purchase decision if the same value is offered for a lower…… [read more]