"African-American / Black Studies" Essays

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African-American Perspectives on Education Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

He received pleasure from literature and philosophy -- the ability to become more of the world and of the times comes with literacy. As a person a part of a group formally oppressed in America, literacy and education are also a curse; he feels he knows too much. He has a great deal of knowledge and motivation, yet because of… [read more]


African-American Art Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,476 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Like Hayden's "Fetiche et Fleurs," Richmond Barthe's "Fera Benga" subverts European aesthetic norms. The "Fera Benga" small bronze statue is full of raw male potency. A naked man dances with a scimitar, a weapon that seems far more phallic than dangerous here. In addition to being filled with energy and motion, the statue also subverts European norms of male perfection… [read more]


Colonial America African-Americans Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

There was a very small opportunity for moving up in class, as indentured servants, for example, were sometimes given land at the end of their servitude and could vote because they were landowners. Women in this class also worked, for example as slaves, to maintain at least a subsistence level of existence. The slave portion of this lowest class is well-represented by Mammy in "Gone with the Wind," who was in the lowest class and simply owned for her entire life. As descriptions of these three groups illustrate, it was possible for all three social classes -- high, middle and low -- to reside on one plantation and still retain their distinct class status.

3. Conclusion

African-Americans in Colonial America experienced the United States differently, depending on whether they lived in the North or South. The American South of the 17th and 18th Centuries was dominated by agricultural life, particularly plantation life, and that set the stage for high black population of slaves who were oppressed in every major area of life. Meanwhile, the more industrial North also had slavery but to a lesser extent and with a high percentage of indentured servants, allowing greater freedoms in basic areas of life and also the possibility of being completely free. The John Catherwood letter indicates many aspects of Colonial life, including but not limited to the status of the two correspondents, immigration and the practice of indentured servitude. Finally, examination of the craftsmen, plantation owners and slaves on a plantation illustrates the three major classes in Colonial America, with Craftsmen in the middle class, plantation owners in the gentry class and slaves in the lowest…… [read more]


African-American History Sharecropping Was Not a Direct Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,799 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

African-American History

Sharecropping

Sharecropping was not a direct effort by whites to keep blacks in a submissive position, but rather was a phenomenon that developed after the Civil War as the South tried to rebuild its economy (Riddle 1995). Southern white landowners did not like sharecropping, however they needed a means of labor to work their land, and ex-slaves had… [read more]


African-American Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

African-American Women

Oppression, Diversity and the Struggle for Human Rights: African-American Women

The history of African-American women is closely aligned to the history of social and racial oppression in America.

Significantly, the history of this group is linked strongly to the development of the movement in this country against inequality and for civil rights. The history of the African-American women… [read more]


Importance of African-American Music With AA Literature Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … African-American music with AA literature

Importance of African-American music in AA literature

Music receives a truly hallowed position in African-American literature. A passion for music, especially African-American music, should come as no surprise. After all, African-American ("Black") music has been and still is the dominant influence on modern American popular music, which now captivates and influences most of the world's audiences. American Pop music, even Hip-Hop itself, has penetrated countries as isolated as Guam and Ghana. Thesis: Music is emphasized so much because music is the only distinguishing feature of African-American culture which is exclusively positive.

The Development of African-American Culture and Art (Music)

The migration of many talented, ambitious Blacks from the Agricultural South after Reconstruction to urban areas further north set the conditions for an artistic flowering which revealed the unique culture of African-Americans. These rural emigrants would create a livelihood for themselves and many educated themselves at the many colleges and universities in their new environs. Some of them chose to create the type of art that they had been exposed to, "taught," in their universities and in their acculturation in the urban North.

Others, however, could not ignore their upbringing in the agricultural South when creating art. These writers and artists would express what was real to them in a manner which felt natural to them. The result has come to be known as the "Harlem Renaissance," where the seeds of Black identity came to fruition.

In the Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain, one of the greatest African-American writers, Langston Hughes attested to the significance of negro art in expressing the negro identity. He declared that "We younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame." (Hughes). The…… [read more]


African-American Studies Harlem Renaissance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (920 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Each work is distinctive of the Harlem Renaissance period in style and content.

The benefactors of the Harlem Renaissance period began as the African-American community. African-Americans have experienced a long and horrific history within American history. This group suffered along with all the other groups that compose the American people during WWI. In the history of America, often experience and contributions during wartime help facilitate social change and steps toward equal rights after the war is over, as is the case with blacks, women, and homosexuals. African-Americans had gained some respect and social mobility because of their contributions in the great war and the Harlem Renaissance was an expression of that joy and freedom that came from time having passed since Reconstruction and WWI's conclusion. While the benefactors began as black men and black women, the benefactors grew to be the American people and the world as many of the artifacts of the Harlem Renaissance grew to be fundamental and cherished aspects of American culture which spread around the world.

Alain Leroy Locke was a man of great influence and great genius. Locke was a primary contributor and in some ways, mastermind, behind the Harlem Renaissance, an age in the early decades of 20th century American history. Locke was African-American; his achievements and contributions to society were often marked by his race whether he was working in direct support of African-American causes/issues, or not. Alain Locke was one of the first non-whites to attend and graduate from Harvard University early in the 20th century. He graduated from Harvard with two degrees. He was the first African-American Rhodes Scholar, attended distinguished universities in Europe, was Phi Beta Kappa, and was a long time professor at the historically black university, Howard University in Maryland. Locke is regarded as one of the most revered thinkers, writers, and scholars in African-American history.

Though the movement lasted just a couple of decades, the ideas and products of the Harlem Renaissance have endured into the present. Many of the artists, activists, and thinkers of this period are revered and considered iconic from the perspective of the 21st century. Harlem was quite a popular destination for African-Americans during the period of great migration after Reconstruction. This neighborhood in New York City became a hub for cultural expression and the flowering of African-American culture.

References:

Jackson, C. (2012) Harlem Renaissance: Pivotal Period in the Development of Afro-American Culture. Yale -- New Haven Teachers Institute, Web, Available from: www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1978/2/78.02.03.x.html. 2013 October 16.

Sage, H. (2010) the Progressive Era: The Great Age. The Academic American, Available from: http://www.academicamerican.com/progressive/topics/progressive.html. 2013 October 16.… [read more]


African-American Studies My Goal in This Class Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

African-American Studies

My Goal in This Class

My goal in this class is twofold. I would like to learn more about African-American history in general because the topic is very interesting to me, and I feel it is important to know about our culture and our history. In addition, I feel that the topic of black American slavery has changed the culture and society of our country from the very start, and that it has had a profound affect on our country and our people, and I would like to learn more about that, too. That in turn leads to a discussion of civil rights and the continuing fight for equal consideration and equal opportunities. Even today, there are barriers between black and white, rich and poor, and natives and non-natives. I would like to get a bigger grasp on what causes these differences and why they cannot seem to be overcome in our culture and around the world.

One way to achieve these goals is to read more literature and historic accounts of the African-American struggle for freedom. However, this leads to the need for a greater understanding of African-American's…… [read more]


African-American History Between 1914 and 1929 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,506 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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African-American History

Between 1914 and 1929, approximately one million African-American individuals moved from the rural south to the more industrial north in a mass exodus known as the Great Migration. This movement was caused by a number of economic, environmental, and social forces that together made life in the northern states far more attractive to the African-American population. This paper… [read more]


African-American History the Sharecropping System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,461 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

African-American History

The Sharecropping system

The Sharecropping system was a labor agreement that was shaped by the situation in the South after the Civil War and by the mutual dependency between farmers and laborers. (the Sharecropping System) the Civil War of 1861-1865 brought an end to slavery in the country. However this also meant that many farmers in the South… [read more]


Du Sable Museum Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,401 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Out of Sub-Saharan regions, Yoruba, Senufo, Pende, Chokwe, Shona, Zulu and Ethiopia, have been emphasized in the collection of artifacts. Furthermore, major collection of photography, bibliography, archived documents and photographs and artifacts made by numerous artists are also part of museum's collection.

The art collection comprises of contribution of African-American community living in Chicago and hence contains the work of… [read more]


African-American Literature Du Bois Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

(93) "The harder the slaves were driven the more careless and fatal was their farming. Then came the revolution of war and Emancipation, the bewilderment of Reconstruction, -- and now, what is the Egypt of the Confederacy, and what meaning has it for the nation's weal or woe?" (92-93) The message is a strong sentiment describing the history of the place, the remnants of fences and homes once opulent and plush, though not enjoyed by the laborers, still indicative of care and prosperity, now only a skeleton of history rotting into the ground or roughly rebuilt to house a worker who simply has nowhere else to go. "I think I never before quite realized the place of the Fence in civilization. This is the Land of the Unfenced, where crouch on either hand scores of ugly one-room cabins, cheerless and dirty. Here lies the Negro problem in its naked dirt and penury. And here are no fences." (89) The whole tour of the region offers a look at what Du Bois saw as the center of slavery, the seat of the south, and the ideal of the peculiar institution which to his day was still reaping its taxes on the backs of its laborers and their offspring. The message is clear, there is no joy left and what little bits one finds are exceptions still eking out happiness and minimal prosperity, often when offered a hand up by a kindly white person some years back, a white person whose kindness rarely passed a generation. "His master helped him to get a start, but when the black man died last fall the master's sons immediately laid claim to the estate." (94)

The theme of the chapter and that of the later chapter "Of the Sorrow Songs" is one that attempts to demonstrate that the message of the sorrow songs, such as the song "Bright Sparkles" which serves as the epigraph of Chapter 7 is the long mournful message of the African slave, rekindled in the present to serve as a bridge of understandings. The songs to Du Bois represent the toil and trouble of living the life of a former slave and a freeman without true reconstruction and only limited infrastructure to stand on, "And so by fateful chance the Negro folksong -- the rhythmic cry of the slave -- stands to-day not simply as the sole American music, but as the most beautiful expression of human experience born this side the seas. (186)

The concept of toil and trouble as an underlying reality for black people with limited means and no structure to create upward mobility can also be seen in many other narratives from the era. Two in particular demonstrate this well, Harriet E. Wilson's Our Nig and Harriet A. Jacobs Incidents in the Life of Slave Girl. In each of these works even before they have begun the authors offer apologies that though common in many works of the day nonetheless offer glimpses into their lives of toil.… [read more]


African-Americans in Louisiana Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (4,613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

She dominated her children and husband, the Sambo, with her temper. This image of the Mammy as the controller of the African-American male, was used as further evidence of his inferiority to whites (http://www.students.vcu.edu/counsel/MC/stereo.html).

The second is the "Sapphire" stereotype, a demanding woman who refuses to take moral responsibility either for her own actions or for the actions that she… [read more]


African-American History 1865 to the Present Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,529 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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African-American History: 1865 to the Present

How did Blacks define freedom and how did they realize ideas of freedom? Elsa Barkley Brown's essay "The Labor of Politics" (p. 75) delves into the social and political activities of African-American women between the years 1865 (the end of the Civil War) and 1880. She points out that during the transition from slavery… [read more]


African Americans During Early 1900 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,241 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

African-Americans during Early 1900's

The American society, since its early beginnings, was marked by the phenomenon of segregation. Soon after the birth of the U.S.A. As an independent state, pressures between the white and the black communities began to emerge and become more and more virulent.

The Civil War proved to be peak of the confrontation based on racial differences.… [read more]


African-Americans in the News Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Indeed, it has been shown that the Spanish-speaking population and especially the recent refugees to the United States are not properly represented in the English-speaking media and, most often, the information presenting the Hispanic community is distorted and mishandled.

The reason for this is quite simple and often relies on the newcomers' inability to react and respond to the media aggression. Otherwise, it is also linked to the general manipulation that immigrant societies encounter, as they are made responsible as a crime potential factor, as being the poorest minority group in the United States.

Articles like Dr. Huerta's also examine, as in the previous case referring to the African-American community, the state of health in the Hispanic community, the specific health problems and, especially, those related to economic issues (in terms of insured vs. uninsured). As pointed previously, the Hispanic community is by far the poorest in the United States. This means that 35% of the total of the 35 million Hispanics living in the U.S. have no health insurance

. 12 million people will go to see a doctor without having the insurance that would pay the bill.

In this sense, we may assert that the presence of the Hispanic community in the news is aimed at drawing the public's attention towards serious issues this community faces, somewhat similar to the African-American community.

Bibliography

1. African-Americans Should Take More Responsibility in Fight Against HIV / AIDS, National Conference Speakers Say. March 2005. On the Internet at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=20606

2. Spriggs, William. African-Americans and Social Security. Dollars & Senses. Issue #256, November/December 2004. On the Internet at http://www.dollarsandsense.org/1104spriggs.html

3. http://www.naa.org/Presstime/PTArtPage.cfm?AID=6178

4. Study: Hispanics a Key News Target. On the Internet at http://www.naa.org/Presstime/PTArtPage.cfm?AID=6178

5. Huerta, Elmer. Cancer Statistics for Hispanics, 2003: Good News, Bad News, and the Need for a Health System Paradigm Change. American Cancer Society. 2003. On the Internet at http://caonline.amcancersoc.org/cgi/content/full/53/4/205

African-Americans Should Take More Responsibility in Fight Against HIV / AIDS, National Conference Speakers Say. March 2005. On the Internet at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=20606

Ibid.

Spriggs, William. African-Americans and Social Security. Dollars & Senses. Issue #256, November/December 2004. On the Internet at http://www.dollarsandsense.org/1104spriggs.html

Key results online at http://www.naa.org/Presstime/PTArtPage.cfm?AID=6178

Study: Hispanics a Key News Target. On the Internet at http://www.naa.org/Presstime/PTArtPage.cfm?AID=6178

Huerta, Elmer. Cancer Statistics for Hispanics, 2003: Good News, Bad News, and the Need for a Health System Paradigm Change. American Cancer Society. 2003. On the Internet at http://caonline.amcancersoc.org/cgi/content/full/53/4/205

Ibid.… [read more]


African-American Assimilation and Acculturation Self-Identity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Assimilation requires that more African-Americans adopt the philosophy of individualism, while many are still interested in traditional family dynamics and social values.

Pan-Africanism and Assimilation

Adeleke (1998) suggests that two paradigms are central to African-American assimilation and Identity, one of which is Pan-Africanism. This paradigm suggests that the current social crisis of Black America can be resolved by strengthening Pan-Africanism. The focus of this paradigm is to sustain "a viable Pan-African relationship as a strategy against threats posed by the political and cultural dominance of white Americans and Europeans" (Adeleke, 1998, p. 280).

Pan-African representatives encourage mutual appreciation and understanding of shared historical experiences, values and interests as a way to facilitate better acculturation (Adeleke, 1998). The model encourages unity among African-Americans in a struggle to overcome among other things, wounds from slavery, colonialism and prejudice and racism, and all occurrences that have fed social disparity. The idea is that cooperation can lead to increased recognition acceptance and unity. Pan-Africanism however may also be seen as contrary to acculturation, as it seeks to strengthen Afro centricity and traditionalist African values. It suggests that Africa is the best source of self-definition for African-American's and identity for Blacks living in the United States (Adeleke, 1998).

Assimilation is negative if it encourages blacks to lose their sense of history, heritage and identity. This creates a vulnerable state where social chaos dominates. Subordination and marginalization often results. Pan-African ideals may seem to counter assimilation. They actually encourage cultural recognition and acceptance. Any individual that is able to recognize and appreciate his or her own culture is more likely to contribute to society at large.

Creating a more unified self-identity will only help African-Americans adapt rather than assimilate to American culture and feel more at home regardless of their physical location. The resulting pride and self-confidence may help create more acceptance by white and European-Americans, creating a society that welcomes African cultures equally with others.

References:

Adeleke, T. (1998). "Black Americans, Africa and history: A reassessment of the Pan-

African and identity paradigms." The Western Journal of Black Studies, 22(3): 182.

Parenti, M. (1978) Power and the Powerless, New York: St. Martins Press

Young,…… [read more]


African-Americans Baroch, Andrew J. 10 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

"

6. O'Leary, Mary E. "Education Gap Threatens State Economy." The Herald Online. Retrieved November 13, 2005, from http://www.newbritainherald.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=15558638& BRD=1641& PAG=461& dept_id=10110& rfi=6.

This article focused around a study conducted by The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education with regard to the state of Connecticut. The result of the projections suggested that the average education of the state's workforce and the income of its residents will decline unless Connecticut can increase the number of Latinos and African-Americans graduating from college. The center said "Connecticut is experiencing the same problems as Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Mexico, New York, Rhode Island and Texas" and Alex Johnston, executive director of the Connecticut Coalition for Achievement Now, said now is the time to look to those school models in Connecticut cities which have proven track records with low-income students. "It's a call to action, rather than just another piece of bad news," Johnston said.

7. Oliphant, Anne-Louise. "New Studies show young African-Americans at a much greater risk for pre-cancerous polyps." Retrieved November 13, 2005, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=32940.

This is another health article, noting that African-Americans are at higher risk of pre-cancerous polyps. Following the results of two studies released at the 70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Gastroenterology, it appears that is isn't just speculation now, but it is true that "young African-Americans are at a much higher risk for colon cancer than other races." It is interesting that researchers are now looking at racial factors in analyzing findings from colonoscopy exams and in this particular study, found that among those with abnormal findings, polyps were the most common among African-Americans. The article pores over the evidence as to why African-Americans should have their colons screened for cancer at age 45 instead of age 50, five years earlier than the current recommendations.

8. Perez, Miguel. "Trying to fix a 'Moral Wrong.'" North Jersey.com. Retrieved November 13, 2005, from http://www.northjersey.com/page.php?qstr=eXJpcnk3ZjczN2Y3dnFlZUVFeXk0NSZmZ2JlbDdmN3ZxZWVFRXl5NjgxNTg5MyZ5cmlyeTdmNzE3Zjd2cWVlRUV5eTM=.

Steering away from health considerations and back to politics, this article is concerned with the idea of reparations for African-Americans. Donna Lamb, communications director for Caucasians United for Reparations and Emancipation (CURE) states, "It's a simple fact that for 250 years whites robbed millions of enslaved Africans of the wealth their labor created. They were forced to work for free, while white individuals, companies and the U.S. government made huge profits off their labor." Lamb suggests that American tax dollars should pay reparations to "pay a people it has wronged."

9. Smith, Amaya. "African-Americans Give Bush 2% approval rating." U.S. Newswire: Releases. Retrieved November 13, 2005, from http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=55028.

According to the findings of this article and the NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll, President Bush's national approval rating has declined to 39%, the lowest level during his Presidency. "And among African-Americans, Bush has only a 2% approval rating, proving that African-Americans are not fooled by Republican's hollow apologies and empty rhetoric on outreach to the African-American community." They (African-Americans) believe that they have heard empty promises from the Bush Administration… [read more]


End of Isolation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Isolation

African-American Civil Rights

Historically, Africans and African-American citizens have never encountered social, racial, or civic equality within the United States. Despite a significant amount of progress in these areas, some of these contemporary American citizens contend that there is still a marked inequity in their daily treatment based on these aforementioned grounds. Yet when one traces the… [read more]


African-American Males Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Significance

Since little is known about how African-American mothers actually react to suicides committed by a son, there is little knowledgeable help that the therapeutic community can give to them. It is known that grief is a very private event, maybe even more private in this community because of institutional lack of trust, so getting mothers to tell relate how they have been effected will be central to making sure that other mothers in a similar situation are able to receive better regulated assistance from helping professionals. The body of research in any field is necessary to formulate treatment plans, and the lack of knowledge in this area prevents such plans to be made to any realistic extent. The study can continue the dialogue on suicide in the African-American community, describe the role of spirituality in relationship to suicide, as well as discuss what programs/resources were utilized and are available in the community. It can also serve as a means to develop new programs which increase the effectiveness of the help given to African-American mothers.

Knowledge Base Gaps

The data supporting suicide prevention in the African-American community has largely been taken from studies conducted on the numbers that arise from census and CDC data which does not discuss reasons for phenomena. The data gives researchers a firm look at trends such as the rise in rate of suicides, but it is little able to help researchers develop effective means to help the survivors of the suicide. Since the African-American family unit is highly matriarchal, it would follow that mothers are affected to a greater degree than other members of the family or community. Also, suicide seems an even more senseless method of death than community violence, so it is inherently more difficult for the survivors to deal with.

This study seeks to add understanding specific areas of research (African-American male suicide, effect on mothers), but it also seeks to determine what factors increase the incidence of this problem in the community. Birth order has been studied extensively as it related to suicide, but it is one factor that has received little attention in the African-American community. Educational attainment is another area where needed knowledge can be gained. Some studies relate that a higher education level is more conducive to suicide whereas others have shown the opposite effect. It is necessary to see what, if any, effect educational attainment has on the commission of suicide by a young African-American male, but it is also necessary to determine if the mother's educational level has an effect on whether she is able to successfully use intervention methods.

African-American mothers respond to these events differently than their counterparts in other races and ethnicities, but their specific reaction to suicide has been not been the subject of enough research. It may be assumed that therapy is less effective for this population because of their inherent distrust of the system, but that is, as yet, an unknown quantity. It may also be helpful to determine whether… [read more]


African-American's Ethnic or Cultural Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Some African-Americans are Muslims, for example, others are not part of church communities. However, because of the way that African-Americans are treated as a group in the U.S., regardless of an individual's personal identification with values, religion, and cultural markers associated with the group, the experience of an African-American person will be 'different' from an individual who comes from a group that is not historically discriminated against in America.

The great black intellectual W.E.B. Dubois spoke of the need for African-Americans to have a 'dual consciousness' regarding white and black culture. An African-American, he said, lived:"a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world. It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity." African-Americans were forced to understand the culture of whites as well as their own culture, and even when they made a contribution to mainstream American culture, such as in the form of jazz, their culture and worldview was never considered to be fully 'mainstream.' This sense of difference marks all aspects of African-American culture, even in its fullest expressions of religious and cultural diversity.

References

Cloud, John. (2008). Breaking down the black vote. Time. Retrieved:

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1704667,00.html#ixzz1mIqJtkCX

Dubois, W.EB. On double consciousness. Excerpted:

http://www.duboislc.org/html/DoubleConsciousness.html

Halbert, Chanita Hughes, Frances K. Barg, Benita Weathers, Ernestine Delmoor, James Coyne,

E. Paul Wileyto, Justin Arocho, Brandon Mahler, & S. Bruce Malkowicz. (2007).

differences in cultural beliefs and values among African-American and European

American men with prostate cancer. Cancer, Culture & Literacy, 14 (3):

277. Retrieved http://www.moffitt.org/CCJRoot/v14n3/pdf/277.pdf

Horn, Ivor B., Tina L. Cheng, & Jill Joseph. (2004). Discipline in the African-American

community: The impact of socioeconomic status on beliefs and practices.

Pediatrics, 113 (5).… [read more]


African American Literature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (7,110 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

Describing a naming ritual, Haley has the father walking through a village to his wife. "Moving to his wife's side, he lifted up the infant and, as all watched, whispered three times into his son's ear the name he had chosen for him. It was the first time the name had ever been spoken as this child's name, for Omoro's… [read more]


African-American Male Students in Community-Centered After-School Programs Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  14 pages (4,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 14

SAMPLE TEXT:

African-American Male Students in Community-Centered After-School Programs

It is said that the teenage years are the most critical when it comes to determining how a person enters adulthood and who they will be as adults. African-American males are of teens that are left out and therefore do not get the whole experience on how to face challenges and life that… [read more]


African-American History Since Reconstruction Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Assassination of President Lincoln was not merely a tragic event because it marked the death of the man who had led the nation through its tumultuous Civil War: it also had a lasting impact upon the future of Reconstruction. President Andrew Johnson had a very hostile attitude towards the pro-Northern Congress and made every effort to block African-American enfranchisement. To ensure the protection of African-American rights, Congress created the Freedmen's Bureau. "Its purpose was to provide education and training for Blacks in their transition from slavery to freedom" (Jackson 2013). Congress also overrode Johnson's veto to pass the 14th Amendment. However, Reconstruction was a relatively fleeting period of time and by its end, Southern states had enacted substantial blocks to prevent African-Americans from voting, including voting screening tests, poll taxes, mandated segregations in public places and schools, and anti-miscegenation laws. When Congress made acceptance of the 14th Amendment a precondition for reentering the Union, it "met with violent opposition. Despite the presence of the military, Whites went on a rampage killing, beating, burning, and destroying any Blacks they could find. Blacks were lynched by the hundreds" (Jackson 2013). Johnson was unable to exercise effective control over the South.

The U.S. Supreme Court's Plessy v. Ferguson Decision

"When Louisiana passed the Separate Car Act, legally segregating common carriers in 1892, a black civil rights organization decided to challenge the law in the courts. [Homer] Plessy deliberately sat in the white section and identified himself as black" (Wormser 2002). Plessy was Creole and could easily have 'passed' for white but was considered black under Louisiana laws. The U.S. Supreme Court found in favor of the proponents of segregation, arguing that separate facilities were not a violation of the 14th Amendment so long as they were equal in nature. "The Plessy decision set the precedent that 'separate facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional as long as they were 'equal'" and quickly all spheres of life, "such as restaurants, theaters, restrooms, and public schools" were segregated and unchallenged even though the accommodations for whites were never equal to those of blacks (Wormser 2002).

Publication of W.E.B. DuBois' The Souls of Black Folk (1903)

W.E.B. DuBois was one of the most prominent African-American intellectuals: he was Harvard-educated and an influential proponent of the notion of the 'talented tenth,' or the need to educate the most talented African-Americans as a way of advancing the progress of his race as a whole. The Souls of Black Folk is a series of essays on the topic of race, spanning everything from jazz (which DuBois regards as a unique cultural expression of America and a testimony to African-American's cultural contribution to the nation that enslaved them) to African-Americans' need to accommodate white society to live even while they were always simultaneously aware that they and their culture was regarded as alienated. "It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape… [read more]


African-American Women: Exhibit Review of Claiming Their Essay

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African-American women: Exhibit review of "Claiming Their Citizenship: African-American Women From 1624-2009"

On February 2010, in honor of Black History month, the National Women's History Museum (NWHM) launched the cyberexhibit "Claiming Their Citizenship: African-American Women From 1624-2009." The exhibit reviews the history of African-American women from earliest arrivals of Africans as slaves to today. The essays and historical documents demonstrate how African women resisted slavery ever since the earliest days of European settlers: "One such recorded rebellion occurred in 1721, when an African woman stole weapons and served as lookout for two male slaves who attempted to take over the slave ship Robert" ("Introduction, NWHM, 2010).

By tracing slavery in America before America was founded as a nation, the reasons for the creation and entrenchment of the institution become much clearer. African-Americans replaced white indentured servants because they were easier to capture due their 'non-European' appearance if they escaped. Because African women were used to 'produce' or breed more slaves they often suffered sexual as well as physical abuse.

Even during the early colonial and Revolutionary War era, African-American women distinguished themselves, overcoming formidable social obstacles, such as the poet Phillis Wheatley, whose poetry is featured on the exhibit website. Additionally, in Massachusetts and other northern colonies, many slaves successfully petitioned the courts for their freedom. During the years leading up to the Civil War, northern women's groups were active in supporting the abolitionist movement, and former female slaves such as Sojourner Truth spoke out in favor of both the causes of women's rights and abolitionism. While I had heard of Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman, I did not know that one of the first recorded uses of the 'separate but equal' doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson was employed by the Massachusetts' state supreme court in 1848 when Benjamin Roberts attempted to get his daughter Sarah Roberts admitted to a whites-only school. The first African-American women to earn a degree from an institution of higher learning, Lucy Sessions earned her degree from Oberlin College the same year as the infamous Dred Scott Supreme Court decision declared all slaves to be property. After slavery was abolished, many African-American women migrated to the north, and the White Rose Mission of free black journalist Victoria Earle Matthews,…… [read more]


Historical Progression of African Americans Thesis

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¶ … Progression of African-Americans

Matters seemed to be looking up for African-Americans consequent to the Civil War period. Not only had the government become more tolerant towards them, but they were granted equal rights to white people, thus preventing them from being exploited by society. Emancipation was no longer an untouchable dream for black people in the south and… [read more]


African-American Leaders in the 1950s the Student Thesis

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¶ … African-American

Leaders in the 1950s

The student leaders that emerged in America during the 1950s were standing on the ground that African-Americans deserved the same rights as other Americans. The mood was ripe for change as Rosa Parks began the spark of this movement when she refused to give her seat on a bus. Another issue that created momentum in this movement was the Brown v. Board of Education ruling. These events marked a collective change in African-Americans because they realized that they could accomplish things and see results. It should be noted that these attitudes and movements were not readily accepted. One year after the Brown ruling, a "Southern Manifesto" (Davidson 1144) materialized, urging individuals to use "all lawful means" (1144) to fight this ruling and the results of it. These student leaders were not simply protesting in the way we recognize it today, they were fighting a consciousness that deemed them unworthy. This fact makes them unique and heroic.

Student leaders were successful during this time because, as it is with almost every generation, college students are influential and highly energetic. They are also idealistic. These elements combined allowed for fertile soil in the growth of the civil rights movement. Passion and protest are common to college campuses but what makes the civil rights movement so spectacular is that it wanted to grow and be known for its nonviolence. Small groups were formed with handfuls of people wanting only one thing -- equal treatment. Student leaders had college campuses on which to mobilize people and set them forth. Students lead the way because they are passionate. They are still young enough to believe in change and they have the energy to do something about. Students are not bound to jobs and families like older citizens are. In a sense, they had more freedom to mobilize campaigns. Word travels fast on college campuses and large groups of people can speak out. For example, many students participated…… [read more]


Historical Progression of African Americans Thesis

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Progress of African-Americans

Historical Progress of African-Americans

"Progress of African-Americans…"

"Progress of African-Americans Through Time"

The historical progress of African-Americans has been peppered with both successes and obstacles. Yet, as we have seen through the development of this course, broken down in units thusly, Unit I 1865-1876, Unit II 1877-1920, Unit III, 1921-1945, Unit IV 1946-1976 and Unit V 1976-Present… [read more]


African Americans During the 1950s Research Proposal

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African-American Families 1950s AB

Annotated Bibliography

African-American Families in the 1950s

Primary Sources

Lorraine Hansberry, 1992 (Screenplay) a Raisin in the Sun Los Angles CA: Columbia Pictures

Industries Inc.

The screenplay associated with the 1961 film a Raisin in the Sun has never been published, although an un-filmed version, i.e. that which Hansberry the playwright and author of the screenplay submitted for consideration to the filmmakers was published by Columbia pictures in 1992. The screenplay, though not exact to the one used for the film was used as a basis for the 1961 film, likely with significant alterations, done by various review boards to reduce the negative impact the film might have on the white community. This alone makes the screenplay a fascinating example of the slow progress that was made, despite the radical and vocal social upheaval that was taking place during the civil rights movement. A Raisin in the Sun is a descriptive condemnation of the social and economic state of African-American Families, during the 1950s, when economic and institutional segregation and therefore missed opportunity was at a peak, and as changes in local and national Jim Crow laws made way for majority community members and institutions to uphold segregation in a defacto manner, rather than as a result of the legal state. A Raisin in the Sun has an extended family of African-American's trapped within the squalor of a tenement apartment all needing and most not receiving much, the head of the household, Walter Younger struggling to make ends meet to support the extended family. The turn around occurs when the family receives a large insurance settlement, but the social depravity, segregation and challenges to individuals do not. The work demonstrates that it is not just economics that creates conflict in many African-American families at this time, but economics is a good place to start looking for change.

McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950)

http://www.blackpast.org/?q=primaryWEST/mclaurin-v-oklahoma-state-regents-1950

The development of Jim Crow segregation laws, that serve as a marked backlash from fears generated by emancipation, as well as African-American families and others seeking resolution for past wrongs marks a period of history that challenges most historians. The Above court case demonstrates that the challenges for African-American individuals and families to attempt to make a better life for themselves, through education was significant. White collar education was available, in a sort of second rate state and those who chose to seek education with whites faced legal and social alienation. The period of the 1950s is when the legal changes that disbanded the thousands of national and local segregation laws, which were particularly difficult to overturn because there were so very many and on so many levels. The importance of this court case is to show that specifically the legal state may have changed but it was expected that the social climate would not, and that this social climate change was not the question but the fact that the state was giving authority to institutions and individuals to segregate and therefore… [read more]


Higher Education for African-American Youth Application Essay

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¶ … Higher Education for African-American Youth

In order to understand the significance of higher education for African-American youth relative to youths in general, one must have an understanding of the tremendous educational disparity that continues to exist in modern America. Many people naively adhere to the idea that equality of public educational opportunity translates into equal educations, without looking at the historical differences in educational opportunity and how they continue to impact modern African-Americans. The reality is that education is very cyclical in its nature; illiterate and sub-literate parents literally lack the tool to teach their children. Moreover, because a higher education is correlated with higher earning power, many poorly educated parents lack the financial wherewithal to pay someone for tutoring and other services that would place their children on equal footing with higher income children. Given the overrepresentation of African-Americans in the lower socioeconomic class, this problem, while not a uniquely black phenomenon, has a disproportionate impact on the black community. Therefore, higher educations for African-Americans can have a very significant impact on the black community.

Worldwide, poverty is linked to a lack of education, and this connection exists for many reasons, but is largely due to impoverished parents lacking the financial resources to send their children to school. Even when public schools are available, impoverished families may need their children in the workforce, earning money, rather than attending school. However, in America, there is an additional component to educational disparity that goes beyond financial disparity: the history of denying educational opportunities to African-Americans. For example, when slavery in the United States first began, and people of all racial backgrounds were likely to be involved in some type of chattel relationship, whether as a bond-servant, an indentured servant, or a slave, it was not uncommon for slaves to receive some type of rudimentary education. However, as slavery evolved into a racialized system that further negated rights for free blacks, it became…… [read more]


African-American History What Was the Philosophy Term Paper

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African-American History

What was the philosophy that informed African-American campaign and why was it so effective?

The American Civil Rights Movement was the movement which was started by the African-Americans in the South for gaining equality. The movement symbolizes a crucial episode in world history. The constructive modifications it brought to voting and civil rights are being experienced across the… [read more]


African-American Literature Term Paper

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¶ … African-American literature. Specifically it will discuss several key points in slave history, including the effect of slavery on the writers and their families. As these slave narratives clearly show, the period of American slavery was a bleak time in American history. While some Americans felt slaves were "happy," these works indicate just the opposite. They longed for freedom and the ability to work for themselves. They hoped to keep their families together and avoid violent punishment from masters and overseers. They wanted the rights the rest of America took for granted, and their fight for those rights lasted far too long.

African-Americans fought during the Revolutionary War alongside their masters, and some fought because they were promised freedom. They also fought as freemen to gain independence from Great Britain. Some fought on the front lines, and others fought behind the scenes, serving their masters who fought.

Slaves ran away from their owners for any number of reasons, as all of these narratives indicate. Cruel masters that beat them and treated them harshly were the main reason, as Frederick Douglass' life shows. He writes, "I got no supper that night, or breakfast that morning. I reached Covey's about nine o'clock; and just as I was getting over the fence that divided Mrs. Kemp's fields from ours, out ran Covey with his cowskin, to give me another whipping" (Douglass 41). However, even relatively content slaves, such as Venture Smith, attempted to run away at one time or another. Harriet Jacobs ran away because she knew she was going to be separated from her children, and that she would never be able to buy their freedom.

Slave owners took tremendous steps to keep their charges from running away. There were fugitive slave laws that would punish anyone who helped a slave run away. The owners also threatened family members if slaves ran away, and slaves knew their families could face punishment or worse if they suddenly disappeared. Jacobs writes of her family, "I had succeeded in cautiously conveying some messages to my relatives. They were harshly threatened, and despairing of my having a chance to escape, they advised me to return to my master, ask his forgiveness, and let him make an example of me" (Jacobs). The owners punished runaway slaves, as well, and usually in front of the rest of the slaves to set an example. Thus, the slave owners had several measures in place to keep slaves from running away.

Each of these texts supported the abolitionist movement by illustrating the horrors of slavery. They each give personal accounts of conditions that even animals should not have to endure. Equiano wrote of his slave ship experience, "I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a salutation in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: so that, with the loathsomeness of the stench, and crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor had I… [read more]


Malcolm X's Contributions Essay

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also rejected Malcolm X's rhetoric without offering a closer examination of what the Nation of Islam leaders were trying to say. "All Mr. Muhammad is doing is trying to uplift the black man's mentality and the black man's social and economic condition in this country," Malcolm X states (Chapter 14).

Both Dr. King and Malcolm X grew up in a climate of racism; Malcolm X's father died by white supremacists. Therefore, it would not seem that the two leaders would develop divergent approaches to the subject of social justice and political change. Their respective approaches are different because unlike Martin Luther King, Malcolm X remained deeply cognizant of the structural issues that prevented equality, which could not necessarily be erased with integration. Integration, for Malcolm X, would lead only to an Uncle Tom mentality, in which the black person would be "whitewashed." Malcolm X rejected whitewashing, preferring to develop a unique black identity that transcended the dominant culture. His cultivation of a pan-African identity, his affection for Islam, and his rejection of vestiges of colonialism, all make Malcolm X's rhetoric reminiscent of that of W.E.B. DuBois, just cloaked in the language of a new generation. DuBois's language makes full use of the scholar's erudite background, but both say mainly the same things. Blacks in America develop a double-consciousness, as DuBois pointed out. The African-American double-consciousness is injurious, and therefore it is preferable to rise above it all.

In spite of their vastly different upbringings, and their being raised in different historical epochs, Malcolm X and W.E.B. DuBois shared much in common in terms of worldview and mentality. Malcolm X, however, wrote from the perspective of a self-described street urchin. DuBois was from a cultured background, but he never let his higher education in the bleached ivory towers prevent him from devoting his resources toward the understanding of the sociology of racism and the "souls of black folk." Malcolm X brought most of DuBois's ideas into popular culture.

Works Cited

King, Martin Luther, Jr. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." Retrieved online: http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html

Malcolm X The Autobiography of Malcolm X Digital version: http://autobiography-of-malcolm-x.wikispaces.com/14_black_muslims… [read more]


African-American Civil Rights Struggle Term Paper

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And more than that this was regardless of skin color or ethnicity so that once the war ended and people returned home, there was less tension between the two and there was also this awakening of the realization that the blacks were being discriminated against unfairly. Moreover, as there was a shortage of labor and there was plentiful employment due… [read more]


African-Americans Are Second Term Paper

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These blacks were displaced by highways constructed under the National Highway Act of 1956. Other municipal improvements included the Pittsburgh Civic Arena, which displaced hundreds of poor black families living in the area in an attempt to improve the neighborhood. When the highways were built and families were displaced, white people received home loans to live in the suburbs, while… [read more]


African-Americans: Anthropological Survey of Tradition, Culture Essay

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African-Americans: Anthropological Survey of Tradition, Culture, And Habits

African-Americans are often perceived as possessing a unique social status in American history. Although America is a nation of immigrants, African-Americans are the only immigrants who were forcibly migrated to the nation as slaves. Unlike white indentured servants, African-Americans were turned into a deliberately enslaved caste of people, identified by their perceived 'race.' Unlike other immigrant groups who formed ethnic enclaves in urban locations, African-American's cultural affiliations with their various original African lands were deliberately destroyed, in an effort to make their enslavement more manageable for their 'owners.' Africans appropriated European Christianity, songs, and other cultural norms as vehicles of liberation and formed a unique culture that has been called the only truly 'American' culture.

Slavery was present in all of early America, but it became a particularly entrenched institution in the South, where prejudice and discrimination against African-Americans became a source of self-definition for many whites. With the invention of the cotton gin, slavery also became wildly profitable, and the nation was torn asunder, at least in part, because of conflicts over slavery.

The enslaved status of African-Americans was a profound challenge to the notion of America as place of justice liberty. African-Americans, from slavery onward would stress the hypocrisy between the American ideal of freedom and democracy for all, and their inability to enjoy such institutions. Even after formal emancipation, African-Americans continued to experience discrimination in the north and south. African-American schools were segregated, either by law or because of where African-Americans were forced to live, and this resulted in fewer opportunities and reduced economic power in the rapidly industrializing nation. The African-American family had often been separated, due to slavery, and many families were broken once again as fathers were forced to leave and…… [read more]


Black Fiction the African-American Experience as Seen Research Paper

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Black Fiction

The African-American Experience as Seen through Twentieth Century Short Stories

The "African-American experience" is something authors and scholars of many racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds and a variety of historical and political perspectives, as well have tried to define. None of these definitions or explanations has found a real permanent or universal resonance, however -- not in the literary and scholarly communities or in the larger African-American community itself. The reason for this is quite clear, and quite straightforward: there is no single shared experience of African-Americans, but rather this overall and collective experience is a conglomeration of many different separate and distinct experiences, as uniquely and individually colored as the persons that lived them. No race, ethnicity, or culture can actually be said to have a unified experience, especially across generations and historical epochs and even within generations and time periods; it is specious to suggest that there is an "African-American experience" that is somehow cohesive.

The multitude of different experiences, values, perspectives, and personalities that make up the "African-American experience," such as it exists, can be seen quite clearly in the literature produced by twentieth century African-Americans. Even the works of one single author can reflect a diverse array of experiences from within the larger African-American community, when that author is skilled enough to perceive and accurately render the people and situations seen in this community. This paper will examine three short stories by James Alan McPherson and one by Eugene C. Flinn, a white author that tells another side of the "African-American experience." Through these short stories, the diversity of experiences and the richness of the African-American community is clearly communicated.

"The Faithful" is from one of McPherson's most celebrated short story collections, 1977's Elbow Room. In this tale, a proud barber preaches his disapproval of the changes he sees in the upcoming generation, while at the same time this wave of change is shown to be largely positive and moving towards the integration desired by so many for so long. This demonstrates the way in which success for certain values, customs, and perspectives comes at the cost of other values and traditions; there is no perfect way to crate equality between different cultures and peoples, and the different experiences of the African-American community necessarily create some level of internal conflict that makes external progress difficult even if it remains inexorable. This also shows the juxtaposition of different sets of values and beliefs in the community.

Another popular story form the same collection is "A Loaf of Bread." In this story, McPherson deals with another business owner, but one very different to the barber in "The Faithful." This man owns three grocery stores, and he charges higher prices at his store in the African-American neighborhood than he does for the exact same items in white neighborhoods. He rationalizes this as best as he can for as long as he can, but ultimately he…… [read more]


Connect the African Cultural Roots Term Paper

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4. Briefly describe places of cultural significance (Specific museums/events/locations) to study contributors and movements involved in Black intellectual and political recognition/emancipation.

The Washington Monument may seem like the most obvious locale, as it is the physical location of Martin Luther King's famous "I have a dream," speech. Yet far more profound might be the ordinary experiences chronicled in The National Afro-American Museum in Wilberforce, OH. There, there is a "Permanent Exhibit: From Victory To Freedom: Afro-American Life in the Fifties," that chronicles the bravery of ordinary African-Americans during the civil rights movement and the struggle to move what was still seen as the promised land of the industrialized North. In August 200 at that same museum, devoted to the African-American experience, there was a "Temporary Exhibit: The Legacy of American Slavery," that attempted to connect this second journey to the first, of African-Americans fleeing the South.

Question 5 Link between intellectual inquiry and community service and development in African-American Culture. What kinds of community service opportunities are available to connect African-American Culture to a non-African-American seeking to understand Afro centricity? RE: African/American Indian (Seminole Tribe) Cultural development with some traditional African Cultural blending.

Community service may be used to create bonds within community members, but also build bridges and create understanding between different communities. American Indians of the Seminole tribes, long ago in the national past, engaged in economic trade and activities, such as intermarriage, that created ties between these oppressed groups. Afro centric identification is another connection between Indian and African-Americans, however, because both groups have attempted to recreate fallen nations upon the land, in different fashions, after the linguistic ties and cultural bonds were dissolved through the now-dominant European culture's oppression.

Question 6. Seek practical solutions to major challenges and controversial issues facing African-American Studies.

Recently, because of perceived marginalization by the President of the higher institution of learning Harvard University, noted African-American scholar Cornel West returned to Princeton. However, personal slights are often the least of what African-American professors and students must face, when trying to deal with the studies of the community within the university. What is African, what is American, and how to render this study academic as well as personal, are all controversial challenges. African-American studies will always be a fluid discipline, because of the need to constantly redefine what is Black, African, much less American -- yet this constant sense of redefining is also what makes the discipline uniquely American, as African-Americans have had to rebuilt their culture from their African roots, merging often incongruent African cultures, adopting of other cultural elements into their own from Europe, Native Americans, and others, and thus making their own culture perhaps the most uniquely American of all.

Works Cited

The African-American Museum of Philadelphia: Exploring Africa." Temporary Exhibit, Feb. 2004. http://culture.ohio.gov/project.asp?proj=afro http://www.artcom.com/Museums/nv/mr/45384-05.htm

The National Afro-American Museum Wilberforce, OH: Permanent Exhibit: From Victory To Freedom: Afro-American Life in the Fifties and Temporary Exhibit: The Legacy of American Slavery." August 2004.

Seminole Reservation (Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum) Museum: Hollywood Florida.… [read more]


Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Culture Essay

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Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Society

From the first African slave to set foot on American soil, to the election of Barack Obama, there has been a tremendous metamorphosis of the African-American community's stature within the culture of the United States. Where Within Our Gates provided one of the first proverbial dips into the waters… [read more]


African-Americans Term Paper

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He was shot while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. King was only 39 at the time of his death

Described as "one of the most courageous persons the Civil Rights Movement ever produced," John Lewis has dedicated his life to protecting human rights, securing personal dignity and building what he calls "The Beloved Community." He has displayed a sense of ethics and morality that has won him the admiration of many of his colleagues in the United States Congress. Despite his youth, John Lewis became a recognizedPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=John Lewis" leader in the Civil Rights Movement. By 1963, he was recognized as one of the "Big Six" leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. Lewis, at the age of 23, was one of the planners and a keynote speaker at the historic "March on Washington" in August 1963.

Philip Randolph stepped into the limelight and became a very visible national spokesperson for African-American rights in the 1940s and 1950s. He focused his attention on the rising number of blacks on relief and the number of defense industry jobs that were increasing with the war effort heating up. These jobs traditionally excluded blacks. Randolph proposed the March on Washington - a mass action protest to demand change. He was also a great leader and helped the Blacks get their freedom.

James Farmer was also a great black leader and his efforts paid seed into the black freedom movement although he himself could never see through to the end of his dream. Rather than become an ordained Methodist minister, Farmer, who told his father he would rather fight that church's policy of segregated congregations, chose instead to go to work for the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Farmer was FOR's secretary for race relations, helping the Quaker, pacifist organization craft its responses to such social ills as war, violence, bigotry, and poverty.

Information on the leaders from:…… [read more]


African-American Studies Chapters 9-12 Essay

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261).

Instead Lincoln's primary objective was the preservation of the Union, and he employed whatever strategies he could to accomplish that. One of those strategies was emancipation, with Lincoln planning to use it to hasten the end of the war and result in restoring the Union. Lincoln clearly prioritized the Union above emancipation when he declared that his "paramount object & #8230;is to save the Union... If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it" (as quoted in Chapter 11, p. 273). Lincoln claimed that he personally wished that "all men, everywhere, could be free" (as quoted in Chapter 11, p, 273), but he was willing to tolerate slavery, racial inequality and maltreatment of blacks, all of which would lead to some skepticism about his views of Blacks.

The Emancipation Proclamation freed only the slaves in states that had seceded and were still in rebellion. The effect of the Proclamation was indeed to shorten the war by eliminating the possibility of aid from Britain or France and by undermining the Confederacy's ability to continue fighting the war (Chapter 11, pp. 274-276).

Question #5: In addition to fighting, what other roles did Blacks take on during the war? What does this tell us?

Blacks participated in a number of non-combat roles during the war by serving as spies, messengers, guides and liberators. Robert Smalls freed himself and 15 other slaves by sailing a Confederate supply ship to freedom beyond the Charleston harbor. Harriet Tubman was responsible for organizing a spy ring and an expedition that destroyed plantations and freed nearly 800 slaves in South Carolina. Other Blacks transmitted military intelligence, provided sketches and maps of Confederate fortifications, and served as guides (Chapter 11, pp. 286-287). Clearly Blacks showed courage, dedication, and cunning in their efforts to advance the Union cause and secure their own freedom and the freedom of others.

Works Cited

Bordewich, F. (2005, July 27). Underground Railroad: Myth & reality. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from: http://www.fergusbordewich.com/blog/archives/2005/07/testing_the_blo.html

Scholastic Inc. (2012). Myths of the Underground Railroad. Retrieved…… [read more]


Racism in Occupations Thesis

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African-Americans in the Field of Medicine: Social, Financial, Institutional, And Psychological Barriers

They call themselves 'the three doctors.' They are three African-American young men from the inner cities of Newark, the children of single mothers, all of whom became doctors. Their achievement is chronicled in their bestselling book The Pact: Three young men make a promise and fulfill a dream.… [read more]


Male Role Models, and African-American Juvenile Violence Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (605 words)
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¶ … Male Role Models, and African-American Juvenile Violence, Karen F. Parker and Amy Reckdenwald build upon current research regarding African-Americans, especially those in urban situations, to find that traditional male roll models decrease at-risk African-American youth's probability of becoming involved in juvenile violence. Drawing primarily upon the work of Elijah Anderson -- Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner-City, Parker and Reckdenwald were motivated to conduct the test in order to test the "generality of Anderson's claims more broadly and explore the potential connection between his work and the macrolevel research on urban violence" (711). Thus, the purpose of this study was not only to test the applicability of Anderson's theory, but also to determine how black, male role models affect the "concentration of urban disadvantage" and the likely hood to become involved in violence among juveniles in the inner city. Thus, the author's research question can be summarized by the following statement: Are Anderson's findings that the presence of male role models decreases violence among African-American juveniles applicable to a general host of inner-city youth?

Parker and Reckdenwald begin to answer this question with a review of literature that does not simply contain Anderson. Instead, the literature review discusses poverty concentration and urban poverty, racism and racial segregation, and social structures that maintained the cycle of disadvantage among African-Americans (713). Beyond the literature review, the authors go on to define what a role model is, concluding with Anderson's assessment of families in two categories, as "street" and "decent," and that a role model is an African-American male with such characteristics as "employment, community responsibility, and responsibilities as fathers and husbands" (715-716). Expounding on further research and accepting this definition, the authors go on to construct their study, which occurred in United States cities with…… [read more]


Slavery Today, an African-American Man Is Running Essay

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Slavery

Today, an African-American man is running for presidential office under the umbrella of the Democratic Party. Fifty years ago, the Democratic Party was the party of slavery and segregation -- how things have changed. Yet the attitudes that validated racial injustice still tragically linger on in our national consciousness. Recently, supporters at a John McCain rally gleefully uttered racial epitaphs in support of their candidate. In the striving of Obama, one might say, we can see the legacy of King pressing America on to change realized. Who would have thought the current presidential contest would have been possible only ten years ago -- but that does not mean the legacy of slavery is still not present in the economic and social disparities evident between blacks and whites, and in the national unconsciousness, even while paying tribute to Obama's achievement.

To read the words of King is inspiring for all generations. King was told wait until the time was right by supposedly good white men. But King knew that he time had never been right. The Constitution had been founded on liberty -- and the 3/5ths compromise that declared African-Americans slaves only partially human beings. After Reconstruction Jim Crow segregation was rapidly put in place in the South, hampering blacks with voting poll tests and segregating the school districts. Obama is the promise of the Constitution made good upon, an ideal Frederick Douglass longed for in his speech "What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?" But black men and women still suffer discrimination and the economic repercussions of slavery and hatred. Simply because men such as Obama, King, and Douglass have risen above these challenges does not mean that slavery's legacy can be ignored. Back in the days of slavery, Frederick Douglass painfully taught himself to read, but this did not mean that education was accessible to most of his fellow slaves, and just because a black man can become president does not deny existence of injustice -- even the question of votes being 'counted' in largely black districts during the past presidential elections has an eerie parallel with the 1950s and 1960s.

Racism is more than simply epithets and statistics. To be racist is to perceive certain individuals as 'other,' as intrinsically different from one's self. To be racist is to refuse to go to school with 'them,' to refuse to hire people perceived as different. Subtle racism results in African-Americans being denied, sometimes unconsciously, the ability to have the same opportunities as members of the group that dominates most institutions of power. African-Americans still suffer the sad and debilitating legacy of racism which can be harmful to self-esteem and social mobility, just like overt segregation.

Some Americans may try to forget the fact that America's proud cry of liberty and freedom for all really meant liberty and freedom for some, for much of its history. That is why it is essential to read the words of King and Douglass, and to carefully reflect upon their meaning.… [read more]


Legacy of African-American Slavery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,576 words)
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Legacy of African-American Slavery in the United States

The era of African-American slavery in the United States was relatively short-lived and yet it has produced an enduring and lasting legacy. As labor systems go, one of the most inefficient of systems is a forced labor system, as individuals engaged in it gain no benefit from their labor and the vested… [read more]


African-American History 1865 Present Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Black History

Certainly, this early phase in what we would call the modern civil rights movement was dominated like individuals such as Martin Luther King Jr. They worked for rights for African-Americans and many for integration. To begin with, individual and small group organizing and planning happed. Their methods were legal and passive. However, they were far from a united front. But they were totally united behind the principles of non-violence as a maxim in what they did. It is impossible for this author in this short essay to do justice to the broad spectrum of individuals that made miracles happen, but tragically were not totally successful. In that vein, we will examine a case study of the relationship that developed between Dr. King and his attorney Clarence Jones with regard to the motion of that relationship. It captures so much of the splits in the civil rights movement, but also the things that united disparate people to crusade for equal rights for blacks (Jones, 2008).

Jones was not initially involved at all, but was tapped by King because of his skills to work on behalf of King and the SCLC. Jones had gone to Los Angeles as a copyright attorney. One of the last immediate things on his radar screen was fighting for civil rights. He was simply happy to have a comfortable income and to have made it out of poverty and to support his family. King inspired him to give to his people through his legal brilliance, helping King in a number of harassment lawsuits against him and as a prominent speech writer. What King encouraged him to do was not to forget where he came and to fight for his people with his talents. The struggle united them in the buildup to the March on Washington, D.C. (ibid.). While one understands the frustrations of Malcolm X with the nonviolence pledge, it accomplished very much.

Question #3

One has to understand Malcolm X, probably more than every other black leader because he truly was in all the places that a black person has been. Like most blacks, his ancestors had been raped by white slaveholders. His name X cried out for the tribal heritage denied to him. He saw his activist father murdered by the Ku Klux Klan and his grieving mother end up in an asylum. He was in poverty, in jail, educated himself and pulled himself up by his shoestrings through his own volition via a religious conversion experience. He even had an epiphany of seeing Muslims of all colors at Mecca to kill his own bigotry and hatred, something that may lead to his own downfall in the end. All of these are the experiences of black people as a whole, unite them and inspire blacks to follow his example through self-improvement to better themselves. However, this is not…… [read more]


Slavery the Emancipation of Slaves Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,858 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Several criminological and sociological theories can be used to explain "black crime." Durkheim's concept of anomie, the erosion of social norms, was one result of peonage and its similar racist institutions. Likewise, strain theory can easily account for the manifestation of "black crime" in the Untied States. An oppressed culture evolves in opposition to the dominant culture, rejects the norms of the dominant culture, but has no institutions or structures in place to create a constructive response to oppression. A similar situation plays itself out all over the world, where oppressed communities struggle to find strong leadership and a cohesive means by which to achieve economic, political, and social power.

Slavery by Another Name is a powerful documentary that rounds out an understanding of American history. We like to brush under the historical rug things like peonage and other dark and dirty secrets. Yet the information is already out there. There are still people alive who lived under the tyranny of slavery under a new name. Their stories, coupled with dutiful scholarly research, reveal the nefarious nature of racism and how it manifested in American society. Criminologists can point to various theories to explain the various correlations between race and incarceration, and most of those theories are probably correct, including labeling theory, anomie, and strain theory. The peonage story is only one chapter in the way African-Americans have been systematically enslaved on physical, psychological, cultural, political, and economic levels.

References

"Becker," (n.d.). FSU Criminology. Retrieved online: http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/becker.htm

Chesnutt, C.W. (1904). Peonage, or the new slavery. In Voice of the Negro, 1 (Sept. 1904): 394-97

Cutler, J. (2012). PBS doc shines light on shameful period in American history. Zaptoit. Retrieved online: http://www.zap2it.com/news/zap-slavery-name-story,0,7916225.story

Slavery by Another Name. [Documentary Film]. PBS. 2012.

Society in Reconstruction (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.shmoop.com/reconstruction/society.html

Wagner, N.O. (2012). Slavery by Another Name history background. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/media/cms_page_media/128/Slavery%20by%20Another%20Name%20History%20Background_Final.pdf… [read more]


Cultural Congruent Hypertension Prevention Strategies for African Americans Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  10 pages (2,661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

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AfAm Hypertension

Hypertension in African-Americans: Culturally Significant Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies

It is noted that there exist numerous conditions that affect different ethnic populations with greater degrees of prevalence and intensity. Hypertension is one such disorder, and African-Americans are more prone to the development of hypertension and related chronic diseases than are whites. A literature review is conducted in… [read more]


African-American Vernacular Term Paper

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Origin and Evolution of the African-American Vernacular

It has often been suggested that the so-called "African-American vernacular" is largely attributable to the influence of oral traditions based in sermons and prayer services of black churches. Alternatively, it has also been suggested the African-American vernacular is more a function of secular influences in general and of the music of African-American artists in particular. I would argue, instead, that the contemporary African-American vernacular is a natural result of more general influences that predate both religious and artistic contributions. In that view, the relationship between the African-American vernacular and both religion and secular artistic influences is precisely the reverse. Specifically, neither the religious sermons in black churches nor jazz artists of the early and mid 20th century is responsible for the evolution of the African-American vernacular. Instead, both are actually results rather than causes of an African-American vernacular that predated both and contributed to their evolution and not the other way around.

Likely Historical Origin of the General African-American Vernacular and Accent

The most general and virtually universal aspect of tonal speech patterns and vernacular among American-born African-Americans is simply the domestic southern accent. That should be surprising if it were not the case since the overwhelming majority of the captive African slaves throughout the 18th and 19th centuries lived their entire lives in the southern American states. They learned English and received whatever early socialization they absorbed outside of their families directly from their captors, all citizens of the southern states.

Even the relatively few Free Blacks in the 19th century and those fortunate enough to live in the Free states descended directly from southern-raised slave families and slave owners. To this day, the most significant influence and determinant of the so-called African-American vernacular is no different from its comparable influence among a community of Caucasian-Americans only two or three generations from their "roots," as it were, in the southern states. Moreover, typical southern regional variations are also likely to be discernable to the trained ear among contemporary African-Americans.

Undoubtedly, more than a century of intense racial prejudices and persecution and discrimination ensured that African-Americans of the early and middle of the 20th century interacted as little as possible (or as little as necessary) with the dominant Caucasian populations. That likely resulted in much greater retention of the southern "twang" than among southern Caucasians who migrated North (or elsewhere) at the same time. Southern Caucasians were much freer to assimilate into their adoptive societies and lose their southern accents much more over comparable time periods.

The Influence of Racial Inequality and the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s

Racial inequality and the overt discrimination throughout the first three decades of the 20th century excluded African-Americans from musical careers in…… [read more]


African-American History Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (3,383 words)
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¶ … workings of the sharecropping system, and explain why many African-Americans preferred it to wage labor; explain why so many sharecroppers ended up destitute and tied to a plantation.

The sharecropping system was set up for former African-American slaves to be able to lay economic claim to their own work through the sharing of harvest of a plot of… [read more]


African-American Literature the Experience of African-Americans Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (888 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

African-American Literature

The experience of African-Americans in this country has always been wrought with intense complexity and struggle. Even after the Civil War had destroyed the practice of slavery which kept them legally inferior to the rest of the nation, the experience of being black in American proved most difficult. Some people embraced their heritage, as seen in Zora Neale Hurston's tale "How it Feels to Be a Colored Me," where she sees her differences as a African-American but does not let them define her. However, others were not so lucky, as seen in James Weldon Johnson's tale Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, in which the unnamed author rejects his African-American heritage to live a life passing as a white man, thus enjoying a higher status but at the cost of his true identity.

Hurston's tale begins and ends with the idea that she is different. Yet views these differences in a positive light. It is in her understanding of white Americans that she is first exposed to herself as colored. Although she understands herself as black early on in her hometown, she is fully exposed to what it is to be African-American when she leaves her small town and her individual identity that her town knows her as. In her town, she is Zora, black or not. Outside her town, she is an African-American seemingly with no name. She understands that she is African-American and sees the differences between her condition and that of white Americans she sees riding through her town. This does not phase her, however, and she embraces her heritage, "I AM COLORED but I offer nothing in the way of extenuating circumstances except the fact that I am the only Negro in the United States whose grandfather on the mother's side was not an Indian chief," (Hurston 1). It shows great strength in her character, which develops even further after she is fully exposed to her condition of being black in the South. Rather than allow her condition to define her and place limitations on her life, she harbors no ill will; "BUT I AM NOT tragically colored. There is no great sorrow damned up in my soul, nor lurking behind my eyes," (Hurston 1). Hurston sees herself as African-American, yet sees nothing wrong with it.

However, this is not the case for the unnamed narrator in James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. This narrator shows great shame in the fact that he is black. The story begins without his knowledge of his racial heritage, and upon his discovery of it he feels like he is different, somehow negatively affected by the truth of his blood. He…… [read more]


Current Recession Thesis

Thesis  |  40 pages (11,600 words)
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Recession and African-Americans in the Metropolitan Area

THE RECESSION AND African-AmericanS

IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA

"Researchers use the scholarly literature in a study to present results of similar studies, to relate the present study to an ongoing dialogue in the literature and to provide a framework for comparing results of a study with other studies"

John W. Creswell (2008, p.… [read more]


African-American Art and Harlem Renaissance Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (992 words)
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Harlem Renaissance represented the ideological start of the civil rights movement. A surge of productivity in intellectual, political, and artistic spheres, the Harlem Renaissance stimulated interest in African-American culture and in some ways helped to create that culture. The figures that emerged during the Harlem Renaissance contributed greatly to the canon of human thought on race relations. However, Harlem Renaissance artists were not necessarily preoccupied with race even though their creative media enabled political discourse.

Augusta Fells Savage has been described as one of the "luminaries" of the Harlem Renaissance ("Augusta Savage"). Savage was one of the Harlem Renaissance's most prominent female artists, too, and helped lay groundwork for feminism as well as racial equality. As a teacher, Savage helped transform social consciousness and through her sculpture she helped mold new identities for African-Americans.

Savage began her work as a self-taught artist who made small sculptures out of clay as a hobby. Born in northern Florida near Jacksonville in a town called Green Cove Springs in 1892, Savage's art was influenced by her perception of social and economic realities. She was born Augusta Fells to parents Edward and Cornelia and was the seventh of fourteen children. The young Augusta worked with the natural clay she found in natural pits in northern Florida. Her first sculptures were mostly animal figurines, which she sculpted on the sly "instead of going to school," (excerpt from Notable Black American Women). Her models depicted ducks and other birds Augusta would encounter in her daily life, but her religious father believed the pieces to be pagan and therefore spiritually dangerous. Thus, when she was a young girl Savage was inadvertently upsetting established religious norms because her figurines were deemed blasphemous. Savage's father was a Methodist preacher and when he found her small figures he scolded her harshly for creating graven images prohibited by the Bible ("Augusta Savage"). In spite of this, the young Augusta persisted in her craft and used it as a means to subvert social norms throughout her life.

Augusta Fells married John Moore when she was 15 and had her first child, Irene. John Moore died soon thereafter and she was forced to move back with her parents. The Fell family then moved from Green Cove Springs to West Palm Beach in 1915. While there, Augusta pursued her art in earnest. She "begged for clay from a small factory called Chase Pottery," because it was not a natural resource in south Florida (excerpt from Notable Black American Women). One of her first sculptures in West Palm Beach was of the Virgin Mary, which pleased her father and encouraged him to take an interest in his daughter's burgeoning talent.

Her father was not the only adult to recognize Augusta's gift. In 1919, one of her sculptures won an award at a county fair. During her senior year of high school, Augusta taught modeling. She married James Savage and took his name, but divorced him shortly thereafter. As Augusta Savage, the…… [read more]


Complicity of African Americans in Contemporary U.S Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (734 words)
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¶ … complicity of African-Americans in Contemporary U.S.

The solution to the issue raised by poverty and its consequences on a community, regardless of its race is still in our debt. Just like the cure for cancer, the fight against poverty has many battles yet to come. The poverty of the black people, within the most powerful country in the world is a subject that has been debated over the decades. The participants involved were people of different backgrounds and various degrees of implication in the matter. Especially today, when the U.S. have a black president and go through a period of economic depression, such a highly disputed matter is giving hard times to all those who dare get or stay involved.

Bill Cosby, the celebrity in showbiz was accused over the time that he avoided expressing anything that could have tied him to the black community any time, at any cost. Some pointed the finger at him saying that all he did in his shows was to tackle "universal subjects," denying by that his own ancestry. These are, of course, some opinions situated in one corner of extremism and they can be easily attacked by everything else Bill Cosby, the person did for the black community, his community, the largest community in the most powerful country in the world.

His speeches and actions that benefited the black community over the years were accompanied recently by his book: Come on People. On the path from Victims to Victors. He teamed up with psychiatrist Alvin Poussaint to write a book that seemed destined to wake up black people all over America. Cosby points a finger at the passive attitude of those who prefer to stand by and watch instead of raise and fight for their right to better life. The grounds for the oppression of the low working class black people are exposed to come from their own lack of action and not from outside. Bill Cosby's book denounces the high degree of illiteracy among the black community, the lack of proper parenting, the extended ignorance and poor means of education and the 50% drop out from school rate among "African-American males in the inner city" (the Brokaw…… [read more]


African-American Slave Art the African-American Experience Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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African-American Slave Art

The African-American experience is different from any other because of how Africans were introduced to America. Diaspora encouraged a tight bond between family members and friends. African-American heritage is one that is close to the heart because, in many situations, what existed a slave's heart and soul was the only thing that kept him or her going.… [read more]


Single Black Mothers and Poverty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,159 words)
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SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … African-American Mothers and Poverty

The Social Welfare Aspects of the Great Society and the Welfare Reform Act of 1996

The Great Society: Goals and Implementation

Background and Purpose of the Great Society

Actual implementation

The Social Challenge: Needed Assistance Wasn't Available

Welfare Reform Act, 1996

Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs

This paper reviews two approaches in… [read more]


Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task Term Paper

Term Paper  |  50 pages (13,216 words)
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ATTITUDE and BEHAVIOR DEVELOPMENTAL TASK NEEDED to ASSIST African-American COLLEGE STUDENTS WITH DEVELOPING a CLEAR COMMITMENT to SUCCEED AFTER COLLEGE

There is an acknowledged identity crisis present in the African-American race due to the high rates of incarceration and low education achievements. The college environment serves to influence the development required in the self-identity transition toward the self-actualization of the… [read more]


African-American Males Racial Discrimination Is Very Rampant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,005 words)
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African-American Males

Racial discrimination is very rampant especially among African-Americans. Until now, most African-Americans have not yet forgotten their ancestor's experiences during the slavery period, and up until now, most African-Americans are still having issues on insecurity and diffidence, particularly among the African-American males.

Once, African-Americans or the blacks were considered as slaves. They were being sold and used to serve the whites. This started the long and continuous battle of the black people to eliminate racial discrimination. Also, there have been several attempts to alleviate the economic status of the blacks because poverty was the primary reason why the whites (and other race for that matter) took advantage of them. But it seems that improving the blacks' economic status is not an easy task. There is one survey gathered last 2000 revealing that Blacks has the highest percentage of unemployment rate when compared to the Hispanics or the Whites. (http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2001/Nov/wk2/art03.htm,2001).

In a detailed study analyzing the employment rate of Black males (compared to other race), results revealed that there really is an implied negative trend among the African-American males.

From the data above (gathered last 2000, Current Population Survey), it is very clear that Blacks has the highest percentage of unemployment rate when compared to the Hispanics or the Whites. According to the same data, men had higher rates than did women in each of these three groups, especially among the Blacks. There were actually 14.0% male blacks who were un employed and 10.5% female blacks, and Black men were the only major group for whom the work-experience unemployment rate during the year 1999 to 2000 (http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2001/Nov/wk2/art03.htm,2001). Another survey (from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 2003) white unemployment rate was lower by half from that of the blacks' (5.2% and 10.9% respectively) (Byars, 2002).

But why is this happening? How come that majority of the Blacks, or more specifically Black males, are unemployed? Most of the people would think that this happen because of racism or racial discrimination. Is racism really the reason why unemployment of Blacks is continuously increasing? There is one study which proves that racial discrimination has nothing to do with the continuously increasing black's unemployment rate. By comparing the "active job search method" trend of the blacks and the whites, we can easily notice why there is a higher unemployment rate among the blacks. Here are some of the trends (Byars, 2002):

63% of Whites contacted employers directly compared to 61.5% of Blacks who did the same thing

32.5% of Whites compared to 27.7% of Blacks placed or answered ads

31.8% of Whites used "connections" such as their family and friends compared to only 26.7% of Blacks who tried doing it

45.5% of Blacks compared to 36.1% of Whites used a public employment agency

12.5% of Whites compared to 7.9% of Blacks used other methods

Whites usually used more forms of active job search (1.87%) than blacks (1.79%)

Therefore, it can be concluded from the above-stated points that resourcefulness and the attitude itself are… [read more]


Gendered Experiences of Racism Being Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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And because they dropped out of high school in the first place, they have the greatest probability of all, to end up incarcerated, continuing this never-ending cycle that their children will end up falling into (Eckholm 2006).

Although this case is seen among other minority groups as well, such as Latinos and immigrants from Africa, the outcome is not always the same (Swarns 2004). Among Latino males who do not finish high school, the crime, incarceration, and unemployment rates are no where near as high as they are for young African-American males (Eckholm 2006). Even among immigrants from Africa, these rates of criminality and unemployment are not as high as they are for the inner-city urban African-American males. The society in which they grow up in since they were born makes all the difference in this case. Different circumstances are endured and different cultural values are emphasized in African-American young men from the United States, than those who are from Latino or African immigrant decent (Swarns 2004).

It is a very harsh world for the everyday African-American male in the United States. It cannot be an easy thing to go about everyday knowing that the odds are against you succeeding. More likely than not, statistics show that an African-American male will end up in prison instead of at a stable well-paying job. Being a African-American child who grows up knowing this makes it even more difficult to overcome this expectation. Also, the fact that everyone knows that this is a probable outcome, including the police themselves, makes it justifiable to these authority figures that shooting an innocent African-American male was the right thing to do, since the odds that he would have taken out a gun was more probable than him attempting to take out an identification card.

References:

Eckholm, E. (March 20, 2006). Plight deepens for black men: Studies warn. In The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/20/national/20blackmen.html?pagewanted=1.

Swarns, R.L. (August 29, 2004). 'African-American' becomes a term for debate. In The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/29/us/african-american-becomes-a-term-for-debate.html?src=pm.… [read more]


Unethical Labor Practices in the Fire Department for African Americans Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,810 words)
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Unethical labor practices in the fire department for African-Americans

Under Fire

Unfortunately, there has been a fairly lenghty history of unethical practices in regards to African-Americans and fire departments in a variety of locations and regions throughout the United States. Sadly enough, the majority of these unethical practices have revolved around conceptions of race and its surrounding connotations that are… [read more]


African-American History 1865 to the Present Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … reconstruction were disappointing in that they did not complete the liberation of Blacks in the wake of the Civil War. While the 13th Amendment abolished slavery and the 14th Amendment guaranteed citizenship to blacks, many of the hard-won gains of blacks who fought during the War were lost in concessions by President Andrew Johnson as he gave lands back to pardoned Southern former Confederates. Not only such former Confederates were given back land and pardoned, but land that had been given to freed Blacks were confiscated and given back to Whites who came back (D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), 2010, 311-312).

With the rollback of the gains of freed blacks who had received land came Jim Crow laws that limited Blacks access to voting and forced them to sign labor contracts with White owners. Unfortunately, it was largely a failure from the view of abolitionists and blacks. It was a success for the South and the North because they saw compromise on black emancipation as healing the rift between North and South (ibid., 339-340).. Frankly, Reconstruction should not have been hard. The hangmen's noose for higher ranking Confederates might have scared them into surrender. Johnson's policies only encouraged their violence.

Question #3

Lynching was associated with re-institution of White supremacy in the South after 1865 and the end of the Civil War. The initial granting of civil rights to Black under Reconstruction era raised anxieties amongst white. They came to blame blacks for their wartime hardships, losses and reduced status. Blacks and Whites who were activists were often lynched in the South during this time. As shown already in the first essay question, to explain the outbreak of lynching across the South after Reconstruction, one needs to see that the administration of President Andrew Johnson who had made it quite apparent by his pro-Confederate policies that he had absolutely no intention (ibid., 311-312).

With no prominent Confederates being substantially punished for their war crimes, there was no break on lynching. Whites justified it as a way to save Southern culture, keep the Blacks in their place, prevent the mixing of the races and a number of other issues. The rise of Ku Klux Klan came directly out of this maelstrom (ibid, 333-335). Anti-lynching really got a successful start under W.E.B. DuBois whose NAACP in the 1920's helped to combat lynching by publishing the facts by organizing support for a national campaign against the atrocity (DuBois, 2010).

Question #4-

In the case of W.E.B. Dubois, he understood the nature of education as an instrument of repression to blacks. What is especially prescient about this is his insightful view of education for poor working class whites as an instrument of propaganda to justify prejudice. However,…… [read more]


Sampling Strategy and Sample Size Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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V. Sample Size in Relation to Population Size

Affecting the sample size in relation to the population rate will be the response and refusal rates. The response rate is the percentage of the portion of individuals included in the sampling in this study compared to the number of individuals that the study desires to include. To motivate the response rate in this study an incentive will be offered in the form of a gift certificate to a local restaurant for dinner for two. Those who participate in the study will receive the gift certificate upon completion of the study.

VI. Summary

This study focuses on the extent to which African-American men who live in an urban setting exhibit aggressive behavior due to early development factors associated with depression and who have received a diagnosis at local medical facilities of conduct disorder as opposed to depression. The sampling method utilized in this quantitative study will be a non-probability convenience volunteer sampling in which study participants will be targeted through flyers that invite their participation in this research study.

The response rate will be motivated in this study through an incentive and specifically a gift certificate for dinner for two in a local restaurant, which will be given to participants upon completion of the study. The study will require that participants in this study review and sign an authorization and consent for use of the information gained in this study for publication in research journals or other publications reporting this study. The representation of the population chosen in this study will be dependent upon the response rate of potential participants and cannot be estimated presently.

Works Cited

Hunt, Kendall (2009) Sampling. Davis/Gallardo's Straight Talk About Communication Research Methods. 1st Edition. Retrieved from: http://www.kendallhunt.com/uploadedFiles/Kendall_Hunt/Content/Higher_Education/Uploads/Davis_Gallardo_1e_Ch8.pdf… [read more]


Nature of Reconstruction and Its Importance to Subsequent African-American History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,335 words)
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Reconstruction and Its Importance in African-American History

Many people might believe that the abolition of slavery in the United States was the most significant social and political action of the 19th century. Those people would be wrong. While the abolition of slavery was very significant and very overdue, it was, by itself, a socially meaningless action, because newly freed former… [read more]


Plight of Women and African Americans in America as Marginalized Groups in Antebellum Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,470 words)
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SAMPLE TEXT:

Antebellum America

The Plight of women and African-Americans as Marginalized Groups in Antebellum America

Women and African-Americans represented two groups with limited rights in antebellum America. Socially, both were considered to have a role and a place. Yet neither had complete rights when compared with white men in the same society. As the North and the South became increasingly sectionalized,… [read more]


Young, African-American Men Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (996 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Lower-income white teens were more likely to find work than upper-income black teens" (Haynes 2009). Addressing the crisis of criminality and unemployment amongst young black men is essential so a 'lost generation' of young black men is not created. The need for higher-quality education specifically tailored to the needs of this population, particularly at an early age, seems essential. Only with appropriate support can African-American young males seek competitive jobs that provide social stability and mobility. This sense of social investment is demanded to reduce the disproportionate number of young black males in prison. However, education alone is not enough -- the disproportionate impact of the recession upon African-Americans of all genders, classes, and education levels suggest that systemic, institutional racism is still a factor in the disadvantaged status of African-Americans today.

The reasons for the difficulties African-American boys experience are controversial -- some cite the health consequences of living in impoverished conditions, single-parent households, and also the cultural stereotypes within the educational system (both in the minds of teachers and in the construction of standardized tests). With this in mind, the American Counseling Association (ACA) code of ethics mandates caution "when selecting assessments for culturally diverse populations to avoid the use of instruments that lack appropriate psychometric properties for the client population" such as IQ tests that may be culturally biased against children from disadvantaged backgrounds (E.6.c). "Counselors recognize historical and social prejudices in the misdiagnosis and pathologizing of certain individuals and groups and the role of mental health professionals in perpetuating these prejudices through diagnosis and treatment" which means that they must be careful in diagnosising ADHD or another potentially stigmatizing disorder, based upon reports of a teacher who may be harboring unconscious prejudices (E.5.c).

A lack of treatment for a learning disability is just as damaging as a false diagnosis, of course. Counselors must have awareness of larger social history as well as the individual's history in the work, and by changing the lives of individuals they can change society. But such changes are often best enacted with the aid of socially supportive community groups and programs that work to deal with specific challenges of specific populations.

References

ACA Code of Ethics. (2005). Retrieved July 22, 2011 at http://www.txca.org/Images/tca/Documents/ACA%20Code%20of%20Ethics.pdf

Barbarin, Oscar. (2011). Ready or not: African-American males in kindergarden. UNC-Chapel

Hill. Retrieved July 22, 2011 at http://ssw.unc.edu/rti/presentation/PDFs/aa_males_kindergarten3.pdf

Fellner, Jamie. (2009). Decades of disparity: Drug arrests and race in the United States.

Human Rights Watch. Retrieved July 22, 2011 through Drug Facts at http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/us0309web_1.pdf

Haynes, V. Dion. (2009, November 23). Blacks hit hard by economy's punch.

The Washington Post. Retrieved July 22, 2011 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/23/AR2009112304092.html

Mauer, Marc. (2011). The crisis of the young African-American male and the criminal justice system. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved July 22, 2011 at http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_crisisoftheyoung.pdf

McWhorter, John. (2011). How the War on Drugs is destroying Black America.

The Cato Institute.

Retrieved July 22, 2011 through Drug Facts at http://www.cato.org/pubs/catosletter/catosletterv9n1.pdf… [read more]


Hurricane Katrina Revealed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,743 words)
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As in other times, these basic comforts are denied them because they cannot afford to return and rebuild.

With the election of President Obama in 2008, many New Orleans natives had a renewed hope of returning to a rebuilt city and a new day in America where it concerned racism and class exclusion. That was four years ago and as stated above, many are still waiting. When Obama visited New Orleans on the 5th anniversary of Katrina, he gave an address where he stated that he 'would stand by you until it is done', referring to the rebuilding of New Orleans. However, there have still been no great strides in restoring the low income, predominantly African-American neighborhoods that were basically ignored prior to, during, and now after Hurricane Katrina tore apart New Orleans and forced Americans to admit that there are still significant issues in this country regarding race and class distinctions. These distinctions are the result of long standing, systemic racism which has permeated this country from its beginning and continues to do so today.

Absolutely anyone who tuned their television to the news coverage during and after Katrina had to be stunned by the images which made these issues irrefutable. Unfortunately, it took a hurricane to reveal to many that the Old South is still…… [read more]


Richard Allen: A Biography Term Paper

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M.E. churches. He became bishop of the new church, a place devoted to promulgating Black spirituality and providing a source of religious community and connection. (Toppin, 2004)

Allen's considerable industry and creativity is reflected in John Hope Franklin's statement in From Slavery to Freedom that, while in all "Northern communities that blacks went farthest in establishing independent churches," he feels, "the best example of this trend was the work of Richard Allen and his followers in Philadelphia. This prospective leader demonstrated his industry and determination" by saving enough money with which to establish the AME on his own. (Franklin, p.114) In other words, the success was financial as well, as Blacks had little economic resources at the time, and would for many years to come.

Allen was also influential in agitating against early colonialism. While all Northern Blacks showed almost universal opposition to colonization, particularly colonization in Africa, Allen helped give this opposition an organizational focus and channel. In Philadelphia 3,000 blacks, led by Richard Allen and James Forten, met in 1817 and registered their objections to colonization, urging the "Humane and Benevolent Inhabitants of Philadelphia" that had helped him, such as the Quakers to join them in uniting against this practice of enslaving Black nations abroad, as well as Black Americans at home. (Franklin, p.190)

Allen thus clearly saw a connection between the racism of nations such as Great Britain's determination to carry the white man's burden and engage in economic exploitation of the colonies of Africa, and the economic exploitation of the Southern United States in the more blatant form of human traffic in enslavement. His decision to call his church the African Methodist Episcopal Church showed how he saw himself as an African and an American both, providing a link between himself and the 'back to Africa' movement that eventually led to the founding of Liberia and Malcolm X's pan-African rhetoric.

Richard Allen liberated himself, and used the opportunities his education and freedom provided him with to liberate others. Even while America was still a young nation, surrounded by two oceans on either side, he had a strong international focus and orientation in his politics. He united African identity with Christianity in a profound way, and was tireless in the creation of institutions to support an end to slavery, rather than merely supporting the end of slavery in rhetoric. He died on March 26, 1831, but although he never lived to see America free, he left a proud legacy of achievement.

Works Cited

Franklin, John Hope & Alfred J. Moss. From Slavery to Freedom. Eighth Edition. New York: Knopf, 2000.

Gates, Henry Louis. African-American Lives. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004

Toppin, Edgar Allan. "Allen, Richard." World Book…… [read more]


Journal Reaction: A Soldier's Play Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (342 words)
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Along the progress of the investigation, the "Soldier's Play" becomes as much about the hatred in Waters' last words as well as the murder of Waters himself. The fact that the African-American unit was segregated, the play suggests, created a kind of hothouse environment, where Blacks were turned against one another. Ironically, by demanding perfection of one another, any sense of unity within 'the Race' was destroyed by Waters' style of leadership. It becomes clear as Fuller's drama progresses that the Black officers of the play are less concerned with finding the ultimate solution to the murder, or even to the meaning of Waters' last words and why the murder occurred. Rather, they are more concerned with surviving in terms of their self-esteem in a society that either denies them their manhood, or within the community, makes unreasonable demands upon their bodies and souls to thwart White…… [read more]


Analyzing African Americans in the Workplace Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (794 words)
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African-Americans in the Workplace

The history of African-Americans and how it influences their current challenges they experience in the U.S.

The challenges that African-Americans face in modern day have a lot to do with their history. The rights that the African-American population enjoy today have something to do with their history in the U.S. Unfortunately, a lot of the rights that are observed or respected by authorities are Acts born of the civil rights movement of the 60s, which were a major milestone. The rights that African-Americans were not only included in law but also put under enforcement agencies for actionable implementation by the federal government. Federal agencies had also embraced the spirit of the civil rights movement. The facilitated the process by initiating directives, providing training on race related matters and providing equal opportunity for the races (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2016).

The African-American community continues to face challenges that impact negatively on their group status and their chances of advancement within USA. Some of the common challenges have to do with health, education, criminal justice and economic empowerment -Christophe and Biddle (2002).

The last quarter of the 20th Century saw a lot of African-Americans get jobs spanning lower cadre positions to managerial roles in various companies. This is the period that saw the greatest number of African-American secure formal employment in the history of the United States. In particular, there was an increase in the number of Afro-Americans joining managerial and professional careers from 13.7% in 1982 to 21% in 1999. The rate of unemployment among African-Americans also improved but remained twice as high as their white counterparts between 1972 and 1999. There were overwhelming complaints regarding discrimination at the place of work among African-Americans. In fact, 63% of African-Americans believe that they are not treated fairly. For instance, there is a general feeling that they are paid much less than their white counterparts and that advancement at work, is hindered by racial discrimination (Christophe & Biddle, 2002).

Another area that smirks of discrimination is the area of opportunities for education; and in particular the gifted program. The community seems to be overrepresented in such programs as special education but there are very few of them in gifted programs. The tools used to asses and identify gifted children in the U.S. by over 88.5 of the states are biased against learning styles and fail…… [read more]


Graduation Speech Essay

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Graduation Speech

Why should I or anyone else care about the education of African-American women? Are we of African-American heritage actually any different from anyone else? Well my answer is yes. I have spent many years contemplating the issue of what my personal role is in society. Having grown up aware of the impact that gender, race, and class on… [read more]


African-American 20th Century Political History Essay

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This made him a strong candidate to be the spokesperson for the Civil Rights Movement. As time progressed and his reputation grew, many of his speeches and pubic appearance were televised and/or broadcasted over the radio. There are man Americans that know his voice very well; it is very distinctive. This was the face of a part of the Civil Rights Movement: an educated, articulate, church-going, well spoken, handsome man. Even though the issue of civil rights was very sensitive during this period making it unsafe for any African-American to represent the movement, Dr. King was the type of African-American that white people and perhaps other non-white Americans perceived as "safe." This holds true in media and politics today -- this concept of the "safe" African-American. In this case, "safe" means little or no perceived threat by whites. These are reasons why Dr. King is often described as the face of the movement.

There were many others involved who are important, including those who worked for and supported Dr. King. There were also those who fought for civil rights using different methods that Dr. King and his groups. (Textbook, Chapter 22) Every aspect of the civil rights movement is important because the problems was and is so big that it is necessary to attack it from various angles at once. Other civil rights leaders other than Dr. King faced some of the same problems he did, as far as physical violence from those who oppose their protests and ideas, as well as from violence and sabotage by law enforcement. Some groups desired the publicity Dr. King got, but some groups did not care for publicity. They only sought results. All civil rights groups faced… [read more]


African Studies the Media Is a Dangerous Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,271 words)
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African Studies

The media is a dangerous weapon for mass manipulation. If you give people information through television or newspapers there is a very high probability they will believe it and take it as truth and nothing but the truth. The media has been turning and twisting the truth about any subject. So it is not hard to imagine why… [read more]


Black Slaveowners African-American History Term Paper

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Black Slaveowners

Agriculture and even home ownership in the age before the civil war in the United States was a challenging endeavor, one that often required the work of more than one family.

In most places in the U.S. The excess labour needed for the maintenance and growth of even a relatively small estate was taken from only one source,… [read more]


Social Black Experience Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,284 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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Social Black Experience

A Survey of Black Social Oppression in the Twentieth Century

Evelyn Waugh noted in his "Conservative Manifesto" in Robbery Under Law (1940) that "inequalities of wealth and position are inevitable….Men naturally arrange themselves in a system of classes [and] such a system is necessary for any form of co-operative work, more particularly the work of keeping a… [read more]


Blacks in Florida the History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Analysis:

Robert Hall and Jane Landers are academics who have studied the influence of African-Americans of the Spanish Colonial region of Florida. Yet, they have narrowed down their study by viewing the heritage of the Africans Americans through the lenses of slavery. Most academics are unable to study the African-American past without bias not because they view the African-Americans as second class citizens but because they associate African-Americans with 'slavery' and cannot see beyond that label. While they realize that the African-Americans immigrated, or were forcefully brought from the regions of Africa to the Americas they are unable to separate the 'slaves' from the 'free' people.

Hall [1990] presents the influence of the African-Americans on Florida by studying the religious facets of the African culture; from the drum beats to black magic to the rich death and burial rites. Hall and Landers [1995] both suggest that the Florida region had been influenced by the African-American more than other states because they were to some extent allowed to retain their moral and religious personalities by the law and church. The slaves colonial Spanish area were till a greater part of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century allowed to continue their own cultural rituals and it was only after annexation of the Florida area to the American states that the slave rights began to be suppressed.

Yet, while both these writers contend that the African-Americans had their basis in Western Africa to some extent they fail to pursue the cultural base. They focus more on the influence of African-Americans on Florida through the kaleidoscope of slavery than actually tracing the origin of the culture from the Africa's. In… [read more]


Johnson, v. (2003). "A Comparison of European Journal

Journal  |  4 pages (1,079 words)
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Johnson, V. (2003). "A comparison of European and African-based psychologies and their implications for African-American college student development." Journal of black studies 33(6), pp. 817-29.

In her article concerning the need for the development of new student affairs practices and perspectives in assisting African-American college students, Johnson (2003) presents a very broad overview of the situations and problems facing African-American college students in American colleges and universities today as a part of larger intercultural issues and difficulties. The assertions Johnson makes in this article for the most part appear logical and are well grounded in previous research, yet the citations of this research and Johnson's assertions themselves contain little empirical evidence or apparent attempt to measure objective aspects of the issue at hand. That is, Johnson's ideas and conclusions are without a doubt built on the ideas and conclusions of others, but little in this article is presented that explains the nature of these conclusions other than as the result of logical thought experiments, without being supported by real-world observation and details. This is a major problem for the article, as the primary argument Johnson makes in the paper is that practical changes must be implemented in order to better secure the proper and equitable development of African-American college students in comparison to their European-American counterparts. Not only does the article fail to make explicit practical recommendations in this area, merely arguing for the need to incorporate some element of change in the current student affairs procedures employed with African-American students, but it does not empirically demonstrate the need for these changes.

Summary

Johnson begins her article with an overview on the issue of student development, particularly as it relates to African-American students. Citing previous research and literature on the subject, Johnson notes that student development must take student culture into account. She then asserts, again citing previous research, that African-American students have distinct cultural differences from their European-American counterparts as well as from other minority student groups, despite the fact that African-Americans and other minorities are often lumped together in such considerations. Johnson goes on to argue that African-American student development can be seen to have a separate trajectory from broader student development issues, presumably due to these cultural differences.

The different approach necessary for the student development of African-American students, Johnson continues, must be developed from an African psychology as opposed to the European/European-American psychology utilized to develop traditional student development practices. This African psychology's development, as described by Johnson's citation of multiple previous scholars, is an extension of African culture and contains key differences from European/European-American cultures and psychologies. Rather than being dominated by a worldview of the control of nature, individual rights, and the survival of the fittest, African culture (Johnson contends) contains a worldview that stresses harmony with nature and the survival of the people as a whole. It is from this stance that Johnson suggests African psychology and student development practices should be advanced.

Critique

There are several essential problems with Johnson's argument in… [read more]


Obama and Election History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

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Obama and Election

History was made in November 2008, not just American history, but world history as the United States elected its first African-American President. but, the election of a Black man as President, as unheard of as it might have been just 50 years ago, or even 25 years ago, was history because it was a national catharsis --… [read more]


Sowell Black Rednecks and White Liberals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,740 words)
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¶ … Black Rednecks and White Liberals by Thomas Sowell. Specifically it will contain and analysis and discussion of the book and its thesis. Author Sowell states his thesis early on in the Prologue of his book. He writes, "The purpose of this book is to expose some of the more blatant misconceptions poising race relations in our time" (Sowell… [read more]


History of the American South Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,726 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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History Of the American South

Freedom in a "Free South"

The end of slavery in the U.S. generated much controversy and influenced African-Americans in the South in believing that they would finally be recognized as equals. However, white people in former Confederate states were unwilling to accept their defeat and decided that it was essential for them to reduce the… [read more]


Before the Mayflower Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (375 words)
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African-American Studies

Before the Mayflower

My reaction to the first four chapters of "Before the Mayflower" is to see that the African-American people have a long and varied history and heritage that they should be proud of and celebrate. I learned that many experts believe the Egyptians may have been black, and that many legends, stories, and Biblical passages may refer to Black history in Africa and beyond. I did not know how early Africans first came to America, and I did not know that slave trade (or at least blacks in America) began in America as early as 1619. I also did not know that European trade began as early as 1444. This really shocked me; I thought slavery happened much, much later. I knew that the Romans and Greeks had slaves, so I do not know why this was so surprising to me, but it definitely was. I was also surprised that in the beginning, blacks were a part of the community and they people did not think they were inferior.

A also knew that blacks had fought during the American Revolution, but I did…… [read more]

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