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African-American Perspectives on Education for

He received pleasure from literature and philosophy -- the ability to become more of the world and of the times comes with literacy. As a person a part of a group formally oppressed in America, literacy and education are also a curse; he feels he knows too much. He has a great deal of knowledge and motivation, yet because of…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


African-American Art the Art of

Like Hayden's "Fetiche et Fleurs," Richmond Barthe's "Fera Benga" subverts European aesthetic norms. The "Fera Benga" small bronze statue is full of raw male potency. A naked man dances with a scimitar, a weapon that seems far more phallic than dangerous here. In addition to being filled with energy and motion, the statue also subverts European norms of male perfection…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 5


Colonial America African-Americans in Colonial

There was a very small opportunity for moving up in class, as indentured servants, for example, were sometimes given land at the end of their servitude and could vote because they were landowners. Women in this class also worked, for example as slaves, to maintain at least a subsistence level of existence. The slave portion of this lowest class is well-represented by Mammy in "Gone with the Wind," who was in the lowest class and simply owned for her entire life. As descriptions of these three groups illustrate, it was possible for all three social classes -- high, middle and low -- to reside on one plantation and still retain their distinct class status. 3. Conclusion African-Americans in Colonial America experienced the United States differently, depending on whether they lived in the North or South. The American South of the 17th and 18th Centuries was dominated by agricultural life, particularly plantation life, and that set the stage for high black population of slaves who were oppressed in every major area of life. Meanwhile, the more industrial North also had slavery but to a lesser extent and with a high percentage of indentured servants, allowing greater freedoms in basic areas of life and also the possibility of being completely free. The John Catherwood letter indicates many aspects of Colonial life, including but not limited to the status of the two correspondents, immigration and the practice of indentured servitude. Finally, examination of the craftsmen, plantation owners and slaves on a plantation illustrates the three major classes in Colonial America, with Craftsmen in the middle class, plantation owners in the gentry class and slaves in the lowest……

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


African-American History Sharecropping Was Not a Direct

African-American History Sharecropping Sharecropping was not a direct effort by whites to keep blacks in a submissive position, but rather was a phenomenon that developed after the Civil War as the South tried to rebuild its economy (Riddle 1995). Southern white landowners did not like sharecropping, however they needed a means of labor to work their land, and ex-slaves had…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


African-American Women

African-American Women Oppression, Diversity and the Struggle for Human Rights: African-American Women The history of African-American women is closely aligned to the history of social and racial oppression in America. Significantly, the history of this group is linked strongly to the development of the movement in this country against inequality and for civil rights. The history of the African-American women…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Importance of African-American Music With AA Literature

¶ … African-American music with AA literature Importance of African-American music in AA literature Music receives a truly hallowed position in African-American literature. A passion for music, especially African-American music, should come as no surprise. After all, African-American ("Black") music has been and still is the dominant influence on modern American popular music, which now captivates and influences most of the world's audiences. American Pop music, even Hip-Hop itself, has penetrated countries as isolated as Guam and Ghana. Thesis: Music is emphasized so much because music is the only distinguishing feature of African-American culture which is exclusively positive. The Development of African-American Culture and Art (Music) The migration of many talented, ambitious Blacks from the Agricultural South after Reconstruction to urban areas further north set the conditions for an artistic flowering which revealed the unique culture of African-Americans. These rural emigrants would create a livelihood for themselves and many educated themselves at the many colleges and universities in their new environs. Some of them chose to create the type of art that they had been exposed to, "taught," in their universities and in their acculturation in the urban North. Others, however, could not ignore their upbringing in the agricultural South when creating art. These writers and artists would express what was real to them in a manner which felt natural to them. The result has come to be known as the "Harlem Renaissance," where the seeds of Black identity came to fruition. In the Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain, one of the greatest African-American writers, Langston Hughes attested to the significance of negro art in expressing the negro identity. He declared that "We younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame." (Hughes). The……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


African-American Studies Harlem Renaissance the

Each work is distinctive of the Harlem Renaissance period in style and content. The benefactors of the Harlem Renaissance period began as the African-American community. African-Americans have experienced a long and horrific history within American history. This group suffered along with all the other groups that compose the American people during WWI. In the history of America, often experience and contributions during wartime help facilitate social change and steps toward equal rights after the war is over, as is the case with blacks, women, and homosexuals. African-Americans had gained some respect and social mobility because of their contributions in the great war and the Harlem Renaissance was an expression of that joy and freedom that came from time having passed since Reconstruction and WWI's conclusion. While the benefactors began as black men and black women, the benefactors grew to be the American people and the world as many of the artifacts of the Harlem Renaissance grew to be fundamental and cherished aspects of American culture which spread around the world. Alain Leroy Locke was a man of great influence and great genius. Locke was a primary contributor and in some ways, mastermind, behind the Harlem Renaissance, an age in the early decades of 20th century American history. Locke was African-American; his achievements and contributions to society were often marked by his race whether he was working in direct support of African-American causes/issues, or not. Alain Locke was one of the first non-whites to attend and graduate from Harvard University early in the 20th century. He graduated from Harvard with two degrees. He was the first African-American Rhodes Scholar, attended distinguished universities in Europe, was Phi Beta Kappa, and was a long time professor at the historically black university, Howard University in Maryland. Locke is regarded as one of the most revered thinkers, writers, and scholars in African-American history. Though the movement lasted just a couple of decades, the ideas and products of the Harlem Renaissance have endured into the present. Many of the artists, activists, and thinkers of this period are revered and considered iconic from the perspective of the 21st century. Harlem was quite a popular destination for African-Americans during the period of great migration after Reconstruction. This neighborhood in New York City became a hub for cultural expression and the flowering of African-American culture. References: Jackson, C. (2012) Harlem Renaissance: Pivotal Period in the Development of Afro-American Culture.…

Pages: 3  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


African-American Studies My Goal in This Class

African-American Studies My Goal in This Class My goal in this class is twofold. I would like to learn more about African-American history in general because the topic is very interesting to me, and I feel it is important to know about our culture and our history. In addition, I feel that the topic of black American slavery has changed the culture and society of our country from the very start, and that it has had a profound affect on our country and our people, and I would like to learn more about that, too. That in turn leads to a discussion of civil rights and the continuing fight for equal consideration and equal opportunities. Even today, there are barriers between black and white, rich and poor, and natives and non-natives. I would like to get a bigger grasp on what causes these differences and why they cannot seem to be overcome in our culture and around the world. One way to achieve these goals is to read more literature and historic accounts of the African-American struggle for freedom. However, this leads to the need for a greater understanding of African-American's……

Pages: 1  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


African-American History Between 1914 and 1929, Approximately

African-American History Between 1914 and 1929, approximately one million African-American individuals moved from the rural south to the more industrial north in a mass exodus known as the Great Migration. This movement was caused by a number of economic, environmental, and social forces that together made life in the northern states far more attractive to the African-American population. This paper…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


African-American History the Sharecropping System the Sharecropping

African-American History The Sharecropping system The Sharecropping system was a labor agreement that was shaped by the situation in the South after the Civil War and by the mutual dependency between farmers and laborers. (the Sharecropping System) the Civil War of 1861-1865 brought an end to slavery in the country. However this also meant that many farmers in the South…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Du Sable Museum a Reflection

Out of Sub-Saharan regions, Yoruba, Senufo, Pende, Chokwe, Shona, Zulu and Ethiopia, have been emphasized in the collection of artifacts. Furthermore, major collection of photography, bibliography, archived documents and photographs and artifacts made by numerous artists are also part of museum's collection. The art collection comprises of contribution of African-American community living in Chicago and hence contains the work of…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


African-American Literature Du Bois in

(93) "The harder the slaves were driven the more careless and fatal was their farming. Then came the revolution of war and Emancipation, the bewilderment of Reconstruction, -- and now, what is the Egypt of the Confederacy, and what meaning has it for the nation's weal or woe?" (92-93) The message is a strong sentiment describing the history of the place, the remnants of fences and homes once opulent and plush, though not enjoyed by the laborers, still indicative of care and prosperity, now only a skeleton of history rotting into the ground or roughly rebuilt to house a worker who simply has nowhere else to go. "I think I never before quite realized the place of the Fence in civilization. This is the Land of the Unfenced, where crouch on either hand scores of ugly one-room cabins, cheerless and dirty. Here lies the Negro problem in its naked dirt and penury. And here are no fences." (89) The whole tour of the region offers a look at what Du Bois saw as the center of slavery, the seat of the south, and the ideal of the peculiar institution which to his day was still reaping its taxes on the backs of its laborers and their offspring. The message is clear, there is no joy left and what little bits one finds are exceptions still eking out happiness and minimal prosperity, often when offered a hand up by a kindly white person some years back, a white person whose kindness rarely passed a generation. "His master helped him to get a start, but when the black man died last fall the master's sons immediately laid claim to the estate." (94) The theme of the chapter and that of the later chapter "Of the Sorrow Songs" is one that attempts to demonstrate that the message of the sorrow songs, such as the song "Bright Sparkles" which serves as the epigraph of Chapter 7 is the long mournful message of the African slave, rekindled in the present to serve as a bridge of understandings. The songs to Du Bois represent the toil and trouble of living the life of a former slave and a freeman without true reconstruction and only limited infrastructure to stand on, "And so by fateful chance the Negro folksong -- the rhythmic cry of the slave -- stands to-day not simply as the sole American music, but as…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


African-Americans in Louisiana & Type

She dominated her children and husband, the Sambo, with her temper. This image of the Mammy as the controller of the African-American male, was used as further evidence of his inferiority to whites (http://www.students.vcu.edu/counsel/MC/stereo.html). The second is the "Sapphire" stereotype, a demanding woman who refuses to take moral responsibility either for her own actions or for the actions that she…

Pages: 17  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


African-American History 1865 to the Present

African-American History: 1865 to the Present How did Blacks define freedom and how did they realize ideas of freedom? Elsa Barkley Brown's essay "The Labor of Politics" (p. 75) delves into the social and political activities of African-American women between the years 1865 (the end of the Civil War) and 1880. She points out that during the transition from slavery…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


African Americans During Early 1900's

African-Americans during Early 1900's The American society, since its early beginnings, was marked by the phenomenon of segregation. Soon after the birth of the U.S.A. As an independent state, pressures between the white and the black communities began to emerge and become more and more virulent. The Civil War proved to be peak of the confrontation based on racial differences.…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Turabian  |  Sources: 1


African-Americans in the News From

Indeed, it has been shown that the Spanish-speaking population and especially the recent refugees to the United States are not properly represented in the English-speaking media and, most often, the information presenting the Hispanic community is distorted and mishandled. The reason for this is quite simple and often relies on the newcomers' inability to react and respond to the media aggression. Otherwise, it is also linked to the general manipulation that immigrant societies encounter, as they are made responsible as a crime potential factor, as being the poorest minority group in the United States. Articles like Dr. Huerta's also examine, as in the previous case referring to the African-American community, the state of health in the Hispanic community, the specific health problems and, especially, those related to economic issues (in terms of insured vs. uninsured). As pointed previously, the Hispanic community is by far the poorest in the United States. This means that 35% of the total of the 35 million Hispanics living in the U.S. have no health insurance . 12 million people will go to see a doctor without having the insurance that would pay the bill. In this sense, we may assert that the presence of the Hispanic community in the news is aimed at drawing the public's attention towards serious issues this community faces, somewhat similar to the African-American community. Bibliography 1. African-Americans Should Take More Responsibility in Fight Against HIV / AIDS, National Conference Speakers Say. March 2005. On the Internet at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=20606 2. Spriggs, William. African-Americans and Social Security. Dollars & Senses. Issue #256, November/December 2004. On the Internet at http://www.dollarsandsense.org/1104spriggs.html 3. http://www.naa.org/Presstime/PTArtPage.cfm?AID=6178 4. Study: Hispanics a Key News Target. On the Internet at http://www.naa.org/Presstime/PTArtPage.cfm?AID=6178 5. Huerta, Elmer. Cancer Statistics for Hispanics, 2003: Good News, Bad News, and the Need for a Health System Paradigm Change. American Cancer Society. 2003. On the Internet at http://caonline.amcancersoc.org/cgi/content/full/53/4/205 African-Americans Should Take More Responsibility in Fight Against HIV / AIDS, National Conference Speakers Say. March 2005. On the Internet at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=20606 Ibid. Spriggs, William. African-Americans and Social Security. Dollars & Senses. Issue #256, November/December 2004. On the Internet at http://www.dollarsandsense.org/1104spriggs.html Key results online at http://www.naa.org/Presstime/PTArtPage.cfm?AID=6178 Study: Hispanics a Key News Target. On the Internet at http://www.naa.org/Presstime/PTArtPage.cfm?AID=6178 Huerta, Elmer. Cancer Statistics for Hispanics, 2003: Good News, Bad News, and the Need for a Health System Paradigm Change. American Cancer Society. 2003. On the Internet at http://caonline.amcancersoc.org/cgi/content/full/53/4/205 Ibid.…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


African-American Assimilation and Acculturation Self-Identity

Assimilation requires that more African-Americans adopt the philosophy of individualism, while many are still interested in traditional family dynamics and social values. Pan-Africanism and Assimilation Adeleke (1998) suggests that two paradigms are central to African-American assimilation and Identity, one of which is Pan-Africanism. This paradigm suggests that the current social crisis of Black America can be resolved by strengthening Pan-Africanism. The focus of this paradigm is to sustain "a viable Pan-African relationship as a strategy against threats posed by the political and cultural dominance of white Americans and Europeans" (Adeleke, 1998, p. 280). Pan-African representatives encourage mutual appreciation and understanding of shared historical experiences, values and interests as a way to facilitate better acculturation (Adeleke, 1998). The model encourages unity among African-Americans in a struggle to overcome among other things, wounds from slavery, colonialism and prejudice and racism, and all occurrences that have fed social disparity. The idea is that cooperation can lead to increased recognition acceptance and unity. Pan-Africanism however may also be seen as contrary to acculturation, as it seeks to strengthen Afro centricity and traditionalist African values. It suggests that Africa is the best source of self-definition for African-American's and identity for Blacks living in the United States (Adeleke, 1998). Assimilation is negative if it encourages blacks to lose their sense of history, heritage and identity. This creates a vulnerable state where social chaos dominates. Subordination and marginalization often results. Pan-African ideals may seem to counter assimilation. They actually encourage cultural recognition and acceptance. Any individual that is able to recognize and appreciate his or her own culture is more likely to contribute to society at large. Creating a more unified self-identity will only help African-Americans adapt rather than assimilate to American culture and feel more at home regardless of their physical location. The resulting pride and self-confidence may help create more acceptance by white and European-Americans, creating a society that welcomes African cultures equally with others. References: Adeleke, T. (1998). "Black Americans, Africa and history: A reassessment of the Pan- African and identity paradigms." The Western Journal of Black Studies, 22(3): 182. Parenti, M. (1978) Power and the Powerless, New York: St. Martins Press Young,……

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African-Americans Baroch, Andrew J. 10

" 6. O'Leary, Mary E. "Education Gap Threatens State Economy." The Herald Online. Retrieved November 13, 2005, from http://www.newbritainherald.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=15558638& BRD=1641& PAG=461& dept_id=10110& rfi=6. This article focused around a study conducted by The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education with regard to the state of Connecticut. The result of the projections suggested that the average education of the state's workforce and the income of its residents will decline unless Connecticut can increase the number of Latinos and African-Americans graduating from college. The center said "Connecticut is experiencing the same problems as Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Mexico, New York, Rhode Island and Texas" and Alex Johnston, executive director of the Connecticut Coalition for Achievement Now, said now is the time to look to those school models in Connecticut cities which have proven track records with low-income students. "It's a call to action, rather than just another piece of bad news," Johnston said. 7. Oliphant, Anne-Louise. "New Studies show young African-Americans at a much greater risk for pre-cancerous polyps." Retrieved November 13, 2005, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=32940. This is another health article, noting that African-Americans are at higher risk of pre-cancerous polyps. Following the results of two studies released at the 70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology, it appears that is isn't just speculation now, but it is true that "young African-Americans are at a much higher risk for colon cancer than other races." It is interesting that researchers are now looking at racial factors in analyzing findings from colonoscopy exams and in this particular study, found that among those with abnormal findings, polyps were the most common among African-Americans. The article pores over the evidence as to why African-Americans should have their colons screened for cancer at age 45 instead of age 50, five years earlier than the current recommendations. 8. Perez, Miguel. "Trying to fix a 'Moral Wrong.'" North Jersey.com. Retrieved November 13, 2005, from http://www.northjersey.com/page.php?qstr=eXJpcnk3ZjczN2Y3dnFlZUVFeXk0NSZmZ2JlbDdmN3ZxZWVFRXl5NjgxNTg5MyZ5cmlyeTdmNzE3Zjd2cWVlRUV5eTM=. Steering away from health considerations and back to politics, this article is concerned with the idea of reparations for African-Americans. Donna Lamb, communications director for Caucasians United for Reparations and Emancipation (CURE) states, "It's a simple fact that for 250 years whites robbed millions of enslaved Africans of the wealth their labor created. They were forced to work for free, while white individuals, companies and the U.S. government made huge profits off their labor." Lamb suggests that American tax…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


End of Isolation

¶ … Isolation African-American Civil Rights Historically, Africans and African-American citizens have never encountered social, racial, or civic equality within the United States. Despite a significant amount of progress in these areas, some of these contemporary American citizens contend that there is still a marked inequity in their daily treatment based on these aforementioned grounds. Yet when one traces the…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


African-American Males Are More Likely

Significance Since little is known about how African-American mothers actually react to suicides committed by a son, there is little knowledgeable help that the therapeutic community can give to them. It is known that grief is a very private event, maybe even more private in this community because of institutional lack of trust, so getting mothers to tell relate how they have been effected will be central to making sure that other mothers in a similar situation are able to receive better regulated assistance from helping professionals. The body of research in any field is necessary to formulate treatment plans, and the lack of knowledge in this area prevents such plans to be made to any realistic extent. The study can continue the dialogue on suicide in the African-American community, describe the role of spirituality in relationship to suicide, as well as discuss what programs/resources were utilized and are available in the community. It can also serve as a means to develop new programs which increase the effectiveness of the help given to African-American mothers. Knowledge Base Gaps The data supporting suicide prevention in the African-American community has largely been taken from studies conducted on the numbers that arise from census and CDC data which does not discuss reasons for phenomena. The data gives researchers a firm look at trends such as the rise in rate of suicides, but it is little able to help researchers develop effective means to help the survivors of the suicide. Since the African-American family unit is highly matriarchal, it would follow that mothers are affected to a greater degree than other members of the family or community. Also, suicide seems an even more senseless method of death than community violence, so it is inherently more difficult for the survivors to deal with. This study seeks to add understanding specific areas of research (African-American male suicide, effect on mothers), but it also seeks to determine what factors increase the incidence of this problem in the community. Birth order has been studied extensively as it related to suicide, but it is one factor that has received little attention in the African-American community. Educational attainment is another area where needed knowledge can be gained. Some studies relate that a higher education level is more conducive to suicide whereas others have shown the opposite effect. It is necessary to see what, if any, effect educational attainment has on…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


African-American's Ethnic or Cultural Background

Some African-Americans are Muslims, for example, others are not part of church communities. However, because of the way that African-Americans are treated as a group in the U.S., regardless of an individual's personal identification with values, religion, and cultural markers associated with the group, the experience of an African-American person will be 'different' from an individual who comes from a group that is not historically discriminated against in America. The great black intellectual W.E.B. Dubois spoke of the need for African-Americans to have a 'dual consciousness' regarding white and black culture. An African-American, he said, lived:"a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world. It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity." African-Americans were forced to understand the culture of whites as well as their own culture, and even when they made a contribution to mainstream American culture, such as in the form of jazz, their culture and worldview was never considered to be fully 'mainstream.' This sense of difference marks all aspects of African-American culture, even in its fullest expressions of religious and cultural diversity. References Cloud, John. (2008). Breaking down the black vote. Time. Retrieved: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1704667,00.html#ixzz1mIqJtkCX Dubois, W.EB. On double consciousness. Excerpted: http://www.duboislc.org/html/DoubleConsciousness.html Halbert, Chanita Hughes, Frances K. Barg, Benita Weathers, Ernestine Delmoor, James Coyne, E. Paul Wileyto, Justin Arocho, Brandon Mahler, & S. Bruce Malkowicz. (2007). differences in cultural beliefs and values among African-American and European American men with prostate cancer. Cancer, Culture & Literacy, 14 (3): 277. Retrieved http://www.moffitt.org/CCJRoot/v14n3/pdf/277.pdf Horn, Ivor B., Tina L. Cheng, & Jill Joseph. (2004). Discipline in the African-American community: The impact of socioeconomic status on beliefs and practices. Pediatrics, 113 (5).…

Pages: 2  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


African American Literature

Describing a naming ritual, Haley has the father walking through a village to his wife. "Moving to his wife's side, he lifted up the infant and, as all watched, whispered three times into his son's ear the name he had chosen for him. It was the first time the name had ever been spoken as this child's name, for Omoro's…

Pages: 20  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 20


African-American Male Students in Community-Centered After-School Programs

African-American Male Students in Community-Centered After-School Programs It is said that the teenage years are the most critical when it comes to determining how a person enters adulthood and who they will be as adults. African-American males are of teens that are left out and therefore do not get the whole experience on how to face challenges and life that…

Pages: 14  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 14


African-American History Since Reconstruction

Assassination of President Lincoln was not merely a tragic event because it marked the death of the man who had led the nation through its tumultuous Civil War: it also had a lasting impact upon the future of Reconstruction. President Andrew Johnson had a very hostile attitude towards the pro-Northern Congress and made every effort to block African-American enfranchisement. To ensure the protection of African-American rights, Congress created the Freedmen's Bureau. "Its purpose was to provide education and training for Blacks in their transition from slavery to freedom" (Jackson 2013). Congress also overrode Johnson's veto to pass the 14th Amendment. However, Reconstruction was a relatively fleeting period of time and by its end, Southern states had enacted substantial blocks to prevent African-Americans from voting, including voting screening tests, poll taxes, mandated segregations in public places and schools, and anti-miscegenation laws. When Congress made acceptance of the 14th Amendment a precondition for reentering the Union, it "met with violent opposition. Despite the presence of the military, Whites went on a rampage killing, beating, burning, and destroying any Blacks they could find. Blacks were lynched by the hundreds" (Jackson 2013). Johnson was unable to exercise effective control over the South. The U.S. Supreme Court's Plessy v. Ferguson Decision "When Louisiana passed the Separate Car Act, legally segregating common carriers in 1892, a black civil rights organization decided to challenge the law in the courts. [Homer] Plessy deliberately sat in the white section and identified himself as black" (Wormser 2002). Plessy was Creole and could easily have 'passed' for white but was considered black under Louisiana laws. The U.S. Supreme Court found in favor of the proponents of segregation, arguing that separate facilities were not a violation of the 14th Amendment so long as they were equal in nature. "The Plessy decision set the precedent that 'separate facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional as long as they were 'equal'" and quickly all spheres of life, "such as restaurants, theaters, restrooms, and public schools" were segregated and unchallenged even though the accommodations for whites were never equal to those of blacks (Wormser 2002). Publication of W.E.B. DuBois' The Souls of Black Folk (1903) W.E.B. DuBois was one of the most prominent African-American intellectuals: he was Harvard-educated and an influential proponent of the notion of the 'talented tenth,' or the need to educate the most talented African-Americans as a way of advancing the progress…

Pages: 4  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


African-American Women: Exhibit Review of Claiming Their

African-American women: Exhibit review of "Claiming Their Citizenship: African-American Women From 1624-2009" On February 2010, in honor of Black History month, the National Women's History Museum (NWHM) launched the cyberexhibit "Claiming Their Citizenship: African-American Women From 1624-2009." The exhibit reviews the history of African-American women from earliest arrivals of Africans as slaves to today. The essays and historical documents demonstrate how African women resisted slavery ever since the earliest days of European settlers: "One such recorded rebellion occurred in 1721, when an African woman stole weapons and served as lookout for two male slaves who attempted to take over the slave ship Robert" ("Introduction, NWHM, 2010). By tracing slavery in America before America was founded as a nation, the reasons for the creation and entrenchment of the institution become much clearer. African-Americans replaced white indentured servants because they were easier to capture due their 'non-European' appearance if they escaped. Because African women were used to 'produce' or breed more slaves they often suffered sexual as well as physical abuse. Even during the early colonial and Revolutionary War era, African-American women distinguished themselves, overcoming formidable social obstacles, such as the poet Phillis Wheatley, whose poetry is featured on the exhibit website. Additionally, in Massachusetts and other northern colonies, many slaves successfully petitioned the courts for their freedom. During the years leading up to the Civil War, northern women's groups were active in supporting the abolitionist movement, and former female slaves such as Sojourner Truth spoke out in favor of both the causes of women's rights and abolitionism. While I had heard of Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman, I did not know that one of the first recorded uses of the 'separate but equal' doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson was employed by the Massachusetts' state supreme court in 1848 when Benjamin Roberts attempted to get his daughter Sarah Roberts admitted to a whites-only school. The first African-American women to earn a degree from an institution of higher learning, Lucy Sessions earned her degree from Oberlin College the same year as the infamous Dred Scott Supreme Court decision declared all slaves to be property. After slavery was abolished, many African-American women migrated to the north, and the White Rose Mission of free black journalist Victoria Earle Matthews,……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Historical Progression of African Americans

¶ … Progression of African-Americans Matters seemed to be looking up for African-Americans consequent to the Civil War period. Not only had the government become more tolerant towards them, but they were granted equal rights to white people, thus preventing them from being exploited by society. Emancipation was no longer an untouchable dream for black people in the south and…

Pages: 6  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


African-American Leaders in the 1950s the Student

¶ … African-American Leaders in the 1950s The student leaders that emerged in America during the 1950s were standing on the ground that African-Americans deserved the same rights as other Americans. The mood was ripe for change as Rosa Parks began the spark of this movement when she refused to give her seat on a bus. Another issue that created momentum in this movement was the Brown v. Board of Education ruling. These events marked a collective change in African-Americans because they realized that they could accomplish things and see results. It should be noted that these attitudes and movements were not readily accepted. One year after the Brown ruling, a "Southern Manifesto" (Davidson 1144) materialized, urging individuals to use "all lawful means" (1144) to fight this ruling and the results of it. These student leaders were not simply protesting in the way we recognize it today, they were fighting a consciousness that deemed them unworthy. This fact makes them unique and heroic. Student leaders were successful during this time because, as it is with almost every generation, college students are influential and highly energetic. They are also idealistic. These elements combined allowed for fertile soil in the growth of the civil rights movement. Passion and protest are common to college campuses but what makes the civil rights movement so spectacular is that it wanted to grow and be known for its nonviolence. Small groups were formed with handfuls of people wanting only one thing -- equal treatment. Student leaders had college campuses on which to mobilize people and set them forth. Students lead the way because they are passionate. They are still young enough to believe in change and they have the energy to do something about. Students are not bound to jobs and families like older citizens are. In a sense, they had more freedom to mobilize campaigns. Word travels fast on college campuses and large groups of people can speak out. For example, many students participated……

Pages: 2  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Historical Progression of African Americans

Progress of African-Americans Historical Progress of African-Americans "Progress of African-Americans…" "Progress of African-Americans Through Time" The historical progress of African-Americans has been peppered with both successes and obstacles. Yet, as we have seen through the development of this course, broken down in units thusly, Unit I 1865-1876, Unit II 1877-1920, Unit III, 1921-1945, Unit IV 1946-1976 and Unit V 1976-Present…

Pages: 10  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 8


African Americans During the 1950s

African-American Families 1950s AB Annotated Bibliography African-American Families in the 1950s Primary Sources Lorraine Hansberry, 1992 (Screenplay) a Raisin in the Sun Los Angles CA: Columbia Pictures Industries Inc. The screenplay associated with the 1961 film a Raisin in the Sun has never been published, although an un-filmed version, i.e. that which Hansberry the playwright and author of the screenplay submitted for consideration to the filmmakers was published by Columbia pictures in 1992. The screenplay, though not exact to the one used for the film was used as a basis for the 1961 film, likely with significant alterations, done by various review boards to reduce the negative impact the film might have on the white community. This alone makes the screenplay a fascinating example of the slow progress that was made, despite the radical and vocal social upheaval that was taking place during the civil rights movement. A Raisin in the Sun is a descriptive condemnation of the social and economic state of African-American Families, during the 1950s, when economic and institutional segregation and therefore missed opportunity was at a peak, and as changes in local and national Jim Crow laws made way for majority community members and institutions to uphold segregation in a defacto manner, rather than as a result of the legal state. A Raisin in the Sun has an extended family of African-American's trapped within the squalor of a tenement apartment all needing and most not receiving much, the head of the household, Walter Younger struggling to make ends meet to support the extended family. The turn around occurs when the family receives a large insurance settlement, but the social depravity, segregation and challenges to individuals do not. The work demonstrates that it is not just economics that creates conflict in many African-American families at this time, but economics is a good place to start looking for change. McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950) http://www.blackpast.org/?q=primaryWEST/mclaurin-v-oklahoma-state-regents-1950 The development of Jim Crow segregation laws, that serve as a marked backlash from fears generated by emancipation, as well as African-American families and others seeking resolution for past wrongs marks a period of history that challenges most historians. The Above court case demonstrates that the challenges for African-American individuals and families to attempt to make a better life for themselves, through education was significant. White collar education was available, in a sort of second rate state and those who chose to…

Pages: 4  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 7


Higher Education for African-American Youth in Order

¶ … Higher Education for African-American Youth In order to understand the significance of higher education for African-American youth relative to youths in general, one must have an understanding of the tremendous educational disparity that continues to exist in modern America. Many people naively adhere to the idea that equality of public educational opportunity translates into equal educations, without looking at the historical differences in educational opportunity and how they continue to impact modern African-Americans. The reality is that education is very cyclical in its nature; illiterate and sub-literate parents literally lack the tool to teach their children. Moreover, because a higher education is correlated with higher earning power, many poorly educated parents lack the financial wherewithal to pay someone for tutoring and other services that would place their children on equal footing with higher income children. Given the overrepresentation of African-Americans in the lower socioeconomic class, this problem, while not a uniquely black phenomenon, has a disproportionate impact on the black community. Therefore, higher educations for African-Americans can have a very significant impact on the black community. Worldwide, poverty is linked to a lack of education, and this connection exists for many reasons, but is largely due to impoverished parents lacking the financial resources to send their children to school. Even when public schools are available, impoverished families may need their children in the workforce, earning money, rather than attending school. However, in America, there is an additional component to educational disparity that goes beyond financial disparity: the history of denying educational opportunities to African-Americans. For example, when slavery in the United States first began, and people of all racial backgrounds were likely to be involved in some type of chattel relationship, whether as a bond-servant, an indentured servant, or a slave, it was not uncommon for slaves to receive some type of rudimentary education. However, as slavery evolved into a racialized system that further negated rights for free blacks, it became……

Pages: 2  |  Application Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


African-American History What Was the Philosophy That

African-American History What was the philosophy that informed African-American campaign and why was it so effective? The American Civil Rights Movement was the movement which was started by the African-Americans in the South for gaining equality. The movement symbolizes a crucial episode in world history. The constructive modifications it brought to voting and civil rights are being experienced across the…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


African-American Literature. Specifically it Will Discuss Several

¶ … African-American literature. Specifically it will discuss several key points in slave history, including the effect of slavery on the writers and their families. As these slave narratives clearly show, the period of American slavery was a bleak time in American history. While some Americans felt slaves were "happy," these works indicate just the opposite. They longed for freedom and the ability to work for themselves. They hoped to keep their families together and avoid violent punishment from masters and overseers. They wanted the rights the rest of America took for granted, and their fight for those rights lasted far too long. African-Americans fought during the Revolutionary War alongside their masters, and some fought because they were promised freedom. They also fought as freemen to gain independence from Great Britain. Some fought on the front lines, and others fought behind the scenes, serving their masters who fought. Slaves ran away from their owners for any number of reasons, as all of these narratives indicate. Cruel masters that beat them and treated them harshly were the main reason, as Frederick Douglass' life shows. He writes, "I got no supper that night, or breakfast that morning. I reached Covey's about nine o'clock; and just as I was getting over the fence that divided Mrs. Kemp's fields from ours, out ran Covey with his cowskin, to give me another whipping" (Douglass 41). However, even relatively content slaves, such as Venture Smith, attempted to run away at one time or another. Harriet Jacobs ran away because she knew she was going to be separated from her children, and that she would never be able to buy their freedom. Slave owners took tremendous steps to keep their charges from running away. There were fugitive slave laws that would punish anyone who helped a slave run away. The owners also threatened family members if slaves ran away, and slaves knew their families could face punishment or worse if they suddenly disappeared. Jacobs writes of her family, "I had succeeded in cautiously conveying some messages to my relatives. They were harshly threatened, and despairing of my having a chance to escape, they advised me to return to my master, ask his forgiveness, and let him make an example of me" (Jacobs). The owners punished runaway slaves, as well, and usually in front of the rest of the slaves to set an example. Thus, the slave owners…

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Malcolm X's Contributions to the

also rejected Malcolm X's rhetoric without offering a closer examination of what the Nation of Islam leaders were trying to say. "All Mr. Muhammad is doing is trying to uplift the black man's mentality and the black man's social and economic condition in this country," Malcolm X states (Chapter 14). Both Dr. King and Malcolm X grew up in a climate of racism; Malcolm X's father died by white supremacists. Therefore, it would not seem that the two leaders would develop divergent approaches to the subject of social justice and political change. Their respective approaches are different because unlike Martin Luther King, Malcolm X remained deeply cognizant of the structural issues that prevented equality, which could not necessarily be erased with integration. Integration, for Malcolm X, would lead only to an Uncle Tom mentality, in which the black person would be "whitewashed." Malcolm X rejected whitewashing, preferring to develop a unique black identity that transcended the dominant culture. His cultivation of a pan-African identity, his affection for Islam, and his rejection of vestiges of colonialism, all make Malcolm X's rhetoric reminiscent of that of W.E.B. DuBois, just cloaked in the language of a new generation. DuBois's language makes full use of the scholar's erudite background, but both say mainly the same things. Blacks in America develop a double-consciousness, as DuBois pointed out. The African-American double-consciousness is injurious, and therefore it is preferable to rise above it all. In spite of their vastly different upbringings, and their being raised in different historical epochs, Malcolm X and W.E.B. DuBois shared much in common in terms of worldview and mentality. Malcolm X, however, wrote from the perspective of a self-described street urchin. DuBois was from a cultured background, but he never let his higher education in the bleached ivory towers prevent him from devoting his resources toward the understanding of the sociology of racism and the "souls of black folk." Malcolm X brought most of DuBois's ideas into popular culture. Works Cited King, Martin Luther, Jr. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." Retrieved online: http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html Malcolm X The Autobiography of Malcolm X Digital version: http://autobiography-of-malcolm-x.wikispaces.com/14_black_muslims…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


African-American Civil Rights Struggle African-American

And more than that this was regardless of skin color or ethnicity so that once the war ended and people returned home, there was less tension between the two and there was also this awakening of the realization that the blacks were being discriminated against unfairly. Moreover, as there was a shortage of labor and there was plentiful employment due…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


African-Americans Are Second Only to

These blacks were displaced by highways constructed under the National Highway Act of 1956. Other municipal improvements included the Pittsburgh Civic Arena, which displaced hundreds of poor black families living in the area in an attempt to improve the neighborhood. When the highways were built and families were displaced, white people received home loans to live in the suburbs, while…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


African-Americans: Anthropological Survey of Tradition, Culture, and

African-Americans: Anthropological Survey of Tradition, Culture, And Habits African-Americans are often perceived as possessing a unique social status in American history. Although America is a nation of immigrants, African-Americans are the only immigrants who were forcibly migrated to the nation as slaves. Unlike white indentured servants, African-Americans were turned into a deliberately enslaved caste of people, identified by their perceived 'race.' Unlike other immigrant groups who formed ethnic enclaves in urban locations, African-American's cultural affiliations with their various original African lands were deliberately destroyed, in an effort to make their enslavement more manageable for their 'owners.' Africans appropriated European Christianity, songs, and other cultural norms as vehicles of liberation and formed a unique culture that has been called the only truly 'American' culture. Slavery was present in all of early America, but it became a particularly entrenched institution in the South, where prejudice and discrimination against African-Americans became a source of self-definition for many whites. With the invention of the cotton gin, slavery also became wildly profitable, and the nation was torn asunder, at least in part, because of conflicts over slavery. The enslaved status of African-Americans was a profound challenge to the notion of America as place of justice liberty. African-Americans, from slavery onward would stress the hypocrisy between the American ideal of freedom and democracy for all, and their inability to enjoy such institutions. Even after formal emancipation, African-Americans continued to experience discrimination in the north and south. African-American schools were segregated, either by law or because of where African-Americans were forced to live, and this resulted in fewer opportunities and reduced economic power in the rapidly industrializing nation. The African-American family had often been separated, due to slavery, and many families were broken once again as fathers were forced to leave and……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 0


Black Fiction the African-American Experience as Seen

Black Fiction The African-American Experience as Seen through Twentieth Century Short Stories The "African-American experience" is something authors and scholars of many racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds and a variety of historical and political perspectives, as well have tried to define. None of these definitions or explanations has found a real permanent or universal resonance, however -- not in the literary and scholarly communities or in the larger African-American community itself. The reason for this is quite clear, and quite straightforward: there is no single shared experience of African-Americans, but rather this overall and collective experience is a conglomeration of many different separate and distinct experiences, as uniquely and individually colored as the persons that lived them. No race, ethnicity, or culture can actually be said to have a unified experience, especially across generations and historical epochs and even within generations and time periods; it is specious to suggest that there is an "African-American experience" that is somehow cohesive. The multitude of different experiences, values, perspectives, and personalities that make up the "African-American experience," such as it exists, can be seen quite clearly in the literature produced by twentieth century African-Americans. Even the works of one single author can reflect a diverse array of experiences from within the larger African-American community, when that author is skilled enough to perceive and accurately render the people and situations seen in this community. This paper will examine three short stories by James Alan McPherson and one by Eugene C. Flinn, a white author that tells another side of the "African-American experience." Through these short stories, the diversity of experiences and the richness of the African-American community is clearly communicated. "The Faithful" is from one of McPherson's most celebrated short story collections, 1977's Elbow Room. In this tale, a proud barber preaches his disapproval of the changes he sees in the upcoming generation, while at the same time this wave of change is shown to be largely positive and moving towards the integration desired by so many for so long. This demonstrates the way in which success for certain values, customs, and perspectives comes at the cost of other values and traditions; there is no perfect way to crate equality between different cultures and peoples, and the different experiences of the African-American community necessarily create some level of internal conflict that makes external progress difficult even if it remains inexorable. This also shows the…

Pages: 4  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Connect the African Cultural Roots

4. Briefly describe places of cultural significance (Specific museums/events/locations) to study contributors and movements involved in Black intellectual and political recognition/emancipation. The Washington Monument may seem like the most obvious locale, as it is the physical location of Martin Luther King's famous "I have a dream," speech. Yet far more profound might be the ordinary experiences chronicled in The National Afro-American Museum in Wilberforce, OH. There, there is a "Permanent Exhibit: From Victory To Freedom: Afro-American Life in the Fifties," that chronicles the bravery of ordinary African-Americans during the civil rights movement and the struggle to move what was still seen as the promised land of the industrialized North. In August 200 at that same museum, devoted to the African-American experience, there was a "Temporary Exhibit: The Legacy of American Slavery," that attempted to connect this second journey to the first, of African-Americans fleeing the South. Question 5 Link between intellectual inquiry and community service and development in African-American Culture. What kinds of community service opportunities are available to connect African-American Culture to a non-African-American seeking to understand Afro centricity? RE: African/American Indian (Seminole Tribe) Cultural development with some traditional African Cultural blending. Community service may be used to create bonds within community members, but also build bridges and create understanding between different communities. American Indians of the Seminole tribes, long ago in the national past, engaged in economic trade and activities, such as intermarriage, that created ties between these oppressed groups. Afro centric identification is another connection between Indian and African-Americans, however, because both groups have attempted to recreate fallen nations upon the land, in different fashions, after the linguistic ties and cultural bonds were dissolved through the now-dominant European culture's oppression. Question 6. Seek practical solutions to major challenges and controversial issues facing African-American Studies. Recently, because of perceived marginalization by the President of the higher institution of learning Harvard University, noted African-American scholar Cornel West returned to Princeton. However, personal slights are often the least of what African-American professors and students must face, when trying to deal with the studies of the community within the university. What is African, what is American, and how to render this study academic as well as personal, are all controversial challenges. African-American studies will always be a fluid discipline, because of the need to constantly redefine what is Black, African, much less American -- yet this constant sense of redefining is…

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Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Culture

Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Society From the first African slave to set foot on American soil, to the election of Barack Obama, there has been a tremendous metamorphosis of the African-American community's stature within the culture of the United States. Where Within Our Gates provided one of the first proverbial dips into the waters…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


African-Americans Have Been and Are

He was shot while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. King was only 39 at the time of his death Described as "one of the most courageous persons the Civil Rights Movement ever produced," John Lewis has dedicated his life to protecting human rights, securing personal dignity and building what he calls "The Beloved Community." He has displayed a sense of ethics and morality that has won him the admiration of many of his colleagues in the United States Congress. Despite his youth, John Lewis became a recognizedPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=John Lewis" leader in the Civil Rights Movement. By 1963, he was recognized as one of the "Big Six" leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. Lewis, at the age of 23, was one of the planners and a keynote speaker at the historic "March on Washington" in August 1963. Philip Randolph stepped into the limelight and became a very visible national spokesperson for African-American rights in the 1940s and 1950s. He focused his attention on the rising number of blacks on relief and the number of defense industry jobs that were increasing with the war effort heating up. These jobs traditionally excluded blacks. Randolph proposed the March on Washington - a mass action protest to demand change. He was also a great leader and helped the Blacks get their freedom. James Farmer was also a great black leader and his efforts paid seed into the black freedom movement although he himself could never see through to the end of his dream. Rather than become an ordained Methodist minister, Farmer, who told his father he would rather fight that church's policy of segregated congregations, chose instead to go to work for the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Farmer was FOR's secretary for race relations, helping the Quaker, pacifist organization craft its responses to such social ills as war, violence, bigotry, and poverty. Information on the leaders from:……

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