"African History / Africa" Essays

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Why Does the World Ignore Africa? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+




This paper presents a detailed examination of Africa and its issues with a focus on why the world seems to ignore many of its needs for assistance. The writer explores financial and political issues that have an impact on the nation and provides insight as to why the world seems to have Africa on "ignore."… [read more]

East Africa's Great Rift Valley Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (781 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


East Africa's Great Rift Valley

Overview / Main Points

Geologists know a great deal about the tectonic plates that form the Earth's crust around the world. They know in which direction plates are moving, how much pressure is being exerted on various plates, and why the movement of plates causes earthquakes. But according to an article in Geology.com, geologists are "still debating exactly how rifting" occurs on the earth's crust, and the substance of the article ("East Africa's Great Rift Valley: A Complex Rift System") is a thorough scientific examination of old plates in East Africa that are splitting apart to create new ones -- a classic case of rifting. This article explains what is known about this African rifting process, and it also explains that not everything is fully understood by geologists.

The process of rifting in this particular geological area of Africa -- East African Rift System (EARS) -- is the centerpiece of this article. In fact the new plate that is being created in the is tentatively being called the "Nubian Plate" (Wood, et al., 2012). A smaller plate that is moving away from the Nubian Plate (due to rifting) is being called the Somalian Plate. To the north of those two rifting plates is the Arabian plate.

Strengths of the article: Any reader would want to know why the rifting is taking place. The authors do their best to use plain non-esoteric language to explain what is happening in that particular area of Africa. In the fourth paragraph the authors speculate that the reason rifting is taking place in the EARS region is because "elevated heat flow from the mantle" -- they refer to "mantle plumes" under the asthenosphere, which is below the lithosphere, between 46.5 miles and 124 miles beneath the Earth's surface -- is causing "bulges" in the topography. In other words, the heat from the molten hot core of the earth is causing the rifting. They suggest that rift formations like this one are usually "preceded by huge volcanic eruptions," which it seems is information that might have been used earlier in the article. Are volcanoes expected any time soon? There is no explanation for that possibility. But what they do say is that they scientists are able to observe things above ground in the EARS area that previously have only been available…… [read more]

Imperialisms in Congo Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Economic impacts

The economic stability of Congo was not in any safer state before the start of the renewed imperialism. The renewed imperialism resulted in what is today a major blow to the African economy. The economic plans that had been put by the African countries were less of future growths and developments. This means that the departure of the Europeans from Congo left many economies in turmoil. Congo is one of the nations in the world that is suffering from poor economic structures.

These structures are dated back to the time of colonization. Moreover, the political unrests in the region have forced many investors, and economic builders to abandon Congo and engage with other African countries like Kenya and Nigeria together with South Africa. The hard economic conditions that are being experienced by Congo together with other nations has its basement from the impacts of the renewed imperialism as practiced by the United States of America and Japan among some other African countries (Olson & Shadle 1991, p. 89). The African countries have to engage in new structures of building their economic stabilities in order to remain and strong forces in the economic sectors of the world.


Granata, C.A., & Koos, C.A. (2008). The human tradition in modern Europe, 1750 to the present. Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Olson, J.S., & Shadle, R. (1991). Historical dictionary of European imperialism. New York,

Greenwood Press.

Stanard, M.G. (2012). Selling the Congo a History of European Pro-Empire Propaganda

and the Making of Belgian Imperialism. Lincoln, UNP - Nebraska.

http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=915038.… [read more]

Colonial Experience Upper Africa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,095 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Such profits as existed went into European pockets, and the use of Africans as little more than draft animals robbed them of the opportunity to acquire more advanced skills.

However, it was not only in the field of economics that the French dominated. Unlike the British, they made little attempt to employ the native elites in the colonial government. The goal of colonial education was the turning of Africans into Frenchmen, so much so that members of the native elites even demanded a French education, and urged greater assimilation

It seemed the only way forward in a system where nearly every link in the chain of command led directly back to Paris. And while there was some experimentation with local government participation in Senegal, the general picture was one of almost complete control by the conqueror. Ineffectual, incompetent, and ignorant French civil servants were commonplace. Frequently sent to remote outposts, they often governed by brute force. (Wooten) Techniques such as these destroyed native authority and undermined the traditional social structure. Even worse they served to effectively prevent the vast majority of Africans from gaining any experience of Western democracy. European concepts of jurisprudence, the rule of law, and the consultation of the governed, were largely ignored, accustoming the Africans to the idea of a repressive, authoritarian regime. Self-expression, inquisitiveness, and freedom of choice - all so essential in a modern industrial economy were thwarted again and again by Eurocentric colonial policies. (Obadina)

Thus taken together, the colonial experience in Upper Africa caused massive dislocation on every level. Under French rule, the traditional structures of society were largely destroyed, the disconnected elites receiving little real training in the ways of a modern state. Economies geared to the production of raw materials for a foreign state failed to develop their own infrastructure and means of production. The attempt to Gallicize the African made him question the values of his own culture. The French introduced all the wonders of the modern world - cars, radios, televisions, etc. - but left the vast majority of their former subjects without the means either to obtain or to produce them. Modern Western consumerism created an acquisitive people in search of its own share in the global jackpot. Today, educated Africans struggle to find their place in a world of high technology and mass communications. They blame the colonial legacy for the failure of state after state, the backwardness of their economies, and the low levels of education, health, and welfare. Yet it was the colonial experience that brought them the very tools with which they question and criticize. Innovation and the hope for material improvement are as much products of the colonial era as the disintegration of traditional society. This pattern has been repeated in every industrializing society across the planet, and the African must struggle through it as well. (Obadina) Success will come through change and adaptation, and only then will the modern day African be reconciled with the horrors of the past.


Obadina,… [read more]

Protea Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,195 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Today, cultivation of proteas has become a big business. As a result, protea farmers have complained of damage of flower heads by sugarbirds that has resulted in economic losses. This has resulted in a storm of controversy over the methods used to deter these birds from the protea flowers (Robelo).

The Protea Atlas Project of South Africa was born out of the incredible economic and biological importance of the protea in South Africa. This project attempts to involve the public in the conservation and identification of proteas. Some species of protea are rare and only exist on remote mountaintops, while others are prolifically commercially cultivated. One protea, Mace Pagoda - Mimetes stokoei, was only seen by a few individuals before becoming extinct. Today, the Protea Atlas Project attempts to increase public awareness of the protea in South Africa. To date, the Protea Atlas Project has discovered eight new species within the Proteaceae family, including the McGregor Pincushion, and the Toffeeapple Conebush (Protea Atlas Project).

Today, proteas play an important social and economic role in many rural communities in South Africa. This industry is centered largely on the Western Cape, and goes back to times when flowers were collected from the wild over 100 years ago. This approach ultimately leads to over-cultivation and damages the populations of wild flowers. International demand for disease-free, high quality blooms has reduced the demand for proteas collected from the wild, and many communities that rely on wild collection (wild crafting in local terms) are gradually losing market share (Agriculturalist Online).

In order to help maintain Proteacae, the South Africa Agricultural Research Council (ARC) Fynbos Unit has been cultivating a variety of specimens in orchards. Troubled initially by low production, the cultivation of protea in orchards is rapidly becoming increasingly viable. In addition, the ARC-Fynbos Genebank helps to preserve the genetic material of unique protea, allowing for the creation of new products "at the leaking edge of international floriculture and markets" (Agriculturalist Online).

The South Africa Protea Producers and Exporters Association (SAPPEX) plays an important role in overseeing the export of proteas from South Africa. Further, SAPPEX is involved in the release of new cultivars, and selecting new protea for cultivation (Agriculturalist Online).

In today's protea marketplace, smaller flowers are becoming increasingly in demand. The smaller flowers are coupled with a demand for thinner stems (to reduce air freight costs) and extended flowering seasons. As such, SAPPEX and government agencies must find a way to meet these demands while preserving the protea family (Agriculturalist Online).


In conclusion, the beautiful and diverse protea plays an important role in South African politics, the economy, and the environment. The king protea is the most famous of the proteas, and appears both on the South African Coat of Arms and the official currency of the country. While the king protea is justifiably famous for both its impressive beauty and size, many other proteas are well-known within the country. Proteas are an important source of income for the country, in… [read more]

Africa the Continent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Famously Mt. Elgon, Mt. Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro are part of the East African Plateau, while Mt. Camaroon is situated in the West, near the Ubangi-Shari Divide (Bediako Lamouse-Smith). The four lakes of Tanganyika (the longest freshwater lake in the world), Kivu, Lake Edward and Lake Albert are situated in the Central African trough. The Congo basin is one of the most well marked basins in the continent, and is bisected by the equator. The Sahara, famously the largest desert in the world, covers 9,000,000 square km, slightly less than that of Europe. It reaches from the Red Sea all the way to the Atlantic. The headwaters of both the Congo and the Nile are found in East Africa. West equatorial Africa is home to some of the continent's forests. Taken together, the diversity of the geographical features of Africa likely makes it one of the most geographically interesting areas of the world.

Works Cited

Wikipedia. Geography of Africa. 04 June 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Africa

Bediako Lamouse-Smith, W. And School, Joseph. 1998. Africa Interactive Maps. Physical Features Section. 04 June 2004. http://www.courses.psu.edu/aaa_s/aaa_s110_tah/AFIM/Main_HTML/M_PF.html… [read more]

Testing Materials) -- Sensitive Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,526 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


But these are secondary objectives when the Axis' main goals are to defeat the Russians and the British on their homelands. A sufficient Allied push into North Africa will readily force the Axis's hand and cause them to abandon North Africa as strategically insignificant, thus preparing the way for a potential Allied path into Europe by way of Italy and… [read more]

Reasoning Assessment of Issues in Ethiopia and Their Effect on U.S. Interests Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,700 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


S. Interests

It is evident that Ethiopia has been able to have strong influences on the United States. Research shows that for more than a century, Ethiopia and the United States have really enjoyed the warm government-to-government and person -to-person relationship. It is clear that those ties have been able to transcend the way of time, and the strong pledges… [read more]

Timeline of Apartheid Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


His actions and efforts eventually led to elections being held four years later in which people of all races were allowed to vote and this allowed the African National Congress to come to power. They achieved very close, but not quite, the two thirds majority needed to revamp the Constitution automatically and there were mutterings that the results were not entirely legitimate due to a lack of proper verification and accuracy procedures. Even so, the ANC got more than 250 seats out of 400 in the Congress and the won in seven of the nine provincial government elections. Even many whites, albeit not close to a majority, did not support Apartheid in the first place (History Channel, 2014).


In the end, Apartheid never should have come to be and it still shapes and guides many of the patterns in South African society and daily life even to this day even though more than a generation has passed since the efforts to unravel Apartheid began. Even so, much the same thing could be said of slavery in the United States as slavery was abolished in the 1860's but the civil rights progress that made the most difference did not come until a century later. Beyond that, the American civil rights were amended again in the 1990's and now LGBT peoples are seeking their place at the equality table. What this means to South Africa is that since the systemic racism frameworks are mostly gone, it will just take time for the racist peoples to fade into history and lead to a brighter tomorrow for the peoples and years to come (Apartheid Museum, 2014).


Apartheid Museum. (2014, June 19). Home | Apartheid Museum. Home | Apartheid Museum. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.apartheidmuseum.org/

History Channel. (2014, June 17). Apartheid.…… [read more]

Ethics in International Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


South Africa: The Struggle for a New Order

The world is changing around us at a rapid pace. We are moving towards a world community, and as we move in that direction, we will resolve the political, social, and economic issues that divide us and prevent us from living in peaceful co-existence. Living in peaceful co-existence within a world community… [read more]

Slave Trade - Bonny Question 1) Find Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (805 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Slave Trade - Bonny

Question 1) Find the NY total numbers from Africa and which locations if indicated, including mean average numbers.

This question is somewhat ambiguous and, therefore, has multiple answers. The phase "from Africa" could be interpreted a couple of ways: is the ship directly from Africa or did the ship stop in Africa during its' journey? Another factor in answering this question is the quality of the data. It was collected over a fifty-year period and most probably collected by different people. Was the question asked in the same manner for all of the ships that arrived in NY? "From where did you start your trip?" Or "Where are you coming from?" could produce different answers. One would also have to differentiate between ships that made a stop in another port vs. ships that originated from a Caribbean port with the purpose of transferring slaves, which landed there to other locations.

A second consideration is how one defines "total numbers": the total of what? Are we being asked for the total number of ships, the total number of slaves and/or something else? A third unclear part of the question is "which locations." Again, this could refer to the location the ship came directly from or its' last port of call. The ambiguity of these three phases makes the difficult to answer the question unless a set of assumptions accompanies the answer. The table below gives four possible answers:

# of ships

# of slaves

Avg # of slaves/ship

Recorded as from Africa



Recorded from Africa +other ports


Another question to consider is the purpose of the ship's visit to NY. Was the ship there to deliver slaves for sale, was it to acquire additional goods for trade on their way back to Britain or was it for repairs? Also were the ships coming from Britain or were they returning to Britain?

The information provided by Stephen Behrendt in Market, Transaction Cycles and profits: Merchant Decision Making in the British Slave Trade, provides enough history of the slave trade to give validity to the above questions. Behrendt described the passage of a slave trade vessel to be a triangle: the trip from Britain to Africa, Africa to British Americas and then from their stop(s) in British America returning back to Britain. Additionally, the article also described the purchase of goods at stops in British America to use…… [read more]

Ivory Coast Instability and International Relations Models Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,363 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ivory Coast

The Weakening State and Potential for Failure: A Case Study of the Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire)

The twentieth century saw major changes in the global political landscape, as the monarchies and empires that had persisted for most of the modern era -- with some extending well beyond this, into the reaches of Medieval history -- crumbled in favor of the new major entity of political sovereignty, the nation-state. The two World Wars were especially formative in terms of destroying old barriers and creating new ones, both in direct and indirect ways. Certain countries that had functioned fairly well as loosely collected units found themselves in the grips of civil strife once they had been coalesced into single national governments, while other nations were simply created wholesale by what were essentially arbitrary mapmakers working for the European powers. The number of nations and the inadequacy and in many instances inappropriateness of their borders has made the twentieth and early twenty-first century a period of intense national and international volatility and conflict.

What has made the issues facing this period especially confounding is the lack of truly long-term predictability. Some of the problems with newly-formed and -forming nations arose immediately, but others have taken decades to manifest. The dissolution of the Soviet Union led to the rapid and relatively peaceful emergence of a number of different nations, for instance, whereas the breakup of Yugoslavia took decades to really come to a head. Often, these delays can be attributed to a particular leadership figure or party.

This has certainly been the case in the Ivory Coast; after achieving final independence from France in 1960, the country remained under the leadership of President Felix Houphouet-Boigny until his death in 1993 (INR Report 2004). Since that time, increasing democratization has led to increasing problems, with land use and title issues ill-defined, one successful and one failed military coup in the country's recent history, and problems of unemployment and economic stagnancy a constant and growing threat (INR Report 2004). Though unique in many regards, the Ivory Coast is also very similar to many other developing nations in the modern era, and can be viewed from the perspective of numerous different models regarding nation-state power and failure. This paper will examine the current situation in the Ivory Coast, assessing its opportunities and threats, and will then analyze the country based on two current theories regarding state failure and weakness.

The Ivory Coast: Prospects and Security Interests

The Ivory Coast is currently caught in a delicate imbalance, with the current military-backed president refusing to cede power to his popularly elected opponent. Having already been a much-divided country for the better part of a decade, the next six months could be a time of increased turmoil and violence for the people and government of the Ivory Coast, especially given recent upheavals by the sitting president, Laurent Gbagbo, to the government as a whole (CIA 2011; USDoS 2011). Economic activity as well as security and regulatory efforts are… [read more]

United Nations Operations in Congo ONUC Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (3,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


United Nations Opreations in Congo-ONUC

The United Nations is considered at this point to be one of the most important actors on the international scene, despite the constant controversy surrounding its history, present, and achievements. Even so, the framework of the international peacekeeping operations has enabled the UN to have a consistent contribution to world peace, democracy, and above all,… [read more]

Travel Project Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Travel Project

The 2010 World Cup introduced modern South Africa to the world. For most visitors the country's pre-eminent destination is Cape Town, one of the world's most beautiful cities. Located where the Indian Ocean meets the Atlantic, Cape Town is rich with history, bountiful with nature and the adjacent Western Cape is one of the best wine regions in the world.

Cape Town has a rich history, and this is revealed in the culture of the city itself. European and African influences blend seamlessly here. Historic districts and modern highrises sit side-by-side in modern Cape Town. From the highest of European high culture to tribal African rhythms, Cape Town has all the culture any visitor could ever imagine. South Africa's history, from Robben Island to the World Cup, is on display in Cape Town, enchanting even visitors who thought they had seen it all.

With Table Mountain looming above, Cape Town has one of the world's most iconic skylines. There is an incredible wealth of hiking opportunities within city limits alone. Cape Town's beaches are also fantastic, with both cold and warm water from which to choose, depending on your preferred side of the Cape. And in the water, Mother Nature abounds. This is a land where seals run a gauntlet of great white sharks every day to reach their feeding grounds and where penguins come to breed.

But one of the most spectacular attractions in recent years has become wine tourism. As South African wine has become more noticed around the world, the Western Cape has become justifiably famous. As the commercial center of the region, Cape Town is the natural jumping off point for wine country tourism. Wine tourism now accounts for 7.3% of the region's economic activity (D'Angelo, 2010). Visiting the makers of these award-winning wines with the backdrop of South African savannahs is a wine-touring experience like no other.

There…… [read more]

American Involvement in the Sudan Civil War Resolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,834 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Sudan -- American Involvement in Civil War Resolution

The resent past has seen violence and heartbreak in the African nation of Sudan, and in order to avoid the bloodshed of another major civil war between the North and the South, the United Nations, with involvement from the United States, has intervened. What has the United States' involvement been with reference… [read more]

Global Hotspots and Conflict Resolutions Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,490 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … African States have been embroiled in civil and political conflict for the past several decades. The Federal Republic of Nigeria is located in West Africa and has a rich and varied ethnic history. It is one of the most populous countries in Africa and is the most populous country globally whose population is Black. It is listed as… [read more]

United States and Nigeria Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,417 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


United States and Nigeria

Prior to the 1990s, there was very little "relationship" between the U.S. And Nigeria. This is mainly because of the lack of democracy, human right violations, and Nigeria's military backed dictatorship type of government. It obtained its independence from Great Britain in 1960, and for the first 30 years of its existence as an independent nation… [read more]

King Leopold's Ghost Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,718 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


King Leopold's Ghost is an amazing though disturbing account of one man's ruthless ambition and carnage that resulted in mass murder, subjugation, horrifying cruelty and severe exploitation. King Leopold II of Belgium wanted a piece of land that he could call his own, to colonize and to rule as he pleased. However he learned "from his many attempts to buy… [read more]

Darwin's Nightmare Ultimately, the Story Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Darwin's Nightmare

Ultimately, the story of any region in terms of human history comes down to the history of the different individuals who occupy the region. This is what struck me the most about the film Darwin's Nightmare; whatever the larger forces at work seemed to be, in reality the causes and effects of all of the various situations that the documentary records are concerned with individuals who allow -- or who cannot stop -- these things from happening. From the Russian pilots to the Tanzanian prostitutes that "keep them company" to the peasants forced to survive on half-rotten fried fish heads, these are the individuals that are important to this area of Africa, and these are the individuals who must deal with the situation. A lot of the scholarship we have looked at seems to downplay the individual and human aspects of the issues facing the African continent, which seems to be an extension of the underlying cause of many of the problems that the people of that continent have been facing for the several centuries of European involvement there, and which they continue to face today.

Recognizing the basic humanity of the people in Africa would have forestalled many of the problems now facing the people and the region. Even the introduction of the Nile perch into Lake Victoria is something that would probably have not occurred in a Western country for fear of the same or similar results. That is, in an area/region/population considered "important" by Westerners, a strange predatory animal would probably not have been introduced to a fragile ecosystem upon which a large population of people living in poverty depended. This is more of the same ethnocentrism that was at work with the early missionary efforts in Africa, only now any and all pretense of the missionaries' altruistic motives has been completely done away with in favor of the…… [read more]

Zimbabwe May Soon Collapse Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Zimbabwe

In order to design a plan that would be able to deal with the devastating crisis in Zimbabwe, one first has to be cognizant of the extent and types of problems that have been created by the Mugabe regime. The crisis in Zimbabwe has, according to a plethora of reliable reports, accelerated in recent months and the… [read more]

Sudan and Its Civil War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,856 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Sudan and Its Civil War

Sudan is a country in northern Africa with a population of around 40,000,000 people (Sudan 2). Following its independence from United Kingdom-Egyptian control in 1956, Sudan has experienced the devastation caused by incessant civil war, a crumbling infrastructure and the vagaries of climate that have caused widespread famine and poverty. Indeed, even the discovery of… [read more]

China Is the New Neo-Imperialist Power in Africa Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,723 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


China, The New Neo-Imperialist Power in Africa

Perhaps the most obvious sign of China's growing influence in Africa was its so-called "Year of Africa" in 2006, but even this ostentatious display of neo-imperial influence only serves to obscure the true extent of China's interests in the region or its rising power directed at protecting those interests. Like so many contemporary… [read more]

Compare and Contrast 4 Regions or Countries Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Regions & Two Countries

The North Africa / Middle East region (NA/ME) is very different from Sub-Saharan Africa, in culture, geography, climate, and history. For example, land that is useful for growing food for people is scarce in NA/ME region (too dry for most kinds of agriculture). The Sahara Desert features nomadic cultures, but mainly is useless for crops. There are a few regions within the (NA/ME) that are fertile and sustain agriculture, such as the Nile Valley in Egypt, The Levant (a geographical region located from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea to the Isthmus of Suez to the Taurus Mountains, about 75,000 square miles), and in areas of Turkey and Iraq. And yet the earliest known forms of agriculture and cultural development came from the Middle East region, specifically in Tigris -- Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia. SSA is where the bones and fossils of the earliest known relatives of humans have been found. Immense oil reserves have a big economic and cultural impact in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and UAE; Diamonds in SSA.

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is south of the Saharan Desert, and vastly different from North Africa. This region has tropical rainforests; in Nigeria, Madagascar, and the Congo rainforests are being clear-cut. The "Green Belt Movement" has planted 30 million trees, no tree planting effort is to be found in North Africa). There are three deserts (, none nearly as large as the Sahara. The NA/ME East is know for oil; African (Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Congo) is known for "blood" diamonds (mined in a conflict zone). While much of the NA/ME region is arid, SSA is lush green in many places and has the most plant diversity in the world. AIDS/HIV has killed 25 million Africans; in NA/ME AIDS/HIV is rare. While dry farming is prevalent in NA/ME, slash-and-burn is very prevalent in SSA. The Tigris -- Euphrates rivers bring needed water to the NA/ME while in SSA the Niger, Senegal, Congo, Nile and Zambezi offer far more fresh…… [read more]

Uganda Culture Sfc Lunford Sgl Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,231 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


, 2002).

4. Religions

Uganda, having been infiltrated by both the Arabs and the British during the times of exploration and the scramble for Africa through the colonial times, has quite a number of religions that coexist side by side in absolute peace. By 2008 it was estimated that of all the Ugandans, 65% of them were Christians with an… [read more]

Million Africans Were Abducted Forcibly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,966 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(BBC News, 1999, 1).

Recently, we have seen the return of the once flourishing slave trade circuits across West Africa -- after a hiatus of 25 years. Slavers have re-emerged following the old slave paths -- except that motor vehicles and aircraft have substituted the camels. The slavers often own mobile phones. Although many things remain unchanged. Wiles, duplicity, the employment of drugs to repress the children and the lash are still part of the necessary gear of the professional slaver. The trade occurs in most states in sub-Saharan West Africa. The children are abducted or purchased for $20-$70 each by slavers in poor regions, such as Benin and Togo, and sold into slavery in sex dens or as unpaid domestic servants for $350 each in richer oil-rich states, such as Nigeria and Gabon. These children are bought and sold as slaves. They are refused an education, the chance to play or to use toys like other children, as well as the right to a future. Their lives are subject to the whim of their masters, and taking their own lives is often the only escape (The Anti-Slavery Society, 2001, 1).

Another effect of the slave trade can be found in art. Many of Africa's treasures and works of art were stolen from the African continent and currently reside in Britain's museums. For instance, the Benin Bronzes in the Museum of Mankind (Gifford, 1996, 4). African leaders now are demanding their return.

The slave trade in West Africa contributed much to the political, economic and social mire the West Africans find themselves in today. African groups are demanding reparations be made to all the African countries affected by the barbaric practice by the countries involved in the trade. Countries in West Africa struggle to conquer their political instability, their economic dependence on outside nations and their social problems encompassing family breakdown, dislocation, and the seemingly unending cycle of poverty. It remains to be seen as to whether reparations can indeed reverse the effects of the slave trade legacy.


Akinjogbin, (1967) Dahomey and its Neighbours, 1708-1818. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

The Anti-Slavery Society (2002) "West African Slave Trade." www.anti-slaverysociety.addr.com

BBC News (August 6, 1999) "West Africa's Child Slave Trade." www.news.bbc.co.uk

Center for Black & African Arts & Civilization (2002) "Slave Trade in Africa." www.cbaac.org

Democratic Republic of the Congo, (2000) "The Slave Trade." www.congo2000.com

Letter from the French deputies to the minister for the colonies, 22 February 1946.

Lord Gifford QC (March 14, 1996) "Slavery: Legacy" The African Reparations Movement, www.arm.arc.co.uk

M'Bokolo, Elikia "A Hundred and Fifty Years After France Abolished Slavery: The Impact of the Slave Trade on Africa." Le Monde diplomatique (April 1998), www.MondeDiplo.com

Meillassoux, Claude. (1975) L'Esclavage en Afrique…… [read more]

Geography Questions on World Regional Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Basically, West Africa is a land comprised of two major zones, being the territory on the open plains of the north and the land of the forest and coastal regions of the south, two zones which are generally referred to as the Central and Western Sudan and the Guinea.

These immense zones also contain lesser zones, such as the waterways of the Niger River system, the Niger delta, the mountain ranges of eastern Nigeria and western Guinea, the numerous islands that lie along the coast of Sierra Leone and the estuary of the Gambia River. One other zone of great historical importance is the open country between the Pra River in modern-day Ghana and the Yewa River in Nigeria, an area that contains the vast grasslands of the north which proceed almost to the coast, thus splitting the forest belts of West Africa in half.

The West African forest belt has always been known for its ability to produce valuable crops, while the plains of the north serve as the domain of cattle. Thus, these natural variations have led to many contrasting ways of life in West Africa and still do to this very day. The future prospects of West Africa, at the moment, appear rather good, especially in the area of oil recovery and distribution which holds the promise of great wealth and prosperity for most West Africans, due to the fact that the region…… [read more]

Nigerian Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,274 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nigeria, the most populous country on continent is situated in the western part of Africa. Today it's considered to be one of the most prosperous and dynamically developing African countries due to rich oil resources and diamond mines. Nigeria has a very extensive history as it was populated by a number of diverse African cultures since ancient times. According to… [read more]

United States Role in the Ending of Apartheid Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


United States Role in the Ending of Apartheid

The Role of the United States in the Ending of Apartheid

The United States played a strong role in the ending of apartheid in South Africa. This is significant in and of itself, but it is also important to take a look at how this happened and why the United States became so involved in a cause that was thousands of miles away. Apartheid in South Africa began in 1948 (Brown, 40). It was a system whereby individuals were racially and geographically segregated, and was similar to the segregation that took place in America in the past when blacks and whites were not allowed to use the same restrooms, ride the same buses, or attend the same schools.

The issues of race and class were very prominent in our country from 1865 to 1917. They are still prominent today in some areas of the country. Even though both issues were of great importance, race clearly had a larger effect on the country than class did. Between the years of 1865 and 1917, race and class were closely intertwined. The opinion was held that if you were not white, you were a lower class citizen. This stereotype still persists to this day, although not as strongly as it once did.

The same stereotype was seen in South Africa during the time of apartheid, and this is one of the main reasons that individuals in this country identified with it so strongly (Kashula & Anthonissen, 98). It was a time of great change for America, and those that were working to affect this change believed that the change should take place within South Africa as well. College campuses, especially, were hotbeds of activity when it came to dealing with apartheid. There were many protests and a great deal of upset on campuses and within groups of young individuals. This was very important, as it showed that the younger generation felt some unity with the problems that others were facing in foreign countries.

There are reasons behind this, but yet it is still somewhat surprising, because college students in general are largely assumed to care about little other than themselves. However, the apartheid issue clearly indicated that those of the younger generation during that time felt that there were important issues that they needed to get involved in. Much of this came from the understanding that they had of being singled out and 'different.' College students throughout history, in addition to being seemingly unconcerned with the plight of others, have seen themselves overall as being 'against the administration' and as being mistreated by those that were older, due to all of the rules and other issues that they had. This does not mean that every college-age person feels this way, but only that the majority of them seem to hold this opinion of society.

These students feel as though they are being singled out and placed in a metaphorical box because of what they are… [read more]

Foreign Policy International Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,942 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Tanzanian Experience Since Independence and Its Implications for Foreign Policy Strategies

The last few decades have seen dramatic economic improvements in large parts of the third world, while African economies in general experienced stagnation or decline until the early 1990s. During the last few years, however, there seems to have been a revival in parts of Africa. Many countries in… [read more]

Negotiations Arusha Peace Process in Rwanda Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,456 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Negotiations-Arusha Peace Process in Rwanda

Analyze the success/failure of negotiations to resolve the dispute.

Two warring factions in Rwanda signed Arusha accord on August 3, 1993: Government of Rwanda (GoR) and Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). These accords are reflections of an extraordinary testament that even most well crafted negotiations cannot be considered an accomplishment until critical implementation. This research article… [read more]

Poverty Proposal Ghana Term Paper

Term Paper  |  23 pages (6,891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


Ghana Poverty

International Bank ForReconstrcution and Development

Ghana -- Public Private Partnership (PPP) Project






Project Cost

$17.5 Million

Project Duration 8 Months

Commitment Amount 60% of Total Project Cost (TCP)

Team Leader

Case CountryGHANA

- Scope of the report

Current state of poverty in Ghana

Human Development Index (HDI)

(Human Development Report,… [read more]

Race Portuguese Thoughts on Seized Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Some of groups of Africans mourn their situation with song; some groups of African engage in basic rituals of prayer. Whether the chronicler is aware of it or not, he is chronicling the diversity of African cultures as seen through the eyes of those who have made them their captives. This observation is significant with regard to the propaganda spread throughout the western world about how Africans are savages with no culture, civilization, humanity or other redeeming qualities.

There is no direct nor indirect statement about the reason why the Portuguese seize the Africans. The chronicler does not state nor allude to the Africans deserving such a fate or such treatment simply because they are African. The perspective of the chronicler is more suggestive that the Portuguese are simply conquerors and these Africans happen to be the next group of people they have conquered. The chronicle is the documentation of this particular group, which may or not prove to be particularly special or useful to the Portuguese, and the process by which the Portuguese shift them into lives of slavery and other forms of abuse. It is more clear in the interactions with other European groups such as the British and the French to notice their open disdain, disgust, and hatred for Africans specifically because of their physical traits. Such a distinction is not easily made with the Portuguese; in fact, the chronicler may have some respect or sympathy for the seized Africans as he compares them to the Moors found in Western Europe like Portugal and Spain.… [read more]

Community and Social Justice Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,163 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Therefore, Africa's battle for liberation was likewise a battle for its cultural heritage and identity incorporating respect for human rights. This is so because the objective of colonialism in Africa was to undermine the rights of the African people and the African heritage. In 1976, the OAU embraced the African Cultural Charter to ensure that African cultures were protected (Nmehielle, 2011). Currently, Africa is again confronted with the need to defend its African heritage against the consequences of Western lifestyles and globalization on the traditional social mores and ways of living. Paradoxically, for the African culture to survive the challenge of time, they ought to interact with changes and other cultures, but maintain their unique attributes.

Human rights and development

The formation of the OAU offered hope since appropriate cultural and social policies accompanied its establishment. Such policies must be harmonized in order to reinforce each other mutually to promote Africa's overall social, cultural, economic, and political agenda. Moreover, social advancements must be based on methodologies that guide human interactions and actions (Bachir, 2009).

Social, economic, and cultural rights

When reference is made to the protection and promotion of human rights, there is a tendency to speak about political and civil rights only. In this context, the device for measuring the enjoyment of these rights has been active and full participation of persons in democratic procedures like the right to life, election and freedom of expression (Diagne, 2010). Africa has been hailed for fostering the respect for human rights. Many countries have emerged via democratic-transitions-based on elections where people freely choose their governments. Participation in democratic processes should not be the only indicator of human rights: rather, the indicator must be equal and full enjoyment of cultural, social, and economic rights. Because these are intertwined with political and civil rights, they are viewed as two sides of the same coin. In this regards, the OAU recognizes that human rights must encompass all rights and that corruption in Africa is an obstacle to the enjoyment of cultural, social, and economic rights, particularly socioeconomic developments.

Although we can argue that the circumstance about respect for political and civil rights has improved, this cannot be said for cultural, economic and social rights as Africa continues to face massive threats and challenges. These include poverty, HIV and AIDS, diseases, racism, conflicts, corruption, inequality, bad governance and violence against children and women (Bachir, 2009). As long as the challenges affect the daily lives of people, the issues of sustaining democracy, promotion, and protection of human rights will continue to haunt the African continent. Poverty has been recognized as a violation of human rights. When this is reduced, it will contribute to the equal and the full enjoyment of human rights. The emerging problem is how the OAU can ensure the equal relevance and recognition of cultural, social, and economic rights. Obviously, this requires that the OAU must promote cultural, social, and economic rights in accordance with the provisions of the African Charter, in a similar… [read more]

Apartheid the Very Structure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,993 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



This discussion has thoroughly explored the South African apartheid. We found that the apartheid created a nation that is deeply segregated amongst racial and social lines. We also found that the affects of apartheid reeked havoc with South Africa's economy. We concluded that the very structure of Apartheid was corrosive and thus led to the demise of the South African economy.

Works Cited

Apartheid," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003

http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Informative article on the definition of apartheid and the key players in the implementation of the system.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=43131060

Contesting Apartheid: U.S. Activism, 1960-1987. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.

This source discussed the ways in which individuals and groups chose to protest the apartheid in South Africa.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=11275319

Davis, R. Hunt, ed. Apartheid Unravels. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1991.

Hunt takes a look at Mandela's release from prison and the end of apartheid in South Africa.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=15076530

Eades, Lindsay Michie. The End of Apartheid in South Africa. Ed. Miller, Randall M. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

This source discusses the history of the Apartheid and the demise of the apartheid system.

Ferreira, M., Kinsella, K. August 1997. "International Briefing: Aging Trends South Africa." U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of the Census. 12 April 2003. http://www.census.gov/ipc/prod/ib-9702.pdf.

Report completed by the Bureau of the Census discusses the impact of Aids and HIV in South Africa. This is an informative report that includes statistics.

Fielding, David. 2001. "Human rights, political instability and investment in South Africa: a note." Department of Economics, University of Leicester and Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford. http://www.econ.ox.ac.uk/CSAEadmin/workingpapers/pdfs/2001-04text.pdfInformative report on the risks involved in investing in South Africa.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=98122096

Khan, Haider. The Political Economy of Sanctions Against Apartheid. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publications, 1989.

This source discussed the economic impact that the apartheid had on South Africa. The book also goes into great detail about the structure of the apartheid system.

Stals, Chris. 25 January 1999, "South Africa's financial and economic prospects for the next five years." Omega Investment Research. http://www.bis.org/review/r990205a.pdf

Dr. Chris Stals is the Vice President of the South African Reserve Bank. This report was an overview of the South African economy and discussed economic trends in the nation.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=8104898

Villa-Vicencio, Charles. Apartheid Is a Heresy. Ed. Gruchy, John W. De. Grand Rapids, MI W.B. Eerdmans, 1983.

This book discusses the role of Christianity in the system of Apartheid. Explains how apartheid contradicts the tenets of the Christian faith.… [read more]

Somalia Civil War Somalia- Causes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,477 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Each side had their own administrative, legal and education system. There were a lot of different economic factors such as taxes and different currencies. The UN set up a commission to help them sort out their differences. The people of the south believed that were better equipped to govern the region as they had a lot of experience. This sowed… [read more]

Tuaregs vs. Sub-Saharan Blacks Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,350 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


For sure, there is precedent of some sort in the form of Great Britain and the United States being allies even though the former was created by breaking away from the latter as well as Japan even being on speaking terms with Japan after World War II given they were on opposite sides and that the United States intentionally obliterate two civilian areas with the atom bomb. The problem is that the war between these two parties has been going on for centuries longer (and it is not even close) than those two examples and the likelihood that this will change is about as close to zero as it can be (Van Dyke, 2014).

Given the above, the author of this report is asked to answer several questions relating to the conflict and the related concepts of things like conformity, social perception, social cognition and overall social perceptions. Conformity can be a tough road to hoe when speaking of two groups so seismically different from each other. Indeed, Arabs and blacks in Africa are quite different on a number of levels. Arabs, of course, are usually Muslim and most of sub-Saharan Africa is actually Christian (Pew, 2010). As with most areas of the world, Muslims and Christians do not tend to get along all that well, at least when one or both sides are of the extremist variety. As such, conformity would be elusive as both sides would define it differently. As far as social cognition and social perception goes, social perceptions are thoughts and reactions based on what is perceived by a person and may or may not actually be relevant or true. Social cognition is how the information is "encoded" and used by the brain (Boundless, 2014). They are obviously related in that social perceptions can be outcomes of social cognition but the perceptions, as already mentioned, may or may not be applicable. One can then toss in a thousand years of bad blood and religious/ethnic differences, and these perceptions can lead to wars, slavery and atrocities galore. Regarding the social perceptions that are feeding and sustaining the Arab/black conflict, there are mutual feelings on both sides (and rightfully so) of distrust and the unwillingness to let the past be the past and focus on a peaceful future. Certainly, both sides are either seeking retribution and/or are unwilling to concede to or trust the other. As long as that permeates the climate and perpetuates with future generations, the status quo in the area will not change.


As noted before, the conflict in the areas of Northern Africa are not unlike the Middle East in that the conflict and ethnic/religious issues span back centuries (if not millennia) and until/unless both sides are willing to come to the table and beat back their own extremists that wish to keep fighting, nothing is going to change in either area and for much the same reason. The racial and religious lines being drawn are being drawn by those that are not… [read more]

Yoruba's Influence on Modern-Day Cultures Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Yoruba's Influence on Modern-Day Cultures Around the World

The Yoruba people make up one of the largest ethnic groups in west Africa. Yoruba is also name of the associated of a religion and language of the people living on the west coast of Africa. Many of them have migrated elsewhere over time, and there exist many different concentrations of Yoruba within certain states and regions of America. The Yoruba people make up nearly a quarter of the population of Nigeria, and are typically concentrated into three different post-modern generational groups (Smith, 1988). These groups include first generation Yoruba, or those people who were the founders and settlers of some of the Yoruba towns and cities, second generation Yoruba, who originate from migration or earlier conquest resettlement, and third generation Yoruba, who originated after the Yoruba wars, which took place with other local cultures (Smith, 1988). The Yoruba also live in many other countries besides Nigeria, but their largest concentration is found within this African nation. This culture has integrated itself within many other cultures and societies and their presence is undeniable and pivotal in creating much of the current cultural diversity both in Africa as well as the Caribbean and the United States.

The Yoruba people use a gerontocratic form of government or rule (Apter, 1992). This allows the oldest and most senior members of the tribe to become the tribal leaders. While some democratic elections do occur within the Yoruba culture and government, it is generally regarded as a highly gerentocratic society. Yoruba society and government has been traditionally broken down into city-states which have their own governing bodies and who operate autonomously from other city-states (Cohen, 2004). It is easy to see why such a strongly structured and well-organized culture can go on to influence other cultures, even from a non-dominant position like many Yoruba found themselves in during the slave trade.

Historically, most of the Yoruba city-states were controlled by "Oba's" or rulers. These rulers had a counsel of leaders and chiefs that helped them make daily decisions. These chiefs were often elected, but the Oba was commonly the oldest male member of the local tribe (Apter, 1992). This form of organization is not unfamiliar in other African cultures, and pervades the Yoruba culture even in the present day. There has been very little change within the Yoruba culture to set it apart from others like it. Recently however, there has been a reassigning of women's roles within the culture as the women's rights movement has made some progress within the Yoruba culture itself (Abimbola, 2006). This is typical of cultures who are exposed to Western cultural models and where women, as a cultural resource, begin to take on more value apart from just being reproductive vessels and home servants.

The Yoruba people belong to a very robust culture. That is to say that the cultural roots can be found in many other places outside of Africa, where Yoruba people have taken up residency either… [read more]

Nigeria a Survey of the Reasons Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9



A Survey of the Reasons Nigeria's Oil Spills Receive Little Attention Despite the Fact that They Outnumber Those of the U.S.

This paper will show the reasons the people of the Niger Delta region live in an environment of constant oil contamination that is never cleaned up while the comparatively minor oil spill in the Gulf Coast induced instant… [read more]

Museveni and Lack of Sustainable Peace Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (779 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Musevini and Lack of Sustainable Peace

Yoweri Museveni has been the president of Uganda for twenty-four years. In that time he has successfully brought a feeling of stability and economic growth to a nation that suffered for years under corrupt and ruthless leadership under Idi Amin. Now, however, there are similar concerns about the leadership of Musevini and many are questioning whether he too has been in power too long and become subject to the pleasures of power.

There have been allegations of vote rigging, government officials being involved in land sales at inflated prices, and international disgrace over the disappearance in millions of dollars intended for Aids relief but it has been Musevini's inability to effectively deal with the activities of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in northern Uganda that has come under the most criticism. (Nyeko)

Since 1987 the LRA has been a disrupting force in northern Uganda and has adducted an estimated 30,000 children in the area and committed a series of massacres and been involved in a number of other abuses against the local population. Throughout most of Musevini's tenure in office he has provided lip service to the problems in northern Uganda but has done little to constructively address the problems. In the 24 years that Musevini has been in power he has visited northern Uganda only one time and that was only in the past year. His visit even included the area most affected by the activities of the LRA and he has promised significant aid to the area but the problems in the area have continued.

Criticism of Musevini has heightened. The national press has begun to question whether Musevini's tenure in office has led to the development of a government mirroring the conditions present during prior Ugandan governments. Journalist Andrew Mwenda, owner of the Independent, stated:

"Where NRM promised an independent, integrated and self-sustaining national economy, it has created a dependant (on foreign aid) disjointed economy. Instead of free and fair elections, we have rigged ones. Respect for human rights died in torture chambers euphemistically called safe houses. Corruption has become a virtue, nepotism a way to run our nation and tribal bigotry the running philosophy of government. The rule of law took a beating when government organized hooded gangs who began attacking the courts and threatening judges."

Musevini's political support…… [read more]

Apartheid the Effective Boycott of Apartheid Sports Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,857 words)
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The Effective Boycott of Apartheid Sports in South Africa

The institution of Apartheid would impose a set of harsh racialist policies in place to govern the people of South Africa. White colonialists established a rule of law which promoted active racial segregation well through the 1980s. It would be a formative force in Africa's identity and in its political… [read more]

Identity Conflict Based on Social Theories Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,196 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Identity Conflict Based on Social Theories

In 1994 the Rwandan genocide resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderates by Hutus. Estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000,

The extent of the unleashed anger and violence that occurred shocked the world. The scale of the conflict is succinctly summarized… [read more]

British and French Handled the Decolonization Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (348 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … British and French Handled the Decolonization of Their African Possessions

The colonial era has been a glorious period for many of the nations in the world, as several nations have spread their culture across the planet. However, numerous nations have also been oppressed and dehumanized in the process of colonization. Some of the respective nations still feel the aftermath that the colonists have left upon them. One of the territories preferred by colonists has been the African continent, with numerous European colonies having been set on African land.

Subsequent to the period in which colonialism thrived, both the British and the French observed that it had almost been impossible for them to continue to hold the African colonies. In spite of the fact that it had been profitable to have a colony, it had been very difficult, as the people from the colonized territories had begun to express their need for autonomy. As a result, both countries granted independence to most of their African colonies.

While the decolonization process had gone on…… [read more]

Western Sahara Conflict Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  32 pages (8,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Western Sahara Conflict

In the early years of civilization in the Western Saharan regions, civilizations used trade and exchange of services as a means by which to maintain the peace, and to meet the economic and social needs of their expanding civilizations. The Western Sahara was, then, and is today rich in minerals and other resources, not the least of… [read more]

International Protection of Human Rights Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (6,410 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Human Rights Violations in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Procedures and Strategies for the International Protection of Human Rights

As the world moves towards a global conscience, it is becoming increasingly clear that those nations that would abuse the doctrines of human rights as acknowledged in the international arenas, and by most of today's nation-states, and certainly by world public… [read more]

U.S. and UN Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,824 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … UN humanitarian intervention in Somalia

Conflict management and the U.S. And UN humanitarian intervention in Somalia

Situated on the horn of Africa, Somalia is a country that has been described as one of the most dangerous and underdeveloped areas on the continent. The country has been immersed in various degrees of violent conflict since its establishment as an… [read more]

Darfur in 2003, Horrific Violence and Barbaric Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,617 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7



In 2003, horrific violence and barbaric civil war broke out in the Sudanese providence of Darfur. The conflict has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths, millions of individuals displaced, and still other tens of thousands refugees. While the conflict arose from racial tensions in the area between two or three primary groups, the involvement of the Sudanese government… [read more]

Intrastate Conflict in Sudan the African Continent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,457 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Intrastate Conflict in Sudan

The African continent is seen nowadays as being one of the most volatile regions in the world. Despite its enormous natural and human potential, it fails to take advantage of the resources at hand and continues to be a security threat at a regional level, as well as at a global one. Sudan is in this… [read more]

Country of Sudan Dependency Theory vs. Modernization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,574 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Country of Sudan

Dependency theory vs. modernization theory

Religion and Politics

Ethnic-cultural divisions

Women and development

Agrarian reform and the politics of rural change

Rapid urbanization and the politics of the urban poor

The political economy of third world countries

The African continent is considered to be one of the most important regions in the world at the moment in… [read more]

Sudan Nation at War With Itself Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,335 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Sudan Nation at War With Itself: The Sudan

Sociology 300

To some extent, what we call the nation of the Sudan is a fiction. It is a product of colonialization, or rather the drawing of artificial boundaries that occurred after European colonialization in Africa. It is a polymorphous conglomerate of many different tribes, nations, and regions sewn together by a national government that strives to govern and manage the many inherent tensions and conflicts within the official Sudanese borders. Throughout the nation's history the government has often acted in a highly partisan fashion. A cynic or simply an honest observer might say that Sudan is not so much a nation as a war zone.

Religion and politics

Sudan negotiated its independence from Great Britain in 1956. However, the Sudanese Constitution had no provisions defining the religious character of the state and if the new Sudan was to operate under federal or unitary system of government. Southerners wanted a non-Arab, secular, loose confederation of states while Northerners wanted an Islamic state. A seventeen-year civil war ensued, and ever since then, the Sudan has been at war more than it has been at peace. This is partly responsible for the relative lack of development of the Sudan, even in comparison to its neighbors. Although it is difficult to measure the exact rate of poverty because of the government's instability, by most measures poverty rates are quite high, hovering around 40% by a 2004 estimate, and the nation's GDP is only a paltry 9.6% ("Sudan," 2007, World Fact Book).

Life expectancy of the average Sudanese is only 49.11 years at birth and adult literacy is low, only 61.1% ("Sudan," 2007, World Fact Book). Of the population, in terms of its religious composition the nation is squarely divided between the official religion of Islam, which is most common in the Northern-dominated regions, in contrast to the indigenous beliefs that dominate the Southern Sudan, along with some pockets of Christianity in some areas. The statistical estimations of the composition of the state as a whole is that it is 70% Sunni Muslim, 5% Christian mainly in urban locations such as Khartoum, and indigenous beliefs dominate the Southern Sudan, and believers make up around 25% of the population ("Sudan," 2007, World Fact Book).

People living with AIDS as a percent of the population was estimated to be 2.3%, but the actual figure may be higher given that this percentage relies upon unreliably reported data and dates from 2001 ("Sudan," 2007, World Fact Book). The nation's fertility rate is high. It was recorded that 4.69 children were born to every woman in 2007 ("Sudan," 2007, World Fact Book). The nation only has a Provisional Government established by the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement and national elections are scheduled for July 2009. ("Background Note: Sudan," 2007, Bureau of African Affairs).

Ethnic-cultural divisions

Because it is such a patchwork of faiths and tribal alliances, it is even difficult to truly pinpoint when what we think of as the modern Sudan… [read more]

Resurgence of Piracy Especially Off the Horn of Africa Somalia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Piracy Somalia

Resurgence of Piracy in Somalia

According to the BBC, piracy is more prevalent in Somalia than anywhere else in the world, particularly along the nation's eastern coastline where political instability has been most rife. "With the breakdown of civil society, Somalia has degenerated into a no-man's land subject to clan or Islamic Shari'ah law" (Coffen-Smout, 1998).The prevalence of piracy in Somalia has caused a humanitarian as well as an economic crisis, as: "Pirates generally use speedboats to steal trading goods" or even humanitarian aid and donated food from other nations, "sometimes impounding ships and crew at gunpoint and then demanding ransoms before they are released" (Doyle 2006). Attacks against luxury ocean liners have occurred, and many other attacks, against smaller traders or fishermen likely go unreported (Doyle, 2006).

However, the Somalia government has begun to deploy a multi-faceted strategy to curtail such attacks. It also has an international obligation to do so, as "despite the breakdown of civil society, Somalia still has international legal responsibilities…… [read more]

Hotel Rwanda Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Hotel Rwanda - a Film Review

Hotel Rwanda is a dynamic film inspired by the true events that took place in Rwanda in 1994. The source of the tension is a rebel faction inciting Hutu Rwandans against Tutsis Rwandans. The rebels project themselves as an oppressed Hutu people, who suffered discrimination during Belgium colonial occupation of the country. During the Belgian colonial period, the Tutsis were regarded by the Hutu as receiving favorable treatment from the Belgian colonists; thus casting the Hutu aside because of a racial bias. The truth of the matter is that the Hutu rebel forces are corrupt, and it is not a situation of oppression, but one arising out of greed by people who wish to take the country over to achieve individual wealth. This theme of greed and corruption is put out front in the film, and it is a bold move on the part of Terry George. Although George does not let the Belgians go without remark, and it is clear to some extent that the Belgian colonialization of the country did not serve it well in the end.

Actor Don Cheadle, portraying the hero Paul Rusesabagina, the hotel manager who wheels and deals with corrupt government officials and corrupt rebel leaders playing both sides of the fence in an effort to do his job; puts on a superb performance. Rusesabagina, in the film as in real life, is a Hutu, married to a Tutsis woman, and together they have children, and are close to Paul's wife's family. Paul wants to keep his family out of politics, but once the Hutu rebels begin slaughtering the Tutsis people, it becomes impossible for him remain neutral.

Paul and his family take refuge in the hotel where Paul works, a Belgian owned hotel business. There, they hold out in hope of a United Nations intervention in the violence. Unfortunately, in real life as in the film, it would be more than a hundred days before the world move to intervene in the genocide that was going on in Rwanda. By the time it was over, countless were dead. The film forefronts this…… [read more]

Strategic Studies. Outline the Evolution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (721 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Strategic studies.

Outline the evolution of strategic studies as an academic field

Strategic studies is an interdisciplinary field that examines the interrelated nature of politics, military power, economy, and culture. While these factors have often impacted the study of international relations as an academic discipline, most credit the theorist Jack Snyder for creating the phrase 'strategic culture' during a RAND study of Soviet political elites and nuclear weapons in the 1970s (Burns 2010). Aberystwyth University was one of the first universities to develop a research program in strategic studies that interjected an important cultural as well as military component into the field. Harvard's Alastair Johnston attempted to merge both foci by defining strategic culture "as an integrated system of symbols (i.e. argumentation structures, languages, analogies, metaphors, etc.) that acts to establish persuasive and long-lasting grand strategic preferences by formulating concepts of the role and efficacy of military force in interstate political affairs, and by clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the strategic preferences seem uniquely realistic and efficacious" (Burns 2010). In other words, strategy is produced by governments due to a merging of the personal self-interests of leaders, institutional and national cultures, and economic concerns, and is then justified under the guide of rationality.

Q2. Nigeria's strategic domestic national interest

This merging of economic and political concerns when setting military policy for a nation is perhaps most obviously embodied in the nation-state of Nigeria. Nigeria has great oil wealth, and after winning its independence it joined OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) in 1971 and also formed the Economic Community of West African State (ECOWAS) to address Africa's regional economic concerns. Nigeria's foreign policy is specifically delineated in the constitution. The law states that promoting Nigeria's personal self-interest, African unity, and international cooperation to promote peace are the nation's primary external objectives. Some analysts believe that Nigeria's emphasis on Pan-Africanism has come at the expense of its own self-interest and its interest in building bridges with the wider international community. Every state has core, middle-range, and long-range objectives. Nigeria's core objectives are promoting its political and economic health, its middle-range objectives include promoting its immediate political…… [read more]

Submitted, the Ivory Coast Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (5,711 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


A search of the Internet brings up accusations -- unproven -- included claims that in some polling areas Ouattara had more votes than exist registered voters, and that most members of the CEI are from the north and therefore sympathetic to Ouattara. There is speculation among members of the public that Ouattara could not have taken such a sizeable portion… [read more]

Ghana Was Named After the Medieval Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Ghana was named after the medieval Ghana Empire of West Africa, the initial name of Ghana was actually Wagadugu and the name Ghana was the title of the kings that ruled the kingdom. It was initially controlled by Sundiata in the 13 century. Before the year 1957 Ghana was referred to as the Gold Cost since the Portuguese who visited the country in the 15th Century found so much gold between the rivers Ankobra and Volta that they referred to the place Mina to mean mine, the English later on the English colonizers adopted the name and maintained it (Ghana Web, 2011).

Ghana was headed by Queen Elizabeth II till the country attained its independence in 1960 when Kwame Nkurumah became the first president of an independent Ghana. Later to be deposed in coup de-tat by Joseph Ankrah in 1966. Ankrah was also later succeeded by Akwafi Afrifa then Edward Akufo. In 1972 Akufo was also overthrown in a coup de-tat by Ignatius Acheampong who was also overthrown by Fred Akufo in 1978, Fred did not last a long time though since in 1979 he was also overthrown by the military and Jerry Rawlings acted as the chairman of the provisional national defense council. Hilla Limann took over the leadership of the nation officially in September the same year and was later overthrown by Jerry Rawlings who then became the president till 2001. He was later on succeeded by a popularly elected John Kufuor who ruled till 2009 to see another stable election bring in John Atta Mills.

There are various renewable sources that are found in Ghana starting from the wind energy that has been harvested to the tune of 5,640 MW, there is also the solar energy that has been harvested to the tune of 3.2 MW, it also has hydroelectric power capacity of 2500MW of which 1850MW has been exploited as well as a considerable amount of bioenergy (Ministry of Energy-Republic of Ghana, 2010).

The economy of Ghana is vastly supported by the exportation of cocoa, there is also a good amount of gold that is exploited in Ghana, oil, timber harvesting as well as fishing. These are the main activities that support the economy of Ghana. The country also achieved, through good governance, the status of the fastest growing economy in the world in the year 2011 which saw its economy climb from 4% growth in 2009 to a standard 13.6% in 2011 (The Presidency of the Republic of Ghana, 2011). The GDP of Ghana was pinned at $37.481 billion by the 2010 estimates with a purchasing power parity of $71.216 billion, which is one of the highest in Africa (Global Finance, 2011).

Just like many other African countries Ghana is still dependent on foreign aid, despite the…… [read more]

Kenya Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It must incorporate the culture, the values and the beliefs of the people. All the people must own it. The current agitation for an all-inclusive constitution in Kenya, is therefore right on the mark. [Africa Guide, 1997]

Civil and political rights are inalienable rights, which all people are entitled to enjoy, regardless of their social class. The Kenya Government recognized… [read more]

Post Colonialism Reflected Through Jewelry Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The ad features a strong white male and a much weaker, native African woman who represents the conquered colonial subject, even centuries after colonialism was supposed to have ended. According to the research, "the Himba woman symbolizes the colonized subject, who is represented as the embodiment of primitive Otherness to offset the glamour, sophistication and mobility of the Freelander" (Van Eeden, 2006, 345). The ad blatantly expressed an underlying message of the white male as conquering Africa. It invokes the image of the white man and his exciting adventure as he conquers the mysterious African grasslands (Van Eeden, 2006). As such, it is reminiscent of the same ideology that drove Europeans into Africa during the period of colonialism in the first place. Therefore, it presents a clear image of a commoditized continent and reinstates the white man as the superior being within the dynamic environment of a wild foreign land. This continues the conflict between "binary oppositions," where foreign exploitation of regional lands is still fighting to remain dominant over more localized controls and representations (Van Eeden, 2006). It is a prime example of how there is still tension within colonial identities being played out within a more modern, post-colonial environment.

Thus struggle can once again be represented with jewelry as a prime focus, as this analysis had done earlier with the Koh I Noor. The modern correlation of diamonds and oppression can be linked to the ongoing struggle in Africa, where African people and lands are being exploited in order to produce what are known as blood diamonds or conflict diamonds. These are diamonds that are illegally exported into the international market in order to raise money and fuel local conflicts, where rebels and corrupt politicians were exploiting African laborers for selfish gains in local politics (Chabal & Birmingham, 2002). These diamonds were often being exported into Western nations, and there has been a huge international scandal involving the De Beers diamond company and its potential to knowingly buy and sell conflict diamonds to unknowing Western consumers. According to the research, "by the year 2000 so much blood money had come to be involved in the sale of Angola's diamonds that the United Nations attempted to impose penalties on nations which facilitated the diamonds-for weapons trade" (Chabal & Birmingham, 2002, 182). The prevalence of these diamonds on Western markets and the association with Western companies continues to show how cultural images can help fuel the continuing conflict between old colonial rivals.

Appendix A

(Busby Jewelry, 2012)

Appendix B

(Busby Jewelry 2012)

Appendix C

(Busby Jewelry 2012)


Busby Jewelry, 2012. Koh I Noor and British colonialism. Busby Jewelry, Web. http://www.busbyjewelry.com/en/gossip-trends-and-co-koh-noor-and-british-colonialism-pxl-84_129.html

Chabal, Patrick & Birmingham, David, 2002. A History of Postcolonial Lusophone Africa. Indiana University Press.

Ghoshray, Saby, 2007. Repatriation of the Kohinoor diamond: Expanding the legal paradigm for cultural heritage. Fordham…… [read more]

Berlin Conference of 1884 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Berlin Conference of 1884 is one of those historical events that seem to defy explanation. Africa, a vast continent, had been colonized by a large number of European countries, and there was a tremendous amount of contention over the ownership of these various African nations. This led to fighting between some of the imperial countries, and also to economic uncertainty, which may have led some investors away from investing in Africa because of fears that the governments authorizing or supporting particular projects would not retain control over the area in question. "Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany's sphere of influence over Africa and desired to force Germany's rivals to struggle with one another for territory" (Rosenberg, 2012). This point of this conference was to parcel out control of Africa among the European nations.

The Berlin Conference established rules for imperialism, which had not previously been stated outright. They helped determine which country had possession of an area, the steps a country had to take in order to get officially recognized possession, and the boundaries of an area that was possessed. For example, "Article 34 of the Berlin Act states that any European nation that took possession of an African coast, or named themselves as 'protectorate' of one, had to inform the signatory powers of the Berlin Act of this action. If this was not done then their claim would not be recognized. This article introduced the "spheres of influence" doctrine, the control of a coast also meant that they would control the hinterland to an almost unlimited distance" (Aronson, 1999). However, merely stating one had possession was not sufficient to establish such possession; "Article 35 determined that in order to occupy a coastal possession, the nation also had to prove that they controlled sufficient authority there to protect existing rights such as freedom of trade and transit. This was called the doctrine of 'effective occupation' and it made the conquest of Africa a less bloody process" (Aronson, 1999).

The Berlin Conference and its resulting laws changed the face of international…… [read more]

Country Profile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Kenya Economic Profile

Country profile (Kenya)

The East African republic of Kenya is a young nation which achieved its independence from the British colonialism in 1963 after a long struggle against its colonial masters. The country shares its borders with Ethiopia, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and Sudan. In terms of the land area the country is ranked at number 47. At… [read more]

Traditions and Encounters, Was Chapter 2 Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (404 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Traditions and Encounters, was Chapter 2, entitled "Early African Societies and the Bantu Migrations." Like many Westerners, I had already been exposed to some information on China, India, and especially the Mediterranean World. However, aside from the Egyptian Civilization, I never realized the extent of Egyptian development, nor the complexity of the Sub-Saharan African Civilizations. Most historical movies show Africa as a dark, forbidding place, full of danger and uncivilized tribal cultures who use spears and arrows, have no real architecture or science, and barely subsist as hunter gatherers or herdsmen. This chapter showed how incorrect those assumptions actually are.

We tend to assume, incorrectly though, that there was nothing really advanced in most of Africa outside of the Egyptian Pyramids. Instead, we find that there were advanced agricultural and building techniques that predated anything in the Mediterranean. In addition, other that the "luck" of geography and weather patterns, some of these early African civilizations could have drastically changed world history. It was also surprising that there was so vibrant a trade culture so early in human history, with some of the artifacts still preserved from Egyptian archaeological sites. It was also interesting to note that the concept of working…… [read more]

Ghana Developing Country Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



In an era where Google earns more than the gross domestic products of most of the African nations combined, Ghana stands out as an example of what political stability combined with sufficient natural resources can do in post-colonial Africa. Although the country is still considered to be a low-income economy, there are signs that the economic, political… [read more]

Indigenous People (Annotated Bibliography) Conservations Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


(1999). Ecotourism and the Empowerment of Local Communities. Tourism Management 20: 245-249.

Scheyvens (1999) reiterated that community based approach to ecotourism should recognize the need to promote the quality of life of people and the conservation of resources. Scheyvens is adamant that local people, especially the Africans, should be compensated for the loss of access to resources they suffer when wildlife parks are created. Scheyvens cited Narok County Council that manages Maasai Mara Park as the perfect case. The county council puts money accrued from the park into trust fund that is used to fund schools, cattle dips, and health services. The park therefore benefits the entire Maa community. In as much as ecotourism may be thought of as beneficial to indigenous communities, Scheyvens (1999) pointed out that it is difficult to find successful cases in this practice. This is exemplified in South African ecotourism operators who involve local communities only as pubic relations tools. They are not committed to supporting the rights of indigenous people with regard to benefiting from their traditional lands and wildlife.

Spinage, C. (2003). Social Change and Conservation Misrepresentation in Africa. Ecology and Organizational Biology 32(4):265-276

Spinage (2003) while trying to investigate misrepresentations that have been fronted about Africa's wildlife conservation efforts on social change brought into perspective the neo-populists thinkers' discontent with former colonial authority's African game legislations. He averred that local people ought to be allowed to exploit protected areas in accordance with their traditions and beliefs. He points out at a number of injustices inflicted by the colonial authorities on the indigenous people bordering wildlife conservancy notably replacing traditional conservation practice with left-wing colonial dogmas.

West, P., Igoe, J. & Brockington, D. (2006). Parks and Peoples: The Social Impact of Protected Areas. Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 251-277.

Environmental conservation efforts have social, economic, and political effects on the lives of the indigenous communities (West, Igoe & Brockington, 2006). As the environmental conservation projects grow the local communities living in such areas get displaced. West, Igoe, & Brockington (2006) therefore underscored the need for striking a balance between conservation efforts and the society around to avert instances of violence, conflict, power relations, and governmentality.

References List

Barrett, C.B. (1995). Are Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDP's) Sustainable

on the conservation of Large Mammals in Sub-Saharan Africa? World Development

23(7): 1073-1084.

Brockington, D. & Igoe, J. (2006). Eviction for Conservation: A Global Overview. Conservation and Society 4(3): 424-470.

Garland, E. (2008). The Elephant in the Room: Confronting the Colonial Character of Wildlife

Conservation in Africa. African Studies Review 51(3): 51-74.

Hackle, J.D. (2001). Community Conservation and the Future of Africa's Wildlife. Conservation Biology 13(4): 726-734.

Roe, D. & Elliot, J. (2006). Pro-poor Conservation: The Elusive win-win for Conservation and Poverty Reduction. Policy Matters 14: 53-63.

Scheyvens, R. (1999). Ecotourism and the Empowerment of Local Communities. Tourism Management 20: 245-249.

Spinage,…… [read more]

Globalization of Madagascar Deforestation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Globalization Madagascar

Deforestation is having a devastating effect on Madagascar, which has one of the world's most biologically rich and diverse ecosystems (Harper, Steininger, Tucker, Juhnand Hawkins). The reason for Madagascar's uniqueness is that it has "been in approximately the same position for around 120 million years," evolving a distinct flora and fauna from Africa or India, both of which… [read more]

Game Theory Why Did Apartheid Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The international community did not view it as a religious struggle, or any type of care-taking exercise, but as a deliberate subjugation of other human beings and a complete violation of human rights. Thus, the different groups had agendas that were hidden, though not deliberately, from the other players. This would make the game Bayesian because there are unknowns that factor into the decisions of the all of the players. This is also a dynamic game because although responses to other players decisions may remain the same, they do change dramatically and with regularity.


For the math to work, the decisions of the different players have to be annotated. The government of South Africa realized that if they did not make decisions that were accepted internationally, they country would be sanctioned and their products would be boycotted. Thus, they have two basic decisions that they could make; one of which would yield a positive outcome and the other would be negative. The government could maintain the status quo and continue to receive crippling sanctions and boycotts which would cripple the country's economy, or they could drop the legislation which others perceived as racist and regain full membership in the international community (Schwartzman & Taylor). The international community had the options of accepting the actions of the government of South Africa, or they could impose sanctions. The ethnic minorities could either acquiesce to the pressures imposed by the whites, or they could protest and accept their fate as a consequence.

The problem that the international community had is that they could not see what was happening in the country because the media was closed out, so they did not know what effect their actions had. They also did not know about or acknowledge the religious implications of their request that the South African government stop.

So looking at the game from a Bayesian perspective, the players have to make decisions based on what their best guess about the other players is. The non-white civilians in South Africa know what the decision of the government is going to be, so that have to try and guess what the international community's will be. The government of South Africa has to guess what the non-whites will do (basically will more intense pressure stop the protests or should they relax pressures). The international community does not know how committed the government is, but they believe that the sanctions will stop the racist policies of the South African government.


There have actually been many studies done on the reasons both for the spread of apartheid in South Africa and why it was ended. Michener (1980) relates that apartheid started when the Dutch first colonized South Africa as a method for keeping the Africans and Dutch apart. Many believe that the reason the practice ended was primarily due to the sanctions imposed by the international community. However, others speculate that a simple change of governmental feeling, much like what happened in the U.S.S.R., was the… [read more]

Diamond Wars in Western Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,548 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Following international concern regarding the illicit diamond trade's role in fuelling conflict in Sierra Leone, the Security Council adopted a resolution in July 2000 that imposed a ban on the direct or indirect import of rough diamonds from Sierra Leone without a Certificate of Origin regime, which proved they were legitimate and not conflict diamonds.

During the next two months,… [read more]

F.W. De Kerk: The Struggle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,267 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


De Klerk immediately embraced a consultative approach, beginning to consult with Mandela about the pending political shift in South Africa while Mandela was still in prison.

He also released restrictions and opened up new avenues for new voices to participate in the political process. Specifically, he lifted the ban on opposition parties including the ANC, and removed restrictions on their… [read more]

Colonial Slavery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (907 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


By the late 18th through the 20th century, though, the role of intermarriage and religion would be subsumed under the greater forces of economics and racism. In North America, European settlers exploited the natural bounty of the New World. The new industries and plantations soon spawned a trans-Atlantic slave trade that brought millions of Africans to the Americas. The growing needs of industry and the influx of slaves also gave rise to a rigid caste system, where skin color determined whether a person would be a free citizen or a slave for life ("The Terrible Transformation").

Though the institution of slavery has been abolished in the United States, its legacy of racial divisions remain felt today.

In Africa, the growth of colonization into the African interior by Afrikaners laid the foundations for apartheid laws. By the late 19th century, colonizers viewed the African continent not as separate sovereign nations, but as colonial holdings. France, for example, "owned" most lands in West Africa. Italy held Eritrea and parts of Somalia. Belgium claimed the Congo and Portugal continued to own parts of West Africa, as well as Angola and Mozambique ("Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History").

In addition to the slave trade, colonization had other deleterious effects on the African continent as well. For the colonizers, any form of development in Africa should only serve to further European development. As a result, the focus was on the development of the colonial countries, while populations in the interior declined. Traditional migration routes throughout the continent were closed. The cultural distinctions between nations and tribes were ignored as the Europeans drew their own borders and created their own maps. The imposition of European religions and identities -- began by the Portuguese in the 16th century -- further homogenized the continent's rich and diverse cultures ("Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History").

In hindsight, the growth of colonization was largely fueled by a rampant ethnocentrism on the part of the colonizing Europeans. This led them to assume that their economic needs should take precedence over the needs of other continents. It also led them to impose their own religious and social systems in lieu of the native cultures in Africa, the Americas and Asia. The enduring legacy of colonialism lies not only in the shameful institution of slavery, but also in the irretrievable loss of many aspects of these cultures.

Works Cited

Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History." Sub-Saharan Africa:. 11 September 2002. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 http://www.harpercollege.edu/mhealy/g101ilec/ssa/afh/afcol/afcolfr.htm.

The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America Narrative. 1999. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/narrative.html.… [read more]

Burundi the Republic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The social upheaval is tremendous: currently only half the children go to school, 10% of the adults have AIDS, and people lack both food and medicine. Many people have been made desperately poor and dependent on others for their survival (Ngaruko & Nkurunziza, 2000).

Many of the young people have suffered terrible psychological trauma and are growing up angry and without direction.

Currently, Burundi has few natural resources and has not established a manufacturing platform for itself. Most of its exports are agricultural, particularly tea and coffee. These two crops account for 90% of the country's economic production, and is dominated by the Tutsi minority (CIA, 2003). While the country is well suited to grow these crops, both flood and famine occur and can significantly damage crops in any given year, making their agricultural base for export somewhat unstable.

Because of the continuing level of turmoil along with lines of allegiance that often shift or blur, and failure to create a workable truce, a reasonable conclusion would be that Burundi must find a way to solve its internal discord before they can form strong economic ties with the rest of the world. While Burundi would benefit from stable import and export trade with other countries, their internal problems are so great that for the time being, that may be a difficult goal to accomplish. They are doing well to maintain the status quo of exporting two main crops, but the distribution of those crops is lopsided and the profits only go to a small percentage of the population. It will be difficult for the country to create more opportunities on its own for its people under the current circumstances, and other countries might be quite reluctant to get involved with such an unstable country. If Burundi wants to grow economically it has to solve its historical internal problems first.


CIA. 2003. "Burundi," in World Fact Book,…… [read more]

Consequences of Imperialism for Four Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,208 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


European Imperialism brought about considerable changes in the regions of both Africa and Asia. In the beginning, the Europeans had restricted themselves to trading both goods and slaves. But with the passage of time, Africa was broken up into regions without the consent of its people. After the end of the French Colonial rule, Africa had occupied an integral position in the French foreign policy.

The unique status of Africa in French foreign policy can to a large extent be explained by the fact that Paris thinks it has a special global mission, a so-called mission civilisatrice which stresses the promotion of French culture and French language overseas. Africa has had a special position in this context, as the region has been one of the most important symbols of France's global role, and the activist policy on the continent has served to prove that Paris was a great power with a right to a permanent seat in the UN Security Council (Gorm Rye Olsen, Europe's And Africa's Failed

States: From Development To Containment).

The modern day Europe now faces many issues linked to Societal Security.

Societal security is about the threats or vulnerabilities that affect patterns of communal identity and culture. The two issues most prominently on its agenda at the beginning of the twenty-first century in centre-periphery relations are migration and the clash of rival civilizational identities. According to this definition, Europe may have societal security interests in avoiding massive inflows of migrants from, in this case Africa. There is no doubt that Africa is the region of the world that is most affected by refugees and internally displaced people. By the end of the old millennium, 14 million people in Africa were either refugees or internally displaced

Gorm Rye Olsen, Europe's And Africa's Failed States: From Development To Containment).

Europe as a result of so many refugees has to make arrangements for asylums. The authorities have now decided to launch policies that would restrict the number of immigrants from Africa. The modern day Africa as a result of its resource exploitation by the European is hit by poverty and violence, thus resulting in such a high immigration rate. The European nations also provide Africa with huge amount of aid. Europe has now become a multi-cultural center for many other nations. Asians too contribute a great deal in it. Unlike Africa, Asia did not suffer so greatly as a result of European Imperialism. The trading market between Europe and Asia has prospered significantly. There are however, some sentiments related to hostility and prejudice. At the beginning of the twentieth century, parts of China were controlled by Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan. During this time, many Chinese were asked to convert to Christianity. The imperial powers compelled China to open trade with them and open ways for railways and mining companies. Besides China, countries such as Taiwan and the Indian Sub-continent were also exploited greatly through the European Rule. The Europeans were racial and prejudice in their ruling.

While… [read more]

Dictator, Robert Mugabe Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,910 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


His removal of role of Prime Minister and creation of Executive President ensuring him continued political power. Although people as a whole perceive Mugabe as an ineffective leader especially in relation to the economy, he attempted to establish a sociopolitical united front, and individual connection between the political leaders first in Zimbabwe and then throughout Africa. [7: Vladimir Shubin, "There is No Threat from the Eastern Bloc" with Marina Traikova, The South African Democracy Education Trust (SADET), Road to Democracy: International Solidarity, Volume III Part 2 . The U.S.S.R. supported collaboration of Southern African liberation movements, backed by Soviet training and military hardware, dating back to the ANC-ZAPU Wankie and Sipolilo campaigns in Rhodesia in 1967-1968.]


Archive. "Full text of "Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950; A Record of Sixty Years Progress." Internet Archive: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music & Wayback Machine. Accessed February 20, 2014. http://archive.org/stream/SouthernRhodesia1890-1950ARecordOfSixtyYearsProgress/SR9050_djvu.txt.

"Memorandum of Conversation between Minister-counselor of the Soviet Embassy in Havana M. Manasov and Cuban Communist Party CC member Raul Valdes Vivo, 7 May 1979" May 24, 1979, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 76, d. 834, ll. 82-84 http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/11303

"Minutes of Todor Zhivkov -- Robert Mugabe Conversation, Sofia" July 29, 1979, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Central State Archive, Sofia, Fond 378-B, Record 1, File 523. Translated by Assistant Professor Kalina Bratanova; Edited by Dr. Jordan Baev and obtained by the Bulgarian Cold War Research Group. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/

Petter-Bowyer, P.J.H. Winds of Destruction: The Autobiography of a Rhodesian Combat Pilot. Johannesburg: 30'? South Publishers, 2005.

"Secret Bulgarian Politburo Resolution for Military Aid Supply to Certain National-Liberation Movements and Communist Parties" July 16, 1976, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Central State Archive, Sofia, Fond 1-B, Record 64, File 478. Obtained by the Bulgarian Cold War Research Group. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112234

"Statements of Agostinho Neto, Samora Machel and Mengistu Haile Mariam on the Political Situation in Zimbabwe" October 16, 1978, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Central State Archive, Sofia, Fond 378-B, Record 1, File 505. Obtained by the Bulgarian Cold War Research Group. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/113583

Vladimir Shubin, "There is No Threat from the Eastern Bloc" with Marina Traikova, The South African Democracy Education Trust (SADET), Road to Democracy: International Solidarity, Volume III Part 2 . The U.S.S.R. supported collaboration of Southern African liberation movements, backed by Soviet training and military hardware, dating back to the ANC-ZAPU…… [read more]

Conflict in Wase Lga Seminar Paper

Seminar Paper  |  10 pages (2,571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Conflict Resolution

Nigeria has been making the news across the globe of late and in particular in relation to the violence and sectarian attacks and activities that are predominant in the Northern part of the country. Significantly, the Boko Haram (an Islamic terror group linked to the Al Shabaab in Somali) kidnapping of more than 200 girls from a primary… [read more]

African Oil Corruption Adn the West Assessment

Assessment  |  4 pages (1,158 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


African Oil Banditry and the American Connection

The continent of Africa is home to the largest number of third world countries, indeed it is wholly covered by underdeveloped nations and very few developing nations whose economy is feeble and unpredictable due to the unstable political trends across the continent. The sad reality is that the poor status of the continent is on the background of rich crude oil reserves that mosaic the continent from the Northern tip to the southern parts of the continent. There are enormous oil reserves in the Libyan deserts, the Nigerian gulfs, Sudan deserts and many other nations, yet this has not helped bring the countries, let alone the continent, out of abject poverty. This paper therefore looks at the causes of this poor management of oil and the connection of this to the local politics of the region and the connection of the corruption in the African oil to the U.S. and other developed nations of the West.

The bad management of the oil reserves in Africa and the bad governance which occasions bad politics are conjoined factors whose separation is hard to establish. Indeed, it is the issue of oil that has caused the biggest civil wars and ethnic clashes in Africa. Some of the countries in Africa that have suffered the curse of the crude oil deposits are like Sudan that had raging civil war over the oil deposits in the country that ultimately saw the split of the nation into two, Southern Sudan and Sudan. Nigeria is yet another country that has suffered under oil instigated wars. Liberia has not been lucky as well with the senseless murder of people due to diamond and oil culminating in the charging of Charles Taylor in the International Criminal Court (ICC) in Hague. The examples are numerous and the this trend of corruption and fraud in the oil and gas mining industries has over the decades kept the poor counties poor and also propped up brutal and rogue regimes in Africa.

However, the vice is not confined to Africa alone, but spreads to the West where oil companies have been accused of bribing local government officials in Africa in order to get underhand deals passed over the exploration of the oil reserves and the profits do not trickle down to the domestic economic building. Most of the profits illegally end up in the few hands of leaders in these countries. From the corrupt dealings, the companies distort the market value of the oil and hence deny the local citizens the chance to know the true worth of the oil deep in their soil. This is a practice that makes the country to lose revenue in billions of dollars. The large oil companies like Shell, Eni's among others have been engaged in bribery of the African government officials to get mining contracts with a promise of getting away with most of the revenues that could have helped develop these nations. Sadly, even in cases where the… [read more]

How Nelson Mandela Influence on Apartheid Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … macro sociological issue being addressed?

what theory did he or she use?

did the article have a social impact- positive or negative?

what did you learn?

what are suggested if any? do you see them as feasible?

develop a survey that is no more that 10 questions. A. The survey must be administered to at least 40 people.… [read more]

Do Chinese and European Development Programs Benefit the Political and Economic Development in Ghana? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Chinese and European development programs benefit the political and economic development in Ghana?

Today, given the Millennium Development Goals and the overall general movement on development, there is a constant tendency of the developed countries to provide increased attention and assistance to the African continent. In this sense, the U.S. launched its Africa Development Foundation, China, in its… [read more]

Kenya Culture: A Kenyan Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,216 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



Culture: A Kenyan case study

Culture is "a society's shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions" (Chapter 2, p.25). Culture is how people make sense of human experiences and behavior. Culture is also the way that individuals make sense of themselves and others. Above all, culture is shared. Cultural transmission involves more than a single individual. It involves a way of making the "actions of individuals intelligible to other members of the group" (Haviland, et al. 2007, p.25)

Culture involves aspects of human existence that are "learned, not biologically inherited" (Haviland, et al. 2007, p.24). Culture involves the transmission of symbols: "signs, sounds, emblems, and other…meaningful concepts" (Haviland, et al. 2007, p.24). Spoken, written, and body language are all symbolic systems that represent more than their literal meaning. "The most important symbolic aspect of culture is language. Language represents the most pervasive use of symbols in a culture because it uses symbols to represent objects and ideas" (Haviland, et al. 2007, p.24).

Culture is integrated. Culture consists of three foundational elements: the infrastructure that "provides the basic necessities of life," a social structure that governs day-to-day social interactions, and a superstructure, or worldview which "provides a belief system that helps people identify themselves, their society, and the world around them" (Haviland, et al. 2007, p.24). Finally, "culture is dynamic. When one element within the system shifts, the entire system shifts to accommodate it" (Haviland, et al. 2007, p.24).

All of these elements can be seen in the culture of Kenya. Kenya lacks a cohesive 'national' culture. Kenya is primarily defined by its tribal alliances. Colonialism created the Kenyan nation. Many new African nations were born after the breaking-down of the territories of Africa into nation-states in the wake of the dissolution of European dominion over the continent. Today, there are between 40 and 70 individual tribes in Kenya. Within almost all of the tribes, it is customary for members to 'help' one another to survive. While this can have many positive results, such as supporting the elderly, educating children as a collective, and taking responsibility for others' welfare, in politics these charitable extensions of kinship ties often cause tribal members to "support a politician because of his ethnicity, rather than his ideas and capabilities" (Introduction to Kenyan culture, 2010, Kenya Advisor). Kenyan politics is full of violence and divisions, based upon tribal friction.

Despite the importance of tribal culture, the fundamental unit of Kenyan society remains the family. Families tend to live together in extended networks. "Although it's common for a father and mother to leave their children with family and work in another city, this is usually inspired by the wish to support their family better. Daycare doesn't exist in Kenya although rich families may hire nannies" (Introduction to Kenyan culture, 2010, Kenya Advisor). In contrast to American culture, where breaking away from one's parents is seen as a positive development, Kenyan culture is interdependent. The close-knit family structure facilitates the transmission of cultural practices between generations,… [read more]

Rwanda Army for the Liberation of Rwanda ALIR Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,108 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR) also operates as, or is known as, Interahamwe, Former Armed Forces (ex-FAR).

The FAR was the army of the Rwandan Hutu regime that carried out the genocide of 500,000 or more Tutsis and regime opponents in 1994. The Interahamwe was the civilian militia force that carried out much of the killing. The groups… [read more]

Thousand Hills by Stephen Kinzer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Thousand Hills: Rwanda's Rebirth and the Man Who Dreamed it. Book report

Stephen Kinzer's book, a Thousand Hills, is the writing of a journalist who wanted to present the world with the story of Rwanda from the point-of-view of its president, Paul Kagame, under the scrutiny of his compatriots, the public at large, international powers and organizations and… [read more]

Nelson Mandela as an Attorney Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Nelson Mandela

As an attorney and the son of a tribal chief, Nelson Mandela was in a perfect position to understand and therefore directly change the laws of postcolonial South Africa. Mandela would later become a victim of the oppressive regimes that characterized life for indigenous Africans. While with the African National Congress and the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL), Mandela also used grassroots political activism to draw support for African self-governance. Mandela was first tried for treason in a drawn-out case lasting for five years before he was acquitted in 1961. Undoubtedly his brush with the law inspired Mandela to use the system to his favor and to the favor of all non-white residents of Southern Africa. Because of his vocal opposition to apartheid programs and his involvement with the nationalist group African National Congress (ANC), Mandela spent almost three decades of his life in prison and labor camps. In spite of his imprisonment Mandela continued to work as an attorney and political activist, and therefore helped transform South African law without the use of military force. His endeavors and his success in minimizing colonial oppression earned Mandela the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

Mandela was primarily concerned with eliminating apartheid, the state-sanctioned race-based segregation and oppression in South Africa. In 1952, the African National Congress launched the Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws. Nelson Mandela served as the National Volunteer-in-Chief of the Campaign. The Campaign used techniques of civil disobedience and peaceful resistance to draw public attention to the cause with the ultimate goal of eliminating the laws that sustained apartheid, segregation, and oppression. The Defiance campaign drew volunteers from all around the country. It was for his work with the Defiance Campaign that Mandela was tried for treason and later acquitted. However, the courts did limit his ability to organize, a last-ditch…… [read more]

Things Fall Apart by Chinua Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (663 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Okonkwo's old ways of asserting power, like his physical and military strength, are no match for the newly installed British judicial system, government, and military. The Christians refuse to live side-by-side the old tribal leaders, customs, and clans, for the new Christians there can only be one, good way to live. When Okonkwo tries to resist the British by tearing town a church, he is imprisoned, and when he kills a white man, his tribe is too frightened to take up arms and follow him in attempting to drive the outsiders from their midst. He commits suicide as a result, realizing that his old way of life is no more, and he no longer has the authority amongst the Umuofia tribe as a leader.

On its surface, it might seem as if Things Fall Apart is ambiguous about the injection of the British into Africa. After all, the Christian message of faith and forgiveness seems less harsh and judgmental than Okonkwo's swaggering masculinity. However, the presence of gentler tribes, like his mother's tribe, his father's evident gift at music, and other signs that Okonkwo is not representative of an entire culture, show that Achebe's real purpose in writing is to condemn the inability of Africans to identify the true enemy. The enemy is the British who despise and attempt to eradicate African culture, not other African tribes who live in different ways. Okonkwo's masculine selfishness results in the destruction of Africa's future.

This attitude can still be seen in Africa today. Because of the instability created in the region during the colonial period, in the Sudan and other areas of Africa, tribes continue to fight one another. People in Africa thus lack the resources to fight the real epidemics of the region, such as AIDS, poverty, and hunger. Colonialism eradicated the existing tribal structures that provided political and moral leadership, and it remains difficult for Africa to rebuild an effective political infrastructure in their absence.

Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall…… [read more]

Leader I Admire Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,042 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … leader I admire

Nelson Mandela's most private moment is watching the sun set with the music of Handel playing in the background. Locked up in his cell during daylight hours, deprived of music, such simple pleasures that most of us took for granted were denied to him for decades while imprisoned off Cape Town. Nelson Mandela is a man who has suffered from great injustice, but rose above it to continue working towards achieving the goal of a lifetime. He never stopped believing in his country and fought relentlessly for the peaceful termination of the Apartheid regime, and for establishing the foundations for a new, democratic South Africa. In 1993 he was awarded the Novel Peace Prize for his fight against racial oppression. This is the reason why Nelson Mandela is a political leader I greatly admire. In my opinion, Mandela embodies ideals such as faith, courage, perseverance and the belief in the strength, and ultimately, the triumph of the human spirit.

Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918 in Transkei, South Africa. He entered politics while in college, and joined the African National Congress in 1943. He was elected President of the African National Congress, a political body whose aim was to increase the rights of the black community. His struggle against the apartheid resulted in his conviction for crimes such as sabotage; he spent 27 years in prison, and was released in 1990. In 1994 Mandela was elected President of South Africa after the first multiracial elections ever held in this country, and the first huge step towards democratization. In his inauguration speech he said: "We understand it still that there is no easy road to freedom. We know it well that none of us acting alone can achieve success. We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world. Let there be justice for all. Let there be peace for all. Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all. Let each know that for each the body, the mind and the soul have been freed to fulfill themselves. Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world. Let freedom reign." (Negotiating Peace, Nelson Mandela Organization).

The improvements that South Africa has seen since his release from prison in the early '90s are overwhelming. The institutionalized apartheid regime was dismantled, a constitution was ratified in 1996, and a change in popular mentality has definitely occurred. In addition, Mandela and his party, the African National Congress have militated for improving the quality of life among black citizens, and have established the Committee for Truth and Reconciliation whose aim was to investigate the crimes of the apartheid. Mandela's term in office ended in 1999 but the fact that he is no longer President of South Africa does not mean he… [read more]

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