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Marketing Research After Carefully Reviewing the Case Essay

… Marketing Research

After carefully reviewing the case study "Boston Fights Drugs"

, it is apparent that there were some fundamental mistakes made in this process. The mistakes ranged from research methodology (focus groups), the design of the pre-screening questionnaires, the design of the focus groups themselves, the interview protocols, and the sampling plan. In fact, no part of the case study was free from mistakes, making the design so fundamentally flawed that they were absolutely unreliable. In fact, these mistakes caused the researchers to fail to capture the views of all the customers and did not allow the researchers to develop a successful de-marketing campaign, which was the goal of the research. Therefore, this case provides a useful point of reference for any person seeking to study marketing and gain a greater understanding of how focus groups should operate.

The researchers were already in possession of previous studies garnered from qualitative methodology obtained by social workers, teachers, and counselors who had spent a great deal of time working with kids in need of help. The overall theme of this information was that younger and younger children are getting involved with drugs. Since this information had already been gathered it seems redundant to search for qualitative information. Rather, to determine the extent that this was true, the research team would have been better aided by conducting a much larger investigation by administering a large scale quantitative survey. By doing so, the team may have been able to obtain objective data to determine the number of children currently being affected by drug use in the Boston area, what types of messages regarding drugs have meaning to them, and most importantly what would make them try drugs.

Further, the design of the pre-screening questionnaire was flawed from the third sentence. By telling the subjects that if they answer the questions "correctly," they may be eligible to make money, the researchers have automatically impacted the results. The respondents will not give honest answers. Rather, they will answer the questions in such a way as to be chosen, and, therefore get paid. This format sets the stage for failure and invalid data. The respondents are looking for the reward. Furthermore, it was written in such a way, that many of the volunteers didn't understand the questions and had to rely on the recreational leaders interpretations of the questions. Obviously, these interpretations could have varied, thereby changing the screening process (and therefore the focus group) according to who was reading the questionnaire.

Additionally, the interview protocols were flawed or lacking as well. Based on the exhibits provided, it does not appear that the interviewers were adequately trained. In fact, it is unclear at times if they were even asking the same questions or steering the groups toward the same discussion, making between-group variation a probability. In fact, it seems evident also that at least one group of girls was treated quite differently, by being asked the question, "What do you want to be when you grow… [read more]


Branding in Service Markets Dissertation

… Consequently, the message starts to stimulate customers starting to consider making a purchase.

The brand also serves as a substantial financial and political power in the macro-level focus of culture; particularly as it relates to issues and discussion regarding globalization… [read more]


Cadbury Beverages, Inc. Crush Brand Case Study

… Cadbury Beverages Inc. - Crush Brand

Cadbury Beverages Inc. -- Crush Brand

Cadbury Beverages Inc. is one of the more reputable providers of soft drink beverages, but despite their reputation and strong market position, the organization finds itself in the… [read more]


Cultural Marketing Strategies Term Paper

… Cultural Marketing Strategies

Mercedes-Benz sells cars all over the world, but like most companies it needs to make adjustments to its marketing strategies in order to accommodate cultural differences in the countries in which it operates. This paper will analyze how Mercedes markets its cars in Germany and how it does so in the United States, noting the differences between the messages and approaches in each nation.

In Germany, Mercedes is a domestic brand. While it markets its flagship name as a premium name, the marketing message is primarily focused on the vehicle and on lifestyle factors. In the United States, Mercedes is also a premium name, but the marketing message often attempts to play on the perception that many Americans have of German manufactured goods being high quality. In particular this perception applies to engineered goods. Daimler Benz has admitted that it "plays the German heritage card," even though Mercedes cars today are made in Alabama (Jost, 2005). By conflating the German brand with the product itself, Mercedes-Benz is able to leverage the German heritage of the car in its marketing despite the car being domestically produced.

In addition to the marketing message, other elements of the marketing mix also differ. One noteworthy case was the company's marketing of the Smart car in the two countries. In Germany, this car was given a high priority in marketing as a long-term part of the company's vehicle portfolio. In the United States, Mercedes had contracted out distribution to Penske, and the brand was not given priority. Mercedes then needed to take the brand into its own distribution channel in order to give it higher priority promotion (Eisenstein, 2011).…… [read more]


Cultural Marketing Strategies Research Paper

… Cultural Marketing Strategies

Comparing Marketing Between Japan and the United States

The differences between cultures has a very significant impact on how the same products are marketed across various nations and regions. Comparing the marketing of Nike and Mercedes in Japan vs. The United States shows how drastically different these cultures are, and how global brands have a carry-over effect from one national culture to another (Bengtsson, Bardhi, Venkatraman, 2010). The continued growth of global brands indicates how quickly globalization and social networks are making the proliferation of brand messaging and positioning (Czinkota, 2011).

Analysis of Nike and Mercedes In Japan vs. The United States

To fully appreciate the differences between the Japanese and American cultures, the Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimensions has been used (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004). The basis of the Hofstede Model are five cultural dimensions that have proven to be highly reliable in defining differences between cultures. Comparing Japan and the U.S., as is done in the figure to the right shows just how different each culture is. This has major implications for Mercedes and Nike when marketing into each nation.

The first dimension is Power Distance Index (PDI) and reflects the extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept the unequal distribution of power (Minkov, Hofstede, 2011). The Japanese are more accepting of PDI, and therefore Mercedes and Nike both would stress more of the collaborative, group-based activities and values. The most significant differences between the two cultures are on the Individualism (IDV) and Long-term Orientation (LTO) dimensions. This translates into completely different marketing programs for…… [read more]


Williams Sonoma Case Study

… ¶ … Williams-Sonoma's market segmentation in the Internet era. Williams-Sonoma must continue to offer a unique, upscale shopping experience online while staying afloat in a shaky economy. It also must secure a more youthful consumer base, keeping its eye on… [read more]


Services Marketing Article Review

… ¶ … Consumers Power Transformational Marketing (Hamelin, et.al.) the author provides insights into how the many platforms that support social media, driven by the powerful catalyst of mobile commerce, is providing consumers with more control over brands than ever before. Social media continues to redefine marketing, bringing a greater clarity and focus to the voice of customers globally in the process.

The author of Consumers Power Transformational Marketing argues that social media has now shifted the balance of power on customer relationships away from marketers to the customer, and this shift is accelerating (Hamelin, et.al.). Traditional marketers are called upon to be more focused on transforming relationships with customers and making them more interactive, communicative and collaborative than ever before. The focus on creating more interactive dialogue is also key, as the article shows how through the use of analytics and Web-based applications, marketers can understand their customers with a greater depth and precision than ever before as well (Hamelin, et.al.).

It is imperative for companies to look at marketing now not as a lecture but as a dialogue. The focus needs to be on listening and effectively responding to customers, creating processes and programs that give them the information and insight they need to get to their goals. The role of consumer as catalyst of communication has arrived, and this point comes out in many examples throughout the article. This point is also alluded to in Consumers Power Transformational Marketing with how consumers are now even redefining the buying process in some industries', changing the references and sources of trusted information (Hamelin, et.al.). The…… [read more]


Advertising and Promotion Management Essay

… Pokemon

(a) Provide an introduction of your selected brand including its specific target market Does it currently have any presence in the adult products market?

The brand sought to be promoted is the Pokemon. This is actually a game and… [read more]


Brand Communication Management on Organic Marketing Plan

… Nevertheless, given the higher price of the organic products in comparison to the traditional versions of the same items, it is necessary for the targeted women to be in possession of above average disable incomes.

d) The brand mantra for organic products

The brand mantra for the organic products would be the commitment of the organization to support the health of the consumers as well as the health of the environment. The statement for this would be:

A better life for you and yours!

e) The brand elements

Brand position -- sells healthy and environmentally products to women

Brand promise -- the improvement of life for the buyers, their loved ones and the environment

Brand personality -- Valuable medical insight on best associations based on individual conditions.

f) The marketing programs

Product:

Organic products sold under the company's brand name

The products have the functionality of the same traditional items

They integrate safe and pleasant designs.

Price:

The pricing strategy is the variable pricing strategy in which the retail price of the organic products is generated by the totality of the costs incurred in the manufacturing and delivering of the respective items

The price is sensitive to the costs incurred in the meaning that when, due to forces in the macroenvironment, the costs increase, the increases would also be reflected in the final price of the organic products (Dunne, Lush and Carver, 2010).

Place:

The organic products would be distributed through a direct distribution system, via the company's own stores

The stores would also provide assistance to buyers

All the processes linked to distribution, such as transportation, ordering or warehousing, would be completed by the firm.

Promotions:

Communications of the company figures with the local media, through interviews and local shows to promote the stores and the products

Advertisements in the media, through various channels, such as banners, fliers, television commercials, radio and even internet advertisements

Promotional sales through the implementation of lower retail prices for specific items, in specific time frames. At this stage, it is necessary to construct these promotional sales so that they attract customers, but do not negatively affect the sales results.

Reference:

Dune, P.M.m Lusch, R.F., Carver, J.R., 2010, Retailing, Cengage Learning, ISBN 1439040818

Glynn, M.S., 2009, Business-to-business brand management: theory, research and executive case study exercises, Emerald Publishing Group, ISBN 1848556705

Gould, K., Hosey, L., 2007, Women in green: voices of sustainable…… [read more]


Marketing Business Plan Business Plan

… Marketing Plan Exercise Tasks

All of us have a regimen that we rely on to keep us healthy and looking our best and as young as possible. But we need to be sure that the steps we take actually work. Drug stores are full of mass-produced commercial beauty and anti-aging products. But there is no way to know how good they are. The last thing anybody needs is to waste money on products that don't work.

Wonderful Cream ™ is an anti-aging skin moisturizer that provides proven results. That's why it is used by celebrities and by the most discriminating and quality-conscious consumers everywhere. Unlike ordinary skin moisturizers, Wonderful Cream ™ is not mass produced. It is manufactured to our highest standards in one production facility and under the supervision of nationally-known health and beauty experts.

Wonderful Cream ™ is a little more expensive than ordinary skin moisturizers. But that's because it works. You deserve the best possible beauty products available and ones that actually provide long-term results. There is no secret to looking young: you just need to treat yourself as though you deserve the very best. Wonderful Cream ™ is the very best skin moisturizer. Wonderful Cream™, because you deserve the best.

Task 2 - Experience Description (Approximately 200…… [read more]


Channel Comparison it Is Highly Literature Review Chapter

… Subsequently, they had to use experimentally generated scenarios, which are a well-established methodology (Smith et al., 1999), yet still more contrived than the deliverance of commercials.

The sample population was restricted to participants who were fairly internet savvy as well as proficient in cell phone use, which may not be indicative of the general population at large.

Despite these shortcomings of the methodology utilized in this study, the findings demonstrate that there is still a significant amount of life left in conventional media channels that utilize well established technology such as the postal service, television, stamps, and other conventional methods of reaching consumers. Prior research has evinced that receivers do have preferences for obtaining certain messages, particularly those related to advertising (Westmyer et al., 1998). Danaher and Rossiter's study has shown what that preferred method of communication is for a select population group. In order to expand their research to encompass the vast majority of people, of course, it would be necessary to conduct this research and survey on a broader scale, ideally with more funding to offer each participant each of the 11 methods of communication, ideally through the means of an advertisement through each media.

Bibliography

Barwise, T.P. And Strong, C. (2002), "Permission-based mobile advertising," Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 16, Winter, pp. 14-24.

Chandon, P., Morwitz, V.G. And Reinartz, W.J. (2005), "Do intentions really predict behavior? self-generated validity effects in survey research," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 29, April, pp. 1-14.

Danaher, P and Rossiter, J 2009, 'Comparing perceptions of marketing communication channels', European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45, no. 1/2, pp.6-42.

Smith, A.K., Bolton, R.N. And Wagner, J. (1999), "A model of customer satisfaction with service encounters involving failure and recovery," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 36, August, pp. 356-72.

Westmyer, S.A., DiCioccio, R.L. And Rubin, R.B. (1998), "Appropriateness and effectiveness of communication channels in competent…… [read more]


Industry Has Perfected the Use of Advertising Research Paper

… ¶ … industry has perfected the use of advertising to create branding identity than the fashion industry (Fox, 2010). Through the use of imagery the fashion industry has been able to position certain product lines and styles as symbols of… [read more]


Business Law: False Advertising Term Paper

… Truth in advertisement is immensely important and evidence makes all the difference. For example if a weight loss program states that people can lose 10 lbs. In three weeks then the claims should be backed by some study or research that clearly showed those results. If that is not possible, such claims should be avoided.

Ethically speaking, the seller should take this fact into consideration and act in accordance with the advertisement terms but since ethics are compromised through the use of bait and switch advertising, it is very clear that seller doesn't care much about ethics in business dealings. For him, it is much more important to hook the customer somehow and then make a sale even if the advertised product is no longer available or was never available in the first place. Thus we can only speak in legal terms and legally speaking, while bait and switch advertising can put a person into serious legal complications, the fact that a person took great pains to find the location to secure the deal is not significant for someone who is engaged in false advertising.

Business law now makes it illegal for anyone to make false promises through advertisements but companies would still do it especially the ones who are not so much in the public eye. But even big names have also been guilty of making false promises and hooking the customers who later find out truth the hard way.

Whether an advertisement is false or deceptive doesn't matter to a customer who has been cheated. For him, the fact remains that, it was due to misleading advertisement that he lost his money and his trust was betrayed. This is a highly unethical business practice but even some of the biggest names in business have also resorted to such illegal tactics to attract customers. One very recent example of this was the YAZ commercial which even Yaz said on television that it needed to correct on directions of FDA. Bayer, the world leader in pharmaceuticals, is the manufacturer of YAZ, which is the most popular birth control pill in the U.S. YAZ commercials indicate that the birth control pill does more than offer protection. It also helps with acne and PMS problems. However later FDA forced YAZ to correct "a few points" in the commercials and a revised commercial was aired. It was a rare occasion when FDA forced a corrective campaign and asked Bayer to spend $20 million on corrective advertising. "Regulators say the ads overstated the drug's ability to improve women's moods and clear up acne, while playing down its potential health risks. Under a settlement with the states, Bayer agreed last Friday to spend at least $20 million on the campaign and for the next six years to submit all Yaz ads for federal screening before they appear." (Singer, 2009)

Thus false advertising in any manner is considered legally wrong and bait and switch is just one form of false advertising.

References

FTC GUIDELINES AND LAW:… [read more]


Marketing Creates Consumer Needs Essay

… Papadakis (2008) draws a similar distinction in his article. He argues that real human needs are satisfied by a product's use-value, whereas artificial needs are satisfied by a product's symbolic value. Although he does not directly credit or blame marketing for need creation, he makes it clear that the underlying distinction regarding what consumers value gives rise to product differentiation. In other words, consumers define value according to what they want (Papadakis, 2008). What marketing creates is not needs but the perception of value.

Marketers do use consumer needs to create demand for a product or service. Marketers who understand the criteria that consumers use to make buying decisions use their knowledge of consumer behavior to formulate their marketing plans. These plans are then intended to help a business' product or service be the one that consumers choose (Agadoni, 2011).

Consumers have needs beyond basic survival, such as the need for prestige and esteem. Prestige or luxury items for example are marketed such that the higher the price, the more prestige is linked to the product. Other needs beyond basic survival include safety and security, or the need for love and affiliation. Some people buy to satisfy themselves, while others buy because they value someone else's opinion. Once marketers know the psychological reasons that cause people to buy, businesses can capitalize on those reasons to influence consumers' buying decisions (Agadoni, 2011).

What seems clear is that consumers buy for a vast number of reasons, and that those reasons depend on a consumer's concept of value.

Works Cited

Agadoni, L. (2011). Why do marketers need to know customer needs? eHow website. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6375595_do-marketers-need-consumer-needs_.html

AMA. (2011). Definition of marketing. American Marketing Association website. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from http://www.marketingpower.com/AboutAMA/Pages/DefinitionofMarketing.aspx

Papadakis, T. (2008). Do marketers create artificial needs? Agora website. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from http://agoraplace.wordpress.com/2008/03/12/do-marketers-create-artificial-needs/… [read more]


Dell Laptop Essay

… ¶ … Ps of Marketing for Dell Laptop

Analyzing the Marketing Mix for a Dell Laptop

Product, price, promotion and place or distribution are the cornerstones of effective marketing strategies. The use of these four components of the marketing mix for the positioning and selling of high technology are critical as there is often little differentiation at the product level, with greater positioning being accomplished through value-added services and support. The role of the 4 Ps of marketing is to set a framework in place to execute effective marketing, communications and selling strategies (Goi, 2009). Applying these concepts to the marketing of a Dell laptop is the goal of this analysis.

Applying the Four Ps of Marketing to a Dell Laptop

The PC industry is one that competes on time-to-market and the breadth of features within one product or system relative to another. The creativity, ingenuity and innovation that one company has relative to another often make a major difference in how they are perceived in the market and the level of sales they achieve. In the laptop market, these aspects of product design are critical for a system to achieve market share and be successful from a profitability standpoint as well. The 4 Ps of marketing are foundational to any laptop attaining its sales and financial goals. Each aspect of the marketing mix is defined in this analysis.

Product

The use of industry-standard components including Intel processors, chipsets capable of communicating over TCP/IP-based networks, and operating systems compatible with a wide range of applications are essential for any laptop to be successful in the market. The extent to which these attributes are fine-tuned to a given customers' needs is very often the difference in how effective the company is in selling thousands to tens of thousands of units. For a Dell laptop, the synchronization of these product attributes to a given customers' needs is also a differentiator the company relies on to gain market position and competitive advantage. Dell is also unique in that they rely heavily on a mass customization or build-to-order strategy, giving customers the opportunity to define their own configurations for their laptops (Fields, 2006). This adds an order of complexity to their product strategies, yet has delivered major benefits from increased sales and higher levels of profitability as well. Dell works closely with Intel, Microsoft and thousands of other suppliers to ensure the product dimension of the marketing mix continues to be one of the most competitive aspects of their…… [read more]


Qsr: Quick Service Restaurants Healthy Eaters Marketing Plan

… ¶ … QSR: Quick Service Restaurants

Healthy Eaters was founded to help people achieve their goals of a healthier, more energetic life through nutritious, balanced meals at an affordable price. Healthy Eaters is dedicated to making sure the foods you… [read more]


Marketing in a Global Environment Term Paper

… Marketing in a Global Environment

Language Differences

Language barrier is a major problem when venturing out into a foreign market to sell physical commodities as the locals could encounter unique problems when it comes to understanding product attributes amongst other things. This may inform poor sales due to lack of sufficient information about a given product and its usage. For instance, in the U.S. The usage of chopsticks is different from the usage of the same in China (Doole and Rowe 158).

However, language differences present an opportunity for the marketer to incorporate online marketing as well as use live shows in the foreign markets as non-verbal communication comes in handy. The latter are seen as more productive ways of marketing new products as consumers will be presented with various definitions of product usage hence demystifying the already present obstacle (Doole 158).

Currency Difference

Lack of common currency or inability to gain uniform modes of exchange is an issue when expanding to foreign markets as one party is bound to feel oppressed due to disparities originating from transactions. Similarly, it is often difficult to quantify labor in such a trading agreement hence resulting probable of exploitation scenarios. Consequently, the rates and tariffs in the new market may be charged differently hence creating bigger problems as calculations may have to be modified significantly. This may prove to be quite hectic for an investor (Renee 346).

Despite the fact that the absence of a common currency may end up bringing about negative effects when making an entry into a foreign physical products marketplace, the trading countries may use this opportunity to embrace a common markets protocol.

3. Cultural Differences

Cultural differences pose significant threat as far as the entry of a physical commodity in a foreign market is concerned. This is mainly because various cultures usually prefer significantly distinct ways of transacting business. For instance in some countries, business partners are in most cases close…… [read more]


Market Segmentation Term Paper

… Initially, the children will most likely be the ones drawn to the new beverage but ultimately, the parents have the purchasing power and will make the final decision. In that case, the marketing must appeal to both target markets. Further demographic data analysis should be conducted in order to determine the average household size along with the family life cycle stages. Typically, there are three family life cycle stages -- young single; young married with no children; and young and either married with children, divorced without children or divorced with children. With a new beverage, the key target market would be young and either married with children or divorced with children. With both instances, the target customers' lifestyle is most likely quit busy and convenience is almost always seen as a benefit. Both married and single parents are constantly seeking ways to add more convenience to their everyday lives within a reasonable cost. Therefore, if the beverage is also offered in convenient packaging or sold at convenient locations they may be more inclined to purchase the product.

With the target market established, the next step would be to develop an advertising plan. Television ads would be the most effective advertising method; however, it can be rather costly as well. Other possible types of advertising may include school promotions, radio commercials, billboards, and coupons and even free samples at local grocery stores. The exact advertising plan may greatly depend on the budget allocated for the entire project.

Richardson. "Market Segmentation." Witiger.com. Web. 4 Apr. 2011. .

"Types of Market Segmentation." Fds.oup.com. Web. 4 Apr. 2011. .… [read more]


Body Scanner for Fashion Industry Research Paper

… Body Scanner

Proposal Description

Body Scanner is a software application that enhances the online clothes shopping experience. Body scanner is marketed to websites that retail clothing. The software requires the user to submit three photographs -- front, back and side… [read more]


Product? I Realized a Need Term Paper

… My decision regarding from whom to buy was based on the terms of the sale, their level of customer service, past experiences buying from the particular seller and their return and refund policies. My decision of when I should make my purchase was dependent on the store atmosphere, how crowded they were at a given time; time pressure, was my current cell phone no longer working which would decrease the amount of time I would want to wait before purchasing a new one; a sale or discount which I could take advantage of in order to save money; and finally the affability of the entire shopping experience.

What could the seller have done to make your buying experience easier? In this particular case of purchasing my cell phone, the seller could not have made the buying experience any easier. It could have been slightly more pleasant if I did not have to wait for in line for over an hour; however, I chose to make the purchase at a particularly busy time for the company. Nevertheless, once I was assisted it was a very smooth and quite fast process. The seller was very informative and did not try to sell me any other products that were not of interest to me.

Did you experience any post-purchase dissonance? If so, why? I did not experience any post-purchase dissonance as I was completely satisfied with the purchase. I compared it to my expectations and was able to confidently say that it had not only met but exceeded my expectations and I was very pleased with my decision.

"Consumer Purchase Decision Process." Web. 29 Mar. 2011. .

"Chapter 4: Consumer and Industrial Marketing." Web. 29 Mar. 2011. .… [read more]


Cultural Differences of UK and China Affect Multiple Chapters

… Cultural Differences of UK and China affect Next's Marketing Strategy for the China Market

Marketing

Cultural Differences of UK and China affect Next's Marketing Strategy for the China Market

This research is based on primary as well as secondary data.… [read more]


Ethical Implications Essay

… Targeted Marketing

Ethical Implications

Discuss the ethical implications of market segmentation and target marketing.

Targeted marketing, from a retailer's standpoint, is usually viewed as a positive development. Scarce financial resources should be channeled to advertising to the population groups most likely to be interested in the product. It is even possible to argue that it is 'good' from the target population's standpoint, as they are being made aware of a product of likely interest to them. Surely it is better to target one's marketing than bombard a wide range of people with products not of interest to them?

From a societal standpoint, however, targeted marketing can be extremely problematic. First and foremost is the problem of marketing to children, a target group that possesses few defenses to resist sophisticated advertising techniques, and does not always understand the difference between sponsored content and non-sponsored content. Cartoons that feature advertisements for toys promoting the characters in the cartoons may be indistinguishable from the ads that run beside them. And "children most frequently request to go to the restaurants that engage in the most child-targeted advertising," primarily fast food restaurants like McDonald's and Burger King (Targeted marketing, 2011, Fast food facts). But children are not the only vulnerable population. Individuals suffering a particular medical condition may be more desperate, and apt to take advantage of a questionable product offering because of slick, targeted pharmaceutical advertising. The elderly may not be able to filter the difference between advertising and scientific literature, given how much more aggressive advertising has become in recent years.

Targeted marketing directed at specific ethnic groups is ethically problematic, given the personal and social implications it…… [read more]


Purchase Displays, Coupons and Rebates, Premiums A-Level Coursework

… ¶ … purchase displays, coupons and rebates, premiums, loyalty marketing programs contests and sweepstakes and sampling induce impulse buying. The book points out the most effective methods influence the consumer at the point of sales. From personal experience, the author has been most influenced by point-of-purchase displays, many times with feature a coupon or a promotion that rewards the purchaser (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2008, p. 461).

Trade sales promotion differs and is the same from consumer sales promotion.

The role of personal selling in promoting products involves personal interaction between a sales representative and a consumer face-to-face. In terms of advantages, it allows the seller to explain things thoroughly, to better tailor the sale, to better target the sale, it offers better managerial control over the sale and is better equipped to close the sale and produce satisfied customers (ibid., p. 468).

The demand for Acid All is inelastic. Acid All is targeting the yuppie generation. These individuals tend to be more affluent and will often choose a boutique product over a normal one. For instance, the president of Acid All in the video made the point that a yuppie would pick Starbucks over a regular coffee due to the appearance and feeling of it being a status symbol or a luxury item. This was the rationale behind the $3.89 suggested retail price ("Digital assets repository," 2008).

As for whether this author would buy it or not, the answer is probably not. Being a student means that money is tight. However, if money were available and were in a social situation, one might be tempted to buy the product at least occasionally as a niche product (ibid.).

The rationale behind Janet's marketing statement may not be rational because she does not know whether or not demand will be elastic or inelastic for her product (ibid., p. 579). According to the textbook, "the general price level is correlated with the pricing policy: above the market (price skimming), at the market ... They do, however, result in changes within a general price…… [read more]


Marketing Space and Place Research Paper

… Marketing: Space and Place

The marketing mix for using digital vs. physical channels varies significantly by the type of products being sold, the intended audiences and customer segments, and whether the industry is B2B versus B2C-focused. The marketing mix of each of these approaches to selling varies significantly as each approach must support entirely different value propositions, pricing, product feature differentiation and customer perception of value (Martin-Herran, Sigue, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how the marketing mix varies between digital and physical selling strategies, analyzing the marketing implications of reaching respective marketing segments, and also discuss how customers can move from one channel to another. Companies including Apple, Best Buy and Disney are evaluated as examples of companies who successfully manage space and place-based strategies.

Analysis

Digital marketing is well suited for products and services that are commoditized in nature in addition to those brands that have attained a very high level of trust with customers (Edelman, 2010). Digital channels that sell commoditized products thrive on customer loyalty and the habitual nature of buying through channels that are the most trusted. This fact changes the nature of the marketing mix, and redefines the marketing implications of this specific channel and the products sold. Digital marketing is also inherently measurable and can be quantified very quickly to determine overall performance of programs and strategies while "place' based strategies cannot as easily be measured (Grandon, Nasco, Mykytyn, 2011). Digital channels also attract a different demographic and type of consumer than their retail or "place" based counterparts. Consumers often move between channels when they are shopping for the best price on a major purchase, including a new laptop, PC or car, as the combination of digital and retail channels together deliver significantly more information than any previous series of channels (Grandon, Nasco, Mykytyn, 2011).

In devising a selling strategy for digital vs.…… [read more]


Nordstrom Wedding Marketing Plan

… Nordstrom Product

Nordstrom Wedding: Product Strategy

The objective of the product strategies that will be developed and employed for Nordstrom Wedding, the new bridal- and nuptial-focused department of the popular and well-known department store, will be to develop and promote bridal gowns and accessories that are both stylish and affordable, while appealing to a wide range of tastes. Given the degree of competition that exists in the retail wedding industry in this day and age, when celebrity weddings, reality television shows, and the rising rates of marriages are all creating large opportunities for interested companies and individuals. This means that product strategy must be highly effective if Nordstrom Wedding is to be able to establish itself in the industry and obtain a decent market share alongside long-established companies.

This leads to one key area in which product strategy must be focused: differentiation. I order to be truly competitive and ultimately the best provider of wedding needs around, Nordstrom Wedding will need to demonstrate that it can deliver something different from everything else out there (Chance 2011). A clear understanding of the focused market segment, which is essential in effective product strategy development, is fairly easily obtained for Nordstrom Wedding (Kotler 2011). It must also be remembered, however, that potential customers in this market are now occupying ever-wider demographics in terms of age and even income bracket, and this must be accounted for if Nordstrom is to develop the broadest possible customer base and the greatest profit potential.

Whole Product Offer

With the backing of Nordstrom's other large-scale retail activities and its supplier and distribution network, Nordstrom Wedding is in a unique position to be able to offer full wedding packages at very competitive prices, and this fact should not go unacknowledged in the company's product strategy. A "whole product offer" means that the company can provide a products (pr set of products) that meet exactly and precisely the needs of the consumer, and being able to assert this in marketing and live up to it in sales can really set a company and its products apart from the competition (Cricket 2011). His product strategy would also have other direct and indirect benefits for the company, increasing sales potential and profitability while diminishing costs in certain areas and also significantly adding to the brand image and value-added aspects of all…… [read more]


Product Analysis Organizations Are Formed to Increase Term Paper

… Product Analysis

Organizations are formed to increase the residual claim and mitigate the expenses. Inevitably, organizations have to take numerous actions to direct their performance. Actually, organization is a place in which people belongs to different mindset and demographics exist… [read more]


Pricing Strategy and Distribution Build-To-Order Marketing Plan

… As opposed to other approaches to defining pricing, this approach is equitable to each channel member and member of the value chain. There is also less room for price discrimination and fraudulent transactions when this is approach is used compared to more complex and challenging pricing schemes.

Distribution Channel Analysis

There will be a multichannel distribution channel strategy developed for the Eleftria netbook, as the build-to-order strategy can scale across indirect channel partners, online product configurators, and value-added resellers. The customization capability of the Eleftria netbook is ideally suited for a multichannel strategy as well. The following is an overview of the Eleftria Netbook distribution channel strategy. This channel strategy is deliberately designed to support multiple channels while also creating the opportunity to sell the Eleftria netbook to small businesses and consumers. There is also the inclusion of dealers, e-commerce hubs and retailers and Value-Added Resellers (VARs) each of who have the potential to increase their gross margin per sale by concentrating on customization needs of their long-standing customers. Dealers and VARs who sell into small businesses often have long-standing relationships with these small businesses, and can quickly gain sales of new systems by presenting the new Eleftria model to their best customers. The development of a multichannel distribution network is crucial for achieving critical mass during any new product introduction (Al-Obaidi, Gabrielsson, 2002). Figure 1 shows the proposed Eleftria Netbook distribution network. What makes this distribution network unique is the support for e-commerce selling as part of the multichannel structure.

Figure 1: Eleftria Netbook distribution network

This multichannel distribution strategy for the Eleftria netbook is also ideally suited for the target markets the company operates in. Small businesses and consumers both rely on dealers to make their computer purchases, and the same holds true for netbooks, especially when customization is involved. There is also the need of small businesses to get assistance with setting up their wireless and Wi-Fi enabled networks as well. The value-add that VARs provide is another reason why the multichannel model works well for the Eleftria netbook. The reliance on e-commerce hubs and retailers is also critically important, as the company will need to create product configurator websites that these channel partners can easily re-brand. The focus on ease of selling and service across all these channels also needs to pervade the underlying IT systems that the Eleftria netbook will need in order to succeed as a product. The reliance on the distribution channel is also going to be critical for the Eleftria netbook reach its full sales potential. Without a multichannel strategy, the sales would only be through direct channels, which would be much more expensive and difficult to scale over time. The selection of distribution channels will also make the ongoing promotion of the Eleftria through social networking more effective as well

(Bernoff, Li, 2008). This specific structure of a channel must align to the specific goals of the product strategy and its margin-producing potential if pricing, product and service are all to… [read more]


Super Bowl Commercials Applied to Text Covered in Class Research Paper

… Super Bowl Ads

As Michman, Mazze, & Greco (2003) point out in Lifestyle Marketing: Reaching the New American Consumer, shifts in values and lifestyles impact marketing strategies. Pervasive social concerns such as gender, social class, and the pursuit of personal power are reflected in advertising. Products are sold on the basis of what consumers imagine they will do -- not just on what those products are designed to do. For example, a car is a vehicle engineered for transportation. Marketing a car almost never depicts the mundane aspects of car ownership, though. Rather, car commercials are selling lifestyle. The textbook chapter on consumer behavior underscores the importance of lifestyle to a marketing strategy. Perner (2010) points out that consumer behavior impacts marketing strategies and even public policy. Because of the broad, massive audience garnered by the Super Bowl, marketers take the opportunity very seriously.

The Super Bowl is a benchmark for marketing methods for several reasons. For one, market researchers can investigate the ways marketing messages have changed over time. Marketing research experts can also examine the changes that take place within an organization. For example, one company might decide to become more socially conscious and begin presenting its brand as "green" or "socially responsible." Another way the Super Bowl is a cornerstone of marketing research is that it can be used to reflect trends in consumer behavior. The results of Super Bowl ads may be measured using absolute sales numbers over the next year. Furthermore, Super Bowl advertisements work on the principle of the target audience. As the textbook points out, the target market "consists of a set of buyers who share common needs or characteristics that the company decides to serve," (Kotler & Armstrong 2009, p. 225). Super Bowl advertisements reflect the skillful use of two distinct but inter-related marketing principles: target market and consumer behavior.

Advertising campaigns, such as the flashy and expensive ones used during the Super Bowl, reflect the ways organizations capitalize on market research. Having determined that a large number of the Super Bowl target audience -- at least the audience tuning in enough to pay attention to the commercials -- are males. Last year's Super Bowl reflects what might have been many months if not years of consumer demographics research to yield behavioral trends among American males who watch sports. The result of such marketing research includes advertisements like the Chrysler-Dodge Charger advertisement from the 2010 Super Bowl.

The Chrysler-Dodge ad for the Charger edition car comes across as being incredibly sexist and demeaning to both males and females. As such, the advertisement seems outmoded just one year after its release. In the commercial, men bemoan their imagined emasculation. The target market -- white men based on the actors depicted in the ad -- are shown unsmiling. A voice over speaks of the drudgery that infects their lives, from having to clean the sink after shaving to having to put their underwear in the laundry hamper. At first, the advertisement seems perfectly normal… [read more]


Coastal Star Sales Corporation Is a West A-Level Coursework

… Coastal Star Sales Corporation is a West Coast wholesales that market to several manufacturers of leisure products. Coastal Star has 80-person sales force that sells to wholesales in a six-states area divided into two sales regions the table below gives the names from a sample of 11 salesperson, some descriptive information about each salesperson, and the sales performance of each for the past 2 years.

Sales

Region Salesperson Age Years of experience Previous Years Current Years

Northern Jackson 40 7 $412,744 $411,007

Northern Gentry 60-12 1,491,024 1,726,630

Northern La Forge 26 2 301,421 700,112

Northern Miller 39 1 401,241 471,001

Northern Mowen 64 5 448,160 449,261

Southern Young 51 2 518,897 519,412

Southern Fisk 34 1 846,222 713,333

Southern Kincaid 62-10 1,527,124 2,009,041

Southern Krieger 42 3 921,174 1,030,000

Southern Manzer 64 5 463,399 422,798

Southern Weiner 27 2 548,011 422,001

Calculate the median, the mode and range for each variable in question 1.

The median for age is 42. The median for years of experience is 3. The median for previous years of experience is $518,897. The median for current years of experience is $519, 412.

The mode for age is 64. The mode for years of experience is 2. The mode for previous years of experience is in the $4,000 range. The mode for current years of experience approximates $422,00.

The range for age is 39. The range for years of experience is 12. The range for previous years of experience is $1,225,704. The…… [read more]


Business Essay

… Business to Business

Major Trends in the Business-to-Business Marketing Environment

The practice of business to business has developed together with commerce. The importance of B2B marketing has evolved in time, given the requirements of smaller or larger companies that needed… [read more]


Global Comic Company (GCC) Term Paper

… Since this is a worldwide company and a campaign that will be launched worldwide, it is important for advertising (ad) campaign to be diversified and cross over different cultures. The ad campaign must captivate the target population as well as individuals from different cultural backgrounds. I recommend using a phrase such as 'Take laughter with you'. It is a catchy phrase and can cross cultural lines.

Since the target population is youthful I would also recommend utilizing social networking sites such as facebook, twitter and blogs to advertise this product. Utilizing these sites would reach a large percentage of the target population as well as be very inexpensive for the organization.

GCC can also offer special promotions for customers to sign up for this service. Promotions such as the first one thousand customers who sign up for this service will get one download free per month for the first three months. Other promotions such as every five comic purchase, will earn the customer a free download.

In conclusion GCC is leading the industry with this technology. They have the advantage of being able to become the leader in comic distribution throughout the world. Using the social network site and media to promote this new product will give the organization inexpensive marketing advantages to their target audience. Mystery shopping the product and utilizing focus groups will give GCC the insight they need about their customers and their product. This will provide GCC with the marketing advantage.

References

McDaniel, C. (2004). Market Research. United States: John Wiley & Sons.

Taylor et. al. (2010). Focus and diversity in information systems research: meeting the dual demands of a healthy applied…… [read more]


Role of Empathy in a Sales Call Literature Review

… Empathy in Sales -- Literature Review

Empathy is the ability to imagine one's self in the position of another and to appreciate situations and circumstances from the other's point-of-view. It is largely a characteristic possessed more by some individuals than… [read more]


Consumer Behavior Perception Essay

… Consumer Behavior - Perception:

Perception is the sensory experience of the surrounding world and includes both the acknowledgment of environmental motivation and reactions to these motivations. People usually gain information regarding properties and the environmental elements that are significant to… [read more]


Sales Transaction in Acquisition Law Research Paper

… Sales Transaction in Acquisition Law

When ever someone acquires something it is oftentimes done by the purchase of a good or service. These transactions are done by way of a contract. A contract is fashioned in any transaction in which one or both parties make a lawfully enforceable promise. A promise is an assurance or commission that a given happening will or will not take place in the future and may be articulated or implied from behavior or language and behavior. A promise is lawfully enforceable when it:

was made as piece of an agreement for valid consideration practically persuaded the promisee to depend on the promise to ones harm is believed enforceable by a law in spite of the lack of consideration (Uniform Commercial Code - Article 2, 2005).

These regulations apply to all kinds of sales situations including that of buying something off the internet from a site such as Amazon.

Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code covers all dealings for the sale of goods other than securities and leases. Under the UCC, a good is any touchable thing that is portable. A sale is defined as the move of title for a price. Every contract for the sale of goods enforces a responsibility of good faith dealing on all parties in its performance and enforcement. All parties, even non-merchants, are subject to UCC which describes good faith as sincerity in fact in the behavior or transaction in question. Merchants are subject to an extra good faith principal, which necessitates honesty in fact and the implementation of reasonable commercial standards of reasonable dealing in the trade (Uniform Commercial Code - Article 2, 2005).

The proposed new UCC § 2-204(4) distinguishes the legal outcome of a contract formed by electronic agents ensuing from:

the dealings of electronic agents of the parties, even in the lack of…… [read more]


Comm in the Marketplace Essay

… ¶ … Marketplace

The Hidden Persuaders: Marketing in the era of anti-marketing

According to John Searbrook's comments during the Hidden Persuaders, a PBS Frontline documentary: "MTV… [has] broken down the notion that there is culture of programming, on the one… [read more]


E-Books and Consumer Attitudes the Marketing A-Level Outline Answer

… E-Books and Consumer Attitudes

The marketing of e-books could be retooled to successfully meet the demands of consumers as well as allay their fears about the technology itself. As evidenced by the survey, one of the biggest grievances that consumers had with e-book technology was that they felt it was not reliable. In order to help put these consumers at ease, the manufacturer could offer comprehensive warranties or focus marketing to reflect a more reliable image. The readers could also have a more comprehensive instructional manual in order to promote better care and understanding of the technology. Reliability is a function of a consumer's understanding of the product and how to care for and operate it. If consumers are given more understanding within these realms, and a focus on reliability is maintained within the marketing drive, manufacturers should be able to reduce this consumer concern.

Another major consumer concern relative to e-books is efficiency. Though relatively vague in nature, efficiency of the e-book could refer to the amount of time it takes to turn the reader on and off vs. having a paper representation of a book instead. In order to help speed up efficiency, manufacturers could look into incorporating e-book technology into cell phones and other widely used portable devices. In this way, people would already have the devices on and ready to use instead of having to carry a separate e-book reader device.

Cost is most certainly an issue as seen in the survey results. While e-book technology is still relatively new and rather expensive, the cost for an e-reader is relatively low compared to when they first arrived on the market. However, manufactures could do well in packaging their books in a way that is more cost-effective. Perhaps a subscription service would help reduce the perceived maintenance or operation cost of the e-book. This may also help…… [read more]


Non-Profit Marketing Professional Writing

… Marketing

Non-Profit Marketing

Using testimonials in marketing is a good idea to increase a company's chances of making money. An effective testimonial marketing campaign will help a company to grow and move closer to success (Using Testimonials in Marketing and Advertising Effectively, 2009). Non-profit groups add significantly to the enhanced quality of daily life. They manage to do very good work with a dramatic lack of marketing funds. This doesn't always generate a problem but does often call for imaginative approaches. The average American adult is exposed to 5,000 marketing communications every single day. Consequently, the first step is justifying a non-profit's existence in the public mind. The public must appreciate why the non-profit exists. Whatever the cause, the best marketers are the group's members. It is significant to make the course easy for them by putting the reasons and goals into a statement that explains the organization in less than 30 seconds. Once a group knows how to articulate their organization's purpose, the next step is to make available reasons for unaffiliated community members to care about the company. It is important to explain why the group is different, better or more deserving than competing groups (Aldrich and Bernardo, 2010).

Testimonials are convincing because they're custom made. In contrast to the normal language that most businesses use included in brochures and websites about being empathetic or caring or receptive, the best testimonials express those same notions by way of instances drawn from a person's personal experience. Additionally, testimonials often focus on points that matter to probable clients, but that a company might not see as important. On the other hand, a poorly carried out testimonial can often do more harm than good (Marketing Through Testimonials: Giving and Receiving, 2009).

Testimonials are suitable for almost any type of service that is offered. Testimonials from clients on everything from their happiness with a company's work to ones behavior are suitable. A company can include testimonials into their marketing materials in a number of different…… [read more]


Brand Inventory of University of Maryland Essay

… Business Programs

Smith School MBA Program

Description of Materials

"Smith" and "The Smith School," is used throughout the program's marketing materials, and the University of Maryland logo is slightly modified with the words "Robert H. Smith School of Business" appearing on two separate lines beneath the logo in the same font as "University of Maryland," but this is used sparingly in materials. There is a heavy emphasis on the diversity of the program in terms of instructor and student ethnicity/cultural background and the significance of this feature in the global marketplace is stressed. The marketing activities engaged in appear to be a mix of standard materials and a reliance on external and presumably objective (that is, not paid for or compensated in any way by the school) reviews of the program, such as Business Week's and the Financial Times' ranking the school and the MBA program as one of the best programs/business schools in the United States.

Analysis

Brand identification occurs primarily through the use of the school's name in various forms (again, as "Smith" or "The Smith School"), and this usage is consistent across marketing materials. Other than the scant published ads, brochures, and website-specific marketing efforts, however, there does not appear to be any real marketing program in place -- the school seems to allow its reputation to speak for it in other media, and this actually could work to the school's advantage yet it does not give the impression of a cohesive and coherent program. While the international factor that the school addresses is common to all programs, there does appear to be some distinction between independent program positioning.

Smith School Executive MBA Program

Description of Materials

The same logo use as described above is used just as sparingly in marketing materials for this program, and the same repetition of the school's name in various forms also occurs as the primary method of direct branding. Emphasis on the unique, comprehensive, non-linear, and semi-customizable nature of this program is the standard of marketing materials for the school's Executive MBA program as well as the other executive development programs offered at the school, showing a clear positioning for these programs that still incorporates the element of diversity but is also distinct to this program itself. External media quotes and rankings are also heavily relied on as marketing tools that evidences the school's reputation and standards. Despite the clarity of the program's positioning, however, there again does not appear to be a truly cohesive marketing plan in place for the program or the school, and reputation among the business world as supplied by word-of-moth and objective media analysis seems to be the basis of most marketing.

Analysis

There is a high level of consistency in the use of the various brand elements that the programs at the Smith School, namely in the use of the school's name and the appearance of the full University of Maryland/Robert H. Smith School of Business logo on at least the front/top of all marketing… [read more]


Sale of Goods Express and Implied Warranties Research Paper

… Sale of Goods Express & Implied Warranties

Under the UCC, an express warranty can be fashioned in three different manners. In each instance, it is vital that the occasion generating the express warranty take place at the point at which the buyer could have used it. The first manner an express warranty can be shaped is for the seller to make any confirmation of information or pledge that communicates to the products and becomes part of the foundation of the sale. Oral or written declarations relating to the products that the buyer uses in acquisition the products can generate an express warranty. Similarly, declarations contained in product labels may be considered to generate express warranties. An express warranty also can be fashioned if the seller makes any account of the goods that becomes part of the foundation of the sale. The warranty is that the products will match to the depiction. A third way of generating an express warranty is for the seller to exhibit an example or representation of the goods. If the example or representation becomes part of the foundation of the sale, the warranty is that all of the products will match to the example or representation. Express warranties characteristically engage the seller's oral or written declarations concerning the products. If the declarations lean to encourage the buyer to make the acquisition, they may be thought to be express warranties (Warranties in Sales of Goods, n.d.).

In jurisdictions governed by common law, there are particular implied warranties or declarations supposed to be made in the sale of goods. The warranty of merchantability is implied, if not expressly disclaimed or an acquisition is made utilizing the expression as is or with all faults. In order to be merchantable, the goods must realistically match to a normal buyer's hopes, such as it works like other products of the same kind. The warranty of fitness for a specific purpose is implied by law where a seller is aware or has to be aware of a particular purpose or use for which a product is being acquired by the buyer and the buyer relies on the seller's know-how in deciding on the product (Sale of Goods, 2010).

In the case regarding the sale of the Golfing Gizmo it appears that the express warranties made by the seller would indeed cover the buyer's damages. The seller made an express warranty when it made the statement on the label on the shipping carton and the cover of the instruction booklet that urged players to drive the ball with full power and it further stated that is was completely sage and the ball would not hit the player. Statements included in product labels may be thought to generate express warranties. An express warranty also can be fashioned if the seller makes any portrayal of the products that becomes part of the foundation of the bargain. The warranty is that the products will match to the description. This is exactly what happened in this case.… [read more]


Advertising Has Been Continually Evolving Book Report

… ¶ … advertising has been continually evolving. Part of the reason for this is because: the various techniques and strategies have been changing to meet the demands / tastes of consumers. As result, the overall tactics that are used will be continually evolving. One book that helps to keep up with the changes is: 10 Ways to Write More Effective Ads. Where, the author outlines a number of different techniques that can be used (when writing an advertisement), to increase the impact of the marketing campaigns. To fully understand the various principals of the book requires: summarizing the different chapters and examining the various strengths / weaknesses. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how to write an effective advertisement.

Summary of the Different Chapters

The book is divided into two different sections, the first section details various techniques that can be used to help improve the effectiveness of the ad to include: focusing on the needs of the customer, emphasizing the benefits of the product and incorporating proof / believability into the advertisement. Focusing on the needs of the customer is when you are telling the customer, why they want to use the product. This is generally the first step in outlining its various benefits. As you are telling the prospect how the product can address a need that they have. Believability is when you are using various testimonials or press articles, to show how your products are superior to competitors. At the same time it is helping to improve the trust that the customers will have about dealing with your company. This is important, because these basic elements are a requirement for every advertisement. As they will inform and persuade the customer, to purchase the product that they are looking for from you. ("10 Ways to Write More Effective Ads," n.d.)

Next, the book outlines various strategies that can be used as a part of the advertising campaign to include: creating a unique selling position, concentrating on the headline, focusing on the lay out and instilling a sense of urgency. The unique selling position is when you are emphasizing…… [read more]


Market Management Analysis of Sonic PDA Research Paper

… Marketing Management Sonic PDA

Porter's generic strategies were developed along the rationale that businesses succeed by focusing on either being a differentiated product or a low-cost product. A business that operates as neither is one that will have a difficult… [read more]


Principles of Marketing Term Paper

… Marketing Video Games: Social, Psychological, Ethical, And Political Considerations

Marketing has changed dramatically during the course of the twentieth century, as mass media grew from an improbable pipe dream to a reality exceeding anyone's wildest imagination. With radio, television, and… [read more]


Food Marketing to Children in Australia Research Paper

… Food Marketing to Children in Australia:

Based on a research conducted on marketing of food to children in Australia, the hypothesis in the journal is an inductive hypothesis. Given that an inductive hypothesis is an overview based on specific observations, the hypothesis was for the purpose of proposing a policy for organizing food marketing based on Australian research on food marketing to children. The theory was also developed to demonstrate how the proposed framework can be used in identifying knowledge gaps in examining food marketing to children in Australia. The proposed framework identified the need of classifying research on food marketing to children in Australia to prevent replication of research and provide guidance in future policy making.

In addition to proposed restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children and Australian food marketing research in the last decade, the hypothesis included business, medical and marketing records. Discussion with experts, specific media, web-listed reports and reference lists were some of the other areas in which the review was conducted. This hypothesis classified the investigations according to their major focus which included exposure, effects of exposure, regulations and breach of regulations. However, investigations that had more than either of these categories were documented as such.

While the effects category examined the media types such as broadcast and print media, the effects of exposure category analyzed results of food marketing such as actions and attitudes. On the other hand, the regulations class evaluated both the kind and level of directive applying to food marketing. The final category sought to identify cases where marketing regulations had been desecrated in food marketing to children. Most importantly, the proposed framework divided marketing media into broadcast and non-broadcast advertising.

Article Summary:

Research on food marketing to children in Australia has been conducted in the previous ten years with most of these investigations focusing on television advertising and exposure. According to these findings, a child's food preferences, purchase demands and consumption has been largely influenced by food marketing (Chapman et al., 2009). Most of the programs that advocate…… [read more]


Strategic Review the Performance of the Company Capstone Project

… Strategic Review

The performance of the company in the past four years is evidence of multiple errors on the part of previous management. It is evident that the previous management was unable to determine optimal price points for our products,… [read more]


Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals Article Critique

… ¶ … Emotional Appeals," JIB Fowles outlines that advertisers place emphasis on fifteen core emotional appeals. Advertisements can be analyzed on the basis of these appeals to understand how the advertiser is trying to reach consumers. Over the years, the use of these appeals has become more sophisticated as advertisers become more knowledgeable about consumers' motivations and emotional needs. This paper will outline in detail the ways in which Fowler makes his case.

The intended audience of this article is a reader curious about the workings of advertising. This is primarily the student of marketing, but can also be a reader with a natural curiosity for how advertising works. The author presents ample examples and avoids excessive jargon that would turn off the casual reader or novice student, but provides a good overview of the subject matter. Fowler treats the reader as intelligent enough to understand his arguments. The audience is not considered to have in-depth knowledge of psychology or sociology as little jargon from those disciplines is utilized. The audience is, however, expected to have a broad knowledge of the advertisements that are presented as evidence of the appeals, for example citing the Jordache and Brooke Shields' Calvin Klein ads in paragraph 18.

The structure that the author uses makes it easy to follow, as the fifteen appeals are laid out in list format and are then broken down with headings. The other components of the article, in particular the discussion after the appeals about interpreting ads, are less well-structured. Indeed, the author's work within each heading was generally unstructured and this weakness was revealed in the last few pages of the article. There is considerable subject overlap between "Analyzing Advertisements" and "Do They or Don't They?"

The author's choice of writing style is intended to convince the reader of the author's point-of-view. The author directs the writing towards the audience, such as "it is good to keep in mind…" and "we should recall" and this frames the way that the audience reads the piece. The piece is, essentially, an instruction manual for deconstructing…… [read more]


Managerial Accounting CVP Analysis Cost-Volume-Profit Essay

… Managerial Accounting

CVP Analysis

Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis is an integral part of managerial accounting because it can help the CEO to make vital decisions regarding the operations and future of the company. It can be used by the CEO to get an estimate of future revenue, cost and profit. It can also be used by the CEO to know the exact activity and operational levels required to break even. This analysis can help the CEO to plan operations and to monitor the performance of the company.

Contribution Margin

Contribution margin, in simple terms, is the marginal profit obtained by the company from the sale of a unit of a product. In other words, it is the price of the unit minus the cost incurred to product that unit. It is the amount of money that is contributed by the sale of each unit to the overall profitability of the company.

Any manager would want the contribution figure to be higher because it is used to offset the fixed costs incurred by the company. This is the reason a firm with high Selling, General and Administration Expenses (SG&a) must have a higher contribution margin. These are the fixed costs incurred by the company and a higher contribution margin will help to offset these high fixed costs.

A company engaged in television production is a good example of a company that can incur high SG&a expenses. This is because they tend to spend a lot…… [read more]


Marketing Management Marketing Is so Ingrained Multiple Chapters

… Marketing Management

Marketing is so ingrained in the modern way of life we almost do not notice it -- yet we are all ingrained and enraptured by its very power and existence. It has evolved so that contemporary professionals have… [read more]


Consumer Choice Factors Influencing Essay

… Consumer Choice

Factors Influencing Consumer Choice and the Companies that Use These Factors Well: A Research-Based Comparison

There are many different factors that can have an impact on the decision a consumer makes to purchase a given product. Simple things like placement in a store, such as products that are placed on shelves at eye level or the racks of candy and magazines at most grocery store checkout lanes -- products that are called "impulse buys" for a reason -- can have a huge influence on consumer choice and purchasing behaviors. Other influential factors are more complex: manipulating price might seem to be a good way to affect consumer choice, and it works to some degree, but it does not work in a linear or even always in a predictable fashion. The most influential factor when it comes to consumer purchasing behaviors is information -- what the consumer knows about the product and its alternatives.

This can easily be demonstrated by examining the basic model of consumer behavior. There are five steps in this model, the last two of which are the purchase and the post-purchase behavior, both of which occur after (generally speaking) the purchase decision has been made (Brown 1996). The first three steps of the consumer decision-making process are the identification/recognition of a problem, the information search, and the evaluation of alternatives (Brown 1996; Geoffs 2010; Kerin et al. 2008). Each of these steps, the culmination of which is the purchase decision and then the purchase (combined as one step by most), deals with information, making it the most powerful factor in consumer choice.

Getting Specific

One could argue that "information" is too broad a description for a single influential factor, and indeed there are many different types and sources of information that can affect consumer choice, consciously and unconsciously, and purposefully and accidentally. Direct and conscious efforts to affect consumer choice can be considered marketing, and even the information that falls under the label of "marketing" can take many different forms (Kerin et al. 2008). Marketing can differentiate a specific product from others like it in positive ways, by promoting "special characteristics" of the product, or in a negative fashion by denigrating other products of the same class and type (Geoffs 2010). Marketing can also be used for many other purposes, but all of the have the same goal in mind -- convincing the consumer that they need to buy a particular product or service.

These efforts can be directed at any and all of the first three phases of the consumer's decision-making process. A lot of marketing actually defines the need for the consumer -- just think about any toy commercial. Kids didn't used to sit around saying, "Gee, I wish I had some sort hand-held video gaming console on which to spend hours every day," but through advertising the need or desire for such devices was created. Marketing aimed at the second and third stages of the decision process is relatively the same; this… [read more]


Enhancing the Marketing Plan Research Paper

… Assemblage Marketing Plan

There are thousands of competitors for the Assemblage, no matter how the market is broken down. Even just taking the flagship restaurant into consideration, Manhattan has thousands of eateries and grocery stores that can provide meals to… [read more]


Pull and Push Strategy Professional Writing

… Push Pull

Push vs. pull marketing: Overview and analysis

Two dominant marketing strategies exist within the corporate world: that of push and pull-based marketing. The rationale behind the model is as follows: in push-based marketing, the business 'pushes' its product or service to the consumer by raising awareness through promotional campaigns regarding the product's desirability. "Conversely, in a pull-marketing scenario, the customer 'pulls' your content or product towards themselves, because they are interested in learning more about it" (Maki 2010). However, the marketer creates that desire to 'learn more' by subtly fostering interest through an array of advertising devices, spanning from clever product placement, to blog posts, to other image-building campaigns.

What is push-marketing?

Push strategies involve attempting to create or 'push' consumers to demand the product by using direct promotional activities such as rebates and discounts. The consumer's role in the buying decision-making is emphasized. The strategy usually "makes use of a company's sales force and trade promotion activities to create consumer demand for a product" where none may have existed before (Push or pull, 2010, Tutor2U). In push-marketing, the focus is on the amenities and value provided by the product or service: it is an explicit form of marketing that seeks an immediate response from the targeted audience. Most companies use push marketing during holidays, such as Memorial Day sales or Christmas 'door-buster' specials. However, some companies use push-based marketing year 'round, such as mobile phone companies and fitness clubs, which rely upon special deals to push their product. McDonald's has made use of push strategies in the past, such as promoting Big Macs and other sandwiches as part of its value-based dollar menu.

Not all push marketing is value-driven. But it is almost always targeted directly at consumers. Push marketing is often used to make a new product well-known in a short amount of time, such as when a new company enters a competitive market. An example of push marketing might be that of the promotions surrounding a new toy around Christmas time, or direct-to-consumer advertising for a new drug such as Prozac or Botox.

What is pull marketing?

"In contrast, pull marketing encourages consumers to seek out a product or service by raising interest and awareness" (Push or pull, 2010, Tutor2U). Pull-marketing is a branding strategy, rather than a product-based strategy. It "largely involves the active development of a highly visible brand. This encourages customers to actively seek you out, because they believe you can fulfill their needs. Methods commonly used include media interviews, conference speaking, syndication of your content and word-of-mouth" (Maki 2010). Retailers may be asked to specifically promote a brand to create demand, as did K-Mart for its Martha Stewart house accessories: Martha's name, rather than discounts on towels and sheets, was used to draw consumers to buy the products. Manolo…… [read more]


Bobbie Brown.Co.Uk Book Report

… Bobbi Brown Web Site Analysis

Analysis of BobbiBrown.co.uk

This paper is an analysis of the e-business segment of Bobbi Brown Cosmetics, specifically their UK website. The topics addressed in this analytical paper are primarily the various marketing and branding strategies… [read more]


Incentive Plans Every Sales Organization Term Paper

… Incentive Plans

Every sales organization has specific objectives that it wants to achieve. These can be measured in sales, market share, profit or other measures. In order to encourage the sales people to meet these objectives, organizations turn to incentive plans. These plans not only impact on the force of the motivation but on the direction of the motivation as well. This paper will analyze the role of incentive plans and how they can help or hinder a sales organization in its quest to meet its objectives.

There are multiple types of incentives plans, and each serves a unique purpose within an organization. For example, a sales organization can utilize individual incentive plans or it can utilize team-based incentive plans. Both serve to motivate individual workers, but where as individual plan orients the salesperson towards meeting personal objectives the team-based plan serves to oriented the salesperson towards team-based objectives. An individual incentive plan relies largely on extrinsic motivation to be effective. Therefore, it must be structured in such a manner as to provide effective extrinsic motivation -- a plan that is too stingy is unlikely to be a sufficiently strong motivating factor.

The time orientation of the plan is also important. For seasonal or cyclical businesses, the plan should be structured around the business cycle. For businesses without such fluctuations, management can be more flexible. No matter when the plan is individual or team-based, the results must be achievable. If the business is seasonal, then the sales targets must match the seasons -- slow seasons should have figures just as attainable as those prescribed for the busy seasons. It is also worth considering the that company may need to retain some degree of flexibility in its plans, as it can be difficult to pay incentive bonuses during difficult times, but the company will want to retain its top earners and keep them motivated.

The way in which the plans are administered also needs to be considered. Some plans are peer-reviewed, which carries different political considerations when compared to a supervisor-review (Sunshine, 2010). Some plans are based entirely on quantitative measures, which others are based on qualitative measures or even subjective assessments. For any incentive plan to be at its most effective, it must be viewed by the sales force as equitable and administered fairly.

A team-based incentive plan relies partly on extrinsic motivation -- the team reward -- but also on intrinsic motivation. Sales people are motivated by the desire to contribute to the team. In addition, the team members will influence the performance of each other. This added element of team policing can cause friction in the sales force, but peer pressure can also be a significant motivator for underperforming sales reps as well. That said, it can be more difficult to identify underperformers with a team-based incentive plan, depending on how organizational performance is measured in the assessment of that plan. The team-based incentive plans with the best results are those that are paired with…… [read more]


Media Tares Test in the World Term Paper

… Media

TARES Test

In the world of advertising, professional persuasion is a means to an immediate and active end such as increased sales or improved corporate image. Ethical persuasion must rest on or serve a deeper, ethically-based final end. In the midst of the moral final ends of journalism are truth and freedom. There is a very real risk that advertisers and public relations practitioners will play a more and more dysfunctional role in the communications practice if means continue to be confused with ends in professional influential communications. Means and ends will go on to be confused unless advertisers and public relations practitioners reach some level of agreement as to the moral end toward which their efforts should be directed. The TARES Test consists of five principles: Truthfulness (of the message), Authenticity (of the persuader), Respect (for the persuadee), Equity (of the persuasive appeal) and Social Responsibility (for the common good) (Baker and Martinson, 2001).

When applying the TARES test to an ad for the Shape Patch which is a weight loss patch it is easy to see how there is a real danger present in advertising communications. This ad claims that the Bladderwrack, Shape-PATCH's natural active ingredient, has been used as a remedy for obesity for more than 100 years. This sea plant was used by ancient cultures as a remedy for obesity long before its approval and inclusion in publications such as the Homeopathic Review (since 1863) and the Allen's Encyclopedia of Pure Materia Medica (since 1880), along with other relevant publications. It is thought that it may have been utilized for weight loss as early as in the 17th century (Shape Patch, 2004).

The special intended audience for this ad is anybody who is overweight and wants to lose weight and keep it off forever. The ad claims that in reality almost anyone can lose weight by dieting, patches, using pill or exercising. The problem, and what at the end is most important, is to keep that weight off. This is a truthful statement. It is very possible for most people to lose weight, but keeping it off is the trick. The next claim that the ad makes is not so truthful though. It claims that the Shape-PATCH is the only product ever to prove that the weight one loses now will be kept off throughout the years to come. They claim that this happens because one gets used to eating less and therefore they will feel satisfied with less food and less food means fewer calories and fewer calories means that they will not regain the weight. They say that this makes Shape-PATCH completely different from anything else, especially from the frustrating yo-yo effect of other weight loss programs. It also explains why Shape-PATCH has been around for more than 12 years in 40 countries helping thousands of people of all ages to lose weight and keep it off (Shape Patch, 2004).

This claim appears to be a bit unethical because they have no way… [read more]


Marketing Strategy the Assemblage Is a Restaurant Research Paper

… Marketing Strategy

The Assemblage is a restaurant in the casual dining segment. As with any restaurant, there is both a product and a service offering at the Assemblage. The product will consist of the menu. As a point of differentiation… [read more]


Business Plan the Product Business Plan

… Business Plan

The product that I am developing is a handheld device that can instantly translate over forty different languages. This device will have recognition software that will allow it to distinguish languages, even through different accents and dialects. Whereas… [read more]

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