Study "African History / Africa" Essays 111-162

1234. . .
X Filters 

United States Role in the Ending of Apartheid Term Paper

… United States Role in the Ending of Apartheid

The Role of the United States in the Ending of Apartheid

The United States played a strong role in the ending of apartheid in South Africa. This is significant in and of… [read more]

Nigerian Culture Term Paper

… Nigeria, the most populous country on continent is situated in the western part of Africa. Today it's considered to be one of the most prosperous and dynamically developing African countries due to rich oil resources and diamond mines. Nigeria has… [read more]

Geography Questions on World Regional Term Paper

… Basically, West Africa is a land comprised of two major zones, being the territory on the open plains of the north and the land of the forest and coastal regions of the south, two zones which are generally referred to as the Central and Western Sudan and the Guinea.

These immense zones also contain lesser zones, such as the waterways of the Niger River system, the Niger delta, the mountain ranges of eastern Nigeria and western Guinea, the numerous islands that lie along the coast of Sierra Leone and the estuary of the Gambia River. One other zone of great historical importance is the open country between the Pra River in modern-day Ghana and the Yewa River in Nigeria, an area that contains the vast grasslands of the north which proceed almost to the coast, thus splitting the forest belts of West Africa in half.

The West African forest belt has always been known for its ability to produce valuable crops, while the plains of the north serve as the domain of cattle. Thus, these natural variations have led to many contrasting ways of life in West Africa and still do to this very day. The future prospects of West Africa, at the moment, appear rather good, especially in the area of oil recovery and distribution which holds the promise of great wealth and prosperity for most West Africans, due to the fact that the region… [read more]

Somalia Civil War Somalia- Causes Term Paper

… Each side had their own administrative, legal and education system. There were a lot of different economic factors such as taxes and different currencies. The UN set up a commission to help them sort out their differences. The people of… [read more]

Apartheid the Very Structure Term Paper

… Conclusion

This discussion has thoroughly explored the South African apartheid. We found that the apartheid created a nation that is deeply segregated amongst racial and social lines. We also found that the affects of apartheid reeked havoc with South Africa's economy. We concluded that the very structure of Apartheid was corrosive and thus led to the demise of the South African economy.

Works Cited

Apartheid," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003© 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Informative article on the definition of apartheid and the key players in the implementation of the system.


Contesting Apartheid: U.S. Activism, 1960-1987. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.

This source discussed the ways in which individuals and groups chose to protest the apartheid in South Africa.


Davis, R. Hunt, ed. Apartheid Unravels. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1991.

Hunt takes a look at Mandela's release from prison and the end of apartheid in South Africa.


Eades, Lindsay Michie. The End of Apartheid in South Africa. Ed. Miller, Randall M. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

This source discusses the history of the Apartheid and the demise of the apartheid system.

Ferreira, M., Kinsella, K. August 1997. "International Briefing: Aging Trends South Africa." U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of the Census. 12 April 2003.

Report completed by the Bureau of the Census discusses the impact of Aids and HIV in South Africa. This is an informative report that includes statistics.

Fielding, David. 2001. "Human rights, political instability and investment in South Africa: a note." Department of Economics, University of Leicester and Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford. report on the risks involved in investing in South Africa.


Khan, Haider. The Political Economy of Sanctions Against Apartheid. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publications, 1989.

This source discussed the economic impact that the apartheid had on South Africa. The book also goes into great detail about the structure of the apartheid system.

Stals, Chris. 25 January 1999, "South Africa's financial and economic prospects for the next five years." Omega Investment Research.

Dr. Chris Stals is the Vice President of the South African Reserve Bank. This report was an overview of the South African economy and discussed economic trends in the nation.


Villa-Vicencio, Charles. Apartheid Is a Heresy. Ed. Gruchy, John W. De. Grand Rapids, MI W.B. Eerdmans, 1983.

This book discusses the role of Christianity in the system of Apartheid. Explains how apartheid contradicts the tenets of the Christian faith. [read more]

Million Africans Were Abducted Forcibly Term Paper

… (BBC News, 1999, 1).

Recently, we have seen the return of the once flourishing slave trade circuits across West Africa -- after a hiatus of 25 years. Slavers have re-emerged following the old slave paths -- except that motor vehicles and aircraft have substituted the camels. The slavers often own mobile phones. Although many things remain unchanged. Wiles, duplicity, the employment of drugs to repress the children and the lash are still part of the necessary gear of the professional slaver. The trade occurs in most states in sub-Saharan West Africa. The children are abducted or purchased for $20-$70 each by slavers in poor regions, such as Benin and Togo, and sold into slavery in sex dens or as unpaid domestic servants for $350 each in richer oil-rich states, such as Nigeria and Gabon. These children are bought and sold as slaves. They are refused an education, the chance to play or to use toys like other children, as well as the right to a future. Their lives are subject to the whim of their masters, and taking their own lives is often the only escape (The Anti-Slavery Society, 2001, 1).

Another effect of the slave trade can be found in art. Many of Africa's treasures and works of art were stolen from the African continent and currently reside in Britain's museums. For instance, the Benin Bronzes in the Museum of Mankind (Gifford, 1996, 4). African leaders now are demanding their return.

The slave trade in West Africa contributed much to the political, economic and social mire the West Africans find themselves in today. African groups are demanding reparations be made to all the African countries affected by the barbaric practice by the countries involved in the trade. Countries in West Africa struggle to conquer their political instability, their economic dependence on outside nations and their social problems encompassing family breakdown, dislocation, and the seemingly unending cycle of poverty. It remains to be seen as to whether reparations can indeed reverse the effects of the slave trade legacy.


Akinjogbin, (1967) Dahomey and its Neighbours, 1708-1818. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

The Anti-Slavery Society (2002) "West African Slave Trade."

BBC News (August 6, 1999) "West Africa's Child Slave Trade."

Center for Black & African Arts & Civilization (2002) "Slave Trade in Africa."

Democratic Republic of the Congo, (2000) "The Slave Trade."

Letter from the French deputies to the minister for the colonies, 22 February 1946.

Lord Gifford QC (March 14, 1996) "Slavery: Legacy" The African Reparations Movement,

M'Bokolo, Elikia "A Hundred and Fifty Years After France Abolished Slavery: The Impact of the Slave Trade on Africa." Le Monde diplomatique (April 1998),

Meillassoux, Claude. (1975) L'Esclavage en Afrique… [read more]

African Oil Corruption Adn the West Assessment

… African Oil Banditry and the American Connection

The continent of Africa is home to the largest number of third world countries, indeed it is wholly covered by underdeveloped nations and very few developing nations whose economy is feeble and unpredictable… [read more]

Conflict in Wase Lga Seminar Paper

… Conflict Resolution

Nigeria has been making the news across the globe of late and in particular in relation to the violence and sectarian attacks and activities that are predominant in the Northern part of the country. Significantly, the Boko Haram… [read more]

Dictator, Robert Mugabe Research Paper

… His removal of role of Prime Minister and creation of Executive President ensuring him continued political power. Although people as a whole perceive Mugabe as an ineffective leader especially in relation to the economy, he attempted to establish a sociopolitical united front, and individual connection between the political leaders first in Zimbabwe and then throughout Africa. [7: Vladimir Shubin, "There is No Threat from the Eastern Bloc" with Marina Traikova, The South African Democracy Education Trust (SADET), Road to Democracy: International Solidarity, Volume III Part 2 . The U.S.S.R. supported collaboration of Southern African liberation movements, backed by Soviet training and military hardware, dating back to the ANC-ZAPU Wankie and Sipolilo campaigns in Rhodesia in 1967-1968.]


Archive. "Full text of "Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950; A Record of Sixty Years Progress." Internet Archive: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music & Wayback Machine. Accessed February 20, 2014.

"Memorandum of Conversation between Minister-counselor of the Soviet Embassy in Havana M. Manasov and Cuban Communist Party CC member Raul Valdes Vivo, 7 May 1979" May 24, 1979, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 76, d. 834, ll. 82-84

"Minutes of Todor Zhivkov -- Robert Mugabe Conversation, Sofia" July 29, 1979, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Central State Archive, Sofia, Fond 378-B, Record 1, File 523. Translated by Assistant Professor Kalina Bratanova; Edited by Dr. Jordan Baev and obtained by the Bulgarian Cold War Research Group.

Petter-Bowyer, P.J.H. Winds of Destruction: The Autobiography of a Rhodesian Combat Pilot. Johannesburg: 30'? South Publishers, 2005.

"Secret Bulgarian Politburo Resolution for Military Aid Supply to Certain National-Liberation Movements and Communist Parties" July 16, 1976, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Central State Archive, Sofia, Fond 1-B, Record 64, File 478. Obtained by the Bulgarian Cold War Research Group.

"Statements of Agostinho Neto, Samora Machel and Mengistu Haile Mariam on the Political Situation in Zimbabwe" October 16, 1978, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Central State Archive, Sofia, Fond 378-B, Record 1, File 505. Obtained by the Bulgarian Cold War Research Group.

Vladimir Shubin, "There is No Threat from the Eastern Bloc" with Marina Traikova, The South African Democracy Education Trust (SADET), Road to Democracy: International Solidarity, Volume III Part 2 . The U.S.S.R. supported collaboration of Southern African liberation movements, backed by Soviet training and military hardware, dating back to the ANC-ZAPU… [read more]

Globalization of Madagascar Deforestation Term Paper

… Globalization Madagascar

Deforestation is having a devastating effect on Madagascar, which has one of the world's most biologically rich and diverse ecosystems (Harper, Steininger, Tucker, Juhnand Hawkins). The reason for Madagascar's uniqueness is that it has "been in approximately the… [read more]

Indigenous People (Annotated Bibliography) Conservations Annotated Bibliography

… (1999). Ecotourism and the Empowerment of Local Communities. Tourism Management 20: 245-249.

Scheyvens (1999) reiterated that community based approach to ecotourism should recognize the need to promote the quality of life of people and the conservation of resources. Scheyvens is adamant that local people, especially the Africans, should be compensated for the loss of access to resources they suffer when wildlife parks are created. Scheyvens cited Narok County Council that manages Maasai Mara Park as the perfect case. The county council puts money accrued from the park into trust fund that is used to fund schools, cattle dips, and health services. The park therefore benefits the entire Maa community. In as much as ecotourism may be thought of as beneficial to indigenous communities, Scheyvens (1999) pointed out that it is difficult to find successful cases in this practice. This is exemplified in South African ecotourism operators who involve local communities only as pubic relations tools. They are not committed to supporting the rights of indigenous people with regard to benefiting from their traditional lands and wildlife.

Spinage, C. (2003). Social Change and Conservation Misrepresentation in Africa. Ecology and Organizational Biology 32(4):265-276

Spinage (2003) while trying to investigate misrepresentations that have been fronted about Africa's wildlife conservation efforts on social change brought into perspective the neo-populists thinkers' discontent with former colonial authority's African game legislations. He averred that local people ought to be allowed to exploit protected areas in accordance with their traditions and beliefs. He points out at a number of injustices inflicted by the colonial authorities on the indigenous people bordering wildlife conservancy notably replacing traditional conservation practice with left-wing colonial dogmas.

West, P., Igoe, J. & Brockington, D. (2006). Parks and Peoples: The Social Impact of Protected Areas. Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 251-277.

Environmental conservation efforts have social, economic, and political effects on the lives of the indigenous communities (West, Igoe & Brockington, 2006). As the environmental conservation projects grow the local communities living in such areas get displaced. West, Igoe, & Brockington (2006) therefore underscored the need for striking a balance between conservation efforts and the society around to avert instances of violence, conflict, power relations, and governmentality.

References List

Barrett, C.B. (1995). Are Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDP's) Sustainable

on the conservation of Large Mammals in Sub-Saharan Africa? World Development

23(7): 1073-1084.

Brockington, D. & Igoe, J. (2006). Eviction for Conservation: A Global Overview. Conservation and Society 4(3): 424-470.

Garland, E. (2008). The Elephant in the Room: Confronting the Colonial Character of Wildlife

Conservation in Africa. African Studies Review 51(3): 51-74.

Hackle, J.D. (2001). Community Conservation and the Future of Africa's Wildlife. Conservation Biology 13(4): 726-734.

Roe, D. & Elliot, J. (2006). Pro-poor Conservation: The Elusive win-win for Conservation and Poverty Reduction. Policy Matters 14: 53-63.

Scheyvens, R. (1999). Ecotourism and the Empowerment of Local Communities. Tourism Management 20: 245-249.

Spinage,… [read more]

Ghana Developing Country Term Paper


In an era where Google earns more than the gross domestic products of most of the African nations combined, Ghana stands out as an example of what political stability combined with sufficient natural resources can do in… [read more]

Traditions and Encounters, Was Chapter 2 Essay

… ¶ … Traditions and Encounters, was Chapter 2, entitled "Early African Societies and the Bantu Migrations." Like many Westerners, I had already been exposed to some information on China, India, and especially the Mediterranean World. However, aside from the Egyptian Civilization, I never realized the extent of Egyptian development, nor the complexity of the Sub-Saharan African Civilizations. Most historical movies show Africa as a dark, forbidding place, full of danger and uncivilized tribal cultures who use spears and arrows, have no real architecture or science, and barely subsist as hunter gatherers or herdsmen. This chapter showed how incorrect those assumptions actually are.

We tend to assume, incorrectly though, that there was nothing really advanced in most of Africa outside of the Egyptian Pyramids. Instead, we find that there were advanced agricultural and building techniques that predated anything in the Mediterranean. In addition, other that the "luck" of geography and weather patterns, some of these early African civilizations could have drastically changed world history. It was also surprising that there was so vibrant a trade culture so early in human history, with some of the artifacts still preserved from Egyptian archaeological sites. It was also interesting to note that the concept of working… [read more]

Country Profile Term Paper

… Kenya Economic Profile

Country profile (Kenya)

The East African republic of Kenya is a young nation which achieved its independence from the British colonialism in 1963 after a long struggle against its colonial masters. The country shares its borders with… [read more]

Berlin Conference of 1884 Essay

… Berlin Conference of 1884 is one of those historical events that seem to defy explanation. Africa, a vast continent, had been colonized by a large number of European countries, and there was a tremendous amount of contention over the ownership of these various African nations. This led to fighting between some of the imperial countries, and also to economic uncertainty, which may have led some investors away from investing in Africa because of fears that the governments authorizing or supporting particular projects would not retain control over the area in question. "Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany's sphere of influence over Africa and desired to force Germany's rivals to struggle with one another for territory" (Rosenberg, 2012). This point of this conference was to parcel out control of Africa among the European nations.

The Berlin Conference established rules for imperialism, which had not previously been stated outright. They helped determine which country had possession of an area, the steps a country had to take in order to get officially recognized possession, and the boundaries of an area that was possessed. For example, "Article 34 of the Berlin Act states that any European nation that took possession of an African coast, or named themselves as 'protectorate' of one, had to inform the signatory powers of the Berlin Act of this action. If this was not done then their claim would not be recognized. This article introduced the "spheres of influence" doctrine, the control of a coast also meant that they would control the hinterland to an almost unlimited distance" (Aronson, 1999). However, merely stating one had possession was not sufficient to establish such possession; "Article 35 determined that in order to occupy a coastal possession, the nation also had to prove that they controlled sufficient authority there to protect existing rights such as freedom of trade and transit. This was called the doctrine of 'effective occupation' and it made the conquest of Africa a less bloody process" (Aronson, 1999).

The Berlin Conference and its resulting laws changed the face of international… [read more]

Post Colonialism Reflected Through Jewelry Essay

… The ad features a strong white male and a much weaker, native African woman who represents the conquered colonial subject, even centuries after colonialism was supposed to have ended. According to the research, "the Himba woman symbolizes the colonized subject, who is represented as the embodiment of primitive Otherness to offset the glamour, sophistication and mobility of the Freelander" (Van Eeden, 2006, 345). The ad blatantly expressed an underlying message of the white male as conquering Africa. It invokes the image of the white man and his exciting adventure as he conquers the mysterious African grasslands (Van Eeden, 2006). As such, it is reminiscent of the same ideology that drove Europeans into Africa during the period of colonialism in the first place. Therefore, it presents a clear image of a commoditized continent and reinstates the white man as the superior being within the dynamic environment of a wild foreign land. This continues the conflict between "binary oppositions," where foreign exploitation of regional lands is still fighting to remain dominant over more localized controls and representations (Van Eeden, 2006). It is a prime example of how there is still tension within colonial identities being played out within a more modern, post-colonial environment.

Thus struggle can once again be represented with jewelry as a prime focus, as this analysis had done earlier with the Koh I Noor. The modern correlation of diamonds and oppression can be linked to the ongoing struggle in Africa, where African people and lands are being exploited in order to produce what are known as blood diamonds or conflict diamonds. These are diamonds that are illegally exported into the international market in order to raise money and fuel local conflicts, where rebels and corrupt politicians were exploiting African laborers for selfish gains in local politics (Chabal & Birmingham, 2002). These diamonds were often being exported into Western nations, and there has been a huge international scandal involving the De Beers diamond company and its potential to knowingly buy and sell conflict diamonds to unknowing Western consumers. According to the research, "by the year 2000 so much blood money had come to be involved in the sale of Angola's diamonds that the United Nations attempted to impose penalties on nations which facilitated the diamonds-for weapons trade" (Chabal & Birmingham, 2002, 182). The prevalence of these diamonds on Western markets and the association with Western companies continues to show how cultural images can help fuel the continuing conflict between old colonial rivals.

Appendix A

(Busby Jewelry, 2012)

Appendix B

(Busby Jewelry 2012)

Appendix C

(Busby Jewelry 2012)


Busby Jewelry, 2012. Koh I Noor and British colonialism. Busby Jewelry, Web.

Chabal, Patrick & Birmingham, David, 2002. A History of Postcolonial Lusophone Africa. Indiana University Press.

Ghoshray, Saby, 2007. Repatriation of the Kohinoor diamond: Expanding the legal paradigm for cultural heritage. Fordham… [read more]

Game Theory Why Did Apartheid Term Paper

… The international community did not view it as a religious struggle, or any type of care-taking exercise, but as a deliberate subjugation of other human beings and a complete violation of human rights. Thus, the different groups had agendas that were hidden, though not deliberately, from the other players. This would make the game Bayesian because there are unknowns that factor into the decisions of the all of the players. This is also a dynamic game because although responses to other players decisions may remain the same, they do change dramatically and with regularity.


For the math to work, the decisions of the different players have to be annotated. The government of South Africa realized that if they did not make decisions that were accepted internationally, they country would be sanctioned and their products would be boycotted. Thus, they have two basic decisions that they could make; one of which would yield a positive outcome and the other would be negative. The government could maintain the status quo and continue to receive crippling sanctions and boycotts which would cripple the country's economy, or they could drop the legislation which others perceived as racist and regain full membership in the international community (Schwartzman & Taylor). The international community had the options of accepting the actions of the government of South Africa, or they could impose sanctions. The ethnic minorities could either acquiesce to the pressures imposed by the whites, or they could protest and accept their fate as a consequence.

The problem that the international community had is that they could not see what was happening in the country because the media was closed out, so they did not know what effect their actions had. They also did not know about or acknowledge the religious implications of their request that the South African government stop.

So looking at the game from a Bayesian perspective, the players have to make decisions based on what their best guess about the other players is. The non-white civilians in South Africa know what the decision of the government is going to be, so that have to try and guess what the international community's will be. The government of South Africa has to guess what the non-whites will do (basically will more intense pressure stop the protests or should they relax pressures). The international community does not know how committed the government is, but they believe that the sanctions will stop the racist policies of the South African government.


There have actually been many studies done on the reasons both for the spread of apartheid in South Africa and why it was ended. Michener (1980) relates that apartheid started when the Dutch first colonized South Africa as a method for keeping the Africans and Dutch apart. Many believe that the reason the practice ended was primarily due to the sanctions imposed by the international community. However, others speculate that a simple change of governmental feeling, much like what happened in the U.S.S.R., was the… [read more]

Ghana Was Named After the Medieval Research Paper

… ¶ … Ghana was named after the medieval Ghana Empire of West Africa, the initial name of Ghana was actually Wagadugu and the name Ghana was the title of the kings that ruled the kingdom. It was initially controlled by Sundiata in the 13 century. Before the year 1957 Ghana was referred to as the Gold Cost since the Portuguese who visited the country in the 15th Century found so much gold between the rivers Ankobra and Volta that they referred to the place Mina to mean mine, the English later on the English colonizers adopted the name and maintained it (Ghana Web, 2011).

Ghana was headed by Queen Elizabeth II till the country attained its independence in 1960 when Kwame Nkurumah became the first president of an independent Ghana. Later to be deposed in coup de-tat by Joseph Ankrah in 1966. Ankrah was also later succeeded by Akwafi Afrifa then Edward Akufo. In 1972 Akufo was also overthrown in a coup de-tat by Ignatius Acheampong who was also overthrown by Fred Akufo in 1978, Fred did not last a long time though since in 1979 he was also overthrown by the military and Jerry Rawlings acted as the chairman of the provisional national defense council. Hilla Limann took over the leadership of the nation officially in September the same year and was later overthrown by Jerry Rawlings who then became the president till 2001. He was later on succeeded by a popularly elected John Kufuor who ruled till 2009 to see another stable election bring in John Atta Mills.

There are various renewable sources that are found in Ghana starting from the wind energy that has been harvested to the tune of 5,640 MW, there is also the solar energy that has been harvested to the tune of 3.2 MW, it also has hydroelectric power capacity of 2500MW of which 1850MW has been exploited as well as a considerable amount of bioenergy (Ministry of Energy-Republic of Ghana, 2010).

The economy of Ghana is vastly supported by the exportation of cocoa, there is also a good amount of gold that is exploited in Ghana, oil, timber harvesting as well as fishing. These are the main activities that support the economy of Ghana. The country also achieved, through good governance, the status of the fastest growing economy in the world in the year 2011 which saw its economy climb from 4% growth in 2009 to a standard 13.6% in 2011 (The Presidency of the Republic of Ghana, 2011). The GDP of Ghana was pinned at $37.481 billion by the 2010 estimates with a purchasing power parity of $71.216 billion, which is one of the highest in Africa (Global Finance, 2011).

Just like many other African countries Ghana is still dependent on foreign aid, despite the… [read more]

Submitted, the Ivory Coast Research Paper

… A search of the Internet brings up accusations -- unproven -- included claims that in some polling areas Ouattara had more votes than exist registered voters, and that most members of the CEI are from the north and therefore sympathetic… [read more]

Strategic Studies. Outline the Evolution Essay

… Strategic studies.

Outline the evolution of strategic studies as an academic field

Strategic studies is an interdisciplinary field that examines the interrelated nature of politics, military power, economy, and culture. While these factors have often impacted the study of international relations as an academic discipline, most credit the theorist Jack Snyder for creating the phrase 'strategic culture' during a RAND study of Soviet political elites and nuclear weapons in the 1970s (Burns 2010). Aberystwyth University was one of the first universities to develop a research program in strategic studies that interjected an important cultural as well as military component into the field. Harvard's Alastair Johnston attempted to merge both foci by defining strategic culture "as an integrated system of symbols (i.e. argumentation structures, languages, analogies, metaphors, etc.) that acts to establish persuasive and long-lasting grand strategic preferences by formulating concepts of the role and efficacy of military force in interstate political affairs, and by clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the strategic preferences seem uniquely realistic and efficacious" (Burns 2010). In other words, strategy is produced by governments due to a merging of the personal self-interests of leaders, institutional and national cultures, and economic concerns, and is then justified under the guide of rationality.

Q2. Nigeria's strategic domestic national interest

This merging of economic and political concerns when setting military policy for a nation is perhaps most obviously embodied in the nation-state of Nigeria. Nigeria has great oil wealth, and after winning its independence it joined OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) in 1971 and also formed the Economic Community of West African State (ECOWAS) to address Africa's regional economic concerns. Nigeria's foreign policy is specifically delineated in the constitution. The law states that promoting Nigeria's personal self-interest, African unity, and international cooperation to promote peace are the nation's primary external objectives. Some analysts believe that Nigeria's emphasis on Pan-Africanism has come at the expense of its own self-interest and its interest in building bridges with the wider international community. Every state has core, middle-range, and long-range objectives. Nigeria's core objectives are promoting its political and economic health, its middle-range objectives include promoting its immediate political… [read more]

Nigeria a Survey of the Reasons Research Paper

… Nigeria

A Survey of the Reasons Nigeria's Oil Spills Receive Little Attention Despite the Fact that They Outnumber Those of the U.S.

This paper will show the reasons the people of the Niger Delta region live in an environment of… [read more]

Museveni and Lack of Sustainable Peace Essay

… Musevini and Lack of Sustainable Peace

Yoweri Museveni has been the president of Uganda for twenty-four years. In that time he has successfully brought a feeling of stability and economic growth to a nation that suffered for years under corrupt and ruthless leadership under Idi Amin. Now, however, there are similar concerns about the leadership of Musevini and many are questioning whether he too has been in power too long and become subject to the pleasures of power.

There have been allegations of vote rigging, government officials being involved in land sales at inflated prices, and international disgrace over the disappearance in millions of dollars intended for Aids relief but it has been Musevini's inability to effectively deal with the activities of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in northern Uganda that has come under the most criticism. (Nyeko)

Since 1987 the LRA has been a disrupting force in northern Uganda and has adducted an estimated 30,000 children in the area and committed a series of massacres and been involved in a number of other abuses against the local population. Throughout most of Musevini's tenure in office he has provided lip service to the problems in northern Uganda but has done little to constructively address the problems. In the 24 years that Musevini has been in power he has visited northern Uganda only one time and that was only in the past year. His visit even included the area most affected by the activities of the LRA and he has promised significant aid to the area but the problems in the area have continued.

Criticism of Musevini has heightened. The national press has begun to question whether Musevini's tenure in office has led to the development of a government mirroring the conditions present during prior Ugandan governments. Journalist Andrew Mwenda, owner of the Independent, stated:

"Where NRM promised an independent, integrated and self-sustaining national economy, it has created a dependant (on foreign aid) disjointed economy. Instead of free and fair elections, we have rigged ones. Respect for human rights died in torture chambers euphemistically called safe houses. Corruption has become a virtue, nepotism a way to run our nation and tribal bigotry the running philosophy of government. The rule of law took a beating when government organized hooded gangs who began attacking the courts and threatening judges."

Musevini's political support… [read more]

Yoruba's Influence on Modern-Day Cultures Essay

… ¶ … Yoruba's Influence on Modern-Day Cultures Around the World

The Yoruba people make up one of the largest ethnic groups in west Africa. Yoruba is also name of the associated of a religion and language of the people living… [read more]

Apartheid the Effective Boycott of Apartheid Sports Thesis

… Apartheid

The Effective Boycott of Apartheid Sports in South Africa

The institution of Apartheid would impose a set of harsh racialist policies in place to govern the people of South Africa. White colonialists established a rule of law which promoted… [read more]

Identity Conflict Based on Social Theories Thesis

… Identity Conflict Based on Social Theories

In 1994 the Rwandan genocide resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderates by Hutus. Estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000,

The… [read more]

British and French Handled the Decolonization Essay

… ¶ … British and French Handled the Decolonization of Their African Possessions

The colonial era has been a glorious period for many of the nations in the world, as several nations have spread their culture across the planet. However, numerous nations have also been oppressed and dehumanized in the process of colonization. Some of the respective nations still feel the aftermath that the colonists have left upon them. One of the territories preferred by colonists has been the African continent, with numerous European colonies having been set on African land.

Subsequent to the period in which colonialism thrived, both the British and the French observed that it had almost been impossible for them to continue to hold the African colonies. In spite of the fact that it had been profitable to have a colony, it had been very difficult, as the people from the colonized territories had begun to express their need for autonomy. As a result, both countries granted independence to most of their African colonies.

While the decolonization process had gone on… [read more]

Western Sahara Conflict Research Proposal

… Western Sahara Conflict

In the early years of civilization in the Western Saharan regions, civilizations used trade and exchange of services as a means by which to maintain the peace, and to meet the economic and social needs of their… [read more]

International Protection of Human Rights Term Paper

… Human Rights Violations in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Procedures and Strategies for the International Protection of Human Rights

As the world moves towards a global conscience, it is becoming increasingly clear that those nations that would abuse the doctrines… [read more]

U.S. and UN Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia Term Paper

… ¶ … UN humanitarian intervention in Somalia

Conflict management and the U.S. And UN humanitarian intervention in Somalia

Situated on the horn of Africa, Somalia is a country that has been described as one of the most dangerous and underdeveloped… [read more]

Darfur in 2003, Horrific Violence and Barbaric Term Paper

… Darfur

In 2003, horrific violence and barbaric civil war broke out in the Sudanese providence of Darfur. The conflict has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths, millions of individuals displaced, and still other tens of thousands refugees. While the… [read more]

Intrastate Conflict in Sudan the African Continent Term Paper

… Intrastate Conflict in Sudan

The African continent is seen nowadays as being one of the most volatile regions in the world. Despite its enormous natural and human potential, it fails to take advantage of the resources at hand and continues… [read more]

Country of Sudan Dependency Theory vs. Modernization Term Paper

… Country of Sudan

Dependency theory vs. modernization theory

Religion and Politics

Ethnic-cultural divisions

Women and development

Agrarian reform and the politics of rural change

Rapid urbanization and the politics of the urban poor

The political economy of third world countries… [read more]

Sudan Nation at War With Itself Term Paper

… Sudan Nation at War With Itself: The Sudan

Sociology 300

To some extent, what we call the nation of the Sudan is a fiction. It is a product of colonialization, or rather the drawing of artificial boundaries that occurred after… [read more]

Resurgence of Piracy Especially Off the Horn of Africa Somalia Term Paper

… Piracy Somalia

Resurgence of Piracy in Somalia

According to the BBC, piracy is more prevalent in Somalia than anywhere else in the world, particularly along the nation's eastern coastline where political instability has been most rife. "With the breakdown of civil society, Somalia has degenerated into a no-man's land subject to clan or Islamic Shari'ah law" (Coffen-Smout, 1998).The prevalence of piracy in Somalia has caused a humanitarian as well as an economic crisis, as: "Pirates generally use speedboats to steal trading goods" or even humanitarian aid and donated food from other nations, "sometimes impounding ships and crew at gunpoint and then demanding ransoms before they are released" (Doyle 2006). Attacks against luxury ocean liners have occurred, and many other attacks, against smaller traders or fishermen likely go unreported (Doyle, 2006).

However, the Somalia government has begun to deploy a multi-faceted strategy to curtail such attacks. It also has an international obligation to do so, as "despite the breakdown of civil society, Somalia still has international legal responsibilities… [read more]

Hotel Rwanda Term Paper

… Hotel Rwanda - a Film Review

Hotel Rwanda is a dynamic film inspired by the true events that took place in Rwanda in 1994. The source of the tension is a rebel faction inciting Hutu Rwandans against Tutsis Rwandans. The rebels project themselves as an oppressed Hutu people, who suffered discrimination during Belgium colonial occupation of the country. During the Belgian colonial period, the Tutsis were regarded by the Hutu as receiving favorable treatment from the Belgian colonists; thus casting the Hutu aside because of a racial bias. The truth of the matter is that the Hutu rebel forces are corrupt, and it is not a situation of oppression, but one arising out of greed by people who wish to take the country over to achieve individual wealth. This theme of greed and corruption is put out front in the film, and it is a bold move on the part of Terry George. Although George does not let the Belgians go without remark, and it is clear to some extent that the Belgian colonialization of the country did not serve it well in the end.

Actor Don Cheadle, portraying the hero Paul Rusesabagina, the hotel manager who wheels and deals with corrupt government officials and corrupt rebel leaders playing both sides of the fence in an effort to do his job; puts on a superb performance. Rusesabagina, in the film as in real life, is a Hutu, married to a Tutsis woman, and together they have children, and are close to Paul's wife's family. Paul wants to keep his family out of politics, but once the Hutu rebels begin slaughtering the Tutsis people, it becomes impossible for him remain neutral.

Paul and his family take refuge in the hotel where Paul works, a Belgian owned hotel business. There, they hold out in hope of a United Nations intervention in the violence. Unfortunately, in real life as in the film, it would be more than a hundred days before the world move to intervene in the genocide that was going on in Rwanda. By the time it was over, countless were dead. The film forefronts this… [read more]

Consequences of Imperialism for Four Term Paper

… European Imperialism brought about considerable changes in the regions of both Africa and Asia. In the beginning, the Europeans had restricted themselves to trading both goods and slaves. But with the passage of time, Africa was broken up into regions without the consent of its people. After the end of the French Colonial rule, Africa had occupied an integral position in the French foreign policy.

The unique status of Africa in French foreign policy can to a large extent be explained by the fact that Paris thinks it has a special global mission, a so-called mission civilisatrice which stresses the promotion of French culture and French language overseas. Africa has had a special position in this context, as the region has been one of the most important symbols of France's global role, and the activist policy on the continent has served to prove that Paris was a great power with a right to a permanent seat in the UN Security Council (Gorm Rye Olsen, Europe's And Africa's Failed

States: From Development To Containment).

The modern day Europe now faces many issues linked to Societal Security.

Societal security is about the threats or vulnerabilities that affect patterns of communal identity and culture. The two issues most prominently on its agenda at the beginning of the twenty-first century in centre-periphery relations are migration and the clash of rival civilizational identities. According to this definition, Europe may have societal security interests in avoiding massive inflows of migrants from, in this case Africa. There is no doubt that Africa is the region of the world that is most affected by refugees and internally displaced people. By the end of the old millennium, 14 million people in Africa were either refugees or internally displaced

Gorm Rye Olsen, Europe's And Africa's Failed States: From Development To Containment).

Europe as a result of so many refugees has to make arrangements for asylums. The authorities have now decided to launch policies that would restrict the number of immigrants from Africa. The modern day Africa as a result of its resource exploitation by the European is hit by poverty and violence, thus resulting in such a high immigration rate. The European nations also provide Africa with huge amount of aid. Europe has now become a multi-cultural center for many other nations. Asians too contribute a great deal in it. Unlike Africa, Asia did not suffer so greatly as a result of European Imperialism. The trading market between Europe and Asia has prospered significantly. There are however, some sentiments related to hostility and prejudice. At the beginning of the twentieth century, parts of China were controlled by Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan. During this time, many Chinese were asked to convert to Christianity. The imperial powers compelled China to open trade with them and open ways for railways and mining companies. Besides China, countries such as Taiwan and the Indian Sub-continent were also exploited greatly through the European Rule. The Europeans were racial and prejudice in their ruling.

While… [read more]

Burundi the Republic Term Paper

… The social upheaval is tremendous: currently only half the children go to school, 10% of the adults have AIDS, and people lack both food and medicine. Many people have been made desperately poor and dependent on others for their survival (Ngaruko & Nkurunziza, 2000).

Many of the young people have suffered terrible psychological trauma and are growing up angry and without direction.

Currently, Burundi has few natural resources and has not established a manufacturing platform for itself. Most of its exports are agricultural, particularly tea and coffee. These two crops account for 90% of the country's economic production, and is dominated by the Tutsi minority (CIA, 2003). While the country is well suited to grow these crops, both flood and famine occur and can significantly damage crops in any given year, making their agricultural base for export somewhat unstable.

Because of the continuing level of turmoil along with lines of allegiance that often shift or blur, and failure to create a workable truce, a reasonable conclusion would be that Burundi must find a way to solve its internal discord before they can form strong economic ties with the rest of the world. While Burundi would benefit from stable import and export trade with other countries, their internal problems are so great that for the time being, that may be a difficult goal to accomplish. They are doing well to maintain the status quo of exporting two main crops, but the distribution of those crops is lopsided and the profits only go to a small percentage of the population. It will be difficult for the country to create more opportunities on its own for its people under the current circumstances, and other countries might be quite reluctant to get involved with such an unstable country. If Burundi wants to grow economically it has to solve its historical internal problems first.


CIA. 2003. "Burundi," in World Fact Book,… [read more]

Colonial Slavery Term Paper

… By the late 18th through the 20th century, though, the role of intermarriage and religion would be subsumed under the greater forces of economics and racism. In North America, European settlers exploited the natural bounty of the New World. The new industries and plantations soon spawned a trans-Atlantic slave trade that brought millions of Africans to the Americas. The growing needs of industry and the influx of slaves also gave rise to a rigid caste system, where skin color determined whether a person would be a free citizen or a slave for life ("The Terrible Transformation").

Though the institution of slavery has been abolished in the United States, its legacy of racial divisions remain felt today.

In Africa, the growth of colonization into the African interior by Afrikaners laid the foundations for apartheid laws. By the late 19th century, colonizers viewed the African continent not as separate sovereign nations, but as colonial holdings. France, for example, "owned" most lands in West Africa. Italy held Eritrea and parts of Somalia. Belgium claimed the Congo and Portugal continued to own parts of West Africa, as well as Angola and Mozambique ("Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History").

In addition to the slave trade, colonization had other deleterious effects on the African continent as well. For the colonizers, any form of development in Africa should only serve to further European development. As a result, the focus was on the development of the colonial countries, while populations in the interior declined. Traditional migration routes throughout the continent were closed. The cultural distinctions between nations and tribes were ignored as the Europeans drew their own borders and created their own maps. The imposition of European religions and identities -- began by the Portuguese in the 16th century -- further homogenized the continent's rich and diverse cultures ("Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History").

In hindsight, the growth of colonization was largely fueled by a rampant ethnocentrism on the part of the colonizing Europeans. This led them to assume that their economic needs should take precedence over the needs of other continents. It also led them to impose their own religious and social systems in lieu of the native cultures in Africa, the Americas and Asia. The enduring legacy of colonialism lies not only in the shameful institution of slavery, but also in the irretrievable loss of many aspects of these cultures.

Works Cited

Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History." Sub-Saharan Africa:. 11 September 2002. PBS Online. 28 October 2003

The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America Narrative. 1999. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 [read more]

F.W. De Kerk: The Struggle Term Paper

… De Klerk immediately embraced a consultative approach, beginning to consult with Mandela about the pending political shift in South Africa while Mandela was still in prison.

He also released restrictions and opened up new avenues for new voices to participate… [read more]

Diamond Wars in Western Term Paper

… Following international concern regarding the illicit diamond trade's role in fuelling conflict in Sierra Leone, the Security Council adopted a resolution in July 2000 that imposed a ban on the direct or indirect import of rough diamonds from Sierra Leone… [read more]

Kenya Term Paper

… It must incorporate the culture, the values and the beliefs of the people. All the people must own it. The current agitation for an all-inclusive constitution in Kenya, is therefore right on the mark. [Africa Guide, 1997]

Civil and political… [read more]

Rwandan Genocide: Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … Rwandan genocide: An annotated bibliography

Anderson, G. (2009). Roots of genocide. America, 16-19.

This article is a profile of Francis Deng, a man who has traveled all over the world on behalf of the UN to study the… [read more]

Conflict With Getting Minerals Research Paper

… In short, there are so many groups fighting with one another that control of the mines continues to switch and remain in dispute frequently. Some of this will become less of an issue in the future, but for now it… [read more]

Zulu Culture Term Paper

… Zulu Culture

The past 200 years have been eventful ones for the Zulu people of southern Africa. From their modest origins in the early 19th century, the Zulus, under the leadership of Shaka, became the dominate force in southern Africa… [read more]

Safety Humanitarian Emergencies Research Paper

… Christian Aid and Save the Children also launched an appeal. The British government gave 38 million in emergency food aid to Ethiopia. Up to 1,000 Somalis every day were streaming across the Kenyan border to Dadaab, which was already the largest refugee settlement in the world. Thousands of Somalis walked for weeks to reach the camp, many of them arriving acutely malnourished, dehydrated, with nothing but the clothes on their backs. Some 2.5 million people required food aid in Somalia, but access was tough, particularly in the south, where an Islamist insurgency made it hard, and in some parts impossible, for aid groups to function. To the west, in Ethiopia, over three million people required humanitarian assistance. Pastoralist communities there saw eighty percent of their livestock die in some places, according to Oxfam, with the lost income made it extremely difficult for people to buy food. In Uganda 600,000 people needed assistance, and in Djibouti it was 120,000. But the greatest number of people in need, 3.5 million, were in Kenya's arid northern regions, whose marginalization by the government has magnified the effects of the increasingly frequent droughts. In Turkana malnutrition rates were more than twice the emergency level (Rice, 2011).


Complex humanitarian emergency characteristically affect many people and are very hard to battle because of where they typically occur. They normally take place in countries that are undeveloped and thus do not have the resources that they need to deal with emergencies. Because of this it is very important that humanitarian aid agencies exist in order to help provide resources for the people of these areas in which these types of things happen.


Complex humanitarian emergency program. (2012). Retrieved from

Rice, X. (2011). Drought in east Africa prompts calls to address humanitarian… [read more]

Refugees and Migration Essay

… Migration and Refugees in Sudan

The historical record is replete with examples of large numbers of people being displaced and forced to move to other countries, but perhaps nowhere has this process been so pronounced or sustained than in 21st… [read more]

Coca-Cola Hunger Relief in Kenya Ethiopia Somalia Research Paper

… Coca-Cola Hunger Relief in Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia

The Horn of Africa is a region that invariably gets into its trouble, such as wars, famines, epidemics, earthquakes, and so forth, and as soon as it climbs out of one disaster, it seems to predictably fall -- kerplunk -- into another.

Today, the Coca-Cola company pledged KSh 134 million (approximately $1.4 million USD) to help Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia grapple with their latest famine which, according to a July report authored by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA) is one of the sharpest ones yet with 12 million people in Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Djibouti desperately needing life-saving equipment.

The Coca-Cola Foundation, consisting of Coca-Cola's Central East and West Africa Business Unit, has always been involved in the region and pledged to provide urgent humanitarian assistance through food, water, sanitation and health care to these stricken areas. In fact, Coca-Cola has largely responded affirmatively to a pledge made earlier this year where they accorded Kenya KSh 3 million (approximately $32, 000 USD) in response to a national drought and emergency appeal (Coca-Cola Company).

Kenya, as the Coca-Cola operative in that region, Nathan Kalambu observed, is a country where "Our values and culture have always stressed a responsibility to engage with communities" (Coca-Cola Company)

Kalmabnu perceived that tendency to be positive. Observers, however, concerned for the country's welfare perceive this to be more detrimental and, in fact, ruinous to the country's survival. Study after study demonstrates that aid has had no impact on Africa's development (e.g. Bates, 2008). More so, Maren (1997) states that after 40 years of being involved in African humanitarian projects:

"The Africa that I know today is in much worse shape than it was when I first arrived. The future of Africa's children is less hopeful than ever before. The countries that received the most aid -- Somalia, Liberia, and Zaire -- have slid into virtual anarchy" (p.11)

Aid seems so inefficient that even the IMF - a leading provider of aid -- cautions its supporters about relying on aid as provision of hope. Foreign aid -- warns Moyo (2009) is no longer part of the solution. In fact it is part of the problem, if not the problem itself due to the fact that one of the… [read more]

Poverty and Its Effect Essay

… Conclusion

Several important themes emerged from the review of the relevant literature. In the first place, it quickly became clear that despite significant progress in recent years, there remains a severe and widespread lack of access to clean and sufficient supplies of drink water for more than one billion people today. A second theme that emerged from the research was the cost effectiveness of clean-water initiatives, even for the rural regions that are most severely afflicted by clean water shortages, making this an attractive target for substantial investment on the part of the private and public sectors. Finally, it also became clear that more can and should be done today in order to address the urgent and compelling needs of hundreds of millions of women and children who must rely on unsafe drinking water while much of the rest of the world's population enjoys clean water piped directly to their homes. Unfortunately, the research also showed that in what has been termed a "silent emergency," more must be done to educate the Western world concerning the plight of these disadvantaged people in sub-Saharan Africa so that the policymakers in these countries will receive the popular support needed for any investments of scarce taxpayer resources during a period of global economic downturn. In sum, like poverty everywhere, while most of the world's population enjoys a hot bath at night and takes clean drinking water for granted, the clean drinking water and sanitation needs of hundreds of millions of people, mostly women and children, remain out of sight and out of mind.


Bolnick, H.J. (2003). Designing a world-class health care system. North American Actuarial

Journal, 7(2), 1-3.

Cheema, G.S. (2005). Building democratic institutions: Governance reform in developing countries. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

de Mello, E. (2011). World Water Day: How you can get involved. Huffington Post. Retrieved from

Gilbert, L.D., Uzodike, U.O. & Isike, C. (2009). The United States Africa Command: Security for whom? The Journal of Pan African Studies, 2(9), 264-266.

Hartl, G., Hajaj, C. &… [read more]

Nigerian Cocoa the Risks Case Study

… There are now State Cocoa Development Units in the various regions work to increase farmer efficiency. Additionally, there has been the liberalization of cocoa production in Nigeria. Before the 1980s, "Nigerian cocoa beans were exported exclusively by Nigerian Cocoa Board… [read more]

Hotel Rwanda: The Heartbreaking Story Essay

… Occasionally, the European countries banded together to help hide their nation's Jews, but of the 6 million murdered, the amount of Jews helped pales in comparison to the amount killed.

Likewise, the Rwandan Genocide totaled around 800,000 deaths, within the span of a mere 100 days (BBC News). Yet where were the other nations who could have sent in military to sustain the violence? In one poignant scene, Canadian UN Peacekeeping officer Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte) tries to explain the reason as to why the rest of the world will not come to help the Rwandans: "You're black. You're not even a nigger. You're an African" (Hotel Rwanda). The fate depicted in the film seems to call for the end of apathetic countries, which did not seem to care to help, even when it is clear the Rwandans had become agitated and desperate to escape the death toll. In fact, Rusesabagina states that the best method to incite sympathy outside of the nation, one must "shame [the foreigners] into sending help" (Hotel Rwanda).

George's Hotel Rwanda tells the story of a civil genocide that did not gain enough sympathy outside of the United Nations. Even the UN sluggishly moved their peacekeeping forces into play, and by then, the conflict was too late. The film portrays such extreme lack of action, and it gives the audience food for thought: how much international apathy is there for troubled, warring nations?


Burr, Ty. "Hotel Rwanda Movie Review: Cheadle brings quiet power to 'Rwanda'." The Boston Globe. January 7, 2005. Retrieved 2007-04-09.

Hotel Rwanda. Dir. Terry George. Perf. Don Cheadle, Sophie Okonedo, Joaquin Phoenix, Nick Nolte, Jean Reno. United Artists, 2004. DVD.

"Rwanda: How the Genocide Happened." BBC News - Home. 18 Dec. 2008. Web. 02… [read more]

Do Chinese and European Development Programs Benefit the Political and Economic Development in Ghana? Research Proposal

… ¶ … Chinese and European development programs benefit the political and economic development in Ghana?

Today, given the Millennium Development Goals and the overall general movement on development, there is a constant tendency of the developed countries to provide increased… [read more]

Developing Country Essay

… Developing Country

Cholera in Kenya

Cholera and the populace

Cholera prevalence and poverty level

Cholera prevalence and the seasons

Cholera prevalence and the demography

Developed world vs Developing world

Development of a nation and health

Cholera in Kenya

Cholera is… [read more]

1234. . .
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.