Study "African-American / Black Studies" Essays 56-110

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Current Recession Thesis

… Recession and African-Americans in the Metropolitan Area



"Researchers use the scholarly literature in a study to present results of similar studies, to relate the present study to an ongoing dialogue in the… [read more]

African-American Art and Harlem Renaissance Thesis

… Harlem Renaissance represented the ideological start of the civil rights movement. A surge of productivity in intellectual, political, and artistic spheres, the Harlem Renaissance stimulated interest in African-American culture and in some ways helped to create that culture. The figures that emerged during the Harlem Renaissance contributed greatly to the canon of human thought on race relations. However, Harlem Renaissance artists were not necessarily preoccupied with race even though their creative media enabled political discourse.

Augusta Fells Savage has been described as one of the "luminaries" of the Harlem Renaissance ("Augusta Savage"). Savage was one of the Harlem Renaissance's most prominent female artists, too, and helped lay groundwork for feminism as well as racial equality. As a teacher, Savage helped transform social consciousness and through her sculpture she helped mold new identities for African-Americans.

Savage began her work as a self-taught artist who made small sculptures out of clay as a hobby. Born in northern Florida near Jacksonville in a town called Green Cove Springs in 1892, Savage's art was influenced by her perception of social and economic realities. She was born Augusta Fells to parents Edward and Cornelia and was the seventh of fourteen children. The young Augusta worked with the natural clay she found in natural pits in northern Florida. Her first sculptures were mostly animal figurines, which she sculpted on the sly "instead of going to school," (excerpt from Notable Black American Women). Her models depicted ducks and other birds Augusta would encounter in her daily life, but her religious father believed the pieces to be pagan and therefore spiritually dangerous. Thus, when she was a young girl Savage was inadvertently upsetting established religious norms because her figurines were deemed blasphemous. Savage's father was a Methodist preacher and when he found her small figures he scolded her harshly for creating graven images prohibited by the Bible ("Augusta Savage"). In spite of this, the young Augusta persisted in her craft and used it as a means to subvert social norms throughout her life.

Augusta Fells married John Moore when she was 15 and had her first child, Irene. John Moore died soon thereafter and she was forced to move back with her parents. The Fell family then moved from Green Cove Springs to West Palm Beach in 1915. While there, Augusta pursued her art in earnest. She "begged for clay from a small factory called Chase Pottery," because it was not a natural resource in south Florida (excerpt from Notable Black American Women). One of her first sculptures in West Palm Beach was of the Virgin Mary, which pleased her father and encouraged him to take an interest in his daughter's burgeoning talent.

Her father was not the only adult to recognize Augusta's gift. In 1919, one of her sculptures won an award at a county fair. During her senior year of high school, Augusta taught modeling. She married James Savage and took his name, but divorced him shortly thereafter. As Augusta Savage, the… [read more]

Complicity of African Americans in Contemporary U.S Research Proposal

… ¶ … complicity of African-Americans in Contemporary U.S.

The solution to the issue raised by poverty and its consequences on a community, regardless of its race is still in our debt. Just like the cure for cancer, the fight against poverty has many battles yet to come. The poverty of the black people, within the most powerful country in the world is a subject that has been debated over the decades. The participants involved were people of different backgrounds and various degrees of implication in the matter. Especially today, when the U.S. have a black president and go through a period of economic depression, such a highly disputed matter is giving hard times to all those who dare get or stay involved.

Bill Cosby, the celebrity in showbiz was accused over the time that he avoided expressing anything that could have tied him to the black community any time, at any cost. Some pointed the finger at him saying that all he did in his shows was to tackle "universal subjects," denying by that his own ancestry. These are, of course, some opinions situated in one corner of extremism and they can be easily attacked by everything else Bill Cosby, the person did for the black community, his community, the largest community in the most powerful country in the world.

His speeches and actions that benefited the black community over the years were accompanied recently by his book: Come on People. On the path from Victims to Victors. He teamed up with psychiatrist Alvin Poussaint to write a book that seemed destined to wake up black people all over America. Cosby points a finger at the passive attitude of those who prefer to stand by and watch instead of raise and fight for their right to better life. The grounds for the oppression of the low working class black people are exposed to come from their own lack of action and not from outside. Bill Cosby's book denounces the high degree of illiteracy among the black community, the lack of proper parenting, the extended ignorance and poor means of education and the 50% drop out from school rate among "African-American males in the inner city" (the Brokaw… [read more]

African-American Slave Art the African-American Experience Thesis

… African-American Slave Art

The African-American experience is different from any other because of how Africans were introduced to America. Diaspora encouraged a tight bond between family members and friends. African-American heritage is one that is close to the heart because,… [read more]

Single Black Mothers and Poverty Term Paper

… ¶ … African-American Mothers and Poverty

The Social Welfare Aspects of the Great Society and the Welfare Reform Act of 1996

The Great Society: Goals and Implementation

Background and Purpose of the Great Society

Actual implementation

The Social Challenge: Needed… [read more]

Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task Term Paper


There is an acknowledged identity crisis present in the African-American race due to the high rates of incarceration and low… [read more]

African-American Males Racial Discrimination Is Very Rampant Term Paper

… African-American Males

Racial discrimination is very rampant especially among African-Americans. Until now, most African-Americans have not yet forgotten their ancestor's experiences during the slavery period, and up until now, most African-Americans are still having issues on insecurity and diffidence, particularly… [read more]

Analyzing African Americans in the Workplace Essay

… African-Americans in the Workplace

The history of African-Americans and how it influences their current challenges they experience in the U.S.

The challenges that African-Americans face in modern day have a lot to do with their history. The rights that the African-American population enjoy today have something to do with their history in the U.S. Unfortunately, a lot of the rights that are observed or respected by authorities are Acts born of the civil rights movement of the 60s, which were a major milestone. The rights that African-Americans were not only included in law but also put under enforcement agencies for actionable implementation by the federal government. Federal agencies had also embraced the spirit of the civil rights movement. The facilitated the process by initiating directives, providing training on race related matters and providing equal opportunity for the races (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2016).

The African-American community continues to face challenges that impact negatively on their group status and their chances of advancement within USA. Some of the common challenges have to do with health, education, criminal justice and economic empowerment -Christophe and Biddle (2002).

The last quarter of the 20th Century saw a lot of African-Americans get jobs spanning lower cadre positions to managerial roles in various companies. This is the period that saw the greatest number of African-American secure formal employment in the history of the United States. In particular, there was an increase in the number of Afro-Americans joining managerial and professional careers from 13.7% in 1982 to 21% in 1999. The rate of unemployment among African-Americans also improved but remained twice as high as their white counterparts between 1972 and 1999. There were overwhelming complaints regarding discrimination at the place of work among African-Americans. In fact, 63% of African-Americans believe that they are not treated fairly. For instance, there is a general feeling that they are paid much less than their white counterparts and that advancement at work, is hindered by racial discrimination (Christophe & Biddle, 2002).

Another area that smirks of discrimination is the area of opportunities for education; and in particular the gifted program. The community seems to be overrepresented in such programs as special education but there are very few of them in gifted programs. The tools used to asses and identify gifted children in the U.S. by over 88.5 of the states are biased against learning styles and fail… [read more]

Hurricane Katrina Revealed Term Paper

… As in other times, these basic comforts are denied them because they cannot afford to return and rebuild.

With the election of President Obama in 2008, many New Orleans natives had a renewed hope of returning to a rebuilt city and a new day in America where it concerned racism and class exclusion. That was four years ago and as stated above, many are still waiting. When Obama visited New Orleans on the 5th anniversary of Katrina, he gave an address where he stated that he 'would stand by you until it is done', referring to the rebuilding of New Orleans. However, there have still been no great strides in restoring the low income, predominantly African-American neighborhoods that were basically ignored prior to, during, and now after Hurricane Katrina tore apart New Orleans and forced Americans to admit that there are still significant issues in this country regarding race and class distinctions. These distinctions are the result of long standing, systemic racism which has permeated this country from its beginning and continues to do so today.

Absolutely anyone who tuned their television to the news coverage during and after Katrina had to be stunned by the images which made these issues irrefutable. Unfortunately, it took a hurricane to reveal to many that the Old South is still… [read more]

Young, African-American Men Essay

… Lower-income white teens were more likely to find work than upper-income black teens" (Haynes 2009). Addressing the crisis of criminality and unemployment amongst young black men is essential so a 'lost generation' of young black men is not created. The need for higher-quality education specifically tailored to the needs of this population, particularly at an early age, seems essential. Only with appropriate support can African-American young males seek competitive jobs that provide social stability and mobility. This sense of social investment is demanded to reduce the disproportionate number of young black males in prison. However, education alone is not enough -- the disproportionate impact of the recession upon African-Americans of all genders, classes, and education levels suggest that systemic, institutional racism is still a factor in the disadvantaged status of African-Americans today.

The reasons for the difficulties African-American boys experience are controversial -- some cite the health consequences of living in impoverished conditions, single-parent households, and also the cultural stereotypes within the educational system (both in the minds of teachers and in the construction of standardized tests). With this in mind, the American Counseling Association (ACA) code of ethics mandates caution "when selecting assessments for culturally diverse populations to avoid the use of instruments that lack appropriate psychometric properties for the client population" such as IQ tests that may be culturally biased against children from disadvantaged backgrounds (E.6.c). "Counselors recognize historical and social prejudices in the misdiagnosis and pathologizing of certain individuals and groups and the role of mental health professionals in perpetuating these prejudices through diagnosis and treatment" which means that they must be careful in diagnosising ADHD or another potentially stigmatizing disorder, based upon reports of a teacher who may be harboring unconscious prejudices (E.5.c).

A lack of treatment for a learning disability is just as damaging as a false diagnosis, of course. Counselors must have awareness of larger social history as well as the individual's history in the work, and by changing the lives of individuals they can change society. But such changes are often best enacted with the aid of socially supportive community groups and programs that work to deal with specific challenges of specific populations.


ACA Code of Ethics. (2005). Retrieved July 22, 2011 at

Barbarin, Oscar. (2011). Ready or not: African-American males in kindergarden. UNC-Chapel

Hill. Retrieved July 22, 2011 at

Fellner, Jamie. (2009). Decades of disparity: Drug arrests and race in the United States.

Human Rights Watch. Retrieved July 22, 2011 through Drug Facts at

Haynes, V. Dion. (2009, November 23). Blacks hit hard by economy's punch.

The Washington Post. Retrieved July 22, 2011 at

Mauer, Marc. (2011). The crisis of the young African-American male and the criminal justice system. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved July 22, 2011 at

McWhorter, John. (2011). How the War on Drugs is destroying Black America.

The Cato Institute.

Retrieved July 22, 2011 through Drug Facts at [read more]

Nature of Reconstruction and Its Importance to Subsequent African-American History Term Paper

… Reconstruction and Its Importance in African-American History

Many people might believe that the abolition of slavery in the United States was the most significant social and political action of the 19th century. Those people would be wrong. While the abolition… [read more]

Plight of Women and African Americans in America as Marginalized Groups in Antebellum Term Paper

… Antebellum America

The Plight of women and African-Americans as Marginalized Groups in Antebellum America

Women and African-Americans represented two groups with limited rights in antebellum America. Socially, both were considered to have a role and a place. Yet neither had… [read more]

Richard Allen: A Biography Term Paper

… M.E. churches. He became bishop of the new church, a place devoted to promulgating Black spirituality and providing a source of religious community and connection. (Toppin, 2004)

Allen's considerable industry and creativity is reflected in John Hope Franklin's statement in From Slavery to Freedom that, while in all "Northern communities that blacks went farthest in establishing independent churches," he feels, "the best example of this trend was the work of Richard Allen and his followers in Philadelphia. This prospective leader demonstrated his industry and determination" by saving enough money with which to establish the AME on his own. (Franklin, p.114) In other words, the success was financial as well, as Blacks had little economic resources at the time, and would for many years to come.

Allen was also influential in agitating against early colonialism. While all Northern Blacks showed almost universal opposition to colonization, particularly colonization in Africa, Allen helped give this opposition an organizational focus and channel. In Philadelphia 3,000 blacks, led by Richard Allen and James Forten, met in 1817 and registered their objections to colonization, urging the "Humane and Benevolent Inhabitants of Philadelphia" that had helped him, such as the Quakers to join them in uniting against this practice of enslaving Black nations abroad, as well as Black Americans at home. (Franklin, p.190)

Allen thus clearly saw a connection between the racism of nations such as Great Britain's determination to carry the white man's burden and engage in economic exploitation of the colonies of Africa, and the economic exploitation of the Southern United States in the more blatant form of human traffic in enslavement. His decision to call his church the African Methodist Episcopal Church showed how he saw himself as an African and an American both, providing a link between himself and the 'back to Africa' movement that eventually led to the founding of Liberia and Malcolm X's pan-African rhetoric.

Richard Allen liberated himself, and used the opportunities his education and freedom provided him with to liberate others. Even while America was still a young nation, surrounded by two oceans on either side, he had a strong international focus and orientation in his politics. He united African identity with Christianity in a profound way, and was tireless in the creation of institutions to support an end to slavery, rather than merely supporting the end of slavery in rhetoric. He died on March 26, 1831, but although he never lived to see America free, he left a proud legacy of achievement.

Works Cited

Franklin, John Hope & Alfred J. Moss. From Slavery to Freedom. Eighth Edition. New York: Knopf, 2000.

Gates, Henry Louis. African-American Lives. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004

Toppin, Edgar Allan. "Allen, Richard." World Book… [read more]

Journal Reaction: A Soldier's Play Term Paper

… Along the progress of the investigation, the "Soldier's Play" becomes as much about the hatred in Waters' last words as well as the murder of Waters himself. The fact that the African-American unit was segregated, the play suggests, created a kind of hothouse environment, where Blacks were turned against one another. Ironically, by demanding perfection of one another, any sense of unity within 'the Race' was destroyed by Waters' style of leadership. It becomes clear as Fuller's drama progresses that the Black officers of the play are less concerned with finding the ultimate solution to the murder, or even to the meaning of Waters' last words and why the murder occurred. Rather, they are more concerned with surviving in terms of their self-esteem in a society that either denies them their manhood, or within the community, makes unreasonable demands upon their bodies and souls to thwart White… [read more]

African-American 20th Century Political History Essay

… This made him a strong candidate to be the spokesperson for the Civil Rights Movement. As time progressed and his reputation grew, many of his speeches and pubic appearance were televised and/or broadcasted over the radio. There are man Americans that know his voice very well; it is very distinctive. This was the face of a part of the Civil Rights Movement: an educated, articulate, church-going, well spoken, handsome man. Even though the issue of civil rights was very sensitive during this period making it unsafe for any African-American to represent the movement, Dr. King was the type of African-American that white people and perhaps other non-white Americans perceived as "safe." This holds true in media and politics today -- this concept of the "safe" African-American. In this case, "safe" means little or no perceived threat by whites. These are reasons why Dr. King is often described as the face of the movement.

There were many others involved who are important, including those who worked for and supported Dr. King. There were also those who fought for civil rights using different methods that Dr. King and his groups. (Textbook, Chapter 22) Every aspect of the civil rights movement is important because the problems was and is so big that it is necessary to attack it from various angles at once. Other civil rights leaders other than Dr. King faced some of the same problems he did, as far as physical violence from those who oppose their protests and ideas, as well as from violence and sabotage by law enforcement. Some groups desired the publicity Dr. King got, but some groups did not care for publicity. They only sought results. All civil rights groups faced [read more]

Graduation Speech Essay

… Graduation Speech

Why should I or anyone else care about the education of African-American women? Are we of African-American heritage actually any different from anyone else? Well my answer is yes. I have spent many years contemplating the issue of… [read more]

African Studies the Media Is a Dangerous Term Paper

… African Studies

The media is a dangerous weapon for mass manipulation. If you give people information through television or newspapers there is a very high probability they will believe it and take it as truth and nothing but the truth.… [read more]

Black Slaveowners African-American History Term Paper

… Black Slaveowners

Agriculture and even home ownership in the age before the civil war in the United States was a challenging endeavor, one that often required the work of more than one family.

In most places in the U.S. The… [read more]

Social Black Experience Research Paper

… Social Black Experience

A Survey of Black Social Oppression in the Twentieth Century

Evelyn Waugh noted in his "Conservative Manifesto" in Robbery Under Law (1940) that "inequalities of wealth and position are inevitable….Men naturally arrange themselves in a system of… [read more]

Blacks in Florida the History Term Paper

… Analysis:

Robert Hall and Jane Landers are academics who have studied the influence of African-Americans of the Spanish Colonial region of Florida. Yet, they have narrowed down their study by viewing the heritage of the Africans Americans through the lenses of slavery. Most academics are unable to study the African-American past without bias not because they view the African-Americans as second class citizens but because they associate African-Americans with 'slavery' and cannot see beyond that label. While they realize that the African-Americans immigrated, or were forcefully brought from the regions of Africa to the Americas they are unable to separate the 'slaves' from the 'free' people.

Hall [1990] presents the influence of the African-Americans on Florida by studying the religious facets of the African culture; from the drum beats to black magic to the rich death and burial rites. Hall and Landers [1995] both suggest that the Florida region had been influenced by the African-American more than other states because they were to some extent allowed to retain their moral and religious personalities by the law and church. The slaves colonial Spanish area were till a greater part of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century allowed to continue their own cultural rituals and it was only after annexation of the Florida area to the American states that the slave rights began to be suppressed.

Yet, while both these writers contend that the African-Americans had their basis in Western Africa to some extent they fail to pursue the cultural base. They focus more on the influence of African-Americans on Florida through the kaleidoscope of slavery than actually tracing the origin of the culture from the Africa's. In [read more]

History of the American South Term Paper

… History Of the American South

Freedom in a "Free South"

The end of slavery in the U.S. generated much controversy and influenced African-Americans in the South in believing that they would finally be recognized as equals. However, white people in… [read more]

Obama and Election History Research Paper

… Obama and Election

History was made in November 2008, not just American history, but world history as the United States elected its first African-American President. but, the election of a Black man as President, as unheard of as it might… [read more]

Johnson, v. ). "A Comparison of European Journal

… Johnson, V. (2003). "A comparison of European and African-based psychologies and their implications for African-American college student development." Journal of black studies 33(6), pp. 817-29.

In her article concerning the need for the development of new student affairs practices and… [read more]

Sowell Black Rednecks and White Liberals Term Paper

… ¶ … Black Rednecks and White Liberals by Thomas Sowell. Specifically it will contain and analysis and discussion of the book and its thesis. Author Sowell states his thesis early on in the Prologue of his book. He writes, "The… [read more]

Cultural Identity Term Paper

… Cultural Diversity interviewed a co-worker who describes himself at first as "Hispanic." However, he explained that a "Hispanic" person can come from one of many countries including Mexico but also Central or South America, Puerto Rico and Cuba. He also… [read more]

Before the Mayflower Term Paper

… African-American Studies

Before the Mayflower

My reaction to the first four chapters of "Before the Mayflower" is to see that the African-American people have a long and varied history and heritage that they should be proud of and celebrate. I learned that many experts believe the Egyptians may have been black, and that many legends, stories, and Biblical passages may refer to Black history in Africa and beyond. I did not know how early Africans first came to America, and I did not know that slave trade (or at least blacks in America) began in America as early as 1619. I also did not know that European trade began as early as 1444. This really shocked me; I thought slavery happened much, much later. I knew that the Romans and Greeks had slaves, so I do not know why this was so surprising to me, but it definitely was. I was also surprised that in the beginning, blacks were a part of the community and they people did not think they were inferior.

A also knew that blacks had fought during the American Revolution, but I did… [read more]

History of Missouri Term Paper

… She was separated from her parents when eleven years old and brought to Missouri from Tennessee. She never saw any of her folks again and the last words her mother said to her was: "Daughter, if I never see you… [read more]

Women the Impact of Slavery Term Paper

… (Molloy) The study found that African-American Women and Caucasian women have a different perception of what overweight means. The study found that African-American Women are quite often around people that are overweight which changes the perception of what overweight people… [read more]

African Americans Male and HIV Journal

… ¶ … Sexual Identity, Mental Health, HIV Risk Behaviors, and Internalized Homophobia among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men by Oluwakemi Amola and Marc A. Grimmett (2014)

In this study, the authors make the point that HIV has been transformed from a disease that was primarily endemic to the white gay male population 3 decades ago to one that affects African-Americans in disproportionate numbers. In fact, Amola and Grimmett report that although African-Americans account for just around 14% of the American population, they are responsible for close to half (44%) of all new HIV cases diagnosed in the United States each year. More disturbing still, rather than being limited to a single demographic component of African-Americans, HIV has adversely affected the entire range of this population group, including heterosexual men, women, young people, drug users who inject, and the elderly. Although all of these African-American groups have been adversely affected by HIV disproportionately to their representation in the American population, the group that has suffered the most is homosexual African-American men who have sex with other men (MSM). The authors describe the wide range of negative effects that these trends have had on the African-American population in general and on African-American MSM in particular, including internalized homophobia that may discourage infected individuals from seeking medical interventions, high=risk behaviors, black male identity developmental constraints, as well as depression and lowered self-esteem.

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships (positive, negative or unknown) between sexual identity, depression, self-esteem, HIV-risk behaviors, HIV status, and internalized homophobia in African-American MSM. The authors recruited 196 participants to participate in their study who satisfied the following eligibility criteria:… [read more]

African-American Gender Gap in Higher Education Research Paper

… This messaging is likely to have had a strong impact upon the psyches of generations of African-American children that is not easily eradicated.

However, given that both African-American men and women have experienced the legacy of racism, the reasons for the gender divide remain unclear. There is also the question of the extent to which trends in the larger American community regarding the education of men and women may be affecting this trend. This is why a quantitative approach is needed, so the educational perceptions of a wide variety of racial categories can be assessed as well as obtaining a specific focus upon the experiences of African-Americans.

Ethical considerations

Regarding the quantitative portion of the assignment, responses to the surveys of all participants will be anonymous. The interview process will be purely voluntary and students will be informed of how their information will be used and the purpose of the research process.


Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

More women earn B.A. degrees than men. (2013). Huffington Post. Retrieved from:

Review of Frierson, H.T., Pearson Jr. W., & Wyche, J.H. (2009). Black American males in higher education: Diminishing proportions. Bingley,… [read more]

Designing a Useful and Understandable Research Project Research Paper

… Designing a useful and understandable research project requires the experimenter to have a grasp of the standards and practices of how this task can be successfully accomplished. The purpose of this essay is to describe in detail a research project dealing with depression in African-American men. This essay will examine each component of the research process to communicate how this project will be accomplished. The essay will first examine the hypothesis and how to test its reliability. The target population and variables will also be discussed and examined how to best frame the argument around this data. Possible problems will also be discussed to prevent mistakes and create a roadmap to a valid and successful research project that can significantly contribute to the collective understanding of the subject and add a new perspective on the topic.

The research area chosen for this project deals with the psychological condition of depression. More specifically, the hypothesis suggests that African-American men are experience stress at a much more frequent and intense level than other demographics within the country. In other words, how does stress uniquely affect African-American men? Theoretical frameworks based upon race can be used to help frame this argument and provide context useful in describing and comparing the results to other research projects that are attempting to uncover relationships in the same manner.

A useful and practical approach to answer this questions will require transforming qualitative data into quantitative data as depression cannot be understood without subjective input. Using a survey and asking questions pertaining to depression and race can provide data which can then be analyzed and converted into information that can be manipulated into graphic or mathematical forms.

Choosing target populations are important and requires some thoughtful discussion before randomly choosing a group to analyze. Age, location and socio-economic factors must all be somehow converged into a level playing field which… [read more]

Web Du Bois the Contrast Book Review

… This lends a spiritual cast to Douglass's thinking, in Du Bois's account -- in some sense, this idealistic goal is one that could be thought good for "the souls of black folk." By contrast the program put forward by Booker T. Washington seems to abandon the high ideals of the abolitionist movement in favor of assimilating with the "root, hog, or die" ethic of America's Gilded Age. As Du Bois describes it in Chapter 3:

This is an age of unusual economic development, and Mr. Washington's programme naturally takes an economic cast, becoming a gospel of Work and Money to such an extent as apparently almost completely to overshadow the higher aims of life. Moreover, this is an age when the more advanced races are coming in closer contact with the less developed races, and the race-feeling is therefore intensified; and Mr. Washington's programme practically accepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro races. (Du Bois, 36)

This is the heart of Du Bois's critique of Washington, simply put. Washington's insistence that the education of black Americans focus on "common-school and industrial training" (37) -- rather than the sort of education that might be offered at Harvard or Yale in the same period -- is not merely small-minded in its economics, but it accepts the limitations imposed on African-Americans by tacitly conceding that the children of ex-slaves are somehow not good enough for an Ivy League course of study.

Du Bois offers his own program by the time he discusses "The Training of Black Men" in Chapter 6 of The Souls of Black Folk, and in essence it insists upon the radical egalitarianism that he saw in Frederick Douglass, but found wanting in Booker T. Washington. Historically speaking Du Bois has been the winner here, because his insistence was that black Americans should insist upon the same access to education as white Americans: he notes that, at the time of his writing, "four hundred Negroes, many of whom have been reported as brilliant students, have received the bachelor's degree from Harvard, Yale, Oberlin, and seventy other leading colleges" (71). But the meaning and purpose of this education, in Du Bois's view, is not mere social advancement or material progress: it is a way of achieving "assimilation through self-assertion" in the way that Frederick Douglass had envisioned. The rhetorical close of Chapter 6 is one of the most memorable passages in The Souls of Black Folk, and it insists upon higher education as a means of achieving dignity through racial equality: "I sit with Shakespeare and he winces not," Du Bois writes (76). In contrast to Washington's view of vocational training as the only fit subject of education for American blacks, Du Bois convincingly argues that the spiritual values that one gets with a university education are conducive to improving not merely the job prospects, but the souls, of African-Americans.

Works Cited

Du Bois, WEB. The Souls of… [read more]

John Hope Franklin Term Paper

… John Hope Franklin and Hope for the African-American Cause

Colleges across the country today have African-American Studies Departments. And many other colleges teach African-American history and culture within other disciplines such as History, American Studies, and other interdisciplinary curriculums. Who… [read more]

Hypocrisy of American Slavery Speech Essay

… ¶ … Frederick Douglass' Argument in the Hypocrisy of American Slavery

Frederick Douglass was born a slave in Maryland. He escaped from slavery in 1838 and came to prominence as an abolitionist with his 1845 autobiography. However, the release of his autobiography made him fear that he would be recaptured and put back into slavery, so he fled the United States and went to Great Britain. In Great Britain, he raised enough money to buy his freedom, and was able to return to the United States as a free man. Douglass settled in Rochester, New York. He became an active abolitionist, publishing the North Star, an abolitionist newspaper, and directing the local Underground Railroad. He also sought to increase rights for free blacks, by working to end racial segregation in Rochester's public schools. In 1852, at a July 4th celebration in Rochester, New York, Douglass gave his famous speech arguing against slavery. Douglass begins by highlighting the differences between the state of whites and blacks during that time. He states that the American independence highlights the immeasurable distance between him and his audience, presumably a group of white Americans. He states that the blessings that they are enjoying Independence Day are not shared by him or other blacks. In fact, he states that rather than being a cause for celebration, for him the Fourth of July is a day of mourning. He points out that dragging men in bondage to a nation that is considered the temple or liberty is mockery and an irony. He even goes so far as to suggest that those who asked him to speak at the Fourth of July celebration engaged mockery by asking him to speak at that celebration. He points out three factors that support his position: the humanity of slaves, the right of all humans to liberty, and the lack of divinity in slavery. Douglass believed that the Fourth of July celebration of independence was an exercise in hypocrisy because of the institution of slavery, which kept so many Americans in bondage.

Douglass began by challenging the idea that slavery exists because he and his fellow abolitionists have failed to make convincing arguments that slavery is wrong. He states that it is wrong of people to suggest that slaveholders should need to be convinced that slavery is wrong. First, slaveholders already concede that slaves are men. The slaveholders acknowledge the humanity of the black man in their own laws. Slaveholders made actions criminal when done by black men that would not be criminal when committed by a white man, therefore holding black men to a higher moral standard than white men, which reflects a belief in the humanity of slaves. Moreover, laws prohibiting slaves from reading or writing spoke to the acknowledged humanity of slaves. He points out all of the accomplishments that African-Americans were doing at that as further evidence of their humanity, including: plowing, planting, reaping, using tools, building houses, building ships,… [read more]

Race in March of 2010, a Teenage Essay

… Race

In March of 2010, a teenage employee of a Pennsylvania Wal-Mart used the store's PA system to deliver a shockingly racist message: "All blacks must leave the store." The incident at the Gloucester County Wal-Mart proves that racism is… [read more]

American Versions of Modernism Research Proposal

… American Versions of Modernalisim

The lives of many African-Americans in the U.S. had not changed greatly consequent to the Civil War. It took several decades for black people to be accepted in society as equals to whites and only in… [read more]

Age of Segregation Essay

… Age of Segregation

White supremacy shaped African-Americans in the South in several ways. But also provided the motivation for blacks to struggle harder and fight back against the racism. This paper will identify through sources issues and challenges that African-Americans… [read more]

Soul Is Rested: Movement Days Research Paper

… ¶ … Soul is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered by Howell Raines. Specifically it will discuss the changes in the Civil Rights movement between 1941 and 1968. The Civil Rights Movement is one of the defining moments… [read more]

Black History and Black Identity: A Call Book Review

… Black History and Black Identity: A Call for a New Historiography. Book by W.D. Wright; Praeger

Wright, W.D. Black History and Black Identity: A Call for a New Historiography. New York:

Praeger, 2002, pp. 247.

What does it mean to… [read more]

Harlem 1920-1960 Term Paper

… Harlem 1920-1960 Culture of the Harlem

Harlem has indeed been a mirror of the diversity that sums up the essence of the American nation. It is the social, economic, and political environment in which the African-American cultural individuality has integrated… [read more]

Harlem During 1920-1960 Term Paper

… Harlem During 1920-1960

The United States is considered for centuries now the "land of all opportunities." Throughout time, it has attracted millions of people from around the world in search for a better future and for new ground for personal… [read more]

American Slavery Term Paper

… American Slavery after the Civil War
From the Point of View of Freed Slaves

The slave experience in the United States was one of economic
necessity to the Southern elite, and that necessity did not change after
the Civil War.… [read more]

Social Times and the Culture of New Term Paper

… Social Times and the Culture of New York's: Harlem: From the 'Harlem Renaissance' Period to 1960

Few if any American cities or geographical areas have undergone as many demographic; economic or cultural changes; "reinventions" and metamorphoses as New York's Harlem.… [read more]

Boundaries of Blackness the Latest Presidential Elections Book Review

… Boundaries of Blackness

The latest presidential elections once again highlighted the importance of how different racial minorities. The different political candidates and parties spent much time studying and wooing the various racial votes. Much discussion was also devoted to the… [read more]

Harlem Renaissance- Literature and Art Term Paper

… " Among the first collaborators to the magazine were Zora Neale Houston and Bruce Nugent, but the magazine itself was short lived. However, it pointed out the need of the "young negroes" not only to find an identity, but also to express it and coordinate it. The movement was already on the way by now, despite its decrease in strength during the Great Depression.

Among the greatest literary works of the Harlem Renaissance is the novel Cane, written by Jean Toomer. Focused on native Georgia, the novel is a return to the ancestral tradition and spirit. Indeed, the hero, Kabnis, considered to be Toomer's alter ego considers his place in society and among races. The author uses verses from African-American gospel songs to depict a certain landscape and a certain atmosphere. Throughout his book, fiction is completed by poetry, by sketches and verse. With a strong race message and anti-oppression goal (as Tommer himself said, "never again in life do I want a repetition of those conditions"), Cane represented the perfect projection of what the Harlem Renaissance was all about: a return to ancestral spirituality and a message against oppression.

Zora Neale Hurston was another excellent prose writer of period. AS I have mentioned previously, she had collaborated with the Fire magazine in the 20s, but it was the 30s and the 40s that would bring her most success. Works like Mules and men or Their Eyes were watching God brought her a Guggenheim Fellowship.

A word on the literary effervescence of those years is uncompleted without a brief mention of Countee Cullen. His verse became an enormous success when his first collection of poetry was published under the name of Color. As we can see from the title, his poems had everything to do with the ideas and the mission I have discussed previously. If we look at poems such as Heritage or Incident reflect a call upon the African heritage and a revolt against racial inequality.

The Harlem Renaissance had dimensions in other areas as well. Sculpture and painting usually had its inspiration in Africa. As many have been keen to underline, the African-American visual arts were generally characterized during this period by "improvisation and style." Lois Mailou Jones and Palmer Hayden were among the most representative figures.

As for the performing arts, the Harlem Renaissance will always be remembered by its Jazz musicians. Artists such as Duke Ellington made a name for themselves in the Cotton Club and other clubs from New York and still have a lot for to show nowadays.

The Harlem Renaissance period was an unusual blend of 20s modernism, protest literature and African influences that had a significant contribution to the subsequent cultural evolution in the United States.


2. Cane. The New Georgia Encyclopedia. On the Internet at

3. Langston Hughes in his autobiography "The Big Sea." From Jackson, Caroline. Harlem Renaissance: Pivotal Period in the Development of Afro-American Culture. On the Internet at

Langston Hughes in his… [read more]

Relating Course Material to Civil Rights Movement Term Paper

… This is clearly a result of the success and hard work of the civil rights movement.

Thus, this paper has looked at the uniqueness of the black civil rights movement of the 1960s, and the remarkable factors which influenced it, making it as distinct as it was. As Turner's book reflects higher education was a primal and motivating factor within the civil rights movement, and it strongly empowered the African-American student body at the time, causing them to organize and take action. As Giovanni's collection of poems suggests, part of the change that characterized this movement was marked by a greater sense of perspective and understanding of the past. Finally, the remarkable film Guess Who's Coming to Dinner was able to aptly take the temperature of society, appropriately surmising that many were ready to see and accept a film which debunked racial stereotypes.


Giovanni, N. (1996). The Collected Poetry of Nikki Giovanni. New York: Harper Collins.

Kramer, S. (Director). (1967). Guess Who's Coming to Dinner [Motion Picture].

Turner, J. (2010). Sitting in and… [read more]

Close Comparison -- Compare Essay

… The implication of such exercises is that it is impossible to detach photographs from the symbolic language which produced them and see them purely as images. The images have entered in the lexicon and they are a part of how people see the world and see themselves. Only through re-interpretation and re-configuration of such images in a positive and affirmative light by the community can they take on an empowering status.

One reviewer found Willis' project to be objectionable, asking why she did not use photographs of African-American artists instead, arguing that "as 1840 the first known black photographer, Jules Lion, demonstrated the daguerreotype process in New Orleans, and there is now a large body of work by black photographers. Recent interest in their lives and art has sparked a dialogue about the ways one looks at and interprets photographs and how identity and representation are constructed in photographs of African-Americans'" (Nicholson 1994). However, to only focus on the work of African-American artists would be to deny the need to explore how the process of canonization of specific images has occurred within the hegemonic culture and undeniably the images of prejudiced whites have affected how African-American artists have perceived their subject matter. While Solomon-Godeau attempts to question the representative claims of photography entirely, Willis implies that photography's claim to show what is real is already so ingrained in the collective consciousness all one can do is to offer another version of an interpretation, not to eschew interpretation entirely. There is no pure 'real' and only a series of versions, thus African-Americans must provide new interpretations of the old, as well as generate new concepts of their own.


Apter, Emily. Review of Photography at the Dock: Essays on Photographic History, Institutions

and Practices by Abigail Solomon-Godeau. The Art Bulletin, 74.4 (Dec., 1992): 692-694.

Hill & Adamson, Nadar, Julia Margaret Cameron, Rejlander, Robinson, and P.H. Emerson.

Figures of early art photography.

Nicholson, David. Review of Picturing us: African-American identity in photography. Deborah Willis, (Ed.). New York: The New Press, 1996.

Williams, Carla. "The Erotic Image is Naked and Dark." In Deborah Willis, (Ed.). Picturing Us:

African-American Identity in Photography. New York:… [read more]

Symbolic Interactions Perspective Media Analysis Term Paper

… In one of the scenes, another professor of the Wiley College while driving car with his family accidently hits and kills a pig of some white farmers. Fearfully he stops and get out of car and confronts two white farmers who came running by due to the commotion. Although of higher financial status and much more sophisticated then the farmers, the professor displays expressions of fear and much apprehension on an issue which could be settled easily with monetary compensation. Farmers at first were annoyed and anxious at their loss; the professor tried to explain the situation and negotiate calmly with fear on his face (depicted by biting of his upper lip) and the farmers appeared annoyed throughout. Seeing that the farmers are still anxious on their lost the professor reached for his pocket calmly while negotiating, that action somehow prompted one of the farmers to take out his revolver and the other farmer adopts the dominant body posture by placing his both hands on his hips and both became alert to notice his further actions. Upon seeing this, the professor offers them something else and puts a fearful smile on his face. Throughout the scene the professor does not adopt and open position or a dominant posture. Weiten and Lloyd (2000, pp.193) explains that body postures convey status differences between two individuals interacting with each other. In general, lower status individual adopts a closed position i.e. rigid body posture like sitting up straight with feet together and arms close to body. And a higher status individual adopts a relaxed position with an open body posture and more outward directed hands gestures and arms open and away from the body.


Bertrand, Marianne, and Sendhil Mullianathan. (2004). Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal. Http:// N.p., 20 June 2004. Web. 4 Aug. 2012.

Jim Crow Laws - Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site. (2012). " U.S. National Park Service - Experience Your America. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Aug. 2012.
Weiten, W., & Lloyd, M.A. (2006). Psychology applied to modern life: adjustment in the 21st century (8th ed.). Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth. [read more]

Ethnography Ethnographic Research Journal Article Review: Men Article Critique

… Ethnography

Ethnographic Research Journal Article Review:

"Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African-American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African-American Male Youth"

There has been a great deal of scholarly research regarding the importance… [read more]

Civil Rights Movement: Learning Freedom the Plight Term Paper

… Civil Rights Movement: Learning Freedom

The plight of African-Americans is one of the most challenging in history because of the plight of these people. When the first African-Americans arrived in this country, they were slaves and they belonged to someone… [read more]

Terrible Transformation When the Original European Colonists Thesis

… ¶ … Terrible Transformation

When the original European colonists arrived in North America, they established a system of indentured servitude to facilitate their economic needs being met. This system was driven by religious identity rather than by racial classification, with… [read more]

Malcolm X Family and Faith Essay

… Malcolm X

Family and Faith in the Autobiography of Malcolm X

Few figures in the Civil Rights Movement of the mid twentieth century, if any, are as controversial as Malcolm X The extreme nature of his calls to action and… [read more]

Years Leading to Rev War Essay

… ¶ … Revolutionary War

The history of the United States can be considered to be the result of hundreds of years of struggles and torments which have set their mark on the culture and traditions of the American people. Given… [read more]

Garvey the Duality of Garveyism Research Paper

… Garvey

The Duality of Garveyism in the Civil Rights Era

Marcus Garvey served as the template for the two most prominent archetypes of the American Civil Rights Era, with his bold Pan-Africanism providing the framework for the radical nationalist ideologies… [read more]

Jim Crow Era Term Paper


According to Jennifer Blue, the term Jim Crow, the name of an early Negro minstrel song, "refers to the official discrimination against or segregation of African-Americans" following the end of the Civil War in 1865 and commencing from the beginning of the Reconstruction Era in 1866 and up to the mid-1920's. These "Jim Crow" laws were "officially instituted by the southern states when racial attitudes hardened in the 1890's" some thirty years after Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation which abolished slavery in America. During these years, Jim Crow laws "mandated racial separation in schools, parks, playgrounds, restaurants, hotels, public transportation... restrooms" and other public facilities and stood as symbols of "supposed black inferiority" ("An Analysis of Jim Crow Laws," Internet).

During the Reconstruction Era, the U.S. Congress and the Supreme Court refused to enact laws that would protect African-Americans in the Deep South, due in part to viewing the "Negro problem" as indigenous to southern states which by the 1880's had institutionalized segregation to such an extent that African-Americans were left out of all political and economic arenas related to employment, housing and voting. By 1881, many southern states had passed new legislation which required separate accommodations for blacks in theaters, parks and public conveyances like taxis, buses and trains. These and other facilities became "Jim Crow" bathrooms, phone booths and even courtroom Bibles and signs were prominently displayed as either "Colored" or "White," indicating separate facilities for blacks and whites (Rabinowitz, 140).

In addition, these Jim Crow laws "played a major role in the creation of new systems of race relations that emerged in the Deep South to replace slavery." The commitment to white supremacy had always been a constant among southern whites since the earliest days of the Colonial Period and up the Revolutionary War, "but its expression varied according to changing national and regional… [read more]

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