"Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays 71-139

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Lubben, James E. And Damron-Rodriguez Term Paper

… By the 20th century, however, this intergenerational exchange had been broken. While old people had gained from the medical knowledge generated in the 20th century, they have also become largely marginalized from society. Most families no longer depend on older people for care giving, contributing to the declining social value of the elderly. However, Thane rightly points out that this declining social role is often neglected in favor of the medical and scientific issues that are related to the aging body. Though the author makes no suggestions on how this role could be recast, his research presents a solid springboard regarding the social history and social aspects of aging.

Snowdon, David A. 2003. "Healthy aging and dementia: Findings from the Nun Study." Annals of Internal Medicine. available from Proquest Database.

Using case studies drawn from the landmark Nun Study, Snowden examines the links between healthy aging, dementia and the development of cognitive difficulties associated with Alzheimer's disease. Snowden's own research focuses on examining why some brains resist the development of neuropathic lesions, translating to a resistance to symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and by extension, a healthier and more cognitively alert old age.

The Nun Study, began in 1991, has given researchers a unique longitudinal database to study data regarding the early- and middle-life risk factors that cause dementia and other cognitive difficulties in old age. Snowden makes full use of the data already available, including postmortem comparisons of the brains of the nuns who have participated in this unique study.

Though Snowden cautions that the Nun Study is still in its early phases, he already uncovers startling links between lifestyles and healthy aging -- including the healthy physical aging of the brain. A postmortem examination of the brain of Sister Bernadette, for example, shows virtually no lesions or abnormalities, even though she was already 101 years old when she died and even though she had a strong family history of Alzheimer's disease. In contrast, 92-year-old Sister Agnes' postmortem examination showed moderate atherosclerosis as well as lesions in various parts of her brain.

For Snowden, cognitive activity during early and middle life accounts for much of these differences. Unlike Sister Agnes, Sister Bernadette had completed high school as well as university, and had engaged in cognitive activity such as reading and teaching for much of her life. Thus, despite her family of Alzheimer's disease, Sister Bernadette's brain seemed impervious to the disease.

Though much follow-ups are needed, Snowden's article is again another springboard for further studies regarding aging in society. This article calls into question the prevailing western notions that equate…… [read more]


Benefits of the Creative Process for Dementia Thesis

… Art Interventions for Dementia Patients

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Creative Aging

Art Intervention Processes for Dementia Patients

Art Interventions for Dementia Patients

Vignette

There are few phrases that I dislike more than 'It is what it is'. I… [read more]


American Culture Research Paper

… Death

Attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to death and dying are central to all cultures. Usually these attitudes, beliefs, and practices are rooted in prevailing social norms and religious dogma. Beliefs about death impact behaviors ranging from preparations for funerals to views on health care. The diversity of cultures in the United States means that it is impossible to generalize about views, beliefs, and practices around death and dying. Each individual will also have different views towards death. However, the prevailing and dominant culture attitude is that death is something to be feared and avoided at all costs, while simultaneously doing nothing spiritually to prepare one for the cognitive acceptance of death. In ancient Egypt, the culture was somewhat diverse but far more homogenous than that of the United States. The attitudes and practices surrounding death in ancient Egypt are well-known because the Egyptians embraced and even celebrated death as a passage from one life to the next. There are far more differences than there are similarities between ancient Egypt and 21st Century America with regards to most social institutions, norms, and mores, particularly those that have to do with death and dying.

In the United States, death is something that is viewed negatively. It is viewed as an inconvenience at best, or as something to keep away at all costs. As one doctor puts it, "We want our loved ones to live as long as possible, but our culture has come to view death as a medical failure rather than life's natural conclusion," (Bowron 1). Failing to view death as "life's natural conclusion" would seem anathema to the ancient Egyptian. To the ancient Egyptian, death was a welcome conclusion to a life well-lived, and even perhaps also to a life that was not so well-lived. Death was simply an acceptable as well as inevitable aspect of life. American culture seems to have changed somewhat regarding its attitudes toward death, as it was Benjamin Franklin who said that death and taxes are the only two certainties in life. It would seem that 21st century Americans have reconciled themselves to the latter, but not the former. The result is "unrealistic expectations" of life, as if the person should be immortal (Bowron 2012). Actually, this is where a 21st century American might find accordance with an ancient Egyptian. Ancient Egyptians did not just want immortality and demand it from their medical doctors. Rather, Ancient Egyptians believed firmly in immortality as inevitability (Canadian Museum of History, 2014).

Whereas the ancient Egyptian embraces both death and immortality as certainties, the 21st century American denies death. The ancient Egyptians compiled a sophisticated and detailed tome called The Book of the Dead, which includes elaborate instructions for funeral rites. In the United States, death rituals have become rote in nature except among traditional religious communities. Moreover, death has become a situation in which surviving family members care more about their inheritance and the contents of the will than the state of mind of the deceased. Other… [read more]


Described as Illnesses That Contribute Article Review

… 229). The diagnosis of a new patient with the disease requires education and support to understand the disease and impact on the patient's life. Notably, the diagnosis stage requires regular observation of the patient and numerous discussions with him/her and the family regarding specific needs and functional ability. The researcher argues that there are therapeutic alternatives to optimize the pharmacological management of Parkinson's disease at all stages. Early onset of the disease is treated using levodopa and additional dopamine agonist for patients who continue experiencing dyskinesia. During mid-stage, patients should undergo close monitoring to optimize motor control while administering doses of levodopa.

Traumatic Brain Injury in the Elderly:

Traumatic brain injury is a major health issue among older adults since it accounts for over 80,000 emergency department visits on an annual basis by persons above 65 years. The severity of this problem is evident in the fact that 75% of these visits usually end up in hospitalization (Thompson, McCormick & Kagan, 2006, p.1590). However, this neurocognitive disorder is still a neglected disease burden across the globe. As a result, three researchers conducted a study on the epidemiology, outcomes, and future implications of traumatic brain injury in older adults.

Based on the findings of their study, the highest rates of hospitalization and death related to this disease occur among adults aged 75 or more. The two major causes of this disorder are falls and motor vehicle accidents, which accounts for 51% and 9% respectively. The major risk factors for traumatic brain injury include male sex and non-white ethnicity. The researchers argue that the widespread neglect of the disease is attributed to the scarcity of information available about traumatic brain injury in older adults ((Thompson, McCormick & Kagan, 2006, p.1593). Consequently, the existing care of older patients with the disease is largely based on previous work conducted in younger patients. This contributes to the urgent need to study traumatic brain injury in the elderly, particularly because of the frequency with which elderly people experience it. There is need to refocus research efforts on this significant public health issue to prevent its prevalence in the elderly and identify unique care needs to promote the best patient outcomes.

Conclusion:

Neurocognitive disorders are illnesses that are most likely to occur among older adults than younger ones mainly because of older age. While an increase in age plays a crucial factor in the occurrence of these diseases, they are usually associated with other factors depending on the specific disorder. Moreover, the diseases have varying impacts on the patient and require the development of effective protective measures to prevent their spread and effects in the aging population. In essence, significant research initiatives should be undertaken to address these public health issues.

References:

Iansek, R. (2004, September). Pharmacological Management of Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 34(3), 229-233. Retrieved from http://jppr.shpa.org.au/lib/pdf/gt/sept2004.pdf

Thompson, H.J., McCormick, W.C. & Kagan, S.H. (2006, October). Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults: Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Future Implications. Journal of the American Geriatrics… [read more]


Prince Prospero in Edger Allen Term Paper

… Prospero eventually overcomes his reluctance as he is the only one who approaches the ugly stranger, but this is only after much deliberation and attempts at getting his friends to do it for him. The party itself also demonstrates how Prince Prospero was reluctant to face not only the death of himself but a massive apocalyptic plague that had taken over the fictional land.

What Poe's story is truly expressing, is that Prince Prospero's ignorance is what is causing all of his problems. This main quality of the character drives the weird and macabre story that Poe is trying to inflict on his readers. Prospero is happy burying his head in the sand and letting others solve his problems for him. This mindset is the cause of all his fears as he knows nothing about the outside world and has shut himself off from the rest of society in an ignorant fashion.

Prince Prospero's ignorance is epitomized in his hurried attempts to seize the stranger and attack him with a dagger. A hasty attack performed by the prince suggests that he has no idea what is really going on and has now resorted to violence to solve his thirst for knowledge. Ignorance is usually followed by inane violence and Prince Prospero is no exception in this case. Poe's use of placing such an ignorant character as Prospero and entitling him with nobility may suggest Poe's contempt for the ignorance of the elitists in his day.

Since Prince Prospero is the only well defined character in this story his contributing qualities reveal much about the more finer and subtle messages the author has placed within the depths of this short story. By demonstrating fear, ignorance and reluctance we see how Prince Prospero has met a rather chilling and frightening end to his life and, at the same time, begin to understand the importance of liberating yourself from your own fears despite the risk and danger to the act itself.

References

Poe, E. "The Masque of the Red Death" at EServer.org… [read more]


Alzheimer's Adult Daycare for Patients Literature Review Chapter

… Vreugdenhil, Anthea, Cannell, John, Davies, Andrew, and Razay, George. (2011). A community-based exercise programme to improve functional ability in people with Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 26(1), 12-19.

When evaluating an ideal daycare setting… [read more]


Thomas/Dickinson Comparison the Theme of Death Essay

… Thomas/Dickinson Comparison

The theme of death has often been explored in poetry and provides insight into poets' personal belief systems, exposing their anxieties, fears, or acceptance of the phenomena. Two poems that explore the theme of death are Emily Dickinson's "Because I could not stop for Death" and Dylan Thomas's "Do not go gentle into that good night." Each of these authors provides a distinct perspective into death and are able to express their thoughts and beliefs through their poems.

Emily Dickinson accepts death as a natural part of her life and is not fearful or anxious about death or dying. In "Because I could not stop for Death," Dickinson personifies death in order to make the concept more familiar, and gives him gentlemanly qualities to further create familiarity. In the poem, Dickinson eloquently describes death and writes, "Because I could not stop for Death/He kindly stopped for me…/we slowly drove, he knew no haste/and I had put away/My labor, and my leisure too. / for his civility" (Dickinson lines 1-2, 5-8). As "Because I could not stop for Death" develops, Dickinson approaches her advancement towards the end of her life calmly. She points out "the School...the Fields of Grazing Grain,...[and] the Setting Sun" memories that have brought her joy and meaning to her life (9, 11-12). However, as Death passes the carriage, Dickinson's attitude changes, and although she is not fearful, she is altered. Dickinson writes, "The Dews drew quivering and chill -- / for only Gossamer my Gown -- / My tippet -- only Tulle" (Dickinson, 1890, lines 14-16). "Because I could not stop for Death" concludes with a tone of acceptance and comfort as Dickinson arrives at her final resting place, which she terms her home. Dickinson writes that her carriage -- and thus her life -- has come to an end as it "paused before a house that seemed / a swelling of the Ground -- / the Roof was scarcely visible -- / the Cornice -- in the Ground" (17-20). The poem concludes with Dickinson embracing the finality of death, and is comforted by the fact that she recognized death as a natural part of life.

On the contrary, Thomas is anxious and fearful about…… [read more]


Aging and the Family-Work Link Essay

… They also examined different personal life histories of women and how caregiving and the work-family problem have defined female Mexican's lives.

However, while the authors do establish that they will use a mixed methods approach and fuse both independent research and a literature review, the specific sections of the study where one approach may be emphasized over another approach are not clear. Also, the final research implications are not even hinted at, even by the end of the introduction. The significance of the specific decades emphasized in the title is also uncertain. Overall, while the importance of the research is established in the introduction, as well as its descriptive quality, it is uncertain as to why the mixed methods approach was necessary or how the specific information accumulated can illuminate or potentially solve the issues raised in the initial first sentences of the research. Greater clarity in the initial lead-up to the story in the introduction as well as a more focused purpose statement would have improved this article tremendously. Regardless of the significance of the subsequent research, a good introduction is essential to indicate to readers why the article is important and worthy of attention.

Reference

Blanco, M. & Pacheco, E. (2009). Aging and the family-work link: A comparative analysis of two generations of Mexican women (1936-1938 and 1951-1953).…… [read more]


Ram Dass Still Here Book Review

… It should not be wasted in fear of something we all have to go through.

Dass explains that his stroke reminded him of the frailty of his physical form, and was in many ways a way for him to prepare for the major changes that were to come. So many people view these types of tragedies just as that -- tragic. They fight the frailty of their physical bdies, trying to regain a strength that has long since past them. Many refuse to accept the help from others during this vulnerable period, trying to reassert their older physical presence and autonomy within their lives. Yet this is only denying the inevitable and making it harder to embrace the changes that are yet to come. By fighting so hard against life and what it ultimately has planned for us all, one misses out on an essential preparation period before the big change actually comes. One must embrace the love and help of others, rather than try to fight it, because this is the period where one can enjoy all the friendships and family that one has spent an entire lifetime building. After everything we all do for those around us, this is a period where we can accept help in return without worries about selfishness or trying to pay people back. Accepting the help we need from others is a natural humbling process that once again prepares us for what is to come, but also shows us how great our lives really were.

Ultimately, Dass explains that he really does not have the answer to that big, controversial question. He cannot tell any of us for certain what is going to happen next after we die. Sitting around and trying to figure that out will only complicate and frustrate oneself during the twilight period of their lives, where they should be enjoying the company of others and sitting back remembering all the wonderful things their physical lives had brought them. From this perspective, he writes "one of the best parts of aging is entering the 'don't know,' learning to be someone who can rest comfortably in uncertainty" (Dass 2001). The idea here is that no one knows for certain what comes after death, or even when death will actually come for them. Our human brains are only so limited, and are not capable of understanding the how and why of the spiritual world that awaits us. Stressing about these unanswerable questions will only make those last few years more complicated and depressing. In this older stage of life, people have to let go of this need to control everything. They cannot control death, they cannot fear death, they simply have to just be content in understanding that their lives are now in greater hands, and when the time comes -- it comes. Dass professes such a practical pholisiohpy beautifully throughout his work. It is definitely a perfect match for the type of alternative philosophy he first discussed earlier in his life.… [read more]


Stem Cell Research the Issue of Federal Essay

… Stem Cell Research

The issue of federal funding for embryos stem cell research is one of the most contentious and painful topics in the area of public health, because the arguments for an against are so wildly divergent in terms… [read more]


Life Stage of Late Adulthood Term Paper

… ¶ … Old

The Very Late Old: Sociologist Daniel Levinson described eight stages of adulthood (e.g., Levinson, 1986). The last stage of adulthood, late adulthood, occurs at age 65 and beyond. Levinson's theory was originally described many years ago and… [read more]


Biology of Aging Research Paper

… Senescent cells are essentially cells that "promote the aging of tissues" (Wade 2011). These cells increase the signs and process of aging within older tissue because they accumulate aging within the skin. They do so by creating a low level of inflammation by increasing the reaction f the immune system within the skin in question.

Chambers et al. showed that there is a possibility for homeostasis living systems to not strive for homeostasis. Essentially, there are certain cells that do not contribute the regulation of the internal environment within the body, and actually disrupt its normal functioning as in the case of cancer cells (Conti 2008). Many types of cells, including undifferentiated stem cells, often do not turn towards promoting homeostasis. This often increases with age.

Studies on various forms of progeria show that there are often genetic conditions which can mimic the signs of aging. Huntington-Gilford progeria and Werner's syndrome are dominant genetic diseases that increased the speed of the aging process. These conditions show that normal aging may be linked to genetic predispositions, as it is triggered by genetic material.

4. Gene splicing alters with age, which means that the process of gene splicing changes with age to trigger the signs and conditions of aging. The quote shows that Hutchinson-Gilford porgeria syndrome is comparable to artificially made senescent cells (Science Daily 2011). The fact that progeria might be considered a process of normal aging is representative of theses that show the production of progeria as a biomarker of normal cellular aging which can be linked to terminal differentiation (McClintock et al. 2007).

5. There are a number of major causes of aging within the human body. Yet, the Programmed Cellular Aging Theory shows that the biggest causes are actually an impairment of the cell's ability to transfer necessary RNAs. This is often caused by DNA increasingly turning off particular functions based on a predetermined genetic setting.

6. Aging research must receive more attention within the public eye in order to generate enough funding to really examine the process of aging on a cellular level. It is important to direct future efforts to understanding how the cellular process impacts aging and how it can lead to future developments in preventing aging.

7. Luckily, living organisms can repair damage at the cellular level. DNA repair…… [read more]


Policy Considerations in the Development and Implementation Essay

… ¶ … policy considerations in the development and implementation of an aging-related service program. What specific aging-related factors of an older client need to be considered in offering such services? Give 2 examples of such situations that may occur in… [read more]


Opportunities and Protections Aging Related Public Policy Initiatives Essay

… Protective Services for the Elderly

Aging and the elderly have become an increasing concern, especially in the Western world today. The fact is that the population is aging and will most likely continue to do so as a result of… [read more]


Euthanasia Essay

… Conclusion:

Since euthanasia is not a standard medical practice, several arguments have been raised regarding its legality and morality. Some of the major arguments include voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia though each has certain drawbacks. As a result of the disadvantages, a middle ground position is the most logical solution for the problem or issue. The middle ground position involves administering euthanasia based on the patient's medical condition and its appropriateness rather than its legality or morality. It's a logical solution because it enables terminally-ill patients to have the right to a dignified death, whereas physicians have the moral responsibility to keep their patients alive.

Works Cited:

De Boer, Marike E., Rose-Marie Dro Es, Cees Jonker, Jan A. Eefsting, and Cees M.P.M. Hertogh. "Advance Directives for Euthanasia in Dementia: How Do They Affect Resident Care in Dutch Nursing Homes? Experiences of Physicians and Relatives." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 59.6 (2011): 989-96. Print.

Fenigsen, Richard. "Other People's Lives: Reflections on Medicine, Ethics, and Euthanasia." Issues in Law & Medicine 27.1 (2011): 51-70. Print.

Lewis, Penney. "The Empirical Slippery Slope from Voluntary to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics (2007): 197-210. Print.

McGee, Andrew. "Me and My Body: The Relevance of the Distinction for the Difference between Withdrawing Life Support and Euthanasia." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics (2011): 671-77. Print.

"Should Euthanasia or Physician-assisted Suicide Be Legal?" Euthanasia - ProCon.org. ProCon.org, 24 May 2012. Web. 10 June…… [read more]


Gerontology: Assessment and Ethical Concerns Gerontology Studies Essay

… Gerontology: Assessment and Ethical Concerns

Gerontology studies currently predict that the number of people above the age of 65 will double within the next thirty years (Miller, Zylstra & Standridge, 2000). This will place a substantial strain on medical resources as geriatric patients develop age-related illnesses. It is thus important for physicians to develop efficient geriatric assessment tools and understand the various ethical concerns that arise in treating older adults.

The assessment of older patients differs in a number of ways. Most significantly, the geriatric assessment focuses on intellectual impairment, immobility, instability, incontinence, and iatrogenic disorders (Elsawy & Higgins, 2011). These are the most prevalent problems faced by elderly patients and are often missed in a standard medical evaluation. The treatment of geriatric patients also differs in scope. Due to the complex problems faced by elderly patients, often exacerbated by mental illnesses, the assessment emphasizes the functional status and quality of life and generally involves an interdisciplinary team of healthcare providers.

A comprehensive geriatric assessment focus current symptoms and illnesses and their functional impact, medications, past illnesses, recent life changes, social functionality and current living environment (Elsawy & Higgins, 2011). It tries to place the patient's illness into a social aspect. It includes objective measures of cognitive status, mobility and balance, emotional health, nutritional status but also ascertains the family situation and assistance availability.

The health history consists of both present and past illnesses. The assessment team of physicians will prompt the patient for severity and persistence of current symptoms and record childhood diseases, hospitalizations, medications and diet. Other components of the health history include a social history charting relationships, vocation and most importantly sleep, exercise, recreation, and habits of drug consumption. A family history that maps the presence of disease with recognized familial importance including diabetes, hypertension, allergies, heart disease and neurological or psychiatric diseases are also identified. Signs of osteoporosis and arthritic are also assessed in order to measure the risk of falling (Miller, Zylstra & Standridge, 2000).

There are a number of assessment tools that are specifically designed for the evaluation of older adults. Wallace and Fulmer describe the SPICES tool, which tests for the common syndromes requiring nursing intervention (2007). The acronym stands for sleeping disorders, problems with eating or feeding, incontinence, confusion, evidence of falls and skin breakdown. The validity and reliability of this tool has been confirmed in…… [read more]


Healthy Aging Health Care Disparities Essay

… ¶ … beliefs, hopes, fears and expectations for your own aging.

As I grow older, it is my hope that I will have taken the necessary steps to prepare a transition in support needs. This includes surrounding myself with a loving support system, taking proper medical steps to improve quality of life and making the proper decisions as a functional adult so that my wishes can be carried out when I no longer have the wherewithal to express them. I am increasingly aware today that the ways I prepare for later life as I grow older in terms of lifestyle and planning will determine how I live as I age.

Describe what is meant by the diversity of older adults and the effects of gender.

The diversity of older adults is comprised of the variance in ages that are implicated by the term. The categories of elderly are distinguished by advancing age sets in which certain health concerns become larger and more permeating. Where gender is concerned, many of these needs divide across this dimension as particularized health risks such as prostate cancer in men or breast cancer in women are concerned.

3. Define in one sentence each of the following concepts of chronological age, identifying its relativity, the concepts of 'young-old,' 'old-old,'? And 'elite old', functional, chronological and biological/physiological age.

According to our research, young-old refers to those just entering retirement age and typically falling between the ages of 65 and 74. Old-old refers to adults between the ages of 85 and 94, at which many of the advancing health and physical challenges of aging become persistent. Elite-old adults are those who advance to 95 years and beyond. Functional age refers to the capacity of the individual to continue to perform in certain faculties such as physical mobility or mental comprehension as one grows older. Chronological refers to the actual age of the individual in years.…… [read more]


Humanistic or Secular Approach to Death Reaction Paper

… Humanistic or Secular Approach to Death

One reality that people learn to live with very early in life is that death is inevitable. It is the end of all human beings, and indeed, of all living things on earth. At some point, death will come for all of us. This reality is most profoundly considered in Aurelius' writing. I find his writing on death not only more secular or humanistic, but in a very fundamental sense more realistic than any of the "traditional" views I have encountered so far. I do believe that it is possible for all human beings to attain this view of death. However, it will also depend on the specific person involved and his or her religious views. Some individuals will find it more difficult to adopt Aurelius' views, but this certainly does not mean that it is impossible for them to do so.

In today's world, many people are religiously oriented, especially in terms of their views on death. Because of the traditional concept of death as holding either eternal reward or eternal punishment for how life was conducted, many people have a profound fear of death. Others, in turn, look forward to it as if it is by far desirable above the physical life that we enjoy now. A large amount of fear regarding death therefore consists in the fact that we, as religious people, fear punishment.

Aurelius, however, does not consider this a valid viewpoint. Indeed, he even briefly caters for the fact that the "gods" of his time might not exist. He argues, however, that, if they do exist, they mean no harm to human spirits. Indeed, in Aurelius' view, they are either concerned with human well-being or indifferent. This might be a difficult point for today's fundamental Christians to accept. Hence, for the extremely religious, I think it is possible to accept Aurelius' view, since we are all rational human beings but it is somewhat unlikely.

Another profoundly interesting point that Aurelius makes is more difficult to argue with. Death is as natural as life itself and as birth. He argues that no rational, adult human being should fear death because it can be accepted simply…… [read more]


Use of Concept Term Paper

… ¶ … death" has numerous meanings. Death can be both an event and a construct -- that is, death can be an event in the sense that one dies and is no longer alive and death can also be an event as in the end of something in a more abstract way. Death, for the most part, signifies something's irreversibility as well as something's inability to function further. Most of us think of death as being irreversible, but then how is it that some people have claimed to have "died" and have "come back to life?" If death can be irreversible in some cases, then just what exactly is this thing that we call death? And can some of us avoid it?

For the most part, most of us would agree with the notion that death is something that is irreversible. Nurses will see people die -- die in the sense that their bodies give out, their hearts stop, their brains no longer emit messages to parts of our bodies, and thus the people are no longer able to function in the world of the living. The belief of most is that once someone is dead, they can no longer return to the world of the living; that is, they can no longer walk, talk, breath and inhabit the living world. Death is irreversible for most of us in terms of the way that we think. While there are people who may have ideas about what happens to our bodies after we die, whether it is reincarnation or whether it is that we will live another life in an afterlife, the bottom line is that we are no longer a part of the world that we know. Thus, death in the world as we know it is irreversible.

Death can also be something that makes us not able to function in a more literal sense. Technically and medically speaking, the brain can die and the body can go on living if it is kept alive by machines. In this way, the body is still alive even though the brain is dead and the body is no longer able to function in the world. The body loses all of its ability to see, to smell, to hear, to touch and to be mobile, yet it lives on in the most basic sense. If we are to believe that there is a life in us that cannot die (that is, a spirit), this spirit is not able to keep up alive in the sense of what we know life to be. We may believe that we are eternal, but whatever we may be eternal in ourselves will not be able to keep us functioning in the world as human beings.

Death is something that is a universal concept. Even as children we are aware of our own mortality. Death is a concept that is ingrained in our biology. Even the youngest child cries when it is in danger. The child wants to… [read more]


Psychology in the 1950 Essay

… In the test, subjects rated and described themselves using the five traits. Friends and family would then rate the subjects as well as observers at social situations such as parties and work. The groundbreaking data showed that if the subject described themselves as introspective for example, others would too (Belsky, 1999). Therefore, the way people view and describe their personality traits are generally accurate and are viewed similarly by others. In addition to this, their studies showed that a pessimistic outlook on life is generally a stressful burden older people will carry with them if not altered in youth (Belsky, 1999).

When the elderly pass away, people often speak of the legacy of the deceased and what they have left behind. This is also generally something the elderly contemplate often before their passing (Belsky, 1999). The idea of leaving behind a legacy and having hope for future generations of humanity to strive is referred to as generativity in the psychological sense. Psychologists Dan McAdams proved through several charts and tests that generativity is heightened at later stages of life (Belsky, 1999). This appears to be because older adults have had a long amount of time to contemplate life and it's priorities. Also, the elderly have more time to establish an emotional connection with the world and its inhabitants before they leave and therefore may have more desire than their younger counterparts for the world and life to continue (Belsky, 1999).

Psychologist Hazel Markus introduced the concept of the self-schema in which humans gain knowledge of who they are and envision what their future will be like (Belsky, 1999). According to Markus, our self-schemas guide us to choices as they are our perceived idea of our adult-development and therefore greatly effect it (Belsky, 1999). In an all-encompassing manner, Laura Cartensen developed the Socioemotional-Selectivity Theory which explains humans attachments to particularly people. Basically, due to aging, humans generally come to a point where they attempt to focus more on the present and creating a positive emotional state for themselves (Belsky, 1999). Because of this, people want to surround themselves with people and things they feel familiar, at peace, and joyous with. Death can be a time of darkness for many and therefore being surrounded by love and joy is important to the elderly which leads to the selectivity of positivity.

Reference List

The Psychology of Aging. (2009) University of Southern California. .

F. De Fruyt, R.R. McCrae, Z. Szirmak, & J. Nagy (2004). The Five-factor Personality

Inventory as a measure of the Five-factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R. NCBI Vol. 11 (3), 207-15.

Belsky, J. (1999). The Psychology…… [read more]


Death Stats One of the Problems Data Analysis Chapter

… Death Stats

One of the problems that can be examined in this data is whether life expectancy in England and Wales has increased or decreased overall over the past decade. Both of the presentations of data above help to examine this data. The bar graphs very clearly demonstrate how dramatically the number of deaths in the highest age group especially have been decreased, likely due to medical improved interventions. The mean age of death amongst the population for which data was given, however, dropped only slightly. This must be intercepted carefully; the bar graphs make it clear that a change has occurred even if the averages do not indicate a major change, but it must be remembered that the data sets only include individuals that dies between the ages of 45 and 69. Even within this population, the mean age of death has decreased slightly, and the lower absolute numbers in each category between 1998 and 2008 mean that more people are surviving to 70 and beyond.

The data was likely originally collected through medical records and death records logged with various officials. Deaths are recorded as a matter of policy, making the data something the government would automatically have in its possession in most cases. Data was likely culled from these sources, then, and in fact it is likely that a running tally of certain information is kept and fairly regularly updated from incoming death records as hospitals and other medical personnel report them. A frequently updated database would make it incredibly easy for anyone with access to this database to view the original data and its totals. If such a database is not maintained, collating and totaling this data would have been much more time consuming, but would still have been fairly straightforward in…… [read more]


Strong Issue Term Paper

… He saw prisoners tortured, shot and worked to death by the thousands, their money and property stolen and their lives ended suddenly and with maximum brutality. In April 1939, a typhus epidemic in Buchenwald that spread to the Germans in the surrounding districts led Hitler to issue an order that all Jews who had visas to leave the country would be released from the camps. Bettleheim noted the irony of inmates who "began thinking of their tormentor as their savior," but he was fortunate to escape to America before Hitler issued his Final Solution order (Pollak, p. 89). Once he and his family escaped, of course, he did everything possible to warn the Allied nations of the true situation in Germany and what was really happening in the camps.

Most people in history did not even regard death as an evil but as a passport into the afterlife, which they hoped would be better. This was particularly true in those times when only 5% of the population lived to age sixty and the majority died in childhood. In that situation, humanity had lower expectations and a more stoic attitude about suffering and death, as in the case in poor countries today. Perhaps science will advance in the future to the point where poverty, suffering, disease and death will become extinct on earth, and humans in the centuries ahead will move out into space and encounter other advanced civilizations. No one can know this with any certainty, but it may very well be possible, at least to the degree that it would be better to take a gamble on the future being an improvement on the present. Given that this possibility exists, then it will not do to simply take a blase attitude toward death and ultimate extinction -- insofar as these ideas are something more than cynical philosophical poses.

REFERENCES

Bauman, Z. (2003). Liquid Love: On the Frailty of Human Bonds. Polity Press.

Benatar, D. (2204). "Why It Is Better Never to Come into Existence" in D. Benatar (ed). Life, Death and Meaning. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Lenman,…… [read more]


Death by Thomas Nagel Essay

… Philosophy

Nagel says that the most serious difficulty with the view that death is always an evil is determining whether death is (always) misfortunate given the human limitation of mortality. He raises a question of how possible a possibility (in this case, continued life) must be in order for it to be considered a misfortune. Because humans have a standard lifespan of no more than 100 years (and an upper limit not much higher than that), Nagel questions whether a person who dies close to that limit (age 82 in his example) has suffered a misfortune (given that he could not possibly have lived much longer). He concludes that even though death is inevitable, it would still be good to live longer. He thinks that the 82-year-old has been deprived of some life, and all of the goods with which life has acquainted him, so death must be a misfortune because it presents "an abrupt cancellation of indefinitely extensive possible goods" (p. 80). Therefore, he concludes that death, regardless of when it happens, by its nature, is bad.

I do not necessarily agree that death is always an evil for several reasons. First, Nagel explicitly says that "life is a good and death is the corresponding deprivation or loss." However, he failed to really establish that life is (necessarily) a good aside from listing things like perception and thought as "goods." To determine this, questions of psychological states and lived experiences seem to need to be addressed. For example, if someone where chronically depressed or in pain, would death, which brings corresponding deprivation (in this case of pain or depression) be evil? Nagel speaks of potential as part of his argument for death's evil, so he might say that people have the potential to enjoy life and death still deprives them of that potential. However, if someone has enjoyed their life little and suffered much, that potential does not negate the lived experience of the person and death might be the only end to their pain. If one views life as both good and bad, then death would negate both good and bad. It would seem, in this view, death's villainous status would depend a lot on experiences while living (answering the question "what exactly is one losing or being deprived of?"). Further, I am not convinced that cessation of pleasurable things (i.e., those things which give life "good" status) is bad either. For example, ending one's cocaine addiction is probably a better than continuing to use, even though it ends his or her experience of pleasure. This raises other questions, such as what qualifies and quantifies good in life.

Second, I am not convinced that he properly dismissed Lucretius' problem of temporal asymmetry. Nagel argues that while it is not possible to have lived before one's birth, it would be possible to live after one's death (if death had not occurred). Being born early, for example, would have either made one a different person or caused him/her to not… [read more]


Puritan Life Was Heavily Contaminated Research Paper

… The funeral is used as a metaphor for this loss and due to its association with death. She is present for the funeral, signifying her ability to watch herself slip in to this new state of existence. She is the subject of the funeral, as well as a participant. She "feels" the service rather than experiencing it. The death mentioned in this poem marks a psychological change of mental state and although it may appear unorthodox, it continues to follow the puritan belief that nothing can be done to change one's destiny. According to puritan theology, a person's life is pre-determined, denying them the ability to change the path they are on, which can be seen in the poem. As the narrator states, "and when they all were seated, a service like a drum kept beating, beating, till I thought my mind was going numb." Here, the reader can feel the narrator's involuntary journey to insanity. By the end of the poem, she sees herself as "some strange race," marking the end of her transformation in to a sort of reclusive oddity and leaving her old self behind and deceased.

These three poems all describe death in different ways. The first mentions an un-known transcendence to the afterlife that is terribly interrupted by an insect. It marks the physical process that is brought on by death and brings the narrator face-to-face with her own mortality. The second poem describes a spiritual yet involuntary process that occurs when a person dies. It is a peaceful transition from life to death and represents a person that has lived a full and satisfying life. The third and final poem explains a mental death, one that takes place while the person is still breathing. It explores the dangers of solitary confinement and suggests that death may occur when the heart…… [read more]


God and Good Death Concept Essay

… Those providing treatment for whatever malady is creating the reasons for the suicide consideration are armed with volumes of information. Additionally, the afflicted patient has his or her own quality of life issues in her own consciousness to be of assistance.

It is the third prong of the analysis voluntariness that causes the most concern. Voluntariness is unfortunately a state of mind and, as such, it is impossible to ever be sure. State of mind is a purely personal thing and so impossible to measure but the physical expression of voluntariness is easier to ascertain.

In the legal arena consent is often a determining factor. It comes into play in determining the difference between theft and loans. It is the difference in determining whether an act is "having sex" or rape. Someone society finds a way to make a determination in these situations so why not in the case of assisted suicide?

The legality of assisted suicide is likely to remain a hotly contested issue for many years. There are a variety of philosophies on both sides of the issue and some are irreconcilable. Nevertheless, in a society that professes the individual right to choose some form of legal assisted suicide should be available as an option. Through legalization adequate counseling can be provided to insure that the person requesting the suicide has the requisite capacity to decide, is fully informed, and is doing so voluntarily. Finally, legalization would insure that the process was being done under the guidance and control of medical professionals trained in the procedure. This combination of personnel would create the situation long sought by philosophers of providing the "good death." The debates will continue but at least those seeking relief will be in control of their own destiny. (Frey)

Works Cited

Frey, R.G., and Wellman, Christopher Heath. A Companion to Applied Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.… [read more]


Epicurus on the Fear of Death Research Paper

… Epicurus on the Fear of Death

You know, it's really very peculiar. To be mortal is the most basic human experience and yet man has never been able to accept it, grasp it, and behave accordingly. Man doesn't know how… [read more]


Mental Aging Journal

… Mental aging is a natural process where as age increases, mental abilities tend to decline. It is however generally believed that higher mental activity or exercise to lead to better performance of mental faculties as age increases. The article chosen for this paper tests this hypothesis to finally reveal that there is no significant evidence to indicate optimistic results of mental exercise. The article titled, "Mental Exercise and Mental Aging-Evaluating the Validity of the "Use It or Lose It" Hypothesis, is written by Timothy A. Salthouse for both the sophisticated academia and the student of psychology. The branch of psychology that deals with aging is known as Geriatric psychology.

The article presents its hypothesis, limitations, data and conclusion very clearly and explains the limitations and reasons for conclusion effectively. The author examines various previous study and shows why there had been an optimistic view of mental exercise before. The article is quite lengthy, around 84 pages, but it consists of very useful information and is hence worth reading, the various headings found in the article are as follows:

Abstract

Investigating the Mental activity hypothesis

Training Interventions

Comparisons of pre-existing groups

Special Reports of mental activity

Conclusion

These are the main headings and some headings are followed by sub-headings to clearly identify the different sections in the article.

The author writes the hypothesis clearly and the hypothesis is as follows: "…the

Rate of age-related decline in measures of cognitive functioning will be less pronounced for people who are more mentally active, or, equivalently, that the cognitive differences among people who vary in level of mental activity will be greater with increased age." (p.1)

In my own words, the hypothesis states that the rate at which mental aging would occur in an individual is indirectly proportional to the level of mental exercise that the adult had been engaged in during his life. Higher the level of mental activity, slower would be the rate of mental aging.

The article itself is an amalgamation of analyses of various previous studies. The author himself did not carry out a study but presents data collected from secondary sources. The population for these studies varied with most consisting of older people while some even had college students and younger population for comparison purposes. In some studies two groups of older individuals were compared and in some only self-reported data was used which again had…… [read more]


Caregiving to Elderly People Essay

… It would help them to provide a caregiver from the same ethnical background who understands the culture and rituals of the certain ethnical background. The strategy would be organizing some social groups including caregivers and elderly people sharing same ethnical background and language. It could be more beneficial for them to exchanging ideas than being lectured. Therefore, they should be talking, explaining their feelings and experiences during these social work groups.

These classes for the caregivers should be given at the conference rooms of the Hope Hospice to provide a high attendance and opportunity to experiment the theories given during the theoretical sessions. Elderly caregiving is difficult not only for the caregiver but also the elder person. Therefore, some collaborative classes should be projected with counselors and psychologists.

The meeting is going to take place at 21st of October between 1 pm and 2pm at Hope Hospice Community Room. The participants will be enlightened in the aspects of physical and mental changes of elderly people as well as the quality of caregiving and caregiver's physical and psychological states. The counseling service of the Hope Hospice would provide lectures how to deal with cognitive and perceptual aspects of aging.

The expected outcome of this project is to provide better and more prepared caregivers for the elder people as a result of rapidly growing age related industries.

References

Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's disease and Other Dementias" American Psychiatric Association. October 2007. http://www.psychiatryonline.com/pracGuide/loadGuidelinePdf.aspx?file=AlzPG101007. Retrieved 2007-12-28.… [read more]


Death and Dying the Last Lecture a Video Essay

… ¶ … Life According to the Last Lecture

It is difficult to conceptualize and verbalize those things which should be seen as most important to us in life. This is, of course, a deeply subjective discussion and one highly subject to changes in perspective as one goes through various stages of one's life. The terminal stage though is one which imposes perhaps the greatest demand for introspection, for evaluation and for reflection on how the life behind one stacks up to the life which one perceived ahead of him so many years ago. This seems to be the challenge at the center of Pausch's () sobering and simultaneously affirming meditation on death.

Indeed, Pausch provides us with a compelling meditation on the cusp of his own tragically young and impending death that centers on the identification of those things which truly matter. As expected and understood, Pausch spends considerable focus on the importance of his wife and family. In his perspective, these constituted his highest priority, his legacy and his purpose on earth. But this resolution was not in and of itself satisfying for the professor, lecturer and author. Instead, he sought a way to validate himself more personally and directly, and in such a manner that the priorities of greatest importance could be reiterated for his children as they became old enough to understand them.

In light of this self-imposed task, Pausch would arrive at one major ambition that seems to be repeated throughout his text, which is that one should remain committed to the ambitions and fantasies that form during childhood. To this end, Pausch may be seen as a lucky man. While we are troubled by the arbitrary misfortune that would strike down a smart, attractive and powerful man during his prime years, Pausch insists that his priorities have allowed him to be completely fulfilled even on the cusp of death. He claims that "whatever my accomplishments, all of the things I loved were rooted in the…… [read more]


Euthanasia: The Good Death You Matter Essay

… ¶ … Euthanasia: The Good Death

"You matter because you are you.

You matter to the last moment of your life, and we will do all we can, not only to help you die peacefully, but also to live until… [read more]


American Psychological Association/Adult Development and Aging Research Proposal

… American Psychological Association/Adult Development and Aging

The American Psychological Association as we know it today is structured as a collection of special interest divisions. When it was formed in 1945 at the end of WWII, it contained 19 charter divisions. Division 20, which turned out to be the first expansion division of APA, was formed by a group of psychologists who felt there was a need for a new division that dealt with adulthood and old age (Marsiske, 2008).

Those who belong to the APA's Division 20 represent psychologists with a wide range of interests that are related to aging, including direct service, academia and research. This division distributes a quarterly newsletter, which includes announcements of meetings, grant offers and jobs. It also has a publication that is directed towards students which details the mission of the division, lists its activities and databases and provides an online membership application (Adult Development and Aging, 2009).

People that are 65 years old and older are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. By the year 2030 it is estimated that older adults will make up 20% of our…… [read more]


Tolstoy and Chekhov Essay

… ¶ … Death of Ivan Ilych" and Ward No. 6"

An analysis of "The Death of Ivan Ilych" and "Ward No. 6" reveals that death is a critical concept in both. While Ivan Ilyich and Dr. Andrei Yefimich are similar… [read more]


Aging as a Vulnerable Population Thesis

… Senior Citizens as a Vulnerable Population

In recent years there has been a change in the perception and understanding of the ageing population and what it means to be an elderly or senior citizen. While many assume that the elderly… [read more]


Death and Dying - Euthanasia the Ethical Thesis

… Death & Dying - Euthanasia

THE ETHICAL ISSUES of PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE

Since the inception of medicine, the most fundamental concept guiding physicians in the ethical practice of medicine has been the traditional principle of "do no harm" expressed in the Hippocratic Oath. However, in the modern era of medicine, that ancient maxim is inadequate because contemporary medical science and treatments often make it possible to prolong life beyond the point where a natural death would otherwise occur (Levine, 2008; Tong, 2007).

Much more often than not, the prolongation of human life through methods of medical intervention that were never conceived by Hypocrites provides a profound benefit. Less frequently, some of those same technologies prolong human life even where doing so is neither desired by, nor in the best interests of patients suffering from certain ailments (Humphry, 2002).

In some cases, for example, individuals have no other means of eliminating excruciating pain or preventing a more painful "natural" death besides physician-assisted suicide. In the United States, one of the most ardent supporters of the right to a death at the time and in the manner of one's choosing was Dr. Jack Kevorkian, only recently released after his incarceration for violating Michigan state laws prohibiting physicians from assisting in euthanasia. Doctor Kevorkian is unable to continue as a public advocate of euthanasia rights as a condition of his parole (Martindale, 2007).

Nevertheless, his efforts demonstrated that a new ethical consideration may be overdue to whatever extent the purpose of modern medicine is to reduce suffering; such changes may also be overdue purely in the modern context of individual rights of privacy and personal autonomy that have evolved as much since the time of Hypocrites as the "hard science" of medicine.

Governmental Paternalism, Suicide, and Euthanasia:

Suicide is prohibited by all of the predominant Western religions, as well as under secular law of most modern human societies, probably as a direct consequence. In the U.S., secular law must, at least in theory, reflect only objective ethical analyses rather than religious ideals. Certainly, there are ethical bases that justify the involvement of societal authorities in efforts to prevent suicide in many instances. Prevention of reckless suicide is justified from the simplest perspective of protecting innocent members of society from being harmed by reckless forms of suicide that put others at risk without their consent.

Similarly, society may have a legitimate right to intervene where the motivation for suicide is as a symptom of a recognizable illness, particularly if it is treatable. In those cases, it is reasonable and not violative of any individual rights to privacy or autonomy to prevent suicide where the individual would almost certainly be appreciative after the fact, as opposed to situations where an individual in his so-called "right mind" would not be appreciative. In that regard, it is difficult to articulate any logically cogent rational for intruding in what should be purely private matters.

Physician-Assisted Suicide:

There may indeed be other valid reasons for governmental regulation of suicide apart… [read more]


Oregon Death With Dignity Act Research Proposal

… Oregon Dignity

Oregon's Death With Dignity Act (1994)

In 1994, the Oregon legislature passed Measure 16 of the state's pre-existent Death With Dignity Act. Designed to protect and ensure the medical rights of the terminally ill, the measure was approved by a very slim majority through public referendum, establishing a standard by which physicians may assist, without fear of legal reprisal, in the termination of life for patients who desire an immediate cessation of pain due to intractable and fatal conditions. One of the bill's key segments, section 127.885, indicates that "no person shall be subject to civil or criminal liability or professional disciplinary action for participating in good faith compliance," with the conditions set forth in the measure. (Oregon, 7) This is to indicate that for physicians adhering to the parameters allowing for the administering of life-suspending procedures as set forth in the legislation, the State of Oregon may take no retaliatory action. Such legislation would be the first of its kind in the United States, though it has yet to achieve any genuine penetration to precedent on the federal level.

Though suicide, as an autonomous and self-executed act, is no longer considered a felony, thus removing a sociological obligation to prosecute anybody in the peripheral sequence of such…… [read more]


Tuesdays With Morrie: An Old Man Term Paper

… ¶ … Tuesdays with Morrie: An old man, a young man, and life's greatest lesson by Mitch Albom. Specifically it will discuss the essence of aging portrayed in the book and existential psychology. Albom's book is an emotional look at… [read more]


Lack of Stimulation in the Elderly Term Paper

… ¶ … stimulation in nursing homes for the purpose of helping residents remain active. The writer, who has worked in nursing homes for the past 27 years has experienced first hand the negative impact that lack of stimulation has had… [read more]


Policy on the Oregon Death With Dignity Act Term Paper

… ¶ … death with dignity is a contentious issue with opposition in courts and in the public. The California Compassionate Choices Act would allow those diagnosed with a terminal illness to choose to end their life with dignity, including choosing physician-assisted suicide. The bill recently failed, but it will certainly return to the ballot in a different form. However, similar measures in many other states have failed, including Michigan, and the only state to currently allow death with dignity is Oregon. Congress has passed laws allowing patients to choose to refuse certain medical care.

End of life issues are complicated. Indeed modern medical practices have improved care and further complicate the issues of when and where a person ends their life. Many prominent medical cases indicate the difficulty of making these decisions, including Karen Quinlan, Elizabeth Bouvia, Robert Wendland, and most recently, Terri Schiavo.

Social workers must be cognizant of the ethical and moral considerations of these difficult choices, and cultural practices and beliefs are a major factor in death with dignity choices.

The Oregon Death with Dignity Act as added to the controversy, but was recently upheld by the Supreme Court. The law has brought death with dignity into the public view, and writings by David Gil continue to inform the public and inflame the issue in some people's minds. The act attempts to give terminally ill or incapacitated patients the choice to die with dignity, when they choose to die. Many European countries have laws defining "terminal" and other conditions, and have condoned euthanasia for many years. A majority of Americans believe a person has the right to end their life in certain situations, and the Oregon law confirms this, as there are more elderly suicides in Oregon than other states.

Two of the most well-known advocates of physician-assisted suicide are Dr. Jack Kevorkian and Dr. Timothy Quill. Moral…… [read more]


Nursing Death and Dying Term Paper

… 137). Many other cultures, including the Jewish culture and Catholics, believe the dying person must confess their sins on their deathbed, to clear the pathway to Heaven and assure their soul's repose in Heaven.

In most Arabic countries, their beliefs on death and dying are closely related to the writings in the Qur'an. Muslims also believe in reincarnation or life after death, and that the dying person must prepare for death. However, they also believe there is a barrier between death and delivery to Heaven, and some souls cannot cross that barrier. "According to traditional accounts, once separated from the body the soul begins a journey heavenward. Modeled on the mystical journey taken by the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem to heaven, the soul is escorted by the angel Gabriel through seven layers of heaven" (Kramer, 1988, p. 160). Many Catholics believe some souls remain in purgatory for eternity, never reaching Heaven or Hell. However, Muslims believe souls will reach the seven layers of heaven or burn in Hell, there is no in between. Muslims must also prepare for death, it is quite important to them. They believe, "The best way to prepare for dying is to practice the sacred art of dying while alive. Practicing fana is to concentrate one's purpose on loving God everywhere, in everyone, and on maintaining recollection upon God's truth" (Kramer, 1988, p. 163). Thus, most Arabic cultures spend their lives trying to live spiritual lives to prepare themselves for death.

Humans are not the only species that have elaborate and varied beliefs about life and death. Even animals have been seen creating elaborate graves for their dead. For example, elephants in the wild have been observed burying their own dead and even other animals, and covering them with leaves, mud, and dirt (Aiken, 2001, p. 127). It is important, even vital, to understand the beliefs and practices of other cultures when it comes to death and dying, so that the nurse does not offend family and friends as their loved one passes on.

References

Aiken, L.R. (2001). Dying, death, and bereavement (4th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kramer, K.P. (1988). The sacred art…… [read more]


Graying of America Term Paper

… Aging and Politics

One definition of politics is "the process for determining who gets what, when, and how." Of course, politics don't exist without people, and the average age of the people who populate the United States is changing. Due to the combination of the "baby boomer" generation approaching retirement and a significant increase in how long people live, older people are going to become a larger and larger segment of the U.S. population. From 1990 to 2000 the number of people from ages 45 to 54 increased from about 19 million to about 38 million. 38 million people is a large constituency, and the aging of America will continue for decades.

Older people in the U.S. have already discovered political clout as evidenced by organizations such as the "Gray Panthers" and the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP).

As people of retirement age make up more and more of the country's population, fewer people will be available…… [read more]


Death and Dying Term Paper

… Death and Dying

The five stages of dying as expressed in the Kubler-Ross theory may apply to some instances but they do not fit all cultural and individual cases. The five stages she describes in her book, on Death and Dying are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. However, these reactions are also subject to various cultural influences and differences.

These stages are possibly more applicable to Western secular society and typically modern responses to death and dying. Different cultures have different modes and ways of understanding the meaning of death and particular views with regard to dealing with the inevitability of the fact of death.

Most of these stages mentioned by Kubler-Ross for example would not apply to most traditional Eastern views of death and dying. In the first instance, Eastern views of death are often very different and the stage of denial would generally not be acceptable to this view. This would apply to Buddhist views where death is seen as a form of welcome 'releasement' or transcendence of…… [read more]


Dementia Deficiency of Mental Ability Acute Enough Term Paper

… Dementia

deficiency of mental ability acute enough to hinder with normal actions of daily living, which persists for more than six months, which is not present from birth and which is not connected with loss or modification of consciousness is… [read more]


Social Aging Term Paper

… Aging & Personal Motivation

At present, I would consider myself as a mix between being internally oriented and field independent. This means that most of the time, I believe that I am capable of controlling my environment, especially in determining my choices and chances in life. Moreover, I believe my trait of being internally-oriented is also related to my being field independent, where I feel no need to depend on other people in order to accomplish my daily tasks, or simply because I feel the need to socialize or interact with them. Right now, I have a lot of opportunities that I alone can decide what to choose, and it is only through my skills and knowledge that I will be able to become successful as an individual. At present, I believe that I still have a lot to prove to myself, I yearn things in order to improve myself as an individual. Thus, right now, my concern is to contribute further to my personal development as an individual, allowing myself to be influenced by my social environment only once in a while, especially when the need…… [read more]


Tuesdays With Morrie People React Term Paper

… I want to tell you about my life. I want to tell you before I can't tell you any more. I want someone to hear my story." (p. 63) It was one more indication of the terrible nature of Morrie's illness: the time would come when his brain would still work but he would not have any way to communicate with people.

Morrie had lots of things he wanted to talk with Albom about -- feeling sorry for oneself, the fear of aging, and one that has probably crossed many people's minds -- regrets. Albom insightfully puts this issue where it belongs: it's an issue of selfishness. What have I missed out on? What did I deserve that I didn't get? Where was I deprived? Interestingly, Morrie understands the issue in the same way, even though Albom didn't present it in selfish terms. He said that people are so busy acquiring things and experiences that they do not stop to think about what they really do and do not want. The discussion had impact and importance for Albom. He made a list of major life issues, realizing that there were no definitive answers to life's questions. Morrie faced the same questions, but instead of telling Mitch Albom what he had discovered are and are not important, he insisted that Mitch sort it out himself. Even as he was dying, Morrie was still the professor.

Morrie began to deteriorate in the one area still useful for him -- communication. Mitch watched him on a TV show and saw that he couldn't gesture with his hands the way he had in the past, and that he had trouble pronouncing some words. Morrie was now losing what had become most important to him. In this interview, Morrie also revealed how profoundly he understood loss: his mother had died seventy years ago, and he still wept at the thought of losing her. Morrie knew very well what those who loved him were going through.

Throughout the book, Mitch includes anecdotes from his own life, written in short sections and printed in italics. After Mitch talks about the death of Morrie's mother, Mitch tells how his brother and he were nearly hit by a car on a sled. At the last moment the car swerves, and they are safe. The juxtaposition of their possible brush with death and Morrie's inexorable march toward death, with no chance that the car will swerve for him, dramatizes the significant difference between how people think about death when it's an abstract possibility compared to facing death as an impending certainty.

At the end of the book, Morrie does reveal that he has a regret: a friend with whom he has had a schism tries to repair the friendship several times, but Morrie declines. The friend dies of cancer before Morrie can forgive him and re-establish what was once an important friendship. Once again, Morrie has refused to sugar-coat either his life or his death. To the very end, Morrie… [read more]


Images of Aging Term Paper

… Images of aging have been observing some old people for some time now, and I have noticed some distinct outstanding features that set them apart from people of other age groups.

One of the most outstanding features is their positive attitude to life. On having lived a long life and experienced a lot of things, they know and have accepted life's vicissitudes. They, no longer, complain about why what happened in their lives. They would, in fact, tell you that they learned a greater deal from the bad situations in their lives.

This does not mean elderly don't complain at all. They would, especially complain about young generations' attitude towards life (which is usually care-free, seeking short-cuts in life, ingratitude etc.) and their treatment (or rather mistreatment) of important things/people in life including themselves. The latter is something that annoys them most, the reason clearly being their old age and amass experience.Due to which they demand for respect, which they quiet rightly deserve.

Another feature of the old people that can never go unnoticed is their continuous reiteration of their life's special moments with all the details, including who was present then and how they reacted. They would incessantly remind you of importance of principles in life (hard work, patience, tolerance, respect) and how they (the old people) implied them in their lives and succeeded.

While, remembering those moments, you can see how all the emotions they felt then, reappear, making the environment extremely nostalgic and stories, very interesting.

Another interesting part of their conversation is their witty sense of humor.

One more thing that is very adorable is their absolute bluntness with zero percent of pretence.They ask for what they want, regardless of whether they know you or not and you can't help, helping them. They don't pretend to be anyone, they say what they want to, whether you like it or not. And they don't feel bad about it because they believe it's their right which is something everyone knows and therefore no one complains.

But, however, someone's constant demand for attention can be very irritating. Some might pretend to be sick to get that extra care and attention. However, those who have been working all their lives (mainly men), could still love to work and remain involved in some activity or hobby. They might be very reluctant to help.

Some typical activities of old people are going to church or any holy place, gardening, reading newspapers for long hours and walking in the park. Old people don't like to be left alone and it may be one of many…… [read more]


Hospitalization of Older People Term Paper

… Hospitalization of Older People

Hospitals as Recovery Institutions

Hospitals are designed to be places of caring and nurturing with an emphasis on the physical healing and recovery of the patient. Typically - and as in their day-to-day living situations - special care is mandatory for senior citizens if inherent risks are to be reduced and/or avoided.

With the largest percentage - in recorded history - of the population nearing senior age, the inherent and controllable factors to the dangers of hospitalization must be dealt with - and soon.

The focus of this paper is to delve into some the issues facing aging patients and how the day-to-day role and interaction of a nurse can impact that risk.

Decline - Physical

Decline is a key problem facing older patients and the hospitalization experience often accelerates the problem. Being in a bed for long periods places the elderly at risk for decubitus growth, respiratory diseases such as bronchial infections or deadly pneumonia, and psychological decline. Well meaning enough, hospitals often ignore the special needs of such patients. Offering them foods to which they are unaccustomed, allowing long periods of bedfast inactivity, and delaying critical physical therapy are all factors which can quickly contribute to their rapid decline and even death.

Decline - Cognitive

Memory problems, confusion, dementia, situational hallucinations, and the reduction in mental coping skills are all inherent in placing older people into an institutional setting where the patient may not have the level of comfort and sense of safety they may have at home.

Advantages - Physical

Hospitalization for senior people can be desirable situation. Timed care, intervention medical procedures, poly-pharmacy management, and other support services can prolong life, provide safety measures, and the like.

According to the Irish Medical Organisation, Mallow General Hospital is addressing the aging dynamic through the "Aging with Confidence" programs. This program "will allow the elderly to be treated in their own community and lessen the effects of institutionalisation of our elderly (the biggest increasing work load for the future).

By treating the geriatric patient in a community setting, much of the cognitive problem is avoided; the patient is familiar with their surroundings and much of their normal routine may be implemented into their daily care.

Nursing Interventions

The nurse is the first line of defense in caring for the patient; senior patients benefit from nurses who have a high degree of empathy for the patient's needs and experiences.

In one hospital system - the Cabell Huntington Medical - nurses and nurse…… [read more]


Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Term Paper

… ¶ … CPR: Analysis of "Sudden Death and the Myth of CPR" by Stefan Timmermans

Although it has become the norm of most medical institutions when dealing with sudden death, out-of-hospital CPR or cardiopulmonary resuscitation is statistically-proven to be an ineffective form of intervention to prevent sudden deaths. In Stefan Timmermans' "Sudden death and the myth of CPR," he explores the nature of CPR as it is experienced by hospital personnel, wherein a different perspective in practicing the said life-saving procedure can be generated. The author's discussion and analysis of CPR critically assesses how CPR, despite its ineffectiveness in saving lives, has perpetuated and dominated the medical field, especially in this period of advanced medical technology.

The analysis evidently subscribes to the conflict perspective, wherein a critical analysis demonstrates the reinforcement of CPR in order to alleviate worries and apprehensions of the patient's family and relatives. Moreover, the analysis also shows that preoccupation on preventing sudden deaths through CPR results to the gradually decreasing value of community-shared (or family-shared) tradition of mourning the dead and grievance. These are the important points that reflect contemporary society today, wherein fear of death is perpetuated and death in itself becomes a technical concept that must be dealt with through the medical staff or hospital personnel -- that is, death an impersonal view of death.

Timmermans' main points are expressed effectively all throughout the book. In discussing the myth of CPR, he criticizes the mass media in bringing into the minds of their audience an inaccurate perception of what CPR is. His ethnographic research for more than one year of observing medical procedures conducted at the event of sudden death in hospitals show that "...if the purpose and expectation of CPR is to save human lives from sudden death, resuscitative interventions are largely failures...Belief in the resuscitation has the value of a revered cultural myth perpetuated by "real-life" television shows and…… [read more]


Ljl Human Development Term Paper

… Because so many of the elderly don't have their drivers license, and many don't need to have one, and also need care to the extent that they are unable to attend to the toiletry task on their own. This is… [read more]


People Grow Older Term Paper

… Methods and procedures

In order to collect data, I visited a large local cemetery. I recorded the birth and death dates from all of the headstones. From this data, I did not calculate the average life span, which is usually the procedure. Instead, I calculated the most dangerous time of life based on age. I eliminated anyone who was marked as being in the military because the unnatural death rates of soldiers would have skewed the results.

Evaluation

By interpreting the data collected, I found that life is very dangerous when people are very young. However, once infancy is safely passed, there is less danger. From that point, the risk of death starts getting higher and higher as a person ages. Especially after the age of 50, and for the next 30 years, it is especially dangerous and death rates increase rapidly. After the age of 80, there seems to be less deaths, which is probably because such a significant number of people have already died by that age. However, it is possible this represents some return to safety. Further research will be required.

References

There are a great number of sources that reveal people are more likely to die as they get older. Birth and death records, and also medical records, would be primary sources.

Badget and Justification

This is important because not enough scientific research is being put into stopping aging. Much research is being done towards fighting cancer and AIDS, but aging seems to be a major contributing factor to death, which if independently controlled might be able to cause less deaths.

Human Subjects

There were no living human subjects used in this research. However, there…… [read more]


Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide Term Paper

… The authors' article illustrates the sensitivity of the issue of euthanasia, where society, especially people who have strong religious beliefs against euthanasia, often view it as an undesirable process to end a suffering patient's life, equating it to killing. However, Gert et. al. cautions that physicians' moral views must be able to be compatible with the patient's views. This means that in order to administer VPE, the physician must be (a) compatible with patient's moral views about euthanasia; or, in the event that the patient disagrees to VPE, (b) must at least inform the patient's right that s/he has the right to physician-assisted suicide/death (PAS).

These alternatives and precautions that the authors discuss in their article show how the issues of morality are the primary consideration in conducting VPE. What is evident in the article is the reminder that in issues pertaining to euthanasia, the important considerations are the physician and patient's position on VPE, not what society will perceive or think of the said action/process.

Thus, Gert, Culver, and Clouser 'sensitively' discusses in a moralistically practical way in which a sensitive issue such as euthanasia can be achieved with utmost objectivity and practicality (i.e., to end a patient's suffering from an ailment). True enough, the authors argue in parting that the only strong argument about their recommended alternative PAS method is that "it does not provide sufficient benefit to individual patients to justify societal risks."… [read more]


Epicurus and the Afterlife Term Paper

… Epicurean Notions of Death

The arguments for Epicurus's claim in the passage for this assignment that "death is nothing to us" (Epicurus) involve a fairly simple dichotomy that render them lucid. That dichotomy involves a nothing associated with death, based on the notion that all sensations and conceptions of good and evil effectively cease. The other end of that dichotomy is that death's opposite is life, which is completely unrelated to anything pertaining to death because there are sensations and notions of good and evil. Therefore, the crux of the author's argument is that life involves everything related to the human experience, whereas death is a complete denial or obliteration of that experience. Based on this premise, the author of this particular passage has concluded that "death is nothing" (Epicurus).

Interestingly enough, there is another implicit dichotomy that the author of this passage refers to which helps to bolster the aforementioned premise and lead to the conclusion. That dichotomy is that found between the notions of heaven and hell, which are alluded to more than once in this passage and have been dichotomized with contrasting imagery throughout literature (Blake). When the author of the quotation states that "good and evil imply the capacity for sensation" (Epicurus), he is actually referring to the sort of sensation accorded to an afterlife existence in either heaven or hell. Yet in this particular context, the author is stating that there is a definite lack of sensation that death provides which is "the privation of all sentience" (Epicurus) that renders the feeling of any sort of good or evil (found in the afterlife in heaven or hell) impossible. In such a way, he is propagating the notion that there is an absence of sensation which makes the notion of an afterlife obsolete -- which is the fundamental principle of his dichotomy that death is the opposite of life and is akin to nothing.

As previously denoted, the opposite end of that dichotomy on which death rests is life. Due to that opposition, the author is stating that life is everything. It is quite clear that this valuation of life is ascribed to its relationship to death, which is why the author writes that an "understanding" of death's lack of anything (or its nothingness) that renders the "mortality of life enjoyable" (Epicurus). Notice that there is a definite sort of sensation imputed to life in this statement, since the fact that it is enjoyable means that people are able to feel and experience its joys. It is also important to understand the reason that the author believes that life is so enjoyable. That reason again harps on his implicit dichotomy of heaven and hell. The author writes that death creates a joy in life because it effectively subtracts "the yearning after immortality" (Epicurus). That desire for immortality, of course, is another thinly veiled reference to the "limitless time" (Epicurus) of the afterlife. Thus, the dichotomy that life provides everything for human experience is directly contrasted with… [read more]


Tackling Provider-Associated Barriers Concerning End-Of-Life Dementia Care Dissertation

… End-Stage Dementia

Addressing the Unmet Care Needs of End-Stage Dementia Patients through Provider Education: The Advanced Dementia EOL Planning and Prognosis (ADEPP) Tool

Acknowledgements and Credits: [? ] (will need permission from anyone being acknowledged)

Geraldine Bodven, [Academic Degrees], University… [read more]


Studies on the Elderly and Loneliness Reaction Paper

… Aging -- Loneliness and its Prevention

Before reading resource materials about ageing and loneliness, I believed that decades of research and hundreds of thousands of elderly subjects would result in clear-cut definitions and well-established measures to prevent loneliness. However, upon… [read more]


Stigma of Suicide and Grief in African-American Mothers Literature Review Chapter

… Suicide Grief among African-American Mothers

THE COLOR OF STIGMA

This research will explore the experience of representative African-American mothers who lost their sons to suicide. The biopsychosocial contextual model of stress, as specifically applied to suicide as stressor, by Clark,… [read more]


Physician Assisted Death Article Review

… While the first three options may be initiated by surrogate decision makers, the final two should be initiated by the patient. The seeming inability of palliative care to address all end-of-life sufferings is a strong justification for physician-assisted suicide. Therefore, the least harmful way of responding to intolerable end-of-life suffering would be helpful to clinicians, patients, and families. This harmful method should be conducted in a manner that is effective and respects the values of the major stakeholders in delivery of care. In expressing his support for legalization of physician-assisted suicide given the inability of palliative care to address all end-of-life suffering, Quill (2012) states that the benefits of an open, legally permitted practice outweigh the dangers of a secret practice (p.63).

Reflection

As previously mentioned, physician assisted death is a major contentious issue because it creates concerns on preservation of a dying person's independence and the need to safeguard patients from pressures in the process of dying (Messer, 2012). The article presents significant insights for legalization of the practice, which illegal in many states and countries. It is a balanced opinion on the issue because the author includes recommendations for the most suitable kind of treatment before consideration of physician-assisted suicide.

Quill offers a balanced and critical review of physician-assisted suicide as a last resort after delivery of high quality palliative care. Moreover, his argument for its legalization includes the need for the practice to be initiated by the patient through a strong sense of personal will. The evaluation of the benefits of an open, legally allowed practice over the dangers of a secret practice helps in addressing concerns regarding potential abuse, error, and coercion.

References

Messer, T. (2012, October 29). Physician-Assisted Death: In Consideration of the Right to Die.

Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nyam.org/social-work-leadership-institute-v2/geriatric-social-work/hppae/for-students/Physician-Assisted-Death-Paper-Submission-10-29-12-1.pdf

Quill, T.E. (2012). Physicians Should 'Assist in Suicide' When it is Appropriate. Journal of Law,

Medicine & Ethics, 40(1), 57-65.… [read more]


Demographic Transition: England Term Paper

… Figure 2

Demographic Transition in England 1700-2000

Sources: (Clark, 2010; and Slideshare, 2014)

4. Birth Rate in England

From the chart it is clear that the fertility rate or birth rate in England declined sharply beginning in the first two decades of the 1800s. However, the fertility or birth rate rose again briefly in the mid-1800s and them dropped sharply and steadily until the 1970s rising slightly and then beginning a steady decline until the year 2000.

5. Death Rate in England

The death rate in England rose in the first half of the 1700s decade and dropped significantly until 1800 when the death rate rose sharply and leveled out pretty much until about 1850 rising again steadily for about 15 years and since that time steadily declining.

6. Population Rate in England

The population rate in England has risen steadily since the 1700s as illustrated the demographic transition chart in this study and this is despite the fertility or birth rate rising or falling and despite the rising or falling of the death rate in England.

7. Summary and Conclusion

The birth rate or fertility rates in England fell sharply in the early 1800s and rise again in the mid-1800s followed by a sharp and steady decline until the 1970s when it rose again slightly but has since that time declined steadily. The death rate in England while rising during the first fifty years of the 1700s decade begin a significant decline for the next fifty years when the death rate rose sharply then leveled out for the next fifty years. In 1850 the death rate in England rose steadily for approximately 15 years and has since that time steadily declined. Despite the rising and falling of the birth rate in England and the Death rate the population in England has experienced steady growth since 1700 until the present.

References

Clark, G. (2010) Mathus to Modernity: England's First Fertility Transition, 1760-1800. Retrieved from: http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/faculty/gclark/papers/Demographic%20Transition%202010.pdf

Population Changes in England and Wales 1700-2000 (2014) Slideshare. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/reservoirgeogs/demographic-transition-presentation…… [read more]


Nursing Critique on Law: LIFE Research Paper

… " (Durante, 2009, p. 29) Lindsay's argument is for self-determination on the part of the patient stating specifically as follows:

"Respecting the right of a terminally ill person to make his own decision about the course of his remaining days hardly seems to evince an attitude of diminished respect for life. Thus, a key element of the causal slippery slope argument is missing." (Lindsay, 2009, p. 19)

According to Durante, the observations of Lindsay in relation to compassion and respect to autonomy, may be on base, however, that which is described by Lindsay is not "so much a respect for human life, per se, but rather respect for various aspects of a particular vision of the good life, which again is founded upon the idea of autonomy and liberty. Respecting self-determination is not the same as respect life, it is respecting liberty." (Durante, 2009, p. 30) As such, Lindsay does not distinguish between the two and thereby fails in the comprehension of what PAS opponents believe is at stake. The argument exists that the Oregon Death with Dignity ACT, which constitutes respect for self-determination and liberty is such that "trumps consideration regarding the respect for life." (Durante, 2009, p. 30) The adoption of the view upheld by Lindsay appears to entail adopting a view that somehow the patient's life is no longer worth living and this means that alleviating suffering takes precedence over the respect for life. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act makes PAS an option for a patient who is terminally ill and who desires to end their suffering. Included in the options of this act is the use of PTS which effectively alleviates the suffering of the patient and ultimately offers a passive method of PAS to the patient.

While Durante seems to distinguish between the self-determination and liberty of the patient and Lindsay's evaluation of what constitutes respect for life, in essence self-determination and liberty are primary aspects of that which constitute respect for life. The empowerment of the individual to choose their own course in life or in the ending of their life due to suffering is inclusive of the right to choose PTS or PAS. Whether liberty and self-determination in choosing to live or choosing to die that liberty and self-determination should never be refused to or removed from the patient's possession in the opinion of this writer. Therefore, the attempt of Durante (2009) to disqualify the arguments of Lindsay based on some idea of separating self-determination and liberty from respect for life is a flawed and erroneous argument.

Bibliography

Durante, C. (2009) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon…… [read more]


Prostate Cancer Research Proposal

… Moreover, the study will use genetic and pharmacology approach to carry out the experiment. Typically, the autophagy pharmacological inhibition is to use TR induced cell death to detect its effect on PC3 cells. To detect the presence of autophagic, it… [read more]


Music Therapy Reduce the Level Capstone Project

… Participation in the music program did not significantly affect agitation and anxiety in older people with dementia. Both the music and reading group activities, however, gave some participants a 'voice' and increased their verbalization behavior. Agitation was found to be… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Examining Multiple Chapters

… Variants of APP from mice were re-injected after allelic regeneration and exposed to the beta secretase enzyme. The genes generated targeted separate lines of knock-in mice on the APP cut differently (Ring et al., 2007).

The authors sought to identify… [read more]


Falls in the Elderly Essay

… d.).

Having caregivers and having grab bars in the home can help elderly people reduce their risk of both fatal and non-fatal falls. Another concern to avoid falls is medication. There are many elderly people taking antidepressants and hypnotics, both of which have been associated with a higher risk of falls (Blake, et al., 1988). While it may not be possible for all elderly people to get off of these medications, it may be possible for some. Additionally, reducing the level of medication or switching to something less likely to cause a problem can also work to the advantage of elderly people in order to keep them from falling (Blake, et al., 1988). It is not realistic to assume that all falls in the elderly population can be avoided. People of all ages fall occasionally.

However, through an understanding of more tenuous balance in older age, coupled with the other concerns that elderly people have regarding mobility, grip strength, and medication usage, options can be made available that will help these people focus on better health and safer mobility options. Proposed solutions include grab bars and caregivers in the homes of elderly people who need them, but also working with medical professionals to adjust dosages and switch medications so that elderly people have better balance. Taking these two steps, especially in combination, can reduce the number of falls -- and the number of fatal falls -- so more elderly people can remain safe in their homes. Being able to stay independent is very important for many elderly people, but they will not be able to do that if they fall frequently. Helping them take steps that create fewer falls is a vital part of that independence, and can also reduce the overall health care burden on the country.

References

Blake, A.J., Morgan, K., Bendall, M.J., Dallosso, H., Ebrahim, S.B., Arie, T.H., Fentem, P.H., & Bassey, E.J. (1988). Falls by elderly people at home: Prevalence and associated factors. Age Ageing, 17(6): 365-72.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Falls among older adults: An overview. CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html

Yoshida, S. (n.d.) A global report on falls prevention. Epidemiology of falls. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/projects/1.Epidemiology%20of %20falls%20in%20older%20age.pdf… [read more]


Biomedical Ethics: Euthanasia Mercy Killing Case Study

… The family sued her despite the knowledge that they gave authorization for him to undergo the process. They viewed the incidence as an act of deliberate killing, which indicates that the concerns against the process of euthanasia are genuine morally (Diaconescu 22). All these reasons lead to the conclusion that no person has the moral right to take the life of another; neither does any person have the moral right to take their own life. Thus, the case of Paul and Dr. Morrison was too lenient to grant her indictment. Euthanasia has no moral basis; thus, accepting the terms of euthanasia is equivalent of suicide and murder combined for all involved in making decisions and executing them.

Arguments for Euthanasia

Euthanasia continues to be a leading discussion subject among the medical professionals. The moral basis of practice that supports the process includes the following. First, euthanasia does not occur without the consent of the individual responsible for the patient. As is the case with Paul, the family agreed to the process and thus, morally, the aspect of the consent of a person to an action gives them the moral responsibility to execute it (Sneiderman & Raymond 13). Thus, euthanasia does have a moral basis in the consent. Secondly, morally, every person should have a life free of suffering. However, a terminally ill person undergoes lots of suffering and pain. Therefore, it is only moral to aid this terminally ill person from undergoing the suffering and pain, and ensuring quality of life for them. Thus, if terminally ill, the safest and surest way to eliminate the suffering of the person is by the process of euthanasia. Additionally, a terminally ill person causes economic costs on the family. The economic impact of the illness on the family necessitates means to ensure they have a quality life, free of financial constrains. Therefore, conducting euthanasia on the patient reduces the social impacts on the family, which leads to the moral basis of the ability to live a life free of financial strains. Thus, morally, conducting euthanasia helps the family to eliminate unrealistic expenditures while people are not contributing positively to the society (Sneiderman & Raymond 19). Therefore, euthanasia eliminates pain, suffering and debts to the family members. Euthanasia is a necessary process in the society Dr. Nancy Morrison favored Paul when she agreed to facilitate the process, despite knowing the risks involved.

Conclusion

Euthanasia, in view of the arguments above, presents a case for further evaluation. According to this case, the doctor acted as the family instructed. Legally, the family authorized the process, and thus she is not liable to the consequences. However, it is clear that the process used to end the supposed suffering of the patient did not meet the quality standards expected. The world is changing, and there are new technologies that can aid the process of euthanasia without complicating the situation. The recommendation; therefore is for the hospital policy to establish the legal basis for conducting euthanasia. Additionally, we should… [read more]


Emily Dickinson, Keetje Kuipers Peer Reviewed Journal

… Instead, it can also be looked at as something that is perfectly normal and that differentiates between beautiful living individuals and lifeless bodies.

Although the writer underlines the fact that all of the poets are actively involved in promoting a topic that is somewhat common from their point-of-view, it is difficult to follow the exact relationship between the three and their poems as seen from the writer's perspective. To a certain degree, it is actually intriguing that the writer focuses on how each of the poets understands the idea of death. Not only are they inclined to believe that death is actually not very different from living, as they actually consider that there is a strong relationship between the two concepts and that people need to accept the fact that dying does not necessarily that the departed individual is no longer connected to the living world.… [read more]


Demographic Transition Research Paper

… Demographic Transition and Its Phases

Demographic Transition

Demographic transition is defined as the population growth as per time. The developed country enjoys the phase IV in which both the CBR and CDR are low. As per (Montgomery, n.d). Demographic transition is a model that defines population change over time. This idea was presented by an American demographer Warren Thompson in 1929. Demographic transition is expressed through a demographic transition model. There are IV phases of demographic transition (Demographic Transition, Hofstra.edu).

Phase I is categorized by high birth and death rate. In the first phase of demographic transition the rate of death and birth remains stationary or grows on a slow pace. The demise rate during this phase is high because of undeveloped medical sector. Common diseases become threatening and take lives of the people. Malnutrition also may become a hurdle in one's life and may cause death if get severe. The birth rate in this phase is higher because of the low survival rate of newborns. The unhygienic environment is another reason of high death rates. Dirty water, open sewerage and other harmful flaws in the society makes it worse. Also, in underdeveloped societies, parents want to have more children who can enhance their labor force. There are some religious and cultural values behind these large family systems. There is lack of family planning in this phase. The death and birth rates fluctuate. There are high deaths and lower births during war time and opposite is true in normal days.

Phase II is marked as the beginning of demographic transition. During the second phase the death rate gets lower and the birth rate stays high. This condition takes place because of the improved medical facilities, cleanliness and hygiene conditions in the localities of the country. The country's food production also becomes better both in terms of quality and quantity. The transportation facilities become upgraded which helps providing the food in the remote areas of the country. The population in this phase increases at a swift speed.

Phase III of demographic transition deals with a drop in the birth rate while the death rate remains almost unchanged. The reason of such fluctuation may be industrialization and urbanization in which the labor force is needed less. Another reason of such changes may be the socioeconomic issues. There are better sources of family planning in urban areas and the cost life in these areas is also high. Small families in these areas may spend a happy life with fewer worries.

The final phase IV of the demographic transition has a steadiness between the death rate and the birth rate. Due to improved medical science, the death rate has declined significantly as common diseases do not threaten death anymore. While, on the other hand, the birth rate has been controlled by the parents themselves as the bringing up of the children has become very expansive in terms…… [read more]


Bucket List Term Paper

… The movie does a very good job of provoking one's own personal thoughts on death and dying, making the viewer consider how they have lived their own life up until this point and how they might want to live the rest of their life. It also forces one to consider the very real mortality that we all face, and even though we may not be terminally ill cancer patients, we must face the reality that one day, somehow, death will take us as well. In some ways, I felt that these two gentlemen were lucky. They knew that their end was coming in a finite amount of time, and they knew exactly how they wanted to spend their final days. Of course, I also felt pain and sympathy for them both, as it was clear that what they truly wanted was more time to live and especially, more time to love. Edward is estranged from his daughter and this is clearly a sore point, though he attempts to hide it. It is interesting to me that in the end, what everything comes down to in life is our relationships with others. If we love well and live well, our death anxiety will be lower, we will have fewer regrets and we will be able to meet our end with a sense of peace. Overall, I believe that this movie does an excellent job of portraying the journey that we all take through the eyes of two very different men as they attempt to… [read more]


Business Strategy Class, Group Assigned Essay

… There are no easy answers to these philosophical questions and the laws regarding euthanasia are not consistent in the major industrialized nations and also very from state to state.

In the United States, despite its emphasis on individual autonomy in the law, while "the competent terminally ill patient has the right to make a legally binding advanced directive in anticipation of inability to choose withdrawal of treatment (for example gastrostomy tubes)," he or she is "not permitted to hasten death by means of additional medication given with physician advice and/or assistance in the final stages of illness" (Fraser & Walters 2000). Thus, the idea that sins of omission are worse than sins of commission seems to be enshrined in the law. The patient can refuse heroic means to keep him or herself alive, but not deliberately hasten death.

However, there is a gray area as to what constitutes hastening death. For patients undergoing hospice care, physicians will often observe what is called the 'doctrine of double effect.' The administration of morphine may hasten the patient's death, but does not directly cause the death, and by making the patient's final days more comfortable, the physician is considered to be 'doing good' ("Euthanasia," BBC News, 2012). Issues of euthanasia are often viewed along more of a continuum, rather than in terms of black-and-white. While there are extremes on both sides -- some people have suggested that chronically depressed patients have a 'right' to take their lives, while others, like Grace Lee's religious parents, believe that heroic measures must be sustained indefinitely because only God can take life -- the courts and the dominant beliefs amongst ordinary citizens and ethicists fall somewhere along the middle. This ever-shifting ethical line is why legal consensus is so difficult.

In the case of patients that can no longer express their views, there is the commonly-accepted standard of the New Jersey Supreme Court in another right-to-die case, that of Karen Ann Quinlan as follows: "If the patient could wake up for 15 minutes and understand his or her condition fully, and then had to return to it, what would he or she tell you to do?" (Quill 2005). Hence, the reliance upon living wills and advanced directives. The case of a patient, like Grace Lee, who is mentally competent and wishes to have the heroic instruments sustaining her life withdrawn, seems to meet this standard. But if Lee wished to end her suffering early in a conscious fashion and was not on a respirator, this would not be permitted. This imperfect consensus on euthanasia is what we have established as a society, although it is a far from a satisfactory one, or even, some would say, a wholly consistent one.

Works Cited

Fraser, Sharon I. & James W. Walters. Death - whose decision? Euthanasia and the terminally ill. Medical Ethics 26 (2000):121-125. [21 Oct 2012]

http://jme.bmj.com/content/26/2/121.full

Quill, Timothy E. "Terri Schiavo -- a tragedy compounded." The New England Journal of Medicine, 352(2005):1630-1633. [21 Oct 2012] http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp058062

Scott,… [read more]


Dead Skeleton (Calavera) Art Anthropology Research Paper

… The uniqueness of the celebration of the Day of the Dead is in the food offerings practiced by Mexicans. This is because this is a cultural practice only evident in Mexico, and the existing elaborate presentation of the food sacrifices… [read more]


Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Active Euthanasia Essay

… Dissenting Views

According to Mappes and DeGrazia, Callahan is convinced that a clear distinction exists between allowing to die and killing (399). One of the perspectives that Callahan uses to defend his assertion is the medical view. According to Callahan, physicians have a historical role to use the knowledge they possess to comfort and/or cure patients as opposed to bringing about their death (Mappes and DeGrazia 401). Thus in seeking to exercise that role, physicians must not do anything that can prematurely end the life of a patient. Callahan's assertion in this case conflicts with one of Brock's proposals in regard to when euthanasia should be allowed. In the opinion of Brock, as far as the well-being of an individual is concerned, a patient should be granted his or her request for euthanasia if such a patient's life becomes unbearable as a result of a critical illness (Mappes and DeGrazia 402). For instance, for some critically ill patients, further treatment may cease to make sense. This is more so the case in those instances where an illness is accompanied by a great deal of pain. Callahan is however adamant that even in such a case, the doctor's role should be limited to keeping such a patient comfortable.

A Response to the Objection

It is however important to note that although valid, Callahan's assertion in this case is largely one-sided i.e. It fails to take into consideration the agony of a patient suffering from a miserable chronic illness that ends up making his life unbearable. Callahan seems to recommend that a condition be let to assume its own course. This in my opinion does not seem to reconcile with his assertion to the effect that the key role of doctors should be to comfort as well as cure patients (Mappes and DeGrazia 401). However, can watching a patient struggling with an incurable disease that visits an unimaginable pain and discomfort on him or her be regarded part of the said care and comfort? I am convinced that in those instances where patients have explicitly requested for euthanasia based on the agony they are suffering or going through, the same should not be denied to them. This in my opinion amounts to guaranteeing the well-being of such patients. This is the real essence of care i.e. easing the suffering of patients. Anything contrary to that is in my opinion not only unjust but also insensitive to the well-being of the suffering patients.

Works Cited

Mappes, Thomas A., and David DeGrazia, eds. Biomedical Ethics. 6th…… [read more]


Mortality and Life Review Research Paper

… Social distress associated with love and belonging play a role in this stage. McPherson cited multiple studies where 40-84% of dying individuals report feeling like a burden to their families or as a source of hardship to others (2007). These… [read more]

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