Study "African History / Africa" Essays 56-110

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African Nationalism Played a Significant Role Term Paper

… African nationalism played a significant role in the resistance against foreign domination and had been a major influence in the lives of Africans throughout much of the continent. It is often defined as the political movement that called for African unity in the struggle for self-determination against colonial regimes. Its general history can be summarized as having occurred in the following fashion.

The earliest known African nationalist groups had first come into existence beginning in the late nineteenth century. The Aborigines Rights Protection Society in the Gold Coast was the first such group that was formed in 1897. Groups that were formed shortly after that were the African National Congress in South Africa in 1912 and the National Congress of West Africa in 1920. Many African-run churches, such as the Kitwala and Kimbanguist churches, also began participating in nationalist movements during the 1950's.

By 1939 almost all the African territories had nationalist groups working for them. Kwame Nkrumah, who would later become Africa's first ever prime minister, formed the Gold Coast Convention People's Party in 1948. Most of the groups aspired towards self-determination for single territories; examples of such groups included the Tanganyika African Association and the Rhodesian Bantu Voters Association. Very few groups, which included the National Congress of British West Africa, aspired towards Pan-African unity.

After WWI the desire for African self-determination was bolstered by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's support for it, which he emphasized about in his Fourteen Points. It was not until after WWII however, when African nationalist groups began fervently working to end colonialism within their nations. America's anti-colonialist stance, as stipulated in the 1941 Atlantic Charter, the Soviet Union's censure of colonialism, and the generally weakened position of the colonial powers after WWII encouraged calls for independence from various African territories. This led to the eventual political emancipation of these territories, beginning with Kwame Nkrumah becoming the prime minister of an independent Ghana in 1957. The rest of Africa became politically independent of colonialism beginning in the 1960's.

Mills (n.d) provides a description of how African nationalist groups were formed during the years prior to resistance. He explains that African Initiated Churches (AIC's) were prominent groups that staged resistance some 10-20 years prior to the formation of actual nationalist groups. AIC's came into existence throughout Africa beginning in the 1890's and were initially in response to African concerns on the domination by whites over church finances and offices. Middle class African intellectuals who wished to be bestowed political power by colonialist regimes formed other types of resistance groups. Later, more forms of resistance came about from African working-class groups such as trade unions, friendly societies, sports associations, and so on. After 1945 all these diverse interest groups were later merged into the large nationalist movements that began working towards achieving independence from the colonialist…… [read more]


Africa so Poor? Term Paper

… What adds to this is the fact that the country has a history of long drawn out conflicts and civil wars, and these civil wars do tend to slow down and even arrest the growth and development of the African… [read more]


Compare North Africa to Sub-Saharan Term Paper

… Africa

The diverse continent of African can be conveniently divided into two geographically, historically, and culturally distinct regions: Northern, or Saharan Africa, and the larger sub-Saharan portion. Nations in Northern Africa include Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia, nations with mainly Berber or Muslim Caucasian populations and close ties to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The Sahara desert not only characterizes the topology, climate, and agriculture of this region but also serves as a geographic border demarcating these nations from the rest of the continent. Sub-Saharan Africa basically includes all the territories and nations south of Northern Africa, from Angola to Zimbabwe. The several African island nations and territories such as Madagascar and Mauritius are also considered to be part of Sub-Saharan Africa based on their sharing more in common with Sub-Saharan than Northern Africa. Although the differences between North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa are most marked by language, culture, and history, the geography, climate, economies, natural resources, systems of government, and level of technological development also distinguish these two vast regions of the globe.

The Ottoman conquests of North Africa dramatically altered the character of the continent. However, thousands of years prior to the Ottoman Empire, the Romans had occupied North Africa, leaving a cultural legacy that contributed to the demarcation of North from Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert undoubtedly hindered the conquest of regions below it, but so did the presence of tropical diseases such as malaria. North Africa became more Caucasian in character especially after the Middle ages, when the Ottomans took hold there, introducing Berber and Arabic languages and the Muslim religion. Black Africans continuously migrated south, which is why the majority of North African peoples today remain Caucasian and Muslim while a vast portion of those people in Sub-Saharan Africa remain Black and tied to their ancient religious traditions. Sub-Saharan Africa is too diverse to sum up simply, but generally the ethnic makeup consists of mainly black persons from a wide range of cultures and religions. Moreover, sub-Saharan Africans speak hundreds of different languages. The current national divisions were in large part artificially constructed since European colonialism; prior to colonial conquests from the French, British, Spanish, Belgians, and other Western European powers sub-Saharan Africa consisted of a number of wealthy, powerful kingdoms and intricate societal structures.

Today sub-Saharan Africa languishes in abject poverty, disease, political corruption, and racial tension. Sub-Saharan Africa consists of some of the least developed nations in the world. Many Sub-Saharan nations only practice subsistence agriculture, whereas some North African nations produce crops for export. However, the nation of South Africa remains the economic bastion of…… [read more]


Healers Term Paper

… The river is a source, and metaphor for life, and of the healing power of the Gods. Fresh from the competition, Densu and Anan sit in the river, and gaze at the bottom of the clear waters. All is peaceful for the two, and the author is seemingly setting the contrast for the entire book. When the people fight, either themselves or each other, they miss out on the simple treasure of understanding the great mystery of the life giving waters. They seek to find power or status for themselves, and never are able to find the peace they seek, because they try to find it through war.

Densu introduces the reader to another character, his friend, and possible love interest Jesiwa. Jesiwa has been married before, and thought the circumstances of here singlehood are not disclosed, she is marred from a history of 4 miscarriages. The first happened as the result of an accident, but the 2-4 were spontaneous. Jesiwa tortures herself mentally over her inability to have children, until she spends time with a healer named, Damfu. Through a long, scene, and many days, Damfu helps Jesiwa see that it is within her power to conceive again, she only has to want to. When she complains, and responds that "there is something too strong for me . . . An evil force that over powers me . . . so that I cannot conceive"

Damfu replies, in somewhat oriental philosophy "If it is a power within you that is more powerful that you are, then it has to borrow power from your real self. When you gather all your scattered energy, then you can see your own strength, and see if you are really too weak, or too strong."

Again, Armah is making a metaphor for the African people. Scattered and sectarian, they are weak, and the white men can conquer them at will. Since Armah is writing in retrospect, he is identifying one of the reasons for Africa's vulnerability. The African tribe's own disunity created their weakness, and thereby gave the power to the colonizing white men.

The book continues to illustrate the tribal infighting, and mistrust among the peoples which typified the African tribes, until the end, when the healer Asamoa is summoned for a council. The Healer is told that the white men are invading the region, with the intent of taking control of a significant city, Asante. In the midst of the tribal council of warrior kings, Asamoa says to let the white man come. Let him invade, and become fully engaged in the city, and in the jungle. Asamoa says that they do not need to fight the white man, but simply let him become trapped in the jungle. "Let them fight a long war with the jungle"

he advises. Then the white man would defeat himself.

By proposing unity among the tribes, Asamoa identified the path toward a strengthened African people, and Armah, who studied in America, also was trying to communicate… [read more]


South Africa Country Report Term Paper

… (CIA WFB 2003 rank order total deaths to AIDS) "Life expectancy at birth South Africa: total population: 46.56 years male: 46.57 years female: 46.54 years (2003 est.) (CIA, WFB, SA, 2003)U.S.: total population: 77.14 years female: 80.05 years (2003 est.) male: 74.37 years (CIA, WFB, USA, 2003) The startling difference in life expectancy can in some part be associated with economic factors, such as the high comparable poverty rate, but is due in large part to the South African AIDS epidemic. In the relatively comparable per capita statistical analysis between the United States and South Africa such a stark difference in life expectancy should be a bold reminder to the world that the problem of AIDS is by far one of the most important humanitarian questions in the world today.

Comparing these two nations could leave the reader with the idea that South Africa in some sense is a younger version of the United States, especially regarding the two countries social and political histories yet, the departing factor may well be the AIDS crisis in South Africa. An epidemic, that in many ways can only be compared to the European Plague in loss of life, and this in a time where modern medicine exists and often offers greater hope for the eradication of disease. With world leadership these two nations may yet, become more similar, yet nothing will be done in that direction until major issues of poverty and disease are combated with extreme urgency.

Works Cited

Binns, Tony, and Etienne Nel. "Tourism as a local development strategy in South Africa." The Geographical Journal 168.3 (2002): 235+. Questia. 12 Dec. 2003 http://www.questia.com/.

Central Intelligence Agency of the Untied States, World Fact Book: South Africa 2003 at http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sf.html.

Central Intelligence Agency of the Untied States, World Fact Book: United States 2003 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html.

Central Intelligence Agency of the Untied States,…… [read more]


Africa's Political Crisis Most African Term Paper

… Africa is in need of improved political leadership, but not a stronger or bigger state. For Africa to succeed in its post-independent state, it needs leaders who can rise above their ethnic origins and who will create a sense of… [read more]


Timeline of Apartheid Term Paper

… His actions and efforts eventually led to elections being held four years later in which people of all races were allowed to vote and this allowed the African National Congress to come to power. They achieved very close, but not quite, the two thirds majority needed to revamp the Constitution automatically and there were mutterings that the results were not entirely legitimate due to a lack of proper verification and accuracy procedures. Even so, the ANC got more than 250 seats out of 400 in the Congress and the won in seven of the nine provincial government elections. Even many whites, albeit not close to a majority, did not support Apartheid in the first place (History Channel, 2014).

Conclusion

In the end, Apartheid never should have come to be and it still shapes and guides many of the patterns in South African society and daily life even to this day even though more than a generation has passed since the efforts to unravel Apartheid began. Even so, much the same thing could be said of slavery in the United States as slavery was abolished in the 1860's but the civil rights progress that made the most difference did not come until a century later. Beyond that, the American civil rights were amended again in the 1990's and now LGBT peoples are seeking their place at the equality table. What this means to South Africa is that since the systemic racism frameworks are mostly gone, it will just take time for the racist peoples to fade into history and lead to a brighter tomorrow for the peoples and years to come (Apartheid Museum, 2014).

References

Apartheid Museum. (2014, June 19). Home | Apartheid Museum. Home | Apartheid Museum. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.apartheidmuseum.org/

History Channel. (2014, June 17). Apartheid.…… [read more]


Reasoning Assessment of Issues in Ethiopia and Their Effect on U.S. Interests Research Paper

… S. Interests

It is evident that Ethiopia has been able to have strong influences on the United States. Research shows that for more than a century, Ethiopia and the United States have really enjoyed the warm government-to-government and person -to-person… [read more]


Testing Materials) -- Sensitive Case Study

… But these are secondary objectives when the Axis' main goals are to defeat the Russians and the British on their homelands. A sufficient Allied push into North Africa will readily force the Axis's hand and cause them to abandon North… [read more]


Imperialisms in Congo Essay

… 88).

Economic impacts

The economic stability of Congo was not in any safer state before the start of the renewed imperialism. The renewed imperialism resulted in what is today a major blow to the African economy. The economic plans that had been put by the African countries were less of future growths and developments. This means that the departure of the Europeans from Congo left many economies in turmoil. Congo is one of the nations in the world that is suffering from poor economic structures.

These structures are dated back to the time of colonization. Moreover, the political unrests in the region have forced many investors, and economic builders to abandon Congo and engage with other African countries like Kenya and Nigeria together with South Africa. The hard economic conditions that are being experienced by Congo together with other nations has its basement from the impacts of the renewed imperialism as practiced by the United States of America and Japan among some other African countries (Olson & Shadle 1991, p. 89). The African countries have to engage in new structures of building their economic stabilities in order to remain and strong forces in the economic sectors of the world.

Bibliography

Granata, C.A., & Koos, C.A. (2008). The human tradition in modern Europe, 1750 to the present. Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Olson, J.S., & Shadle, R. (1991). Historical dictionary of European imperialism. New York,

Greenwood Press.

Stanard, M.G. (2012). Selling the Congo a History of European Pro-Empire Propaganda

and the Making of Belgian Imperialism. Lincoln, UNP - Nebraska.

http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=915038.… [read more]


East Africa's Great Rift Valley Article Review

… East Africa's Great Rift Valley

Overview / Main Points

Geologists know a great deal about the tectonic plates that form the Earth's crust around the world. They know in which direction plates are moving, how much pressure is being exerted on various plates, and why the movement of plates causes earthquakes. But according to an article in Geology.com, geologists are "still debating exactly how rifting" occurs on the earth's crust, and the substance of the article ("East Africa's Great Rift Valley: A Complex Rift System") is a thorough scientific examination of old plates in East Africa that are splitting apart to create new ones -- a classic case of rifting. This article explains what is known about this African rifting process, and it also explains that not everything is fully understood by geologists.

The process of rifting in this particular geological area of Africa -- East African Rift System (EARS) -- is the centerpiece of this article. In fact the new plate that is being created in the is tentatively being called the "Nubian Plate" (Wood, et al., 2012). A smaller plate that is moving away from the Nubian Plate (due to rifting) is being called the Somalian Plate. To the north of those two rifting plates is the Arabian plate.

Strengths of the article: Any reader would want to know why the rifting is taking place. The authors do their best to use plain non-esoteric language to explain what is happening in that particular area of Africa. In the fourth paragraph the authors speculate that the reason rifting is taking place in the EARS region is because "elevated heat flow from the mantle" -- they refer to "mantle plumes" under the asthenosphere, which is below the lithosphere, between 46.5 miles and 124 miles beneath the Earth's surface -- is causing "bulges" in the topography. In other words, the heat from the molten hot core of the earth is causing the rifting. They suggest that rift formations like this one are usually "preceded by huge volcanic eruptions," which it seems is information that might have been used earlier in the article. Are volcanoes expected any time soon? There is no explanation for that possibility. But what they do say is that they scientists are able to observe things above ground in the EARS area that previously have only been available…… [read more]


Sociology and Anthropology After 1880 Term Paper

… This gave many Africans the ability to flourish under this system by closely allying themselves with the British. (Foster, 2002, pp. 107 -- 130)

The French system was designed to take the African colonies and impose their values upon them. This meant that the local governments implemented strict controls in how various services were delivered and the kind language that is spoken. The basic idea was to have these French values help to civilize the Africans. As a result, there were vast divisions between many urban and rural centers. In the cities, most people embraced these Western traditions (developing an aristocracy). While those people who lived in the country, continued to practice different tribal customs and ignored many French traditions. The combination of these factors created situations where there were divisions (based upon the region an individual was from). (Foster, 2002, pp. 107 -- 130)

When the two different colonization approaches are compared, it is clear that the British have a system that gives everyone more choices. This is based upon exercising indirect forms of control over the region. While the French were focused on: imposing their values, ideas and beliefs in each area. This is because these colonies were considered to be a part of France itself (with officials constantly wanting to exercise control at all times). This created social divisions between urban and rural centers. As a result, the British system gave Africans greater amounts of control and freedom. Whereas the French; wanted to dominate each colony and remake them in their own image). (Foster, 2002, pp. 107 -- 130)

Conclusion

Clearly, the two approaches of the British and French are showing different ideas for controlling natural resources inside Africa. The British views, helped many regions to become more independent with less focus on central control. While the French, created vast disparities based upon: the region an individual is from. As the urban centers are known for practicing more Western traditions and rural locales are embracing tribal customs.

These divisions have often led to challenges, with each region believing that they are better than the others. This sense of arrogance is based upon French attitudes and cultural beliefs (which are still in place to this day). As a result, the long-term effects of both approaches created numerous divisions. In many former British colonies, this is from a lack of central control. Whereas, the French regions experienced disputes based upon: where someone grew up and the customs / traditions they are exposed to.

References

Ciment, J. (2007).…… [read more]


Imperialism in Africa Dbq Term Paper

… Imperialism in Africa; DBQ

The imperialism in Africa has been interpreted in many different ways depending on the point-of-view that one is looking at it from. The result though is apparent that it led to the curving up of vast colonies for the European world from the Africa and Asian continents. Below are the impacts that imperialism brought and the varying views that were expressed by the binary sides.

Document

O.P. Austin, "Does Colonization Pay" the Forum, 1900

"Modern progressive nations lying in the temperate zone seek to control garden spots' in the tropics. [mainly in Africa, Latin America, and Asia] Under [the progressive nations] direction, these places can yield tropical produce. In return, the progressive nations bring to the people of those garden spots the foodstuffs and manufactures they need. [Progressive nations] develop the territory by building roads, canals, railways, and telegraphs. They can establish schools and newspapers for the colonies [and] give these people the benefit of other blessings of civilization which they have not the means of creating themselves."

1. According to this excerpt, what were the benefits that the imperialists got from the colonized nations? What did the colonized nations get in return?

Document 2

Ngugi Wa Thiong'o, "The Language of African Literature" from Decolonizing the Mind.

"The choice of language and the use to which language is put is central to a people's definition of themselves in relation to the natural and social environment, indeed in relation to the entire universe…writers who should have been mapping paths out of that linguistic encirclement [by colonialism] of their continent also came to be defined and to define themselves in terms of the language of imperialist imposition. Even at their most radical and pro-African position in their sentiments…… [read more]


Atlantic Trade History and Its Geography Book Review

… ¶ … History of the Atlantic Slave Trade

"[Beginning in the 16th Century]…America became the great market for some 9 to 10 million African slaves…and it was in the New World that African slavery most flourished under European rule…" (Klein,… [read more]


Problems With Colonial Presence in Africa Essay

… ¶ … African Colonization

In the 1870's, 1880's, and 1890's great explosions in the ecclesiastical, educational, military, republican, monarchial traditions took place in Europe. It was a time of great wealth for the bourgeoisie, but tough times for workers. It was also a time of European imperial expansion, as was the case with the European rush into Africa, known as the Scramble for Africa. During this period, the notion of Empire within Europe was very key to the European perception of self. During this period and after, Africa became split into numerous colonies of white settlement. In order to remain safe on a foreign continent, the european colonizers had to portray themselves as natural and undisputed masters of a great many of Africans. They referred to European traditions to define themselves and justify their ruling position. European order, furthermore, offered models of subservience to use in Africa.

Due to the great differences between Africans and their European colonizers, the regimental traditions of Europe manifested themselves as more strictly for mere command and control in African society. European workers in Africa adopted the rituals invented by workers in Europe to help separate them from Africans. Such practices ensured Africans would not be considered workers, but, instead, slaves. In order to ensure system stability in colonial Africa, European monarchs internalized the necessity that select Africans could become members of the governing class of colonial Africa. They then set up a number of oligarchies in Africa to act as a buffer between European interests and the poor classes of Africa. In 1955, young lawyer and activist Nelson Mandela outlined the life of a woman whose condition was typical of the economic oppression during apartheid: (Ranger 445-460)

Rachel Musi is fifty-three years of age. She and her husband had lived in Krugersdorp [near Johannesburg] for thirty-two years. Throughout this period he had worked for the Krugersdorp municipality for £7 10s a month. They had seven children ranging from nineteen to two years of age. One was doing the final year of the junior certificate at the Krugersdorp Bantu High School, and three were in primary schools, also in Krugersdorp. She had several convictions for brewing kaffir1 beer. Because of these convictions, she was arrested as an undesirable person in terms of the provisions of the Native Urban Areas Act and brought before the additional native commissioner of Krugersdorp. After the arrest but before the trial her husband collapsed suddenly and died. Thereafter, the commissioner judged her an undesirable person, and ordered her deportation to Lichtenburg [a distant rural town]. Bereaved and brokenhearted, and with the responsibility of maintaining seven children weighing heavily on her shoulders, an aged woman was exiled from her home and forcibly separated…… [read more]


Slave Trade Demography Research Paper

… Slave trade - SC

Question 1) Find the NY total numbers from Africa and which locations if indicated, including mean average numbers.

There are at least two ways to answer this question depending upon how you interpret the question. The two variables -- "total numbers" and "from Africa" could mean different things to different people. "Total numbers" could mean either total number of slaves or total number of ships. "From Africa" could be defined as directly from Africa or "from Africa" with stops along the way, which, might be listed as Jamaica. It is also possible that a ship labeled Jamaica could have originate in Jamaica since this country served as central hub for smaller ships to transport slaves to other locations in British America.

If you hold "from Africa " constant with the definition as only those ships listed as Africa, the total number of slaves would be 995 slaves. If you decide that "total numbers" means the number of ships, the answer is eighteen ships. Under this scenario, the mean average of slaves per ship would be 55.

If you were to hold "from Africa" constant with the definition of all ship having come through Africa with or without stops at other ports, the number of slaves would be 4146 and the number of ships would be 578. In this scenario, the mean average of ships would be seven.

Like the phases "from Africa" and "the total number," "mean average could be interpreted differently: is it the mean average of slaves per ship (as used in the two previous scenarios) or is it the mean number of ships per year or the mean number of slaves per year? Another question to consider was the direction the ship was traveling and their reason for being in NY. Was the ship returning to Britain or on its' way south to other colonies? Was the ship in port at NY to sell slaves or to obtain trade goods?

Question one is difficult to answer. The lack of specificity in the question allows for multiple interpretations. The historian must create a set of assumptions to apply to each scenario in order to provide specific answers.

Question 2) Find the total numbers and mean averages of slaves from each African port for South Carolina between 1735-1760.

Question two is much more specific. The total number of slaves by ports and number of ships is listed in the table below. This information also was adequate in addressing the…… [read more]


Kwame Nkrumah, Were the Roots of Africa Essay

… ¶ … Kwame Nkrumah, were the roots of Africa's "backwardness" in comparison to the west, and what did Nkrumah see as the solutions to Africa's problems? To what extent might colonialism be responsible for continued political, social, and economic unrest throughout Africa today?

According to Kwame Nkrumah, because of its potentially rich natural resources, Africa could develop into a wealthy economic powerhouse. Unfortunately, the legacy of European colonialism is still manifest Africa's fragmentation and the extant rivalries between the continent's many nations, all of whom are at different levels of development. Africa may have succeeded in fighting European dominance, but now too many African nations are fighting between one another. Africa, the victim of colonialization, is now engaged in a kind of 'divide and conquer strategy' against itself. "Can we seriously believe that the colonial powers meant for these [twenty-eight nations] to be viable states?" asks Nkrumah, implying that the creation of so many nations after the Age of Empire…… [read more]


South Africa Technology Divide Thesis

… South Africa Tech Divide

South Africa the Technology Divide

South Africa the Technology Divide: Economic & Cultural Disparity"

The development of a massive technology divide is not an isolated issue in any nation, but some nations are at particular risk… [read more]


Somalia Pre and Post Colonialism Somalia's Population Term Paper

… Somalia Pre and Post Colonialism

Somalia's population stands, by some estimates, at 4.5 million people, comprising one of the largest ethnic blocks in Africa, even though the number of people counted as residents of the country is comparatively small to that of other African nations (Lewis, I.M., 1988, p. 1). They occupy a 400,000 squares of the northeast portion of the "Horn" of Africa, facing Saudi Arabia (Lewis, 1988, p. 1). Not unlike other post colonial African countries, a large area of Somalia, Jibuti, formed its own sovereign nation. Describing the geographical span of Somalia, author I.M. Lewis describes it this way:

From the region of the Awash Valley in the north-west, this often and territory occupied by the Somali stretches round the periphery of the Ethiopian highlands and along the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean coasts down to the Tana River in northern Kenya. This region forms a well-defined geographical and ethnic unit which Somalis see as a natural base for a sovereign state, although today it is split up into four separate parts (p. 1)."

Those four parts, or that any section of the country stands separate, is as a result of Somalia's history of French colonialism. That part which stands separate from the rest of the nation is Jibuti, which declared its independence in 1977, and is a former French Republic (Lewis, p. 1). Because of its location and the opportunity the country presented by its location and access to seafaring routes and the Middle East, people of Somali heritage are scattered throughout the region from the Ethiopia to Kenya and throughout the Middle East (Lewis, p. 1). Today, Somalia stands under the influence of its colonial past, a country that in post colonial times has been, for the most part, one of civil war and chaos, unable to stabilize itself in a way that would allow it harness its economic or leadership potential that exists in its location, natural resources, and by virtue of the fact that it is indeed the largest ethnic block in Africa today (Peterson, Scott, 2000, p. 1)

Somalia has gone the way of Rwanda (former Belgium colony), Zimbabwe (former English colony), and, today, South Africa in a post colonial/apartheid environment. This paper attempts to study, in brief, Somalia's Imperial past, present state of civil war and unrest, and its future.

Imperial Somalia

The exploitation of Somalia by colonial Imperial powers commenced in 1860, and is considered by historians to represent the beginning of the "first phase" of partitioning the country (Lewis, 1988, p. 40).

IN the YEARS…… [read more]


China and Sudan Darfur Crisis Term Paper

… China and Sudan (darfur crisis)

China and Sudan: The Darfur crisis

The world of international politics and relationships has become increasing complex. This is due to a number of important factors, which include the phenomenon of globalization and increased economic… [read more]


Sources and Causes of Conflicts in Sudan Term Paper

… Sudan Conflict brief history of Sudan as a nation includes aspects of colonialism that are evident in the histories of many other nations. Outside interests from both Britain and Egypt dominated Sudan's early modern history, with emphasis on exterior rather… [read more]


Dissolution of Empires After WWII Term Paper

… ¶ … World War II also marked the end of the idea of empire, an idea that had directed the actions of many European powers for some time and that was also evident in the actions of some of the… [read more]


Decolonization of the British Empire in Africa Term Paper

… Decolonization of the British Empire in Africa

Of the numerous and complex surrounding the decolonizing of the British empire in Africa, the influence African states under the British had on one another throughout the process is of particular interest, because… [read more]


Rwanda: A Culture of Genocide Term Paper

… ¶ … Genocide Culture

The history and events of Rwanda that have produced a persistent acceptance of a Genocide culture

FLOW of INFORMATION

Children who are raised in abusive homes often become so accustomed to the abuse that it becomes… [read more]


Why Does the World Ignore Africa? Term Paper

… AFRICA

THE WORLD'S FORGOTTEN STEPCHILD

This paper presents a detailed examination of Africa and its issues with a focus on why the world seems to ignore many of its needs for assistance. The writer explores financial and political issues that… [read more]


U.S. Foreign Policy in Southern Africa Term Paper

… ¶ … U.S. Foreign Policy in southern Africa

The United States' foreign policy towards Southern Africa has long couched between the Cold War paradigm and hasty decisions of self-service. In his treatise on the American treatment of Africa's southern region,… [read more]


African Economy Term Paper

… African Economy

One of the most serious tropical diseases seen around the world is malaria. Malaria has a very significant negative impact on the economic on many of the poorest nations of the world. This article does a survey on… [read more]


Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa Term Paper

… Malaria in Sub-Sahara Africa

It is beyond any shadow of doubt that malaria is the world's most lethal bloodsucking infection. DDT is a customary choice in the Sub-Sahara African Countries to control Malaria. These countries have given notifications that they… [read more]


South Africa: Exports, Imports Term Paper

… On the bright side, Spoornet, South Africa's state-owned rail company, announced plans in 2003 to increase freight charges to the MCT and DCT by 30% on average over three years.

Indeed, that is one of the challenges that the South African population is facing on a daily basis. Infrastructure is simply lacking to put forth many of the initiatives necessary to improve the country's imports and exports.

On the regional front, the United States is one of South Africa's key trade partners. The relationship between the two nations has been deepening steadily since 1994 and the end of apartheid. This is evidenced in the fact that the Rand value of South African exports to the U.S. has increased markedly. In 2001 and 2002, South African manufactured exports to the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) grew by a whopping 16.6%. Furthermore, South Africa recorded a trade surplus (this is unheard of in its region) of approximately R3.4 billion in 2000, following a number of years during which South Africa persistently ran a large deficit. However, the structure of trade between the two countries remains incredibly similar. The United States tends to export higher value-added products to South Africa while South African exports to the U.S. consist largely of unprocessed and semi-processed materials such as steel. Nevertheless, export opportunities for South African products do exist in the fields of auto components, shoes and leather, wine, machinery, chemicals, jewelry and cut flowers.

South Africa is a beneficiary of the United States' Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), which grants duty-free treatment for more than 4,650 products. South Africa is also a beneficiary of the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), which permits duty-free entry of clothing and selected cloths into the U.S. until September 30, 2008, subject to certain strictly defined criteria and policy reforms. Under AGOA, South Africa also receives additional GSP (duty-free) treatment for 1,897 products until the year 2008. AGOA was proclaimed on October 2, 2000 and originally designated 34 countries in sub-Saharan Africa as eminently eligible for the trade benefits of AGOA. In 2001, Swaziland was designated as the 35th AGOA-eligible country, to follow in South Africa's well-tread footsteps.

The South African-U.S. Bilateral Co-operation Forum has since replaced the BNC between the two countries.

A sign of the healthy relationship between South Africa and the U.S. was South Africa's exemption from new U.S. steel tariffs imposed in 2002.

In general, involvement in regional trade associations has helped South Africa turn itself from a regional powerhouse into an economy with worldwide impact and exports.

Bibliography

Du Toit, Jaques. ABSA Media Release: Absa releases publication on developments in South Africa's foreign trade. 2001. http://www.absa.co.za/ABSA/Content/PubRef_Content/Article_Files/PubRefArtFile462_1.htm

South African Consulate: www.southafrica-newyork.net

Tilley, Les.…… [read more]


South Africa the Republic Term Paper

… 4%, industry: 28.9%, services: 66.7% (2001) (CIA, WFB 2003) as industry and support for urban dwellers in the form of service staff are clearly at a great advantage over the agricultural field. Though the division of labor in the country… [read more]


Africa the Continent Term Paper

… Famously Mt. Elgon, Mt. Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro are part of the East African Plateau, while Mt. Camaroon is situated in the West, near the Ubangi-Shari Divide (Bediako Lamouse-Smith). The four lakes of Tanganyika (the longest freshwater lake in the world), Kivu, Lake Edward and Lake Albert are situated in the Central African trough. The Congo basin is one of the most well marked basins in the continent, and is bisected by the equator. The Sahara, famously the largest desert in the world, covers 9,000,000 square km, slightly less than that of Europe. It reaches from the Red Sea all the way to the Atlantic. The headwaters of both the Congo and the Nile are found in East Africa. West equatorial Africa is home to some of the continent's forests. Taken together, the diversity of the geographical features of Africa likely makes it one of the most geographically interesting areas of the world.

Works Cited

Wikipedia. Geography of Africa. 04 June 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Africa

Bediako Lamouse-Smith, W. And School, Joseph. 1998. Africa Interactive Maps. Physical Features Section. 04 June 2004. http://www.courses.psu.edu/aaa_s/aaa_s110_tah/AFIM/Main_HTML/M_PF.html… [read more]


Protea Term Paper

… Today, cultivation of proteas has become a big business. As a result, protea farmers have complained of damage of flower heads by sugarbirds that has resulted in economic losses. This has resulted in a storm of controversy over the methods used to deter these birds from the protea flowers (Robelo).

The Protea Atlas Project of South Africa was born out of the incredible economic and biological importance of the protea in South Africa. This project attempts to involve the public in the conservation and identification of proteas. Some species of protea are rare and only exist on remote mountaintops, while others are prolifically commercially cultivated. One protea, Mace Pagoda - Mimetes stokoei, was only seen by a few individuals before becoming extinct. Today, the Protea Atlas Project attempts to increase public awareness of the protea in South Africa. To date, the Protea Atlas Project has discovered eight new species within the Proteaceae family, including the McGregor Pincushion, and the Toffeeapple Conebush (Protea Atlas Project).

Today, proteas play an important social and economic role in many rural communities in South Africa. This industry is centered largely on the Western Cape, and goes back to times when flowers were collected from the wild over 100 years ago. This approach ultimately leads to over-cultivation and damages the populations of wild flowers. International demand for disease-free, high quality blooms has reduced the demand for proteas collected from the wild, and many communities that rely on wild collection (wild crafting in local terms) are gradually losing market share (Agriculturalist Online).

In order to help maintain Proteacae, the South Africa Agricultural Research Council (ARC) Fynbos Unit has been cultivating a variety of specimens in orchards. Troubled initially by low production, the cultivation of protea in orchards is rapidly becoming increasingly viable. In addition, the ARC-Fynbos Genebank helps to preserve the genetic material of unique protea, allowing for the creation of new products "at the leaking edge of international floriculture and markets" (Agriculturalist Online).

The South Africa Protea Producers and Exporters Association (SAPPEX) plays an important role in overseeing the export of proteas from South Africa. Further, SAPPEX is involved in the release of new cultivars, and selecting new protea for cultivation (Agriculturalist Online).

In today's protea marketplace, smaller flowers are becoming increasingly in demand. The smaller flowers are coupled with a demand for thinner stems (to reduce air freight costs) and extended flowering seasons. As such, SAPPEX and government agencies must find a way to meet these demands while preserving the protea family (Agriculturalist Online).

Conclusion

In conclusion, the beautiful and diverse protea plays an important role in South African politics, the economy, and the environment. The king protea is the most famous of the proteas, and appears both on the South African Coat of Arms and the official currency of the country. While the king protea is justifiably famous for both its impressive beauty and size, many other proteas are well-known within the country. Proteas are an important source of income for the country, in… [read more]


Colonial Experience Upper Africa Term Paper

… Such profits as existed went into European pockets, and the use of Africans as little more than draft animals robbed them of the opportunity to acquire more advanced skills.

However, it was not only in the field of economics that the French dominated. Unlike the British, they made little attempt to employ the native elites in the colonial government. The goal of colonial education was the turning of Africans into Frenchmen, so much so that members of the native elites even demanded a French education, and urged greater assimilation

It seemed the only way forward in a system where nearly every link in the chain of command led directly back to Paris. And while there was some experimentation with local government participation in Senegal, the general picture was one of almost complete control by the conqueror. Ineffectual, incompetent, and ignorant French civil servants were commonplace. Frequently sent to remote outposts, they often governed by brute force. (Wooten) Techniques such as these destroyed native authority and undermined the traditional social structure. Even worse they served to effectively prevent the vast majority of Africans from gaining any experience of Western democracy. European concepts of jurisprudence, the rule of law, and the consultation of the governed, were largely ignored, accustoming the Africans to the idea of a repressive, authoritarian regime. Self-expression, inquisitiveness, and freedom of choice - all so essential in a modern industrial economy were thwarted again and again by Eurocentric colonial policies. (Obadina)

Thus taken together, the colonial experience in Upper Africa caused massive dislocation on every level. Under French rule, the traditional structures of society were largely destroyed, the disconnected elites receiving little real training in the ways of a modern state. Economies geared to the production of raw materials for a foreign state failed to develop their own infrastructure and means of production. The attempt to Gallicize the African made him question the values of his own culture. The French introduced all the wonders of the modern world - cars, radios, televisions, etc. - but left the vast majority of their former subjects without the means either to obtain or to produce them. Modern Western consumerism created an acquisitive people in search of its own share in the global jackpot. Today, educated Africans struggle to find their place in a world of high technology and mass communications. They blame the colonial legacy for the failure of state after state, the backwardness of their economies, and the low levels of education, health, and welfare. Yet it was the colonial experience that brought them the very tools with which they question and criticize. Innovation and the hope for material improvement are as much products of the colonial era as the disintegration of traditional society. This pattern has been repeated in every industrializing society across the planet, and the African must struggle through it as well. (Obadina) Success will come through change and adaptation, and only then will the modern day African be reconciled with the horrors of the past.

Bibliography

Obadina,… [read more]


Systematical Denial of Culture Term Paper

… As this compromise took place it was realized that though the African culture was undergoing a change so was the 'whites' culture changing. This change however, was largely ignored in historical writings. Though historical researchers are happy to acknowledge that the Africans were made victims of the Western need for supremacy they are less eager to acknowledge the fact that the Africans had a large hand in the making of the American society. The life that we see in American today has been influenced and helped been created by the Africans.

This ignoring of the contribution of the Africans has its own legacy. The American society claims that it is a democratic state and that the rights of all the nations are herein protected. What they fail to state is that the Atlantic World as referred to by Thornton, (1992) is also capable of systemic racism. The racism is present but within the institutions and thus at times not clearly visible.

With regard to the African culture, people and nation as a whole in making the Atlantic World people must accept and acknowledge their contribution. By ignoring their worth the Atlantic World is again attacking the Africans racially.

Thornton explores the legacy of the African-Americans through two centuries. He focuses on the cause and effects of the slave trade and suggests with examples how the Africans influenced the social, political and economic life of the American society. By examining the African legacy and the influence of the slaves on the society Thornton has taken the step in helping to eradicate the systemic racist tendencies of the American world. He suggests that through the estate structure, the social demography and the cultural facets the African… [read more]


Tuaregs vs. Sub-Saharan Blacks Research Paper

… For sure, there is precedent of some sort in the form of Great Britain and the United States being allies even though the former was created by breaking away from the latter as well as Japan even being on speaking terms with Japan after World War II given they were on opposite sides and that the United States intentionally obliterate two civilian areas with the atom bomb. The problem is that the war between these two parties has been going on for centuries longer (and it is not even close) than those two examples and the likelihood that this will change is about as close to zero as it can be (Van Dyke, 2014).

Given the above, the author of this report is asked to answer several questions relating to the conflict and the related concepts of things like conformity, social perception, social cognition and overall social perceptions. Conformity can be a tough road to hoe when speaking of two groups so seismically different from each other. Indeed, Arabs and blacks in Africa are quite different on a number of levels. Arabs, of course, are usually Muslim and most of sub-Saharan Africa is actually Christian (Pew, 2010). As with most areas of the world, Muslims and Christians do not tend to get along all that well, at least when one or both sides are of the extremist variety. As such, conformity would be elusive as both sides would define it differently. As far as social cognition and social perception goes, social perceptions are thoughts and reactions based on what is perceived by a person and may or may not actually be relevant or true. Social cognition is how the information is "encoded" and used by the brain (Boundless, 2014). They are obviously related in that social perceptions can be outcomes of social cognition but the perceptions, as already mentioned, may or may not be applicable. One can then toss in a thousand years of bad blood and religious/ethnic differences, and these perceptions can lead to wars, slavery and atrocities galore. Regarding the social perceptions that are feeding and sustaining the Arab/black conflict, there are mutual feelings on both sides (and rightfully so) of distrust and the unwillingness to let the past be the past and focus on a peaceful future. Certainly, both sides are either seeking retribution and/or are unwilling to concede to or trust the other. As long as that permeates the climate and perpetuates with future generations, the status quo in the area will not change.

Conclusion

As noted before, the conflict in the areas of Northern Africa are not unlike the Middle East in that the conflict and ethnic/religious issues span back centuries (if not millennia) and until/unless both sides are willing to come to the table and beat back their own extremists that wish to keep fighting, nothing is going to change in either area and for much the same reason. The racial and religious lines being drawn are being drawn by those that are not… [read more]


Community and Social Justice Essay

… Therefore, Africa's battle for liberation was likewise a battle for its cultural heritage and identity incorporating respect for human rights. This is so because the objective of colonialism in Africa was to undermine the rights of the African people and the African heritage. In 1976, the OAU embraced the African Cultural Charter to ensure that African cultures were protected (Nmehielle, 2011). Currently, Africa is again confronted with the need to defend its African heritage against the consequences of Western lifestyles and globalization on the traditional social mores and ways of living. Paradoxically, for the African culture to survive the challenge of time, they ought to interact with changes and other cultures, but maintain their unique attributes.

Human rights and development

The formation of the OAU offered hope since appropriate cultural and social policies accompanied its establishment. Such policies must be harmonized in order to reinforce each other mutually to promote Africa's overall social, cultural, economic, and political agenda. Moreover, social advancements must be based on methodologies that guide human interactions and actions (Bachir, 2009).

Social, economic, and cultural rights

When reference is made to the protection and promotion of human rights, there is a tendency to speak about political and civil rights only. In this context, the device for measuring the enjoyment of these rights has been active and full participation of persons in democratic procedures like the right to life, election and freedom of expression (Diagne, 2010). Africa has been hailed for fostering the respect for human rights. Many countries have emerged via democratic-transitions-based on elections where people freely choose their governments. Participation in democratic processes should not be the only indicator of human rights: rather, the indicator must be equal and full enjoyment of cultural, social, and economic rights. Because these are intertwined with political and civil rights, they are viewed as two sides of the same coin. In this regards, the OAU recognizes that human rights must encompass all rights and that corruption in Africa is an obstacle to the enjoyment of cultural, social, and economic rights, particularly socioeconomic developments.

Although we can argue that the circumstance about respect for political and civil rights has improved, this cannot be said for cultural, economic and social rights as Africa continues to face massive threats and challenges. These include poverty, HIV and AIDS, diseases, racism, conflicts, corruption, inequality, bad governance and violence against children and women (Bachir, 2009). As long as the challenges affect the daily lives of people, the issues of sustaining democracy, promotion, and protection of human rights will continue to haunt the African continent. Poverty has been recognized as a violation of human rights. When this is reduced, it will contribute to the equal and the full enjoyment of human rights. The emerging problem is how the OAU can ensure the equal relevance and recognition of cultural, social, and economic rights. Obviously, this requires that the OAU must promote cultural, social, and economic rights in accordance with the provisions of the African Charter, in a similar… [read more]


Poverty Proposal Ghana Term Paper

… Ghana Poverty

International Bank ForReconstrcution and Development

Ghana -- Public Private Partnership (PPP) Project

PROJECT at a GLANCE

Country

Ghana

Region

Africa

Project Cost

$17.5 Million

Project Duration 8 Months

Commitment Amount 60% of Total Project Cost (TCP)

Team Leader… [read more]


Negotiations Arusha Peace Process in Rwanda Term Paper

… Negotiations-Arusha Peace Process in Rwanda

Analyze the success/failure of negotiations to resolve the dispute.

Two warring factions in Rwanda signed Arusha accord on August 3, 1993: Government of Rwanda (GoR) and Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). These accords are reflections of… [read more]


Race Portuguese Thoughts on Seized Essay

… Some of groups of Africans mourn their situation with song; some groups of African engage in basic rituals of prayer. Whether the chronicler is aware of it or not, he is chronicling the diversity of African cultures as seen through the eyes of those who have made them their captives. This observation is significant with regard to the propaganda spread throughout the western world about how Africans are savages with no culture, civilization, humanity or other redeeming qualities.

There is no direct nor indirect statement about the reason why the Portuguese seize the Africans. The chronicler does not state nor allude to the Africans deserving such a fate or such treatment simply because they are African. The perspective of the chronicler is more suggestive that the Portuguese are simply conquerors and these Africans happen to be the next group of people they have conquered. The chronicle is the documentation of this particular group, which may or not prove to be particularly special or useful to the Portuguese, and the process by which the Portuguese shift them into lives of slavery and other forms of abuse. It is more clear in the interactions with other European groups such as the British and the French to notice their open disdain, disgust, and hatred for Africans specifically because of their physical traits. Such a distinction is not easily made with the Portuguese; in fact, the chronicler may have some respect or sympathy for the seized Africans as he compares them to the Moors found in Western Europe like Portugal and Spain.… [read more]


Uganda Culture Sfc Lunford Sgl Essay

… , 2002).

4. Religions

Uganda, having been infiltrated by both the Arabs and the British during the times of exploration and the scramble for Africa through the colonial times, has quite a number of religions that coexist side by side… [read more]


China Is the New Neo-Imperialist Power in Africa Essay

… China, The New Neo-Imperialist Power in Africa

Perhaps the most obvious sign of China's growing influence in Africa was its so-called "Year of Africa" in 2006, but even this ostentatious display of neo-imperial influence only serves to obscure the true… [read more]


Compare and Contrast 4 Regions or Countries Essay

… ¶ … Regions & Two Countries

The North Africa / Middle East region (NA/ME) is very different from Sub-Saharan Africa, in culture, geography, climate, and history. For example, land that is useful for growing food for people is scarce in NA/ME region (too dry for most kinds of agriculture). The Sahara Desert features nomadic cultures, but mainly is useless for crops. There are a few regions within the (NA/ME) that are fertile and sustain agriculture, such as the Nile Valley in Egypt, The Levant (a geographical region located from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea to the Isthmus of Suez to the Taurus Mountains, about 75,000 square miles), and in areas of Turkey and Iraq. And yet the earliest known forms of agriculture and cultural development came from the Middle East region, specifically in Tigris -- Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia. SSA is where the bones and fossils of the earliest known relatives of humans have been found. Immense oil reserves have a big economic and cultural impact in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and UAE; Diamonds in SSA.

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is south of the Saharan Desert, and vastly different from North Africa. This region has tropical rainforests; in Nigeria, Madagascar, and the Congo rainforests are being clear-cut. The "Green Belt Movement" has planted 30 million trees, no tree planting effort is to be found in North Africa). There are three deserts (, none nearly as large as the Sahara. The NA/ME East is know for oil; African (Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Congo) is known for "blood" diamonds (mined in a conflict zone). While much of the NA/ME region is arid, SSA is lush green in many places and has the most plant diversity in the world. AIDS/HIV has killed 25 million Africans; in NA/ME AIDS/HIV is rare. While dry farming is prevalent in NA/ME, slash-and-burn is very prevalent in SSA. The Tigris -- Euphrates rivers bring needed water to the NA/ME while in SSA the Niger, Senegal, Congo, Nile and Zambezi offer far more fresh…… [read more]


American Involvement in the Sudan Civil War Resolution Term Paper

… Sudan -- American Involvement in Civil War Resolution

The resent past has seen violence and heartbreak in the African nation of Sudan, and in order to avoid the bloodshed of another major civil war between the North and the South,… [read more]


Ivory Coast Instability and International Relations Models Research Paper

… Ivory Coast

The Weakening State and Potential for Failure: A Case Study of the Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire)

The twentieth century saw major changes in the global political landscape, as the monarchies and empires that had persisted for most of the modern era -- with some extending well beyond this, into the reaches of Medieval history -- crumbled in favor of the new major entity of political sovereignty, the nation-state. The two World Wars were especially formative in terms of destroying old barriers and creating new ones, both in direct and indirect ways. Certain countries that had functioned fairly well as loosely collected units found themselves in the grips of civil strife once they had been coalesced into single national governments, while other nations were simply created wholesale by what were essentially arbitrary mapmakers working for the European powers. The number of nations and the inadequacy and in many instances inappropriateness of their borders has made the twentieth and early twenty-first century a period of intense national and international volatility and conflict.

What has made the issues facing this period especially confounding is the lack of truly long-term predictability. Some of the problems with newly-formed and -forming nations arose immediately, but others have taken decades to manifest. The dissolution of the Soviet Union led to the rapid and relatively peaceful emergence of a number of different nations, for instance, whereas the breakup of Yugoslavia took decades to really come to a head. Often, these delays can be attributed to a particular leadership figure or party.

This has certainly been the case in the Ivory Coast; after achieving final independence from France in 1960, the country remained under the leadership of President Felix Houphouet-Boigny until his death in 1993 (INR Report 2004). Since that time, increasing democratization has led to increasing problems, with land use and title issues ill-defined, one successful and one failed military coup in the country's recent history, and problems of unemployment and economic stagnancy a constant and growing threat (INR Report 2004). Though unique in many regards, the Ivory Coast is also very similar to many other developing nations in the modern era, and can be viewed from the perspective of numerous different models regarding nation-state power and failure. This paper will examine the current situation in the Ivory Coast, assessing its opportunities and threats, and will then analyze the country based on two current theories regarding state failure and weakness.

The Ivory Coast: Prospects and Security Interests

The Ivory Coast is currently caught in a delicate imbalance, with the current military-backed president refusing to cede power to his popularly elected opponent. Having already been a much-divided country for the better part of a decade, the next six months could be a time of increased turmoil and violence for the people and government of the Ivory Coast, especially given recent upheavals by the sitting president, Laurent Gbagbo, to the government as a whole (CIA 2011; USDoS 2011). Economic activity as well as security and regulatory efforts are… [read more]


United Nations Operations in Congo ONUC Research Paper

… United Nations Opreations in Congo-ONUC

The United Nations is considered at this point to be one of the most important actors on the international scene, despite the constant controversy surrounding its history, present, and achievements. Even so, the framework of… [read more]


Travel Project Essay

… Travel Project

The 2010 World Cup introduced modern South Africa to the world. For most visitors the country's pre-eminent destination is Cape Town, one of the world's most beautiful cities. Located where the Indian Ocean meets the Atlantic, Cape Town is rich with history, bountiful with nature and the adjacent Western Cape is one of the best wine regions in the world.

Cape Town has a rich history, and this is revealed in the culture of the city itself. European and African influences blend seamlessly here. Historic districts and modern highrises sit side-by-side in modern Cape Town. From the highest of European high culture to tribal African rhythms, Cape Town has all the culture any visitor could ever imagine. South Africa's history, from Robben Island to the World Cup, is on display in Cape Town, enchanting even visitors who thought they had seen it all.

With Table Mountain looming above, Cape Town has one of the world's most iconic skylines. There is an incredible wealth of hiking opportunities within city limits alone. Cape Town's beaches are also fantastic, with both cold and warm water from which to choose, depending on your preferred side of the Cape. And in the water, Mother Nature abounds. This is a land where seals run a gauntlet of great white sharks every day to reach their feeding grounds and where penguins come to breed.

But one of the most spectacular attractions in recent years has become wine tourism. As South African wine has become more noticed around the world, the Western Cape has become justifiably famous. As the commercial center of the region, Cape Town is the natural jumping off point for wine country tourism. Wine tourism now accounts for 7.3% of the region's economic activity (D'Angelo, 2010). Visiting the makers of these award-winning wines with the backdrop of South African savannahs is a wine-touring experience like no other.

There…… [read more]


Slave Trade - Bonny Question 1) Find Research Paper

… Slave Trade - Bonny

Question 1) Find the NY total numbers from Africa and which locations if indicated, including mean average numbers.

This question is somewhat ambiguous and, therefore, has multiple answers. The phase "from Africa" could be interpreted a couple of ways: is the ship directly from Africa or did the ship stop in Africa during its' journey? Another factor in answering this question is the quality of the data. It was collected over a fifty-year period and most probably collected by different people. Was the question asked in the same manner for all of the ships that arrived in NY? "From where did you start your trip?" Or "Where are you coming from?" could produce different answers. One would also have to differentiate between ships that made a stop in another port vs. ships that originated from a Caribbean port with the purpose of transferring slaves, which landed there to other locations.

A second consideration is how one defines "total numbers": the total of what? Are we being asked for the total number of ships, the total number of slaves and/or something else? A third unclear part of the question is "which locations." Again, this could refer to the location the ship came directly from or its' last port of call. The ambiguity of these three phases makes the difficult to answer the question unless a set of assumptions accompanies the answer. The table below gives four possible answers:

# of ships

# of slaves

Avg # of slaves/ship

Recorded as from Africa

18

55

Recorded from Africa +other ports

7

Another question to consider is the purpose of the ship's visit to NY. Was the ship there to deliver slaves for sale, was it to acquire additional goods for trade on their way back to Britain or was it for repairs? Also were the ships coming from Britain or were they returning to Britain?

The information provided by Stephen Behrendt in Market, Transaction Cycles and profits: Merchant Decision Making in the British Slave Trade, provides enough history of the slave trade to give validity to the above questions. Behrendt described the passage of a slave trade vessel to be a triangle: the trip from Britain to Africa, Africa to British Americas and then from their stop(s) in British America returning back to Britain. Additionally, the article also described the purchase of goods at stops in British America to use…… [read more]


Ethics in International Relations Term Paper

… South Africa: The Struggle for a New Order

The world is changing around us at a rapid pace. We are moving towards a world community, and as we move in that direction, we will resolve the political, social, and economic… [read more]


Global Hotspots and Conflict Resolutions Research Proposal

… ¶ … African States have been embroiled in civil and political conflict for the past several decades. The Federal Republic of Nigeria is located in West Africa and has a rich and varied ethnic history. It is one of the… [read more]


United States and Nigeria Thesis

… United States and Nigeria

Prior to the 1990s, there was very little "relationship" between the U.S. And Nigeria. This is mainly because of the lack of democracy, human right violations, and Nigeria's military backed dictatorship type of government. It obtained… [read more]


King Leopold's Ghost Research Paper

… King Leopold's Ghost is an amazing though disturbing account of one man's ruthless ambition and carnage that resulted in mass murder, subjugation, horrifying cruelty and severe exploitation. King Leopold II of Belgium wanted a piece of land that he could… [read more]


Darwin's Nightmare Ultimately, the Story Research Proposal

… ¶ … Darwin's Nightmare

Ultimately, the story of any region in terms of human history comes down to the history of the different individuals who occupy the region. This is what struck me the most about the film Darwin's Nightmare; whatever the larger forces at work seemed to be, in reality the causes and effects of all of the various situations that the documentary records are concerned with individuals who allow -- or who cannot stop -- these things from happening. From the Russian pilots to the Tanzanian prostitutes that "keep them company" to the peasants forced to survive on half-rotten fried fish heads, these are the individuals that are important to this area of Africa, and these are the individuals who must deal with the situation. A lot of the scholarship we have looked at seems to downplay the individual and human aspects of the issues facing the African continent, which seems to be an extension of the underlying cause of many of the problems that the people of that continent have been facing for the several centuries of European involvement there, and which they continue to face today.

Recognizing the basic humanity of the people in Africa would have forestalled many of the problems now facing the people and the region. Even the introduction of the Nile perch into Lake Victoria is something that would probably have not occurred in a Western country for fear of the same or similar results. That is, in an area/region/population considered "important" by Westerners, a strange predatory animal would probably not have been introduced to a fragile ecosystem upon which a large population of people living in poverty depended. This is more of the same ethnocentrism that was at work with the early missionary efforts in Africa, only now any and all pretense of the missionaries' altruistic motives has been completely done away with in favor of the…… [read more]


Zimbabwe May Soon Collapse Research Proposal

… ¶ … Zimbabwe

In order to design a plan that would be able to deal with the devastating crisis in Zimbabwe, one first has to be cognizant of the extent and types of problems that have been created by the… [read more]


Foreign Policy International Relations Term Paper

… Tanzanian Experience Since Independence and Its Implications for Foreign Policy Strategies

The last few decades have seen dramatic economic improvements in large parts of the third world, while African economies in general experienced stagnation or decline until the early 1990s.… [read more]


Sudan and Its Civil War Term Paper

… Sudan and Its Civil War

Sudan is a country in northern Africa with a population of around 40,000,000 people (Sudan 2). Following its independence from United Kingdom-Egyptian control in 1956, Sudan has experienced the devastation caused by incessant civil war,… [read more]

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