"Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays

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Tuesdays With Morrie: An Old Man Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,491 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

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¶ … Tuesdays with Morrie: An old man, a young man, and life's greatest lesson by Mitch Albom. Specifically it will discuss the essence of aging portrayed in the book and existential psychology. Albom's book is an emotional look at the end of a man's life, and how that man's life made a difference in the world, and with the… [read more]


Lack of Stimulation in the Elderly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,415 words)
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¶ … stimulation in nursing homes for the purpose of helping residents remain active. The writer, who has worked in nursing homes for the past 27 years has experienced first hand the negative impact that lack of stimulation has had on her clients. The writer explores research regarding the topic and designs a plan in which it would be mandatory… [read more]


Policy on the Oregon Death With Dignity Act Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (622 words)
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¶ … death with dignity is a contentious issue with opposition in courts and in the public. The California Compassionate Choices Act would allow those diagnosed with a terminal illness to choose to end their life with dignity, including choosing physician-assisted suicide. The bill recently failed, but it will certainly return to the ballot in a different form. However, similar measures in many other states have failed, including Michigan, and the only state to currently allow death with dignity is Oregon. Congress has passed laws allowing patients to choose to refuse certain medical care.

End of life issues are complicated. Indeed modern medical practices have improved care and further complicate the issues of when and where a person ends their life. Many prominent medical cases indicate the difficulty of making these decisions, including Karen Quinlan, Elizabeth Bouvia, Robert Wendland, and most recently, Terri Schiavo.

Social workers must be cognizant of the ethical and moral considerations of these difficult choices, and cultural practices and beliefs are a major factor in death with dignity choices.

The Oregon Death with Dignity Act as added to the controversy, but was recently upheld by the Supreme Court. The law has brought death with dignity into the public view, and writings by David Gil continue to inform the public and inflame the issue in some people's minds. The act attempts to give terminally ill or incapacitated patients the choice to die with dignity, when they choose to die. Many European countries have laws defining "terminal" and other conditions, and have condoned euthanasia for many years. A majority of Americans believe a person has the right to end their life in certain situations, and the Oregon law confirms this, as there are more elderly suicides in Oregon than other states.

Two of the most well-known advocates of physician-assisted suicide are Dr. Jack Kevorkian and Dr. Timothy Quill. Moral…… [read more]


Death by Thomas Nagel Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Philosophy

Nagel says that the most serious difficulty with the view that death is always an evil is determining whether death is (always) misfortunate given the human limitation of mortality. He raises a question of how possible a possibility (in this case, continued life) must be in order for it to be considered a misfortune. Because humans have a standard lifespan of no more than 100 years (and an upper limit not much higher than that), Nagel questions whether a person who dies close to that limit (age 82 in his example) has suffered a misfortune (given that he could not possibly have lived much longer). He concludes that even though death is inevitable, it would still be good to live longer. He thinks that the 82-year-old has been deprived of some life, and all of the goods with which life has acquainted him, so death must be a misfortune because it presents "an abrupt cancellation of indefinitely extensive possible goods" (p. 80). Therefore, he concludes that death, regardless of when it happens, by its nature, is bad.

I do not necessarily agree that death is always an evil for several reasons. First, Nagel explicitly says that "life is a good and death is the corresponding deprivation or loss." However, he failed to really establish that life is (necessarily) a good aside from listing things like perception and thought as "goods." To determine this, questions of psychological states and lived experiences seem to need to be addressed. For example, if someone where chronically depressed or in pain, would death, which brings corresponding deprivation (in this case of pain or depression) be evil? Nagel speaks of potential as part of his argument for death's evil, so he might say that people have the potential to enjoy life and death still deprives them of that potential. However, if someone has enjoyed their life little and suffered much, that potential does not negate the lived experience of the person and death might be the only end to their pain. If one views life as both good and bad, then death would negate both good and bad. It would seem, in this view, death's villainous status would depend a lot on experiences while living (answering the question "what exactly is one losing or being deprived of?"). Further, I am not convinced that cessation of pleasurable things (i.e., those things which give life "good" status) is bad either. For example, ending one's cocaine addiction is probably a better than continuing to use, even though it ends his or her experience of pleasure. This raises other questions, such as what qualifies and quantifies good in life.

Second, I am not convinced that he properly dismissed Lucretius' problem of temporal asymmetry. Nagel argues that while it is not possible to have lived before one's birth, it would be possible to live after one's death (if death had not occurred). Being born early, for example, would have either made one a different person or caused him/her to not… [read more]


Death Stats One of the Problems Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  2 pages (593 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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Death Stats

One of the problems that can be examined in this data is whether life expectancy in England and Wales has increased or decreased overall over the past decade. Both of the presentations of data above help to examine this data. The bar graphs very clearly demonstrate how dramatically the number of deaths in the highest age group especially have been decreased, likely due to medical improved interventions. The mean age of death amongst the population for which data was given, however, dropped only slightly. This must be intercepted carefully; the bar graphs make it clear that a change has occurred even if the averages do not indicate a major change, but it must be remembered that the data sets only include individuals that dies between the ages of 45 and 69. Even within this population, the mean age of death has decreased slightly, and the lower absolute numbers in each category between 1998 and 2008 mean that more people are surviving to 70 and beyond.

The data was likely originally collected through medical records and death records logged with various officials. Deaths are recorded as a matter of policy, making the data something the government would automatically have in its possession in most cases. Data was likely culled from these sources, then, and in fact it is likely that a running tally of certain information is kept and fairly regularly updated from incoming death records as hospitals and other medical personnel report them. A frequently updated database would make it incredibly easy for anyone with access to this database to view the original data and its totals. If such a database is not maintained, collating and totaling this data would have been much more time consuming, but would still have been fairly straightforward in…… [read more]


Psychology in the 1950 Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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In the test, subjects rated and described themselves using the five traits. Friends and family would then rate the subjects as well as observers at social situations such as parties and work. The groundbreaking data showed that if the subject described themselves as introspective for example, others would too (Belsky, 1999). Therefore, the way people view and describe their personality traits are generally accurate and are viewed similarly by others. In addition to this, their studies showed that a pessimistic outlook on life is generally a stressful burden older people will carry with them if not altered in youth (Belsky, 1999).

When the elderly pass away, people often speak of the legacy of the deceased and what they have left behind. This is also generally something the elderly contemplate often before their passing (Belsky, 1999). The idea of leaving behind a legacy and having hope for future generations of humanity to strive is referred to as generativity in the psychological sense. Psychologists Dan McAdams proved through several charts and tests that generativity is heightened at later stages of life (Belsky, 1999). This appears to be because older adults have had a long amount of time to contemplate life and it's priorities. Also, the elderly have more time to establish an emotional connection with the world and its inhabitants before they leave and therefore may have more desire than their younger counterparts for the world and life to continue (Belsky, 1999).

Psychologist Hazel Markus introduced the concept of the self-schema in which humans gain knowledge of who they are and envision what their future will be like (Belsky, 1999). According to Markus, our self-schemas guide us to choices as they are our perceived idea of our adult-development and therefore greatly effect it (Belsky, 1999). In an all-encompassing manner, Laura Cartensen developed the Socioemotional-Selectivity Theory which explains humans attachments to particularly people. Basically, due to aging, humans generally come to a point where they attempt to focus more on the present and creating a positive emotional state for themselves (Belsky, 1999). Because of this, people want to surround themselves with people and things they feel familiar, at peace, and joyous with. Death can be a time of darkness for many and therefore being surrounded by love and joy is important to the elderly which leads to the selectivity of positivity.

Reference List

The Psychology of Aging. (2009) University of Southern California. .

F. De Fruyt, R.R. McCrae, Z. Szirmak, & J. Nagy (2004). The Five-factor Personality

Inventory as a measure of the Five-factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R. NCBI Vol. 11 (3), 207-15.

Belsky, J. (1999). The Psychology…… [read more]


Use of Concept Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … death" has numerous meanings. Death can be both an event and a construct -- that is, death can be an event in the sense that one dies and is no longer alive and death can also be an event as in the end of something in a more abstract way. Death, for the most part, signifies something's irreversibility as well as something's inability to function further. Most of us think of death as being irreversible, but then how is it that some people have claimed to have "died" and have "come back to life?" If death can be irreversible in some cases, then just what exactly is this thing that we call death? And can some of us avoid it?

For the most part, most of us would agree with the notion that death is something that is irreversible. Nurses will see people die -- die in the sense that their bodies give out, their hearts stop, their brains no longer emit messages to parts of our bodies, and thus the people are no longer able to function in the world of the living. The belief of most is that once someone is dead, they can no longer return to the world of the living; that is, they can no longer walk, talk, breath and inhabit the living world. Death is irreversible for most of us in terms of the way that we think. While there are people who may have ideas about what happens to our bodies after we die, whether it is reincarnation or whether it is that we will live another life in an afterlife, the bottom line is that we are no longer a part of the world that we know. Thus, death in the world as we know it is irreversible.

Death can also be something that makes us not able to function in a more literal sense. Technically and medically speaking, the brain can die and the body can go on living if it is kept alive by machines. In this way, the body is still alive even though the brain is dead and the body is no longer able to function in the world. The body loses all of its ability to see, to smell, to hear, to touch and to be mobile, yet it lives on in the most basic sense. If we are to believe that there is a life in us that cannot die (that is, a spirit), this spirit is not able to keep up alive in the sense of what we know life to be. We may believe that we are eternal, but whatever we may be eternal in ourselves will not be able to keep us functioning in the world as human beings.

Death is something that is a universal concept. Even as children we are aware of our own mortality. Death is a concept that is ingrained in our biology. Even the youngest child cries when it is in danger. The child wants to… [read more]


Humanistic or Secular Approach to Death Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (731 words)
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Humanistic or Secular Approach to Death

One reality that people learn to live with very early in life is that death is inevitable. It is the end of all human beings, and indeed, of all living things on earth. At some point, death will come for all of us. This reality is most profoundly considered in Aurelius' writing. I find his writing on death not only more secular or humanistic, but in a very fundamental sense more realistic than any of the "traditional" views I have encountered so far. I do believe that it is possible for all human beings to attain this view of death. However, it will also depend on the specific person involved and his or her religious views. Some individuals will find it more difficult to adopt Aurelius' views, but this certainly does not mean that it is impossible for them to do so.

In today's world, many people are religiously oriented, especially in terms of their views on death. Because of the traditional concept of death as holding either eternal reward or eternal punishment for how life was conducted, many people have a profound fear of death. Others, in turn, look forward to it as if it is by far desirable above the physical life that we enjoy now. A large amount of fear regarding death therefore consists in the fact that we, as religious people, fear punishment.

Aurelius, however, does not consider this a valid viewpoint. Indeed, he even briefly caters for the fact that the "gods" of his time might not exist. He argues, however, that, if they do exist, they mean no harm to human spirits. Indeed, in Aurelius' view, they are either concerned with human well-being or indifferent. This might be a difficult point for today's fundamental Christians to accept. Hence, for the extremely religious, I think it is possible to accept Aurelius' view, since we are all rational human beings but it is somewhat unlikely.

Another profoundly interesting point that Aurelius makes is more difficult to argue with. Death is as natural as life itself and as birth. He argues that no rational, adult human being should fear death because it can be accepted simply…… [read more]


Healthy Aging Health Care Disparities Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … beliefs, hopes, fears and expectations for your own aging.

As I grow older, it is my hope that I will have taken the necessary steps to prepare a transition in support needs. This includes surrounding myself with a loving support system, taking proper medical steps to improve quality of life and making the proper decisions as a functional adult so that my wishes can be carried out when I no longer have the wherewithal to express them. I am increasingly aware today that the ways I prepare for later life as I grow older in terms of lifestyle and planning will determine how I live as I age.

Describe what is meant by the diversity of older adults and the effects of gender.

The diversity of older adults is comprised of the variance in ages that are implicated by the term. The categories of elderly are distinguished by advancing age sets in which certain health concerns become larger and more permeating. Where gender is concerned, many of these needs divide across this dimension as particularized health risks such as prostate cancer in men or breast cancer in women are concerned.

3. Define in one sentence each of the following concepts of chronological age, identifying its relativity, the concepts of 'young-old,' 'old-old,'? And 'elite old', functional, chronological and biological/physiological age.

According to our research, young-old refers to those just entering retirement age and typically falling between the ages of 65 and 74. Old-old refers to adults between the ages of 85 and 94, at which many of the advancing health and physical challenges of aging become persistent. Elite-old adults are those who advance to 95 years and beyond. Functional age refers to the capacity of the individual to continue to perform in certain faculties such as physical mobility or mental comprehension as one grows older. Chronological refers to the actual age of the individual in years.…… [read more]


Gerontology: Assessment and Ethical Concerns Gerontology Studies Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Gerontology: Assessment and Ethical Concerns

Gerontology studies currently predict that the number of people above the age of 65 will double within the next thirty years (Miller, Zylstra & Standridge, 2000). This will place a substantial strain on medical resources as geriatric patients develop age-related illnesses. It is thus important for physicians to develop efficient geriatric assessment tools and understand the various ethical concerns that arise in treating older adults.

The assessment of older patients differs in a number of ways. Most significantly, the geriatric assessment focuses on intellectual impairment, immobility, instability, incontinence, and iatrogenic disorders (Elsawy & Higgins, 2011). These are the most prevalent problems faced by elderly patients and are often missed in a standard medical evaluation. The treatment of geriatric patients also differs in scope. Due to the complex problems faced by elderly patients, often exacerbated by mental illnesses, the assessment emphasizes the functional status and quality of life and generally involves an interdisciplinary team of healthcare providers.

A comprehensive geriatric assessment focus current symptoms and illnesses and their functional impact, medications, past illnesses, recent life changes, social functionality and current living environment (Elsawy & Higgins, 2011). It tries to place the patient's illness into a social aspect. It includes objective measures of cognitive status, mobility and balance, emotional health, nutritional status but also ascertains the family situation and assistance availability.

The health history consists of both present and past illnesses. The assessment team of physicians will prompt the patient for severity and persistence of current symptoms and record childhood diseases, hospitalizations, medications and diet. Other components of the health history include a social history charting relationships, vocation and most importantly sleep, exercise, recreation, and habits of drug consumption. A family history that maps the presence of disease with recognized familial importance including diabetes, hypertension, allergies, heart disease and neurological or psychiatric diseases are also identified. Signs of osteoporosis and arthritic are also assessed in order to measure the risk of falling (Miller, Zylstra & Standridge, 2000).

There are a number of assessment tools that are specifically designed for the evaluation of older adults. Wallace and Fulmer describe the SPICES tool, which tests for the common syndromes requiring nursing intervention (2007). The acronym stands for sleeping disorders, problems with eating or feeding, incontinence, confusion, evidence of falls and skin breakdown. The validity and reliability of this tool has been confirmed in…… [read more]


Ljl Human Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Because so many of the elderly don't have their drivers license, and many don't need to have one, and also need care to the extent that they are unable to attend to the toiletry task on their own. This is something that is alienating and regressive and plays a part in the cognitive and emotional deterioration of the elderly

:… [read more]


Euthanasia Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Conclusion:

Since euthanasia is not a standard medical practice, several arguments have been raised regarding its legality and morality. Some of the major arguments include voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia though each has certain drawbacks. As a result of the disadvantages, a middle ground position is the most logical solution for the problem or issue. The middle ground position involves administering euthanasia based on the patient's medical condition and its appropriateness rather than its legality or morality. It's a logical solution because it enables terminally-ill patients to have the right to a dignified death, whereas physicians have the moral responsibility to keep their patients alive.

Works Cited:

De Boer, Marike E., Rose-Marie Dro Es, Cees Jonker, Jan A. Eefsting, and Cees M.P.M. Hertogh. "Advance Directives for Euthanasia in Dementia: How Do They Affect Resident Care in Dutch Nursing Homes? Experiences of Physicians and Relatives." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 59.6 (2011): 989-96. Print.

Fenigsen, Richard. "Other People's Lives: Reflections on Medicine, Ethics, and Euthanasia." Issues in Law & Medicine 27.1 (2011): 51-70. Print.

Lewis, Penney. "The Empirical Slippery Slope from Voluntary to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics (2007): 197-210. Print.

McGee, Andrew. "Me and My Body: The Relevance of the Distinction for the Difference between Withdrawing Life Support and Euthanasia." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics (2011): 671-77. Print.

"Should Euthanasia or Physician-assisted Suicide Be Legal?" Euthanasia - ProCon.org. ProCon.org, 24 May 2012. Web. 10 June…… [read more]


Functionalist, Conflict, & Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … CPR: Analysis of "Sudden Death and the Myth of CPR" by Stefan Timmermans

Although it has become the norm of most medical institutions when dealing with sudden death, out-of-hospital CPR or cardiopulmonary resuscitation is statistically-proven to be an ineffective form of intervention to prevent sudden deaths. In Stefan Timmermans' "Sudden death and the myth of CPR," he explores the nature of CPR as it is experienced by hospital personnel, wherein a different perspective in practicing the said life-saving procedure can be generated. The author's discussion and analysis of CPR critically assesses how CPR, despite its ineffectiveness in saving lives, has perpetuated and dominated the medical field, especially in this period of advanced medical technology.

The analysis evidently subscribes to the conflict perspective, wherein a critical analysis demonstrates the reinforcement of CPR in order to alleviate worries and apprehensions of the patient's family and relatives. Moreover, the analysis also shows that preoccupation on preventing sudden deaths through CPR results to the gradually decreasing value of community-shared (or family-shared) tradition of mourning the dead and grievance. These are the important points that reflect contemporary society today, wherein fear of death is perpetuated and death in itself becomes a technical concept that must be dealt with through the medical staff or hospital personnel -- that is, death an impersonal view of death.

Timmermans' main points are expressed effectively all throughout the book. In discussing the myth of CPR, he criticizes the mass media in bringing into the minds of their audience an inaccurate perception of what CPR is. His ethnographic research for more than one year of observing medical procedures conducted at the event of sudden death in hospitals show that "...if the purpose and expectation of CPR is to save human lives from sudden death, resuscitative interventions are largely failures...Belief in the resuscitation has the value of a revered cultural myth perpetuated by "real-life" television shows and…… [read more]


Hospitalization of Older People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Hospitalization of Older People

Hospitals as Recovery Institutions

Hospitals are designed to be places of caring and nurturing with an emphasis on the physical healing and recovery of the patient. Typically - and as in their day-to-day living situations - special care is mandatory for senior citizens if inherent risks are to be reduced and/or avoided.

With the largest percentage - in recorded history - of the population nearing senior age, the inherent and controllable factors to the dangers of hospitalization must be dealt with - and soon.

The focus of this paper is to delve into some the issues facing aging patients and how the day-to-day role and interaction of a nurse can impact that risk.

Decline - Physical

Decline is a key problem facing older patients and the hospitalization experience often accelerates the problem. Being in a bed for long periods places the elderly at risk for decubitus growth, respiratory diseases such as bronchial infections or deadly pneumonia, and psychological decline. Well meaning enough, hospitals often ignore the special needs of such patients. Offering them foods to which they are unaccustomed, allowing long periods of bedfast inactivity, and delaying critical physical therapy are all factors which can quickly contribute to their rapid decline and even death.

Decline - Cognitive

Memory problems, confusion, dementia, situational hallucinations, and the reduction in mental coping skills are all inherent in placing older people into an institutional setting where the patient may not have the level of comfort and sense of safety they may have at home.

Advantages - Physical

Hospitalization for senior people can be desirable situation. Timed care, intervention medical procedures, poly-pharmacy management, and other support services can prolong life, provide safety measures, and the like.

According to the Irish Medical Organisation, Mallow General Hospital is addressing the aging dynamic through the "Aging with Confidence" programs. This program "will allow the elderly to be treated in their own community and lessen the effects of institutionalisation of our elderly (the biggest increasing work load for the future).

By treating the geriatric patient in a community setting, much of the cognitive problem is avoided; the patient is familiar with their surroundings and much of their normal routine may be implemented into their daily care.

Nursing Interventions

The nurse is the first line of defense in caring for the patient; senior patients benefit from nurses who have a high degree of empathy for the patient's needs and experiences.

In one hospital system - the Cabell Huntington Medical - nurses and nurse…… [read more]


Images of Aging Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (865 words)
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Images of aging have been observing some old people for some time now, and I have noticed some distinct outstanding features that set them apart from people of other age groups.

One of the most outstanding features is their positive attitude to life. On having lived a long life and experienced a lot of things, they know and have accepted life's vicissitudes. They, no longer, complain about why what happened in their lives. They would, in fact, tell you that they learned a greater deal from the bad situations in their lives.

This does not mean elderly don't complain at all. They would, especially complain about young generations' attitude towards life (which is usually care-free, seeking short-cuts in life, ingratitude etc.) and their treatment (or rather mistreatment) of important things/people in life including themselves. The latter is something that annoys them most, the reason clearly being their old age and amass experience.Due to which they demand for respect, which they quiet rightly deserve.

Another feature of the old people that can never go unnoticed is their continuous reiteration of their life's special moments with all the details, including who was present then and how they reacted. They would incessantly remind you of importance of principles in life (hard work, patience, tolerance, respect) and how they (the old people) implied them in their lives and succeeded.

While, remembering those moments, you can see how all the emotions they felt then, reappear, making the environment extremely nostalgic and stories, very interesting.

Another interesting part of their conversation is their witty sense of humor.

One more thing that is very adorable is their absolute bluntness with zero percent of pretence.They ask for what they want, regardless of whether they know you or not and you can't help, helping them. They don't pretend to be anyone, they say what they want to, whether you like it or not. And they don't feel bad about it because they believe it's their right which is something everyone knows and therefore no one complains.

But, however, someone's constant demand for attention can be very irritating. Some might pretend to be sick to get that extra care and attention. However, those who have been working all their lives (mainly men), could still love to work and remain involved in some activity or hobby. They might be very reluctant to help.

Some typical activities of old people are going to church or any holy place, gardening, reading newspapers for long hours and walking in the park. Old people don't like to be left alone and it may be one of many…… [read more]


Tuesdays With Morrie People React Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,259 words)
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I want to tell you about my life. I want to tell you before I can't tell you any more. I want someone to hear my story." (p. 63) It was one more indication of the terrible nature of Morrie's illness: the time would come when his brain would still work but he would not have any way to communicate with people.

Morrie had lots of things he wanted to talk with Albom about -- feeling sorry for oneself, the fear of aging, and one that has probably crossed many people's minds -- regrets. Albom insightfully puts this issue where it belongs: it's an issue of selfishness. What have I missed out on? What did I deserve that I didn't get? Where was I deprived? Interestingly, Morrie understands the issue in the same way, even though Albom didn't present it in selfish terms. He said that people are so busy acquiring things and experiences that they do not stop to think about what they really do and do not want. The discussion had impact and importance for Albom. He made a list of major life issues, realizing that there were no definitive answers to life's questions. Morrie faced the same questions, but instead of telling Mitch Albom what he had discovered are and are not important, he insisted that Mitch sort it out himself. Even as he was dying, Morrie was still the professor.

Morrie began to deteriorate in the one area still useful for him -- communication. Mitch watched him on a TV show and saw that he couldn't gesture with his hands the way he had in the past, and that he had trouble pronouncing some words. Morrie was now losing what had become most important to him. In this interview, Morrie also revealed how profoundly he understood loss: his mother had died seventy years ago, and he still wept at the thought of losing her. Morrie knew very well what those who loved him were going through.

Throughout the book, Mitch includes anecdotes from his own life, written in short sections and printed in italics. After Mitch talks about the death of Morrie's mother, Mitch tells how his brother and he were nearly hit by a car on a sled. At the last moment the car swerves, and they are safe. The juxtaposition of their possible brush with death and Morrie's inexorable march toward death, with no chance that the car will swerve for him, dramatizes the significant difference between how people think about death when it's an abstract possibility compared to facing death as an impending certainty.

At the end of the book, Morrie does reveal that he has a regret: a friend with whom he has had a schism tries to repair the friendship several times, but Morrie declines. The friend dies of cancer before Morrie can forgive him and re-establish what was once an important friendship. Once again, Morrie has refused to sugar-coat either his life or his death. To the very end, Morrie… [read more]


Social Aging Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (374 words)
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Aging & Personal Motivation

At present, I would consider myself as a mix between being internally oriented and field independent. This means that most of the time, I believe that I am capable of controlling my environment, especially in determining my choices and chances in life. Moreover, I believe my trait of being internally-oriented is also related to my being field independent, where I feel no need to depend on other people in order to accomplish my daily tasks, or simply because I feel the need to socialize or interact with them. Right now, I have a lot of opportunities that I alone can decide what to choose, and it is only through my skills and knowledge that I will be able to become successful as an individual. At present, I believe that I still have a lot to prove to myself, I yearn things in order to improve myself as an individual. Thus, right now, my concern is to contribute further to my personal development as an individual, allowing myself to be influenced by my social environment only once in a while, especially when the need…… [read more]


Opportunities and Protections Aging Related Public Policy Initiatives Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Protective Services for the Elderly

Aging and the elderly have become an increasing concern, especially in the Western world today. The fact is that the population is aging and will most likely continue to do so as a result of better medical care, more individual concern with aging in a healthy way, and avoiding unhealthy lifestyles and choices. The EPA… [read more]


Policy Considerations in the Development and Implementation Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,511 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

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¶ … policy considerations in the development and implementation of an aging-related service program. What specific aging-related factors of an older client need to be considered in offering such services? Give 2 examples of such situations that may occur in the "real world" service with an aging population.

Policy considerations in the development as well as implementation of aging-related service… [read more]


Dementia Deficiency of Mental Ability Acute Enough Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Dementia

deficiency of mental ability acute enough to hinder with normal actions of daily living, which persists for more than six months, which is not present from birth and which is not connected with loss or modification of consciousness is Dementia. (Dementia: (http://www.healthatoz.com) Dementia is the deficiency of mental abilities and most normally arises only in the later part of… [read more]


Death and Dying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (342 words)
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Death and Dying

The five stages of dying as expressed in the Kubler-Ross theory may apply to some instances but they do not fit all cultural and individual cases. The five stages she describes in her book, on Death and Dying are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. However, these reactions are also subject to various cultural influences and differences.

These stages are possibly more applicable to Western secular society and typically modern responses to death and dying. Different cultures have different modes and ways of understanding the meaning of death and particular views with regard to dealing with the inevitability of the fact of death.

Most of these stages mentioned by Kubler-Ross for example would not apply to most traditional Eastern views of death and dying. In the first instance, Eastern views of death are often very different and the stage of denial would generally not be acceptable to this view. This would apply to Buddhist views where death is seen as a form of welcome 'releasement' or transcendence of…… [read more]


Graying of America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (317 words)
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Aging and Politics

One definition of politics is "the process for determining who gets what, when, and how." Of course, politics don't exist without people, and the average age of the people who populate the United States is changing. Due to the combination of the "baby boomer" generation approaching retirement and a significant increase in how long people live, older people are going to become a larger and larger segment of the U.S. population. From 1990 to 2000 the number of people from ages 45 to 54 increased from about 19 million to about 38 million. 38 million people is a large constituency, and the aging of America will continue for decades.

Older people in the U.S. have already discovered political clout as evidenced by organizations such as the "Gray Panthers" and the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP).

As people of retirement age make up more and more of the country's population, fewer people will be available…… [read more]


Nursing Death and Dying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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137). Many other cultures, including the Jewish culture and Catholics, believe the dying person must confess their sins on their deathbed, to clear the pathway to Heaven and assure their soul's repose in Heaven.

In most Arabic countries, their beliefs on death and dying are closely related to the writings in the Qur'an. Muslims also believe in reincarnation or life after death, and that the dying person must prepare for death. However, they also believe there is a barrier between death and delivery to Heaven, and some souls cannot cross that barrier. "According to traditional accounts, once separated from the body the soul begins a journey heavenward. Modeled on the mystical journey taken by the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem to heaven, the soul is escorted by the angel Gabriel through seven layers of heaven" (Kramer, 1988, p. 160). Many Catholics believe some souls remain in purgatory for eternity, never reaching Heaven or Hell. However, Muslims believe souls will reach the seven layers of heaven or burn in Hell, there is no in between. Muslims must also prepare for death, it is quite important to them. They believe, "The best way to prepare for dying is to practice the sacred art of dying while alive. Practicing fana is to concentrate one's purpose on loving God everywhere, in everyone, and on maintaining recollection upon God's truth" (Kramer, 1988, p. 163). Thus, most Arabic cultures spend their lives trying to live spiritual lives to prepare themselves for death.

Humans are not the only species that have elaborate and varied beliefs about life and death. Even animals have been seen creating elaborate graves for their dead. For example, elephants in the wild have been observed burying their own dead and even other animals, and covering them with leaves, mud, and dirt (Aiken, 2001, p. 127). It is important, even vital, to understand the beliefs and practices of other cultures when it comes to death and dying, so that the nurse does not offend family and friends as their loved one passes on.

References

Aiken, L.R. (2001). Dying, death, and bereavement (4th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kramer, K.P. (1988). The sacred art…… [read more]


Biology of Aging Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Senescent cells are essentially cells that "promote the aging of tissues" (Wade 2011). These cells increase the signs and process of aging within older tissue because they accumulate aging within the skin. They do so by creating a low level of inflammation by increasing the reaction f the immune system within the skin in question.

Chambers et al. showed that there is a possibility for homeostasis living systems to not strive for homeostasis. Essentially, there are certain cells that do not contribute the regulation of the internal environment within the body, and actually disrupt its normal functioning as in the case of cancer cells (Conti 2008). Many types of cells, including undifferentiated stem cells, often do not turn towards promoting homeostasis. This often increases with age.

Studies on various forms of progeria show that there are often genetic conditions which can mimic the signs of aging. Huntington-Gilford progeria and Werner's syndrome are dominant genetic diseases that increased the speed of the aging process. These conditions show that normal aging may be linked to genetic predispositions, as it is triggered by genetic material.

4. Gene splicing alters with age, which means that the process of gene splicing changes with age to trigger the signs and conditions of aging. The quote shows that Hutchinson-Gilford porgeria syndrome is comparable to artificially made senescent cells (Science Daily 2011). The fact that progeria might be considered a process of normal aging is representative of theses that show the production of progeria as a biomarker of normal cellular aging which can be linked to terminal differentiation (McClintock et al. 2007).

5. There are a number of major causes of aging within the human body. Yet, the Programmed Cellular Aging Theory shows that the biggest causes are actually an impairment of the cell's ability to transfer necessary RNAs. This is often caused by DNA increasingly turning off particular functions based on a predetermined genetic setting.

6. Aging research must receive more attention within the public eye in order to generate enough funding to really examine the process of aging on a cellular level. It is important to direct future efforts to understanding how the cellular process impacts aging and how it can lead to future developments in preventing aging.

7. Luckily, living organisms can repair damage at the cellular level. DNA repair…… [read more]


Stem Cell Research the Issue of Federal Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Stem Cell Research

The issue of federal funding for embryos stem cell research is one of the most contentious and painful topics in the area of public health, because the arguments for an against are so wildly divergent in terms of logical soundness and moral legitimacy. On the one hand are proponents of federal funding, who argue that stem cell… [read more]


Ram Dass Still Here Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
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It should not be wasted in fear of something we all have to go through.

Dass explains that his stroke reminded him of the frailty of his physical form, and was in many ways a way for him to prepare for the major changes that were to come. So many people view these types of tragedies just as that -- tragic. They fight the frailty of their physical bdies, trying to regain a strength that has long since past them. Many refuse to accept the help from others during this vulnerable period, trying to reassert their older physical presence and autonomy within their lives. Yet this is only denying the inevitable and making it harder to embrace the changes that are yet to come. By fighting so hard against life and what it ultimately has planned for us all, one misses out on an essential preparation period before the big change actually comes. One must embrace the love and help of others, rather than try to fight it, because this is the period where one can enjoy all the friendships and family that one has spent an entire lifetime building. After everything we all do for those around us, this is a period where we can accept help in return without worries about selfishness or trying to pay people back. Accepting the help we need from others is a natural humbling process that once again prepares us for what is to come, but also shows us how great our lives really were.

Ultimately, Dass explains that he really does not have the answer to that big, controversial question. He cannot tell any of us for certain what is going to happen next after we die. Sitting around and trying to figure that out will only complicate and frustrate oneself during the twilight period of their lives, where they should be enjoying the company of others and sitting back remembering all the wonderful things their physical lives had brought them. From this perspective, he writes "one of the best parts of aging is entering the 'don't know,' learning to be someone who can rest comfortably in uncertainty" (Dass 2001). The idea here is that no one knows for certain what comes after death, or even when death will actually come for them. Our human brains are only so limited, and are not capable of understanding the how and why of the spiritual world that awaits us. Stressing about these unanswerable questions will only make those last few years more complicated and depressing. In this older stage of life, people have to let go of this need to control everything. They cannot control death, they cannot fear death, they simply have to just be content in understanding that their lives are now in greater hands, and when the time comes -- it comes. Dass professes such a practical pholisiohpy beautifully throughout his work. It is definitely a perfect match for the type of alternative philosophy he first discussed earlier in his life.… [read more]


Alzheimer's Adult Daycare for Patients Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  5 pages (1,446 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Vreugdenhil, Anthea, Cannell, John, Davies, Andrew, and Razay, George. (2011). A community-based exercise programme to improve functional ability in people with Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 26(1), 12-19.

When evaluating an ideal daycare setting to benefit an individual suffering from an advancing Alzheimer's or dementia-related condition, it is important to consider so of the… [read more]


Prince Prospero in Edger Allen Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Prospero eventually overcomes his reluctance as he is the only one who approaches the ugly stranger, but this is only after much deliberation and attempts at getting his friends to do it for him. The party itself also demonstrates how Prince Prospero was reluctant to face not only the death of himself but a massive apocalyptic plague that had taken over the fictional land.

What Poe's story is truly expressing, is that Prince Prospero's ignorance is what is causing all of his problems. This main quality of the character drives the weird and macabre story that Poe is trying to inflict on his readers. Prospero is happy burying his head in the sand and letting others solve his problems for him. This mindset is the cause of all his fears as he knows nothing about the outside world and has shut himself off from the rest of society in an ignorant fashion.

Prince Prospero's ignorance is epitomized in his hurried attempts to seize the stranger and attack him with a dagger. A hasty attack performed by the prince suggests that he has no idea what is really going on and has now resorted to violence to solve his thirst for knowledge. Ignorance is usually followed by inane violence and Prince Prospero is no exception in this case. Poe's use of placing such an ignorant character as Prospero and entitling him with nobility may suggest Poe's contempt for the ignorance of the elitists in his day.

Since Prince Prospero is the only well defined character in this story his contributing qualities reveal much about the more finer and subtle messages the author has placed within the depths of this short story. By demonstrating fear, ignorance and reluctance we see how Prince Prospero has met a rather chilling and frightening end to his life and, at the same time, begin to understand the importance of liberating yourself from your own fears despite the risk and danger to the act itself.

References

Poe, E. "The Masque of the Red Death" at EServer.org… [read more]


Thomas/Dickinson Comparison the Theme of Death Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (741 words)
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Thomas/Dickinson Comparison

The theme of death has often been explored in poetry and provides insight into poets' personal belief systems, exposing their anxieties, fears, or acceptance of the phenomena. Two poems that explore the theme of death are Emily Dickinson's "Because I could not stop for Death" and Dylan Thomas's "Do not go gentle into that good night." Each of these authors provides a distinct perspective into death and are able to express their thoughts and beliefs through their poems.

Emily Dickinson accepts death as a natural part of her life and is not fearful or anxious about death or dying. In "Because I could not stop for Death," Dickinson personifies death in order to make the concept more familiar, and gives him gentlemanly qualities to further create familiarity. In the poem, Dickinson eloquently describes death and writes, "Because I could not stop for Death/He kindly stopped for me…/we slowly drove, he knew no haste/and I had put away/My labor, and my leisure too. / for his civility" (Dickinson lines 1-2, 5-8). As "Because I could not stop for Death" develops, Dickinson approaches her advancement towards the end of her life calmly. She points out "the School...the Fields of Grazing Grain,...[and] the Setting Sun" memories that have brought her joy and meaning to her life (9, 11-12). However, as Death passes the carriage, Dickinson's attitude changes, and although she is not fearful, she is altered. Dickinson writes, "The Dews drew quivering and chill -- / for only Gossamer my Gown -- / My tippet -- only Tulle" (Dickinson, 1890, lines 14-16). "Because I could not stop for Death" concludes with a tone of acceptance and comfort as Dickinson arrives at her final resting place, which she terms her home. Dickinson writes that her carriage -- and thus her life -- has come to an end as it "paused before a house that seemed / a swelling of the Ground -- / the Roof was scarcely visible -- / the Cornice -- in the Ground" (17-20). The poem concludes with Dickinson embracing the finality of death, and is comforted by the fact that she recognized death as a natural part of life.

On the contrary, Thomas is anxious and fearful about…… [read more]


Aging and the Family-Work Link Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (531 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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They also examined different personal life histories of women and how caregiving and the work-family problem have defined female Mexican's lives.

However, while the authors do establish that they will use a mixed methods approach and fuse both independent research and a literature review, the specific sections of the study where one approach may be emphasized over another approach are not clear. Also, the final research implications are not even hinted at, even by the end of the introduction. The significance of the specific decades emphasized in the title is also uncertain. Overall, while the importance of the research is established in the introduction, as well as its descriptive quality, it is uncertain as to why the mixed methods approach was necessary or how the specific information accumulated can illuminate or potentially solve the issues raised in the initial first sentences of the research. Greater clarity in the initial lead-up to the story in the introduction as well as a more focused purpose statement would have improved this article tremendously. Regardless of the significance of the subsequent research, a good introduction is essential to indicate to readers why the article is important and worthy of attention.

Reference

Blanco, M. & Pacheco, E. (2009). Aging and the family-work link: A comparative analysis of two generations of Mexican women (1936-1938 and 1951-1953).…… [read more]


Life Stage of Late Adulthood Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,780 words)
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¶ … Old

The Very Late Old: Sociologist Daniel Levinson described eight stages of adulthood (e.g., Levinson, 1986). The last stage of adulthood, late adulthood, occurs at age 65 and beyond. Levinson's theory was originally described many years ago and as medical advances continue the late adulthood stage of Levinson's been expanded considerably (Hutchinson, 2011). The oldest of the old… [read more]


Strong Issue Term Paper

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He saw prisoners tortured, shot and worked to death by the thousands, their money and property stolen and their lives ended suddenly and with maximum brutality. In April 1939, a typhus epidemic in Buchenwald that spread to the Germans in the surrounding districts led Hitler to issue an order that all Jews who had visas to leave the country would be released from the camps. Bettleheim noted the irony of inmates who "began thinking of their tormentor as their savior," but he was fortunate to escape to America before Hitler issued his Final Solution order (Pollak, p. 89). Once he and his family escaped, of course, he did everything possible to warn the Allied nations of the true situation in Germany and what was really happening in the camps.

Most people in history did not even regard death as an evil but as a passport into the afterlife, which they hoped would be better. This was particularly true in those times when only 5% of the population lived to age sixty and the majority died in childhood. In that situation, humanity had lower expectations and a more stoic attitude about suffering and death, as in the case in poor countries today. Perhaps science will advance in the future to the point where poverty, suffering, disease and death will become extinct on earth, and humans in the centuries ahead will move out into space and encounter other advanced civilizations. No one can know this with any certainty, but it may very well be possible, at least to the degree that it would be better to take a gamble on the future being an improvement on the present. Given that this possibility exists, then it will not do to simply take a blase attitude toward death and ultimate extinction -- insofar as these ideas are something more than cynical philosophical poses.

REFERENCES

Bauman, Z. (2003). Liquid Love: On the Frailty of Human Bonds. Polity Press.

Benatar, D. (2204). "Why It Is Better Never to Come into Existence" in D. Benatar (ed). Life, Death and Meaning. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Lenman,…… [read more]


Puritan Life Was Heavily Contaminated Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
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The funeral is used as a metaphor for this loss and due to its association with death. She is present for the funeral, signifying her ability to watch herself slip in to this new state of existence. She is the subject of the funeral, as well as a participant. She "feels" the service rather than experiencing it. The death mentioned in this poem marks a psychological change of mental state and although it may appear unorthodox, it continues to follow the puritan belief that nothing can be done to change one's destiny. According to puritan theology, a person's life is pre-determined, denying them the ability to change the path they are on, which can be seen in the poem. As the narrator states, "and when they all were seated, a service like a drum kept beating, beating, till I thought my mind was going numb." Here, the reader can feel the narrator's involuntary journey to insanity. By the end of the poem, she sees herself as "some strange race," marking the end of her transformation in to a sort of reclusive oddity and leaving her old self behind and deceased.

These three poems all describe death in different ways. The first mentions an un-known transcendence to the afterlife that is terribly interrupted by an insect. It marks the physical process that is brought on by death and brings the narrator face-to-face with her own mortality. The second poem describes a spiritual yet involuntary process that occurs when a person dies. It is a peaceful transition from life to death and represents a person that has lived a full and satisfying life. The third and final poem explains a mental death, one that takes place while the person is still breathing. It explores the dangers of solitary confinement and suggests that death may occur when the heart…… [read more]


God and Good Death Concept Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (642 words)
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Those providing treatment for whatever malady is creating the reasons for the suicide consideration are armed with volumes of information. Additionally, the afflicted patient has his or her own quality of life issues in her own consciousness to be of assistance.

It is the third prong of the analysis voluntariness that causes the most concern. Voluntariness is unfortunately a state of mind and, as such, it is impossible to ever be sure. State of mind is a purely personal thing and so impossible to measure but the physical expression of voluntariness is easier to ascertain.

In the legal arena consent is often a determining factor. It comes into play in determining the difference between theft and loans. It is the difference in determining whether an act is "having sex" or rape. Someone society finds a way to make a determination in these situations so why not in the case of assisted suicide?

The legality of assisted suicide is likely to remain a hotly contested issue for many years. There are a variety of philosophies on both sides of the issue and some are irreconcilable. Nevertheless, in a society that professes the individual right to choose some form of legal assisted suicide should be available as an option. Through legalization adequate counseling can be provided to insure that the person requesting the suicide has the requisite capacity to decide, is fully informed, and is doing so voluntarily. Finally, legalization would insure that the process was being done under the guidance and control of medical professionals trained in the procedure. This combination of personnel would create the situation long sought by philosophers of providing the "good death." The debates will continue but at least those seeking relief will be in control of their own destiny. (Frey)

Works Cited

Frey, R.G., and Wellman, Christopher Heath. A Companion to Applied Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.… [read more]


Caregiving to Elderly People Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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It would help them to provide a caregiver from the same ethnical background who understands the culture and rituals of the certain ethnical background. The strategy would be organizing some social groups including caregivers and elderly people sharing same ethnical background and language. It could be more beneficial for them to exchanging ideas than being lectured. Therefore, they should be talking, explaining their feelings and experiences during these social work groups.

These classes for the caregivers should be given at the conference rooms of the Hope Hospice to provide a high attendance and opportunity to experiment the theories given during the theoretical sessions. Elderly caregiving is difficult not only for the caregiver but also the elder person. Therefore, some collaborative classes should be projected with counselors and psychologists.

The meeting is going to take place at 21st of October between 1 pm and 2pm at Hope Hospice Community Room. The participants will be enlightened in the aspects of physical and mental changes of elderly people as well as the quality of caregiving and caregiver's physical and psychological states. The counseling service of the Hope Hospice would provide lectures how to deal with cognitive and perceptual aspects of aging.

The expected outcome of this project is to provide better and more prepared caregivers for the elder people as a result of rapidly growing age related industries.

References

Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's disease and Other Dementias" American Psychiatric Association. October 2007. http://www.psychiatryonline.com/pracGuide/loadGuidelinePdf.aspx?file=AlzPG101007. Retrieved 2007-12-28.… [read more]


Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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The authors' article illustrates the sensitivity of the issue of euthanasia, where society, especially people who have strong religious beliefs against euthanasia, often view it as an undesirable process to end a suffering patient's life, equating it to killing. However, Gert et. al. cautions that physicians' moral views must be able to be compatible with the patient's views. This means that in order to administer VPE, the physician must be (a) compatible with patient's moral views about euthanasia; or, in the event that the patient disagrees to VPE, (b) must at least inform the patient's right that s/he has the right to physician-assisted suicide/death (PAS).

These alternatives and precautions that the authors discuss in their article show how the issues of morality are the primary consideration in conducting VPE. What is evident in the article is the reminder that in issues pertaining to euthanasia, the important considerations are the physician and patient's position on VPE, not what society will perceive or think of the said action/process.

Thus, Gert, Culver, and Clouser 'sensitively' discusses in a moralistically practical way in which a sensitive issue such as euthanasia can be achieved with utmost objectivity and practicality (i.e., to end a patient's suffering from an ailment). True enough, the authors argue in parting that the only strong argument about their recommended alternative PAS method is that "it does not provide sufficient benefit to individual patients to justify societal risks."… [read more]


People Grow Older Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Methods and procedures

In order to collect data, I visited a large local cemetery. I recorded the birth and death dates from all of the headstones. From this data, I did not calculate the average life span, which is usually the procedure. Instead, I calculated the most dangerous time of life based on age. I eliminated anyone who was marked as being in the military because the unnatural death rates of soldiers would have skewed the results.

Evaluation

By interpreting the data collected, I found that life is very dangerous when people are very young. However, once infancy is safely passed, there is less danger. From that point, the risk of death starts getting higher and higher as a person ages. Especially after the age of 50, and for the next 30 years, it is especially dangerous and death rates increase rapidly. After the age of 80, there seems to be less deaths, which is probably because such a significant number of people have already died by that age. However, it is possible this represents some return to safety. Further research will be required.

References

There are a great number of sources that reveal people are more likely to die as they get older. Birth and death records, and also medical records, would be primary sources.

Badget and Justification

This is important because not enough scientific research is being put into stopping aging. Much research is being done towards fighting cancer and AIDS, but aging seems to be a major contributing factor to death, which if independently controlled might be able to cause less deaths.

Human Subjects

There were no living human subjects used in this research. However, there…… [read more]


Described as Illnesses That Contribute Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,122 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

229). The diagnosis of a new patient with the disease requires education and support to understand the disease and impact on the patient's life. Notably, the diagnosis stage requires regular observation of the patient and numerous discussions with him/her and the family regarding specific needs and functional ability. The researcher argues that there are therapeutic alternatives to optimize the pharmacological management of Parkinson's disease at all stages. Early onset of the disease is treated using levodopa and additional dopamine agonist for patients who continue experiencing dyskinesia. During mid-stage, patients should undergo close monitoring to optimize motor control while administering doses of levodopa.

Traumatic Brain Injury in the Elderly:

Traumatic brain injury is a major health issue among older adults since it accounts for over 80,000 emergency department visits on an annual basis by persons above 65 years. The severity of this problem is evident in the fact that 75% of these visits usually end up in hospitalization (Thompson, McCormick & Kagan, 2006, p.1590). However, this neurocognitive disorder is still a neglected disease burden across the globe. As a result, three researchers conducted a study on the epidemiology, outcomes, and future implications of traumatic brain injury in older adults.

Based on the findings of their study, the highest rates of hospitalization and death related to this disease occur among adults aged 75 or more. The two major causes of this disorder are falls and motor vehicle accidents, which accounts for 51% and 9% respectively. The major risk factors for traumatic brain injury include male sex and non-white ethnicity. The researchers argue that the widespread neglect of the disease is attributed to the scarcity of information available about traumatic brain injury in older adults ((Thompson, McCormick & Kagan, 2006, p.1593). Consequently, the existing care of older patients with the disease is largely based on previous work conducted in younger patients. This contributes to the urgent need to study traumatic brain injury in the elderly, particularly because of the frequency with which elderly people experience it. There is need to refocus research efforts on this significant public health issue to prevent its prevalence in the elderly and identify unique care needs to promote the best patient outcomes.

Conclusion:

Neurocognitive disorders are illnesses that are most likely to occur among older adults than younger ones mainly because of older age. While an increase in age plays a crucial factor in the occurrence of these diseases, they are usually associated with other factors depending on the specific disorder. Moreover, the diseases have varying impacts on the patient and require the development of effective protective measures to prevent their spread and effects in the aging population. In essence, significant research initiatives should be undertaken to address these public health issues.

References:

Iansek, R. (2004, September). Pharmacological Management of Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 34(3), 229-233. Retrieved from http://jppr.shpa.org.au/lib/pdf/gt/sept2004.pdf

Thompson, H.J., McCormick, W.C. & Kagan, S.H. (2006, October). Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults: Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Future Implications. Journal of the American Geriatrics… [read more]


Benefits of the Creative Process for Dementia Thesis

Thesis  |  35 pages (12,767 words)
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Art Interventions for Dementia Patients

[Type text] [Type text] [Type text]

Creative Aging

Art Intervention Processes for Dementia Patients

Art Interventions for Dementia Patients

Vignette

There are few phrases that I dislike more than 'It is what it is'. I believe people that make use of this phrase are stating that whatever the concern, it is not worthy of thought;… [read more]


American Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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Death

Attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to death and dying are central to all cultures. Usually these attitudes, beliefs, and practices are rooted in prevailing social norms and religious dogma. Beliefs about death impact behaviors ranging from preparations for funerals to views on health care. The diversity of cultures in the United States means that it is impossible to generalize about views, beliefs, and practices around death and dying. Each individual will also have different views towards death. However, the prevailing and dominant culture attitude is that death is something to be feared and avoided at all costs, while simultaneously doing nothing spiritually to prepare one for the cognitive acceptance of death. In ancient Egypt, the culture was somewhat diverse but far more homogenous than that of the United States. The attitudes and practices surrounding death in ancient Egypt are well-known because the Egyptians embraced and even celebrated death as a passage from one life to the next. There are far more differences than there are similarities between ancient Egypt and 21st Century America with regards to most social institutions, norms, and mores, particularly those that have to do with death and dying.

In the United States, death is something that is viewed negatively. It is viewed as an inconvenience at best, or as something to keep away at all costs. As one doctor puts it, "We want our loved ones to live as long as possible, but our culture has come to view death as a medical failure rather than life's natural conclusion," (Bowron 1). Failing to view death as "life's natural conclusion" would seem anathema to the ancient Egyptian. To the ancient Egyptian, death was a welcome conclusion to a life well-lived, and even perhaps also to a life that was not so well-lived. Death was simply an acceptable as well as inevitable aspect of life. American culture seems to have changed somewhat regarding its attitudes toward death, as it was Benjamin Franklin who said that death and taxes are the only two certainties in life. It would seem that 21st century Americans have reconciled themselves to the latter, but not the former. The result is "unrealistic expectations" of life, as if the person should be immortal (Bowron 2012). Actually, this is where a 21st century American might find accordance with an ancient Egyptian. Ancient Egyptians did not just want immortality and demand it from their medical doctors. Rather, Ancient Egyptians believed firmly in immortality as inevitability (Canadian Museum of History, 2014).

Whereas the ancient Egyptian embraces both death and immortality as certainties, the 21st century American denies death. The ancient Egyptians compiled a sophisticated and detailed tome called The Book of the Dead, which includes elaborate instructions for funeral rites. In the United States, death rituals have become rote in nature except among traditional religious communities. Moreover, death has become a situation in which surviving family members care more about their inheritance and the contents of the will than the state of mind of the deceased. Other… [read more]


Poe's Style, While Not Unique Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Poe's style, while not unique, is extremely masterful in creating various literary atmospheres and eliciting emotional reactions from readers. He employs several tools in both "The Black Cat" as well as "The Masque of the Red Death" that give the unsuspecting reader a sense of mystery, fear, horror, and sheer excitement. In both short stories Poe skillfully creates a specific tone, successfully employs foreshadowing, and draws the readers attention to various metaphors and symbols to help concoct a truly unique reading experience. As the stories build, they both give the reader a sense of mortality, imminent doom, and the feeling of helplessness or of being trapped. Poe accomplishes this through his writing, and the setting up of each story's climax in a very calculated, deliberate way.

"The Masque of the Red Death" is an excellent example of Poe's ability to both foreshadow events as well as create symbols and metaphors from seemingly innocuous events and objects. He draws the reader in with the grotesque and graphic descriptions of the symptoms of the horrible disease, laying the foundation for the reader's emotion expectations and responses. He skillfully sets up the feeling of dread and doom in his own description of the seventh room of the Prince's abode writing, "The seventh apartment was closely shrouded in black velvet tapestries that hung all over the ceiling and down the walls, falling in heavy folds upon a carpet of the same material and hue. But in this chamber only, the color of the windows failed to correspond with the decorations. The panes here were scarlet -- a deep blood color.." The imagery here is chilling, and each of the seven rooms represents a period in the life of a human being, from birth to death. Poe ingeniously constructs an allegory for moving through each of life's unique time periods through his description of the prince's apartment rooms. The seventh room with its unmatched, melancholy appearance and blood red windows are foreshadowing the events that will soon take place there. It symbolizes death and dread, just as the colors black and red often symbolize these two elements. This room was also the resting place of the gigantic ebony clock. This clock is also a symbol of the impending doom that is to befall the prince and his guests. The wonderful sense of security and feeling that the prince has set up a home impervious to the disease is shaken and destroyed by the end of the story. All of the guests at the party are weary of the ticking of the clock, as Poe uses this to illustrate the fact that they are running out of time, quite glaringly, in a place that has been cut off from the outside world. This feeling of inevitability and helplessness also add to the reader's feelings of fear and horror later in the story.

In "The Black Cat," Poe also successfully employs foreshadowing and metaphor. He begins the story by trying to develop an emotional bond between the… [read more]


Active and Passive Euthanasia Term Paper

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Active and Passive Euthanasia

In his 1975 article "Active and Passive Euthanasia," James Rachels sets out a number of arguments why the medical profession has misunderstood what they consider a moral difference between two types of treatment that Rachels asserts are really the same. Since this debate is still raging today, a thorough assessment of Rachels' and his opponents' positions… [read more]


Euthanasia War and Terrorism Term Paper

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¶ … non-moral or religious standpoint; while individual suicide is illigeal in many countries, the more legalistic issue is final exit, or assisted suicide that is advocated by many right-to-die organizations. There is not necessarily a completely clear legal distinction between "assisted suicide" and "final exit suicide." Advocates of final exit suicide will say that the decision to end one's life should remain with the individual, not the State. And if a group or another person lends information that can help someone end pain and suffering, that is not murder or manslaughter. If another individual assists in helping someone commit suicide, they are, in legal terms, abetting a felony. The predominant medical view in the United States holds that anyone who wants to willingly end their life must have a mental health condition, and is therefore not qualified to make a life and death decision. Other countries are liberalizing the legalities, and find a clear difference in an individual with a terminal illness choosing quality of life over quantity.

Part 2 -- the idea of euthanasia often uses incurable pain as a reason for ending life. However, pain is a relative term. For example, in the Terri Schiavo case, pain was not the seminal issue, but quality of life and the ability to be an actualized human being. Schiavo was diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state, causing her husband to petition the Court to remove her feeding tube. This was opposed by Terri's parents and a host of other conservative and pro-life movements, including President George W. Bush. In total, the Schiavo case involved 14 appeals, numerous motions, petitions, and hearings in Florida, and five in Federal District Court, the Florida Supreme Court, Federal legislation, and four denials of certiorari from the U.S. Supreme Court. Finally, after 15 years of legislation, the local Court's decision to disconnect Terri was carried out in March, 2005 (Goodman, 2009).

Part 3 -- the idea of doctors practicing euthanasia is not a clear-cut argument. Do these doctors simply practice the speciality -- or are they part of the decision making process in deciding whether the person's own individualized view of life meets their own; or in the opposite case, if someone is in excruciating pain but wants to live, would the doctor overmedicate in order to "make the patient comfortable?" At the very center of the debate on euthanasia lies the core of individual and societal ethics. Ethics is a philosophical concept that attempts to explain the moral organization within a given chronological time and cultural event. It is more concerned with understanding the way that ethnical ideas are presented, than judging those concepts within the construct of the society. On one hand, allowing a doctor to assist a patient in a predetermined decision would alleviate the suffering of the terminally ill, and allow they a dignified and self-choosen death. However, despite the advances in medical science, doctors cannot yet predict remission or…… [read more]


Ageism it Is a Commonly Known Fact Book Review

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Ageism

It is a commonly known fact that today, because of advances in medical science and a generally healthier lifestyle, that people in Western countries die at a much more advanced age than was the case a few centuries ago. In such a society, it is therefore quite ironic that ageism is one of the most insidious and prevalent prejudices… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Is the Seventh Leading Cause Research Paper

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Alzheimer's disease is the seventh leading cause of all deaths in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans who are 65 years of age or older. The reason that the number of people afflicted with Alzheimer's is growing so fast is simple: the baby boom generation is quickly becoming the older generation. This paper presents… [read more]


Elderly Living Arrangements Thesis

Thesis  |  16 pages (4,464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … elderly are among the fastest growing segments of the population in the United States today. Moreover, this growth is projected to continue well into the mid-21st century as the baby boomer generation reaches retirement age. Although estimates vary, it is also projected that about one in five of this elderly segment of the population will need some level… [read more]


Immorality in the Epic of Gilgamesh Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,129 words)
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Gilgamesh

IN FLESH AND SPIRIT: THE QUEST FOR HUMAN IMMORTALITY

The search for immortality seems has fascinated mankind throughout history. Although the thought of everlasting life is mythical, most of us hope for some form life after death. While we tend not to dwell on this subject because we are uncomfortable with the unknown, on those rare occasions when we allow ourselves to think about the fact that our days are numbered, we wonder if death can be cheated and immortality gained. Some have suggested that being remembered is just as enduring as living forever. Thoughts of destiny and the here after are not new. They have engaged the hearts and minds of men for ages. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, a king investigates the possibility of immortality following the saddening death of his friend Enkidu and ultimately discovers the method to obtain it.

Gilgamesh, the ruler of ancient Uruk, is blessed with the gift of foresight. He has numerous dreams about his destiny and has accepted his mortal fate. In interpreting a dream given to Gilgamesh by the gods, Endiku states that the gods have "given you kingship, such is your destiny, everlasting life is not your destiny." (70). With this early revelation, Gilgamesh accepts the gods choice to not give him eternal life. Instead, Gilgamesh is determined to make himself famous so that his name will be set in the place where the names of famous men are written (70-1). It is here that the epic first toys with the notion of spiritual immortality. Throughout the story Gilgamesh first battles with and then adapts his own definition of eternal life.

Gilgamesh succeeds obtaining fame by first defeating the guardian of the forest, Humbaba, and shortly after, the bull of heaven. During these battles Gilgamesh declares that "there is nothing to fear! If I fall I leave behind me a name that endures." (71). Having reconciled himself to the fact that fate has indeed determined when he will die, he still desires that his name live on eternally. It is not until the death of his friend Endiku, by the gods' decree that he questions the concept of human mortality with the knowledge that "What my brother is now, that shall I be." (97).

Endiku, himself grapples with the meaning of immortality and his death serves to both act as a catalyst for Gilgamesh's own quest and to foreshadow Gilgamesh's eventual findings. After cursing the house of Gilgamesh for being the forbearer of his death, Shamash reminds Enkidu that he will be mourned by the people of Uruk and by Gilgamesh himself ["when you are dead [Gilgamesh] will let his hair grow long for your sake, he will wear a lion's pelt and wander through the desert," (91)]. Hearing Shamash, Enkidu changes his curse to a blessing. Bitter as his death is to him, and to Gilgamesh, it gives meaning to his life, for only upon death can on be remembered in whole.

Upon Enkidu's death, Gilgamesh insists that… [read more]


Elder Abuse it Is a Sad Fact Essay

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Elder Abuse

It is a sad fact of reality that the elderly in the United States and indeed across the world are or have been abused by those they depend upon for their care. According to the National Center on Elder Abuse (2005), 1 to 2 million Americans who have reached the age of 65 and beyond have been abused… [read more]


Dying Experience in Nursing Home Dissertation

Dissertation  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Dying Experience in Nursing Home

Arbuthnot, Elsa; Dawson, Jane; & Hansen-Ketchum, Patti. (2007). Senior women and rural living. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Healthcare. 7(1):1-12. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php/online-journal/article/viewFile/5/179

This article also expresses the individual's desire to experience death within the context of the home, yet shows the high strain such strategies have on resources. Without being able to meet this request, many are forced to experience death in nursing homes and hospices, which then increase anxiety and decrease the quality of the death experience.

Browne, Amy. (2007). Dying and death in a nursing home. Seniors. Associated Content. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/390397/dying_and_death_in_a_nursing_home.html?cat=12

Describes modern care practices for patients dying in a nursing home. It is a common practice to prescribe heavy pain relievers, such as morphine or roxanol in order to decrease discomfort and create a more comfortable context for the individual to experience death.

Consumer Affairs. (2004). Support for dying patients often lacking. News. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/nursing_home_terminal.html

This article reinforces the idea that modern nursing homes are under staffed and under funded. This causes serious gaps in the quality of care which has negative affects on the dying experience of the individual patients. Additionally, poor staff hiring can cause an environment where patients near death are treating with a lack of respect, causing low self-esteem before death.

Ferrell, Betty & Coyle, Nessa. (2006). Textbook of Palliative Nursing. Oxford University Press.

This book outlines traditional hospice care that can be implemented in specific cases dealing with nursing homes that can help increase the quality of the death experience. This work makes sure to advocate the varying nature of the death experience depending on the individual, and presents a model for care that…… [read more]


Effects of Non-Thermal Plasma on Mammalian Cell Activity and Apoptosis Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  10 pages (2,758 words)
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¶ … non-thermal plasma on mammalian cell activity and apoptosis, including a background and overview, as well as a description, summary and comparison of relevant related studies. These sections are followed by a discussion concerning the gaps that were identified in the existing body of knowledge and the need for further research in determining the effects of non-thermal plasma on… [read more]


Suicide in the Elderly Thesis

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Suicide in the Elderly

Leading Cause of Death, Rising Incidence

Suicide as one of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States was surpassed by Alzheimer Disease and septicemia more than a decade ago (McKeown 2006). However, it remains a leading cause of death among those aged 10-64 and higher in older persons. Studies showed that suicide rates… [read more]


Sandwich Generation Thesis

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¶ … Sandwich Generation, Caregiving, and Alzheimer's

Alzheimer's

The disease that all elderly people -- and their children, their grandchildren, their friends and neighbors -- dread nearly as much as cancer is Alzheimer's, and with good reason. "The worst part is the helplessness," said Sue Irvine, whose mother is an Alzheimer's patient. "You see a loved one struggling and unhappy,… [read more]


Life Long Learning Plan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,411 words)
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¶ … Nursing Home in Liberia

In the past, the need for nursing home facilities in Liberia was small because the culture demanded that immediate family members care for the elderly and given the relatively short life expectancies involved, few people lived long enough to require such care in formal institutional settings. Things are changing in Liberia, though, and improvements… [read more]


Euthanasia Euthenasia the Topic Essay

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Euthanasia

EUTHENASIA

The topic of euthanasia is one that evokes an extensive and complex range of reactions. These range from outright moral indignation at the very suggestion that the taking of another human life could be legitimized, to arguments that provide rational reasons and justifications for the need for the legalization of euthanasia. Another variable that has to be taken… [read more]


Forensic Anthropology Thesis

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Forensic anthropology is a function of forensics and physical anthropology that specifically looks at skeletal remains in a forensic or crime detection setting to try to make inferences about those remains. (Ryan, 2002, p. 15) It was once an accepted fact that once a body had decomposed to a certain degree, i.e. skeletal remains little could be done to determine… [read more]


Online Scientific Publication for Current Research Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (583 words)
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¶ … online scientific publication for current research on the role of the cell cycle in aging.

"Loss of Stem Cells Correlates With Premature

Aging In Animal Study." ScienceDaily 8 June 2007. 29 April 2009 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070606235257.htm

While dying and aging are accepted as inevitable facts of life, new research suggests that like so many diseases, aging (or at very least the rate at which we age) is encoded in our genes. Also, new research into what parts of the cell are involved in regeneration hold the promise for forestalling the seemingly inevitable symptoms of growing older. According to the ScienceDaily article "Loss of Stem Cells Correlates With Premature Aging In Animal Study," researchers at the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute of the University of Pennsylvania have found that deleting a gene known as ATR from a mouse's genetic sequence can lead to premature aging and loss of stem cell reservoirs in the affected mice.

This gene, which is essential for normal cell regeneration allows the body to heal normally, in response to damaged DNA. Daily, the body breaks down and rebuilds itself. Our body's ability to regenerate slows down as we age and our reserves of stem cell reservoirs grows smaller, or in some cases loses their integrity through overly frequent division when our systems are particularly stressed. Until now, scientists were uncertain as to why this was the case, on a molecular level. The new model offered by this research could provide scientists with clues as to how to preserve stem cells and suppress or reduce the symptoms of aging and develop new ways to repair DNA damage due to cancer and other disorders in humans on a cellular level.

Aging may be described as a slow loss of stem…… [read more]


Life Expectancy Looking at the Current Data Thesis

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¶ … Life Expectancy

Looking at the current data on the life expectancy in the United States, it is indeed correct to assume that most people would live to the ages of 100 or more. This assumption is made possible by advances in the field of medical science, according to biologists. This claim is strengthened by the data on life expectancy by birth year in the country, which showed that towards the year 2000, there has been a steady increase in life expectancy, reaching towards the 80 years level. In addition to this, U.S. death rate by age data illustrated that death is practically nil for people with ages below 40 years old, after which death could increase exponentially but will peak at 80 years or older. Lastly, U.S. life expectancy by age supports these assumptions by showing that indeed, 80 years old marks the highest life expectancy for people in the 21st century.

While this…… [read more]


Challenges of Hospice Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,489 words)
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¶ … Hospice

The objective of this research is to examine the hospice care community and the challenges associated with treating terminal disease and maintaining quality of life standards that medical professionals, patients and their families face.

Hospice care is becoming more relevant in our society as terminal diseases become a more significant cause of death. This is the reason… [read more]


Superman Only One-Third Mortal, Gilgamesh Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (597 words)
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¶ … superman only one-third mortal, Gilgamesh becomes the unwitting hero of a tragic tale. Being two-thirds a god, the King of Uruk leads his people with an iron fist, letting his divine nature turn him into an arrogant and oppressive leader. The Epic of Gilgamesh explores Gilgamesh's relationship with himself and his own hubris extensively throughout the twelve tablets upon which the Sumerian text was written. However, Gilgamesh needed a major catharsis to initiate his personal transformation. The gods are the primary force responsible for Gilgamesh's changing from a brutal ruler to an altruistic one. Creating Enkidu as Gilgamesh's only viable nemesis turns out to be the catalyst for the title character. Enkidu, unlike Gilgamesh, is entirely mortal. His death is what makes Gilgamesh accept his own mortality. Ironically, it is Enkidu's humanity that makes Gilgamesh a truly godlike figure.

Although Gilgamesh is two-thirds part god and Enkidu is introduced as being animalistic, Enkidu appears the more emotionally intelligent and spiritually strong of the two. Enkidu is created entirely by the gods, even though he is a wholly earthy character. Like an animal, Enkidu lives in the woods and has little contact with humanity before encountering Gilgamesh and before that, a prostitute. Both Gilgamesh and Enkidu are initially shown to be animals even though Gilgamesh is two-thirds part god. Interestingly, Enkidu is more emotionally intelligent than Gilgamesh at the beginning of the story. Enkidu challenges Gilgamesh on the grounds that his behavior as king is out of hand and inhumane. In fact, the gods created Enkidu as a rival for Gilgamesh, one who could challenge, threaten, and undermine the arrogant king's power. Enkidu is first described as a sort of monster, when oddly it is Gilgamesh who is the real monster at the start of the epic…… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Has Become a Concern Thesis

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Alzheimer's Disease has become a concern that is now more widely studied than it used to be. Typically seen in the elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is characterized by several factors, including forgetfulness and agitation (National, 2008). Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, and it gets progressively worse as the patient continues to age (National, 2008). Despite the lack… [read more]


Counseling the Broken Hearted - Memories Term Paper

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Counseling the Broken Hearted - Memories of Grief

Grief is painful. When we talk about grief we are referring to the extreme emotional reaction of an individual to loss, which often includes shock, sadness, fear, anger, confusion, somatic disorders, and loss of identity. If the grief is not resolved, complicated grief will be the outcome; that is, grief that is… [read more]


Edgar Allen Poe's "The Masque Term Paper

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Edgar Allen Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death" & Robert Olen Butler's "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of Parrot"

In the writing "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of Parrot," by Robert Olen Butler, he gives a comical a detailed description of a man reincarnate as a parrot, and comes to live once again with his wife, however the second time around he is a bird caged in the living room, watching her living here life and bringing different men home, and his reaction to these strangers in his home. The atmosphere of the writing is extremely relaxed and easily related to emotions that people probably feel often throughout their lives.

In the writing "The Masque of the Red Death," by Edger Allen Poe, the overall description and subject matter varies greatly from that of the previously mentioned writing. Poe, discusses death, however it is slightly mentioned at the beginning of the writing than again at the end. The writing by Poe is very descriptive and has a more formal feeling to it as he describes the rooms, and the events going on in each of the rooms.

Both writings compare in giving visuals that are consistent…… [read more]


Individual Determinants Term Paper

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New Product Idea - Fashionable Walker for Seniors

Product: A fashionable walker for older men and women that does not look like the metal one normally used in healthcare facilities. Purpose: To get away from the stigma attached to using a walker.

Determinant -- Age: Although this walker could and would be used by younger individuals, it would predominantly be marketed to older men and women who have difficulty walking on their own. It is a well-known fact that the U.S. population is becoming older. During the 20th century, the number of persons under age 65 tripled. Simultaneously, those aged 65 or over has jumped ll times. As a result, the elderly comprised only 1 in every 25 Americans in 1900 but 1 in 8 in 1994. According to the Census Bureau, the elderly population will more than double between now and 2050 to 80 million. As many as 1 in 5 Americans could be elderly. Most of this growth should occur between 2010 and 2030, when babyboomers enter their elderly years.

The number of elderly will grow rapidly, mostly those aged 85 and over, to 19 million in 2050. Between 1960 and 1994, their numbers rose 274%. In contrast, the elderly population in general rose 100%, and the entire U.S. population grew only 45%. By an average of 2.8% annually.

According to Wolfe (2003), there are a number of different ways to compare the behaviors and reactions of older vs. younger consumers:

Younger minds are more responsive to emotionally neutral, objectively framed propositions.

Older individuals are increasingly responsive to emotional cues. They are less responsive to information that is emotionally neutral.

Older individuals are more adept at getting to deeper meanings.

Younger minds are more literal, and generally respond better to a language style that is direct and detailed.

Older people are repelled by absolutism.

Young often appear to project autonomy in their strident expressions, but in reality they demonstrate considerable dependence on guidance.

Older people generally depend less on others for guidance.

Older minds are generally more responsive to indirect approaches until such time that trust has been fully gained, at which time, they may actually welcome directness even more than a younger person might.

2) Determinant -- Gender: This walker, although different styles for men and women, would most likely be used more by women: First, because women live longer than men and thus have a greater need for them. Second, because women are more self-conscious about the way a typical walker looks than a man. Third, because women suffer more from osteoporosis and have a greater need for walking assistance.

According to the Census Bureau, men generally have higher death rates than women at every age. As a result, elderly women…… [read more]


Hamlet's Soliloquy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,107 words)
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Hamlet's Soliloquy is touted as one of the most telling of all his rants. In this one passage he discusses the reason people choose to live or die. In short men choose to live because they fear the unknown of death. This passage is a larger answer to Hamlet's own question of why he has chosen to this point to act in life, to avenge his father's death rather than simply to let himself die or be killed as his father was. From this point forward in the work, Hamlet lives without fear of death, Ophelia has shown him that fear is only necessary when one makes no peace with the calamity of his life. Hamlet vows to make his revenge and let his life be taken in the process if it will. If the soft, fair Ophelia can choose death over life to end her worldly calamity, the scorn of his love given and then taken away, than he must no longer live in fear of death, he must avenge himself and his father so that all but the wicked can sleep the peaceful sleep of death.

The language of the passage is a clear indication that Hamlet is at a decision point. He has taken from his life the message that all is calamity, especially in worldly intrigue and that a decision must now be made to live or die, avenged or un-avenged. His fear is built on, the fear of the unknown as well as the fear of living in a world that continues to beat him down with, "whips and scorns of time, / the oppressor's wrong, the proud mans contumely, / the pangs of despised love, the law's delay, / the insolence of office and the spurns / That patient merit of the unworthy takes, When he himself might his quietus make..." The language is wavering, as like all other points in the work, he discusses with himself the nature of his decision. He asks, what is right, to seek out an end to his worldly depravity before or after he has avenged his father or to simply keep living in such calamity, because he is afraid of death? Yet, his resolve is set when he says, "And thus conscience does make cowards of us all; / and thus the native hue of resolution / I sicklied over with the pale crust of thought, / and enterprises of great pith and moment / With this regard their currents turn awry, / and lose the name of action." Hamlet seeks to stop thinking and to start doing, and in his last apology to Ophelia, for using her in his plot and precipitating her own death he tells her, "-Soft you now! The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in they orisons / Be all my sins remember'd." He gives Ophelia the right to hold him responsible for his act of betrayal towards her.

Hamlet vows not to fear death but to take within his own hands the responsibility to… [read more]


1995 Chicago Heat Wave Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,043 words)
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1995 Chicago Heat Wave

How do we know that the 1995 Chicago heat wave is a disaster? Explain the chronic conditions which enabled this disaster

It was the month of July in the year 1995, in Chicago. The entire city felt like it was tropical, almost like it was Fiji or Guam, and to add to the discomfort of the… [read more]


Streetcar Name Desire Term Paper

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Streetcar Named Desire

Tennessee Williams play "A Streetcar Named Desire" is filled with various symbols, literary elements, and techniques that carry special meaning and touch the reader's innermost thoughts. It places the reader in a particular historic time when society and a people used to coexist in different ways compared to today's attitudes. One of the most complex characters in the play, Blanche Dubois, experiences numerous incidents and has certain dynamics that solidify her tragic elements, such as leaving Belle Reve, losing her family house, losing a young husband to suicide, deaths of her family members, and these develop into dependence, desperation, superiority, and poverty. The play opens with Blanche's visit to New Orleans to be reunited with her sister. The play's ending is tragic because of the many downfalls and disappointments in her life, and the fact that instead of overcoming them, she allows them to ruin her life. In fact, she allows others to take over control over her life, signifying her life has spun out of control. She does not have control over her own mind, she has lost her sanity, and she does not have control over her future, as indicted when Stanley commits her to the insane asylum at the end of the play.

Blanche is a tragic character and the main character in this play. She is filled with illusions of what life should be like, but which cannot possibly apply to real life. Between reality and her ideals, she struggles to overcome her own weaknesses, but not nearly hard enough. She literally self-destructs by pretending and lying. She pretends to be an innocent Southern belle, but of course, she is aging fast and far past the young innocent stage. This is clear when…… [read more]


My Father Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
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Death & Dying - Hospice

REFLECTING on the DEATH of MY FATHER

My beloved father died recently. In life, he was the source of many lessons, about love, friendship, honesty, compassion, fairness, responsibility, sacrifice, and the meaning of personal integrity. In his death, he provided one last lesson, a lesson represented more by questions and the opportunity for self-exploration rather than a lesson of definitive answers or solutions.

We all knew that my father was dying, because while still a hospital in-patient, his doctor advised him that he had approximately a week to live without dialysis.

Because dialysis meant merely extending a life that had become more difficult to prolong than to relinquish, my father declined the treatment; he had had enough suffering and discomfort. I recall understanding his decision but being aware of a vague feeling of anger at his choice, despite the fact that I did not want him to suffer.

My father spent the last week of his life confined to his bed at home, where we cared for him 'round the clock, changing his position in bed to avoid bedsores, feeding him, changing him, and keeping him clean. We had arranged for delivery of whatever equipment we could find to make the end of his life as comfortable as possible, including hospital bed and supplemental oxygen.

For the first time, our respective roles had reversed completely, with my father's absolute dependence on us, instead of the other way around, for even the most basic human needs. In many ways, it was similar to caring for an infant. At times, it was difficult for me to grasp the reality that this dependent person barely conscious in a hospital bed was really my father. Looking back on it afterwards, I was already in a mild state of psychological shock, just at my father's deterioration, even before he died.

At the same time, I tried to focus on the fact that my father was still alive, which meant that I hadn't yet lost him. In reality, most of the person my father had been died long before he actually drew his last breath. Psychologists would probably say that I was in a state of denial in pretending that my father was still "OK" when in truth, he obviously was not "OK" in the least. Nevertheless, I had also begun anticipating the grieving process while he was still alive.

At first, my reaction to his death matched my expectations as my tears flowed more freely than ever before, at least more freely than ever before as an adult. The morning after he died, my grief seemed at first to have passed, but gradually, I realized that I had become numb. I helped arrange for his funeral and for family gatherings as well as carrying out daily routines that still had to be done. In some respects, the numbness was even worse than the first day of grief I experienced, because nothing else in my…… [read more]


Nursing Home Problems There Many Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,800 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Nursing Home Problems

There many problems that are associated with old age, as the human body begins to break down in physical ways, and the mind begins to break down as well, resulting in memory loss, psychological issues, and in some cases dementia and even the dreaded Alzheimer's disease.

For most families in America, taking care of their elderly grandparents… [read more]


Palliative Care Is Defined Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Palliative care is defined as care which will improve the quality of life
for a patient and the patient's family when they face life threatening
illness. Palliative care provides prevention and relief of suffering on
the part of the patient. It includes the identification of discomfort, the
treatment of pain and the support of the patient and families in the
physical, psychosocial and spiritual spheres. By definition, palliative
care will neither hasten or postpones death, but rather makes the attempt
to approach death as a normal process, allowing the patient to live as
actively and maintain as much control as possible until death occurs.
In Will's case, the administration of palliative care, by definition,
cannot include the administration of the morphine at such a dose to hasten
his death. This would be defined as euthanasia, which Will is requesting
by the administration of the morphine. Were Will still able to administer
the medication on his own, via activation of his PCA pump, then the act
would be considered passive euthanasia since the likelihood is that the
dose of the medication will suppress Will's respiratory drive rather than
simply treat his pain. The administration of morphine in such doses is
considered ethical in most political jurisdictions, and by most medical
societies. In Will's case, should the physician administer the medication
in such a dose as to suppress Will's respiratory drive, the motive for the
physician would be one of mercy. The difference between this and physician
assisted suicide is the intent behind the act. Physician assisted suicide
is not legal in most states, and the intent behind this act is to allow the
patient to end his or her own life. In Will's case, the physician may
hasten death but the primary reason for the administration of the
medication is to alleviate Will's severe pain and suffering. In this case,
palliative care may in effect hasten Will's death, but that will not be the
primary reason for the administration of his morphine. Ethically and
legally,…… [read more]


Gothic and Macabre: Explication of Selected Works of Edgar Allan Poe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,105 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Gothic and Macabre: an Explication of Selected Works of Edgar a. Poe

Edgar Allen Poe uses elements both of a gothic and macabre nature in order to develop an atmosphere of intense horror within his short stories. Thus several stories take place in dark and gloomy settings, allow characters to undergo violent and unusual events, and generally end with an inevitably bizarre form of death for some characters.

Many of Poe's stories take place in settings characterized as being dark and oppressive. These settings often contain large, decrepit, and antiquated dwellings with countless rooms and secret vaults and passageways. The dwellings are usually set in remote and desolate locations, which effectively cut occupants off from the rest of civilization. Such a setting can be found in the story "Ligeia," where the narrator explains that after the death of his beloved first wife he took up residence in a dismal abbey located in a remote part of England. Within the abbey is an unusually shaped bridal chamber atop a high tower, which is where the narrator supposedly witnesses both his second wife's demise and first wife's subsequent resurrection.

In the story entitled "William Wilson" one of its major settings is a vast Elizabethan schoolhouse characterized with having countless subdivisions and being located in an ancient town. This schoolhouse setting is significant because it is where the narrator encounters his doppelganger for the first time. The story "The Masque of the Red Death" also contains a dark and gloomy setting, though it is not stated in an outright fashion. The prince's castellated abbey is located in a deeply secluded area and the suite in which he finally loses his life is characterized as being dark and dreary, due to having black furnishings and a blood-red tinted window. One of the most strangely oppressive settings is found in "The Cask of Amontillado" in which much of the story occurs within the gloomy atmosphere of the catacombs.

The story entitled "The Fall of the House of Usher" is the most particular about creating a gothic setting for its tale because the Usher mansion is central to the storyline. It is thus described as being so bleak and full of decay that, much like the terrible state of its owners, the sight of it causes viewers to feel an unbearable sense of gloom. From afar the mansion is described as being structurally stable, but upon closer inspection it is seen that its individual stones are crumbling down and its exterior is covered with fungi. Its interior is described as having dark and complicated passageways and containing outdated furnishings. The mansion's depressing atmosphere is partly responsible for Usher's illness, as he claims that the home is actually a sentient being capable of inflicting mental anguish upon him. Thus due to the mansion's significance to the storyline, the gloomy setting works especially well within this story.

Another gothic and macabre element found within Poe's stories is that characters often undergo violent and unusual events. One… [read more]


Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes

Elder abuse is generally defined as "...neglect, mistreatment, exploitation, or harming of elderly patients in nursing homes, assisted living facilities, or home care environments" (Elder Abuse and Nursing Home Neglect). Abuse of the elderly can take many forms; including physical or sexual abuse, psychological and emotional abuse as well as financial abuse and abandonment. Studies… [read more]


Edgar Allan Poe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,778 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Edgar Allan Poe is considered to be one of the lesser known great artists of the 19th century. Orphaned at a very young age of 3, he nevertheless lived a happy and contented childhood with a kind-hearted and wealthy merchant, John Allan, from whom he derived his middle name. He was sent to a good school and even excelled in… [read more]


Access and Relevance of Data Sources Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Access and Relevance of Data Sources

Identify two areas that are relevant to criminal justice and criminology:

Elder maltreatment; and,

Intimate partner violence.

Complete the following information based on two examples:

Topic No. 1: Elder maltreatment

Elder maltreatment involves a wide range of behaviors that typically include violence that are directed against individuals aged 60 years and above (Understanding elder… [read more]


Die, Reflections on Life's Final Chapter Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Die, Reflections on Life's Final Chapter by Sherwin B. Nuland

Although the ultimate outcome for all living things is death, the aging and dying process and the terminal consequences of mortality are understood in very different ways by different people. From a strictly biological perspective, all things begin dying as soon as they are born, of course, but… [read more]


Elderly Boseman, J. And L. Victor. (2008) Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Elderly

Boseman, J. And L. Victor. (2008). "Aging Americans and Diabetes: A Public Health

and Clinical Response." Geriatrics. 59 (4): 14-17.

Diabetes is more than a moral and medical problem -- it is, in fact, a holistic issue interrelated to culture and most assuredly economics. One rarely thinks of the numerous consequences illness, lethargy, and/or inability to find treatment may have on populations unprepared for mass cases of type II diabetes:

Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets lead to more disease, days away from work, and burdens on the social systems of countries

Risk factors rise for cardiac disease, or an inability to remain part of the labor force as long as a healthy person

Greater siphoning of resources away from necessary programs and into control of an epidemic caused by behavior patterns.

Gan, W., et.al., (2011). Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Hospitalization and Mortality. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (4): 501-16.

As individuals age, we know that their body lacks the immune response to toxins and is therefore more at risk for developing disease based on environmental factors. In a modern world, it is almost impossible not to be exposed to carcinogens and toxins from air-pollution and traffic fumes, which in turn, increase the risk of coronary issues requiring hospitalization in the elderly.

Nemerogg, C. (2007). The Curiously Strong Relationship Between Cardiovascular

Disease and Depression in the Elderly. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 15 (2): 217-33.

Depression is one of those conditions that can return if proper preventative measures are not taken. Patients need to understand that depression can return at any time and certain precautions must be taken. Research also shows there is a statistical correlation between heart disease and depression and, oddly enough, visa versa. Patients with heart issues tend to see mortality as an approaching inevitability, contributing to depression. Similarly, depression causes many older adults to have little interest in eating right, in exercising, and in engaging in social tasks with other adults.

Rinker, A.G. Jr. (January-February 2009) Recognition and perception of elder abuse by prehospital and hospital-based care providers. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 48 (1) 110-115.

Scholarly article focusing on ways that medical professionals can recognize symptoms of elder abuse and make appropriate recommendations and reports surrounding the issue. Elder abuse is a hidden problem, yet faces an approximate 28 per cent of populations over 70 as both a health and mental health related issue.

Weisshopg, M., et.al., (2010). Association of Cumulative Lead Exposure with Parkinson's Disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118 (11): 1609-21.

We are learning more and more that repeated exposure to environmental issues has the potential to cause, or exacerbate, certain health related issues. As people age, it is logical that…… [read more]


Ethical Dilemma of Assisted Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12

SAMPLE TEXT:

This often leads a large percentage of physicians to support religious beliefs during the last stages of life, so that the patient prepares and accepts what is coming. Patients, on the other hand view a "good death" differently, seeing it as a greater individual decision capability. Another study conducted here in the United States was Craig et al. (2009) the… [read more]


Coping With Life There Are Numerous Points Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Coping With Life

There are numerous points of comparisons to be found between Annie Dillard's essay entitled "Total Eclipse and Randy Shilts' essay entitled "Talking AIDS To Death." The central premise of both essays is certainly one such point, which is the eventual dissolution of life before the yawning maw of death. However, there are a number of specific aspects of these works detailing the importance of life and its intrinsic properties such as time, immortality (or the lack thereof) and certain attributes of death in which the writers either eminently present contrasting opinions or share startling similarities. A close examination of both of these texts, however, reveals the fact that Dillard ends her chronicle of and journey of death on a more peaceful, accepting note, whereas Shilts' essay concludes in a similar array of doubt and disbelief which typified the majority of the author's metaphorical journey while composing this particular piece of literature.

In order to properly assess the facets of life and its partnership with death that Dillard finds to be of importance in "Total Eclipse," one should consider the overarching circumstances in which her essay was composed and in what, on a literal level, it inherently reveals. The author traveled with her husband (who was recently deceased at the time of the essay's writing) to a location in which they can view a total eclipse -- the effect of which helped the author to contextualize life, the seemingly immortal nature of God's design (such as the earth and the sun), as well as the relatively modest role in which mankind plays in all of these varying designs. The essay, of course, utilizes the conception of the eclipse as a metaphor for the quickening accuracy of death, while revealing the profundity of certain acts and rituals in life which the following quotation makes readily apparent.

We teach our children one thing only, as we were taught: to wake up. We teach our children to look alive there, to join by words and activities the life of human culture on the planet's crust…We live half our waking lives and all of our sleeping lives in some private, useless, and insensible waters we never mention or recall…Valueless, I might add -- until someone hauls the wealth up to the surface and into the wide awake city, in a form that people can use (Dillard).

There are a number of salient aspects of this quote, not the least of which is the value that the author attributes to the joining of activities that are part of life and which she refers to as a sense of waking up and looking alive. The half-awoke moments of going through the motions of life are devalued by the author, who largely conceives of the immortal facet of death as arriving with the celeritous speed and rapid time of the spreading of the shadow of the eclipse.

There are a number of points in Shilts' essay that are at considerable variance to these… [read more]


Taste and Smell Age Related Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Moreover, it is not uncommon for older individuals to report that 'things don't taste right', and these complaints have been generally attributable to changes in odor perception (Rawson, 2003).

Rawson (2003) posits a significant number of medications that have the ability to elicit chemosensory side effects which has the ability to lead to poor pharmacological compliance or altered selection of nutritional status and foods. Metabolites or the medications themselves can be secreted into the nasal mucus or into the saliva and directly impact receptor cells. This is often evidenced by the unpleasant taste frequently associated with antibiotics (Chodosh et al., 1998). In instances when medication known to alter the senses must be taken for extended periods of time, however, an adjustment in dosage may serve to remediate the problem.

Analysis and Conclusion

Rawson, in the aforementioned article provided scholarly and empirical information regarding the impact on the perceptions of flavor and aroma and the senses of taste, smell and chemical irritation as it relates to older age. The peer reviewed article provided both physiological, pharmacological social consequences of changes the elderly can experience as a result of changes and/or deficits in the sensory system. Empirical studies were provided as a foundation by which the research was posited upon, issues of well being, taste aversion, and food/drink altering were addressed. Chemosensory loss was explored in significant detail and issues of infections, and medication were discussed.

Further, the researcher advised that as age related issues of taste and smell perception are not universal with the elderly or across senses, it creates the challenges of how to effectively address the problem not just for reduced flavor intensity but also a shift in sensory profile of particularly complex aromas and flavors of food (Ransom, 2003). The researcher suggests that because odors of a particular concentration may be perceived as less than half as intense by the elderly, some flavor supplementation may be necessary in order to produce equivalency in taste as supplementation has been proven to enhance satisfaction levels among the elderly will diminished ability to smell (Mathey et al., 2001).

Most importantly, the researcher reminds of the importance of taking concerns and complaints expressed by the elderly regarding an inability or increased difficulty to taste or smell seriously as it could represent symptomology for major illnesses or can result in pharmacological non-compliance. Moreover, because loss in chemosensory systems are real in the elderly and have the ability to impact well being and quality of life it is important that particularly health professionals not disregard these concerns and help in the development of coping strategies that can also help to avoid health hazards.

References

Chodosh, S., et al. (1998). Efficacy and safety of a ten day course of 400 or 600

milligrams of grepafloxacin once daily for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: comparison with a ten day course of 500 milligrams of Ciprofloxacin twice daily. Antimicrobial Agents in Chemotherapy, 42(1), 114-120.

Mathey, M., et al. (2001). Flavor enhancement of food improves… [read more]


Assisted Suicide the Issues Susan Wolf Raises Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Assisted Suicide

The issues Susan Wolf raises surrounding the events concerning the death of her father suggest a multitude of controversial questions that delve into many gray areas of what we value as human beings and a society. The instinct for self preservation is strong and many belief systems teach that suicide and assisted suicide is wrong regardless of the circumstances, however life is messy and the line between right and wrong is often blurred.

If I were in Wolf's place I would feel obligated to begin by reviewing the facts of the situation. At the time of his final hospitalizations her father was 79 years-old with a five-year history of metastatic thyroid cancer plus emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During his initial battle with metastatic head and neck cancer in 2002 her father had "argued that the Holocaust was incompatible with the existence of God. There is no afterlife. This is it, and he wanted every last bit of "it" on any terms" (Wolf, 2008). At this point he wanted all avenues explored and no effort spared.

In 2007 her father took a turn for the worse. He became increasingly weak and his powers of concentration began to diminish until he decided he wanted to stop the tube feeding. It is at this point that the situation becomes complicated. Wolf reports the reason he gives for wanting to remove the feeding tube is that he feels he is becoming a burden. Furthermore the doctors advised him not to follow this course of action, saying he "would suffer a painful death, that morphine would be required to control the discomfort, and that my father would lose consciousness before the day was out" (Wolf, 2008). They failed to assure him that there are methods designed to support his comfort if he did demand the feeding tubes be replaced. Because of this he decided to "solider on." Later he would reveal that he regretted this change of heart.

As his condition continued to deteriorate her father became more dependent on others to ensure his everyday survival. Eventually he developed a gastric bleed that required a transfusion of most of his blood. This led him to ask for and consider all of his options, and he decided once again to suspend treatment. Furthermore, he wanted to accelerate the process. The question then becomes does her father have the right to seek a quicker path to the inevitable?

Discussion

The main consideration at this point should be the patient's quality of life. Johansson, Axelsson, and Danielson (2005) found that patient's with incurable cancer indentified five themes of relivance relating to quality of life. These include the ability to lead an ordinary life, maintain significant realtions, maintain a positive life, alieviate suffering, and manage their lives when ill.

Leading an ordinary life was described as the abilty to appreciate normal things and to feel functional. The…… [read more]


Elderly in American Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

"Must sell their homes unless they return home within six months or a doctor says it may be possible for the resident to return home at a later time. Must apply any monthly income above $59 to the cost of their care, except in special circumstances or if their spouse at home needs more income.

May transfer their home to a child at least three years prior to entering the nursing home or in the event the son or daughter was living in the home at least two years just prior to their admission (Gordon, 1995)."

Spouses/

"Must submit, at the time of their spouses' admission to a nursing home, to an asset assessment to determine what assets you owned on the day of admission (Gordon, 1995)."

May keep the house, their personal property, a car and the greater of $21,156 of the couple's liquid assets or half of their liquid assets up to $74,820.

May continue to earn unlimited monthly income and do not have to pay further to support their spouses' care (Gordon, 1995)."

In the United States today there are about 20,000 individual nursing homes. Those homes hold a combined bed number of between 1.5 million and 2 million. About five percent of residents in this country over 65 years old reside in a nursing home (Cefalu, 1995).

"Federal law requires nursing homes to have a nursing director who is a registered nurse, a medical director, and other paraprofessional personnel (medical social workers, pharmacists, rehabilitation specialists, a recreational therapist, and di- teary, housekeeping, and maintenance services). More than 90% of nursing home employees are nursing staff, and 80% of care is provided by nursing aides. These may include full-time, part-time, or contract professionals (Cefalu, 1995). "

CONCLUSION

The elderly face many challenges as they advance in age. There are nursing homes that provide total care including developing a social life for its residents. They employ an activities director who plans outings, game nights, dances and other events to encourage social interaction. In addition there are senior centers throughout the nation providing the same type of care for those who still live at home. The social isolation of the elderly is one of the biggest obstacles that we must over come if we want quality of life to keep up with quantity of life in the future. Changes in the financial demands for poverty before admittance needs to be addressed as…… [read more]

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