Study "African History / Africa" Essays 166-204

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How Nelson Mandela Influence on Apartheid Research Paper

… ¶ … macro sociological issue being addressed?

what theory did he or she use?

did the article have a social impact- positive or negative?

what did you learn?

what are suggested if any? do you see them as feasible?

develop… [read more]

Kenya Culture: A Kenyan Thesis

… Kenya

Culture: A Kenyan case study

Culture is "a society's shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions" (Chapter 2, p.25). Culture is how people make sense of human experiences and behavior. Culture is also the way that individuals make… [read more]

Rwanda Army for the Liberation of Rwanda ALIR Research Proposal

… Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR) also operates as, or is known as, Interahamwe, Former Armed Forces (ex-FAR).

The FAR was the army of the Rwandan Hutu regime that carried out the genocide of 500,000 or more Tutsis and… [read more]

Thousand Hills by Stephen Kinzer Research Paper

… ¶ … Thousand Hills: Rwanda's Rebirth and the Man Who Dreamed it. Book report

Stephen Kinzer's book, a Thousand Hills, is the writing of a journalist who wanted to present the world with the story of Rwanda from the point-of-view… [read more]

Nelson Mandela as an Attorney Term Paper

… Nelson Mandela

As an attorney and the son of a tribal chief, Nelson Mandela was in a perfect position to understand and therefore directly change the laws of postcolonial South Africa. Mandela would later become a victim of the oppressive regimes that characterized life for indigenous Africans. While with the African National Congress and the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL), Mandela also used grassroots political activism to draw support for African self-governance. Mandela was first tried for treason in a drawn-out case lasting for five years before he was acquitted in 1961. Undoubtedly his brush with the law inspired Mandela to use the system to his favor and to the favor of all non-white residents of Southern Africa. Because of his vocal opposition to apartheid programs and his involvement with the nationalist group African National Congress (ANC), Mandela spent almost three decades of his life in prison and labor camps. In spite of his imprisonment Mandela continued to work as an attorney and political activist, and therefore helped transform South African law without the use of military force. His endeavors and his success in minimizing colonial oppression earned Mandela the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

Mandela was primarily concerned with eliminating apartheid, the state-sanctioned race-based segregation and oppression in South Africa. In 1952, the African National Congress launched the Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws. Nelson Mandela served as the National Volunteer-in-Chief of the Campaign. The Campaign used techniques of civil disobedience and peaceful resistance to draw public attention to the cause with the ultimate goal of eliminating the laws that sustained apartheid, segregation, and oppression. The Defiance campaign drew volunteers from all around the country. It was for his work with the Defiance Campaign that Mandela was tried for treason and later acquitted. However, the courts did limit his ability to organize, a last-ditch… [read more]

Things Fall Apart by Chinua Term Paper

… Okonkwo's old ways of asserting power, like his physical and military strength, are no match for the newly installed British judicial system, government, and military. The Christians refuse to live side-by-side the old tribal leaders, customs, and clans, for the new Christians there can only be one, good way to live. When Okonkwo tries to resist the British by tearing town a church, he is imprisoned, and when he kills a white man, his tribe is too frightened to take up arms and follow him in attempting to drive the outsiders from their midst. He commits suicide as a result, realizing that his old way of life is no more, and he no longer has the authority amongst the Umuofia tribe as a leader.

On its surface, it might seem as if Things Fall Apart is ambiguous about the injection of the British into Africa. After all, the Christian message of faith and forgiveness seems less harsh and judgmental than Okonkwo's swaggering masculinity. However, the presence of gentler tribes, like his mother's tribe, his father's evident gift at music, and other signs that Okonkwo is not representative of an entire culture, show that Achebe's real purpose in writing is to condemn the inability of Africans to identify the true enemy. The enemy is the British who despise and attempt to eradicate African culture, not other African tribes who live in different ways. Okonkwo's masculine selfishness results in the destruction of Africa's future.

This attitude can still be seen in Africa today. Because of the instability created in the region during the colonial period, in the Sudan and other areas of Africa, tribes continue to fight one another. People in Africa thus lack the resources to fight the real epidemics of the region, such as AIDS, poverty, and hunger. Colonialism eradicated the existing tribal structures that provided political and moral leadership, and it remains difficult for Africa to rebuild an effective political infrastructure in their absence.

Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall… [read more]

Leader I Admire Term Paper

… ¶ … leader I admire

Nelson Mandela's most private moment is watching the sun set with the music of Handel playing in the background. Locked up in his cell during daylight hours, deprived of music, such simple pleasures that most… [read more]

Examine the Observation That Refugees of Today Are Essentially an Urban Phenomenon Term Paper

… ¶ … refugees of today are essentially an urban phenomenon critical examination of the observation that refugees of today are essentially an urban phenomenon

The problem and the phenomenon of refugees in the world have become increasingly related to urban… [read more]

Population Change in Sierra Leone From 1990 Present Term Paper

… Sierra Leone

Over the last several decades, Sierra Leone has been subject to vast population changes due to a violent civil war, the murder of local inhabitants by the R.U.F., rampant disease, low life expectancy, infant mortality, and other major… [read more]

Effects of the Somali Civil War on the Population of Somalia Somaliland Term Paper

… ¶ … Somali civil war on the population of Somalia/Somaliland.

Who is considering that having to live with a war happening behind you back, "just around the corner," as an extra to your present condition is an easy task, might… [read more]

Prospects for Madagascar - Breaking the Bonds Term Paper

… ¶ … Prospects for Madagascar - BREAKING the BONDS of POVERTY

Dependency Theory vs. Modernization Theory

The Modernization Theory states that a country must first industrialize if it must become modern (Juanico 1999). Based on their experience, rich countries, which… [read more]

Coetzee Disgrace Term Paper

… ¶ … Disgrace in the novel Disgrace by J.M. Coetzee

Post-apartheid South Africa in the latter part of 20th century was characterized as a transition from a white-centric to a black-centric society. As society's dominant sector was restored to the native Africans, "white" members of the society found themselves confronting the fact that they no longer held the control and power they had when apartheid was still tolerated in the country. In fact, the abolition of apartheid in South Africa signified new hope for the natives: no longer controlled by the whites, they can live life with hope, in accordance to their culture, and most importantly, exact revenge and control over white South Africans.

This was the social climate that J.M. Coetzee illustrated in his novel, "Disgrace." Set in post- apartheid South Africa, Coetzee demonstrated the dynamics between white and black South Africans, how the transfer of power led to significant changes in people's lives, though these changes, apparently, did not improve suffering and poverty in South African society in general.

Disgrace as a moral concept, then, is subjected to various interpretations in the novel. These different meanings and interpretations of disgrace reflect the fact that life did not improve for society in general despite the abolition of apartheid in the country. There may have been a transfer of powers from the whites to the natives, but this transfer of power did not influence the lives of poor South Africans, black or white. Thus, disgrace is still a part of people's lives, experienced only through different situations and degrees as perceived by the suffering individual.

Soraya was one of the characters in the novel that gave the first facet and meaning of disgrace. Soraya as a prostitute was depicted as a disgraced individual because she earns money by selling her body to male strangers.… [read more]

Cecil Rhodes, Official Managing Director Term Paper

… At the same time, Rhodes demonstrated remarkable foresight and business acumen when it came to his dealings throughout Africa.

A British expatriate, Cecil Rhodes saw British colonization of Africa as absolutely essential to the nation's cultural survival. According to Rhodes, competition for natural resources in places like Africa was weakening the British stronghold throughout the world. With the Dutch competing especially fiercely in Africa, the British could not afford to be lax about their aims there. Like the Dutch, Rhodes saw colonization as more of an economic than a cultural or political imperative. It was more for economic needs than for anything else that Rhodes believed the British should remain a powerful influence throughout Africa. Rhodes proposed a massive communication and transportation network spanning the entire continent, though he had no engineering plans for it. Rhodes also irked many other British colonialists because of his desire to link with the Dutch and create a series of African states that would be subject to European financial interests. Rhodes saw much potential in creating tariff zones that would help the British prosper and cultivated a spirit of free enterprise as a result. In particular, diamond speculation interested Rhodes, who was a less than scrupulous man. Another fact on which these three authors agree is that Rhodes, no matter how magnificent in stature, was ethnocentric and racist. He saw colonization as almost a sacred duty and as part of his destiny.

The readings on Cecil Rhodes demonstrate the spirit of colonization from a personal perspective. Reading about Rhodes' personality shows readers how individual members of the dominant culture impose their beliefs on other cultures and how a sense of entitlement guided… [read more]

Selling Medical Supplies in Mozambique Term Paper

… Selling Medical Supplies in Mozambique

Mozambique is in South- east Africa, totally surrounded by South Africa, and this can be seen in the map given at the end. The country has three main cities of Maputo, Beira and Nampula. These… [read more]

People of Sudan Term Paper

… For Sudanese males, dominance over the family is tradition, and is a part of their every day culture. Many Sudanese males see the laws of the United States against domestic abuse and child abuse as the cause for their loss of control over their families. Women in the United States are given many more freedoms, and for some male dominated Sudanese families, this causes a great conflict (Matre, 16).

Still another cultural difference is the people of Sudan often deal with problems in their communities on a local level. When a person in the community has a drinking problem, for example, or is violent, other members of the community deal with him or her. In the United States, the culture instead looks to the government for assistance, a concept that is foreign to many Sudanese immigrants (Eastburn, 1).

Part of the struggle of these immigrants results from a lack of formal education, and English language training. For many, formal education was unattainable in Sudan. A recent study of Sudanese immigrants in Lancaster County, Nebraska, showed that less than fifty percent had attained even a high school degree. This same study showed less than seven percent speak fluent English at home (Anderson, C13). These types of barriers make the effort to find employment or gain access to welfare and other social programs particularly difficult. Further, the language barrier often equals difficulty in dealing with police and other authority figures (Eastburn, 1).

Clearly, there are barriers and drastic differences in the cultural norms of Sudan and the United States. Sudanese immigrants may find it difficult to accept the culture of their new home, and may require assistance in dealing with the changes necessary to ensure their success. In order to fully assist these individuals, more effort needs to be placed into discovering the core of these differences, and designing programs to assist those of this country that are most in need of these services.


Anderson, Mark. "Sudanese Refugees Lack Skill to Negotiate U.S. Culture." Lincoln Journal Star, 19 May 2004, C13.

Eastburn, Kathryn. "Circle of Refuge." Colorado Springs Independent, 23 January 2003, 1-2.

Halim, Abdel. Honorable Daughters: The Lived Experience of Circumcised Sudanese Women in The United States. June, 2003. Retrieved from Ohio Library and Information Network database. 5 October 2005.

Matre, Lynn Van. "DuPage Agency to Aid Refugees… [read more]

Colonialism vs. Independence Term Paper

… Colonialism vs. Independence

Although some countries have been successful as independent states, others have failed disastrously and would definitely benefit under some form of colonialism.

For example, when Moslem Pakistan split again into Pakistan proper and Bangladesh, both countries remain extremely poor and politically fragile (Johnson pp). Sri Lanka, formerly Ceylon, appears to have insuperable racial problems, and Burma has reverted to its pre-colonial past as a military despotism (Johnson pp). Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, once the former French colony of Indochina, is slowly emerging from a devastating war with increasing success, due primarily to the colonial infrastructure (Johnson pp). However, Asians tend to flourish better as immigrants than natives, such as the success of the Chinese in Canada, and the Vietnamese and South Koreans in the United States (Johnson pp).

Until about 1960, progress was rapid in some countries, such as Algeria, which was incorporated into metropolitan France and was near European levels in many respects, and Nigeria, which was destined to be a model black state, underwritten by large oil reserves (Johnson pp). And the Sudan, an Anglo-Egyptian condominium, had the most enlightened and dedicated colonial civil service of all, and its emergence from poverty seemed assured (Johnson pp). However, under independence, each of these countries crashed into hopeless ruin due to civil and religious war, corruption, and/or Moslem fundamentalism (Johnson pp).

Of the more than fifty independent states that emerged in Africa from the colonial era,… [read more]

Consequences of the Interventions Term Paper

… Irrespective of the fact of its inability to stick to the time schedule, the deadline for the completion of ONUMOZ was extended without the expansion of its mandate. This enabled the ONUMOZ to accomplish its task effectively. (UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: Why Success is not always cast in Stone)

To conclude, taking into account the attributes those have been detected, it is apparent that it will be the elements of the intervention process, irrespective of the geo-political level of interference, instead of the attributes of the hostility those will indicate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the interference.


Bethany, Lacina. International Interventions and Imperialism: Lessons from the 1990s. SAIS Review Sample Article. Volume 23, Number 2, Summer-Fall 2003. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 May, 2005

Jett, Dennis C. Lessons Unlearned - or why Mozambique's successful Peacekeeping Operation might not be replicated elsewhere. The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance. 20 January 2002. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 May, 2005

Limitations of African Peacekeeping Efforts. Monograph. No: 33: Constructive Disengagement. December, 1998. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 May, 2005

UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: Why Success is not always cast in Stone.

Global Dialogue. 1 May 2000. Volume 5. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 May, 2005

Williams, Michael. 21st Century Trust. Ending Anarchy: International Rule and Reconstruction after Conflict. 5 -- 13 October 2000. Madingley Hall, Cambridge. Introductory Paper. Retrieved from Accessed on 10 May, 2005 [read more]

Nigeria: A Country Report Term Paper

… Nigerian Economy-Agriculture Sector:

In Nigeria, the GDP "originating in the agricultural sector, shrank from 65.7% in FY 1959 to 30.9% by 1976," but by 1988, "39.1% of GDP was derived from agricultural activity," as of June of 1991. Also, the… [read more]

Hutu Blame? The Search Term Paper

… That civilians were largely the object of attack does not contradict the political rationale behind the fighting.

While import prices soared, in response to IMF insistence, the price at which coffee was bought from local producers was frozen. As a… [read more]

Deforestation in Ghana the Environmental Term Paper

… It seems almost poetic in its symbolism, that one of the most historically precious materials on earth could be the cause of such immense environmental destruction. However, in Ghana, today, that is exactly the case. In short, the previous Ghanaian administration agreed to allow international mining companies to search for the existence of gold reserves (at those companies expense). According to a government minister:

Some mining companies were given permits to do prospecting in the reserves by the past administration. The Forestry Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and all the relevant statutory bodies were party to it. The companies invested millions of dollars and found gold deposits in commercial quantities in the reserves (Environment News Service).

According to the same minister, the question that now exists for the current Ghanaian government is whether they are justified "morally," in not allowing the companies to extract the gold to, both, recoup their investment, as well as benefit the economy of Ghana, "whilst we have a lot of problems on our hands such as poverty, underdevelopment and unemployment" He continues, "It is true that we have to preserve the forests, but nature has also given us these resources to be tapped and managed for development, so it is the way we go about it in order not to offset the balance." Unfortunately, the minister also goes on to illustrate just what he means by "balance," when he continues:

If we say we won't allow them to mine in the reserves, what signals are we sending to other investors...It means this is a country where investments are not secured, where there are a lot of uncertainties and by the stroke of the pen you can lose your investments and monies. So we are at a crossroads and as a nation what do we do? (Environment News Service)

His statement says a lot.

Unfortunately, the future of the forests of Ghana is precariously uncertain. Although it is true that Ghanaian's themselves are "to blame" for a large part of the destruction of the forest land of Ghana (as is illustrated in the above official's reasoning), one wonders how one would behave in the same situation. After all, the immense world demand for raw (and semi-raw) materials such as gold, wood and other products is high. That fact, coupled with the relatively "low on the totem pole" position Ghana holds, typical of most Third World countries in the age of globalism, makes the likelihood of taking the environmental high-road a very difficult decision indeed -- and a decision highly unlikely to occur.

Works Cited

Microsoft Encarta. Ghana. 1994. Retrieved from Web site on April 17, 2004

Environmental News Service. 2003. Gold Discovered Beneath Ghana's Forest Reserves. Retrieved from Web site on April 17, 2004 [read more]

Man Has Lived Term Paper

… In alliance with Canadian, Chinese, and Malaysian investors, the government has been able to start production in July 1999 and plans to send the oil to a new refinery in Khartoum. SPLM opposes this, claiming that the proceeds will be used to finance an intensification of the war. The movement has declared the oil installations a military target and several recent operations have been aimed at hindering the production to divest the government of the potential income from this source.

The war has led to poor utilization of the resources as well as to large expenditure (estimated at U.S.$1-2 millions per day) resulting in persistent deficits in Sudan's balance of payments. Deficits have been covered by loans and a debt of U.S.$20 billion has been accumulated, making Sudan one of the most indebted countries in the world. Failure to meet the debt service obligations has brought Sudan very close to being suspended from IMF.

Social Implications

Living conditions for people in the war zone are awful, but they are not much better for the displaced and the refugees who have only little access to land and therefore difficulty in securing their own food.

Relief food aid is being channeled in through Operation Lifeline Sudan (previously with Danish support through Danchurchaid), World Food Program and others but the government does not allow these to operate in the SPLM controlled areas.

Furthermore, it is well-known that the armies on both sides have taken more than their share of the relief aid. Bahr el Ghazal has faced severe malnourishment in 1998 and 1999 due to a combination of these factors and it is essential to safe that relief aid can reach all areas unhindered to prevent further human suffering.

Several international NGOs are operating in Southern Sudan but the government restrictions makes it very hard for them to implement their programs and very few besides the churches manage to do more than delivering relief food.

In the areas that have been under SPLM, control for some time, the churches and NGO's run a number of agricultural and educational programs. The Danish organization ADRA is involved in this.

Hardly any public service or community activity is in operation. It is predicted that 90% of the people left in Southern Sudan have no access to health care, and the educational system has distorted completely "leaving an entire generation illiterate."

SPLM has since 1994 worked to introduce local authorities and administration in the areas controlled by them, and despite very limited means many communities based initiatives including self-help schools are now in operation.

The Human Rights Situation

Many reports from international human rights groups as well as from the Special Reporter appointed by United Nations demonstrate that Sudan has one of the worst human rights records in the world. Detentions, persecution and other restrictions on political, ethnic and religious minorities are the order of the day.

Several reports have recognized slavery and slave trade. Children are forced into Koran schools and other islamization programs. Reports from… [read more]

Burger Delight Expansion to Kenya Term Paper

… S. Department of State).

Kenyan Political Environment

Kenya has maintained political stability since its independence, even while there have been crises in neighboring countries (U.S. Department of State). This political stability is a sign that Kenya is well-placed to continue moving forward in its development. The political environment also includes political agreement between the United States and Kenya. The United States has provided continued assistance to Kenya to promote economic development in Kenya (U.S. Department of State). The political environment then shows a stable environment and also one where there is agreement between the United States and Kenya that will be beneficial to the Kenyan government supporting American business in the region.

Kenyan Diet

The Kenyan diet is very versatile, reflecting a versatile culture. The Kenyan diet includes African dishes, English dishes and Indian dishes (JamboKenya). Quality beef is popular and restaurants in major cities offer good quality foods and American products such as Coca Cola are already in the market (JamboKenya). In this environment, Kenyan's would be receptive to American foods, especially if these foods were available in cities at reasonable prices.

From this research, it is recommended that this opportunity be considered further. After looking at this brief overview, please contact me to discuss this opportunity further and advise if any further information is required.


Emulate Me. "Kenya." CountryReports.Org, 2002.

JamboKenya. "Food & Drink." Jambo Kenya Network, 2001.

U.S. Department of State. "Background Notes: Republic of Kenya." March 1998. [read more]

Political Economic and Social Issues Term Paper

… Sudan

In 1983, civil war broke out in Sudan, between the north and the south. The conflict raged on for decades, and continues to plague the region. The Sudanese Wars have yielded unfathomable casualties and loss of life. The term the "lost boys of Sudan" refers to about 20,000 boys who fled Southern Sudan in the wake of the chaos and violence of the independence movement and its aftermath. Unfortunately, the term draws attention to the lack of respect and attention given to female casualties. A great number found refuged in Ethiopia, itself far from a bastion of stability. In fact, wars in Ethiopia broke out in 1991 and further displaced the lost boys of Sudan. Thousands -- about ten thousand by some estimates -- were able to make it to refugee camps in Kenya, and were housed under the auspices of international aid organizations like the IRC. About four thousand made it to the United States (IRC, 2014).

The National Geographic films detailing the lost boys of Sudan like "Sense of Place and Community" offer the unique opportunity to hear the personal stories of individual young men and boys. Their ethnicities, at first salient, become near irrelevant as the reality of shared human suffering and tragedy rises to the surface. Conflicts like the Sudanese civil war have characterized the bulk of the human experience due to social, economic, and political issues. Almost all of these causal variables can be traced in some way to patriarchy, which foments egotism and avarice. Yet there is a clear need to find a balance between traditional values and… [read more]

French Response in Algeria Essay

… ¶ … French response in Algeria. Also, from the perspective of French national interests, how did Algeria differ from Indo China?

It has been said that the only 'good' thing about the French intervention in Algiers was that it came after the defeat in Indo-China -- just as France "washed her hands" of the Vietnam question, another "intractable" colonial population was striving to wrest itself free. [footnoteRef:1] After losing French Indo-China, France's next battleground for the vestiges of its colonial empire was Algeria. The French were initially more successful in Algeria, given they had greater experience with counterinsurgency from the Vietnam debacle and their resolve had been stiffened from the loss of French Indo-China. However, on the other hand, the French efforts to preserve the colony struck many as anachronistic. France had already granted independence to the neighboring African colonies to Algeria, and thus its determination to hold onto the territory seemed strange and counterproductive. [footnoteRef:2] [1: Michael Carver, War Since 1945, (Dublin: The Ashfield Press, 1990), 119.] [2: Jeremy Black, War Since 1945, (London: Reaktion Books, 2005), 42.]

Despite France's initial success, according to historian Jeremy Black, many of the same problems which dogged France in French Indo-China continued to follow the nation into Algiers. There was, first and foremost, the "general difficulty of mounting effective counter-insurgency operations. Tough anti-insurrectionary measures, including widespread torture, which was seen as a justified response to FLN atrocities, gave France control of Algiers in 1957."[footnoteRef:3] But it was in many ways, a Pyrrhic victory. [3: Black, 43.]

There were some notable differences between the two conflicts that accounted for the initial French success. First of all, France was better-acquainted with the territory on the ground than in Vietnam. The Algerian rebels were not supported by the heft of a major power like China in the manner of the Vietcong. Although Egypt's Nasser gave some financing to the FLN, it was relatively minor, despite the leader's rhetoric about Arab nationalism. [footnoteRef:4]There was no concealing jungle in which rebel FLN… [read more]

Rwanda Genocide ) the Role Case Study

… According to Alison Des Forges (2000), after seeing the complete indifference of the international community the Rwandans became totally convinced that the genocide government would win. As a result of this the people who were against the genocide started to… [read more]

Kenya There Are Several News Journal

… Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) treatment works, but in Kenya underdoses have been common due to a desire to stockpile, squirrel, or cut costs. Less than half of participants in a study on compliance with ACT-administration guidelines reported proper doses that would be effective ("Kenya: Malaria Drug Effectiveness Hit by Under-Dosage," n.d.). The under-doses are actually creating terrible waste of what has been proven as an effective treatment for the disease. Malaria remains highly prevalent in Kenya.

Daily Nation is a good pan-African news source that has a wealth of articles related to Kenya. News related to Kenyan domestic politics, foreign affairs, humanitarian and social justice issues, and the economy are covered. A recent story chronicles the ongoing problem of human trafficking. While not isolated to Kenya, the problem of human trafficking is endemic. One article reveals a disturbing phenomenon: officials working at local embassies are placing fake job placement advertisements. Young graduates see an advertisement for a high-paying position in the Middle East. The jobs claim to be in a variety of fields but in reality, they are for domestic slavery positions and target women in particular.

The international news media is not without reference to Kenya, especially because of the recent oil discovery. Ironically, one story tells about the Kenyan shilling dropping on the currency exchange markets in spite of the recent oil discovery. Financial news notes other Kenyan commodities too such as black tea; Kenya is the world's biggest exporter of black tea. Other stories are about diplomatic ties improving between Kenya and Great Britain, which is in jeopardy over conflicting approaches to the Somalian crises.


"Kenya: Malaria Drug Effectiveness Hit by Under-Dosage," (n.d.). Retrieved online:

"Kenya Strikes Oil for the First Time," (2012). Forbes. Retrieved online:

Mayoyo, P. (2012). How embassy staff collude with cartels to con Kenyans. Daily Nation. 25 March [read more]

Piracy in Somalia Term Paper

… ¶ … Somalian Pirates: The Problem, Central Issues, and Potential Solutions

Attacks by Somalia pirates who demand large ransoms for the return of captured vessels near the Horn of Africa continue to represent a serious threat to a broad spectrum of American and international interests (Counter Piracy and Maritime Security, 2011).

The number of attacks annually by Somali pirates has increased since 2008 and now numbers in the hundreds; the incidence of piracy has subsequently spread beyond the immediate coast of Somalia as far away as the Gulf of Oman and the western Indian Ocean (Background note: Somalia, 2011).

The primary national and international response remains limited in effectiveness (Counter Piracy and Maritime Security, 2011).

Central Issues

Since 1990, Somalia has practically been a failed state with per capita GDP (2010 est.) of just $600 (Background note: Somalia, 2011).

Warlords rule the countryside and ethnic conflict remains a source of violence in many part of the country (Background note: Somalia, 2011)

Ineffective central government has little or no sway outside of national capital (Background note: Somalia, 2011).

Potential Solutions

U.S. Response to Somalian Piracy. Fighting piracy is a vital element of the United States' strategic objectives in Somalia, which are to help this stressed nation to regain stability, eliminate terrorism, and respond to the humanitarian needs of its people. United States actions, taken in concert with those of other concerned countries, are consistent with its traditional interest in ensuring freedom of navigation and safety of the seas, and in protecting American citizens and ensuring access to essential resources (The United States Response to Piracy off the Coast of Somalia, 2011, p. 1). This is an… [read more]

Nadine Gordimer's the Moment Before the Gun Went Off Thesis

… Nadine Gordimer's The Moment Before The Gun Went Off

Nadine Gordimer's short story "The Moment Before the Gun Went Off"

Nadine Gordimer's short story "The Moment Before the Gun Went Off" chronicles the accidental death of a young black man in apartheid-era South Africa. The death is apparently an accident: the white owner of a large estate, Marais Van der Vyver is driving in his car with a loaded pistol on the dashboard, and the gun accidently fires, killing his twenty-year-old field hand Lucas. The story is told in the third-person limited point-of-view of the white Afrikaner, who feels sadness at the death of the black man (or 'boy' as he calls him) but is unable to comprehend the limits of his perspective and how his way of life is dependant upon the exploitation of other people.

The story depicts the complex nature of the relationships between black and white people in South Africa and the oppressive mindset of Afrikaners. The narrator is not an inhumanly cruel person. Van der Vyer feels terrible that the young man is dead but he cannot understand that his relationship with the 'boy' would not exist were it not for apartheid. When the black people who knew the young man come to the funeral, he does not see the tragic nature of the fact that these people have been shackled to the land for their entire lives, and have no hope of bettering themselves because of apartheid. He views them with prejudice and distain.

The author's point is conveyed primarily through the use of point-of-view. There is a distinct contrast between Gordimer's real view of race relations in South Africa and Van der Vyer's limited point-of-view. After the shooting, the narrative voice dwells on how Americans will see this crime. He views opponents of apartheid with great hostility, and rages how they do not understand 'the truth.' The truth for the narrator is that he cared for the young man, and regarded him as a dear friend, even though he would not invite him into the house to eat or drink. While it is true that this sentiment may not be acknowledged in the rhetoric of the opponents of apartheid, it is equally true that the man does not see this 'boy' as his social equal.… [read more]

Governance Issues in Rwanda Thesis

… Rwanda: Human Development Report

Rwanda- Brief Overview

Rwanda had suffered major blows to human development effort in 1994 when 1,000,000 or more people were killed in a brutal civil war. Since then, country has been trying to put the past… [read more]

Millennium Project Goal 8 Target 12 13 Essay

… ¶ … Goal 8 Target 12-13

The Millennium Development Goals and Targets have been established by the UN to address some of the problems that nations face on a worldwide scale. The Goals for example concern issues such as poverty, education, health, and financial well-being. Goal 8, Target 12 and 13 concern developing a Global Partnership for Development. Specifically, this ambitious goal entails Target 12, focused upon establishing a system upon which to base predictable and nondiscriminatory trading and financial schemes, which would be open and rule-based. This system would also include good governance, a commitment to development, and the aim of poverty reduction on a national and international scale. Target 13 more specifically addresses the needs of Least Developed Countries, which includes tariff- and quota-free access and debt relief programs.

According to the UN Department of Public Information (2008), meeting these targets have been challenging, specifically in meeting the needs of least developed countries (LDCs), and providing more generous official development assistance (ODA) for countries who have proved their commitment to poverty reduction. In 2007, few countries reached or exceeded the target of 0.7% of gross national income in terms of committing to poverty reduction, while the OECD Development Assistance Committee net aid fell by 0.28% of combined national income for developed countries. In other words, the goals for poverty reduction assistance for the year 2007 have not been met by most developed countries.

The document also quantifies the pledge of donor countries during 2004 to increase their aid commitments from $80 billion to $130 billion in 2010. If inflation values are taken into account, the rate of debt relief increase will have to more than double if these goals are to be met. It is unlikely that the 2010 goal will be realized in the light of the current worldwide recession.

The target of developing an open trading and financial system was not faring much better at the time of the report. Indeed, the collapse of the Doha Round of trade negotiations, which was initiated in 2001, is a major setback for reaching this goal. Debt problems within developing countries are also still very much a reality, with little effect achieved by the MDG. The report does however state that large debt relief has been provided for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). At the time of the report, action was projected to continue working towards reducing the debt of those countries who have not received debt relief.

Some progress has been made in terms of access to essential drugs and treatments for HIV / AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, which are particular problems in poor countries. However, a large amount of action is still needed to increase adequate availability to the public. The same situation is true of making available new technologies within poor countries. Rapid progress has been made in terms of mobile phone technology, although Internet access can still benefit significantly… [read more]

Nigeria Small Arms Trafficking Thesis

… Nigeria Weapons

Small Weapons Trafficking in Nigeria

Nigeria's relatively recent exploitation of its oil deposits has brought the nation increasing wealth over the past decade, but rather than having fully beneficial effects on Nigerian society the new found wealth has led to increasing fractures in the Nigerian power structure as various militant groups and governments vie for control of the oil deposits and other resources. Such chaos has led to a massive rise in many illicit activities in the area, among them the illicit smuggling and trade of small artillery and weapons. These are used by various groups and factions within Nigeria both in the various violent actions in which they engage and as means for raising additional funds through smuggling and reselling these weapons. The specifics of the illicit weapons situation in Nigeria insofar as they are known, the Nigerian response to this already large and growing problem including past diplomatic solutions and proposals, as well as suggestions for hot to combat the problem in the future will be addressed in this paper.

As of 2007, it was estimated that approximately seven million pieces of light weaponry -- revolvers, light machine guns, rifles, carbines, landmines, hand-grenades, and other weapons meant for use by one person -- were traded illicitly in West Africa on an annual basis, and Nigeria has had an increasing share in this trade (Thachuk 2007). Wealth produced by increased findings of oil deposits and their exploitation has led to an increased ability to purchase weapons, as well as providing an incentive for doing so. Various militant groups, each with their own unique and often conflicting demands, have taken control of certain areas of the country, and other groups more on the periphery continue to buck for prominence and control. The overall effect of the weapons trade on Nigeria has been to create a state of near lawlessness, or at least of non-governmental martial rule, in many of the rural areas of the country.

The names and nature of many of the militant groups in Nigeria changes on an almost daily basis, as various groups splinter and/or subsume each other. Some of the more prominent and permanent (or at least long-lasting) of the militant groups in Nigeria, however, include the Ijaw Youth Council and the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND). Little information as to the leadership and workings of these groups is known, making it more difficult to combat them directly (BBC News 2006). This is one of the reasons that understanding and combating the illicit trafficking and trade of small arms/light weapons has become such an important issue for the Nigerian government and other interests in the region; as it is almost impossible to beat the militant groups at their own game and on their own turf, removing the mechanisms by which they are able to continue their violent actions is essential.

So far, efforts to stop the… [read more]

Rural Poverty in Rwanda Term Paper

… Rural Poverty in Rwanda

Rwanda, located in east central Africa, is one of the smallest and most densely populated countries in Africa. Seventy-eight percent of its total population of 9.9 million lives in rural areas; most of the rural population of the country lives in abject poverty ("Rwanda," 2007).

Rwanda's economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture. Bananas, sweet potatoes, beans, and rice are the major food crops; tea and coffee the main cash crops, and cattle and goats the main livestock. Overgrazing, soil exhaustion, and soil erosion, combined with population pressures have prevented the agriculture to develop beyond the subsistence level. Occasional droughts and reliance of the rural population on firewood as fuel has drastically reduced the country's forest cover and led to widespread desertification. Moreover, since Rwanda is a landlocked country, it is expensive for its farmers to export their cash crops.

In addition to these inherent problems, Rwanda has suffered from deep ethnic division and rivalry since its independence from colonial rule in 1962, which exploded into a bloody civil war… [read more]

Humanitarian Intervention One of the Most Purposeful Term Paper

… Humanitarian Intervention

One of the most purposeful and successful undertakings that has benefited third world nations is humanitarian intervention. It is an act arising out of the human collective spirit as people come together through organized efforts and organizations to… [read more]

Umaru Musa Yaradua Term Paper

… Nigeria's New President & His Challenges

Miss Nigeria America's Conversation with President Umaru Yar'Adua

Good morning, Mr. President, and thank you very much for inviting me to meet with you here at Aso Rock. I congratulate you on your election… [read more]

Diamonds and Their Production Prospecting Mining Natural Sources Term Paper

… Diamonds are among the most precious and valuable gems in the world and mining organizations understandably endure a great deal of trouble to locate and unearth them. Most of the world's diamond reserves are located in Southern Africa and Australia, although good-sized reserves can be found in Asia and South America as well (Diamond Mining, No Date). According to The Diamond Registry, Australia, Botswana, Russia, and Congo, respectively, lead the world in diamond production, although Botswana leads the world in gem-quality production (World Diamond, 2003). Clear diamonds are typically used for gems while darker diamonds tend to be employed in industrial applications, such as precision cutting (World Diamond, 2003).

Naturally, there is a fairly exact science involved in prospecting for diamonds. Diamonds are formed deep in the earth's mantle and are carried by magma to - or close to - the earth's surface. The magma is transported toward the earth's surface through what geologist's call a "pipe," which is essentially a pathway the magma follows (Diamond Mining, No Date). The soil that surrounds these pipes tends to feature kimberlite or lamproite, so the pipes are often known as kimberlite or lamproite pipes (Diamond Mining, No Date).

When geologists are prospecting for diamonds they will look for areas of volcanic activity or where magma has historically come to the earth's surface (Diamond Mining, No Date). They will also look for kimberlite or lamproite pipes and test the soil around the area for deposits of these materials (Open Pit, No Date). Geologists, for example, may find kimberlite deposits and kimberlite rocks and break them apart in a search for diamonds, which are typically embedded within these rocks (Diamonds and, No Date).

As one might expect, when water is present, diamonds can be transported and deposited just about anywhere. There are several types of mine-able diamond sources that fit this description, such as: alluvial (diamonds are actually deposited in a waterway, such as a river; mining involves panning for the host rock); wet diggings (diamonds are in the loose gravel or sand and must be panned for); dry diggings (deposited in the ground where waterways… [read more]

Io and Ngos: Socially Term Paper

… As the Aegis Report suggests, "Under pressure from other member states at the UN Security Council, it was convenient for the Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO) not to address the political issues and questions about security, no-fly zones and ending impunity. Instead, the UN and member states hid behind the humanitarian aid effort" (Smith & Walker 2004).

The scale of the situation in Darfur has again and again reached the definition of "genocide" but it is continually disputed by the UN. Writers of the Aegis Report were told over and again by refugees coming over the border to Eastern Chad from Darfur: The Janjaweed want to steal from us, kill us and destroy us, because we are black. Amnesty International documented numerous references to racist language in interviews with refugees. The following is just one example of many: You blacks, you have spoilt the country! We are here to burn you. Ethnic targeting is obvious. Arab villages stand unharmed within sight of destroyed African villages. USAID satellite imagery showed that villages were still being destroyed in large numbers during August despite the stated threat of UN sanctions (Smith & Walker 2004).

With regard to monetary contributions, the United Kingdom above other countries around the world has proved true to its word, delivering a total of £76.7 million since the crisis began to March 2005. Further, the total humanitarian response, as arranged by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) totaled an astounding £62.5 million. Military contributions to the African Union, in the form of equipment, such as "rope, tarpaulins, blankets, land rovers and a total of 140 vehicles" totaling £14.2 million with an addition £12 pledge by PM Tony Blair by October of 2005 (DFID 2005). With regard to [read more]

Europe Imperialism and Decolonization Essay

… Decolonization of the French Empire

When France was conquered by the Germans in 1940, it had a profound effect on France's global empire. French colonies were split between the Vichy government, based in France, and the Free French under the leadership of Charles DeGaulle. When the war was won and Europe liberated by the Allies, French colonies, like many others around the globe, sought to be free of their European overlords. France, however, wanted to re-establish its power over its colonial empire; leading to a number of violent conflicts. Unlike the British, who's decolonization process was somewhat orderly, the French fought tooth and nail to retain their overseas colonies. But after military an intervention in Indochina ended in a humiliating defeat, the French were split over whether to keep fighting to retain their overseas colonies, or simply accept the inevitable and grant them independence. This issue became the source of a nation crisis in France when its colony of Algeria also sought to be independent; with France nearly erupting in a full-blown civil war. In the end, those who wished to maintain their empire at any cost were defeated by the more liberal French under the leadership of DeGaulle; and France abandoned its imperial past. The process of decolonization of the French Empire was extremely difficult and had a profound effect on the national psyche of France. France as a nation transformed from a traditionally oppressive empire into a modern democracy that respects the rights of other nations around the globe; and the French people stopped viewing themselves as superior and their former colonial subjects as inferior.

Unlike the British Empire, the French did not a strong centralized administration for their colonial territories and as a result, the colonies were administered inefficiently and ineffectually. In French Indochina, the incompetence of the French colonial administrators gave rise to an independence movement that ultimately defeated their French masters in 1954 at a place called Dien Bien Phu. The disastrous defeat of the "superior" French at the hands of their "inferior" subjects had a tremendous impact, not only of the French themselves, but many of their other subject peoples… [read more]

Child Trafficking Slave Labor Movie Review

… One planation-owner in the Ivory Coast admitted that the cost of a child started at 230 Euros and that these children were indeed unpaid slave labor. It did not take them long to find many child slaves as young as ten or twelve years old on the cocoa plantations, just selection them at random. They also interviewed children who escaped from plantations and were chased down by the owners, although both the Ivory Coast government and large exporters denied that any of this was going on. After all, these companies are making hundreds of millions of dollars a year from the export of cocoa and 42% of the world's supply comes from the Ivory Coast.

The Dark Side of Chocolate conclusively proved that slave labor is still a reality in the world even in the 21st Century, and that directly or indirectly, some of the largest corporations in the world are profiting from it. Companies like Nestle pay one Euro for a kilogram of cocoa, which eventually becomes forty chocolate bars, but the children who produce it are paid nothing at all except for a minimal amount of food. Government and corporate officials denied that any of this was happening or that it was a major problem, but neither did they wish to see the evidence that slavery was 'normal' in the Ivory Coast, including child slaves who had quite literally been kidnapped and sold. This is against international law and even the policies of the large multinational corporations, but in reality almost nothing is being done about it. They may be paying lip service to laws, regulations and policies against slave labor and child trafficking, but in reality very little actually changes and the ground. Of course, everyone up and done the line admits that it is all a disgrace and moral outrage, even those who profit the most from it, but it still goes on and on.


Mistrati, Miki and U. Roberto Romano Dirs. 2010. The Dark Side of… [read more]

1994 Rwandan Genocide Critique Term Paper

… According to an account by a prominent Rwandan related to Gourevitch: "[S]ince I was four or five years old, I have seen houses destroyed, I have seen people being killed, every few years, 'sixty four, 'sixty-six, 'sixty-seven, 'seventy-three. So probably I told myself it's not going to be serious" (108). These problems, though, did not just fall out of the sky and land on Rwanda, but represent a complex legacy of European colonialism, Rwandan politics as well as the role played by aid organizations in this country today; these issues are discussed further below.

Contribution of European Colonialism, Rwandan Politics and the Role of Different Aid Organizations to the Rwandan Genocide. Although the complex social relations between Tutsi herders and Hutu farmers existed before the arrival of the Europeans at the end of the nineteenth century, Gourevitch points out that it was in the best interests of the newly arrived European colonialists to play both ends against the middle, with themselves the ultimate beneficiaries. In fact, until Mbonyumutwa's [a prominent Hutu chieftain] beating [by the Tutsi radicals] lit the spark in 1959 there had never been systematic political violence recorded between Hutus and Tutsis -- anywhere (Gourevitch 59). According to Gourevitch, after the Hutus had come to dominate Rwandan life, they continued to regard the minority Tutsis as being more ambitious than they were, and perhaps, of being more intelligent as well. The inferiority complex that resulted was the direct result of the colonial period in which the Tutsis had been systematically favored and the Hutus systematically marginalized. Although this ethnic conceptualization was entirely spurious, Gourevitch points out that it did serve as the springboard for what was to follow during those 100 days in 1994. The various nongovernmental agencies (NGOs) that were supposed to help all of the Rwandan citizens also sided with the Habyarimana's regime, and simply ignored the enormity of the human rights abuses and slaughter that were taking place all around them.


As a result of Phillip Gourevitch's efforts in this book, the world is slowly beginning to learn something about the reality of what actually took place in Rwanda during the closing years of the 20th century. In this book, Gourevitch paints a grim picture about the events that led to the 1994 genocide in which hundreds of thousands of Tutsis were massacred to the point where the Hutus almost succeeded in completely eliminating the Tutsi segment of the Rwandan population, as well as countless members of the Hutus themselves to opposed the slaughter in the first place. The systematic and institutionalized method by which this slaughter took place was not unique to Rwanda, of course, but Gourevitch suggests that a combination of a cultural acceptance of violence, the nefarious roles played by NGOs, Rwandan governmental agencies and the nation's churches, all contributed to the genocide that took place during those terrible months of 1994.

Works Cited

Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish… [read more]

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