Study "African History / Africa" Essays 1-55

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African History Film Response Film Review

… At the heart of the film is the way that history has rewritten the events of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century in Congo. King Leopold has been written by some historians as a benevolent man whose intentions were purer than those of other imperialists. Christian historians in particular have helped elevate his reputation beyond the reproaches of truthful history and instead celebrate him as an icon, as an individual who tried to spread their version of the word of God to those who were ignorant of it before. If he happened to make money because of the resources available in Congo, then that was a nice addition, but that this was not the focus of the colonial expansion. Obviously, this is the complete antithesis of the truth where the horrors of the truth are echoed still in the modern period. The filmmakers explain this by showing how chocolate hands are a common treat in Belgium today but are modeled after the fact that young children who were late on their rubber deliveries would have their hands cut off.

In Congo: White King, Red Rubber, Black Death the truth of African colonialism is made explicit. The filmmakers take what most people assume they know about this period in world history and truly educate them. It is an indictment of colonialism and of the way history tends to rewrite the villains based upon the moral and social perspective of the people writing those histories. What is most disturbing is that Leopold not only faced no serious repercussions for his actions, but that he tried to bury the truth, showing full well that he knew what he was doing was wrong as opposed to the misguided impression of some colonials that because they were white, they were somehow entitled to their atrocities.

Works Cited

Congo: White King, Red Rubber, Black Death. (2004). YouTube. YouTube, 27… [read more]

Africa Since Independence Review Reaction Paper

… South Africa, for example, is becoming a nation that acknowledges its entire history, and is starting to embrace the whole of it. Native tribes and Afrikaaner people alike can be proud of the progress the nation has made (Bauer & Taylor).

Legum is very optimistic regarding the future of the continent. He sees the return of those first moments of euphoria that accompanied the original freedom from colonialism (72). He says this because it has been a cultural revolution in which people who were long made to suppress their heritage have now been able to embrace it. He believes that the Africa of the past will spread a new renaissance that the people of the present and future can enjoy.

One nation that comes to mind as a similar case is Australia. The indigenous people of that nation are fast realizing a cultural renaissance because they are allowed now, even encouraged to, explore who they are historically. Many South Pacific nations are having the same kind of feelings as they get closer to their roots. The similarities between many of these and Africa as a group of nations is impressive.

One issue that Legum does point out is that Africa has a difficult relationship with the West. The countries of the West were worried, when colonialism ended after World War II, how the nations of Africa would align themselves. Legum is worried that many nations of the West treated the post-colonization period like former slaves were treated in the United States after the Civil War. The nations were left on their own, to shift for themselves, and this seemed to cause many to accept forms of government which caused them to devolve to third world nations (Legum 69). But, there seems to a new spirit. Many nations are beginning to prosper with new trade deals, with both the West and the East, and this can be seen as a positive thing. Legum seems to believe that Africa will survive by becoming what it was prior to colonialism.


Africa is a continent that many in the past saw as a single entity with similar (if not the same) culture, politics, and religion throughout the continent. The European nations that colonized the various areas of Africa regarded the people as primitive and as needing guidance from more advanced societies. Since the nations have regained their independence over the past 70 years, they have shown the diversity and stability that was possible from the beginning. Africa has begun to come full circle and that is the central theme of the book by Mr. Legum.

Works Cited

Bauer, Gretchen, and Scott D. Taylor. Politics in Southern Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 2005. Print.

Legum, Colin.… [read more]

Pre-Historic African Development Term Paper

… Pre-Historic African Development

The concept of Africa has been of "the dark continent" and this concept has been spread by the European invaders there. At the same time, there is historical evidence to suggest that human civilization developed in Africa… [read more]

Islam in East Africa Analysis Term Paper

… Today, it is active in all three territories. The present head of the mission is Sheikh Mubarah Ahmed, whose first task was to prepare a Swahili translation of the holy Koran with a commentary, then to produce other Islamic literature. Muslims have primarily been involved in conducting village Koranic schools, where the standard of religious and secular learning is low:

As many Muslims are afraid of religious pressure if they send their children to Christian schools, the African and Arab communities are apt to be backward and economically handicapped. Nor has the Ahmadiyya mission yet undertaken hospital work of the type undertaken by the Christian missionaries. The Muslims who follow H.H. The Aga Khan, on the other hand, established schools, hospitals, dispensaries and libraries after the end of the First World War. They do not, however, support missionaries, for they believe that conversion should result from the activity of the individual.

In the earlier period, missionary work was not an Islamic tradition, and the adoption of Islam was instead "a natural consequence of the intermarriage of Arab and Persian settlers with the coastal populations since the tenth century."? As a rule, the "Arab slave-trader had not in general been a missionary: to have proselytized his victims would indeed have precluded him from enslaving them."? For tribes allied with the Arabs, though, there was evidence of some religious assimilation to Islam before the arrival of Europeans.


Burke, Fred G. And Stanley Diamond. The Transformation of East Africa: Studies in Political Anthropology. New York: Basic Books, 1966.

Duiker, William J. And Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History: Volume I. New York: West Publishing, 1994.

Esposito, John L. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Hansen, Holger Bernt and Michael Twaddle. Religion and Politics in East Africa: The Period since Independence. London: James Currey, 1995.

Ingham, Kenneth. A History of East Africa. London: Longmans, Green, 1963.

Kingsnorth, G.W. And Zoe Marsh. An Introduction to the History of East Africa. Cambridge, 1957.

Oliver, Roland. The Missionary Factor in East Africa. London: Longmans Green, 1952.

Ramsay, F.J. Global Studies: Africa. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998.

G.W. Kingsnorth and Zoe Marsh, An Introduction to the History of East Africa (Cambridge, 1957), 8.

John L. Esposito. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 39.

F.J. Ramsay, Global Studies: Africa (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998), 95.

William J. Duiker, and Jackson J. Spielvogel, World History: Volume I (New York: West Publishing, 1994), 240.

Ibid., 249.

Holger Bernt Hansen and Michael Twaddle, Religion and Politics in East Africa: The Period since Independence (London: James Currey, 1995), 20

Ibid., 20.

Ibid., 20-21.

Kenneth Ingham, A History of East Africa (London: Longmans, Green, 1963), 11.

Fred G. Burke and Stanley Diamond, The Transformation of East Africa: Studies in Political Anthropology (New York: Basic Books, 1966), 244.

Ibid., 244.… [read more]

Global Business Cultural Analysis Nigeria Term Paper

… However, the President Obasanjo was removed on May 29, 2007 after that Nigeria came to know about its primary change of authority between national supervision. The new elected leader UmaruYar'Adua took the rule; he was a modest and a valued… [read more]

Cultural Perceptions of Time Term Paper

… The regional or ethnic subsets I will examine are: the Bantu-Kongo of modern Nigeria, the Nguni Zulus of modern South Africa, and the Akan of central and southern modern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern modern Cote d'Ivoire,. Additionally… [read more]

History of Africa Nationalism: African Research Paper

… Additionally, since the creation of boundaries by colonizing nations was done rather arbitrarily and regardless of the indigenous ethnic cultures and tribes, the spirit of unification and nationalism was not allowed to grow organically to the point that the people would wish to form their own nation. Instead, their independence came from rebellion against a larger foe and not a unification of the people.

Independent Churches:

African Independent Churches are also known as African Indigenous Churches, African Initiated Churches, African Instituted Churches, or AICs. These names all together define more than 10,000 independent churches in Africa, all variations and denominations of Christianity (African). Although these churches are all different and spread out throughout the continent, the one thing that these churches have in common is that they were created by Africans and not by the Christian missionaries who came into Africa in the 18th and 19th centuries. The other component that unites these churches is that they all combine Christian principles with the traditional religions of the African tribes from the area that they are established in. Some of the churches utilize their African traditions more than the others, but all of them feature these characteristics is some form. The AICs, like the European Christians before them, have strong missionary systems in place to further spread their own versions of Christian religion to the rest of the African people.

The AICs began to form in the late 19th century in acts of rebellion against the white Christian missionaries and the colonial governments that they represented. One of the primary goals of the initial founders of some of the African Independent Churches was to read the Bible themselves and interpret the scripture through their own analysis and not believing without question the interpretations of the colonial missionaries. Indeed some of the AICs have expanded on the Bible, including their founding into the narrative of their religious beliefs. Additionally, it has been the political position of most AICs to have an open mind with regard to other churches and religions, particularly Christian churches occupying the same geographic locations and Muslims (African).

Works Cited:

"African Independent Church Origins." Balanced Views of Religion and Spirituality with Faith.

"African Nationalism." Helicon Publishing. 2011. Online.

Blumberg, Arnold. Great Leaders, Great Tyrants?. Greenwood Publishing. 1995. 221-222. Print.

Guilbert, Armand and Seghers Nimrod. Leopold Senghor. Paris. 2006. Print.

Hedges, David. "Samora Machel: A Biography." Journal of Southern African Studies. 19: 3.

1993. 547-549. Print.

Karimi, Joseph. The Kenyatta Succession. 1980. Print.

Lettinga, Neil. "The Roman Catholic Church in the Colonial Era (1890-1960)" 7 June 2000.


Lonsdale, John. "Mau Maus of the Mind." The Journal of African History. 31. 1990. 399-421.


Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom. Little, Brown, and Co. 1994. Print.

Meredith, Martin. The Fate of Africa. Public Affairs. 2006. Print.

National… [read more]

Ethical Issues of South Africa's Black Economic Empowerment Program Term Paper

… Ethical issues of South Africa's Black Economic Empowerment Program (BEE)

Across the formerly colonized African territory, South Africa's turbulent history and multifaceted makeup is not unique. However, the country remains unique in light of the particulars. First, the nation has… [read more]

Colonization of Africa Research Paper

… Colonization of Africa:

The occupation and control of one nation by another is defined as colonialism. Various European countries have colonized many areas of the world including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the small islands around the… [read more]

Africa My Favorite Place in the World Essay

… ¶ … Algeria to Zimbabwe, Africa is the most incredible and compelling continent on the planet. African history is the history of humanity itself, as the first human beings came from Africa. The continent has had a tumultuous history and recent turmoil can be traced to the effects of colonization. In spite of the troubles that affect many African nations, the continent remains one of my favorite places in the world to travel and to live. Africa's cultures and cuisines are incredibly varied. Its ecosystems are equally as diverse, ranging from arid deserts to lush rainforests. Because of its diversity of cultural traditions, its rich and varied foods, and its wonderful ecosystems, Africa is my favorite place on the planet.

Africa is a huge continent comprised of over fifty countries, and has an even greater number of different religions, languages, and cultural traditions. Northern Africa is a world unto itself. The countries of Northern Africa including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt have been strongly influenced by Muslim and Arabic cultures. Also, the history of North Africa is especially fascinating because of ancient Egypt. One of the reasons why I love Africa is because of this rich ancient civilization that built the pyramids. A large portion of the North African desert is home to semi-nomadic people too, making that region of Africa fascinating to visit. On the other hand, large portions of Africa are still represented by stationary tribes people who practice age-old dances, religious rites, and social customs. Much of Africa was divided into kingdoms such as the Ashanti. West Africa has a strong and varied tradition that includes the Yoruba religion that informed so many of the Caribbean cultures. South Africa has its own distinct culture and history and has been influenced strongly by the European settlers. Ethiopia also differs significantly from the rest of Africa, as does Kenya.

The diversity of… [read more]

Global Inequality South Africa Thesis

… Global Inequality

South Africa is a large nation comprising the southern tip of the African continent. Its capital city is Pretoria, but Johannesburg and Cape Town both have larger populations. The region is rich in natural resources including precious metals,… [read more]

African Studies Log What Does Africa Mean? Research Proposal

… African Studies Log

What does Africa mean? What is Africa to the millions of black Americans who were brought to the United States in captivity? What is it to those who live in European nations, to those who still live… [read more]

Apartheid From 1948 to 1994, the System Term Paper

… Apartheid

From 1948 to 1994, the system of apartheid ruled the lives of everyone living in South Africa, including all individuals of every race (Eades, 3). This separation of races was an extension of the concepts of segregation, and went… [read more]

Africa and Its Diaspora Term Paper

… As the document nears its end, it turns more toward a call for the African people to stop allowing this kind of thing to happen, and to stop simply going along with what others have said about them or with the way others think that they should be acting. This is not a call for rebellion or overthrow, but rather a call to equality and a deeper understanding of their history and heritage.

Analyzing this document in a critical fashion is somewhat difficult. This is due to the fact that whether one is of African descent could strongly affect the feelings that are invoked when this document is read. Of course, this is just a generalization of the way that races and cultures feel, and not everyone will share that view. However, it seems that there might be a difference between the way Africans and Europeans view this article. From a European point-of-view, in general, the article might appear very inflammatory and might sound as though the African people are being asked to rise up against the oppression of others and change the history that has been created for them. In this way, the article would read as a call to arms and would sound dangerously deviant and problematic.

However, for those of an African descent, and those that are willing to look beyond their own beliefs and suspend the prejudices that they seem to have toward the African people, the document can be seen as a cry for equality and justice. There is a strong desire expressed in the document to be equal and to be recognized for the accomplishments that the African people have in their own right, instead of being tacked onto the history of other individuals such as Europeans. The desire of the African people to have their own history and to embrace their own beliefs is a strong one, and it can only happen if there are those who are willing to speak up and work to make changes that can benefit all of the African people in their history and for the future as well.

There are many conclusions that can be drawn from a careful reading of this document, but the most obvious one is that it appears that the African people are still dealing with oppression and the pain that comes from feeling that they really do not belong to any one group. This pain has not gone away over the years, and many Africans, whether they live in their home land or somewhere else, are finding that their culture is being hidden and discounted to make room for the culture of others. Because many Africans do not think about Africa as being the center of things, they accept ideas that are largely European in origin and allow them to permeate their thoughts, instead of looking toward Africa and allowing it to dominate their thoughts and their cultural experiences.

It is one thing to live by the rules that have been set… [read more]

Harmony to Holocaust the Portuguese Term Paper

… As a result their culture flourished, becoming quite well-known for crafting gold/brass items, carving wood, making furniture as well as the famous brightly colored cloth known as kente ("Wonders").

Another important area affected by the slave trade was the Kingdom… [read more]

Urbanization and Foreign Aid Africa Term Paper

… Entities such as the South African Local Economic Development Network of Africa pour foreign funds into the country and assist with its economic situation. Lastly, the influence of foreign aid and urbanization has helped South Africa to become recognized at the international level.

One of the most severe problems caused by urbanization in South Africa is the high unemployment rate. As of October of 2013, the unemployment rate in the country was at nearly 25% (van Vyck, 2013). However, it is worth noting that this rate represented a decline in unemployment. This decline in unemployment can be attributed to the efforts of foreign investors in programs such as the Local Economic Development Network (LED) of South Africa, which established funds into local businesses to help promote job opportunities and reduce the incidence of unemployment. LED's relationship with government entities at both the national and local level are fairly comprehensive, particularly in relation to helping South Africa solve its unemployment problem -- which is intrinsically related to the incidence of urban crime in the area. The subsequent quotation emphasizes this fact. "Local governments are usually given a general mandate to undertake economic development, which includes developing local strategies, coordinating with local private sector and civil society actors, enhancing the local environment for business and attracting investment" (LEDNA, 2013) As previously denoted, Led is financed by investors in Germany and Switzerland.

At this point in the history of South Africa, it is far too early to attribute success to the influence of foreign aid in the form of urbanization. One would actually have a better case of demonstrating the opposite. It was largely due to the influence of foreign aid that urbanization took place within the country whatsoever. The principle effect of urbanization was the implementation of the brutal, inhumane system of apartheid which governed the country for nearly 50 years. In the wake of the overthrow of this system, rampant unemployment and crime have taken place. Therefore, it would be inaccurate to state that the foreign aid has been enough to counteract the problems stemming from urbanization within this country. All one has to do is look at the most recent percentage of unemployment within South Africa to see this point: The Africa Report (2013) states that this percentage for the third quarter of the year was 24.7% (van Vyck, 2013). By comparison, the unemployment rate in the U.S. (can source), is routinely at a third of that rate. Therefore, the efforts of foreign aid are not sufficient; in fact, the country may be suffering from a surplus of such aid.


Cox, K.R., Hemson, D., Todes, A. (2004). Urbanization in South Africa and the changing character of migrant labor. South African Geographical Journal. 86(1), 7-16.

LEDNA. (2013). Government. Retrieved from

Hopkins, A.G. (1993). 'Blundering and plundering': The Scramble for Africa relived. The Journal of African History. 34 (3): 489-494

Stoddard, E. (2013). South Africa's waning gold industry braces for more strikes. Reuters. Retrieved from

Van Vyck, C.… [read more]

Colonialism and the African Experience Essay

… Colonialism and the African Experience

The author of this document is . This document is a chapter in a textbook-like history book. It was written in. The intended audience appears to be people learning about colonialism in Africa. The audience seems to be expected to have a basic understanding of world history, but no specific understanding of African history. Therefore, it appears safe for one to assume that the audience is a history class or history students, who are seeking to learn about how European colonialism impacted Africa.

The document was written in order to inform people about the nature and impact of European colonialism in Africa. First, it explains why Europeans would want to colonize Africa. Modern depictions of Africa make it seem like a resource-poor and violent country, making it difficult for a modern audience to understand why anyone would want to colonize Africa in the first place. However, by contrasting the absolute vastness of Africa's territory with the relative minuteness of lands in Europe, the author is able to convey the fact that European countries were able to gain tremendous prestige by having vast holdings in colonies. The author also explains how strategic positioning in Africa enabled European countries to establish superior military positions, so that African holdings could and did impact political and military struggles in Europe. Of course, the land itself was only one benefit that European countries received from colonization. Africa was, and continues to be, a land with vast natural resources, and controlling the land put the imperial colonists in control of the resources. The most obvious of those resources may have been the African people. While most are familiar with the idea that European countries used the Africans in the slave trade, what they may not realize is how that practice had long-lasting effects on military power. For example, in World War I, approximately 1 million people of African descent fought on the side of the allies, a number that doubled by World War II (p.116). After explaining why the Europeans wanted to colonize Africa, the author goes on to explain how the Europeans used the missionaries and the idea of spreading Christianity to further secular goals in colonization. The author also discusses what these secular goals of colonization were. For example, Europeans honestly believed themselves to be culturally superior to colonized people. Therefore, the considered it a moral obligation to "civilize" the people they colonized. The author mentions segregation in the colonies, both de facto and de juris, and compares French, British, and Portuguese colonies and their attitudes towards race. The author also discusses the different ways in which the European countries ran their colonies, and how the different types of rule impacted development under colonial rule. Next, the author discusses the economics of colonialism, including: the expropriation of land, the exploitation of labor, the introduction of cash crops and the one-crop economy, unfair taxation, the introduction of immigrant labor from India, the transfer… [read more]

Apartheid Can Be Seen as the Conglomeration Thesis

… Apartheid can be seen as the conglomeration of the Afrikaner-dominated government in the 1940s with the tradition of British colonialism primarily in South Africa. The notion of apartheid stems from an idea that means apartness or separateness. Apartheid is no… [read more]

Since 1800 Term Paper

… Africa Since 1800 is primarily a survey text of the recent history of the continent of Africa. However, even a survey history of a region still has a clear ideological point-of-view in terms of what the authors chose to include and exclude. This text, although factually correct and valuable in its treatment of often uncovered areas of African history and territory, tends to deemphasize the immorality of the colonialist impulse, and locate anti-colonial resistance as part of a larger history of a region characterized by frequent struggles for dominance by a variety of political leaders. Authors Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore in no way defend colonialism, but they wish to present what they believe to be balanced and fairly dispassionate overview of the region.

The book begins by giving a short history of the beginnings of colonialism, chronicles various anti-colonialist movements, and provides a final survey the present day. Given its relatively short length for a subject of such breadth, the book perhaps inevitably sacrifices some depth. However, in its sweep, it does include some important reminders of the cultural diversity of the African Continent. The first chapters of the book divide African geography into north and south of the equator, and traces how the ideology of Islam impacted Northern African development. Addressing the influence of Islam in Africa, and showing the differences between the cultures of West, East, and Central Africa is one of the most valuable contributions of the book, especially for readers who are unfamiliar with the region.

However, the authors occasionally make broad, sweeping statements about Africa such as: "By the end of the eighteenth century, people in the Muslim world as a whole had lost much of the energy and sense of purpose that had driven them to produce such a brilliant culture in the early centuries of Islam. They had failed to keep abreast of the new inventions and techniques being discovered in Western Europe, particularly in military affairs and transport" (5-6). To measure the brilliance of a culture according to its technical excellence is a moral, rather than an objective, historical judgment. Later, when chronicling British influence in Nigeria, the authors assert that there were "people who gained from colonial rule. Those who suffered from it were, by contrast, those who, through ill-luck or ill-judgment, or simply from an excess of patriotism, challenged the colonial power and were overthrown" (162). To call resistance to British dominance by native tribes excessive patriotism, or to say that those who did not actively resist the British gained from their passivity, implicitly if not explicitly, critiques the leaders who defended their land. In the later sections of the book, the authors are equally negative tone when chronicling political changes in independent Africa… [read more]

Apartheid South Africa Term Paper


Annotated Bibliography

Clark, Nancy L. And William H. Worger. South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid.

New York: Longman Publishing, 2004.

This excellent book by noted historians Nancy L. Clark and William H. Worger discusses in great depth… [read more]

Afrikaners Are the Descendants of the European Term Paper

… Afrikaners are the descendants of the European, mainly Dutch, settlers who first established permanent settlement at the Southern tip of the African continent in the mid-seventeenth century and later spread inland. The Afrikaners developed their separate identity as, after settling… [read more]

Poverty in Zaire 'The Democratic Term Paper

… Life expectancy is only forty-five for both men and women and has in fact lowered slightly over the past several years. Other indicators of poverty such as: infant mortality and fertility rate are also among the highest, or worst, in the already poor continent. Four percent of the population has HIV, and literacy rates are so low that statistics are unavailable. While the citizens of the democratic Republic of Congo suffer, their leaders have prospered immensely. Poverty in the Democratic Republic of Congo is therefore a political issue. Moreover, the nation cannot expect much help from outside sources. Like many underdeveloped and poor nations, the Democratic Republic of Congo is severely indebted to creditor nations: the value of the debt according to the World Bank in 2003 was $7.8 billion.

Poverty in the Democratic Republic of Congo is a deep-rooted problem that requires long-term, long-range and visionary solutions. While aid does come in from international organizations, it is not enough. Something must be done to curb the political corruption that has ravaged the nation since its independence from Belgium. In addition to a total political transformation of the nation, care must be taken to provide for the immediate needs of the people: for land, food, shelter, and clothing. Education is also a major factor in the renewal of nations like Zaire, which have high illiteracy rates. Education means empowerment. In a country as rich in natural resources and land mass as the democratic Republic of Congo, poverty should become a vestige of the past. Among potential solutions include increasing funding for infrastructures that would promote local development, small business growth, tourism, Internet usage, and farming cooperatives. The Democratic Republic of Congo has the potential to be a wealthy African nation, given its abundance of natural resources, but internal division prevents such an ideal from becoming real. While interventionism is often a distasteful and imbalanced means to help nations like the democratic Republic of Congo, some forms of intervention, and debt relief, are absolutely necessary.

Works Cited

"Congo, Democratic Republic of." CIA World Factbook. 2005. Online at <>.

'Congo (Zaire) Information." 1998. Art and Life in Africa. <>.

'Democratic Republic of Congo Data Profile." 2003. World Bank. Online at .

Forests Monitor. 2001. "Democratic Republic of Congo." Sold Down the River. Online at <>.

Gibbs, David N. The Political Economy of Third World Intervention. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Omamo, Steven. "The Peaceful Continent -- Poverty, Not Ethnicity, Drives Conflict in Zaire." 17 Mar 1997. Pacific News Service/JINN. Online at <>.

'A Poisonous Legacy of Poverty and Decay." Business Times. Online at <>. [read more]

Arts and Tanzania People Essay

… ¶ … Art to Tanzania people

There is much that goes into this perspective. Before the twentieth century, very few of African natives considered themselves as 'Africans'. The inception of the saying itself can be found in the interactions of… [read more]

Somalia Social Perspective Research Paper

… Somalia- Social Perspective

On the east cost of the African continent lays a strip of ground surrounded by the Indian Ocean, on one side and by exotic lands like Kenya and Ethiopia on the continental side. This is Somalia and,… [read more]

Dark Star Safari: Overland Term Paper

… This illustrates that Orientalism is not simply a western phenomenon. The Nubian is practicing the same type of behavior, looking at another culture through his own culture's eyes, and not attempting to understand any differences that might occur. It shows… [read more]

Mau Revolt in Kenya Term Paper

… ¶ … Mau Mau - Contrasting Views of an African Rebellion

John Lonsdale writes in the Journal of African History that while the legacy of the Mau Mau has lived in British memory " a symbol of African savagery," modern… [read more]

South Africa Economy History Research Paper

… South Africa Economy

History of South Africa

Political Situation of the Country

South African Economy

Key Macroeconomic Variables

Justice/Judiciary System of the Country

Environmental Concerns

Health Concerns in South Africa

Society/Family/Culture of the Nation

Religion practiced in South Africa

Education… [read more]

African Art the Trade Center/Royal Term Paper

… Although this has all been proven false by more recent archeological investigations, it is a telling history of Britain's attempt to take indigenous peoples out of the historical mix.

The people who built the Great Zimbabwe lived at the site and built it up from approximately 1100-1450 AD (Ampim). It is divided, primarily, into two different areas. These are the Hill enclosures and those in the valley. It is believed by many that the hill enclosures were the first seats of the kings, but they eventually moved to the Great Enclosure which is in the valley. This is a picture looking down on the valley enclosure.

The Great enclosure iint he valley is also thought to have housed the harem of the king (Tyson) as the hill enclosures are thought to be the seat of religious importance and where the foundry and iron smelting took place.

Another function of the area besides ruling the people of the region was to provide trade for those who came from different areas of the world to visit. It is not known if the city itself had traders that went to the far reaches of the East or if they received traders, probably a little bit of both, but there have been some interesting articles found at the site. Trade relates that "Celedon pottery from early in the period of the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1384-1644) is one of the most frequent imports found at Great Zimbabwe," and others have seen goods from other parts of the world.

However, most of the artifacts that have been found in the area are from local artisans. These are more difficult to date (Trade) and they make it more difficult to find out exactly when events occurred at the site. Some have been noted though for their religious significance. This picture shows a soapstone bird, which is thought to be a religious symbol. Most of these types of artifacts are found in the hill enclosures, but there have been some found along the outer wall of the Great Enclosure.

It is difficult to estimate the importance of the site to the people of the region. Because the zimbabwe's are unique in both their construction and mysterious purpose, they have a kind of mystical presence and provide a great deal of pride for the people of Zimbabwe (Ampim). The Shona-speaking residents of the country understand that they have occupied the region for a long time and that their history is tied up in the massive construction project. Their people first came to the region as farmers seeking higher elevations to avoid the deadly tsetse flies that killed them and their livestock (Ampim). It is believed by many that they eventually developed the technology to build the enclosures and that they also started trading with partners in a much wider circle than previously (Ampim). This meant that they needed the buildings to house the trade and the traders. The pride that the modern day people have for this history is… [read more]

West African Kingdoms Ghana, Mali Term Paper

… European slavery, on the other hand, regarded slaves as property. The status of slavery was hereditary and would continue through life. Slaves in the United States were also forced to adopt the religious customs of their masters. As a result, they lost many aspects of their magic and Islam-based cultures as they adopted the Christian traditions prevalent in the Americas.

This context should form the backdrop in studying the role Africans themselves played in the slave trade. Historians like Basil Davidson contend that many African slave traders had no idea about the conditions of the Middle Passage, as well as the significant differences in the European concept of slavery (Davidson 211). They were unaware of the conditions that awaited many of their kin in the Americas.

In conclusion, the political and economic life of prominent West African kingdoms contributed to the institution of slavery. However, slavery had a much different meaning for the Africans and the European colonizers.

Still, as Davidson observes, this lack of knowledge does not "reduce the inhumanity of the system in itself" (214).

Works Cited

Davidson, Basil. Africa in History. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1981.

Der, Benedict. The Slave Trade in Northern Ghana. Ghana: Woeli Publishing Services, 1998.

Harris, Joseph E. Africans and Their History.

New York: Penguin, 1998.

MacDonald, Kevin. " Songhai Empire," World Book… [read more]

Negative Impact of Post Apertheid Essay

… This congestion and inadequate social amenities especially for the poor black people led to the outbreak of diseases that claim the lives of hundreds of people. Hard economic conditions due to inequality is a major contributor to people's participation in… [read more]

South Africa Sources Of, Developments Term Paper

… South Africa

Sources of, Developments in, and Responses to National and Transnational Threats in Modern South Africa

The second half of the twentieth century was a period of major development and progress for the African continent and many of the… [read more]

Colonialism, Violence, Religion, Struggle for Liberation, Etc. In South Africa Research Paper

… South Africa

Colonialism, Racism, and Violence: The History of the Struggle for Liberation in South Africa

The colonialism that began to take over the world in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and that still arguably exists in certain economic as… [read more]

Slave Trade: Europe and Africa Before/After 1550 Essay

… ¶ … Slave Trade in and Between Europe and Africa Before and After 1550

The objective of this work is to answer the questions of: (1) 'How was the slave trade practiced in Europe and Africa before 1550, in comparison… [read more]

Africa's Armies Robert B. Edgerton Term Paper

… Africa's Armies

Robert B. Edgerton provides a multi-faceted review of Africa's potential for discovery. The author explores from an "anthropological" perspective (supposedly) the "cultural and historical land of Africa" (Shaw, 2005), focusing primarily on the many armies of Africa and… [read more]

South African: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle Term Paper

… South African: The Rise, Fall, And Struggle During South African Apartheid

The political map of the African continent can be considered to be the result of the centuries of imperial colonialism expressed especially through the continuous pressures of the British,… [read more]

African-American History the Nationalism Movement of Biafra Term Paper

… African-American History

The Nationalism Movement of Biafra

What every happened to the nation of Biafra after the Nigerian-Biafra Civil War in 1967 to 1970? Many people have forgotten Biafra and its' fight for independence. However, the natives of Biafra, the Igbo peoples, are still fighting for their own nation, 35 years after their fledging country disappeared back into the boundaries of Nigeria.

Today, a majority of the Igbo people are still fighting for independence. Their nationalist movement does not receive much media attention, but it is there, nonetheless. Those who advocate freedom and nationality for the Biafran nation cite atrocities and religious intolerance from the Nigerian Federal Government as some of their reasons for still hoping for freedom. According to one group fighting for independence, after the end of the Civil War in 1970, the Nigerian government imposed several sanctions on the former Biafrans, including confiscation of property, (the government called it "abandoned"), seized assets of Biafrans, and continually harassed and attacked Biafrans ("Biafra Case"). Atrocities continued throughout the 35 years since the war, with the Nigerian government denying allegations of harassment and prejudice, while Biafrians continued to chronicle atrocities.

In 1999, several Islamic nations developed in Northern Nigeria, and since, then, Biafrans have suffered religious persecution and harassment. Biafra freedom fighters note, "Though supposedly applicable to only Muslims, non-Muslims [are] being forced to obey Islamic law; [and there is a] direct assault on [the] secularity of [the] Nigerian constitution" ("Biafra Case"). Biafrans fear attacks by the Nigerian religious police called the "Hisbah," who search for businesses that defy Muslim law, (such as bars and other businesses owned by Igbos). Conflicts between government soldiers and civilians are common, and Biafrans constantly live in fear for their lives. These are only some of the reasons most Biafrans still hope for their own independent nation.

While the Biafrans are surrounded by violence and corruption in the Nigerian Government, (Nigeria was… [read more]

Colonization, Much of the African Term Paper

… When the European nations decimated the native populations in the Caribbean, North, and South America, a massive labor force was required. This labor force was garnered from Africa. African chiefs and kings bowed to pressure or bribes by European slave traders and handed over throngs of men, women, and children.

Religious conversion was often cited as an excuse to enslave the Africans. In fact, the Catholic Church fully supported the system of slavery in order to attract more subjects ("African Slave System"). Later, slavery was further justified by its necessity in exploiting the natural resources of the New World. The economy of the Americas, especially the United States, would never have burgeoned were it not for slave labor. Eventually, slavery became entrenched in North America as an integral part of life.

Slavery also sparked the beginning of a capitalist, market-based economy. As the landowners prospered from the blood of African slaves, new business interests sprouted in the New World. In spite of these changes in lifestyle, the abolitionist movement eventually took hold in the United States. In large part based on Christian moral values, the abolitionist movement began with such groups as the Society of Friends (Quakers). Gradually, a rift between Northern and Southern states grew wider as the plantation and slave-dependent South refused to bow to the pressures of abolitionists. Although anti-slavery sentiment began in the eighteenth century, around the time of the War of Independence, the movement did not reach its peak until the mid nineteenth-century, immediately prior to the Civil War (Bancroft).

Works Cited

African Slave System." Encyclopedia of Slavery. 28 Jul 2003.

Bancroft, Hubert H. "Anti-Slavery History." Excerpt from The Great Republic by the Master Historians. 28 Jul 2003. [read more]

East Africa's Great Rift Valley Article Review

… These illustrations add to the article's overall clarity and cohesiveness.

The principle weakness with this article is that the authors wait too long to inform the reader of the pragmatic value of rifts and their creations. Although they are clearly enthusiastic about their topic, the reader does not quite understand why -- until he or she gets to the conclusion and the paragraph before it and the authors explain the anthropological significance of this phenomena. Prior to that, however, the article merely reads like a pair of zealots are simply acting like doctrinaires and spouting off a collection of little known facts for mere pedantic value. Additionally, there are some terms that the authors use and which they do not define, which makes it difficult for laymen readers to readily understand them For instance, when the authors refer to bulges they never clarify this term which, if one were to attempt to define it in the dictionary, would provide a definition that is not applicable to the author's usage of the word. Still, the erroneous assumptions that the authors make is that the recitation of mere facts regarding rifts is a point of interest to the reader without any practical association of this phenomena with contemporary or even historical relevance.

In conclusion, this is a fairly credible article in which the authors take great pains to clarify their main points and to provide a good deal of background information about rifts and their effects on the world. It could have been improved by restructuring some of its points, however. The authors should have began the article by explaining the role that rifts have played in the nature of mankind's history, which could have helped to engage… [read more]

Role of Colonial Influences in the 1994 Rwandan Genocide Term Paper

… In support of Hintjens argument, Habyarimana's henchmen also rid the country of Hutu political opponents (Storey 367). A year before the genocide, a power-sharing deal had been struck between Habyarimana and the RFP, but it was never implemented. The spark that seemed to ignite the genocide was the shooting down of the plane carrying Habyarimana in 1994. The RFP eventually defeated the Rwandan military later that year and an RFP-led government was established.


The factors that contributed to the 1994 Rwandan genocide were clearly influenced by colonial rule. Inequality was increased by the formal implementation of a class system. Cultural distance was increased when ethnicity became the basis for the colonial class system. Hutus and Tutsis were both invested in Rwanda so there would have been some immobility, but the greatest contribution to immobility would have been the veil of secrecy the Habyarimana regime maintained as they planned and orchestrated the genocide. Functional independence would likely not have been a contributing factor among the general public, since both Tutsi and Hutus had been living side-by-side and intermarrying since colonial rule ended; however, under President Habyarimana there would probably have been an increasing division between the ethnic groups economically and politically. These divisions would have been fostered by the periodic mass killings of unarmed Tutsis which they orchestrated. In the end, the Habyarimana regime took a page from the colonial rule book by fostering these divisions in the years leading up to the 1994 genocide. Together with the propaganda campaign denigrating Tutsis, a small group of powerful Hutus exploited the resources at their disposal and massacred over a tenth of their population to try and maintain political control of Rwanda. From a historical perspective, this would not have been possible without the German and Belgian colonial powers showing how a minority ethnic group can be manipulated into controlling a majority ethnic group.


1. Genocide is the mass killing of people based on their ethnicity (Campbell 150). The United Nations, however, defines genocide as the intentional destruction of any national, ethnic, racial, or religious group through any number of means, including violence, repression, persecution, or eugenics (Campbell 152).

Works Cited

Campbell, Bradley. "Genocide as Social Control." Sociological Theory 27.2 (2009): 150-72. Print.… [read more]

African Development Countries Essay

… Premise 2: The Africans wanted to control their own governments and were ill-prepared.

Therefore: Europeans are responsible for many of the difficulties in Africa at the current historical moment because they did not prepare the people.

Inductive Reasoning -- strong

Third Body Paragraph:

Premise 1: Many of the tribes of Africa hunted and gathered for food.

Premise 2: Industrialization was heavily used by agricultural societies.

Therefore: It was more difficult for the tribes to convert to industry if they were hunter/gatherers.

Inductive Reasoning -- weak

Premise 1: Different tribes and groups did not live together in pre-colonial Africa.

Premise 2: Colonizers forced different tribes to live together.

Therefore: Europeans created situations where disparate groups were forced together and did not or could not get along. '

Inductive Reasoning -- weak

The argument is weak because it does not illustrate if the animosity between the tribes was directly caused by the European separation and inclusion of them.


Main Terms:

Development -- the process of developing or being developed; a state of growth or advancement

Underdevelopment -- state of inadequate development

Sovereignty -- supreme power or authority

Colonization -- the act of colonizing


This paper is good but there could be stronger arguments for how the situation might be improved. Since the issue is such a complex one and the issue seems to be more complicated than this relatively short paper explains. If there were stronger evidence or if perhaps the paper were more limited in scope, say to one country instead of the entire continent of Africa, the persuasion would be more effective. The paper does prove that Africa is underdeveloped and that the people suffer because of it, but it is still vague. This too would be aided with the specification of one nation or region instead of the whole of the continent. One of the major issues discussed in the paper is the danger of human life in Africa from disease, such as that carried by flies. [read more]

South African Apartheid System Essay

… ¶ … South African Apartheid System

Many countries have had systems of racial separation, but perhaps the most widely known and widely reviled system was South Africa's Apartheid system, which separated black Africans from whites. However, like most systems of racial separation, the origin of apartheid was initially far more about economic concerns than social concerns. "The conventional view is that apartheid was devised by affluent whites to suppress poor blacks. In fact, the system sprang from class warfare and was largely the creation of white workers struggling against both the black majority and white capitalists. Apartheid was born in the political victory of radical white trade unions over both of their rivals. In short, this cruelly oppressive economic system was socialism with a racist face" (Hazlett, 2008).

In order to understand apartheid, one must understand the colonial history of South Africa. The Dutch established a settlement in South Africa in 1652, but were conquered by the British in 1796. The British initially established a relatively liberal government, which conflicted with the pro-slavery government established by Afrikaners. After Britain abolished slavery in South Africa in 1834, the Afrikaners moved north to escape from British rule, and established a very racist system of legal institutions, which actually conflicted with a relatively racially liberal 19th century Capetown that had integrated schools and permitted nonwhites to vote. However, when gold was discovered in the 1871, an intense rivalry developed between poor whites and blacks, as blacks developed the skills and communication abilities to take on coveted leadership positions in European-owned companies. White laborers formed labor unions, and, while black labor unions were not prohibited, they did not achieve the same recognition. This led to de facto differences in the treatment of the black and white labor forces. Within a short period of time, these de facto differences became actual legal differences. "The state instituted an array of legal impediments to the promotion of black workers. The notorious Pass Laws sought to sharply limit the supply of nonwhite workers in "white" employment centers. Blacks were not allowed to become… [read more]

Kenya the African Nation Journal

… ¶ … Kenya

The African nation of Kenya has grown in fame, given that it is the birthplace of the president's father. During the first half of the 20th century, the nation was under British rule. However, the nation attained its independence and joined the British Commonwealth after a civil war of liberation against the British that lasted from 1952 to 1959 (Kenya, 2012, U.S. State Department). Although the Kenyans were victorious, independence came at a high price: 13, 500 Africans died but 100 Europeans were killed, and the much-promised land reform of the rebels was not achieved (History of Kenya, 2012, Lonely Planet).

Kenya is technically a functioning democracy, with a unicameral legislature and independent judiciary. However, its government has recently been torn apart by strife and in-fighting. In 2007, the UN was forced to enter the country after a disputed presidential election left more than a thousand Kenyans dead. The settlement enacted" constitutional, electoral, land, and institutional reform as well as increased accountability for corruption and political violence" (Kenya, 2012, U.S. State Department).

Compared with its neighbors, Kenya's government has been relatively stable, and its economy has exhibited periods of unusually strong growth for a former colony. Kenya is "the largest economy in east Africa and is a regional financial and transportation hub" (Kenya, 2012, U.S. State Department). Government and foreign investment and smallholder agricultural production caused the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) to grow an average of 6.6% from 1963 to 1973 (Kenya, 2012, U.S. State Department). According to a recent news article in the LA Times, Kenya also was the "largest exporter of pan-African crafts in the world" (Goffard 2012).

However, in the 1990s and beyond, government corruption and overregulation caused the Kenyan economy to perform well below its potential. The devastation to the nation's economy has also been compounded by drought. "Security and corruption remain worrying issues, locals complain that the cost of living has virtually doubled, and Kenya has fallen 20 places on the UN Human Development Index since 2002" (History of Kenya, 2012, Lonely Planet). "Ethnic violence raged, crime spiraled out of… [read more]

Report of Transparency in Oil Extraction for Equatorial Guinea and Chad Research Paper

… Chad Guinea

Guinea promises superior transparency than Chad for oil or any other point-source extractive investment particularly because of constitutional checks and balances to executive power and integration with global monetary and financial authorities. Chad has stronger financial balance sheet… [read more]

Regional Organizations Essay

… African Unity

The Organization for African Unity

The African Continent is rich in resource, populace and cultural diversity. Its potential for achievement remains great. Yet, throughout history it has been a victim, either of exploitation by outsiders or of its… [read more]

Strategic Partnerships With the EU and China Multiple Chapters

… ¶ … strategic partnerships with the EU and China benefit the political and economic development in Ghana?

Do strategic partnerships with the European Union and China benefit the political and economic development in Ghana?

Main agenda of the international development… [read more]

Assimilation and Direct Rule in Africa Term Paper

… Assimilation and Direct Rule in Africa

The French approach of having a Direct Rule grasp over Africa was very different to that of the British indirect manner of colonization. This Direct Rule was represented by a centralized federalist administration, administered by a governor general from French West Africa that was centered in Senegal. Only in St. Louis were a few individual Africans permitted to participate in this government. Outside of St. Louis, Africans were subjects rather than citizens. The French insisted on maintaining exclusive rule over its colonies, and this situation exists, to a certain extent still today, as evidenced with the decision of the African island of Mayotte to remain under French jurisdiction.

On the other hand, however, the French colonial administration was flexible in its control, changing its policies and system to reflect changing times and circumstances with Africa and France. Its manner was evidenced by a fourfold approach called Assimilation, Association, Differentiation and Paternalism which Thomas Hodgkin (in Rodney, 1990) labeled "carthesianism." It was in this manner that the French achieved "a measure of uniformity in the pattern of institutions introduced into 'Afrique noire'"(p.39). Although, certainly still containing some of the more brutal and callous elements of colonization (such as forced labor), the French were far better in their treatment of their subjects than were other European colonizers such as, notoriously, the Germans or the Portuguese. Nonetheless, many of the aspects of this Direct Rule were still, indubiously, heartless.

Senegal was the first colony where French Direct Rule occurred and from there its model spread to other new French West African colonies (Gunther, 1955). French colonial exploitation was merciless. An example is the poor state of Guinea where it was recorded that "France obtained one billion (old) francs or about 5.6 million dollars in foreign exchange, based on the sale of bauxite, coffee and bananas" (Rodney, 1990). Forced labor and imprisonment (oftentimes unjustified and both in order to expand French aims) were common. Inconsiderate of the indigenous locals and of… [read more]

Ethnic Conflict Research Paper

… Rwanda, a country located in East Africa that was colonized by Belgium aristocracy, is a picturesque nation that also has a bitter past. At present, Rwanda is a socially, economically, and politically stable country with booming industries such as mining, agriculture, and tourism that constitute its financial foundation. However, in 1994 one of the worst genocide cases in modern world history that involved the assassination of then president Juvenal Habyarimana and the mass killings of approximately 850,000 citizens occurred within a 100 day time span. The tension erupted when the generally favored and European looking Tutsis peoples had conflict with the more native African looking Hutus aborigines. In 1990, the Tutsis led Rwanda Patriotic Front fought to maintain government control of the nation, which lead to civil unrest for the next three years culminating in the 1994 genocide. The root of these slayings is complex and involves a comparison between primordialism and social constructivism paradigms as a study within a sociological and political context.

The term ethnic refers to the commonalities of a group of people who acknowledge such shred visions, tradition, or special socio-physiological characteristics. From a sociological point-of-view, ethnicity can determine the cohesiveness of a group of people within a nation. Such information can be applied to a broader context when examining the root cause of the 1994 Rwandan genocides. A primordialism perspective implies that both the Tutsis and the Hutus work together as though both groups have a common goal or shared bond. The ethnic ties between the Tutsi and the Hutu are communal. However, from a historical standpoint, such bonds did not truly exist between the Tutsi and the Hutu peoples. The Hutus group, which is roughly 75% of the residents in Rwanda, resented the favoritism shown to the Tutsi peoples. Despite efforts by Belgium invaders to switch their loyalty to the Hutus in 1962, prior to Rwanda's declaration of independence from the country, the majority group disliked the Tutsi 1990 measures to control the then… [read more]

US Relations W. South Africa Thesis

… U.S. Relations W/South Africa

Racism has always been a divisive matter, but fortunately it appears to have been eradicated from most parts of the modern society. The apartheid system of laws functioning in South Africa throughout most of the twentieth… [read more]

South Africa Under the Apartheid Term Paper

… , while the later involved the elements and actins of segregation. It was the grand apartheid that was practiced by the National party for a longer period of time (up to 1990s) whiles the petty apartheid was abolished way earlier… [read more]

Blood Diamonds of South Africa Thesis

… Blood Diamonds of South Africa

The African continent is notorious for the valuable resources that it contains underneath the earth's surface and numerous controversies have appeared as a result of people exploiting its riches in unorthodox ways. There are several… [read more]

Mobile Phone Industry in Africa Essay

… Mobile Phone Industry in Africa

Africa's attractiveness to MNCs from mobile phone industry

Africa is the second largest and second most populated continent, after Asia. The 992 million people (as of 2005: UN, 2006) in its 61 territories account for… [read more]

Jim Crow Laws Term Paper

… Apartheid in South Africa

Diala, I. (2003). "Andre Brink and the Implications of Tragedy for Apartheid South Africa." Journal of Southern African Studies, Volume 29, Number 4.

Diala's study of Andre Brink's literary works, which highlight the apartheid in South Africa, particularly the Afrikaans, demonstrated how apartheid had escalated and developed in the sense that individuals and groups against it developed ways to resist this unjust practice. Brink's 20th century novels became the setting for the tragedy that occurred in South Africa, wherein the demise of the native Africans were witnessed, not to mention its heritage and culture disenfranchised, to be replaced by the 'white man's culture and society. One of the most compelling arguments presented in the article is the question that Diala posed about Brink's works, wherein he questioned whether the author was really offering resistance to apartheid, or was simply mirroring the events occurring in his society, without direct reference to resistance. Writing and expression of ideas as a form of resistance against apartheid is presented here as an alternative route that individuals have taken in order to express their resistance and protest against apartheid.

Jackson, W., T. Alessandri, and S. Black. (2005). "The price of corporate social responsibility: The case of black economic empowerment transactions in South Africa." Working Papers Series, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.

This article covers one facet or dimension, internationally, of segregation or apartheid in South Africa. In this article, the authors discussed the concept of black economic empowerment (BEE) transactions that have been occurring after the abolition of apartheid in the country. The authors… [read more]

South Africa -- Past Term Paper

… But those ANC members in exile often had very little experience of political activity in South Africa. Individuals prison had little experience of daily administrative bureaucracy outside of the prison environment. In Zambia and Tanzania, the ANC's bureaucracy ran farms,… [read more]

African Perspectives on Colonialism by A. Adu Boahen Term Paper

… African Colonialism

Abu Boahen's book African Perspectives on Colonialism is a determined effort to take the much studied topic of colonialism within the African continent and give it that native spin that has been sorely lacking. He notes that although there have been many works handling the issue of African colonialism; it seems that "most of these authors have looked at the subject primarily from a Euro-centric point-of-view." (Boahen, vii). Boahen also aims to legitimize the independence revolutions that have occurred in the latter half of the twentieth century by placing them more properly within their historical context. The overall effect European colonization of Africa had upon the African people was that they possessed an almost duel sense of history; they held ties to their own unique cultural heritages as well as the formalized governmental, educational, and religious systems that the Europeans had brought and imposed upon them. Many Africans are Christians, many speak predominantly English, French, or Portuguese; and simultaneously, many others wish to reject all remnants of European brutality. The divisions between the imperialist powers have ultimately divided the people of Africa in manners that make many regions particularly tumultuous, and the powers of the European-style governments particularly limited.

Boahen makes the point that although the coming of Christianity managed to tear many communities and traditional orders of society apart, the European missionaries still provided many Africans with useful tools to survive in the changing world. He writes, "Besides preaching the gospel, converting people to Christianity, and translating the Bible into various African languages, these missionary societies promoted agriculture; taught such skills as carpentry, printing, and tailoring; and promoted trade, literacy, and Western education." (Boahen, 16). Fundamentally, this was one of the driving forces behind the dual sense of history that Africans would inherit; with the damaging effects that contact with the European powers promised came opportunities for advancements and mutual advantage. Boahen provides speeches made by African leaders as colonization first began and argues, "It is clear from the very words of the African leaders who were about to face the colonial challenge that they were determined to defend their sovereignty, religion, and traditional way of life but at the same time wanted to cooperate with the Europeans for mutual benefit, and that they were very confident of success." (Boahen, 26).

However, the methods of colonial rule that were eventually instilled were strongly tied to the strengths and weaknesses of the new rulers, but came to be generalized under the headings of "direct" and "indirect" rule. The British, for example, brought with them their experience from India; where they often looked towards local leaders to act in their favor. The French, on the other hand, tended to overthrow any native power structures… [read more]

Congo and African Studies Term Paper

… Congo and African Studies

Those who are conquered always want to imitate the conqueror in his main characteristics-in his clothing, his crafts, and in all his distinctive traits and characteristics." -Ibn Khaldun

This assertion, from the fourteenth century, is most… [read more]

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