"African-American / Black Studies" Essays

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Civil Rights Movement the "Integrationist" Phase Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Civil Rights Movement

The "Integrationist" Phase of the Civil Rights Movement

The Integrationist Phase of the civil rights movement is best embodied by Martin Luther King, Jr. And his group, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). It is through King's leadership that the civil rights movement in the late 1950s and early 1960s became integrationist, wherein both black and white Americans worked together to solidify the movement, influencing legislation on recognizing black American civil rights as equal to that of white American civil rights.

SCLC demonstrated the integrationist approach by creating an alliance with white Americans in the Northern region of the country, most of which are also Jews in identity. Among King's closest ally was Stanley Levinson, a Jew and member of the Communist Party at the time. Apart from Levinson, King also created alliances among Protestant ministers, wherein King's strong belief in the Protestant religion helped him forge a strong relationship with the dominant white American Protestant members.

The SCLC strategy under King's leadership was primarily the conduct of demonstrations as forms of protest. Protesting against racial segregation, King and the SCLC contributed significantly to the civil rights movement by going further than just conducting demonstrations, that is, lobbying legislature to recognize the civil rights of black Americans, particularly the right to vote and suspension of literacy tests required for voting. Through its active demonstrations and lobbying, SCLC, with King and black and white American civil rights activists, achieved success with the enactment of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

The "Black Power" Phase of the Civil Rights Movement

Right after…… [read more]

Speech What Martin Luther King Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



What Martin Luther King Would Not Say

Clinton's 1993 speech "What Would Martin Luther King Say," was presented to an audience of black ministers in Memphis. The speech focused on the President's perception of social decay in America and its relationship to civil rights. On the surface, the speech seemed like an attempt to build many racial bridges, as… [read more]

South and the North Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,198 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


You asked me once how I came to be so militant. My father and mother were part of the Great Awakening in the 1820's, and I inherited my faith in God and my passion for freedom from them. Though I know you've always felt me too radical, I must point out that history is proving out the words of Mr. John Brown, who repeatedly said that the issue of slavery can only be settled through violence. Eight states have now seceded from the union, and President Lincoln is vowing war to hold the union together. Honestly, I do wish the man were a bit more of an abolitionist! He would have gladly left slavery untouched in the South, merely would have forbid any new territories from entering the union as slave states. How much more reasonable can you be than that, especially when you're dealing with an institution like slavery which is inherently evil?

I know you felt John Brown's actions in Kansas and at Harper's Ferry were wicked. I must agree the behavior was perhaps undesirable, but the motives were pure. Brown saw what should now be self evident. Slavery will not end by talk, nor by compromise. It will end, simply, when men and women of good conscience end it, violently if need be. As far as I'm concerned, Brown is a martyr. I wish the Negroes had taken up arms for his cause. Slave owners would be a little less complacent if they thought their "property" might well murder them in their sleep.

You mentioned that you had once heard the great Frederick Douglass speak. Having done so, how can you have anything but contempt for those who would enslave such a man? The government has played along with the South and their damned "peculiar institution" for far too long. Look at the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Ordinary citizens compelled to become slave hunters, any black man or woman even thought to be a slave sent away without trial or a chance to plead their own defense! And this is true in the so-called free states as well as the slave states. This was not a compromise. It was an out and out concession of which all good Christian men and women should be ashamed.

We should have stopped our unholy compromises and taken a stand in 1850. This would have forced the South to secede or give up their slave labor. To the people who cry now for the fate of the union, I can only say, "Why should we continue to risk damnation by dancing with the devil

What will come now? War, I imagine. Probably soon. Lincoln has said he will fight to keep the union together, and that does appear to be one thing he's resolute about. The South is confident they will win, just as they were when they foolishly split their ticket three ways during the election (Catton, 1961). I see a different outcome. The North is the industrial society,… [read more]

Martin Luther King, Jr Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They were told that "We don't serve colored here" (Pastan, 42). The men sat at the lunch counter until the store closed. They returned the next day with 19 other black students, and by the end of the week hundreds of youths joined them. These sit-ins, were supported by King as a display of Gandhi's philosophy of nonviolence (ibid).

Later,… [read more]

Slavery True Picture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" Historian Rousey notes abolitionist John S.C. Abbott toured the South, "he encountered a northerner in New Orleans who assured Abbott that 'I was always in favor of slavery when in the North, and I am still more so now that I have come South. The slaves are much better off than the laboring class at the North'" (Rousey). Thus, slavery was not a simple black and white, North and South issue. It was a highly personal issue that crossed lines and created misunderstanding and hatred on both sides of the Mason-Dixon Line. Southerners felt quite vindicated in their use of slaves, pointing to the rest of the world as an example of slavery and bondage. Historian Riccards writes, "A good part of the world at that time permitted slavery. It was the North that dramatically changed from 1790 to 1840. It was the North that began to see that slavery was not just a system of alternative labor, but a terrible moral dilemma" (Riccards 3). However, many in the North recognized that their profits were directly connected to southern plantation slaveholders. For example, the textile mills of the North depended on southern cotton, and so, textile mill owners had close relationships with southern businessmen, and looked the other way when the issue of slavery came up. The cotton plantations depended on slave labor to make the labor intensive crop profitable, and the northern businessmen relied on the crop to create textiles for a growing world market.

In addition, slavery was largely (although not all) a rural occupation. Most slaves worked on large, rural plantations, rather than in the cities of the South. The South was still a largely agricultural society, while the North was rapidly becoming more industrialized and more urban. Historian Riccards continues, "by 1840, 1 out of 3 people in New England and the Atlantic states lived in cities and towns. The opposite held true below the Mason-Dixon line. Indeed, from 1810 to 1860 the percentage of capital involved in manufacturing in the South declined from 31% to 16%. Agriculture remained king" (Riccards 3). Thus, slavery made more economic sense in the South, and so it predominated there.

In conclusion, slavery, although largely southern in location, was not a distinct split between northern and southern Americans. Some northerners had no problem with the institution of slavery, and in fact kept and traded slaves in the nation's capital. Some southerners abhorred slavery, and did not hold slaves, especially in many of the South's largest cities. Democrats in both areas largely supported slavery, and it was Abraham Lincoln's newly formed Republican party that would take a strong stance against slavery, and add more fuel to the slavery debate in Washington, D.C. The issue of slavery divided the country, divided families, and led to Civil War. However, it was not all a North-South debate. There were supporters and detractors in all areas of the country.


Davis, John. "Eastman Johnson's 'Negro Life at the South' and Urban Slavery in Washington,… [read more]

Life of a Slave Girl Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In so doing she helps to invalidate the idea that it is race, rather than mere lack of social privilege, that creates and maintains slavery.

The characters in Jacob's book are all well developed and complete in a way that is not seen in abolitionist novels written by whites (such as Uncle Tom's Cabin) or in dry history books. Both her white and black characters seem to be relatively three dimensional. She does not appear overly interested in dissecting the mental processes that would allow someone to keep slaves in this fashion, but one can excuse that for a variety of reasons -- first, that she herself may never have understood such cruelty, second that her readers were probably so well acquainted with it that they needed no explanation, and third that she had no cause to expect that a hundred and fifty years later readers might be truly puzzled as to how such a circumstance could arise. She does, however, excel at describing the sentiments and characters of slave characters, particularly the women who must figure out how to build families and communities within the confines of their predicament.

As an oddity in history or slave narratives, the majority of the shakers and movers of the story are female. Linda does have brothers, a male lover, and a male master. However, those who truly guide the fate of the family are the women. Her grandmother is a strong matriarch whose will shapes the course of the family. Her mistresses, even more than her masters, dictate her fate to her and their husbands. She is harbored and hidden by women, and it is to the community of women that she and her grandmother turn when trouble arises.

This book has a great deal to say about the history of America before the Civil War, though it is not designed as a history book. The exploration of the differences between North and South from a slave's point-of-view throws a whole new light on the conflict that was the Civil War, and almost makes one wonder why the two could not get along since they did in fact seem to have more in common than they themselves saw. The setting also allows a very complete view of the life of slaves and free black persons during this period. The plot and its exploration of morality, while avoiding firsthand tales of the worst abuses of slavery nonetheless makes an unique and valuable point not so much about the cruelty of slavery but about its degrading qualities on the individual and the society. The strong female characters, meanwhile, were no doubt inspiring to the largely female abolitionist movement, and also give valuable insight not only to the lives of blacks but to the lives of women as well. All in all, this is a deeply valuable historical book, because of the way it offsets and interacts with the dominant discourse of the time.


Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl.… [read more]

South - Mary Chesnut Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,029 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


I would go down on the plantation tomorrow and stay there even if there were no white person in twenty miles" (Clinton, 195)

And when it came to the sexual dynamics of slavery, and slave masters "breeding" (Thomas, 2002) their female slaves to produce more slaves - and from a brutally mercenary perspective, owners did not always have to "buy" slaves but just "produce" them through human reproductive processes - Mary Chesnut did not mince words. Her contempt for white slave-owners impregnating female slaves was made clear when she said (Clinton, 199): "God forgive us, but ours is a monstrous system, a wrong and iniquity...the mulattoes one sees in every family partly resemble the white children. Any lady is ready to tell you who is the father of all the mulatto children in everybody's household but her own." Here again we have a connection between the perspective of the white southern woman - whose husband is out in the back shed having intercourse with a slave, an act which is clearly adultery in the eyes of his wife, and of the Bible - and the perspective of a man like Douglass. Indeed, Douglass was a product of a slave owner impregnating a slave, so it was very close to home for him, to say the least.

The position of condemning "mulattoes" (half black, half white), was spelled out by Douglass, in his best-selling book Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. "My father was a white man," Douglass wrote in Chapter One. "He was admitted to be such by all I ever heard speak of my parentage. The opinion was also whispered that my master was my father."

Douglass went on: "by this cunning arrangement," whereby the master creates children by his female slaves, "the slaveholder, in cases not a few, sustains to his slaves the double relation of master and father. I know of such cases; and it is worthy of remark that such slaves invariably suffer greater hardships, and have more to contend with, than others. They are, in the first place, a constant offence to their mistress." That point, by Douglass, is the precise same point made on the previous page by Mary Chesnut - another relationship born of shared values; another link to a time when America still tolerated an immoral, evil system.


Adams, Phoebe-Lou. "The private Mary Chesnut." The Atlantic 255 (1985): 125.

Clinton, Catherine. The Plantation Mistress: Woman's World in the Old South.

New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

DeCredico, Mary A. Mary Boykin Chesnut: A Confederate Woman's Life.

Madison: Madison House, 1996.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American

Slave. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1960

Lawson, Bill E., & Kirkland, Frank M. Frederick Douglass: A Critical Reader.

Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.

Martin, Isabella D., & Avary, Myrta Lockett. A Diary From Dixie, as written by Mary Boykin Chesnut. Gloucester, Mass: Peter Smith, 1961.

Thomas, Sandra. "Frederick Douglass Abolitionist/Editor: a biography of the life… [read more]

Voice &amp Identity in Narrative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,179 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


In "Narratives of the Life," Douglass wrote:

Sincerely and earnestly hoping that this little book may do something toward throwing light on the American slave system, and hastening the glad day of deliverance to the millions of my brethren in bonds - faithfully relying upon the power of truth, love, and justice, for success in my humble efforts - and solemnly pledging my self anew to the sacred cause."

Doing such was no small feat or abstract act. It was an act of enormous symbolic and psychological importance for slaves - akin to Rosa Parks refusing to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in the South in the 1960's a century later, thus sparking the civil rights movement.

William Lloyd Garrison, Douglass' former friend and political ally, wrote in the preface to "Narratives of the Life " that for slavery to be effective it must obliterate the ability of the captive to read, write, reason effectively and moralize at a high level.

Indeed, any system of domination must suppress the ability of the oppressed to gain access to education, give voice to their opinions, and construct their own identities.

We can see the truth of this statement in systems of domination around the globe today. Any effective tyrant and any insidious system of subjugation keeps the oppressed class segregated geographically and economically and either allows them limited access to education or ensures that their education is sub-par. Moreover, their freedom of speech is either limited or their speech goes unheard by the majority class. Finally, if they do try to speak in their own voice - for example, Mexican-Americans attempting to construct a uniquely Mexican-American identity and speaking in Spanish on a routine basis in their art and with each other, etc. -- they are often ostracized and/or penalized.

Thus, even today we can see the power of "Narrative of a Slave."

Not only did Frederick Douglass literally risk his life to gain an education while still a slave, but also he rejected the mythology of slavery from the beginning.

Keep the black man away from the books, keep us ignorant, and we would always be his slaves... Come hell or high water - even if it cost me my life - I was determined to read," Douglass wrote in "Narratives of the Life." A proud young boy, he was sent by his master to a notorious slave breaker, who couldn't manage to corrupt Douglass' spirit. Even more astounding is that Douglass risked an escape after being caught trying to escape a first time - this time making it to the North. So that by the time Douglass published his first book and gave voice to his own story, rejecting the black mythology that had reigned supreme for so long, he had already overcome a powerful psychological system of domination and terror in several significant ways.

The message of "Narrative of a Slave" is that once we give voice to our own history and our… [read more]

Pro- and Anti-Slavery Movement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (751 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Contrary to the statement of Jefferson that blacks are not only inferior in physical color and race, but also in their mental faculties when compared with whites. This claim by Jefferson is unfounded and racist in nature, because Douglass' attitude towards education and his fast learning in reading in his autobiography illustrates that given the proper conducive environment and encouragement, blacks can be intellectually equal with whites when it comes to mental faculty challenges (Douglass Chapter 6-7). Also, the fact that black Americans, particularly Douglass' fellow slaves in the Maryland plantation he works in, is capable of mustering enough strength to resist not only the physical and verbal abuse given to them by their slaveholders, but they are also courageous enough to survive despite the emotional turmoil, psychological and mental degradations that the white society gives and treats them. In fact, Douglass' ability to escape, to ask and eventually seek freedom from slavery, and to write his autobiography and relate his and his fellowmen's sufferings as slaves are enough reasons to conclude that indeed, blacks are intellectually capable and superior just like the whites. Jefferson's claim that blacks "cannot speak beyond plain narration" is due to the fact that blacks lived with the harsh reality of slavery, and by talking about it in plain language gives it an authentic 'feel,' making the readers empathize with Douglass and his fellow black slaves. It is evident that Douglass' autobiography is a good proof of the wide range of talents, skills, and capabilities of the blacks that deem them as equally important and essential as the whites in the American society of 19th century.

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave." In Berkeley Digital Library Sun site [online]. Available from World Wide Web: http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/.

Jefferson, Thomas. E- text of "Notes on the State of Virginia." In Electronic Text Center [online]. University of Virginia Library [cited 11 November 2002]. Available from World Wide Web: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=JefVirg.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=14&division=div1.… [read more]

American Life in the Great Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (453 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Among a few of the artists who could be heard are Bessie Smith, Eubie Blake, Duke Ellington, and Louis Armstrong. Blake wrote the musical revue, "Shuffle Along" and it was the toast of the town. In the chorus was an unknown Josephine Baker, soon to be a star of international fame. White people came by droves to Harlem and white celebrities were eager to be invited to gatherings where they could meet with black poets and painters (Huggins 1994). This was the world of the famous Cotton Club and many other night clubs, or speak-easies, as they were called in the Prohibition Era of the twenties. The whites called it an evening of 'slumming' when they went to enjoy the musicians and artists of Harlem. They came not so much for the entertainment as to gawk at the black patrons (Huggins 1994). However, these musicians were the very ones who entertained at their elaborate parties, and the patrons were the very one who catered their food and carried champagne on trays all night for their social affairs. They were two sides of the coin, but each side represents the world of the Roaring Twenties.

Works Cited

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Simon & Schuster

Trade. May 1995.

Huggins, Nathan Irvin. Voices From…… [read more]

Jim Crow Laws Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They were implemented from the 1880s to the 1960s where segregation was in a de jure manner mandated through these laws in al sectors of life and not just the prison system alone. This de jure system was mainly predominant and explicit in the Southern United States but the Northern United States the segregation was more de facto with agreements, bank loaning systems, job discrimination were used to perpetuate the segregation. The Jim Crow laws were mainly scripted from the Black Codes that existed from the early 1800s. The implications were dire to the wider society with hatred and race crimes being the order of the day. Property was also destroyed on racial lines and as a means of ensuring supremacy for the whites and as a means of rebellion for the blacks. Within the prison systems, there were several riots that were directed at expressing anger and dissatisfaction by the blacks from the inferior treatment as compared to their white counterparts. For a long time the various states and even the courts upheld and erroneous approach of "separate but equal" policy until the 1960s when the pressure from the civil society outweighed the resistance and the Jim Crow laws were reversed in all states. Though there is still the struggle to ensure equality at all levels, there are laws that protect all people against segregation and discrimination based on the race or origin.

Generally, the social pathology comes into the whole picture with the whites being unable to adjust to the fact that the blacks had been freed from slavery and were no longer their subjects. They still wanted to Lord over the blacks and not be equal to them, they failed to adjust to the realities that came with the end of the civil war which saw the freeing of all slaves from both North and South and in effect making the blacks essentially equal to the whites and having the legal right to enjoy all that the whites enjoyed on equal basis.


Ferris State University, (2012). What was Jim Crow. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/what.htm

Merriam-Webster Dictionary, (2014). Social Pathology: Full Definition of Social Pathology. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20pathology… [read more]

Forced Labor and Slavery Develop Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (786 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Africans were characterized as innately inferior to whites as a way of justifying slavery and because the practice of slavery had become so interlinked with the African slave trade.

In the Southern colonies, there was particular pressure to use enslaved labor as a means of remaining profitable. Bacon's Rebellion created a fear of the possibility of rebellion of lower-class whites. Virginia and later all of the Southern states "passed laws defining slaves as chattel property whose status was both lifelong and hereditary" (Davis 2012). While there were some attempts to enslave Native Americans, this proved difficult since Native Americans found it easy to escape and hide in the forests they knew better than whites. Africans were accustomed to the tropical climates and hard labor. Southern slaves vastly outnumbered those in the Northern colonies, due to the lack of cash crops in the North.

Although some of the original Founding Fathers hoped that slavery would eventually die out as an institution, the invention of the cotton gin made cotton an extremely profitable crop for the agriculturally-based Southern economy and caused a rapid increase in the number of slaves. The cessation of the slave trade in 1808 also did not bring to an end the existence of the institution, contrary to expectations. "One of the most curious facts of U.S. slavery is that slaves in the U.S. South reproduced themselves in numbers equal to the white birth rate. In almost all other nations in the Americas, slave mortality rates were so high that the slave population required massive importation of slaves in order for the institution to survive" (Davis 2012). In the American South, the creation of a family-based network of slaves on plantations and superior medical care after the end of the slave trade created a 'slave culture' that existed parallel to whites: "Planters understood that good medical care and tolerable working conditions enabled their slaves to live longer lives," versus working slaves to death as was common in the West Indies (Davis 2012). "This meant that slaves were considered not only a source of labor but also a capital investment that might actually increase in value, especially in the case of enslaved women" (Davis 2012).


Davis, Ronald. "Slavery in America." [8 Jun 2012]


Sugar cane and the slave trade. Plant Cultures. [8 Jun 2012]

http://www.kew.org/plant-cultures/plants/sugar_cane_history_slave_trade.html… [read more]

Segregation: Mary Mebane's "The Back Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (804 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In this essay, it is clear to see that the laws of segregation, which did put blacks in one place and white in another, favored white all the way around and it did not protect the black only areas. Again, it is the defiance from the elderly woman and even the seated black passenger, who is more subdued -- but he still murmurs that he has the right to sit there, that illustrates to the reader the major struggle between whites and blacks and the ambiguous laws that the government created to keep individuals in their place (i.e. keep blacks in their place).

Mebane's essay also tells of how the bus driver threatened to drive directly to the police station. It is hard to imagine a place and time now where one can face arrest and imprisonment for not giving up their seat when told to. It is both telling and frustrating to think of a time when government laws did not protect all citizens in the United States. Today the United States claims to stand for "liberty and justice for all," however, the history of this country tells another story. In the case of Rosa Parks and other Civil Rights activists as well as the situation depicted in Mebane's story, there is a great feeling of defiance and rebelliousness in black individuals who were able to see the absolute ludicrousness of the laws that were being imposed. Mebane is very apt at telling the story from two different perspectives -- first, that of an adult recalling the memory of the bus ride and, second, from the perspective of child who had to live with the fear of that time. In this sense the reader is able to get a sense of the struggle the adults faced and the trauma that young children were subjected to in witnessing adults of their same heritage stand up for their rights. Though she expressed fear as a child, the experience made her stronger in that she was able to fully appreciate what her people struggled for and how she benefits today.


Coolery, Thomas. The Norton Sampler W.W. & Norton Company. Seventh Edition.

2010. Print.

Stonaker, Brielle & Shepard, Arica. "Segregation." 18 May 2012.

http://www.kawvalley.k12.ks.us/brown_v_board/segregation.htm#top Web.… [read more]

2008 Primaries All the Pre Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,959 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Black and Hispanic feminists bitterly resented the continual playing of the race card by Bill and Hillary Clinton, and the fact that white feminists did not even defend Michelle Obama when she came under heavy attack by Fox News, Rush Limbaugh and Right-wing talk radio for months. To most of his younger supporters, Obama truly did seem to be a more "transformative" candidate than Clinton, and resented sarcastic remarks that she made about his speeches in Rhode Island to the effect that he was an empty suit mouthing platitudes like "let's get everybody together, let's get unified, the sky will open, the light will come down, celestial choirs will be singing" (Logan, 60).

Certainly the 2008 primaries on the Democratic side were highly bruising and left bitter resentments in their wake in both camps. Although Obama and Clinton moved quickly to paper over the wounds and proclaim unity and the convention, and later he made Hillary Clinton his Secretary of State, there is very likely little love lost between Obama and the Clinton's. Her remark about how he might just end up dead like Robert Kennedy would have been enough to ensure that, even in someone as moderate, equable and calculating as Obama. For her part, Hillary Clinton could only have viewed him as an unqualified, inexperienced upstart who had stolen a nomination that was rightfully hers only because he had charisma, star quality and personality that she so conspicuously lacked. Very likely by the end of the primary season she was hoping that some inspired act of God or political mayhem would sweep him aside. This did not happen, and Obama had sufficient appeal with minorities, progressives, youth and 21st Century voters to defeat her -- and then go on to defeat a Republican candidate who seemed like something out of the 1950s. Of course, none of this has presented extreme, even irrational attacks by the Right-wing on Obama, often using the same types of issues like the birth certificate that were first raised by Hillary Clinton. In the final analysis, however, the demographics of the United States will prove to be on Obama's side and the type of constituency and coalition that his team put together in 2008.


Appelman, Eric (ed). The Race for the 2008 Political Nomination: A Book of Editorial Cartoons. Pelican, 2008.

Balz, Daniel J. And Haynes Johnson. The Battle for America 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary Election. Viking, 2009.

Logan, Enid Lynette. "At This Defining Moment": Barack…… [read more]

Emancipation Proclamation the Period Leading Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,424 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Emancipation Proclamation

The period leading to the emancipation of the slaves there was intense campaign from the democrats to maintain the status quo of the slave owning states to continue owning their slaves and the Republicans maintaining a push for the abolition of the slavery and declaring freedom to each and every individual in the U.S.A. There were continued campaigns… [read more]

Town That Started the Civil Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


If former slaves could be apprehended and returned to the South without a proper trial then the Northern State's laws banning slavery were worthless. Any black person could be seized and sent off to be a slave in the South. When this actually happened to a former slave named John Price, the residents acted to stop the now free man from being sent back into captivity. The people of Oberlin Ohio, along with residents of Wellington Ohio, broke John Price out of jail, his min in safety, and eventually whisked him away to safety in Canada. For this act of defiance by the citizens of these two towns, many were indicted, and two were put on trial for breaking the law. While they were eventually found guilty, in an act of Northern spite, the two men served just a few weeks in jail as a result of their crimes.

Nat Brown's book is a narrative of the events surrounding the Oberlin-Wellington raid which not only freed a former slave, but also sent a message to the entire South that the Abolitionist forces would not tolerate slavery, or laws that supported slavery. Brown, however, immediately advertised the focus and political attitude of his book by listing a "Cast of Characters" which were divided into sections with titles such as "the rescuers" the "unsung heroes" and "the betrayers." If one is looking for an independent, completely objective view of this incident, this book is not the place to look. It is told from the perspective of a fan of those who performed the raid which freed John Price, the fugitive slave. For instance, Brown described the… [read more]

White Indentured Labor Force to Slavery Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (914 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Indentured Servitude to Slavery

The transition from indentured servitude to race-based slavery occurred over the course of a generation. The transition not only occurred on a social level, but was also established through legislation in the colonies, as well as, in England. Though blacks and whites initially had the same rights, racial discrimination began as a form of convenience before it became a way of life.

In the early years of colonization in the United States, blacks and whites worked side by side in the fields in order to fulfill their servant contracts. These indentured servants were punished equally if they were to break their servant contracts. Benefits of indentured servitude included being housed and fed. Upon completion of their contracts, freed servants were granted "freedom dues" which included a piece of land, supplies, and a gun.

Traditionally, the English enslaved non-Christians and believed that they had the right to enslave any non-Christian prisoner of war. These non-Christian slaves could obtain their freedom through conversion to Christianity. As of 1621, neither English nor Colonial law defined slavery based on race. Discrimination within the colonies was based upon social status; early Virginians considered themselves Englishmen or Christians, or distinguished themselves as nobility, gentry, artisans, or servants.

The transition from indentured servitude to slavery can be traced back to a single event in Virginia. In 1640, three servants ran away from Hugh Gwyn's plantation in Virginia and tried to escape to Maryland. Of those servants, two men were white and one was black. Once the three men were captured, they were brought forth before a judge in order to be sentenced for attempting to break their contracts. All men were sentenced to 30 lashes. The two white fugitives had their servant contracts extended by four years, whereas the black fugitive, John Punch, was sentenced to "serve his said master or his assigns for the time of his natural Life here or elsewhere."

It is presumed that his sentence was considerably harsher because he was a non-Christian. Because he could not gain his freedom through conversion as was once custom, slavery began to transition to a practice based on the color of one's skin.

Indentured servitude was also beginning to fall out of favor as freed indentured servants began to pose a threat to the property owning elite. This tension between freed indentured slaves and the elite upper classes led to Virginia placing restrictions on available lands.

These restrictions further intensified the tension and created social unrest. Indentured servants moving on from their service produced a need for costly replacements. On the other hand, those that were slaves could not move on and become competitors and were economically more desirable.

A series of laws were passed in Virginia…… [read more]

Propaganda Techniques in the Modern World Americans Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Propaganda Techniques

In the modern world Americans often forget that advertising and marketing have become forms of propaganda. As Ann McClintock stated in her essay entitled "Propaganda Techniques in Today's Advertising:" Propaganda is a systematic effort to influence people's opinions, to win them over to a certain view or side." (McClintock) This can be effectively demonstrated by the use of advertising in the 2008 presidential campaign between then Senators Barack Obama and John McCain. McClintock outlined six specific techniques by which advertisers use propaganda in their advertisements, these are: Name Calling, Glittering Generalities (freedom, happiness, etc.), Transfer (association with something else), Testimonials (celebrity endorsements), Plain Folks (I'm just like you), and finally Bandwagon (everyone's doing it, so should you). In the advertisements generated by both sides there were examples of each specific technique, but by far the most widely used were Name Calling and Glittering Generalities. Even so, there is a distinct difference between how these techniques were used: Senator McCain appears to have used one technique for each commercial, while Senator Obama blended different techniques into the same commercial. The results of the election seem to indicate that the blending together of several techniques into a single advertisement was effective.

The most widely used of McClintock's techniques is what she called "Name Calling." One example was the Obama campaign's advertisement entitled "Honor" which depicted a photo of dejected John McCain with the words " truly vile," "truth be damned," and "disgraceful and dishonorable campaign" in the background. (Honor) it was accompanied by a narration stating "what's happened to John McCain? He's running the sleaziest ads ever…"(Honor). Another being the ad entitled "Embrace" where John McCain was the background and phrases such as "Low Road Campaign" and "Nothing for You" filled the screen. (Embrace) and it was not only the Obama side which used this technique, the McCain campaign ran one memorable ad entitled "Dangerous" where they attempted to define "Who is Barack Obama?" After a short narration on how Barack Obama wanted to cut off funds to the troops in Afghanistan, the answer was "dishonorable," "dangerous," and "too risky." (Dangerous) This ad attempted to make Barack Obama look as though he was un-American, did not support the American military, and would endanger the country if elected.

Another of the techniques McClintock referred to was "Glittering Generalities," which can be defined as embracing general, widely accepted concepts without stating specifics. Obama's "What Kind" ad, which stated Barack Obama will "…make America number one again," exemplified this kind of generality. (What Kind) What exactly did this mean? Number one at what? There was no specific definition of "number one." On the other side, the McCain campaign's "2013" ad claimed that by the year 2013 many of the problems facing the nation, such as border security, nuclear threats, wasteful government spending, economic confidence, as well as the problems in the Middle East, would…… [read more]

Martin Luther King, Jr. Is My Role Term Paper

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¶ … Martin Luther King, Jr. is my Role Model

When searching for role models, it is difficult to imagine a more inspiring person than Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a moral leader and one that more- in a perfect world - people should strive to be like. I, for one, would like to have the courage and bravery to be more like King when it comes to motivation and caring for the well being of others. There are few men in history (except for perhaps Jesus and Gandhi, two of King's own role models) who have the fearlessness and the motivation to help people like King did. Because of those reasons, King is my role model.

Many people have a peripheral understanding of King. Two generations removed from the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, it is difficult to understand the depth of his achievement. However, the late 1950s and early 1960s were a time of great civil and political unrest. Black Americans were prepared to conclude their struggle for civil rights, and many leaders advocated rights by any means necessary. While modern Americans associate King with the Civil Rights Movement, the reality is that, at that time, the movement could have turned violent at any moment. King may be the reason that the Civil Rights Movement remained peaceful. King worked hard to challenge racial segregation and he did so with intelligence and wit, motivation, passion, and nonviolence. He was a great organizer of events as well as a leader of those events; he organized some of the biggest protests -- all non-violent (which was something in which he firmly believed). There were many organizations that he raised funds for and he often worked as an alliance…… [read more]

Slave by Soloman Northup Slavery From Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,399 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Slave by Soloman Northup [...] slavery from Northup's perspective compare with the perspective of two other former slaves. Northup's perspective is unique because he was a free man who was kidnapped and forced into slavery as an adult.

Slavery looks like a harsh environment and it can be violent and cruel according to Northup's accounts. His first master, Mr. Ford, is kind to his slaves, and does not punish them with violence. Northup writes, "It is a fact I have more than once observed, that those who treated their slaves most leniently, were rewarded by the greatest amount of labor. I know it from my own experience" (Northup 98). However, his second master is cruel and vindictive, and he fears for his life after he threatens him not to whip him for a supposed mistake. He writes, "I beheld Tibeats, accompanied by two horsemen, coming down the bayou. They rode into the yard, jumped from their horses, and approached me with large whips, one of them also carrying a coil of rope" (Northup 113). His life is spared, and eventually this cruel owner sells him to a cotton planter, where he works even harder than he has for his other masters. Life is difficult for slaves because they work constantly, they often are torn apart from their family and friends, and they can be punished for everything.

He talks of how heartbreaking it is to see families torn apart. He writes, "But it was of no avail; the man could not afford it. The bargain was agreed upon, and Randall must go alone. Then Eliza ran to him; embraced him passionately; kissed him again and again; told him to remember her - all the while her tears falling in the boy's face like rain" (Northup 81-82). It is hard to read about these everyday cruelties, and know that they happened so often, and it is hard to read about his experiences, especially knowing he is a married man and his family has no idea what happened to him.

Some of his masters were kind and understanding, while others were cruel and vindictive. Some treated their slaves like animals, while others gave them decent food and living quarters. He and his fellow slaves work from dawn to dusk and beyond. He writes, "This done, the labor of the day is not yet ended, by any means. Each one must then attend to his respective chores. One feeds the mules, another the swine -- another cuts the wood, and so forth; besides, the packing is all done by candle light" (Northup 168). He says of the master who owned him for ten years, "Yet to speak truthfully of Edwin Epps would be to say -- he is a man in whose heart the quality of kindness or of justice is not found" (Northup 183). He describes other owners in the area as "brutes," and describes how they consistently beat and whip their slaves. Clearly, it is a terrible life.

Many… [read more]

Advertisement Formal Analysis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (703 words)
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Shepard Fairey is the artist who created the Barack Obama "Hope" poster. It has been described as iconic and it became synonymous with the 2008 Obama presidential campaign. It is a stylized stencil portrait of Obama in red, beige, and both light and dark blue. The word "Hope" is written at the bottom although there are many versions where "Hope" may be substituted for "Progress" or "Change" (as well as other key words). The portrait of Obama, which shows him looking up to the right with a look of determination and pride on his face, was made to create a sense of inspiration in the American people who were ready to do away with the practices of the Bush administration. People were ready for a change and they saw Barack Obama as the man to bring it. This poster with the simple word "Hope" brings us back to some of America's founding ideals. There was the belief that we could achieve anything; we could withstand hard times and still be able to come out on top. The colors also are very patriotic. Though there is beige used in place of white, the poster is still reminiscent of the American flag and therefore we get a very patriotic feel from it and when combined with Obama's look of determination for change, people were quite moved by the piece of art.

Fairey is said to have created the image in one day and it was printed to be a poster for its initial use. After printing them, Fairey took the posters to the streets and he is said to have immediately sold several hundred posters. The poster then went on to be more widely distributed -- as a digital image and in other forms through the entire election season.

The image itself is very true to life in that the image is Barack Obama. The right side of his face and the background is red, while the left side is beige with spots of blue as well as a blue background. The beige on Obama's left side of his face makes the…… [read more]

Roll of Thunder Hear My Cry Essay

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Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry

What does the title, "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry," mean?

This book depicts the slavery and discrimination against the black people that existed during the 1930s in the state of Mississippi. It is about a black family who live in rural Mississippi and work on their cotton fields. They are constantly teased and harassed by the white community. Though they take their revenge in small ways, it is really not sufficient to stop the white people from insulting them. In one instance, for example, the school bus with white children splashed water on Cassie and her brothers. In retaliation, they dug a hole in the road and the bus got stuck in it.

In fact, this instance is the crux of the whole theme. "Roll of thunder" depicts the problems for the black people that is looming in the horizons and is constantly threatening them. "Hear My Cry" is the steps taken by the black people that forced the white to even notice them. People like Cassie who grew up seeing the discrimination played an instrumental role in the Civil Movement of the 1960s that gave greater empowerment to the black people.

Question 2 What does the character of TJ represent or symbolize?

TJ Avery is a fourteen-year-old boy who is known to be different from the other black children of his generation. He loved to talk, chatted constantly, refused to listen to his parents and stole things that belonged to others. He wanted to hang out with the white boys even when they ridiculed him constantly. Finally, he got caught and went to prison for a crime that he did not commit. He was simply a privy to the theft done by…… [read more]

More Perfect Union Thesis

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¶ … Perfect Union

The newly elected U.S. president, Barack Obama, has raised a lot of controversy around him at the time that he chose to candidate for the U.S. presidency. Because of his skin color, he did not seem to be a viable candidate, but, as the campaign went on, he proved to have a lot of supporters, both black and white. As is it normal to happen during an election, some divisive events of Obama's background started to emerge and to create tension in the democratic camp. Feeling he had to stop people from creating a false image about him in their heads, Obama had created a speech in which he promoted equality between humans with no regard to their ethnicity, skin color, religion, or gender.

Barack Obama's speech "A More Perfect Union" has been first given in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on a Tuesday, March 18, 2008, at the Constitution Center. The text is argumentative and it is intended to change people's former opinions regarding their traditional racist nature.

The text is typical for a man that whishes to change ideologies that have lasted for hundreds of years and that whishes to demonstrate the fact that transformation is possible. The reason for why it is clear that Obama believes in his words is that one can observe his speech to be different from one of a demagogue. A demagogue is ready to guarantee the fact that he will change everything, and that people will live a happy life under his government. Obama however, does not guarantee anything, as he simply explains that people are the only ones capable of making a change.

During his speech, Obama does not attempt to deny the fact that he admires his former reverend. However, he clearly puts in plain words the fact that he does not favor the reverend's extremely racist beliefs.

In general, the text is intended to emphasize Obama's beliefs relating to discrimination in the U.S. And its history.

More Perfect Union" has come mainly as a mean to prevent any more racism from taking place in the U.S. Another reason for why the speech has been created is that Obama has wished to counter-attack the potential accusations that he would support the racist beliefs of his former reverend.

The racist issue is and has been a very notorious topic in the U.S. ever since the white people have set foot on American soil. The whites have constantly pushed the Native Americans towards the west until all of the former Indian Territory had been conquered. Consequent to this, masses of black people had been brought in from Africa to serve as slaves. The black people had not been considered worthy of living a life similar to that lived by normal whites. After the Civil War had brought an end to slavery matters seemed to have calmed. In spite of the fact that the blacks became free men, racism appeared to have no ending with…… [read more]

Elections of 2008 Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (690 words)
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Obama vs. McCain

One issue that both candidates disagree on is the war. Obama wants to get troops back home as soon as possible, stating, "We have seen Afghanistan worsen, deteriorate" (Obama qtd. In NYT), when the war has been as success. McCain understands that withdrawing troops abruptly will cause mayhem, realizing "The consequences of defeat would have been increased Iranian influence" (McCain qtd. In NYT). The two men also disagree on taxes, with McCain realizing how detrimental it would be on the economy if taxes were raised, saying, "I want to keep taxes low. The worst thing we could do in this economic climate is to raise people's taxes" (McCain qtd. In NYT). Obama claims, "we all would love to lower taxes on everybody" (Obama qtd. In NYT) but does not promise to do so. The economic crisis is another issue that the men disagreed upon. McCain noted "greed is rewarded, excess is rewarded, and corruption -- or certainly failure to carry out our responsibility is rewarded" (McCain qtd. In NYT) while Obama wants to "grow the economy from the bottom up" (Obama qtd. In NYT). There is only one way to encourage economic growth and both men cannot be correct. It would seem that McCain won the debate because Obama was simply too agreeable at times. He also did not seem to have a firm grasp on handling foreign matters. The comment about Pakistan seemed misplaced and not well thought out.

In his column, Thomas Sowell emphasizes how little we know about Obama's experience and how we know even less what he will do if he is elected president. Sowell does not think Obama would make a very good president for the United States and uses Obama's record as his evidence. He states, "We don't know what Barack Obama will actually do because he has actually done very little for which he was personally accountable. Even as a state legislator, he voted "present" innumerable times instead of taking a stand one way or the other on tough issues" (Sowell). Walter Williams is another…… [read more]

Democratic Views for 2008 Elections Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (3,407 words)
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Democratic Presidential Candidate Barack Obama's Platform

The issues forming the basis of Democratic Presidential hopeful Barak Obama's platform are much the same as have been the platforms of democrats and republicans alike for decades. There are the issues of the war in Iraq and Afghanistan, Social Security reform, education funding reform, and, since Roe v Wade, circa 1974, the issue… [read more]

Malcolm X From His Autobiography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,045 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Autobiography of Malcolm X

The Nation of Islam was a popular movement during the 50's and the 60's, especially amongst young black people living in urban environments. Its complexity derived from a double nature, religious and political (and by extension, social). It is important to take into consideration the social circumstances that affected the lives of black people in America during those years in order to understand the strong impact that the Nation of Islam had for them. Its purpose was to support their status, starting from the economic level, passing through the social one and finally touching the spiritual issues as well.

To put things simple, the social condition of the black people was bad and the main party to contribute to the situation was represented by the whites. "Malcolm says that watching his house burn taught him one of many early lessons about being black in America"(Malcolm X, Haley) is a phrase more than relevant in order to describe the situation. One of the beliefs of the Nation of Islam is that white people are "devils." It is thus easy to understand why the masses adopted this ideology, it perfectly matched what they faced on a daily basis.

The ideas contained in the official platform reflect the rights that the black people were deprived of and that they wanted so much (equal opportunities, no more racial violence, etc.). A religious platform, this was also a political platform and it was due to its complexity that it became so attractive, since it was a means of uniting all the black people. In addition, it represented an instrument which could be used in order to change things (starting at political level).

The appeal among young people could be justified by one of the major demands of the Nation of Islam, that is, absolute freedom. Freedom, understood not only as having all the rights that others have, but also as the capacity to do anything you please has always been an attractive concept for young people. Furthermore, the core belief that black people were the first people on earth and that white people were somehow inferior could easily heat up the imagination of young revolutionaries wanna-be.

Malcolm X desired to have a position of power not only in the black community, but in the political arena. While Martin Luther King impersonated the figure of the peaceful leader, Malcolm X could only fill in the shoes of the revolutionary leader who promised to turn the present order upside down. Becoming a member of the Nation of Islam was advantageous for both, as the popularity of the movement passed upon him and the other way around. While Luther King preached non-violence, Malcolm X preached about a revolution that would give the black man everything that he deserved.

One of the main reason for which, in my opinion, Malcolm X chose to become a member of the Nation of Islam is represented by the potential that the movement represented for his career. "White society… [read more]

Douglas and Lincoln Debate Term Paper

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Douglas and Lincoln Debate

The Douglas-Lincoln debates were a series of political confrontations that marked the middle of the 19th century in America. One of the most important issues under discussion was slavery which was addressed by most politicians of the time. The format chosen for the confrontation was a seven debate system which allowed both candidates to confront their arguments and create an opinion to the electorate. However, taking into consideration the first debate between the two on August 21, 1858 in Ottawa, Illinois, it can be said that Douglas, through the force of his arguments won the first encounter.

There were several issues that were addressed by the two candidates; however, they were closely connected with the issue of slavery and the rights for blacks and whites in the American states. The discussions on the subject were of high interest for all those involved taking into account the fact that Douglas had been the politician to introduce the Kansas Nebraska Act, a piece of legislation that allowed states to vote on whether they accepted slavery or not on their territory. Douglas was politically against slavery, he was the proponent of a state freedom and the voicing of the people; Lincoln, on the other hand, was completely against the issue, refusing to consider the spread of the "peculiar institution" west.

The first debate allowed Douglas, the first to speak, an hour to present its argument, followed by Lincoln, with Douglas finishing the round. However, the debate represented an opportunity for Lincoln to respond to Douglas's arguments; nonetheless, the latter can be considered the winner.

First and foremost, Douglas discusses the resolutions of the Republican Party and Lincoln's adherence to them. He tries to attack his adversary's political attitude in terms of coherence and allegiance to the precepts set out in the Republican Convention. In this sense, he places in discussion the issue of the Dred Scott decision which was an important and controversial act in the history of slavery in America. However, Douglas points out that "We are told by Lincoln that he is utterly opposed to the Dred Scott decision" because it denies a black person his rights stated in the Constitution. However, the issue of human rights used as an argument by Lincoln to support the idea of giving rights to free slaves was not very popular among the people of Illinois, despite the fact that the state had abolished slavery through the constitution. Although it was a revolutionary step for that time, it was basically annulled by the Black codes voted afterwards which denied the right of black people to have a normal life.

Moreover, Lincoln's counterargument to this issue was based on the idea that "there is no reason in the world why the Negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" without offering a more…… [read more]

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation the End of Slavery in America by Allen C. Guelzo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Lincoln -- Guelzo




According to Richard Hofstadter, Lincoln's opposition to slavery "was kindled only by the threat it posed to free white labor and the development of industrial capitalism.

Guelzo points out that Lincoln "was the last of our Enlightenment politicians.

Guelzo maintains that only through prudence can we understand Lincoln's "mighty experiment of emancipation."

Thus, prudence demanded that Lincoln "balance the integrity of the elimination of slavery with his integrity to uphold the Constitution and his near-religious reverence for the rule of law."

Lincoln "had all the racial goodwill necessary for emancipation but had to wait for the Northern acceptance of emancipation."

Lincoln also knew that "his administration was the beginning of the end of slavery."

Lincoln's Proclamation was "one of the biggest political gambles in American history."

Also, Lincoln "came to see the Proclamation as the only alternative God had left to emancipation."

In the end, it would be safe to say that Lincoln "was the most perfect friend black Americans ever had."

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation "itemized the destinies of four million human beings."

In his introduction, author Allen C. Guelzo declares that President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation was "surely the unhappiest of all of Lincoln's great presidential papers," due to the fact that the proclamation is now "best known for what it did not do," meaning that it failed to truly free the slaves from bondage in the South (1). Scholar Richard Hofstadter adds that the proclamation "had all the moral grandeur of a bill of lading. It accomplished nothing because it was intended to accomplish nothing beyond its propaganda value" (2). Oddly enough, Lincoln proclaimed in 1858 that he hated slavery --…… [read more]

Nat Turner and Slave Resistance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



WRONG PLACE, WRONG TIME very significant turning point in the history of slavery in America occurred between 1831 and 1832, namely, the emergence of William Lloyd Garrison as the greatest opponent of slavery, the debate on slavery by the Virginia House of Delegates and the rebellion led by Nat Turner which some historians see as "the most important slave rebellion in America's history and which opened the proverbial door to future rebellions and discussions about the existence and consequences of slavery." 1 According to?, the typical form of resistance to slavery in the United States before the Civil War was not "large-scale collective rebellion, but acts of individual...subversions," and although many historians consider Turner's rebellion as noteworthy, "it was only a minor part of the larger story of black resistance to slavery." 2 This viewpoint may certainly be accurate, yet Nat Turner's rebellion of 1831 occurred in the wrong place and at the wrong time, especially when we consider that the rebellion happened in Virginia in 1831 some thirty years before Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation and that all loyal Virginians were solidly pro-slavery and exhibited unswerving sentiments along pro-slavery lines.

In August of 1831, Nat Turner, born in 1800 as a slave on the farm of Benjamin Turner in Southampton County, Virginia, and the son of an African-born mother who "had to be restrained from killing her infant son rather than see him as a slave," 3 cut a very bloody path through the county, particularly when he and his fellow rebels attacked the home of Joseph Travis, where Turner entered the house through a second-story window, unbarred the front door to let in his rebellious friends and then ceremoniously murdered Travis and his family. After this incident, Salanthiel Francis, the owner of two of Turner's rebels, was killed in his farmhouse. These two events certainly occurred in the wrong place, for Turner, who was not entirely uneducated, should have known that the Virginia militia would be out after him and his rebels; in essence, it would have suited his needs…… [read more]

Oppression MLK Jr. Iron Jawed Angels Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


oppression, MLK Jr., Iron jawed angels

Martin Luther King, Jr. lived between 1929 (January 15th) and 1968 (April 4th). He "was an American political activist, the most famous leader of the American civil rights movement, and a Baptist minister. Considered a peacemaker throughout the world for his promotion of nonviolence and equality treatment for different races, he received the Nobel Peace Prize before he was assassinated in 1968." "In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. And inspiring his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail," a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, "l Have a Dream," he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson." All of these made him a world figure, and his ideas worthy of following.

Of course the most well-known and most influencial of his speeches is " I Have a Dream," but there are others just as important. One such essay is "Three Types of Resistance to Oppression," in which he preached non-violent resistance as a means of fighting oppression and achieving social goals.

The film "Iron Jawed Angels" deals with just such oppression and social fighting. It presents "the struggle of suffragists who fought for the passage of the 19th Amendment. Focusing on the two defiant women, Alice Paul (Hilary Swank) and Lucy Burns (Frances O'Connor), the film shows how these activists broke from the mainstream women's-rights movement and created a more radical wing, daring to push the boundaries of political protest to secure women's voting rights in 1920." As the story unwinds, all three types of resistance are displayed, mostly by the oppressed, but sometimes by the oppressor, and the women have to fight with all their soul and conviction for what they believe.

The first form of oppression listed in his essay by Martin Luther King is acceptance. "Oppressed people deal with their oppression in three characteristic ways. One way is acquiescence: the oppressed resign themselves to their doom. They tacitly adjust themselves to oppression, and thereby become conditioned by it. In every movement toward freedom some of the oppressed prefer to remain oppressed."(...) "There is such a thing as the freedom of exhaustion. Some people are so worn down by the yoke of oppression that they give up" (...) " to accept passively an unjust system is to cooperate with that system; thereby the oppressed become as evil as the oppressor." This kind of oppression seems to be the most common kind, or the one most commonly performed, since it… [read more]

Wild Seed Term Paper

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Octavia Butler's novel Wild Seed examines the concept of slavery from a multitude of different perspectives. In addition to the most overt and obvious treatment of slavery as the international commerce in human beings, Butler addresses mental slavery as well as the enslavement of females by males. Slavery takes on many forms, and does not necessarily involve physical bondage. Rather, slavery implies any restriction on human freedom and liberty. In Wild Seed, Doro and Anyanwu perceive of slavery differently. Gender is a large reason for the differences between the two protagonists, as Butler examines closely the ways that men enslave women by their social status and their physical prowess. Doro and Anyanwu are psychological, mental equals but Doro abuses his power by attempting to have power over others, thereby restricting their freedom at least somewhat. Anyanwu, on the other hand, channels her power into more egalitarian ends such as cooperation and healing. As a result, Anyanwu is more aware of the various forms that slavery takes and is more sensitive to the plight of the physically enslaved Africans in the New World. Her enslavement by Doro is a perfect psychological counterpart for the physical slavery of those Africans. Therefore, Wild Seed examines physical, psychological, and also supernatural forms of slavery.

The most concrete type of slavery examined by Butler is expressed through physical bondage and coercion. This form of slavery most closely mimics the historical realities of the international slave trade. Butler addresses the international slave trade concretely in Wild Seed, but uses other metaphors of slavery to impart the theme. Setting aside Doro's ability to physically enslave human beings by supernatural possession, Doro has created an unwitting colony of servants to his will. While his motives are idealistic and understandable, Doro's ego and ambition make him into a stereotypical patriarch who demands obedience with the real threat of physical harm. Underscored by the inclusion of Biblical allusions such as…… [read more]

Shoemaker &amp Douglass Expansion More Representative Era Term Paper

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Shoemaker & Douglass Expansion

More Representative Era: Frederick Douglass's in Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass or George R.T. Hewes's in the Shoemaker and the Tea Party?

In general, eras are defined by historians based on movements, accomplishments or changes that occurred within them. Most heroes of eras are men (or at least those remembered by history tend to be men). An American historical figure like Thomas Paine or Patrick Henry who is called by historians "a man [it was usually a man] of his time," when or historians conclude, similarly, that a hero's time "suited him," usually this person affected, through actions, words, writings, or all of these, outcomes of matters unique to his time. He also typified others of his time, even if he was in fact bolder, braver, or more heroic than they. Such a man, and his time, fit well together. The pamphleteering skills of Thomas Paine, for instance, would have gone unnoticed in an era of weekly magazines, radio, television, or the internet. The respective eras of George Robert Twelve Hewes and Frederick Douglass were representative of each of those men, although Douglas's era was more representative of Douglass than Hewes's was of Hewes. I will explore the "representative-ness" of both men of their respective eras, in terms of ways each typifies (or not) his period, in terms of (1) social station; (2) peer relationships; and (3) ability to articulate, act upon, and lead others to support his vision.

Clearly, Frederick Douglass did not single-handedly either create or determine the outcome of the Abolitionist movement, but in a way unique to Douglass and his time, he captured the spirit of this era and helped to move it forward. Therefore, it may be said not…… [read more]

Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, many more were like Fitzhugh, who saw the Negroes as little more than animals, and that they should be happy for any scrap of food and a roof over their head, no matter how awful it was.

Everyone is indeed impacted by slavery; in fact, the entire country was impacted, because eventually, differences between North and South, including slavery, evolved into the Civil War. Masters are certainly impacted, because they have to provide for their slaves, but they are the least impacted, for they are in a position of power and freedom, while the slaves are not. Stowe believes it is the only humane thing to do to set the slaves free, and she feels that Northerners should open their hearts and minds to them. She also feels they should be educated, and with educations, they can live normal lives, just like the rest of American citizens. However, she does not take into account that even the most liberal abolitionist often harbored prejudice, and the freed blacks were rarely welcomed with open arms because of their race. Fitzhugh, on the other hand, feels that the slaves should be happy with their lot, and freedom would only take away the freedoms they already enjoy. He states, "The negro slaves of the South are the happiest, and, in some sense, the freest people in the world. The children and the aged and infirm work not at all, and yet have all the comforts and necessaries of life provided for them" ("Cannibals" 113). Stowe disputes this view when one of her characters cries, "Tell me that any man living wants to work all his days, from day-dawn till dark, under the constant eye of a master, without the power of putting forth one irresponsible volition, on the same dreary, monotonous, unchanging toil!" (Stowe 252). Her attitude is not only realistic, it seems a much more balanced view of slavery and the inequality of the entire system.

Stowe was not a racist. She wrote that most of her examples and characters in the novel were taken from real life. She writes, "She [the author] or her friends have observed characters the counterpart of almost all that are here introduced; and many of the sayings are word for word as heard herself, or reported to her" (Stowe 481). Fitzhugh however is, which may be one reason he cannot see, or will not admit, the many atrocities masters and overseers heaped on their slaves. He writes, "The negro is improvident; will not lay up in summer for the wants of winter; will not accumulate in youth for the exigencies of age" ("Sociology" 89). Thus, these are two very different views of the same people, and Fitzhugh never really addresses the masters and overseers who are cruel and inhumane. Both authors clearly believe strongly in what they write about, but it is clear that Fitzhugh is a prejudiced writer, because he owns slaves, and Stowe does not. No matter how kind Fitzhugh and his overseers are… [read more]

Analogy of Racial Segregation Term Paper

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The civil rights struggle focused on reversing legal decisions made in the late 1800s, which were also supported for the first half of the 1900s. The eventual provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ending racial segregation was the result of an accumulated effort to organize individuals and groups to resist the acceptance of "separate but equal." The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) organized in 1909 with the mission to renew the civil and political liberties of all disadvantaged people, like the blacks who suffered the most under discrimination. The NAACP launched numerous public protests advocating the improved treatment of blacks. As the court cases that led up to legalized segregation established white dominance, the likewise assertion by groups like the NAACP and other civil-minded individuals, whites included, brought new cases to the Supreme Court. This turned the tide for the struggle against racial segregation. As mentioned, the case of Brown v. Board of Education, as well as Morgan v. Virginia of 1946, which disallowed segregation in public forms of transportation (train and bus), were landmark cases that changed the sentiment of racial segregation.

A comparative analysis of Plessy v. Ferguson of the 1800s and Brown v. Board of the 1900s can provide historical justifications for the legal actions taken towards discrimination and segregation during two different eras. In each of these cases the constitutionality of discrimination was examined. In Plessy, a Louisiana law permitted the segregation of railroad facilities, as long as each of the facilities was comparable to each other. This case determined that discrimination was not illegal. This system of "separate but equal" persisted until the Brown decision in 1954. In this case, the constitutionality of discrimination was again looked at, and the NAACP stepped in to request an injunction to prevent public schools in Topeka, Kansas from discriminating against children based on their race. Spurred by other civil rights actions of the times, the court's decision determined that being separate was not a means of providing equality. It read, the "segregation of white and Negro children in the public schools...solely on the basis of race...denies to Negro children the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment." Even though the physical facilities of a public school may be considered "equal," the segregation of children based on race (or any other trait) inhibits their gaining the same full access to education as whites. Thus, the social support during these two different eras saw opposing views on the equality and ethics of discrimination.

The historical disadvantages legally granted to blacks with the establishment of the Jim Crow laws and the Supreme Court ruling that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional enforced racial segregation and socially supported discrimination against blacks. An analagous historical event was the situation that reconsidered the Civil Rights Act, ending legalized racial segregation in 1964. With the rulings in Plessy v. Ferguson legalizing "separate but equal," and the later reversal of this condition with Brown v.… [read more]

Gender and Violence Narrative Term Paper

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Thus, violence was central to his personal development and coming of age. Nothing else can account for his rise from the oppression of slavery to become a world famous freedom fighter, writer and orator.

Like Douglass, Janie Crawford's life, too, is shaped by violence and oppression. The sexual rape of her grandmother and mother by white men directly affects Janie, as evidenced by her wish for a life different from a "nigger woman...mule of the world." (Hurston, 1978, p. 29) Indeed, it is Janie's drive to escape from masculine suppression and violence that leads her to leave Logan Killicks, defy Jody in public, and later tie her fortunes to Tea Cake, a man with nothing more to offer than his treating her well. Unfortunately, Janie's quest to be treated as an independent thinking human in her own right proves to be quite futile given a society where men often resorted to violence to define their masculinity and superiority over women. Even Tea Cake is shown falling prey to this male perception. "He just slapped her about a bit to show he was boss." (Hurston, 1978, p. 218) Thus, like Douglass, Janie's life too is shaped by violence, suppression, and a quest for personal freedom.

Though Douglas's narrative paints a far larger canvas of a society riddled with racial discrimination and violence, he takes the time and space to explore the treatment of women. In fact, Douglas's descriptions find a match in Hurston's narrative, as both authors describe the sexual, physical and psychological abuse endured by black women. It is the presence of such similar anecdotes, which then allows the conclusion that Douglass and Hurston's works can be studied within a context of a historical continuum of racial and gender discrimination by a white dominated patriarchal society.


Douglass, F. (1995). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Unknown

Dover Thrift Edition).

Hurston, Z.N. (1978).…… [read more]

Institution of Slavery Term Paper

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Morality in the Bible does not condemn the proper use of human property. Is slavery against the law or custom of the time? Repeatedly, no.

Is slavery right? If right is something that is just and good, then the care and support of an otherwise condemned prisoner is just and good. It is fair to exact payment for that support and it is right to do so. No one ever promised that life would be fair. Stringfellow writes, "Slavery is full of mercy" (1).

This is true. One must always return to the accepted principals of the period. Certainly even Reverend Stringfellow considered a cruel slave owner morally unjust. He supports his argument by citing well-known words of Jesus, to "Do to others as you would they should do to you." This does not mean do not have slaves because you do not want to be one. This means that one should treat others, as he would want to be treated according to the circumstances in which they find themselves. If it means something different then all men would strive to be equal. It would be morally and ethically proper to strive toward a Socialist state. Jesus knew there were kings and slaves, outcasts and criminals, yet he did not prescribe communal living.

If one uses the Bible to determine their morality then Reverend Stringfellow throws a monkey wrench into the abolitionist's way of thinking. He requires that they re-think their morality, which they are so fond of defining with the words right and wrong. It is the duty of the servant to render service with good will to his master, writes Stringfellow. The mercy shown in Biblical times to prisoners was indeed great. Slavery in the South, though not introduced by war, was still a great mercy to those who found themselves in a strange country full of strange people. Was it right to capture others in the first place? That was an economic decision supported by the law of the period. The sincerities of the relationships between master and slave are more desirous than the onerous relationship between sweatshop owner and child laborer. The slave is part of the property and in so being, of great value. The child laborer is only a means to an end, an inexhaustible resource, consumed and discarded. Given the argument of Reverend Stringfellow and the conditions into which the "freed" slaves were tossed, one might rather find himself owned, cared for and protected. Slavery is in the economics, not the race. This is the point that the argument becomes clouded, and the issue morally indefensible. Given the tenuousness of life in modern times, who would not want to be the slave of a benevolent master? Think about reality, not the dream. Are we not all slaves in one manner or another?

Works Cited

American Heritage Dictionary and Roget's II: The New Thesaurus. SII Seiko Instruments. 2000

Boys, Dr. Don. The Facts As I See Them: What About Slavery? 2001 Cornerstone Communications. http://www.cstnews.com/Code/Slavery1.html… [read more]

Frederick Douglas Narrative Term Paper

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And, to escape to the North, Frederick had to leave behind his friends and his wife who he was not sure if he would ever see again.

Slave owners thought they could best control their slaves by taking measures to keep them ignorant. But, Frederick was taught to read by his mistress, Sophia Auld, at the Auld Home in Baltimore. Although Sophia was delighted with Frederick's abilities, her husband became furious because he felt that if a slave could read and write, the slave would no longer obey his master without question or thought and could forge papers that would give the slave freedom.

Hugh instructed Sophia to discontinue the reading lessons. Realizing that reading was a key to gaining freedom, Douglass would continue his own reading efforts even though this would outrage his mistress. Later on Douglas would organize a religions service for slaves, but they were soon stopped by a mob led by his slave master.

Blacks had little hope of obtaining justice through the southern court system, which refused to accept a black person's testimony against a white person. After being hired out to a local shipbuilder so that he could learn the caulker trade, Frederick was harassed by white workers who did not want blacks competing with them for jobs. One afternoon, a group of white apprentices beat up Frederick and nearly took out one of his eyes. Attempts to press charges were unsuccessful because none of the shipyard's white employees would testify and because the black man's word was useless in a court of law.

After his flight to the North, Douglass was amazed to find that northerners were wealthier than most slave owners in Maryland. He had expected that they would be as poor as the people in the South who could not afford slaves. Even more revealing, Douglass discovered that many free blacks lived better than some of his previous slave masters such as Thomas Auld or Edward Covey. And, on the New Bedford wharves, he saw how industry made extensive use of labor saving mechanical devices. In loading a ship, five men and an ox did what it took twenty men to do in a southern port. Men who neither held a whip nor submitted to it worked more quietly and efficiently than those who did.

In summary, the suffering of slaves was immense and unnecessary. Through his unfortunate experiences, Douglass had discovered that men who are whipped the most are the ones that are whipped the easiest. So he began to fight back. By standing up for himself he became in his own mind a man of dignity and courage. And, he earned his place in history as one of the world's greatest men.… [read more]

Slavery and the Definition Term Paper

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Douglass speculates that perhaps the reason for this is "to hinder the development of the child's affection toward its mother, and to blunt and destroy the natural affection of the mother for the child" (Chapter I, par 3). Although many slave owners had children of their own, and would never think of giving their children away, when it came to slaves, it was another story. Again, owners could do whatever they pleased with their slaves, and often gave no regard toward their feelings, because objects were not supposed to have feelings.

Together, both Stowe and Douglass bring forth the utter brutality of slavery through their respective narratives. Each author relays the evils of this era through different voices, and demonstrates how slavery prevailed only because Negroes were not treated as humans, but rather as objects or animals. They were regarded as possessions, nothing more. After reading the works of both authors, it is apparently clear that the people involved in slavery did not live by the motto "Do unto others as you would want done to you." In fact, it is likely that such a thought never even crossed their minds. Or maybe the problem is that it did cross their minds, and they believed they did live by those words. Perhaps, to them, Negroes simply did not fit into the category of "others." Negroes were not just below them on the social scale; rather, they were not even on the social scale. That herein is where the fundamental problem of slavery remains. After all, how can a person show humanity toward an object?

Works Cited

Douglas, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE. 10 Oct. 2003 http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/.

McMichael, George, ed. Anthology of American Literature:…… [read more]

Civil Rights Since Martin Luther Term Paper

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Many feel civil rights leaders have become ineffective for their cause. The movement "has not been able to effectively solve the issue of Black youth in prisons, or Black gangs, or even Black on Black crime (Williams 1994)."

Most people will argue that main problem is "Civil Rights ideologies, tactics and strategies have become outdated in the United States and throughout the world (Williams

1994)." The majority of leaders and activists have become secure with previous methods and have dedicated their lives to the struggle of the movement. There are those who feel that there must be changes made in order for the Civil Rights movement to have a future.

These same people point out that the Black community is no longer the uniform group it was during the sixties. There are now different classes of Black people who have various plans for their futures.

There are those who work in corporations, suppressing the Black community and hindering the Civil Rights progress, while claiming they represent the interests of the community (Williams 1994).

The Civil Rights Movement has been unable to achieve many of its goals such becoming self-sufficient economically, creating a voice for social change in politics or preventing police brutality since there is no specific role for the police in the Black community (Williams 1994). It has also been unable to deal with the exploitation of corporations or being confined by governmental power.

The Civil Rights movement's greatest problems have been " its inability to get all classes of Black people to agree on a single issue, not addressing problems faced by Black women, not developing youth leadership, and providing proper educational resources in an effort to improve the Black community's economic level (Williams 1994).


There has been much progress in the Civil Rights movement since the death of Dr. King, such as desegregation, however, much still needs to be done. Many people are working toward a goal of equality and justice for all, while others are being discouraged and are no longer striving for the dreams of Dr. King. They are continuing to live in poverty, and receive little or no additional formal education in which to improve their lifestyle. Some of the greatest challenges lie within the Black community itself. Hopefully, the youth will pick up the torch and continue to achieve Dr. King's dream.

Works Cited

Williams III, Joe. The Death of the Civil Rights Movement. Precinct Reporter. (1994):

06 January.

Williams, Leaford C. Remembering Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington Informer.

1996): 17 January.

CONGRESSMAN JOHN…… [read more]

Baldwin and 'Down Term Paper

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In this essay, there is a light shined on the relationship between blacks and whites. Baldwin throughout the book discusses the idea that to be successful in the world that we live you have to live in a white world. This creates a problem because then one has blacks who want to be successful but the whites will not except them. Baldwin deconstructs the myths that surround blackness in America and sets out as a possibility that blacks must learn to accept whites but whites do not have to do the same. Even though he has these thoughts he is not anti-white. He understands that one day in this world whites and blacks will have to come together and live as one in order to be successful as a whole.

What does being black mean? According to Baldwin, being black is unchangeable. It is a burden for a young person to carry. Being black means that one is intended for a particular life, a life with several disappointing outcomes. This way of life is a brutal one as well. Baldwin brings up many examples of this in the different essays that you read. One line he writes hits you in the chest and makes you step back from the book and think for a second. For a man to write this about his race makes one really understand what he is feeling and the power that he feels it with. Baldwin describes his own life growing up in Harlem. This is something that one can not be exposed to in any other type of writing besides Baldwin's for the mere fact that his writing is in the form of storytelling and he has the ability to paint a clear picture with this story telling. And one is truly able to see the life that one is exposed to in the slums of Harlem.

An issue that the author brings up in this essay is the work that a black man can do. He discusses how their options are limited to the lower class for the mere fact that they are black. The audience learns that his father was a preacher, and that James Baldwin himself is a preacher. Baldwin explains how a young black man has to find a "gimmick" to get into for work; something that he can do well that will help him make it in a white world. He mentions many lower class jobs like Prize fighting since these are the only ones open to blacks. James states the reason why he moved toward religion is that it gave him a sense of home, and a place to express himself. But on the contrary religion gave him no peace. After reading about a black man's options for work you learn how this is just another huge mountain that they have to climb in their lives because of the fact that they are black.

It's extremely transparent to people after reading Baldwin's works of literature that the main… [read more]

Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Voter Switches From Democrat to Republican Essay

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These are inhumane, unbelievably cruel acts that must stop.

At this point I would like to point out that my own daughter has been a volunteer with the Underground Railroad, the organization that assists negroes that have escaped from the cruelty of slavery in the South. My daughter has been a volunteer at Galesburg, Illinois, and in Milton, Wisconsin. She… [read more]

Views on the Compromise of 1850 Essay

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While at the same time, he is saying that slavery is moral and has existed throughout human history. ("John Calhoun," 1850)

Daniel Webster created a compromise. Basically, he gave both sides something and asked them to bend on their position. In this case, he felt that California should be admitted to the Union as a free state. While new territories (such as: New Mexico and Utah) will not be considered to support or go directly against slavery. At the same time, he created the Fugitive Slave Law. This meant that runaway slaves could be captured anywhere in country and returned to slavery by bounty hunters. ("Daniel Webster," 1850)

In this case, Webster is trying to appease both sides. This occurs by not taking a position on slavery. Instead, it is an extension of the status quo. The results are that, the issue of slavery is pushed down the road, with no real solution being introduced. Once this happened, is the point both sides felt as if they gained something. Yet, it increased the overall amounts of anger and animosity by giving up something in return. ("Daniel Webster," 1850)

Which argument do you find the most compelling? Why

The arguments that are the most compelling are those presented by Seward and Webster. Seward had an impact on these views, by illustrating how these practices are immoral and should be dealt with through federal legislation. While Webster, was not entirely opposed to either side. Instead, he was more concerned about avoiding kind of civil war. The way that this was achieved was to offer some form of appeasement. In this case, Webster's solution did not solve the problem and it only prevented the inevitable for ten years. This is when the nation became gripped by the issues of slavery and states' rights. Once this happened, is the point the country would be forced into a bloody conflict to settle these problems for good.


Daniel Webster. (1850).

John…… [read more]

Is Murder a Better Alternative Than Slavery for Your Children? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,417 words)
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Considering that most slaves struggled to act in accordance with what their masters wanted from them, it would be safe to say that these people fought for their lives. It is not that they appreciated the conditions they were living in, but they simply held on to their lives and learned to appreciate every little aspect that they could possibly… [read more]

Segregation and the Rise Essay

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Again, it is critical to note that the primary reason for such intolerance was because Whites did not want Blacks to perform jobs which were traditionally held by the former.

Thus, there were many political maneuvers that took place during this conflict of interest. Antebellum attempts included the Black Codes and Jim Crow laws, the former of which was an attempt by labor scarce large southern plantation owners to legally re-implement slavery, the latter of which were attempts by poorer whites to ensure that Blacks could not challenge them for jobs. Ironically, this competition produced an alliance between conservative business elite white politicians (who wanted the cheaper slave labor) and Blacks, who needed the politicians simply to legally labor. The result is that this alliance enabled white working class laborers to unite in attempts to keep Blacks from taking their jobs.

The logical implications for the theme of development suggested by this reading is that, first and foremost, racism is and of itself a hoax. It exists, but merely as a means to protect the things that are most vital to a population -- such as its need to earn money and to provide the tangible essentials (food clothing and shelter) for itself. Also, this theme shows how labor, politics, and social concerns can all collide to create groups of power, such as that which was achieved by lower class whites near the end of the 19th century. Yet it also alludes to the fact that regardless of race, the true conflict was (and still is) a class system of the haves and the have-nots in America.

Works Cited

Wilson, William Julius. The Declining Significance of Race. Illinois: University of Chicago Press.…… [read more]

Declining Significance of Race Essay

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Changes in the law that coincided with this development support Wilson's thesis. Other laws were passed which upheld this cruel economic calculus: slave owners could not be punished for killing a slave when disciplining him or her, given the widespread acknowledgement that this was necessary to force slaves to labor.

Eventually, this law changed in the 19th century, reflecting more cultural anxiety about the status of slaves. But if conditions for slaves improved legally and materially on plantations this was mainly due to slaves' increased economic value for owners, not out of compassion. And "the enforced personal feeling of inferiority" was of course devastating for slaves (Wilson 32). Slave religion and slave kinship structures did provide slaves with some psychological sustenance, as well as ideological arenas of resistance. However, the relationship of slaves and masters remained a paternalistic one in the Deep South, despite the likely feelings of slaves: masters even protected slaves against the anger of poor whites who took out their rage against the unequal system of the South on blacks rather than against the wealthy whites who benefited from it.

In the upper, more urbanized South blacks had more mobility, could often find their own employment, and were less closely supervised given the different economic structure of the urbanized economy and therefore urbanized slavery. Segregation was also less rigidly enforced and blacks and whites of all classes had more contact, thanks to the different economic structure of the area.

Q3. What are the logical implications of the theme for the concept 'development?'

Wilson's analysis of the phenomenon of slavery is fundamentally Marxist in orientation: it begins with a material, economic analysis of the phenomenon and then examines how resistance of the 'have-nots' finds ways of circumventing the dominance of the 'haves.' Slaves sometimes used the institutions created by landowners like religion and isolated slave communities to articulate a sense of personal selfhood in an oppressive culture but the paternalistic system prevented them from fully resisting in many instances. In contrast, in different economic contexts such as the slave-holding but more urbanized upper South, Wilson believes that slavery had a fundamentally different character.… [read more]

Second Inaugural Address: President Obama Essay

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In his own speech, Obama uses such soaring rhetoric when he says in one of his most memorable lines: "We the people declare today that the most evident of truth that all of us are created equal -- is the star that guides us still; just as it guided our forebears through Seneca Falls and Selma and Stonewall; just as it guided all those men and women, sung and unsung, who left footprints along this great mall, to hear a preacher say that we cannot walk alone; to hear a King proclaim that our individual freedom is inextricably bound to the freedom of every soul on Earth" (Obama 1). Obama gave the first speech if his second term on the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday, and the occasion had particular resonance given that America had just elected its first black president for a second time. This sense of 'occasion' and connection to the past is also appropriate for a ceremonial speech such as an inaugural address. Obama seldom draws connections between himself and Dr. King in his other, more specific, ordinary speeches.

Obama's use of rhythm, imagery, and evocative language made the speech a memorable one and he recalled King's use of repetition and images of a better tomorrow for the nation's children in his conclusion: "Our journey is not complete until we find a better way to welcome the striving, hopeful immigrants who still see America as a land of opportunity, until bright young students and engineers are enlisted in our workforce rather than expelled from our country…Our journey is not complete until all our children, from the streets of Detroit to the hills of Appalachia to the quiet lanes of Newtown, know that they are cared for and cherished and always safe from harm" (Obama 3). Instead of a dream, Obama focused upon a journey that America must take, implying that the path will be a difficult one, but ultimately the end result will be worthwhile.

Works Cited

Obama, Barack. "Second inaugural address." The Washington Post. 21 Jan 2013.

[9 Feb 2013]… [read more]

Civil Rights Movement: Brown v Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,444 words)
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The sixty years before the Brown decision was made were heavy with segregation (Kluger, 1975; Patterson, 2001). The argument for desegregation was that the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was being broken by segregating blacks and whites. That Amendment states that every person has to be allowed equal protection under the law (Kasher, 2000). When people who are black or… [read more]

Anxieties of White Mississippians Essay

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To get caught out without a pass meant a whipping.

As to the fears that white folks had, indeed they were afraid of a rebellion by the slaves. In a letter dated September 10, 1835, Jesse Mabry explained that she had heard talk of a slave rebellion in Madison County. "…The slaves of the vicinity intended an insurrection," Mabry wrote (to Thomas Shackleford). In that insurrection the slaves were said to have a plan to kill all the whites. The conspiracy was discussed at great length and a slave named Joe was tied up and pumped for information. Yes, Joe admitted, he had heard talk of a conspiracy against the whites, and he said if he would go unpunished, he would tell all that he had heard. He explained that the plan was to take axes, hoes and other tools and "…massacre all the whites" but that never took place.

The white folks in Mississippi did have good reason to fear a rebellion because slaves had done it before in other parts of the south, and given that there were more slaves than white folks, it did cause a stir and some paranoia.

In conclusion, this is a well-written, well-edited book, which offers good information about the dynamics of life in Mississippi (and the South) around the time of the Civil War. Could anyone blame the slaves if they did rebel? Especially it would seem that those slaves that were whipped mercilessly for no reason and brutally treated by their masters would ultimately rebel and stand their ground. If the slave owners hadn't treated their slaves so poorly, it might have been different. And for…… [read more]

Ethics in Any Case a Person Decides Essay

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In any case a person decides to perform the same actions there is tendency for the brain to learn this pattern of behavior therefore setting up a pathway. Such pathway tends to be more efficient means for the brain to process the routine, as opposed to a new series of discreet tasks, and this is habit. After a habit has been formed, it becomes so hard for the person to freely stop continuing with the same habit not unless change of that habit is forced on the individual.

Even though some people might decide to change their habits without coercion, it does not apply to majority. Many who change their habits without being forced in several occasion you will find that their formed habit has ended them in negative side of life or a situation making them to have no option but stop the habit. Therefore it is essential for the change of habit to be forced on them before they end in trouble or on a bad scenario.

Some people may argue that change of habit forced on an individual at times may not be permanent and one may just pretend when he or she is in a constraining environment but when he or she finds a free environment they can still continue with the same habit. Therefore it is much important for an individual to be explained for thoroughly reasons as to why the habit should be changed until she or he sees the sense and voluntarily alters the behavior.

Once I had developed a habit of smoking, my parents were not pleased with this since they were not smoking and they were really terrified of the effects it could cause on my health. They tried talking to me to change the habit but it did not bear fruit. They had no option but to force that change on me. Many restrictions were put on me like my parents took the car which they had given me and some other help they were giving me insisting that on stopping the smoking habit I would get them back. It forced me to stop smoking so as to get my normal life privileges and afterwards I realized that my being forced to change my habit was of great importance to me.

A person will easily change a habit depending on how long the habit has been in practice. For instance when somebody is young in the habit it easy for that individual to change the habit alone but if the habit has been developed for such a long time it will take this individual such a long time so that he or she change the habit. Such people are supposed to be studied closely so that they are understood better before taking action. Generally, the voluntary change of habits is easier and more effective and permanent as compared to imposition of the change.

On the part of the second…… [read more]

Correlations, or Discrepancies Essay

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The federal government focuses on sex trafficking and prostitution and does not spend sufficient resources investigating other modern forms of slavery (Destefano, 2007).

Another theme about slavery is that, while it may be extremely secretive, slaves interact with society as a whole. Healthcare providers are likely to encounter victims of human trafficking. In fact, 28% of trafficked women saw a health care provider while still in captivity (Dovydaitis, 2011). Therefore, having front-line workers, such as health professionals, aware of how to spot and report trafficking is critical.

Another recurring theme about slavery is the global nature of human trafficking. All countries are source points for human trafficking. Furthermore, globalization makes it difficult to track victims of trafficking (Jones, Engstrom, Hilliard, & Diaz, 2007). Some countries aggressively go after traffickers, while other countries are more tolerant of the practice. For example, China is believed to have a significant human trafficking problem, but its procedures for prosecuting traffickers lack transparency and there are far fewer prosecutions than suspected incidents of slavery (Lagon, 2008). However, many nations are attempting to really fight human trafficking. For example, Cambodia is considered a hub of human trafficking in Southeast Asia (Lindstrom, 2008). However, the country is attempting to combat the problem and help stop illegal trafficking (Lindstrom, 2008). Given that governmental apathy helps contribute to the problem of human trafficking, these efforts may prove very beneficial. However, some countries are taking a victim-first approach that should help combat trafficking. For example, in Scotland the Equality and Human Rights Commission's chair was seeking to talk to victims of trafficking to help understand it from the perspective of a person who… [read more]

Importance of Slavery Essay

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¶ … Slavery

Many consider slavery to be one of the major causes of the Civil War. The background reasons for this include political, economic, social and moral reasons. First of all, from a political perspective, politicians from the North began to run on platforms that encouraged an abolitionist perspective for the entire country and many of the Northern voters supported such an approach. This would mean that slavery would no longer be allowed as a characteristic of the South, one that was needed to support the economy, but would be eradicated throughout the United States, with dire consequences for the South. The political emulation that followed around the idea of slavery was one of the causes of the Civil War.

Second, the economic reasons are even stronger and more obvious for making slavery one of the major causes of the Civil War. Basically, the Southern states were states whose economies depended heavily on slavery to be competitive, as much as that was possible, on the market. With no labor costs, their overall costs decreases significantly.

Free labor meant that industries that were not efficient, such as cotton and tobacco exploitation, could eventually be sold in an effective manner by the landowners. Other than that, the simple idea of moving from an economy where labor was free to one where money would need to be invested in the workforce was just inacceptable and, in fact, very hard to understand in the South.

Other than that, slavery is at the basis of the differentiation between the economies of the North and South, another major cause of the war. One can argue that most of the industrial economy, as…… [read more]

Indian Slavery Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (331 words)
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¶ … participation by the local Creek Indians in the Indian slave trade.

The Creek Indians exploited their own race by selling war captives and their families into slavery and they even began attacking neighboring tribes specifically to capture and sell slaves. This is interesting because many people typically think of slavery as a racial issue in which the slave owner justifies the practice by invoking the notion that there is one race that is vastly superior to another. Certainly, this is the case we are most familiar with in the history of America and its black slave trade. However, the collusion of the local Creek Indians with the white settlers of the Carolina economy show the slavery issue to be more about exploitation of the weak for economic gain than racism.

The Creek Indians had a fear of becoming slaves themselves showing that they were well aware of what a horrible life that could be. but, that fate, as far as the Creek Indians…… [read more]

Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (987 words)
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Letter to Birmingham

Letter to a Birmingham Jail: a Response to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Reverend King

Let me begin by saying how honored I felt to read your letter written from your cell in a Birmingham jail in response to certain critics of yours who found your actions "unwise and untimely." Your even tone and the sound logic of your arguments left little doubt as to the correctness of your conclusions in the face of such timidity and cowardice on the part of the white ministers who wrote to you. Your words and ideas have a true power and the ability to affect people even from a printed page, and this is a gift that you have used consistently at great personal sacrifice to yourself and your family in the service of your race, and for this I thank you.

In your letter, you continually speak about the need to face reality, and to judge the current situation of the so-called Negro for what it is -- not what people believe it will be in time, or what it could be or should be, but simply for what it is. You correctly identify the situation as one of ongoing, systematic, purposeful and calculated oppression that self-perpetuates by denying the so-called Negro the right to vote and access to the courts and other legal institutions, such that a man of color living in the South can more take part in electing his representatives in the halls of government than he can seek justice for abuses he receives to his person, the theft of his property, or even the murder of his family. You are clearly able to see the situation for what it is.

It is difficult for me to understand, then, why your insistence that the time to act is and always ahs been right now, whenever that now is, is not matched by an equal fervor in demanding a level of action that addresses the severity of the issue. The immediacy of the situation is correctly met by an immediacy in your sense of action; you claim that it is no longer and truly has never been the proper time to let injustice live, and that direct action must be taken as time offers no guarantee that it will cure any ills. Yet the action you advocate is tame, and does not address the most pressing and immediate issues of the right to vote granted by amendments to the U.S. Constitution nearly a century go, as called for by Du Bois who above all else demanded suffrage "now, henceforth and forever." This demand was made in 1906, and we still wait, and you would have us wait more. We are still denied the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness upon which this country was founded, and you would have us peacefully sit at lunch counters and march in streets and wait to be arrested by the very…… [read more]

Calhoun, Seward, and Webster Your Purchase Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (931 words)
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¶ … Calhoun, Seward, and Webster your purchase.In his "Higher Law" speech, William Seward reveals his opinions toward slavery pointing out that he believed it to be morally wrong. He encouraged his readers to think outside the box, so to speak when considering the aspect of slavery and freedom. He could not deny that slavery was legal in regard to the Constitution but what he so desperately wanted others to realize is that the Constitution did not protect the act of slavery. This might have seemed like a flimsy argument, but Seward recognized the difference and articulated it in this speech. He realized that the two could not rationally exist and still uphold one of the most precious rights Americans possess and that is the right to pursue happiness. Seward wrote, "There is another aspect of the principle of compromise which deserves consideration. It assumes that slavery, if not the only institution in a slave state, is at least a ruling institution, and that this characteristic is recognized by the Constitution" (Seward 21). Here we see that Seward is not attempting to change the Constitution. He then writes, "But slavery is only one of many institutions there. Freedom is equally an institution there. Slavery is only a temporary, accidental, partial, and incongruous one. Freedom on the contrary, is a perpetual, organic, universal one, in harmony with the Constitution of the United States" (Seward 21). The fact that Seward suggests that slavery is accidental demonstrates how he is willing to look at things from a different perspective. He was appealing to a higher law than the Constitution when he spoke out about slavery because he saw the contradiction within these two terms.

In his response to The Clay Compromise Measures, John Calhoun speaks out against Clay's notion. In his speech, he emphasized northern aggression and attempted to persuade his audience against any kind of compromise. He was under the impression that, at the time, there were two separate nations within the country and the differences between them must be settled in the name of peace. He thought that secession would solve all problems. He wrote, "It is only through a long process, and successively, that the cords can be snapped until the whole fabric falls asunder. Already the agitation of the slavery question has snapped some of the most important, and has greatly weakened all the others" (Calhoun). Here Calhoun is recognizing the problem and the possible scenario if the problem is not resolved. He also writes, "There is, again, only one way by which this can be effected, and that is by removing the causes by which this belief has been produced. Do this, and discontent will cease, harmony and kind feelings between the sections be restored, and every apprehension of danger to the Union…… [read more]

Many Thousands Gone the First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America by IRA Berlin Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (341 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America, by Ira Berlin is a book about the first two centuries of slavery and the final part and epilogue discuss the time of revolution in North America, and how it affected the slaves in both the North and the South. The author shows that after the signing of the Declaration of Independence, many Americans began to question the practice of keeping slaves, in their own quest for liberty and freedom. He shows how slavery ended in the North, and the idea of adding free and slave states to the Union came about.

One of the most interesting aspects of these readings were the distinctions the author made among the different slave populations of the South. While it makes sense that slaves who lived in different areas of the South had different experiences and affected society in different ways that is not often discussed in slave histories and it seems many people assume that slave experiences were the…… [read more]

Campaign Ads Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (759 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Campaign Advertisements

In the 2008 historic presidential race, Barack Obama has repeatedly accused John McCain of running a completely negative campaign. Obama argued that the issues are too important for the "misleading mail and TV ads" and other negative tactics he attributes to our campaign. However, he made no mention of his own campaign's conduct.

According to Jones (2008), Obama ran "the most negative campaign in recent memory." In the Atlantic, she writes that Obama ran more negative ads than any candidate in history, including an advertising statement in which one of his supporters linked Senator McCain to the segregationist policies of George Wallace and the murder of four little girls.

Jones writes that while Obama said he detests negative advertisements, his campaign is filled withnegative, false and misleading ads against John McCain.

According to figures from Campaign Media Analysis Group, in the final stretch of this campaign -- from September 12 to October 18 -- Barack Obama ran 119,101 negative ads costing more than $65 million," wrote Jones. "For that time period, the Obama campaign spent nearly $30 million more than the McCain-Palin campaign on negative ads. That $30 million represents 38,000 negative ads. The breakdown is even more staggering in the period from October 12 to 18. In that seven-day period, Barack Obama spent over $22 million for more than 37,000 negative ads -- that's more than twice the amount spent on positive ads and almost three times the amount that the McCain-Palin campaign spent on such ads."

However, there is no denying that McCain's campaign was very negative. Obama and McCain clashed sharply in presidential campaigns and debates, as McCain tried to convince people that his opponent was insensitive to "Joe the Plumber" and too willing to associate himself with unsavory influences, while Obama charged that McCain was waging an ugly, divisive campaign.

McCain was, in the eyes of many, the aggressor, insisting that the average guy -- the plumber -- would pay more taxes under Obama. "And, McCain said, Obama was reluctant to repudiate an inflammatory statement by Rep. John Lewis, D-Ga., or voter registration tactics of community group Acorn," according to Lightman.

Obama also used negative campaign methods to fight back against McCain but his methods appeared to be more gentle and more focused…… [read more]

Mccain Is the Better More Experienced Candidate Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (875 words)
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Mccain Is a Stronger Candidate:

In the battle between John McCain and Barack Obama, you are likely to get rather confused. On the one hand you have this young man with a touch of glamour and on the other you have a man who may not be glamorous but has years of political experience behind him. Who would you rather choose? For those who are die hard democrats or Republicans the choice is easy but for those in-between the two extremes, making a decision is definitely not a piece of cake. Well the cake reminds me of something my grandfather once said to me: "darling, you may love the icing, but it's the cake the really matters." Over the years this piece of advice has helped me on many occasions.

And I have come to the conclusion that fluff is always just that, "fluff" and it cannot replace the "real thing." Icing on the cake is that fluff- it may taste great and look beautiful but it's the cake below it that really counts. You can buy the cake without the icing but you won't buy the icing without the cake.

That should make it clear who is a choice between McCain and Obama. Obama is young with all his youthful idealism and fancy dreams but McCain has solid experience behind him that stops him from making false promises or showing people dreams they cannot realize.

Often times we might wonder why a man as experienced as McCain is rather quiet compared to Obama. The fact is that McCain knows what he is talking about and thus he measures his words and only says the right things. Obama on the other hand is often swayed by emotions and ends up saying things he either doesn't mean or he doesn't know the meaning of. Think of "lipstick on the pig" remark. To this day, I am not sure what it really meant and I am sure, even Obama doesn't have a clue.

McCain is a stronger candidate because he has seen the world and has experienced hardships. He has been a prisoner of war which gives him the experience that Obama cannot gain sitting in his pretty seat in the Senate. It takes a lot of courage to serve in the war and to survive in prison and McCain has done that and has definitely come out of it a stronger man.

One thing we must remember here is that McCain should not be judged by his party members because he is known as "maverick" for choosing to disagree with his party on several key issues. This kind…… [read more]

Presidential Race Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Presidential Race

Wednesday, April 16, 2008; Washington Post

This is a write-up about a speech given in Pennsylvania by John McCain presenting his economic plans. Statements from both Democratic candidates' aides were also reported. These were critical of McCain's level of spending, and stated that his tax cuts were for corporations and the wealthy.

This would give the voter additional information about McCain's economy policies. It might help voters to choose a candidate based on what is important to them economically.

Wednesday, April 16, 2008; Washington Post

This story indicates that Hillary Clinton's biggest struggle is to gain back the trust she has lost. The majority of voters view her as dishonest. Percentages, from a variety of polls, are given to support this. Additional information about how Clinton is viewed is also given.

This would not necessarily aid a voter in making a decision. If the person were easily swayed by public opinion as reported in polls, then they might feel that Clinton is not truthful.

Sunday, April 27, 2008; the News & Observer

The article discusses the economic plans of all three candidates. First is general discussion and summation. Following this is two sections, the first concerning McCain and the second covering both Clinton and Obama. Each candidate, or representatives from their staff, gives some specifics about their own plan.

Again, this might help a voter to learn more about the candidate's economic plans. It could help them choose who to vote for based on this information.

Monday, April 28, 2008; the News & Observer

Senator Clinton gave a speech in Wilmington, North Carolina. Some details of the speech are reported. Additional campaign stops are given, as well as information about the delegate counts for both North Carolina and Indiana. Incidental mention is given about Obama and increasing appearances by both candidates.

If a voter wanted to see Senator Clinton, the information is too general. It gives little information that is detailed enough to assist a voter.

Friday, April 18, 2008; Washington Post

The article reports about the negative campaigning that has been seen in the Democratic Party between the two candidates. Specific mention was given concerning Obama's relationship with Rev. Jeremiah Wright. Past controversial remarks from Obama are discussed. There are statements about Clinton's recent negative ratings.

This would not provide any information that would help voters decide on a candidate. It only reports on the situation at the specific time.

Thursday, April 17, 2008; Washington Post bill presented in Congress targeting veterans' educational benefits, and proposing a minimum one month time off for combat veterans is reported. The writers of the bill indicate that McCain must give support or it…… [read more]

Melville's Benito Cereno Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Forced atrocious thralldom of human beings, doesn't just arouse, in them, the dire lust for freedom but also injects the praxis and bravado to make this a reality.

Benito Cereno, is yet another tale depicting the atrocious practice of subjugating blacks and trading them like mere 'commodities' where they were not only denied physical liberty but also the right of cognitive existence/freedom. The account starts off describing the situation where a huge vessel carrying 'slave freight', apparently, encounters some functional complications and hence is forced to halt near the harbor of St. Maria. In the same vicinity was another boarded ship captained by Amasa Delano. Delano decided to go to the misery-stricken 'San Dominick' just to notice that it was carrying 'Slave freight'. It was quite prominently chalked on the front side: 'Follow your Leader' which then again forwarded the notion that this very ship was a Negro-transportation ship. The crew and the general 'order' of the vessel were both hard to find. The overall condition of the blacks onboard was quite debilitated by disease and hunger. As is quite evident from the following statement:

But, in one language, and as with one voice, all poured out a common tale of suffering."

Although San Dominick was a slave-carrier, the general setting and atmosphere did not show any such elements of Black subservience (towards the White). The Negroes seemed to be quite indifferent to their surroundings and even their command. This was quite evident in the statement by Delano regarding his first impression of the 'setting' and 'order' of San Dominick.: "Long continued suffering seemed to have brought out the less good-natured qualities of the Negroes, besides, at the same time, impairing the Spaniard's (captain) authority over them." This reveals that the negroes had since a long time been under this tortuous enslavement and now it seemed that there patience had already reached the threshold and this extreme mental frustration had, since long planted the seed of 'revolt' in their minds. The event in which a white boy attempted to abuse a black lad verbally, and in reaction the black kid injured him with a 'dagger', whereas the Spaniard captain quite helplessly called it a 'regular sport', quite conspicuously reveals the chafe Negroes experienced due to the prolonged slavery.

He was struck by one of those instances of subordination previously alluded to. Three black boys with three Spanish boys were sitting together on the hatches

Suddenly one of the Black boys enraged with a word dropped by one of his white companion, seized a knife,...and struck the lad over the head." very immediate impact of this slavery is 'hatred'. This emotion might be felt and even expressed. The event mentioned in the following…… [read more]

Anne Moody Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,748 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Life of Anne Moody

In the book Coming of Age in Mississippi Anne Moody shares the story of her life. The book is focused on her position as a black woman in a world that she considers as being for whites. She describes what it was like living in Mississippi during the 1940's and 1950's and how the… [read more]

Lincoln: The Second Political Debate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (368 words)
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Lincoln: The Second Political Debate Between Lincoln and Douglas

The primary subject of the second debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas was that of slavery, specifically how it related to the addition of new territories to the evolving American union. At the time, the proponents and antagonists of American slavery who still wished to preserve the Union were attempting to strike a balance between the number of slave states in the American Congress and the number of abolitionist states. However, as more territories were incorporated into the union, this balanced policy proved increasingly difficult. Both Lincoln and Douglas wished to preserve the Union. However, Douglas advocated allowing states such as Kansas into the Union as slave state, even though this would imbalance the representation of pro and anti-slave states in Congress.

During the first of Lincoln's rejoinders to Douglas, Lincoln stated that: "I hold that the Union cannot permanently exist half slave and half free." Lincoln also defended himself against his opponent's charge that he could not be an able politician in a nation where slavery was still a legal institution, stating that…… [read more]

Dinner Guest: Me Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


They think they are being open by having a black man to dinner, but that is not really true. They are just showing their prejudice and their ignorance because they "demurely probe in polite way the why and wherewithal of darkness USA" (Hughes). They live their white lives on Park Avenue and have a black man to dinner, and so they think they understand the "Negro problem."

The narrator feels the way he does because he knows that this dinner, and others like it, will never solve the "Negro problem." It's the white people that have the problem; the black people just want the same opportunities the whites have. He felt this way because he knows that he will not change any minds or make any difference at this dinner. He says, "Solutions to the problem, of course, wait." He knows that the dinner really means nothing, and nothing good will happen because of it. He knows the "Negro problem" will continue, and that the whites, who are clueless about it will never understand it is them who are the real problem.


Hughes, Langston. "Dinner Guest: Me."… [read more]

Classic Slave Narrative of Olaudah Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
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"Have already related an instance or two of particular oppression out of many which I have witnessed, but the following is frequent in all the islands. The wretched field-slaves, after toiling all the day for an unfeeling owner who gives them but little victuals, steal sometimes a few moments from rest or refreshment to gather some small portion of grass, according as their time will admit." He states that the disconnection of a common sense of humanity between the owners and the slaves in the West Indies, as opposed to his own culture, resulted in the particular privation experienced by slaves in the area.

However, as Equiano's experience as a slave evolved, he begins, as a narrator, to harden his perspective upon slavery and to stress the psychological as well as the physical tolls his bondage took upon himself. Even after enduring the relatively more privileged, physically speaking, circumstances of slavery in the United Southern States, he still found himself yearning for freedom. His salvation from the institution of slavery ultimately came after being purchased by a British naval commander, Henry Pascal, from whom he was later able to purchase his freedom. This 'end' to the narrative of Equiano's enslavement is thus also atypical to later slave narratives of bondage, in that he was allowed to purchase his freedom from white owners, and that he was able to enter the protection of a land where slavery was less integral an institution to the national economy

Thus, freed and escaped slaves in England were less resolutely policed in their behavior.

This also results in Equiano's somewhat more compassionate view of particular whites whom he encounters over the course of his life, as may be expected, and ultimately of the validation of Christianity as an ideology the former African native embraces, because of its perceived effects of softening the human heart of those whom he was able to buy his freedom from. However, Equiano still ends his narrative and tells his tale from the point-of-view of an advocate for universal…… [read more]

Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (813 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Moreover, the long growing seasons and rich soil of Middle Florida became a haven for large landowners as well as the scratch farmer. Baptist points out that by 1823, descriptions of this new virgin land between the east and west coasts of Florida were appearing in print by at least four authors, causing many to imagine the possibilities, whether financially or culturally.

However, as Baptist is careful to account, this new paradise soon became embroiled in conflict, culturally and politically. By the 1840's, conflicts between the whites waned when slavery became an issue of threat. With common bond, the white elite planters saw themselves as the royalty of the South, equal to the Jamaican plantation owners who were among Britain's richest men. Cotton, tobacco and sugar cane were but a few boomer crops of the plantations. These land barons, with the use of slave labor began to build industries, such as cotton gins and sugar mills. With their wealth came political power and the ability to shape the territory of Florida to serve their own self-interests and desires. They became major players of world trade and commerce, extending beyond national boundaries. Baptist documents the rise to power of the white elitists and the conflicts and turmoil of those early years of settlement between the plantation owners and the white settlers who had come to carve a life for their families.

Baptist account appears factual and detailed, citing among his scholarly and media sources, government and census accounts as well, thus, lending credibility not only to the other outside sources, but to his own conclusions and assumptions. Although, a scholarly account, Baptist has woven historical facts with colorful accounts from media clippings and personal journals and diaries. There did not seem to be any major inconsistencies or sweeping generalizations within the body of work. Baptist gives his readers a behind the scenes insight into a culture that has been romanticized for nearly two centuries, the Old South of grace and wealth. His view is fresh and his writing original. Baptist paints an account of Florida's birth that will surely become an important source for scholars and history buffs.


Baptist, Edward E. Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier before the…… [read more]

Speak the Word of Peace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,049 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Unfortunately, it is a high price that many of us pay in becoming American. We often lose ourselves, and our cultural and ethnic identities. So, In his book, Days of Obligation, Rodriguez struggles with so many facets of himself, notably, his ethnic heritage, his sexuality, his sense of guilt at the chasm between who he is and who he has been told to be by parents and his church. It is believe there is a universal element to Rodriguez' struggles. They are the challenges that all human beings encounter in becoming their own unique selves.

The added dimension of Rodriguez' Mexican heritage, makes this story all the more fascinating. A wonderful book to have us think about being ourselves in a world full of others expectations as well as an opportunity to get a closer view of Mexican ethnic influences and the related struggles in a United States where far too many people forget they themselves are immigrants or children of immigrants. By sending this message Rodriguez along with Malcolm X can relate to the Contact Zone because of their words of peace and social equality

Along with Malcolm X, and Richard Rodriguez, Jonathan Kolz supports social equality especially for children. He feels there is an additional form of inequality in school systems like New York. This inequality comes from the decision of certain people to put their kids into the public system, but then privately subsidize the school their child attends in order to employ more teachers, provide a library (most school libraries have been dismantled in the elementary schools in New York City over the past twenty years), and introduce expensive technology. They refuse to fight for higher tax support for all the children. Instead they simply give a little extra to the public school their own child attends. The press is reluctant to criticize these parents. "I think there's some fear, on the part of the newspapers, that if you condemn these parents for doing this, they will flee the system altogether and abandon the low-income children. But in a sense they've abandoned them already" (Kolz). By pursuing, social equality and support from others, Kolz beliefs can be assonated with the Contact Zone like the other writers.

Using the written word can be become of a great different and provide new ideas of peace and harmony. Writers such as Malcolm X, Richard Rodriguez, and Kolz are very effective in their words by having the methods of the Contact Zone. If people would listen to these writers words, there might be less racism in the world. In order to end racism, people listen to human beings like Malcolm X, Rodriguez and Kolz because peace will never come if this is not done for the sake of the future for our children.

Malcolm X

A www.malcolmx.com. Accessed 5/20/02

College Term Paper 5/20/02

Richard Rodriguez.

A www.salon.com. Accessed 5/20/02

College Term Paper 5/20/02

Interview with Jonathan Kolz. www.onlinejournal.com. Accessed 5/20/02

College Term Paper 5/20/02

Days of…… [read more]

Frederick Douglass Former Slave, Abolitionist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,439 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



From a political point-of-view, Lincoln saw some problems with this point.

Soldiers performing "great and uncommon service on the battlefield" should be rewarded just as the white soldiers. Lincoln saw no problems with this point.

Douglass was a civil rights advocate long before Rosa Parks ever sat on a bus. He would travel a good deal. On trains, he… [read more]

Malcolm X &amp Sophia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (781 words)
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She drives a long distance to be with him (though never lets him visit her), in a part of town looked down upon by society. She does not have any problems relating to prostitutes, pimps and other such elements of society.

Among her people, Sophia may be "just another" person, but in Malcolm's presence she sees herself as special. She feels that she is needed by Malcolm (who does not feel the same) and never fails to make herself available. She recognizes that Malcolm feels a certain status symbol in dating a white woman, and that makes her feel special.

Sophia can be classified as a rebel with nary a clue. The characteristics of her character indicate a complex and confused personality. She felt easily intimidated when she was treated with cool respect (by Malcolm's brother) -- she expected that since she was white, most black people would defer to her point-of-view. She pretends that she knows what she wants and makes no apologies. Sophia's character does not change; she grows with Malcolm and graduates with him.

She joins in his life of crime (and even recklessly recruits her sister to abet her) without a single pang of conscience.

Sophia feels the essence of her being when she is Malcolm's presence. She treats him as her life-partner. Sophia does not respect the norms of society. She is selfish in that respect. As long as she feels fulfilled, she does not care. Her needs essentially are: rebelling against her protected life in "white" society, by associating with blacks. Prior to the civil rights struggles, blacks were essentially recognized as second-class citizens. Sophia largely subscribes to this view -- her association with black people is unsympathetic. Her pandering to blacks is only in an effort to fulfill her rebelliousness.

Malcolm met Sophia needs by his physical presence. When he goes to prison, Sophia does not visit Malcolm. Haley does not write about her anymore; this means that she is not part of his life, his internal or civil rights struggles for the rest of his life.

Sophia is overwhelmingly selfish -- she gives but with no thought to the one being given too. She is self-centered to the extreme; everything played second fiddle to her needs -- morals, society, who she hurt personally -- nothing else matters.… [read more]

Martin Luther King, Jr Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (695 words)
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Next, Martin Luther King Jr. firmly believed that change could and would be accomplished without the use of physical force or violence. The fact that Martin Luther King Jr. remarkable considering that from 1955, when he mobilized the black community during the 382-day Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott, to his death in 1968, he faced hundreds of death threats.

Another remarkable characteristic of Martin Luther King Jr. was his determination, intellect, and perseverance. In 1957, Martin Luther King Jr. summoned together numerous black leaders and cemented the groundwork for what later became the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). As president of SCLC, Martin Luther King, Jr. sought to assist other communities in organizing protests against discrimination and registering black voters. In 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. spearheaded a mass protest in Birmingham, Alabama which resulted in the desegregation of department store facilities, the establishment of a biracial committee, and fair hiring practices. The gravity of police brutality used against Martin Luther King Jr. And the other protesters dramatized the severity of the plight of blacks and resulted in Martin Luther King Jr. writing his classic "Letter from a Birmingham Jail."

Other incredible events in Martin Luther King Jr.'s life include his participation as a principal speaker in the historic March on Washington, where he delivered one of the most passionate speeches of his career. After winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, Martin Luther King Jr. led a voter-registration campaign in Selma, Alabama which culminated in the historic Selma-to-Montgomery Freedom March. In addition, Martin Luther King Jr. launched an open-housing and slum-rehabilitation program in Chicago, Illinois.


Few individuals are capable of achieving true admiration, recognition, and respect. Likewise, even fewer individuals attain long-term admiration, recognition, and respect. In addition, very few individuals have the ability, determination, and skill to make a lasting contribution to other individuals and society. Martin Luther King Jr. is one of the rare individuals who was able to lead a movement for black equality in a non-violent manner while crossing racial lines and gaining long-term admiration, recognition, and…… [read more]

Analyzing a Speech in the Democratic Convention by Hillary Clinton Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (428 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Hillary Clinton's Speech

Hillary Clinton's job at the Democratic National Convention was clear; she needed to unify her party after a closely contested race with Barack Obama. While the battle for the Democratic nomination had started out cordially, Clinton began waging personal attacks such as the infamous "not ready to answer the phone at three in the morning" campaign after she fell behind. Emotional attachment by supporters of both candidates ran high, leaving less than half of her supporters stating that they would definitely support Obama after her loss (What Hillary Clinton's speech needs to accomplish, 2008). So, to accomplish her unification goal, she needed to achieve two objectives, convincing her supports that Obama is ready for the job and making them believe that she truly wants them to support Obama.

On the first objective, Clinton falls short, but she hit a home run on the second objective, although this may have been motivated by her own goal of protecting her political future.

In her support for Obama, Clinton elaborates on a long list of reasons why she ran for president and states that these are the reasons that voters must now support Obama. She also rails against the existing Republican administration and McCain's candidacy. However, she never gets into the delicate…… [read more]

Effective Campaign Media Strategy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Barack Obama Campaign

Barack Obama's media-friendly campaign includes savvy use of digital media extending beyond a slick Web site. Since "Obama Girl" produced her tongue-in-cheek video "I Got a Crush on Obama" and posted it on YouTube, Barack Obama's campaign has paid tribute to the power of the Internet and other new media in delivering the core messages of the campaign, attracting voters, and capitalizing on the instant feedback new media makes possible. As a result, the Obama campaign has been astonishingly well-executed, organized and yet flexible, attractive to a relatively broad demographic, and centering on the charisma of its leader.

The Barack Obama official campaign Web site at www.Barackobama.comis cobalt blue, echoing the title of Obama's "plan for America" known as "Blueprint for Change." The "Blueprint for Change" is a downloadable PDF document outlining Obama's position on more than a dozen issues including health care, the economy, and foreign policy. The document proves the campaign's ability to use new media to its advantage and also helps dispel the rumor that Obama's campaign messages are too nebulous. Outlined clearly in the "Blueprint for Change," Obama's positions on the issues are clear and accessible to all computer users in their own time. Even those users who do not have a computer or Internet connection at home can download the document for later viewing or print it out. Several other campaign documents detailing Barack Obama's stance on key issues are posted on the Web site in HTML and in PDF form.

Video footage and other multimedia content makes the Obama campaign Website seem designed for youth. Moreover, the campaign points out Obama's presence on the Web's most popular social and information hubs including Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube. One of the most notable features on www.barackobama.comis the clickable map of the United States. Users click on their state of residence and they are taken to a page of links for how to become involved in the Barack Obama campaign in that state and contact information for related local political groups.

Obama's online presence is presented clearly and in a way that could get older voters or those not yet computer savvy to read more about the candidate. The Web site also includes a cellular phone text message center and other means of accessing campaign information. Thus, if the campaign managers selected a youth demographic as the target audience for the Web site, they might find that their scope is far more expansive.

An effective media strategy always keeps audience in mind, and the Barack Obama campaign Web site does exactly that. The Web site includes a series of links to pages allowing users to register to vote, take action in their community, participate in the campaign, donate, or report problems in local voting procedures or systems. Reflecting the Barack Obama message of hope and change, the…… [read more]