"African History / Africa" Essays

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African History Film Response Film Review

Film Review  |  2 pages (655 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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At the heart of the film is the way that history has rewritten the events of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century in Congo. King Leopold has been written by some historians as a benevolent man whose intentions were purer than those of other imperialists. Christian historians in particular have helped elevate his reputation beyond the reproaches of truthful history and instead celebrate him as an icon, as an individual who tried to spread their version of the word of God to those who were ignorant of it before. If he happened to make money because of the resources available in Congo, then that was a nice addition, but that this was not the focus of the colonial expansion. Obviously, this is the complete antithesis of the truth where the horrors of the truth are echoed still in the modern period. The filmmakers explain this by showing how chocolate hands are a common treat in Belgium today but are modeled after the fact that young children who were late on their rubber deliveries would have their hands cut off.

In Congo: White King, Red Rubber, Black Death the truth of African colonialism is made explicit. The filmmakers take what most people assume they know about this period in world history and truly educate them. It is an indictment of colonialism and of the way history tends to rewrite the villains based upon the moral and social perspective of the people writing those histories. What is most disturbing is that Leopold not only faced no serious repercussions for his actions, but that he tried to bury the truth, showing full well that he knew what he was doing was wrong as opposed to the misguided impression of some colonials that because they were white, they were somehow entitled to their atrocities.

Works Cited

Congo: White King, Red Rubber, Black Death. (2004). YouTube. YouTube, 27…… [read more]


Islam in East Africa Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Today, it is active in all three territories. The present head of the mission is Sheikh Mubarah Ahmed, whose first task was to prepare a Swahili translation of the holy Koran with a commentary, then to produce other Islamic literature. Muslims have primarily been involved in conducting village Koranic schools, where the standard of religious and secular learning is low:

As many Muslims are afraid of religious pressure if they send their children to Christian schools, the African and Arab communities are apt to be backward and economically handicapped. Nor has the Ahmadiyya mission yet undertaken hospital work of the type undertaken by the Christian missionaries. The Muslims who follow H.H. The Aga Khan, on the other hand, established schools, hospitals, dispensaries and libraries after the end of the First World War. They do not, however, support missionaries, for they believe that conversion should result from the activity of the individual.

In the earlier period, missionary work was not an Islamic tradition, and the adoption of Islam was instead "a natural consequence of the intermarriage of Arab and Persian settlers with the coastal populations since the tenth century."? As a rule, the "Arab slave-trader had not in general been a missionary: to have proselytized his victims would indeed have precluded him from enslaving them."? For tribes allied with the Arabs, though, there was evidence of some religious assimilation to Islam before the arrival of Europeans.

Bibliography

Burke, Fred G. And Stanley Diamond. The Transformation of East Africa: Studies in Political Anthropology. New York: Basic Books, 1966.

Duiker, William J. And Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History: Volume I. New York: West Publishing, 1994.

Esposito, John L. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Hansen, Holger Bernt and Michael Twaddle. Religion and Politics in East Africa: The Period since Independence. London: James Currey, 1995.

Ingham, Kenneth. A History of East Africa. London: Longmans, Green, 1963.

Kingsnorth, G.W. And Zoe Marsh. An Introduction to the History of East Africa. Cambridge, 1957.

Oliver, Roland. The Missionary Factor in East Africa. London: Longmans Green, 1952.

Ramsay, F.J. Global Studies: Africa. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998.

G.W. Kingsnorth and Zoe Marsh, An Introduction to the History of East Africa (Cambridge, 1957), 8.

John L. Esposito. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 39.

F.J. Ramsay, Global Studies: Africa (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998), 95.

William J. Duiker, and Jackson J. Spielvogel, World History: Volume I (New York: West Publishing, 1994), 240.

Ibid., 249.

Holger Bernt Hansen and Michael Twaddle, Religion and Politics in East Africa: The Period since Independence (London: James Currey, 1995), 20

Ibid., 20.

Ibid., 20-21.

Kenneth Ingham, A History of East Africa (London: Longmans, Green, 1963), 11.

Fred G. Burke and Stanley Diamond, The Transformation of East Africa: Studies in Political Anthropology (New York: Basic Books, 1966), 244.

Ibid., 244.…… [read more]


Pre-Historic African Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Pre-Historic African Development

The concept of Africa has been of "the dark continent" and this concept has been spread by the European invaders there. At the same time, there is historical evidence to suggest that human civilization developed in Africa much before it developed in Europe.

The development of man takes place in a direction that is determined by the… [read more]


Africa Since Independence Review Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (971 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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South Africa, for example, is becoming a nation that acknowledges its entire history, and is starting to embrace the whole of it. Native tribes and Afrikaaner people alike can be proud of the progress the nation has made (Bauer & Taylor).

Legum is very optimistic regarding the future of the continent. He sees the return of those first moments of euphoria that accompanied the original freedom from colonialism (72). He says this because it has been a cultural revolution in which people who were long made to suppress their heritage have now been able to embrace it. He believes that the Africa of the past will spread a new renaissance that the people of the present and future can enjoy.

One nation that comes to mind as a similar case is Australia. The indigenous people of that nation are fast realizing a cultural renaissance because they are allowed now, even encouraged to, explore who they are historically. Many South Pacific nations are having the same kind of feelings as they get closer to their roots. The similarities between many of these and Africa as a group of nations is impressive.

One issue that Legum does point out is that Africa has a difficult relationship with the West. The countries of the West were worried, when colonialism ended after World War II, how the nations of Africa would align themselves. Legum is worried that many nations of the West treated the post-colonization period like former slaves were treated in the United States after the Civil War. The nations were left on their own, to shift for themselves, and this seemed to cause many to accept forms of government which caused them to devolve to third world nations (Legum 69). But, there seems to a new spirit. Many nations are beginning to prosper with new trade deals, with both the West and the East, and this can be seen as a positive thing. Legum seems to believe that Africa will survive by becoming what it was prior to colonialism.

Conclusion

Africa is a continent that many in the past saw as a single entity with similar (if not the same) culture, politics, and religion throughout the continent. The European nations that colonized the various areas of Africa regarded the people as primitive and as needing guidance from more advanced societies. Since the nations have regained their independence over the past 70 years, they have shown the diversity and stability that was possible from the beginning. Africa has begun to come full circle and that is the central theme of the book by Mr. Legum.

Works Cited

Bauer, Gretchen, and Scott D. Taylor. Politics in Southern Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 2005. Print.

Legum, Colin.…… [read more]


Global Business Cultural Analysis Nigeria Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (5,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16

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However, the President Obasanjo was removed on May 29, 2007 after that Nigeria came to know about its primary change of authority between national supervision. The new elected leader UmaruYar'Adua took the rule; he was a modest and a valued governor. He was selected from the Katsina state and was brought in the direction of building electoral improvement and bringing… [read more]


Cultural Perceptions of Time Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (6,951 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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The regional or ethnic subsets I will examine are: the Bantu-Kongo of modern Nigeria, the Nguni Zulus of modern South Africa, and the Akan of central and southern modern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern modern Cote d'Ivoire,. Additionally I will discuss other regional affiliations of Africa based on the importance of the issue the history of the particular… [read more]


History of Africa Nationalism: African Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Additionally, since the creation of boundaries by colonizing nations was done rather arbitrarily and regardless of the indigenous ethnic cultures and tribes, the spirit of unification and nationalism was not allowed to grow organically to the point that the people would wish to form their own nation. Instead, their independence came from rebellion against a larger foe and not a unification of the people.

Independent Churches:

African Independent Churches are also known as African Indigenous Churches, African Initiated Churches, African Instituted Churches, or AICs. These names all together define more than 10,000 independent churches in Africa, all variations and denominations of Christianity (African). Although these churches are all different and spread out throughout the continent, the one thing that these churches have in common is that they were created by Africans and not by the Christian missionaries who came into Africa in the 18th and 19th centuries. The other component that unites these churches is that they all combine Christian principles with the traditional religions of the African tribes from the area that they are established in. Some of the churches utilize their African traditions more than the others, but all of them feature these characteristics is some form. The AICs, like the European Christians before them, have strong missionary systems in place to further spread their own versions of Christian religion to the rest of the African people.

The AICs began to form in the late 19th century in acts of rebellion against the white Christian missionaries and the colonial governments that they represented. One of the primary goals of the initial founders of some of the African Independent Churches was to read the Bible themselves and interpret the scripture through their own analysis and not believing without question the interpretations of the colonial missionaries. Indeed some of the AICs have expanded on the Bible, including their founding into the narrative of their religious beliefs. Additionally, it has been the political position of most AICs to have an open mind with regard to other churches and religions, particularly Christian churches occupying the same geographic locations and Muslims (African).

Works Cited:

"African Independent Church Origins." Balanced Views of Religion and Spirituality with Faith.

www.patheos.com/Library/African-Independent-Churches.html

"African Nationalism." Helicon Publishing. 2011. Online.

Blumberg, Arnold. Great Leaders, Great Tyrants?. Greenwood Publishing. 1995. 221-222. Print.

Guilbert, Armand and Seghers Nimrod. Leopold Senghor. Paris. 2006. Print.

Hedges, David. "Samora Machel: A Biography." Journal of Southern African Studies. 19: 3.

1993. 547-549. Print.

Karimi, Joseph. The Kenyatta Succession. 1980. Print.

Lettinga, Neil. "The Roman Catholic Church in the Colonial Era (1890-1960)" 7 June 2000.

Print.

Lonsdale, John. "Mau Maus of the Mind." The Journal of African History. 31. 1990. 399-421.

Print.

Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom. Little, Brown, and Co. 1994. Print.

Meredith, Martin. The Fate of Africa. Public Affairs. 2006. Print.

National…… [read more]


Ethical Issues of South Africa's Black Economic Empowerment Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,537 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

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Ethical issues of South Africa's Black Economic Empowerment Program (BEE)

Across the formerly colonized African territory, South Africa's turbulent history and multifaceted makeup is not unique. However, the country remains unique in light of the particulars. First, the nation has a direct experience with the leading violent eras across African history. My interest to cover this topic has emerged from… [read more]


Colonization of Africa Research Paper

Research Paper  |  23 pages (6,753 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

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Colonization of Africa:

The occupation and control of one nation by another is defined as colonialism. Various European countries have colonized many areas of the world including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the small islands around the world. Africa was colonized by different European nations between the late 19th century and late 20th century. Prior to the… [read more]


Africa My Favorite Place in the World Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … Algeria to Zimbabwe, Africa is the most incredible and compelling continent on the planet. African history is the history of humanity itself, as the first human beings came from Africa. The continent has had a tumultuous history and recent turmoil can be traced to the effects of colonization. In spite of the troubles that affect many African nations, the continent remains one of my favorite places in the world to travel and to live. Africa's cultures and cuisines are incredibly varied. Its ecosystems are equally as diverse, ranging from arid deserts to lush rainforests. Because of its diversity of cultural traditions, its rich and varied foods, and its wonderful ecosystems, Africa is my favorite place on the planet.

Africa is a huge continent comprised of over fifty countries, and has an even greater number of different religions, languages, and cultural traditions. Northern Africa is a world unto itself. The countries of Northern Africa including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt have been strongly influenced by Muslim and Arabic cultures. Also, the history of North Africa is especially fascinating because of ancient Egypt. One of the reasons why I love Africa is because of this rich ancient civilization that built the pyramids. A large portion of the North African desert is home to semi-nomadic people too, making that region of Africa fascinating to visit. On the other hand, large portions of Africa are still represented by stationary tribes people who practice age-old dances, religious rites, and social customs. Much of Africa was divided into kingdoms such as the Ashanti. West Africa has a strong and varied tradition that includes the Yoruba religion that informed so many of the Caribbean cultures. South Africa has its own distinct culture and history and has been influenced strongly by the European settlers. Ethiopia also differs significantly from the rest of Africa, as does Kenya.

The diversity of…… [read more]


Global Inequality South Africa Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,209 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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Global Inequality

South Africa is a large nation comprising the southern tip of the African continent. Its capital city is Pretoria, but Johannesburg and Cape Town both have larger populations. The region is rich in natural resources including precious metals, gems, and salt. Mining is the nation's largest industry and South Africa is the world's largest producer of platinum, gold, and chromium (CIA 2009). South Africa is a Republic that consists of nine provinces: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North-West, and Western Cape. South Africa shares borders with six other nations: Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Although South Africa enjoys an expansive coastline, the nation has few sources of fresh water. The nation has no major lakes or rivers; its lands are dry and semi-arid and droughts are common. Only 12% of South Africa's land is classified as arable (CIA 2009). The total population of South Africa is estimated at about 50 million as of this year.

The largest ethnic group by far in South Africa is indigenous black African people, who comprise about 80% of the nation's population. Less than 10% of the population of South Africa is white. During the British colonization of India, laborers from the subcontinent migrated to South Africa and currently comprise about 2.5% of the population there (CIA 2009). The majority of South Africans would define themselves as Christian, although no one sect of Christianity is a majority religion. South Africa is linguistically and culturally diverse: the most common first language spoken is IsiZulu but it is spoken by less than a quarter of the population. English is the first language of less than 10% of the population. South Africa has eleven official languages (BBC 2009).

South African history has been indelibly characterized by colonization. Dutch Boers first settled South Africa in 1652, establishing the city of Cape Town as a "stopover point" for trade between Europe and Asia (CIA 2009). Great Britain seized the Cape of Good Hope in 1806, which drove the Boers north where they founded new republics (CIA 2009). The British continued to pressure the Boers, however, resulting in the Boer War between 1899 and 1902. South Africa's rich natural resources became even more important than its geographic position during the nineteenth century, which is why European colonial powers held fast to the region. The Boer War did not drive out the Dutch. Rather, both British and Dutch Boer settlers co-ruled the Union of South Africa during the twentieth century. Boers became known as Afrikaners.

The first and most apparent form of social inequality in South Africa is based on race. In 1948, the government under the National Party established apartheid. Apartheid was an extreme form of institutionalized racism. For example, the Group Areas Act made it legally possible to force blacks off their land or out of their communities (Ashall & Hillier 2007). The Population Registration Act of 1950 established a race-based classification system for residents. Residents were classified as white, black,… [read more]


African Studies Log What Does Africa Mean? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,767 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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African Studies Log

What does Africa mean? What is Africa to the millions of black Americans who were brought to the United States in captivity? What is it to those who live in European nations, to those who still live on the content? What has Africa contributed to the literature, art, theology, and philosophy of the East and West? And… [read more]


Apartheid From 1948 to 1994, the System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,717 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Apartheid

From 1948 to 1994, the system of apartheid ruled the lives of everyone living in South Africa, including all individuals of every race (Eades, 3). This separation of races was an extension of the concepts of segregation, and went far further in breaking apart the entire region along racial lines. While the system of apartheid was certainly created to… [read more]


Harmony to Holocaust the Portuguese Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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As a result their culture flourished, becoming quite well-known for crafting gold/brass items, carving wood, making furniture as well as the famous brightly colored cloth known as kente ("Wonders").

Another important area affected by the slave trade was the Kingdom of Kongo (modern day Republic of Congo) which lay on the Congo River. It was a federation of provinces/cultures and… [read more]


Africa and Its Diaspora Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,376 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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As the document nears its end, it turns more toward a call for the African people to stop allowing this kind of thing to happen, and to stop simply going along with what others have said about them or with the way others think that they should be acting. This is not a call for rebellion or overthrow, but rather a call to equality and a deeper understanding of their history and heritage.

Analyzing this document in a critical fashion is somewhat difficult. This is due to the fact that whether one is of African descent could strongly affect the feelings that are invoked when this document is read. Of course, this is just a generalization of the way that races and cultures feel, and not everyone will share that view. However, it seems that there might be a difference between the way Africans and Europeans view this article. From a European point-of-view, in general, the article might appear very inflammatory and might sound as though the African people are being asked to rise up against the oppression of others and change the history that has been created for them. In this way, the article would read as a call to arms and would sound dangerously deviant and problematic.

However, for those of an African descent, and those that are willing to look beyond their own beliefs and suspend the prejudices that they seem to have toward the African people, the document can be seen as a cry for equality and justice. There is a strong desire expressed in the document to be equal and to be recognized for the accomplishments that the African people have in their own right, instead of being tacked onto the history of other individuals such as Europeans. The desire of the African people to have their own history and to embrace their own beliefs is a strong one, and it can only happen if there are those who are willing to speak up and work to make changes that can benefit all of the African people in their history and for the future as well.

There are many conclusions that can be drawn from a careful reading of this document, but the most obvious one is that it appears that the African people are still dealing with oppression and the pain that comes from feeling that they really do not belong to any one group. This pain has not gone away over the years, and many Africans, whether they live in their home land or somewhere else, are finding that their culture is being hidden and discounted to make room for the culture of others. Because many Africans do not think about Africa as being the center of things, they accept ideas that are largely European in origin and allow them to permeate their thoughts, instead of looking toward Africa and allowing it to dominate their thoughts and their cultural experiences.

It is one thing to live by the rules that have been set… [read more]


Colonialism and the African Experience Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (986 words)
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Colonialism and the African Experience

The author of this document is . This document is a chapter in a textbook-like history book. It was written in. The intended audience appears to be people learning about colonialism in Africa. The audience seems to be expected to have a basic understanding of world history, but no specific understanding of African history. Therefore, it appears safe for one to assume that the audience is a history class or history students, who are seeking to learn about how European colonialism impacted Africa.

The document was written in order to inform people about the nature and impact of European colonialism in Africa. First, it explains why Europeans would want to colonize Africa. Modern depictions of Africa make it seem like a resource-poor and violent country, making it difficult for a modern audience to understand why anyone would want to colonize Africa in the first place. However, by contrasting the absolute vastness of Africa's territory with the relative minuteness of lands in Europe, the author is able to convey the fact that European countries were able to gain tremendous prestige by having vast holdings in colonies. The author also explains how strategic positioning in Africa enabled European countries to establish superior military positions, so that African holdings could and did impact political and military struggles in Europe. Of course, the land itself was only one benefit that European countries received from colonization. Africa was, and continues to be, a land with vast natural resources, and controlling the land put the imperial colonists in control of the resources. The most obvious of those resources may have been the African people. While most are familiar with the idea that European countries used the Africans in the slave trade, what they may not realize is how that practice had long-lasting effects on military power. For example, in World War I, approximately 1 million people of African descent fought on the side of the allies, a number that doubled by World War II (p.116). After explaining why the Europeans wanted to colonize Africa, the author goes on to explain how the Europeans used the missionaries and the idea of spreading Christianity to further secular goals in colonization. The author also discusses what these secular goals of colonization were. For example, Europeans honestly believed themselves to be culturally superior to colonized people. Therefore, the considered it a moral obligation to "civilize" the people they colonized. The author mentions segregation in the colonies, both de facto and de juris, and compares French, British, and Portuguese colonies and their attitudes towards race. The author also discusses the different ways in which the European countries ran their colonies, and how the different types of rule impacted development under colonial rule. Next, the author discusses the economics of colonialism, including: the expropriation of land, the exploitation of labor, the introduction of cash crops and the one-crop economy, unfair taxation, the introduction of immigrant labor from India, the transfer…… [read more]


Apartheid Can Be Seen as the Conglomeration Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,538 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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Apartheid can be seen as the conglomeration of the Afrikaner-dominated government in the 1940s with the tradition of British colonialism primarily in South Africa. The notion of apartheid stems from an idea that means apartness or separateness. Apartheid is no doubt oppressive and discriminatory in every sense of the word and, looking back, seems to be an outlandish idea that… [read more]


Since 1800 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (911 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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Africa Since 1800 is primarily a survey text of the recent history of the continent of Africa. However, even a survey history of a region still has a clear ideological point-of-view in terms of what the authors chose to include and exclude. This text, although factually correct and valuable in its treatment of often uncovered areas of African history and territory, tends to deemphasize the immorality of the colonialist impulse, and locate anti-colonial resistance as part of a larger history of a region characterized by frequent struggles for dominance by a variety of political leaders. Authors Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore in no way defend colonialism, but they wish to present what they believe to be balanced and fairly dispassionate overview of the region.

The book begins by giving a short history of the beginnings of colonialism, chronicles various anti-colonialist movements, and provides a final survey the present day. Given its relatively short length for a subject of such breadth, the book perhaps inevitably sacrifices some depth. However, in its sweep, it does include some important reminders of the cultural diversity of the African Continent. The first chapters of the book divide African geography into north and south of the equator, and traces how the ideology of Islam impacted Northern African development. Addressing the influence of Islam in Africa, and showing the differences between the cultures of West, East, and Central Africa is one of the most valuable contributions of the book, especially for readers who are unfamiliar with the region.

However, the authors occasionally make broad, sweeping statements about Africa such as: "By the end of the eighteenth century, people in the Muslim world as a whole had lost much of the energy and sense of purpose that had driven them to produce such a brilliant culture in the early centuries of Islam. They had failed to keep abreast of the new inventions and techniques being discovered in Western Europe, particularly in military affairs and transport" (5-6). To measure the brilliance of a culture according to its technical excellence is a moral, rather than an objective, historical judgment. Later, when chronicling British influence in Nigeria, the authors assert that there were "people who gained from colonial rule. Those who suffered from it were, by contrast, those who, through ill-luck or ill-judgment, or simply from an excess of patriotism, challenged the colonial power and were overthrown" (162). To call resistance to British dominance by native tribes excessive patriotism, or to say that those who did not actively resist the British gained from their passivity, implicitly if not explicitly, critiques the leaders who defended their land. In the later sections of the book, the authors are equally negative tone when chronicling political changes in independent Africa…… [read more]


Apartheid South Africa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,010 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

APARTHEID

Annotated Bibliography

Clark, Nancy L. And William H. Worger. South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid.

New York: Longman Publishing, 2004.

This excellent book by noted historians Nancy L. Clark and William H. Worger discusses in great depth the system known as apartheid which existed in South Africa during the last half of the 20th century. Historically, South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid begins by covering the dismal and dangerous years of the late 1940's when the Nationalists reigned supreme over all of South Africa by keeping African blacks segregated from white society, much like that in the American South during the 1950's and 1960's. It then portrays the events that led up to the collapse of apartheid in the early 1990's with a focus on the activities and bravery of Nelson Mandela. South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid also examines in detail the history and conflicts linked to white supremacy; the political and social movements by anti-apartheid groups and individuals to bring an end to white rule in South Africa and explores the overall legacy of apartheid as it relates to the historical foundations of South Africa. In addition, South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid provides a series of letters and other documents written by those who experienced the terrors of apartheid at its peak during the 1980's. As an historical work, South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid superbly addresses the horrors of segregation and how possesses the power to destroy not only nations but also the people themselves.

Coombes, Annie E. History After Apartheid: Visual Culture and Public Memory in a Democratic South Africa. NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

In her exemplary work History After Apartheid, art historian Annie E. Coombes concentrates on the history of South Africa's new visual and material culture which came about after the collapse of apartheid in 1994 when Nelson Mandela was elected as President of South Africa after a century of white rule and segregation. Overall, Coombes attempts to illustrate how apartheid still evokes its influence over various artistic projects and works in such areas as painting, sculpture, public art works and architecture. According to the editors of History After Apartheid, Coombes "explores the dilemmas posed by a wide range of visual and material culture" in many South African public sites that commemorate the collapse of apartheid and the resulting desegregation of South African society. For example, Coombes explores whether or not a museum dedicated to Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress should be located on Robben Island, an "infamous political prison," and whether or not a monument dedicated to the Boer Trek of 1828 should be paid for by the current South African government. One important area of concern is how slavery and homelessness failed to be represented in artistic works, due to being "disavowed under apartheid." In essence, History After Apartheid "illuminates a body of work dedicated to the struggle to simultaneously remember the past" while moving forward into… [read more]


Afrikaners Are the Descendants of the European Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (4,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Afrikaners are the descendants of the European, mainly Dutch, settlers who first established permanent settlement at the Southern tip of the African continent in the mid-seventeenth century and later spread inland. The Afrikaners developed their separate identity as, after settling down in Africa, they identified themselves as Africans rather than Europeans, adopted a separate language called Afrikaans -- a dialect… [read more]


Urbanization and Foreign Aid Africa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,041 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Entities such as the South African Local Economic Development Network of Africa pour foreign funds into the country and assist with its economic situation. Lastly, the influence of foreign aid and urbanization has helped South Africa to become recognized at the international level.

One of the most severe problems caused by urbanization in South Africa is the high unemployment rate. As of October of 2013, the unemployment rate in the country was at nearly 25% (van Vyck, 2013). However, it is worth noting that this rate represented a decline in unemployment. This decline in unemployment can be attributed to the efforts of foreign investors in programs such as the Local Economic Development Network (LED) of South Africa, which established funds into local businesses to help promote job opportunities and reduce the incidence of unemployment. LED's relationship with government entities at both the national and local level are fairly comprehensive, particularly in relation to helping South Africa solve its unemployment problem -- which is intrinsically related to the incidence of urban crime in the area. The subsequent quotation emphasizes this fact. "Local governments are usually given a general mandate to undertake economic development, which includes developing local strategies, coordinating with local private sector and civil society actors, enhancing the local environment for business and attracting investment" (LEDNA, 2013) As previously denoted, Led is financed by investors in Germany and Switzerland.

At this point in the history of South Africa, it is far too early to attribute success to the influence of foreign aid in the form of urbanization. One would actually have a better case of demonstrating the opposite. It was largely due to the influence of foreign aid that urbanization took place within the country whatsoever. The principle effect of urbanization was the implementation of the brutal, inhumane system of apartheid which governed the country for nearly 50 years. In the wake of the overthrow of this system, rampant unemployment and crime have taken place. Therefore, it would be inaccurate to state that the foreign aid has been enough to counteract the problems stemming from urbanization within this country. All one has to do is look at the most recent percentage of unemployment within South Africa to see this point: The Africa Report (2013) states that this percentage for the third quarter of the year was 24.7% (van Vyck, 2013). By comparison, the unemployment rate in the U.S. (can source), is routinely at a third of that rate. Therefore, the efforts of foreign aid are not sufficient; in fact, the country may be suffering from a surplus of such aid.

References

Cox, K.R., Hemson, D., Todes, A. (2004). Urbanization in South Africa and the changing character of migrant labor. South African Geographical Journal. 86(1), 7-16.

LEDNA. (2013). Government. www.ledna.com. Retrieved from http://ledna.org/info/government

Hopkins, A.G. (1993). 'Blundering and plundering': The Scramble for Africa relived. The Journal of African History. 34 (3): 489-494

Stoddard, E. (2013). South Africa's waning gold industry braces for more strikes. Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/08/30/us-safrica-strikes-idUSBRE97T0OT20130830

Van Vyck, C.… [read more]


Poverty in Zaire 'The Democratic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,993 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Life expectancy is only forty-five for both men and women and has in fact lowered slightly over the past several years. Other indicators of poverty such as: infant mortality and fertility rate are also among the highest, or worst, in the already poor continent. Four percent of the population has HIV, and literacy rates are so low that statistics are unavailable. While the citizens of the democratic Republic of Congo suffer, their leaders have prospered immensely. Poverty in the Democratic Republic of Congo is therefore a political issue. Moreover, the nation cannot expect much help from outside sources. Like many underdeveloped and poor nations, the Democratic Republic of Congo is severely indebted to creditor nations: the value of the debt according to the World Bank in 2003 was $7.8 billion.

Poverty in the Democratic Republic of Congo is a deep-rooted problem that requires long-term, long-range and visionary solutions. While aid does come in from international organizations, it is not enough. Something must be done to curb the political corruption that has ravaged the nation since its independence from Belgium. In addition to a total political transformation of the nation, care must be taken to provide for the immediate needs of the people: for land, food, shelter, and clothing. Education is also a major factor in the renewal of nations like Zaire, which have high illiteracy rates. Education means empowerment. In a country as rich in natural resources and land mass as the democratic Republic of Congo, poverty should become a vestige of the past. Among potential solutions include increasing funding for infrastructures that would promote local development, small business growth, tourism, Internet usage, and farming cooperatives. The Democratic Republic of Congo has the potential to be a wealthy African nation, given its abundance of natural resources, but internal division prevents such an ideal from becoming real. While interventionism is often a distasteful and imbalanced means to help nations like the democratic Republic of Congo, some forms of intervention, and debt relief, are absolutely necessary.

Works Cited

"Congo, Democratic Republic of." CIA World Factbook. 2005. Online at < http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/cg.html>.

'Congo (Zaire) Information." 1998. Art and Life in Africa. < http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/countries/Congo_(Zaire).html>.

'Democratic Republic of Congo Data Profile." 2003. World Bank. Online at .

Forests Monitor. 2001. "Democratic Republic of Congo." Sold Down the River. Online at < http://www.forestsmonitor.org/reports/solddownriver/drc.htm>.

Gibbs, David N. The Political Economy of Third World Intervention. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Omamo, Steven. "The Peaceful Continent -- Poverty, Not Ethnicity, Drives Conflict in Zaire." 17 Mar 1997. Pacific News Service/JINN. Online at < http://www.pacificnews.org/jinn/stories/3.06/970317-zaire.html>.

'A Poisonous Legacy of Poverty and Decay." Business Times. Online at < http://www.btimes.co.za/97/0525/world/world.htm>.… [read more]


Somalia Social Perspective Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Somalia- Social Perspective

On the east cost of the African continent lays a strip of ground surrounded by the Indian Ocean, on one side and by exotic lands like Kenya and Ethiopia on the continental side. This is Somalia and, when hearing about it, most of us would be tempted to refer to the present situation and attributes that best… [read more]


Dark Star Safari: Overland Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

This illustrates that Orientalism is not simply a western phenomenon. The Nubian is practicing the same type of behavior, looking at another culture through his own culture's eyes, and not attempting to understand any differences that might occur. It shows that this happens the world over, and it is not just "ugly Americans" who take it on their travels with them.

While poverty is rampant in many different parts of the world, including many parts of Asia, it seems rampant in Africa. The author writes, "About thirty miles north we came upon a settlement in the middle of nowhere -- people camped in mean shacks and lean-tos, fighting the heat and the wind, no trees or bush, just a few skinny goats" (Theroux 72). In another village in the Sudan he writes, "There was not a shred of clothing or any item of apparatus here that was any more modern than the first-century Meroitic temple on the other side of the dune" (Theroux). Somehow, the poverty and issues seem worse in Africa, and it seems like there is little hope for the future. In most parts of Asia, the future looks bright for many, but in Africa, there is a sense of hopelessness that is difficult to read about, and that is far different from many parts of the Orient. The fact that people can learn about it and accept it is another form of Orientalism. As long as it is not happening in my country, it is out of my radar and not worth considering.

It is interesting to note another aspect of the book that highlights Africa and its customs, which are quite opposite of many Oriental customs. Most of the people the author encounters in his travels are friendly and open to Americans, something that might not be expected. He writes, "That was when Sadiq said, "The criterion is how you treat the weak. The measure of civilized behavior is compassion" (Theroux 90). Then there is the nun the author encounters who gives him a ride to Harar, and then entertains him for lunch. He writes, "Sister Alexandra had made spaghetti sauce with fresh tomatoes from her garden, and grilled fish and made salad" (Theroux 114). He encounters much kindness during his trip, and that is an unexpected part of Africa. This is not true in much of the "civilized" world, where life moves at a frenetic pace and compassion is often missing from our daily lives. It is interesting to see that the author finds it in Africa, and in many different places, something that many readers might not expect.

In conclusion, the author's trip across Africa is an interesting and sometimes surprising read. It shows the inside of Africa and her people, using real-time experiences and adventures. The book is exotic and foreign, but it is not an example of Orientalism. It does not depict the romance and mysticism associated with the East, instead it shows the poverty, hopelessness, and kindness of Africans and Africa… [read more]


Mau Revolt in Kenya Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,957 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Mau Mau - Contrasting Views of an African Rebellion

John Lonsdale writes in the Journal of African History that while the legacy of the Mau Mau has lived in British memory "...as a symbol of African savagery," modern Kenyans are divided over whether the Mau Mau represented a "militant nationalism" against England, or just a kind of "tribalist… [read more]


Arts and Tanzania People Essay

Essay  |  14 pages (4,311 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Art to Tanzania people

There is much that goes into this perspective. Before the twentieth century, very few of African natives considered themselves as 'Africans'. The inception of the saying itself can be found in the interactions of civilizations of ancient times in the then Mediterranean. Greeks were among the first to imagine a three-pronged division of the… [read more]


South Africa Economy History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,087 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

South Africa Economy

History of South Africa

Political Situation of the Country

South African Economy

Key Macroeconomic Variables

Justice/Judiciary System of the Country

Environmental Concerns

Health Concerns in South Africa

Society/Family/Culture of the Nation

Religion practiced in South Africa

Education

History of South Africa

South Africa has been a land of people with multiple cultural backgrounds since it was inhabited.… [read more]


African Art the Trade Center/Royal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,225 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Although this has all been proven false by more recent archeological investigations, it is a telling history of Britain's attempt to take indigenous peoples out of the historical mix.

The people who built the Great Zimbabwe lived at the site and built it up from approximately 1100-1450 AD (Ampim). It is divided, primarily, into two different areas. These are the Hill enclosures and those in the valley. It is believed by many that the hill enclosures were the first seats of the kings, but they eventually moved to the Great Enclosure which is in the valley. This is a picture looking down on the valley enclosure.

The Great enclosure iint he valley is also thought to have housed the harem of the king (Tyson) as the hill enclosures are thought to be the seat of religious importance and where the foundry and iron smelting took place.

Another function of the area besides ruling the people of the region was to provide trade for those who came from different areas of the world to visit. It is not known if the city itself had traders that went to the far reaches of the East or if they received traders, probably a little bit of both, but there have been some interesting articles found at the site. Trade relates that "Celedon pottery from early in the period of the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1384-1644) is one of the most frequent imports found at Great Zimbabwe," and others have seen goods from other parts of the world.

However, most of the artifacts that have been found in the area are from local artisans. These are more difficult to date (Trade) and they make it more difficult to find out exactly when events occurred at the site. Some have been noted though for their religious significance. This picture shows a soapstone bird, which is thought to be a religious symbol. Most of these types of artifacts are found in the hill enclosures, but there have been some found along the outer wall of the Great Enclosure.

It is difficult to estimate the importance of the site to the people of the region. Because the zimbabwe's are unique in both their construction and mysterious purpose, they have a kind of mystical presence and provide a great deal of pride for the people of Zimbabwe (Ampim). The Shona-speaking residents of the country understand that they have occupied the region for a long time and that their history is tied up in the massive construction project. Their people first came to the region as farmers seeking higher elevations to avoid the deadly tsetse flies that killed them and their livestock (Ampim). It is believed by many that they eventually developed the technology to build the enclosures and that they also started trading with partners in a much wider circle than previously (Ampim). This meant that they needed the buildings to house the trade and the traders. The pride that the modern day people have for this history is… [read more]


West African Kingdoms Ghana, Mali Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

European slavery, on the other hand, regarded slaves as property. The status of slavery was hereditary and would continue through life. Slaves in the United States were also forced to adopt the religious customs of their masters. As a result, they lost many aspects of their magic and Islam-based cultures as they adopted the Christian traditions prevalent in the Americas.

This context should form the backdrop in studying the role Africans themselves played in the slave trade. Historians like Basil Davidson contend that many African slave traders had no idea about the conditions of the Middle Passage, as well as the significant differences in the European concept of slavery (Davidson 211). They were unaware of the conditions that awaited many of their kin in the Americas.

In conclusion, the political and economic life of prominent West African kingdoms contributed to the institution of slavery. However, slavery had a much different meaning for the Africans and the European colonizers.

Still, as Davidson observes, this lack of knowledge does not "reduce the inhumanity of the system in itself" (214).

Works Cited

Davidson, Basil. Africa in History. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1981.

Der, Benedict. The Slave Trade in Northern Ghana. Ghana: Woeli Publishing Services, 1998.

Harris, Joseph E. Africans and Their History.

New York: Penguin, 1998.

MacDonald, Kevin. " Songhai Empire," World Book…… [read more]


Colonialism, Violence, Religion, Struggle for Liberation, Etc. In South Africa Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,300 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

South Africa

Colonialism, Racism, and Violence: The History of the Struggle for Liberation in South Africa

The colonialism that began to take over the world in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and that still arguably exists in certain economic as well as overtly political schemas today has had an enormous impact on the cultural and political development of much of the world. Colonial powers, generally European or "Western" in origin, have instilled systems of racial, religious, ethnic, and gender-based distinctions in countries that did not know this type of institutional prejudice prior to colonial periods, often making the native inhabitants of countries "others" in the span of a few generations. When the culture that is actually tied to a piece of land and the people that have occupied it for millennia suddenly becomes the minority culture, and/or is perceived as the inferior and improper culture, that culture and the people associated with it will necessarily warp and likely chafe.

When the chaffing gets bad enough, revolutions result, and this is precisely what occurred in many African countries in the decades following the Second World War. The history of South Africa and its struggle for liberation makes for an especially interesting examination, given the many perspectives and groups that ultimately had stakes in the country's future. Different groups of European colonialists that didn't get along with each other, and much less with the black natives of the country, made for a long and complex struggle for true liberation that has only recently begun to demonstrate true signs of success.

Colonial Influence

The impact of colonialism on the cultures in South Africa is all but impossible to overstate. Certain native populations were decimated by successive waves of colonial conquerors and encroachers, or were relegated to mere shadows of what they once were and forced to live a life completely alien to that of a generation prior (USDOS 2011; Boddy-Evans 2011). Violence was an extremely common, vicious, and long-running part of colonialism and its resonating forces in the country that is now South Africa, comprised of an area that combines the ancestral homelands of a number of different peoples and cultures (USDOS 2011). As Frantz Fanon asserts in his book the Wretched of the Earth (2004), violence can have a unifying effect on otherwise disparate groups of people, and this occurred in South Africa to some extent up until the middle of the twentieth century (Boddy-Evans 2011).

Fanon's (2004) concept of "cultural violence," or the automatic presumption of inferiority on the part of African peoples and cultures, also played a major role in the development of South Africa and the ultimate ongoing struggle for liberation in the country. First by what became the Afrikaans population and then by the English imperial forces, the black natives of the country were relegated to ever-lower classes in the dominant society and culture in the region (USD. This culminated in the extremes of apartheid that explicitly and systematically relegated black individuals to impoverished communities, low-paying jobs, and… [read more]


Slave Trade: Europe & Africa Before/After 1550 Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,106 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Slave Trade in and Between Europe and Africa Before and After 1550

The objective of this work is to answer the questions of: (1) 'How was the slave trade practiced in Europe and Africa before 1550, in comparison to the slave trade in and between the two regions after 1550?' And (2) 'What were the main differences between… [read more]


Africa's Armies Robert B. Edgerton Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,369 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Africa's Armies

Robert B. Edgerton provides a multi-faceted review of Africa's potential for discovery. The author explores from an "anthropological" perspective (supposedly) the "cultural and historical land of Africa" (Shaw, 2005), focusing primarily on the many armies of Africa and their role during many wars. These include the British and Zulu wars that took place during the 19th century and the Crimean War, the rebellion of Mau Mau and the warriors of the Asante that lived in West Africa (Shaw, 2005). In many instances Edgerton reviews each of these with regard to the "primitive" societies that engaged in these controversies, noting that Africa's military forces must explore "possible pathways to the future well-being" of the country (p. 8). The author notes that during colonial times and previous to this, many of the great warriors of Africa fought for honorable and courageous causes, however the author then suggests that after West Africa recaptured its freedom and independence from British settlers and other colonial settlers, the "African militias selfishly grabbled power" and because of this the country faced "catastrophic" and miserable results (p. vii; Shaw, 2005). Edgerton is a powerful anthropologist that explores the reasons for war during pre and post colonial times and compares them with the meaningless wars that followed and that still ravage Africa today. The author suggests that the militias in Africa would do better to support the people, their right to freedom and their right to basic human rights than to fight for causes that include ownership of land or power over other groups in Africa.

Many of the modern wars and rebellions are more egotistical in nature, or that is what Edgerton leads the reader to believe. He suggests the militias of Africa are now no better than any other army of the world interested in dividing and conquering for selfish rather than for realistic reasons. Edgerton provides a very brief review of the culture of Africa and the reasons Africa went to war prior to its independence. Following this, the work offers a detailed description of the resistance African militia men have offered against other groups that would settle within the country. Topics that are covered are the same subjects one would expect from any anthropologist interested in understanding the cultural and historical reasons for the status of people living in Africa today. Edgerton fails to provide the reader with information that would define who in Africa is considered the "army" and how the army compares with people that are merely "rebels" and people that are "formal members of the militia." The book suggests it will provide an in-depth analysis of how and why African is infamous today, but the book is lacking in this respect.

Why? One associates the word "infamous" with notions of something or someone or a group that is detestable or evil in its ways. One could easily associate this term with a militia or army that set out to kill innocent civilians or the very people that make Africa what… [read more]


South African: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,742 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

South African: The Rise, Fall, And Struggle During South African Apartheid

The political map of the African continent can be considered to be the result of the centuries of imperial colonialism expressed especially through the continuous pressures of the British, the French, or the 16th century Portuguese. Despite this background, most of the African societies developed in time a distinct… [read more]


South Africa Sources Of, Developments Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,876 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

South Africa

Sources of, Developments in, and Responses to National and Transnational Threats in Modern South Africa

The second half of the twentieth century was a period of major development and progress for the African continent and many of the individual nations located on that continent. As colonial rule came to an end with World War II or shortly thereafter… [read more]


African-American History the Nationalism Movement of Biafra Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

African-American History

The Nationalism Movement of Biafra

What every happened to the nation of Biafra after the Nigerian-Biafra Civil War in 1967 to 1970? Many people have forgotten Biafra and its' fight for independence. However, the natives of Biafra, the Igbo peoples, are still fighting for their own nation, 35 years after their fledging country disappeared back into the boundaries of Nigeria.

Today, a majority of the Igbo people are still fighting for independence. Their nationalist movement does not receive much media attention, but it is there, nonetheless. Those who advocate freedom and nationality for the Biafran nation cite atrocities and religious intolerance from the Nigerian Federal Government as some of their reasons for still hoping for freedom. According to one group fighting for independence, after the end of the Civil War in 1970, the Nigerian government imposed several sanctions on the former Biafrans, including confiscation of property, (the government called it "abandoned"), seized assets of Biafrans, and continually harassed and attacked Biafrans ("Biafra Case"). Atrocities continued throughout the 35 years since the war, with the Nigerian government denying allegations of harassment and prejudice, while Biafrians continued to chronicle atrocities.

In 1999, several Islamic nations developed in Northern Nigeria, and since, then, Biafrans have suffered religious persecution and harassment. Biafra freedom fighters note, "Though supposedly applicable to only Muslims, non-Muslims [are] being forced to obey Islamic law; [and there is a] direct assault on [the] secularity of [the] Nigerian constitution" ("Biafra Case"). Biafrans fear attacks by the Nigerian religious police called the "Hisbah," who search for businesses that defy Muslim law, (such as bars and other businesses owned by Igbos). Conflicts between government soldiers and civilians are common, and Biafrans constantly live in fear for their lives. These are only some of the reasons most Biafrans still hope for their own independent nation.

While the Biafrans are surrounded by violence and corruption in the Nigerian Government, (Nigeria was…… [read more]


Negative Impact of Post Apertheid Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,077 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

This congestion and inadequate social amenities especially for the poor black people led to the outbreak of diseases that claim the lives of hundreds of people. Hard economic conditions due to inequality is a major contributor to people's participation in social evils such as prostitution and drug abuse. Prostitution is high in major cities of South Africa because young people… [read more]


Colonization, Much of the African Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

When the European nations decimated the native populations in the Caribbean, North, and South America, a massive labor force was required. This labor force was garnered from Africa. African chiefs and kings bowed to pressure or bribes by European slave traders and handed over throngs of men, women, and children.

Religious conversion was often cited as an excuse to enslave the Africans. In fact, the Catholic Church fully supported the system of slavery in order to attract more subjects ("African Slave System"). Later, slavery was further justified by its necessity in exploiting the natural resources of the New World. The economy of the Americas, especially the United States, would never have burgeoned were it not for slave labor. Eventually, slavery became entrenched in North America as an integral part of life.

Slavery also sparked the beginning of a capitalist, market-based economy. As the landowners prospered from the blood of African slaves, new business interests sprouted in the New World. In spite of these changes in lifestyle, the abolitionist movement eventually took hold in the United States. In large part based on Christian moral values, the abolitionist movement began with such groups as the Society of Friends (Quakers). Gradually, a rift between Northern and Southern states grew wider as the plantation and slave-dependent South refused to bow to the pressures of abolitionists. Although anti-slavery sentiment began in the eighteenth century, around the time of the War of Independence, the movement did not reach its peak until the mid nineteenth-century, immediately prior to the Civil War (Bancroft).

Works Cited

African Slave System." Encyclopedia of Slavery. 28 Jul 2003. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAslavery.htm.

Bancroft, Hubert H. "Anti-Slavery History." Excerpt from The Great Republic by the Master Historians. 28 Jul 2003. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_Master_Historians_Vol_III/antislave_bf.html.… [read more]


Strategic Partnerships With the EU and China Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  15 pages (4,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … strategic partnerships with the EU and China benefit the political and economic development in Ghana?

Do strategic partnerships with the European Union and China benefit the political and economic development in Ghana?

Main agenda of the international development strategy for Ghana since the 1970s

This chapter deals with the historical background of the relationship between Ghana and major… [read more]


Ethnic Conflict Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Rwanda, a country located in East Africa that was colonized by Belgium aristocracy, is a picturesque nation that also has a bitter past. At present, Rwanda is a socially, economically, and politically stable country with booming industries such as mining, agriculture, and tourism that constitute its financial foundation. However, in 1994 one of the worst genocide cases in modern world history that involved the assassination of then president Juvenal Habyarimana and the mass killings of approximately 850,000 citizens occurred within a 100 day time span. The tension erupted when the generally favored and European looking Tutsis peoples had conflict with the more native African looking Hutus aborigines. In 1990, the Tutsis led Rwanda Patriotic Front fought to maintain government control of the nation, which lead to civil unrest for the next three years culminating in the 1994 genocide. The root of these slayings is complex and involves a comparison between primordialism and social constructivism paradigms as a study within a sociological and political context.

The term ethnic refers to the commonalities of a group of people who acknowledge such shred visions, tradition, or special socio-physiological characteristics. From a sociological point-of-view, ethnicity can determine the cohesiveness of a group of people within a nation. Such information can be applied to a broader context when examining the root cause of the 1994 Rwandan genocides. A primordialism perspective implies that both the Tutsis and the Hutus work together as though both groups have a common goal or shared bond. The ethnic ties between the Tutsi and the Hutu are communal. However, from a historical standpoint, such bonds did not truly exist between the Tutsi and the Hutu peoples. The Hutus group, which is roughly 75% of the residents in Rwanda, resented the favoritism shown to the Tutsi peoples. Despite efforts by Belgium invaders to switch their loyalty to the Hutus in 1962, prior to Rwanda's declaration of independence from the country, the majority group disliked the Tutsi 1990 measures to control the then…… [read more]


Assimilation and Direct Rule in Africa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Assimilation and Direct Rule in Africa

The French approach of having a Direct Rule grasp over Africa was very different to that of the British indirect manner of colonization. This Direct Rule was represented by a centralized federalist administration, administered by a governor general from French West Africa that was centered in Senegal. Only in St. Louis were a few individual Africans permitted to participate in this government. Outside of St. Louis, Africans were subjects rather than citizens. The French insisted on maintaining exclusive rule over its colonies, and this situation exists, to a certain extent still today, as evidenced with the decision of the African island of Mayotte to remain under French jurisdiction.

On the other hand, however, the French colonial administration was flexible in its control, changing its policies and system to reflect changing times and circumstances with Africa and France. Its manner was evidenced by a fourfold approach called Assimilation, Association, Differentiation and Paternalism which Thomas Hodgkin (in Rodney, 1990) labeled "carthesianism." It was in this manner that the French achieved "a measure of uniformity in the pattern of institutions introduced into 'Afrique noire'"(p.39). Although, certainly still containing some of the more brutal and callous elements of colonization (such as forced labor), the French were far better in their treatment of their subjects than were other European colonizers such as, notoriously, the Germans or the Portuguese. Nonetheless, many of the aspects of this Direct Rule were still, indubiously, heartless.

Senegal was the first colony where French Direct Rule occurred and from there its model spread to other new French West African colonies (Gunther, 1955). French colonial exploitation was merciless. An example is the poor state of Guinea where it was recorded that "France obtained one billion (old) francs or about 5.6 million dollars in foreign exchange, based on the sale of bauxite, coffee and bananas" (Rodney, 1990). Forced labor and imprisonment (oftentimes unjustified and both in order to expand French aims) were common. Inconsiderate of the indigenous locals and of…… [read more]


US Relations W. South Africa Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,594 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

U.S. Relations W/South Africa

Racism has always been a divisive matter, but fortunately it appears to have been eradicated from most parts of the modern society. The apartheid system of laws functioning in South Africa throughout most of the twentieth century proved that discrimination can still be performed in modern times. The South African government encouraged its citizens to differentiate… [read more]


South Africa Under the Apartheid Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (3,936 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

, while the later involved the elements and actins of segregation. It was the grand apartheid that was practiced by the National party for a longer period of time (up to 1990s) whiles the petty apartheid was abolished way earlier in the 80s.

The Homeland System

Through this system, several black South Africans had their citizenship revoked. Forcing them to… [read more]


Blood Diamonds of South Africa Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,663 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Blood Diamonds of South Africa

The African continent is notorious for the valuable resources that it contains underneath the earth's surface and numerous controversies have appeared as a result of people exploiting its riches in unorthodox ways. There are several African countries that have unstable leaderships as civil wars are common sight in the respective countries. Millions of Africans have… [read more]


Mobile Phone Industry in Africa Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,535 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Mobile Phone Industry in Africa

Africa's attractiveness to MNCs from mobile phone industry

Africa is the second largest and second most populated continent, after Asia. The 992 million people (as of 2005: UN, 2006) in its 61 territories account for around 14% of the world population and the 30.2 million km2 (or 11.7 square miles) representing these territories account for… [read more]


Jim Crow Laws Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (526 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Apartheid in South Africa

Diala, I. (2003). "Andre Brink and the Implications of Tragedy for Apartheid South Africa." Journal of Southern African Studies, Volume 29, Number 4.

Diala's study of Andre Brink's literary works, which highlight the apartheid in South Africa, particularly the Afrikaans, demonstrated how apartheid had escalated and developed in the sense that individuals and groups against it developed ways to resist this unjust practice. Brink's 20th century novels became the setting for the tragedy that occurred in South Africa, wherein the demise of the native Africans were witnessed, not to mention its heritage and culture disenfranchised, to be replaced by the 'white man's culture and society. One of the most compelling arguments presented in the article is the question that Diala posed about Brink's works, wherein he questioned whether the author was really offering resistance to apartheid, or was simply mirroring the events occurring in his society, without direct reference to resistance. Writing and expression of ideas as a form of resistance against apartheid is presented here as an alternative route that individuals have taken in order to express their resistance and protest against apartheid.

Jackson, W., T. Alessandri, and S. Black. (2005). "The price of corporate social responsibility: The case of black economic empowerment transactions in South Africa." Working Papers Series, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.

This article covers one facet or dimension, internationally, of segregation or apartheid in South Africa. In this article, the authors discussed the concept of black economic empowerment (BEE) transactions that have been occurring after the abolition of apartheid in the country. The authors…… [read more]


Regional Organizations Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,504 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

African Unity

The Organization for African Unity

The African Continent is rich in resource, populace and cultural diversity. Its potential for achievement remains great. Yet, throughout history it has been a victim, either of exploitation by outsiders or of its own incapacity for self-management. This is the reality that defines Africa of today. Its prospects for the future have a… [read more]


Report of Transparency in Oil Extraction for Equatorial Guinea and Chad Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (6,550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18

SAMPLE TEXT:

Chad Guinea

Guinea promises superior transparency than Chad for oil or any other point-source extractive investment particularly because of constitutional checks and balances to executive power and integration with global monetary and financial authorities. Chad has stronger financial balance sheet fundamentals, particularly regarding inflation, but faces significant structural challenges absent in Guinea, foremost of which is concentration of power in… [read more]


South African Apartheid System Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (691 words)
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¶ … South African Apartheid System

Many countries have had systems of racial separation, but perhaps the most widely known and widely reviled system was South Africa's Apartheid system, which separated black Africans from whites. However, like most systems of racial separation, the origin of apartheid was initially far more about economic concerns than social concerns. "The conventional view is that apartheid was devised by affluent whites to suppress poor blacks. In fact, the system sprang from class warfare and was largely the creation of white workers struggling against both the black majority and white capitalists. Apartheid was born in the political victory of radical white trade unions over both of their rivals. In short, this cruelly oppressive economic system was socialism with a racist face" (Hazlett, 2008).

In order to understand apartheid, one must understand the colonial history of South Africa. The Dutch established a settlement in South Africa in 1652, but were conquered by the British in 1796. The British initially established a relatively liberal government, which conflicted with the pro-slavery government established by Afrikaners. After Britain abolished slavery in South Africa in 1834, the Afrikaners moved north to escape from British rule, and established a very racist system of legal institutions, which actually conflicted with a relatively racially liberal 19th century Capetown that had integrated schools and permitted nonwhites to vote. However, when gold was discovered in the 1871, an intense rivalry developed between poor whites and blacks, as blacks developed the skills and communication abilities to take on coveted leadership positions in European-owned companies. White laborers formed labor unions, and, while black labor unions were not prohibited, they did not achieve the same recognition. This led to de facto differences in the treatment of the black and white labor forces. Within a short period of time, these de facto differences became actual legal differences. "The state instituted an array of legal impediments to the promotion of black workers. The notorious Pass Laws sought to sharply limit the supply of nonwhite workers in "white" employment centers. Blacks were not allowed to become…… [read more]


Compare North Africa to Sub-Saharan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (873 words)
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Africa

The diverse continent of African can be conveniently divided into two geographically, historically, and culturally distinct regions: Northern, or Saharan Africa, and the larger sub-Saharan portion. Nations in Northern Africa include Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia, nations with mainly Berber or Muslim Caucasian populations and close ties to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The Sahara desert not only characterizes the topology, climate, and agriculture of this region but also serves as a geographic border demarcating these nations from the rest of the continent. Sub-Saharan Africa basically includes all the territories and nations south of Northern Africa, from Angola to Zimbabwe. The several African island nations and territories such as Madagascar and Mauritius are also considered to be part of Sub-Saharan Africa based on their sharing more in common with Sub-Saharan than Northern Africa. Although the differences between North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa are most marked by language, culture, and history, the geography, climate, economies, natural resources, systems of government, and level of technological development also distinguish these two vast regions of the globe.

The Ottoman conquests of North Africa dramatically altered the character of the continent. However, thousands of years prior to the Ottoman Empire, the Romans had occupied North Africa, leaving a cultural legacy that contributed to the demarcation of North from Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert undoubtedly hindered the conquest of regions below it, but so did the presence of tropical diseases such as malaria. North Africa became more Caucasian in character especially after the Middle ages, when the Ottomans took hold there, introducing Berber and Arabic languages and the Muslim religion. Black Africans continuously migrated south, which is why the majority of North African peoples today remain Caucasian and Muslim while a vast portion of those people in Sub-Saharan Africa remain Black and tied to their ancient religious traditions. Sub-Saharan Africa is too diverse to sum up simply, but generally the ethnic makeup consists of mainly black persons from a wide range of cultures and religions. Moreover, sub-Saharan Africans speak hundreds of different languages. The current national divisions were in large part artificially constructed since European colonialism; prior to colonial conquests from the French, British, Spanish, Belgians, and other Western European powers sub-Saharan Africa consisted of a number of wealthy, powerful kingdoms and intricate societal structures.

Today sub-Saharan Africa languishes in abject poverty, disease, political corruption, and racial tension. Sub-Saharan Africa consists of some of the least developed nations in the world. Many Sub-Saharan nations only practice subsistence agriculture, whereas some North African nations produce crops for export. However, the nation of South Africa remains the economic bastion of…… [read more]


Africa so Poor? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (5,480 words)
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What adds to this is the fact that the country has a history of long drawn out conflicts and civil wars, and these civil wars do tend to slow down and even arrest the growth and development of the African continent. While armed conflict is contained in one area, the same would inevitably erupt in another area, and this phenomenon… [read more]


African Nationalism Played a Significant Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (940 words)
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African nationalism played a significant role in the resistance against foreign domination and had been a major influence in the lives of Africans throughout much of the continent. It is often defined as the political movement that called for African unity in the struggle for self-determination against colonial regimes. Its general history can be summarized as having occurred in the following fashion.

The earliest known African nationalist groups had first come into existence beginning in the late nineteenth century. The Aborigines Rights Protection Society in the Gold Coast was the first such group that was formed in 1897. Groups that were formed shortly after that were the African National Congress in South Africa in 1912 and the National Congress of West Africa in 1920. Many African-run churches, such as the Kitwala and Kimbanguist churches, also began participating in nationalist movements during the 1950's.

By 1939 almost all the African territories had nationalist groups working for them. Kwame Nkrumah, who would later become Africa's first ever prime minister, formed the Gold Coast Convention People's Party in 1948. Most of the groups aspired towards self-determination for single territories; examples of such groups included the Tanganyika African Association and the Rhodesian Bantu Voters Association. Very few groups, which included the National Congress of British West Africa, aspired towards Pan-African unity.

After WWI the desire for African self-determination was bolstered by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's support for it, which he emphasized about in his Fourteen Points. It was not until after WWII however, when African nationalist groups began fervently working to end colonialism within their nations. America's anti-colonialist stance, as stipulated in the 1941 Atlantic Charter, the Soviet Union's censure of colonialism, and the generally weakened position of the colonial powers after WWII encouraged calls for independence from various African territories. This led to the eventual political emancipation of these territories, beginning with Kwame Nkrumah becoming the prime minister of an independent Ghana in 1957. The rest of Africa became politically independent of colonialism beginning in the 1960's.

Mills (n.d) provides a description of how African nationalist groups were formed during the years prior to resistance. He explains that African Initiated Churches (AIC's) were prominent groups that staged resistance some 10-20 years prior to the formation of actual nationalist groups. AIC's came into existence throughout Africa beginning in the 1890's and were initially in response to African concerns on the domination by whites over church finances and offices. Middle class African intellectuals who wished to be bestowed political power by colonialist regimes formed other types of resistance groups. Later, more forms of resistance came about from African working-class groups such as trade unions, friendly societies, sports associations, and so on. After 1945 all these diverse interest groups were later merged into the large nationalist movements that began working towards achieving independence from the colonialist…… [read more]


Congo and African Studies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,905 words)
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Congo and African Studies

Those who are conquered always want to imitate the conqueror in his main characteristics-in his clothing, his crafts, and in all his distinctive traits and characteristics." -Ibn Khaldun

This assertion, from the fourteenth century, is most definitely not an inarguable one. Many conquered peoples undoubtedly harbor hate and resentment for their conquerors, especially those who were… [read more]


African Perspectives on Colonialism by A. Adu Boahen Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (911 words)
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African Colonialism

Abu Boahen's book African Perspectives on Colonialism is a determined effort to take the much studied topic of colonialism within the African continent and give it that native spin that has been sorely lacking. He notes that although there have been many works handling the issue of African colonialism; it seems that "most of these authors have looked at the subject primarily from a Euro-centric point-of-view." (Boahen, vii). Boahen also aims to legitimize the independence revolutions that have occurred in the latter half of the twentieth century by placing them more properly within their historical context. The overall effect European colonization of Africa had upon the African people was that they possessed an almost duel sense of history; they held ties to their own unique cultural heritages as well as the formalized governmental, educational, and religious systems that the Europeans had brought and imposed upon them. Many Africans are Christians, many speak predominantly English, French, or Portuguese; and simultaneously, many others wish to reject all remnants of European brutality. The divisions between the imperialist powers have ultimately divided the people of Africa in manners that make many regions particularly tumultuous, and the powers of the European-style governments particularly limited.

Boahen makes the point that although the coming of Christianity managed to tear many communities and traditional orders of society apart, the European missionaries still provided many Africans with useful tools to survive in the changing world. He writes, "Besides preaching the gospel, converting people to Christianity, and translating the Bible into various African languages, these missionary societies promoted agriculture; taught such skills as carpentry, printing, and tailoring; and promoted trade, literacy, and Western education." (Boahen, 16). Fundamentally, this was one of the driving forces behind the dual sense of history that Africans would inherit; with the damaging effects that contact with the European powers promised came opportunities for advancements and mutual advantage. Boahen provides speeches made by African leaders as colonization first began and argues, "It is clear from the very words of the African leaders who were about to face the colonial challenge that they were determined to defend their sovereignty, religion, and traditional way of life but at the same time wanted to cooperate with the Europeans for mutual benefit, and that they were very confident of success." (Boahen, 26).

However, the methods of colonial rule that were eventually instilled were strongly tied to the strengths and weaknesses of the new rulers, but came to be generalized under the headings of "direct" and "indirect" rule. The British, for example, brought with them their experience from India; where they often looked towards local leaders to act in their favor. The French, on the other hand, tended to overthrow any native power structures…… [read more]


South Africa -- Past Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,454 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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But those ANC members in exile often had very little experience of political activity in South Africa. Individuals prison had little experience of daily administrative bureaucracy outside of the prison environment. In Zambia and Tanzania, the ANC's bureaucracy ran farms, schools, and workshops; and in Angola, Umkhonto ran training camps. The Congress had diplomatic offices in London and representatives in… [read more]


African Development Countries Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,662 words)
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Premise 2: The Africans wanted to control their own governments and were ill-prepared.

Therefore: Europeans are responsible for many of the difficulties in Africa at the current historical moment because they did not prepare the people.

Inductive Reasoning -- strong

Third Body Paragraph:

Premise 1: Many of the tribes of Africa hunted and gathered for food.

Premise 2: Industrialization was heavily used by agricultural societies.

Therefore: It was more difficult for the tribes to convert to industry if they were hunter/gatherers.

Inductive Reasoning -- weak

Premise 1: Different tribes and groups did not live together in pre-colonial Africa.

Premise 2: Colonizers forced different tribes to live together.

Therefore: Europeans created situations where disparate groups were forced together and did not or could not get along. '

Inductive Reasoning -- weak

The argument is weak because it does not illustrate if the animosity between the tribes was directly caused by the European separation and inclusion of them.

Conclusion

Main Terms:

Development -- the process of developing or being developed; a state of growth or advancement

Underdevelopment -- state of inadequate development

Sovereignty -- supreme power or authority

Colonization -- the act of colonizing

Evaluation:

This paper is good but there could be stronger arguments for how the situation might be improved. Since the issue is such a complex one and the issue seems to be more complicated than this relatively short paper explains. If there were stronger evidence or if perhaps the paper were more limited in scope, say to one country instead of the entire continent of Africa, the persuasion would be more effective. The paper does prove that Africa is underdeveloped and that the people suffer because of it, but it is still vague. This too would be aided with the specification of one nation or region instead of the whole of the continent. One of the major issues discussed in the paper is the danger of human life in Africa from disease, such as that carried by flies.… [read more]


Africa's Political Crisis Most African Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,649 words)
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Africa is in need of improved political leadership, but not a stronger or bigger state. For Africa to succeed in its post-independent state, it needs leaders who can rise above their ethnic origins and who will create a sense of fair play and rules that apply to all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Democratic processes would accommodate the development of this… [read more]


South Africa Country Report Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
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(CIA WFB 2003 rank order total deaths to AIDS) "Life expectancy at birth South Africa: total population: 46.56 years male: 46.57 years female: 46.54 years (2003 est.) (CIA, WFB, SA, 2003)U.S.: total population: 77.14 years female: 80.05 years (2003 est.) male: 74.37 years (CIA, WFB, USA, 2003) The startling difference in life expectancy can in some part be associated with economic factors, such as the high comparable poverty rate, but is due in large part to the South African AIDS epidemic. In the relatively comparable per capita statistical analysis between the United States and South Africa such a stark difference in life expectancy should be a bold reminder to the world that the problem of AIDS is by far one of the most important humanitarian questions in the world today.

Comparing these two nations could leave the reader with the idea that South Africa in some sense is a younger version of the United States, especially regarding the two countries social and political histories yet, the departing factor may well be the AIDS crisis in South Africa. An epidemic, that in many ways can only be compared to the European Plague in loss of life, and this in a time where modern medicine exists and often offers greater hope for the eradication of disease. With world leadership these two nations may yet, become more similar, yet nothing will be done in that direction until major issues of poverty and disease are combated with extreme urgency.

Works Cited

Binns, Tony, and Etienne Nel. "Tourism as a local development strategy in South Africa." The Geographical Journal 168.3 (2002): 235+. Questia. 12 Dec. 2003 http://www.questia.com/.

Central Intelligence Agency of the Untied States, World Fact Book: South Africa 2003 at http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sf.html.

Central Intelligence Agency of the Untied States, World Fact Book: United States 2003 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html.

Central Intelligence Agency of the Untied States,…… [read more]


Healers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,217 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The river is a source, and metaphor for life, and of the healing power of the Gods. Fresh from the competition, Densu and Anan sit in the river, and gaze at the bottom of the clear waters. All is peaceful for the two, and the author is seemingly setting the contrast for the entire book. When the people fight, either themselves or each other, they miss out on the simple treasure of understanding the great mystery of the life giving waters. They seek to find power or status for themselves, and never are able to find the peace they seek, because they try to find it through war.

Densu introduces the reader to another character, his friend, and possible love interest Jesiwa. Jesiwa has been married before, and thought the circumstances of here singlehood are not disclosed, she is marred from a history of 4 miscarriages. The first happened as the result of an accident, but the 2-4 were spontaneous. Jesiwa tortures herself mentally over her inability to have children, until she spends time with a healer named, Damfu. Through a long, scene, and many days, Damfu helps Jesiwa see that it is within her power to conceive again, she only has to want to. When she complains, and responds that "there is something too strong for me . . . An evil force that over powers me . . . so that I cannot conceive"

Damfu replies, in somewhat oriental philosophy "If it is a power within you that is more powerful that you are, then it has to borrow power from your real self. When you gather all your scattered energy, then you can see your own strength, and see if you are really too weak, or too strong."

Again, Armah is making a metaphor for the African people. Scattered and sectarian, they are weak, and the white men can conquer them at will. Since Armah is writing in retrospect, he is identifying one of the reasons for Africa's vulnerability. The African tribe's own disunity created their weakness, and thereby gave the power to the colonizing white men.

The book continues to illustrate the tribal infighting, and mistrust among the peoples which typified the African tribes, until the end, when the healer Asamoa is summoned for a council. The Healer is told that the white men are invading the region, with the intent of taking control of a significant city, Asante. In the midst of the tribal council of warrior kings, Asamoa says to let the white man come. Let him invade, and become fully engaged in the city, and in the jungle. Asamoa says that they do not need to fight the white man, but simply let him become trapped in the jungle. "Let them fight a long war with the jungle"

he advises. Then the white man would defeat himself.

By proposing unity among the tribes, Asamoa identified the path toward a strengthened African people, and Armah, who studied in America, also was trying to communicate… [read more]


Role of Colonial Influences in the 1994 Rwandan Genocide Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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In support of Hintjens argument, Habyarimana's henchmen also rid the country of Hutu political opponents (Storey 367). A year before the genocide, a power-sharing deal had been struck between Habyarimana and the RFP, but it was never implemented. The spark that seemed to ignite the genocide was the shooting down of the plane carrying Habyarimana in 1994. The RFP eventually defeated the Rwandan military later that year and an RFP-led government was established.

Discussion

The factors that contributed to the 1994 Rwandan genocide were clearly influenced by colonial rule. Inequality was increased by the formal implementation of a class system. Cultural distance was increased when ethnicity became the basis for the colonial class system. Hutus and Tutsis were both invested in Rwanda so there would have been some immobility, but the greatest contribution to immobility would have been the veil of secrecy the Habyarimana regime maintained as they planned and orchestrated the genocide. Functional independence would likely not have been a contributing factor among the general public, since both Tutsi and Hutus had been living side-by-side and intermarrying since colonial rule ended; however, under President Habyarimana there would probably have been an increasing division between the ethnic groups economically and politically. These divisions would have been fostered by the periodic mass killings of unarmed Tutsis which they orchestrated. In the end, the Habyarimana regime took a page from the colonial rule book by fostering these divisions in the years leading up to the 1994 genocide. Together with the propaganda campaign denigrating Tutsis, a small group of powerful Hutus exploited the resources at their disposal and massacred over a tenth of their population to try and maintain political control of Rwanda. From a historical perspective, this would not have been possible without the German and Belgian colonial powers showing how a minority ethnic group can be manipulated into controlling a majority ethnic group.

Notes

1. Genocide is the mass killing of people based on their ethnicity (Campbell 150). The United Nations, however, defines genocide as the intentional destruction of any national, ethnic, racial, or religious group through any number of means, including violence, repression, persecution, or eugenics (Campbell 152).

Works Cited

Campbell, Bradley. "Genocide as Social Control." Sociological Theory 27.2 (2009): 150-72. Print.…… [read more]


East Africa's Great Rift Valley Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (634 words)
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These illustrations add to the article's overall clarity and cohesiveness.

The principle weakness with this article is that the authors wait too long to inform the reader of the pragmatic value of rifts and their creations. Although they are clearly enthusiastic about their topic, the reader does not quite understand why -- until he or she gets to the conclusion and the paragraph before it and the authors explain the anthropological significance of this phenomena. Prior to that, however, the article merely reads like a pair of zealots are simply acting like doctrinaires and spouting off a collection of little known facts for mere pedantic value. Additionally, there are some terms that the authors use and which they do not define, which makes it difficult for laymen readers to readily understand them For instance, when the authors refer to bulges they never clarify this term which, if one were to attempt to define it in the dictionary, would provide a definition that is not applicable to the author's usage of the word. Still, the erroneous assumptions that the authors make is that the recitation of mere facts regarding rifts is a point of interest to the reader without any practical association of this phenomena with contemporary or even historical relevance.

In conclusion, this is a fairly credible article in which the authors take great pains to clarify their main points and to provide a good deal of background information about rifts and their effects on the world. It could have been improved by restructuring some of its points, however. The authors should have began the article by explaining the role that rifts have played in the nature of mankind's history, which could have helped to engage…… [read more]


Kenya the African Nation Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Kenya

The African nation of Kenya has grown in fame, given that it is the birthplace of the president's father. During the first half of the 20th century, the nation was under British rule. However, the nation attained its independence and joined the British Commonwealth after a civil war of liberation against the British that lasted from 1952 to 1959 (Kenya, 2012, U.S. State Department). Although the Kenyans were victorious, independence came at a high price: 13, 500 Africans died but 100 Europeans were killed, and the much-promised land reform of the rebels was not achieved (History of Kenya, 2012, Lonely Planet).

Kenya is technically a functioning democracy, with a unicameral legislature and independent judiciary. However, its government has recently been torn apart by strife and in-fighting. In 2007, the UN was forced to enter the country after a disputed presidential election left more than a thousand Kenyans dead. The settlement enacted" constitutional, electoral, land, and institutional reform as well as increased accountability for corruption and political violence" (Kenya, 2012, U.S. State Department).

Compared with its neighbors, Kenya's government has been relatively stable, and its economy has exhibited periods of unusually strong growth for a former colony. Kenya is "the largest economy in east Africa and is a regional financial and transportation hub" (Kenya, 2012, U.S. State Department). Government and foreign investment and smallholder agricultural production caused the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) to grow an average of 6.6% from 1963 to 1973 (Kenya, 2012, U.S. State Department). According to a recent news article in the LA Times, Kenya also was the "largest exporter of pan-African crafts in the world" (Goffard 2012).

However, in the 1990s and beyond, government corruption and overregulation caused the Kenyan economy to perform well below its potential. The devastation to the nation's economy has also been compounded by drought. "Security and corruption remain worrying issues, locals complain that the cost of living has virtually doubled, and Kenya has fallen 20 places on the UN Human Development Index since 2002" (History of Kenya, 2012, Lonely Planet). "Ethnic violence raged, crime spiraled out of…… [read more]


Slave Trade Demography Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (829 words)
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Slave trade - SC

Question 1) Find the NY total numbers from Africa and which locations if indicated, including mean average numbers.

There are at least two ways to answer this question depending upon how you interpret the question. The two variables -- "total numbers" and "from Africa" could mean different things to different people. "Total numbers" could mean either total number of slaves or total number of ships. "From Africa" could be defined as directly from Africa or "from Africa" with stops along the way, which, might be listed as Jamaica. It is also possible that a ship labeled Jamaica could have originate in Jamaica since this country served as central hub for smaller ships to transport slaves to other locations in British America.

If you hold "from Africa " constant with the definition as only those ships listed as Africa, the total number of slaves would be 995 slaves. If you decide that "total numbers" means the number of ships, the answer is eighteen ships. Under this scenario, the mean average of slaves per ship would be 55.

If you were to hold "from Africa" constant with the definition of all ship having come through Africa with or without stops at other ports, the number of slaves would be 4146 and the number of ships would be 578. In this scenario, the mean average of ships would be seven.

Like the phases "from Africa" and "the total number," "mean average could be interpreted differently: is it the mean average of slaves per ship (as used in the two previous scenarios) or is it the mean number of ships per year or the mean number of slaves per year? Another question to consider was the direction the ship was traveling and their reason for being in NY. Was the ship returning to Britain or on its' way south to other colonies? Was the ship in port at NY to sell slaves or to obtain trade goods?

Question one is difficult to answer. The lack of specificity in the question allows for multiple interpretations. The historian must create a set of assumptions to apply to each scenario in order to provide specific answers.

Question 2) Find the total numbers and mean averages of slaves from each African port for South Carolina between 1735-1760.

Question two is much more specific. The total number of slaves by ports and number of ships is listed in the table below. This information also was adequate in addressing the…… [read more]


Problems With Colonial Presence in Africa Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … African Colonization

In the 1870's, 1880's, and 1890's great explosions in the ecclesiastical, educational, military, republican, monarchial traditions took place in Europe. It was a time of great wealth for the bourgeoisie, but tough times for workers. It was also a time of European imperial expansion, as was the case with the European rush into Africa, known as the Scramble for Africa. During this period, the notion of Empire within Europe was very key to the European perception of self. During this period and after, Africa became split into numerous colonies of white settlement. In order to remain safe on a foreign continent, the european colonizers had to portray themselves as natural and undisputed masters of a great many of Africans. They referred to European traditions to define themselves and justify their ruling position. European order, furthermore, offered models of subservience to use in Africa.

Due to the great differences between Africans and their European colonizers, the regimental traditions of Europe manifested themselves as more strictly for mere command and control in African society. European workers in Africa adopted the rituals invented by workers in Europe to help separate them from Africans. Such practices ensured Africans would not be considered workers, but, instead, slaves. In order to ensure system stability in colonial Africa, European monarchs internalized the necessity that select Africans could become members of the governing class of colonial Africa. They then set up a number of oligarchies in Africa to act as a buffer between European interests and the poor classes of Africa. In 1955, young lawyer and activist Nelson Mandela outlined the life of a woman whose condition was typical of the economic oppression during apartheid: (Ranger 445-460)

Rachel Musi is fifty-three years of age. She and her husband had lived in Krugersdorp [near Johannesburg] for thirty-two years. Throughout this period he had worked for the Krugersdorp municipality for £7 10s a month. They had seven children ranging from nineteen to two years of age. One was doing the final year of the junior certificate at the Krugersdorp Bantu High School, and three were in primary schools, also in Krugersdorp. She had several convictions for brewing kaffir1 beer. Because of these convictions, she was arrested as an undesirable person in terms of the provisions of the Native Urban Areas Act and brought before the additional native commissioner of Krugersdorp. After the arrest but before the trial her husband collapsed suddenly and died. Thereafter, the commissioner judged her an undesirable person, and ordered her deportation to Lichtenburg [a distant rural town]. Bereaved and brokenhearted, and with the responsibility of maintaining seven children weighing heavily on her shoulders, an aged woman was exiled from her home and forcibly separated…… [read more]


Atlantic Trade History and Its Geography Book Review

Book Review  |  12 pages (4,085 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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¶ … History of the Atlantic Slave Trade

"[Beginning in the 16th Century]…America became the great market for some 9 to 10 million African slaves…and it was in the New World that African slavery most flourished under European rule…" (Klein, 2010, p 17).

Background into the Slave Trade

Roger Anstey writes in his book the Atlantic Slave Trade and British… [read more]


Kwame Nkrumah, Were the Roots of Africa Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (320 words)
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¶ … Kwame Nkrumah, were the roots of Africa's "backwardness" in comparison to the west, and what did Nkrumah see as the solutions to Africa's problems? To what extent might colonialism be responsible for continued political, social, and economic unrest throughout Africa today?

According to Kwame Nkrumah, because of its potentially rich natural resources, Africa could develop into a wealthy economic powerhouse. Unfortunately, the legacy of European colonialism is still manifest Africa's fragmentation and the extant rivalries between the continent's many nations, all of whom are at different levels of development. Africa may have succeeded in fighting European dominance, but now too many African nations are fighting between one another. Africa, the victim of colonialization, is now engaged in a kind of 'divide and conquer strategy' against itself. "Can we seriously believe that the colonial powers meant for these [twenty-eight nations] to be viable states?" asks Nkrumah, implying that the creation of so many nations after the Age of Empire…… [read more]


South Africa Technology Divide Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (3,988 words)
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South Africa Tech Divide

South Africa the Technology Divide

South Africa the Technology Divide: Economic & Cultural Disparity"

The development of a massive technology divide is not an isolated issue in any nation, but some nations are at particular risk and in particularly dire straights. This work discusses the technology divide in South Africa, focusing on both the problem itself,… [read more]


Somalia Pre and Post Colonialism Somalia's Population Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (855 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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Somalia Pre and Post Colonialism

Somalia's population stands, by some estimates, at 4.5 million people, comprising one of the largest ethnic blocks in Africa, even though the number of people counted as residents of the country is comparatively small to that of other African nations (Lewis, I.M., 1988, p. 1). They occupy a 400,000 squares of the northeast portion of the "Horn" of Africa, facing Saudi Arabia (Lewis, 1988, p. 1). Not unlike other post colonial African countries, a large area of Somalia, Jibuti, formed its own sovereign nation. Describing the geographical span of Somalia, author I.M. Lewis describes it this way:

From the region of the Awash Valley in the north-west, this often and territory occupied by the Somali stretches round the periphery of the Ethiopian highlands and along the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean coasts down to the Tana River in northern Kenya. This region forms a well-defined geographical and ethnic unit which Somalis see as a natural base for a sovereign state, although today it is split up into four separate parts (p. 1)."

Those four parts, or that any section of the country stands separate, is as a result of Somalia's history of French colonialism. That part which stands separate from the rest of the nation is Jibuti, which declared its independence in 1977, and is a former French Republic (Lewis, p. 1). Because of its location and the opportunity the country presented by its location and access to seafaring routes and the Middle East, people of Somali heritage are scattered throughout the region from the Ethiopia to Kenya and throughout the Middle East (Lewis, p. 1). Today, Somalia stands under the influence of its colonial past, a country that in post colonial times has been, for the most part, one of civil war and chaos, unable to stabilize itself in a way that would allow it harness its economic or leadership potential that exists in its location, natural resources, and by virtue of the fact that it is indeed the largest ethnic block in Africa today (Peterson, Scott, 2000, p. 1)

Somalia has gone the way of Rwanda (former Belgium colony), Zimbabwe (former English colony), and, today, South Africa in a post colonial/apartheid environment. This paper attempts to study, in brief, Somalia's Imperial past, present state of civil war and unrest, and its future.

Imperial Somalia

The exploitation of Somalia by colonial Imperial powers commenced in 1860, and is considered by historians to represent the beginning of the "first phase" of partitioning the country (Lewis, 1988, p. 40).

IN the YEARS…… [read more]


China and Sudan Darfur Crisis Term Paper

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China and Sudan (darfur crisis)

China and Sudan: The Darfur crisis

The world of international politics and relationships has become increasing complex. This is due to a number of important factors, which include the phenomenon of globalization and increased economic competition, coupled with the reduction in the availability of natural resources. The decrease in the supply of resource such as… [read more]


Sources and Causes of Conflicts in Sudan Term Paper

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Sudan Conflict brief history of Sudan as a nation includes aspects of colonialism that are evident in the histories of many other nations. Outside interests from both Britain and Egypt dominated Sudan's early modern history, with emphasis on exterior rather than internal gain. The resolution of enduring conflicts, such as those of the north of Sudan and its southern interests… [read more]


Dissolution of Empires After WWII Term Paper

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¶ … World War II also marked the end of the idea of empire, an idea that had directed the actions of many European powers for some time and that was also evident in the actions of some of the countries of Asia. These various countries sought to expand their power by taking over other nations and by controlling the… [read more]


Decolonization of the British Empire in Africa Term Paper

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Decolonization of the British Empire in Africa

Of the numerous and complex surrounding the decolonizing of the British empire in Africa, the influence African states under the British had on one another throughout the process is of particular interest, because it is a subject that has not been widely explored to date. Perhaps the reason for that is that the… [read more]


Rwanda: A Culture of Genocide Term Paper

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¶ … Genocide Culture

The history and events of Rwanda that have produced a persistent acceptance of a Genocide culture

FLOW of INFORMATION

Children who are raised in abusive homes often become so accustomed to the abuse that it becomes the norm. They begin to quietly accept the atrocities of abuse as if they were acceptable practices and they no… [read more]


Imperialism in Africa; Dbq Term Paper

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Imperialism in Africa; DBQ

The imperialism in Africa has been interpreted in many different ways depending on the point-of-view that one is looking at it from. The result though is apparent that it led to the curving up of vast colonies for the European world from the Africa and Asian continents. Below are the impacts that imperialism brought and the varying views that were expressed by the binary sides.

Document

O.P. Austin, "Does Colonization Pay" the Forum, 1900

"Modern progressive nations lying in the temperate zone seek to control garden spots' in the tropics. [mainly in Africa, Latin America, and Asia] Under [the progressive nations] direction, these places can yield tropical produce. In return, the progressive nations bring to the people of those garden spots the foodstuffs and manufactures they need. [Progressive nations] develop the territory by building roads, canals, railways, and telegraphs. They can establish schools and newspapers for the colonies [and] give these people the benefit of other blessings of civilization which they have not the means of creating themselves."

1. According to this excerpt, what were the benefits that the imperialists got from the colonized nations? What did the colonized nations get in return?

Document 2

Ngugi Wa Thiong'o, "The Language of African Literature" from Decolonizing the Mind.

"The choice of language and the use to which language is put is central to a people's definition of themselves in relation to the natural and social environment, indeed in relation to the entire universe…writers who should have been mapping paths out of that linguistic encirclement [by colonialism] of their continent also came to be defined and to define themselves in terms of the language of imperialist imposition. Even at their most radical and pro-African position in their sentiments…… [read more]


Systematical Denial of Culture Term Paper

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As this compromise took place it was realized that though the African culture was undergoing a change so was the 'whites' culture changing. This change however, was largely ignored in historical writings. Though historical researchers are happy to acknowledge that the Africans were made victims of the Western need for supremacy they are less eager to acknowledge the fact that the Africans had a large hand in the making of the American society. The life that we see in American today has been influenced and helped been created by the Africans.

This ignoring of the contribution of the Africans has its own legacy. The American society claims that it is a democratic state and that the rights of all the nations are herein protected. What they fail to state is that the Atlantic World as referred to by Thornton, (1992) is also capable of systemic racism. The racism is present but within the institutions and thus at times not clearly visible.

With regard to the African culture, people and nation as a whole in making the Atlantic World people must accept and acknowledge their contribution. By ignoring their worth the Atlantic World is again attacking the Africans racially.

Thornton explores the legacy of the African-Americans through two centuries. He focuses on the cause and effects of the slave trade and suggests with examples how the Africans influenced the social, political and economic life of the American society. By examining the African legacy and the influence of the slaves on the society Thornton has taken the step in helping to eradicate the systemic racist tendencies of the American world. He suggests that through the estate structure, the social demography and the cultural facets the African… [read more]


Sociology and Anthropology After 1880 Term Paper

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This gave many Africans the ability to flourish under this system by closely allying themselves with the British. (Foster, 2002, pp. 107 -- 130)

The French system was designed to take the African colonies and impose their values upon them. This meant that the local governments implemented strict controls in how various services were delivered and the kind language that is spoken. The basic idea was to have these French values help to civilize the Africans. As a result, there were vast divisions between many urban and rural centers. In the cities, most people embraced these Western traditions (developing an aristocracy). While those people who lived in the country, continued to practice different tribal customs and ignored many French traditions. The combination of these factors created situations where there were divisions (based upon the region an individual was from). (Foster, 2002, pp. 107 -- 130)

When the two different colonization approaches are compared, it is clear that the British have a system that gives everyone more choices. This is based upon exercising indirect forms of control over the region. While the French were focused on: imposing their values, ideas and beliefs in each area. This is because these colonies were considered to be a part of France itself (with officials constantly wanting to exercise control at all times). This created social divisions between urban and rural centers. As a result, the British system gave Africans greater amounts of control and freedom. Whereas the French; wanted to dominate each colony and remake them in their own image). (Foster, 2002, pp. 107 -- 130)

Conclusion

Clearly, the two approaches of the British and French are showing different ideas for controlling natural resources inside Africa. The British views, helped many regions to become more independent with less focus on central control. While the French, created vast disparities based upon: the region an individual is from. As the urban centers are known for practicing more Western traditions and rural locales are embracing tribal customs.

These divisions have often led to challenges, with each region believing that they are better than the others. This sense of arrogance is based upon French attitudes and cultural beliefs (which are still in place to this day). As a result, the long-term effects of both approaches created numerous divisions. In many former British colonies, this is from a lack of central control. Whereas, the French regions experienced disputes based upon: where someone grew up and the customs / traditions they are exposed to.

References

Ciment, J. (2007).…… [read more]


South Africa the Republic Term Paper

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4%, industry: 28.9%, services: 66.7% (2001) (CIA, WFB 2003) as industry and support for urban dwellers in the form of service staff are clearly at a great advantage over the agricultural field. Though the division of labor in the country reflects an slightly uneven distribution between agriculture and industry/service, (agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (1999 est.) it does not… [read more]


South Africa: Exports, Imports Term Paper

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On the bright side, Spoornet, South Africa's state-owned rail company, announced plans in 2003 to increase freight charges to the MCT and DCT by 30% on average over three years.

Indeed, that is one of the challenges that the South African population is facing on a daily basis. Infrastructure is simply lacking to put forth many of the initiatives necessary to improve the country's imports and exports.

On the regional front, the United States is one of South Africa's key trade partners. The relationship between the two nations has been deepening steadily since 1994 and the end of apartheid. This is evidenced in the fact that the Rand value of South African exports to the U.S. has increased markedly. In 2001 and 2002, South African manufactured exports to the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) grew by a whopping 16.6%. Furthermore, South Africa recorded a trade surplus (this is unheard of in its region) of approximately R3.4 billion in 2000, following a number of years during which South Africa persistently ran a large deficit. However, the structure of trade between the two countries remains incredibly similar. The United States tends to export higher value-added products to South Africa while South African exports to the U.S. consist largely of unprocessed and semi-processed materials such as steel. Nevertheless, export opportunities for South African products do exist in the fields of auto components, shoes and leather, wine, machinery, chemicals, jewelry and cut flowers.

South Africa is a beneficiary of the United States' Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), which grants duty-free treatment for more than 4,650 products. South Africa is also a beneficiary of the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), which permits duty-free entry of clothing and selected cloths into the U.S. until September 30, 2008, subject to certain strictly defined criteria and policy reforms. Under AGOA, South Africa also receives additional GSP (duty-free) treatment for 1,897 products until the year 2008. AGOA was proclaimed on October 2, 2000 and originally designated 34 countries in sub-Saharan Africa as eminently eligible for the trade benefits of AGOA. In 2001, Swaziland was designated as the 35th AGOA-eligible country, to follow in South Africa's well-tread footsteps.

The South African-U.S. Bilateral Co-operation Forum has since replaced the BNC between the two countries.

A sign of the healthy relationship between South Africa and the U.S. was South Africa's exemption from new U.S. steel tariffs imposed in 2002.

In general, involvement in regional trade associations has helped South Africa turn itself from a regional powerhouse into an economy with worldwide impact and exports.

Bibliography

Du Toit, Jaques. ABSA Media Release: Absa releases publication on developments in South Africa's foreign trade. 2001. http://www.absa.co.za/ABSA/Content/PubRef_Content/Article_Files/PubRefArtFile462_1.htm

South African Consulate: www.southafrica-newyork.net

Tilley, Les.…… [read more]


Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  35 pages (8,882 words)
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Malaria in Sub-Sahara Africa

It is beyond any shadow of doubt that malaria is the world's most lethal bloodsucking infection. DDT is a customary choice in the Sub-Sahara African Countries to control Malaria. These countries have given notifications that they are preserving the privilege to utilize DDT against malaria. The effect of the successful ban on the use of DDT… [read more]


African Economy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,137 words)
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African Economy

One of the most serious tropical diseases seen around the world is malaria. Malaria has a very significant negative impact on the economic on many of the poorest nations of the world. This article does a survey on the direct and indirect significance of malaria on South Africa and studies the issues regarding the use of Dichloro diphenyl… [read more]


U.S. Foreign Policy in Southern Africa Term Paper

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¶ … U.S. Foreign Policy in southern Africa

The United States' foreign policy towards Southern Africa has long couched between the Cold War paradigm and hasty decisions of self-service. In his treatise on the American treatment of Africa's southern region, Helen Purkitt aptly described the "tilt" towards South Africa that started in the 1970s and continued later under the Reagan… [read more]

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