Study "African-American / Black Studies" Essays 441-470

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Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Voter Switches From Democrat to Republican Essay

… These are inhumane, unbelievably cruel acts that must stop.

At this point I would like to point out that my own daughter has been a volunteer with the Underground Railroad, the organization that assists negroes that have escaped from the… [read more]

Views on the Compromise of 1850 Essay

… While at the same time, he is saying that slavery is moral and has existed throughout human history. ("John Calhoun," 1850)

Daniel Webster created a compromise. Basically, he gave both sides something and asked them to bend on their position. In this case, he felt that California should be admitted to the Union as a free state. While new territories (such as: New Mexico and Utah) will not be considered to support or go directly against slavery. At the same time, he created the Fugitive Slave Law. This meant that runaway slaves could be captured anywhere in country and returned to slavery by bounty hunters. ("Daniel Webster," 1850)

In this case, Webster is trying to appease both sides. This occurs by not taking a position on slavery. Instead, it is an extension of the status quo. The results are that, the issue of slavery is pushed down the road, with no real solution being introduced. Once this happened, is the point both sides felt as if they gained something. Yet, it increased the overall amounts of anger and animosity by giving up something in return. ("Daniel Webster," 1850)

Which argument do you find the most compelling? Why

The arguments that are the most compelling are those presented by Seward and Webster. Seward had an impact on these views, by illustrating how these practices are immoral and should be dealt with through federal legislation. While Webster, was not entirely opposed to either side. Instead, he was more concerned about avoiding kind of civil war. The way that this was achieved was to offer some form of appeasement. In this case, Webster's solution did not solve the problem and it only prevented the inevitable for ten years. This is when the nation became gripped by the issues of slavery and states' rights. Once this happened, is the point the country would be forced into a bloody conflict to settle these problems for good.


Daniel Webster. (1850).

John… [read more]

Is Murder a Better Alternative Than Slavery for Your Children? Research Paper

… Considering that most slaves struggled to act in accordance with what their masters wanted from them, it would be safe to say that these people fought for their lives. It is not that they appreciated the conditions they were living… [read more]

Segregation and the Rise Essay

… Again, it is critical to note that the primary reason for such intolerance was because Whites did not want Blacks to perform jobs which were traditionally held by the former.

Thus, there were many political maneuvers that took place during this conflict of interest. Antebellum attempts included the Black Codes and Jim Crow laws, the former of which was an attempt by labor scarce large southern plantation owners to legally re-implement slavery, the latter of which were attempts by poorer whites to ensure that Blacks could not challenge them for jobs. Ironically, this competition produced an alliance between conservative business elite white politicians (who wanted the cheaper slave labor) and Blacks, who needed the politicians simply to legally labor. The result is that this alliance enabled white working class laborers to unite in attempts to keep Blacks from taking their jobs.

The logical implications for the theme of development suggested by this reading is that, first and foremost, racism is and of itself a hoax. It exists, but merely as a means to protect the things that are most vital to a population -- such as its need to earn money and to provide the tangible essentials (food clothing and shelter) for itself. Also, this theme shows how labor, politics, and social concerns can all collide to create groups of power, such as that which was achieved by lower class whites near the end of the 19th century. Yet it also alludes to the fact that regardless of race, the true conflict was (and still is) a class system of the haves and the have-nots in America.

Works Cited

Wilson, William Julius. The Declining Significance of Race. Illinois: University of Chicago Press.… [read more]

Declining Significance of Race Essay

… Changes in the law that coincided with this development support Wilson's thesis. Other laws were passed which upheld this cruel economic calculus: slave owners could not be punished for killing a slave when disciplining him or her, given the widespread acknowledgement that this was necessary to force slaves to labor.

Eventually, this law changed in the 19th century, reflecting more cultural anxiety about the status of slaves. But if conditions for slaves improved legally and materially on plantations this was mainly due to slaves' increased economic value for owners, not out of compassion. And "the enforced personal feeling of inferiority" was of course devastating for slaves (Wilson 32). Slave religion and slave kinship structures did provide slaves with some psychological sustenance, as well as ideological arenas of resistance. However, the relationship of slaves and masters remained a paternalistic one in the Deep South, despite the likely feelings of slaves: masters even protected slaves against the anger of poor whites who took out their rage against the unequal system of the South on blacks rather than against the wealthy whites who benefited from it.

In the upper, more urbanized South blacks had more mobility, could often find their own employment, and were less closely supervised given the different economic structure of the urbanized economy and therefore urbanized slavery. Segregation was also less rigidly enforced and blacks and whites of all classes had more contact, thanks to the different economic structure of the area.

Q3. What are the logical implications of the theme for the concept 'development?'

Wilson's analysis of the phenomenon of slavery is fundamentally Marxist in orientation: it begins with a material, economic analysis of the phenomenon and then examines how resistance of the 'have-nots' finds ways of circumventing the dominance of the 'haves.' Slaves sometimes used the institutions created by landowners like religion and isolated slave communities to articulate a sense of personal selfhood in an oppressive culture but the paternalistic system prevented them from fully resisting in many instances. In contrast, in different economic contexts such as the slave-holding but more urbanized upper South, Wilson believes that slavery had a fundamentally different character. [read more]

Second Inaugural Address: President Obama Essay

… '

In his own speech, Obama uses such soaring rhetoric when he says in one of his most memorable lines: "We the people declare today that the most evident of truth that all of us are created equal -- is the star that guides us still; just as it guided our forebears through Seneca Falls and Selma and Stonewall; just as it guided all those men and women, sung and unsung, who left footprints along this great mall, to hear a preacher say that we cannot walk alone; to hear a King proclaim that our individual freedom is inextricably bound to the freedom of every soul on Earth" (Obama 1). Obama gave the first speech if his second term on the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday, and the occasion had particular resonance given that America had just elected its first black president for a second time. This sense of 'occasion' and connection to the past is also appropriate for a ceremonial speech such as an inaugural address. Obama seldom draws connections between himself and Dr. King in his other, more specific, ordinary speeches.

Obama's use of rhythm, imagery, and evocative language made the speech a memorable one and he recalled King's use of repetition and images of a better tomorrow for the nation's children in his conclusion: "Our journey is not complete until we find a better way to welcome the striving, hopeful immigrants who still see America as a land of opportunity, until bright young students and engineers are enlisted in our workforce rather than expelled from our country…Our journey is not complete until all our children, from the streets of Detroit to the hills of Appalachia to the quiet lanes of Newtown, know that they are cared for and cherished and always safe from harm" (Obama 3). Instead of a dream, Obama focused upon a journey that America must take, implying that the path will be a difficult one, but ultimately the end result will be worthwhile.

Works Cited

Obama, Barack. "Second inaugural address." The Washington Post. 21 Jan 2013.

[9 Feb 2013] [read more]

Civil Rights Movement: Brown v Research Paper

… The sixty years before the Brown decision was made were heavy with segregation (Kluger, 1975; Patterson, 2001). The argument for desegregation was that the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was being broken by segregating blacks and whites. That Amendment states… [read more]

Anxieties of White Mississippians Essay

… To get caught out without a pass meant a whipping.

As to the fears that white folks had, indeed they were afraid of a rebellion by the slaves. In a letter dated September 10, 1835, Jesse Mabry explained that she had heard talk of a slave rebellion in Madison County. "…The slaves of the vicinity intended an insurrection," Mabry wrote (to Thomas Shackleford). In that insurrection the slaves were said to have a plan to kill all the whites. The conspiracy was discussed at great length and a slave named Joe was tied up and pumped for information. Yes, Joe admitted, he had heard talk of a conspiracy against the whites, and he said if he would go unpunished, he would tell all that he had heard. He explained that the plan was to take axes, hoes and other tools and "…massacre all the whites" but that never took place.

The white folks in Mississippi did have good reason to fear a rebellion because slaves had done it before in other parts of the south, and given that there were more slaves than white folks, it did cause a stir and some paranoia.

In conclusion, this is a well-written, well-edited book, which offers good information about the dynamics of life in Mississippi (and the South) around the time of the Civil War. Could anyone blame the slaves if they did rebel? Especially it would seem that those slaves that were whipped mercilessly for no reason and brutally treated by their masters would ultimately rebel and stand their ground. If the slave owners hadn't treated their slaves so poorly, it might have been different. And for… [read more]

Ethics in Any Case a Person Decides Essay

… Ethics

In any case a person decides to perform the same actions there is tendency for the brain to learn this pattern of behavior therefore setting up a pathway. Such pathway tends to be more efficient means for the brain to process the routine, as opposed to a new series of discreet tasks, and this is habit. After a habit has been formed, it becomes so hard for the person to freely stop continuing with the same habit not unless change of that habit is forced on the individual.

Even though some people might decide to change their habits without coercion, it does not apply to majority. Many who change their habits without being forced in several occasion you will find that their formed habit has ended them in negative side of life or a situation making them to have no option but stop the habit. Therefore it is essential for the change of habit to be forced on them before they end in trouble or on a bad scenario.

Some people may argue that change of habit forced on an individual at times may not be permanent and one may just pretend when he or she is in a constraining environment but when he or she finds a free environment they can still continue with the same habit. Therefore it is much important for an individual to be explained for thoroughly reasons as to why the habit should be changed until she or he sees the sense and voluntarily alters the behavior.

Once I had developed a habit of smoking, my parents were not pleased with this since they were not smoking and they were really terrified of the effects it could cause on my health. They tried talking to me to change the habit but it did not bear fruit. They had no option but to force that change on me. Many restrictions were put on me like my parents took the car which they had given me and some other help they were giving me insisting that on stopping the smoking habit I would get them back. It forced me to stop smoking so as to get my normal life privileges and afterwards I realized that my being forced to change my habit was of great importance to me.

A person will easily change a habit depending on how long the habit has been in practice. For instance when somebody is young in the habit it easy for that individual to change the habit alone but if the habit has been developed for such a long time it will take this individual such a long time so that he or she change the habit. Such people are supposed to be studied closely so that they are understood better before taking action. Generally, the voluntary change of habits is easier and more effective and permanent as compared to imposition of the change.

On the part of the second… [read more]

Correlations, or Discrepancies Essay

… The federal government focuses on sex trafficking and prostitution and does not spend sufficient resources investigating other modern forms of slavery (Destefano, 2007).

Another theme about slavery is that, while it may be extremely secretive, slaves interact with society as a whole. Healthcare providers are likely to encounter victims of human trafficking. In fact, 28% of trafficked women saw a health care provider while still in captivity (Dovydaitis, 2011). Therefore, having front-line workers, such as health professionals, aware of how to spot and report trafficking is critical.

Another recurring theme about slavery is the global nature of human trafficking. All countries are source points for human trafficking. Furthermore, globalization makes it difficult to track victims of trafficking (Jones, Engstrom, Hilliard, & Diaz, 2007). Some countries aggressively go after traffickers, while other countries are more tolerant of the practice. For example, China is believed to have a significant human trafficking problem, but its procedures for prosecuting traffickers lack transparency and there are far fewer prosecutions than suspected incidents of slavery (Lagon, 2008). However, many nations are attempting to really fight human trafficking. For example, Cambodia is considered a hub of human trafficking in Southeast Asia (Lindstrom, 2008). However, the country is attempting to combat the problem and help stop illegal trafficking (Lindstrom, 2008). Given that governmental apathy helps contribute to the problem of human trafficking, these efforts may prove very beneficial. However, some countries are taking a victim-first approach that should help combat trafficking. For example, in Scotland the Equality and Human Rights Commission's chair was seeking to talk to victims of trafficking to help understand it from the perspective of a person who [read more]

Importance of Slavery Essay

… ¶ … Slavery

Many consider slavery to be one of the major causes of the Civil War. The background reasons for this include political, economic, social and moral reasons. First of all, from a political perspective, politicians from the North began to run on platforms that encouraged an abolitionist perspective for the entire country and many of the Northern voters supported such an approach. This would mean that slavery would no longer be allowed as a characteristic of the South, one that was needed to support the economy, but would be eradicated throughout the United States, with dire consequences for the South. The political emulation that followed around the idea of slavery was one of the causes of the Civil War.

Second, the economic reasons are even stronger and more obvious for making slavery one of the major causes of the Civil War. Basically, the Southern states were states whose economies depended heavily on slavery to be competitive, as much as that was possible, on the market. With no labor costs, their overall costs decreases significantly.

Free labor meant that industries that were not efficient, such as cotton and tobacco exploitation, could eventually be sold in an effective manner by the landowners. Other than that, the simple idea of moving from an economy where labor was free to one where money would need to be invested in the workforce was just inacceptable and, in fact, very hard to understand in the South.

Other than that, slavery is at the basis of the differentiation between the economies of the North and South, another major cause of the war. One can argue that most of the industrial economy, as… [read more]

Indian Slavery Thesis

… ¶ … participation by the local Creek Indians in the Indian slave trade.

The Creek Indians exploited their own race by selling war captives and their families into slavery and they even began attacking neighboring tribes specifically to capture and sell slaves. This is interesting because many people typically think of slavery as a racial issue in which the slave owner justifies the practice by invoking the notion that there is one race that is vastly superior to another. Certainly, this is the case we are most familiar with in the history of America and its black slave trade. However, the collusion of the local Creek Indians with the white settlers of the Carolina economy show the slavery issue to be more about exploitation of the weak for economic gain than racism.

The Creek Indians had a fear of becoming slaves themselves showing that they were well aware of what a horrible life that could be. but, that fate, as far as the Creek Indians… [read more]

Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay

… Letter to Birmingham

Letter to a Birmingham Jail: a Response to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Reverend King

Let me begin by saying how honored I felt to read your letter written from your cell in a Birmingham jail in response to certain critics of yours who found your actions "unwise and untimely." Your even tone and the sound logic of your arguments left little doubt as to the correctness of your conclusions in the face of such timidity and cowardice on the part of the white ministers who wrote to you. Your words and ideas have a true power and the ability to affect people even from a printed page, and this is a gift that you have used consistently at great personal sacrifice to yourself and your family in the service of your race, and for this I thank you.

In your letter, you continually speak about the need to face reality, and to judge the current situation of the so-called Negro for what it is -- not what people believe it will be in time, or what it could be or should be, but simply for what it is. You correctly identify the situation as one of ongoing, systematic, purposeful and calculated oppression that self-perpetuates by denying the so-called Negro the right to vote and access to the courts and other legal institutions, such that a man of color living in the South can more take part in electing his representatives in the halls of government than he can seek justice for abuses he receives to his person, the theft of his property, or even the murder of his family. You are clearly able to see the situation for what it is.

It is difficult for me to understand, then, why your insistence that the time to act is and always ahs been right now, whenever that now is, is not matched by an equal fervor in demanding a level of action that addresses the severity of the issue. The immediacy of the situation is correctly met by an immediacy in your sense of action; you claim that it is no longer and truly has never been the proper time to let injustice live, and that direct action must be taken as time offers no guarantee that it will cure any ills. Yet the action you advocate is tame, and does not address the most pressing and immediate issues of the right to vote granted by amendments to the U.S. Constitution nearly a century go, as called for by Du Bois who above all else demanded suffrage "now, henceforth and forever." This demand was made in 1906, and we still wait, and you would have us wait more. We are still denied the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness upon which this country was founded, and you would have us peacefully sit at lunch counters and march in streets and wait to be arrested by the very… [read more]

Calhoun, Seward, and Webster Your Purchase Essay

… ¶ … Calhoun, Seward, and Webster your purchase.In his "Higher Law" speech, William Seward reveals his opinions toward slavery pointing out that he believed it to be morally wrong. He encouraged his readers to think outside the box, so to speak when considering the aspect of slavery and freedom. He could not deny that slavery was legal in regard to the Constitution but what he so desperately wanted others to realize is that the Constitution did not protect the act of slavery. This might have seemed like a flimsy argument, but Seward recognized the difference and articulated it in this speech. He realized that the two could not rationally exist and still uphold one of the most precious rights Americans possess and that is the right to pursue happiness. Seward wrote, "There is another aspect of the principle of compromise which deserves consideration. It assumes that slavery, if not the only institution in a slave state, is at least a ruling institution, and that this characteristic is recognized by the Constitution" (Seward 21). Here we see that Seward is not attempting to change the Constitution. He then writes, "But slavery is only one of many institutions there. Freedom is equally an institution there. Slavery is only a temporary, accidental, partial, and incongruous one. Freedom on the contrary, is a perpetual, organic, universal one, in harmony with the Constitution of the United States" (Seward 21). The fact that Seward suggests that slavery is accidental demonstrates how he is willing to look at things from a different perspective. He was appealing to a higher law than the Constitution when he spoke out about slavery because he saw the contradiction within these two terms.

In his response to The Clay Compromise Measures, John Calhoun speaks out against Clay's notion. In his speech, he emphasized northern aggression and attempted to persuade his audience against any kind of compromise. He was under the impression that, at the time, there were two separate nations within the country and the differences between them must be settled in the name of peace. He thought that secession would solve all problems. He wrote, "It is only through a long process, and successively, that the cords can be snapped until the whole fabric falls asunder. Already the agitation of the slavery question has snapped some of the most important, and has greatly weakened all the others" (Calhoun). Here Calhoun is recognizing the problem and the possible scenario if the problem is not resolved. He also writes, "There is, again, only one way by which this can be effected, and that is by removing the causes by which this belief has been produced. Do this, and discontent will cease, harmony and kind feelings between the sections be restored, and every apprehension of danger to the Union… [read more]

Many Thousands Gone the First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America by IRA Berlin Essay

… ¶ … Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America, by Ira Berlin is a book about the first two centuries of slavery and the final part and epilogue discuss the time of revolution in North America, and how it affected the slaves in both the North and the South. The author shows that after the signing of the Declaration of Independence, many Americans began to question the practice of keeping slaves, in their own quest for liberty and freedom. He shows how slavery ended in the North, and the idea of adding free and slave states to the Union came about.

One of the most interesting aspects of these readings were the distinctions the author made among the different slave populations of the South. While it makes sense that slaves who lived in different areas of the South had different experiences and affected society in different ways that is not often discussed in slave histories and it seems many people assume that slave experiences were the… [read more]

Campaign Ads Thesis

… Campaign Advertisements

In the 2008 historic presidential race, Barack Obama has repeatedly accused John McCain of running a completely negative campaign. Obama argued that the issues are too important for the "misleading mail and TV ads" and other negative tactics he attributes to our campaign. However, he made no mention of his own campaign's conduct.

According to Jones (2008), Obama ran "the most negative campaign in recent memory." In the Atlantic, she writes that Obama ran more negative ads than any candidate in history, including an advertising statement in which one of his supporters linked Senator McCain to the segregationist policies of George Wallace and the murder of four little girls.

Jones writes that while Obama said he detests negative advertisements, his campaign is filled withnegative, false and misleading ads against John McCain.

According to figures from Campaign Media Analysis Group, in the final stretch of this campaign -- from September 12 to October 18 -- Barack Obama ran 119,101 negative ads costing more than $65 million," wrote Jones. "For that time period, the Obama campaign spent nearly $30 million more than the McCain-Palin campaign on negative ads. That $30 million represents 38,000 negative ads. The breakdown is even more staggering in the period from October 12 to 18. In that seven-day period, Barack Obama spent over $22 million for more than 37,000 negative ads -- that's more than twice the amount spent on positive ads and almost three times the amount that the McCain-Palin campaign spent on such ads."

However, there is no denying that McCain's campaign was very negative. Obama and McCain clashed sharply in presidential campaigns and debates, as McCain tried to convince people that his opponent was insensitive to "Joe the Plumber" and too willing to associate himself with unsavory influences, while Obama charged that McCain was waging an ugly, divisive campaign.

McCain was, in the eyes of many, the aggressor, insisting that the average guy -- the plumber -- would pay more taxes under Obama. "And, McCain said, Obama was reluctant to repudiate an inflammatory statement by Rep. John Lewis, D-Ga., or voter registration tactics of community group Acorn," according to Lightman.

Obama also used negative campaign methods to fight back against McCain but his methods appeared to be more gentle and more focused… [read more]

Mccain Is the Better More Experienced Candidate Thesis

… Mccain Is a Stronger Candidate:

In the battle between John McCain and Barack Obama, you are likely to get rather confused. On the one hand you have this young man with a touch of glamour and on the other you have a man who may not be glamorous but has years of political experience behind him. Who would you rather choose? For those who are die hard democrats or Republicans the choice is easy but for those in-between the two extremes, making a decision is definitely not a piece of cake. Well the cake reminds me of something my grandfather once said to me: "darling, you may love the icing, but it's the cake the really matters." Over the years this piece of advice has helped me on many occasions.

And I have come to the conclusion that fluff is always just that, "fluff" and it cannot replace the "real thing." Icing on the cake is that fluff- it may taste great and look beautiful but it's the cake below it that really counts. You can buy the cake without the icing but you won't buy the icing without the cake.

That should make it clear who is a choice between McCain and Obama. Obama is young with all his youthful idealism and fancy dreams but McCain has solid experience behind him that stops him from making false promises or showing people dreams they cannot realize.

Often times we might wonder why a man as experienced as McCain is rather quiet compared to Obama. The fact is that McCain knows what he is talking about and thus he measures his words and only says the right things. Obama on the other hand is often swayed by emotions and ends up saying things he either doesn't mean or he doesn't know the meaning of. Think of "lipstick on the pig" remark. To this day, I am not sure what it really meant and I am sure, even Obama doesn't have a clue.

McCain is a stronger candidate because he has seen the world and has experienced hardships. He has been a prisoner of war which gives him the experience that Obama cannot gain sitting in his pretty seat in the Senate. It takes a lot of courage to serve in the war and to survive in prison and McCain has done that and has definitely come out of it a stronger man.

One thing we must remember here is that McCain should not be judged by his party members because he is known as "maverick" for choosing to disagree with his party on several key issues. This kind… [read more]

Presidential Race Term Paper

… Presidential Race

Wednesday, April 16, 2008; Washington Post

This is a write-up about a speech given in Pennsylvania by John McCain presenting his economic plans. Statements from both Democratic candidates' aides were also reported. These were critical of McCain's level of spending, and stated that his tax cuts were for corporations and the wealthy.

This would give the voter additional information about McCain's economy policies. It might help voters to choose a candidate based on what is important to them economically.

Wednesday, April 16, 2008; Washington Post

This story indicates that Hillary Clinton's biggest struggle is to gain back the trust she has lost. The majority of voters view her as dishonest. Percentages, from a variety of polls, are given to support this. Additional information about how Clinton is viewed is also given.

This would not necessarily aid a voter in making a decision. If the person were easily swayed by public opinion as reported in polls, then they might feel that Clinton is not truthful.

Sunday, April 27, 2008; the News & Observer

The article discusses the economic plans of all three candidates. First is general discussion and summation. Following this is two sections, the first concerning McCain and the second covering both Clinton and Obama. Each candidate, or representatives from their staff, gives some specifics about their own plan.

Again, this might help a voter to learn more about the candidate's economic plans. It could help them choose who to vote for based on this information.

Monday, April 28, 2008; the News & Observer

Senator Clinton gave a speech in Wilmington, North Carolina. Some details of the speech are reported. Additional campaign stops are given, as well as information about the delegate counts for both North Carolina and Indiana. Incidental mention is given about Obama and increasing appearances by both candidates.

If a voter wanted to see Senator Clinton, the information is too general. It gives little information that is detailed enough to assist a voter.

Friday, April 18, 2008; Washington Post

The article reports about the negative campaigning that has been seen in the Democratic Party between the two candidates. Specific mention was given concerning Obama's relationship with Rev. Jeremiah Wright. Past controversial remarks from Obama are discussed. There are statements about Clinton's recent negative ratings.

This would not provide any information that would help voters decide on a candidate. It only reports on the situation at the specific time.

Thursday, April 17, 2008; Washington Post bill presented in Congress targeting veterans' educational benefits, and proposing a minimum one month time off for combat veterans is reported. The writers of the bill indicate that McCain must give support or it… [read more]

Melville's Benito Cereno Term Paper

… Forced atrocious thralldom of human beings, doesn't just arouse, in them, the dire lust for freedom but also injects the praxis and bravado to make this a reality.

Benito Cereno, is yet another tale depicting the atrocious practice of subjugating blacks and trading them like mere 'commodities' where they were not only denied physical liberty but also the right of cognitive existence/freedom. The account starts off describing the situation where a huge vessel carrying 'slave freight', apparently, encounters some functional complications and hence is forced to halt near the harbor of St. Maria. In the same vicinity was another boarded ship captained by Amasa Delano. Delano decided to go to the misery-stricken 'San Dominick' just to notice that it was carrying 'Slave freight'. It was quite prominently chalked on the front side: 'Follow your Leader' which then again forwarded the notion that this very ship was a Negro-transportation ship. The crew and the general 'order' of the vessel were both hard to find. The overall condition of the blacks onboard was quite debilitated by disease and hunger. As is quite evident from the following statement:

But, in one language, and as with one voice, all poured out a common tale of suffering."

Although San Dominick was a slave-carrier, the general setting and atmosphere did not show any such elements of Black subservience (towards the White). The Negroes seemed to be quite indifferent to their surroundings and even their command. This was quite evident in the statement by Delano regarding his first impression of the 'setting' and 'order' of San Dominick.: "Long continued suffering seemed to have brought out the less good-natured qualities of the Negroes, besides, at the same time, impairing the Spaniard's (captain) authority over them." This reveals that the negroes had since a long time been under this tortuous enslavement and now it seemed that there patience had already reached the threshold and this extreme mental frustration had, since long planted the seed of 'revolt' in their minds. The event in which a white boy attempted to abuse a black lad verbally, and in reaction the black kid injured him with a 'dagger', whereas the Spaniard captain quite helplessly called it a 'regular sport', quite conspicuously reveals the chafe Negroes experienced due to the prolonged slavery.

He was struck by one of those instances of subordination previously alluded to. Three black boys with three Spanish boys were sitting together on the hatches

Suddenly one of the Black boys enraged with a word dropped by one of his white companion, seized a knife,...and struck the lad over the head." very immediate impact of this slavery is 'hatred'. This emotion might be felt and even expressed. The event mentioned in the following… [read more]

Anne Moody Term Paper

… ¶ … Life of Anne Moody

In the book Coming of Age in Mississippi Anne Moody shares the story of her life. The book is focused on her position as a black woman in a world that she considers as… [read more]

Lincoln: The Second Political Debate Term Paper

… Lincoln: The Second Political Debate Between Lincoln and Douglas

The primary subject of the second debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas was that of slavery, specifically how it related to the addition of new territories to the evolving American union. At the time, the proponents and antagonists of American slavery who still wished to preserve the Union were attempting to strike a balance between the number of slave states in the American Congress and the number of abolitionist states. However, as more territories were incorporated into the union, this balanced policy proved increasingly difficult. Both Lincoln and Douglas wished to preserve the Union. However, Douglas advocated allowing states such as Kansas into the Union as slave state, even though this would imbalance the representation of pro and anti-slave states in Congress.

During the first of Lincoln's rejoinders to Douglas, Lincoln stated that: "I hold that the Union cannot permanently exist half slave and half free." Lincoln also defended himself against his opponent's charge that he could not be an able politician in a nation where slavery was still a legal institution, stating that… [read more]

Dinner Guest: Me Term Paper

… They think they are being open by having a black man to dinner, but that is not really true. They are just showing their prejudice and their ignorance because they "demurely probe in polite way the why and wherewithal of darkness USA" (Hughes). They live their white lives on Park Avenue and have a black man to dinner, and so they think they understand the "Negro problem."

The narrator feels the way he does because he knows that this dinner, and others like it, will never solve the "Negro problem." It's the white people that have the problem; the black people just want the same opportunities the whites have. He felt this way because he knows that he will not change any minds or make any difference at this dinner. He says, "Solutions to the problem, of course, wait." He knows that the dinner really means nothing, and nothing good will happen because of it. He knows the "Negro problem" will continue, and that the whites, who are clueless about it will never understand it is them who are the real problem.


Hughes, Langston. "Dinner Guest: Me." [read more]

Classic Slave Narrative of Olaudah Term Paper

… "Have already related an instance or two of particular oppression out of many which I have witnessed, but the following is frequent in all the islands. The wretched field-slaves, after toiling all the day for an unfeeling owner who gives them but little victuals, steal sometimes a few moments from rest or refreshment to gather some small portion of grass, according as their time will admit." He states that the disconnection of a common sense of humanity between the owners and the slaves in the West Indies, as opposed to his own culture, resulted in the particular privation experienced by slaves in the area.

However, as Equiano's experience as a slave evolved, he begins, as a narrator, to harden his perspective upon slavery and to stress the psychological as well as the physical tolls his bondage took upon himself. Even after enduring the relatively more privileged, physically speaking, circumstances of slavery in the United Southern States, he still found himself yearning for freedom. His salvation from the institution of slavery ultimately came after being purchased by a British naval commander, Henry Pascal, from whom he was later able to purchase his freedom. This 'end' to the narrative of Equiano's enslavement is thus also atypical to later slave narratives of bondage, in that he was allowed to purchase his freedom from white owners, and that he was able to enter the protection of a land where slavery was less integral an institution to the national economy

Thus, freed and escaped slaves in England were less resolutely policed in their behavior.

This also results in Equiano's somewhat more compassionate view of particular whites whom he encounters over the course of his life, as may be expected, and ultimately of the validation of Christianity as an ideology the former African native embraces, because of its perceived effects of softening the human heart of those whom he was able to buy his freedom from. However, Equiano still ends his narrative and tells his tale from the point-of-view of an advocate for universal… [read more]

Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Term Paper

… Moreover, the long growing seasons and rich soil of Middle Florida became a haven for large landowners as well as the scratch farmer. Baptist points out that by 1823, descriptions of this new virgin land between the east and west coasts of Florida were appearing in print by at least four authors, causing many to imagine the possibilities, whether financially or culturally.

However, as Baptist is careful to account, this new paradise soon became embroiled in conflict, culturally and politically. By the 1840's, conflicts between the whites waned when slavery became an issue of threat. With common bond, the white elite planters saw themselves as the royalty of the South, equal to the Jamaican plantation owners who were among Britain's richest men. Cotton, tobacco and sugar cane were but a few boomer crops of the plantations. These land barons, with the use of slave labor began to build industries, such as cotton gins and sugar mills. With their wealth came political power and the ability to shape the territory of Florida to serve their own self-interests and desires. They became major players of world trade and commerce, extending beyond national boundaries. Baptist documents the rise to power of the white elitists and the conflicts and turmoil of those early years of settlement between the plantation owners and the white settlers who had come to carve a life for their families.

Baptist account appears factual and detailed, citing among his scholarly and media sources, government and census accounts as well, thus, lending credibility not only to the other outside sources, but to his own conclusions and assumptions. Although, a scholarly account, Baptist has woven historical facts with colorful accounts from media clippings and personal journals and diaries. There did not seem to be any major inconsistencies or sweeping generalizations within the body of work. Baptist gives his readers a behind the scenes insight into a culture that has been romanticized for nearly two centuries, the Old South of grace and wealth. His view is fresh and his writing original. Baptist paints an account of Florida's birth that will surely become an important source for scholars and history buffs.


Baptist, Edward E. Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier before the… [read more]

Speak the Word of Peace Term Paper

… Unfortunately, it is a high price that many of us pay in becoming American. We often lose ourselves, and our cultural and ethnic identities. So, In his book, Days of Obligation, Rodriguez struggles with so many facets of himself, notably, his ethnic heritage, his sexuality, his sense of guilt at the chasm between who he is and who he has been told to be by parents and his church. It is believe there is a universal element to Rodriguez' struggles. They are the challenges that all human beings encounter in becoming their own unique selves.

The added dimension of Rodriguez' Mexican heritage, makes this story all the more fascinating. A wonderful book to have us think about being ourselves in a world full of others expectations as well as an opportunity to get a closer view of Mexican ethnic influences and the related struggles in a United States where far too many people forget they themselves are immigrants or children of immigrants. By sending this message Rodriguez along with Malcolm X can relate to the Contact Zone because of their words of peace and social equality

Along with Malcolm X, and Richard Rodriguez, Jonathan Kolz supports social equality especially for children. He feels there is an additional form of inequality in school systems like New York. This inequality comes from the decision of certain people to put their kids into the public system, but then privately subsidize the school their child attends in order to employ more teachers, provide a library (most school libraries have been dismantled in the elementary schools in New York City over the past twenty years), and introduce expensive technology. They refuse to fight for higher tax support for all the children. Instead they simply give a little extra to the public school their own child attends. The press is reluctant to criticize these parents. "I think there's some fear, on the part of the newspapers, that if you condemn these parents for doing this, they will flee the system altogether and abandon the low-income children. But in a sense they've abandoned them already" (Kolz). By pursuing, social equality and support from others, Kolz beliefs can be assonated with the Contact Zone like the other writers.

Using the written word can be become of a great different and provide new ideas of peace and harmony. Writers such as Malcolm X, Richard Rodriguez, and Kolz are very effective in their words by having the methods of the Contact Zone. If people would listen to these writers words, there might be less racism in the world. In order to end racism, people listen to human beings like Malcolm X, Rodriguez and Kolz because peace will never come if this is not done for the sake of the future for our children.

Malcolm X

A Accessed 5/20/02

College Term Paper 5/20/02

Richard Rodriguez.

A Accessed 5/20/02

College Term Paper 5/20/02

Interview with Jonathan Kolz. Accessed 5/20/02

College Term Paper 5/20/02

Days of… [read more]

Frederick Douglass Former Slave, Abolitionist Term Paper

… "

From a political point-of-view, Lincoln saw some problems with this point.

Soldiers performing "great and uncommon service on the battlefield" should be rewarded just as the white soldiers. Lincoln saw no problems with this point.

Douglass was a civil… [read more]

Malcolm X and Sophia Term Paper

… She drives a long distance to be with him (though never lets him visit her), in a part of town looked down upon by society. She does not have any problems relating to prostitutes, pimps and other such elements of society.

Among her people, Sophia may be "just another" person, but in Malcolm's presence she sees herself as special. She feels that she is needed by Malcolm (who does not feel the same) and never fails to make herself available. She recognizes that Malcolm feels a certain status symbol in dating a white woman, and that makes her feel special.

Sophia can be classified as a rebel with nary a clue. The characteristics of her character indicate a complex and confused personality. She felt easily intimidated when she was treated with cool respect (by Malcolm's brother) -- she expected that since she was white, most black people would defer to her point-of-view. She pretends that she knows what she wants and makes no apologies. Sophia's character does not change; she grows with Malcolm and graduates with him.

She joins in his life of crime (and even recklessly recruits her sister to abet her) without a single pang of conscience.

Sophia feels the essence of her being when she is Malcolm's presence. She treats him as her life-partner. Sophia does not respect the norms of society. She is selfish in that respect. As long as she feels fulfilled, she does not care. Her needs essentially are: rebelling against her protected life in "white" society, by associating with blacks. Prior to the civil rights struggles, blacks were essentially recognized as second-class citizens. Sophia largely subscribes to this view -- her association with black people is unsympathetic. Her pandering to blacks is only in an effort to fulfill her rebelliousness.

Malcolm met Sophia needs by his physical presence. When he goes to prison, Sophia does not visit Malcolm. Haley does not write about her anymore; this means that she is not part of his life, his internal or civil rights struggles for the rest of his life.

Sophia is overwhelmingly selfish -- she gives but with no thought to the one being given too. She is self-centered to the extreme; everything played second fiddle to her needs -- morals, society, who she hurt personally -- nothing else matters. [read more]

Martin Luther King, Jr Term Paper

… Next, Martin Luther King Jr. firmly believed that change could and would be accomplished without the use of physical force or violence. The fact that Martin Luther King Jr. remarkable considering that from 1955, when he mobilized the black community during the 382-day Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott, to his death in 1968, he faced hundreds of death threats.

Another remarkable characteristic of Martin Luther King Jr. was his determination, intellect, and perseverance. In 1957, Martin Luther King Jr. summoned together numerous black leaders and cemented the groundwork for what later became the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). As president of SCLC, Martin Luther King, Jr. sought to assist other communities in organizing protests against discrimination and registering black voters. In 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. spearheaded a mass protest in Birmingham, Alabama which resulted in the desegregation of department store facilities, the establishment of a biracial committee, and fair hiring practices. The gravity of police brutality used against Martin Luther King Jr. And the other protesters dramatized the severity of the plight of blacks and resulted in Martin Luther King Jr. writing his classic "Letter from a Birmingham Jail."

Other incredible events in Martin Luther King Jr.'s life include his participation as a principal speaker in the historic March on Washington, where he delivered one of the most passionate speeches of his career. After winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, Martin Luther King Jr. led a voter-registration campaign in Selma, Alabama which culminated in the historic Selma-to-Montgomery Freedom March. In addition, Martin Luther King Jr. launched an open-housing and slum-rehabilitation program in Chicago, Illinois.


Few individuals are capable of achieving true admiration, recognition, and respect. Likewise, even fewer individuals attain long-term admiration, recognition, and respect. In addition, very few individuals have the ability, determination, and skill to make a lasting contribution to other individuals and society. Martin Luther King Jr. is one of the rare individuals who was able to lead a movement for black equality in a non-violent manner while crossing racial lines and gaining long-term admiration, recognition, and… [read more]

Analyzing a Speech in the Democratic Convention by Hillary Clinton Essay

… ¶ … Hillary Clinton's Speech

Hillary Clinton's job at the Democratic National Convention was clear; she needed to unify her party after a closely contested race with Barack Obama. While the battle for the Democratic nomination had started out cordially, Clinton began waging personal attacks such as the infamous "not ready to answer the phone at three in the morning" campaign after she fell behind. Emotional attachment by supporters of both candidates ran high, leaving less than half of her supporters stating that they would definitely support Obama after her loss (What Hillary Clinton's speech needs to accomplish, 2008). So, to accomplish her unification goal, she needed to achieve two objectives, convincing her supports that Obama is ready for the job and making them believe that she truly wants them to support Obama.

On the first objective, Clinton falls short, but she hit a home run on the second objective, although this may have been motivated by her own goal of protecting her political future.

In her support for Obama, Clinton elaborates on a long list of reasons why she ran for president and states that these are the reasons that voters must now support Obama. She also rails against the existing Republican administration and McCain's candidacy. However, she never gets into the delicate… [read more]

Effective Campaign Media Strategy Term Paper

… Barack Obama Campaign

Barack Obama's media-friendly campaign includes savvy use of digital media extending beyond a slick Web site. Since "Obama Girl" produced her tongue-in-cheek video "I Got a Crush on Obama" and posted it on YouTube, Barack Obama's campaign has paid tribute to the power of the Internet and other new media in delivering the core messages of the campaign, attracting voters, and capitalizing on the instant feedback new media makes possible. As a result, the Obama campaign has been astonishingly well-executed, organized and yet flexible, attractive to a relatively broad demographic, and centering on the charisma of its leader.

The Barack Obama official campaign Web site at www.Barackobama.comis cobalt blue, echoing the title of Obama's "plan for America" known as "Blueprint for Change." The "Blueprint for Change" is a downloadable PDF document outlining Obama's position on more than a dozen issues including health care, the economy, and foreign policy. The document proves the campaign's ability to use new media to its advantage and also helps dispel the rumor that Obama's campaign messages are too nebulous. Outlined clearly in the "Blueprint for Change," Obama's positions on the issues are clear and accessible to all computer users in their own time. Even those users who do not have a computer or Internet connection at home can download the document for later viewing or print it out. Several other campaign documents detailing Barack Obama's stance on key issues are posted on the Web site in HTML and in PDF form.

Video footage and other multimedia content makes the Obama campaign Website seem designed for youth. Moreover, the campaign points out Obama's presence on the Web's most popular social and information hubs including Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube. One of the most notable features on www.barackobama.comis the clickable map of the United States. Users click on their state of residence and they are taken to a page of links for how to become involved in the Barack Obama campaign in that state and contact information for related local political groups.

Obama's online presence is presented clearly and in a way that could get older voters or those not yet computer savvy to read more about the candidate. The Web site also includes a cellular phone text message center and other means of accessing campaign information. Thus, if the campaign managers selected a youth demographic as the target audience for the Web site, they might find that their scope is far more expansive.

An effective media strategy always keeps audience in mind, and the Barack Obama campaign Web site does exactly that. The Web site includes a series of links to pages allowing users to register to vote, take action in their community, participate in the campaign, donate, or report problems in local voting procedures or systems. Reflecting the Barack Obama message of hope and change, the… [read more]

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