"Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays

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Life Stage of Late Adulthood Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,780 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Old

The Very Late Old: Sociologist Daniel Levinson described eight stages of adulthood (e.g., Levinson, 1986). The last stage of adulthood, late adulthood, occurs at age 65 and beyond. Levinson's theory was originally described many years ago and as medical advances continue the late adulthood stage of Levinson's been expanded considerably (Hutchinson, 2011). The oldest of the old… [read more]

Biology of Aging Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Senescent cells are essentially cells that "promote the aging of tissues" (Wade 2011). These cells increase the signs and process of aging within older tissue because they accumulate aging within the skin. They do so by creating a low level of inflammation by increasing the reaction f the immune system within the skin in question.

Chambers et al. showed that there is a possibility for homeostasis living systems to not strive for homeostasis. Essentially, there are certain cells that do not contribute the regulation of the internal environment within the body, and actually disrupt its normal functioning as in the case of cancer cells (Conti 2008). Many types of cells, including undifferentiated stem cells, often do not turn towards promoting homeostasis. This often increases with age.

Studies on various forms of progeria show that there are often genetic conditions which can mimic the signs of aging. Huntington-Gilford progeria and Werner's syndrome are dominant genetic diseases that increased the speed of the aging process. These conditions show that normal aging may be linked to genetic predispositions, as it is triggered by genetic material.

4. Gene splicing alters with age, which means that the process of gene splicing changes with age to trigger the signs and conditions of aging. The quote shows that Hutchinson-Gilford porgeria syndrome is comparable to artificially made senescent cells (Science Daily 2011). The fact that progeria might be considered a process of normal aging is representative of theses that show the production of progeria as a biomarker of normal cellular aging which can be linked to terminal differentiation (McClintock et al. 2007).

5. There are a number of major causes of aging within the human body. Yet, the Programmed Cellular Aging Theory shows that the biggest causes are actually an impairment of the cell's ability to transfer necessary RNAs. This is often caused by DNA increasingly turning off particular functions based on a predetermined genetic setting.

6. Aging research must receive more attention within the public eye in order to generate enough funding to really examine the process of aging on a cellular level. It is important to direct future efforts to understanding how the cellular process impacts aging and how it can lead to future developments in preventing aging.

7. Luckily, living organisms can repair damage at the cellular level. DNA repair…… [read more]

Policy Considerations in the Development and Implementation Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,511 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … policy considerations in the development and implementation of an aging-related service program. What specific aging-related factors of an older client need to be considered in offering such services? Give 2 examples of such situations that may occur in the "real world" service with an aging population.

Policy considerations in the development as well as implementation of aging-related service… [read more]

Opportunities and Protections Aging Related Public Policy Initiatives Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Protective Services for the Elderly

Aging and the elderly have become an increasing concern, especially in the Western world today. The fact is that the population is aging and will most likely continue to do so as a result of better medical care, more individual concern with aging in a healthy way, and avoiding unhealthy lifestyles and choices. The EPA… [read more]

Euthanasia Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Since euthanasia is not a standard medical practice, several arguments have been raised regarding its legality and morality. Some of the major arguments include voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia though each has certain drawbacks. As a result of the disadvantages, a middle ground position is the most logical solution for the problem or issue. The middle ground position involves administering euthanasia based on the patient's medical condition and its appropriateness rather than its legality or morality. It's a logical solution because it enables terminally-ill patients to have the right to a dignified death, whereas physicians have the moral responsibility to keep their patients alive.

Works Cited:

De Boer, Marike E., Rose-Marie Dro Es, Cees Jonker, Jan A. Eefsting, and Cees M.P.M. Hertogh. "Advance Directives for Euthanasia in Dementia: How Do They Affect Resident Care in Dutch Nursing Homes? Experiences of Physicians and Relatives." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 59.6 (2011): 989-96. Print.

Fenigsen, Richard. "Other People's Lives: Reflections on Medicine, Ethics, and Euthanasia." Issues in Law & Medicine 27.1 (2011): 51-70. Print.

Lewis, Penney. "The Empirical Slippery Slope from Voluntary to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics (2007): 197-210. Print.

McGee, Andrew. "Me and My Body: The Relevance of the Distinction for the Difference between Withdrawing Life Support and Euthanasia." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics (2011): 671-77. Print.

"Should Euthanasia or Physician-assisted Suicide Be Legal?" Euthanasia - ProCon.org. ProCon.org, 24 May 2012. Web. 10 June…… [read more]

Gerontology: Assessment and Ethical Concerns Gerontology Studies Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Gerontology: Assessment and Ethical Concerns

Gerontology studies currently predict that the number of people above the age of 65 will double within the next thirty years (Miller, Zylstra & Standridge, 2000). This will place a substantial strain on medical resources as geriatric patients develop age-related illnesses. It is thus important for physicians to develop efficient geriatric assessment tools and understand the various ethical concerns that arise in treating older adults.

The assessment of older patients differs in a number of ways. Most significantly, the geriatric assessment focuses on intellectual impairment, immobility, instability, incontinence, and iatrogenic disorders (Elsawy & Higgins, 2011). These are the most prevalent problems faced by elderly patients and are often missed in a standard medical evaluation. The treatment of geriatric patients also differs in scope. Due to the complex problems faced by elderly patients, often exacerbated by mental illnesses, the assessment emphasizes the functional status and quality of life and generally involves an interdisciplinary team of healthcare providers.

A comprehensive geriatric assessment focus current symptoms and illnesses and their functional impact, medications, past illnesses, recent life changes, social functionality and current living environment (Elsawy & Higgins, 2011). It tries to place the patient's illness into a social aspect. It includes objective measures of cognitive status, mobility and balance, emotional health, nutritional status but also ascertains the family situation and assistance availability.

The health history consists of both present and past illnesses. The assessment team of physicians will prompt the patient for severity and persistence of current symptoms and record childhood diseases, hospitalizations, medications and diet. Other components of the health history include a social history charting relationships, vocation and most importantly sleep, exercise, recreation, and habits of drug consumption. A family history that maps the presence of disease with recognized familial importance including diabetes, hypertension, allergies, heart disease and neurological or psychiatric diseases are also identified. Signs of osteoporosis and arthritic are also assessed in order to measure the risk of falling (Miller, Zylstra & Standridge, 2000).

There are a number of assessment tools that are specifically designed for the evaluation of older adults. Wallace and Fulmer describe the SPICES tool, which tests for the common syndromes requiring nursing intervention (2007). The acronym stands for sleeping disorders, problems with eating or feeding, incontinence, confusion, evidence of falls and skin breakdown. The validity and reliability of this tool has been confirmed in…… [read more]

Healthy Aging Health Care Disparities Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … beliefs, hopes, fears and expectations for your own aging.

As I grow older, it is my hope that I will have taken the necessary steps to prepare a transition in support needs. This includes surrounding myself with a loving support system, taking proper medical steps to improve quality of life and making the proper decisions as a functional adult so that my wishes can be carried out when I no longer have the wherewithal to express them. I am increasingly aware today that the ways I prepare for later life as I grow older in terms of lifestyle and planning will determine how I live as I age.

Describe what is meant by the diversity of older adults and the effects of gender.

The diversity of older adults is comprised of the variance in ages that are implicated by the term. The categories of elderly are distinguished by advancing age sets in which certain health concerns become larger and more permeating. Where gender is concerned, many of these needs divide across this dimension as particularized health risks such as prostate cancer in men or breast cancer in women are concerned.

3. Define in one sentence each of the following concepts of chronological age, identifying its relativity, the concepts of 'young-old,' 'old-old,'? And 'elite old', functional, chronological and biological/physiological age.

According to our research, young-old refers to those just entering retirement age and typically falling between the ages of 65 and 74. Old-old refers to adults between the ages of 85 and 94, at which many of the advancing health and physical challenges of aging become persistent. Elite-old adults are those who advance to 95 years and beyond. Functional age refers to the capacity of the individual to continue to perform in certain faculties such as physical mobility or mental comprehension as one grows older. Chronological refers to the actual age of the individual in years.…… [read more]

Humanistic or Secular Approach to Death Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Humanistic or Secular Approach to Death

One reality that people learn to live with very early in life is that death is inevitable. It is the end of all human beings, and indeed, of all living things on earth. At some point, death will come for all of us. This reality is most profoundly considered in Aurelius' writing. I find his writing on death not only more secular or humanistic, but in a very fundamental sense more realistic than any of the "traditional" views I have encountered so far. I do believe that it is possible for all human beings to attain this view of death. However, it will also depend on the specific person involved and his or her religious views. Some individuals will find it more difficult to adopt Aurelius' views, but this certainly does not mean that it is impossible for them to do so.

In today's world, many people are religiously oriented, especially in terms of their views on death. Because of the traditional concept of death as holding either eternal reward or eternal punishment for how life was conducted, many people have a profound fear of death. Others, in turn, look forward to it as if it is by far desirable above the physical life that we enjoy now. A large amount of fear regarding death therefore consists in the fact that we, as religious people, fear punishment.

Aurelius, however, does not consider this a valid viewpoint. Indeed, he even briefly caters for the fact that the "gods" of his time might not exist. He argues, however, that, if they do exist, they mean no harm to human spirits. Indeed, in Aurelius' view, they are either concerned with human well-being or indifferent. This might be a difficult point for today's fundamental Christians to accept. Hence, for the extremely religious, I think it is possible to accept Aurelius' view, since we are all rational human beings but it is somewhat unlikely.

Another profoundly interesting point that Aurelius makes is more difficult to argue with. Death is as natural as life itself and as birth. He argues that no rational, adult human being should fear death because it can be accepted simply…… [read more]

Use of Concept Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … death" has numerous meanings. Death can be both an event and a construct -- that is, death can be an event in the sense that one dies and is no longer alive and death can also be an event as in the end of something in a more abstract way. Death, for the most part, signifies something's irreversibility as well as something's inability to function further. Most of us think of death as being irreversible, but then how is it that some people have claimed to have "died" and have "come back to life?" If death can be irreversible in some cases, then just what exactly is this thing that we call death? And can some of us avoid it?

For the most part, most of us would agree with the notion that death is something that is irreversible. Nurses will see people die -- die in the sense that their bodies give out, their hearts stop, their brains no longer emit messages to parts of our bodies, and thus the people are no longer able to function in the world of the living. The belief of most is that once someone is dead, they can no longer return to the world of the living; that is, they can no longer walk, talk, breath and inhabit the living world. Death is irreversible for most of us in terms of the way that we think. While there are people who may have ideas about what happens to our bodies after we die, whether it is reincarnation or whether it is that we will live another life in an afterlife, the bottom line is that we are no longer a part of the world that we know. Thus, death in the world as we know it is irreversible.

Death can also be something that makes us not able to function in a more literal sense. Technically and medically speaking, the brain can die and the body can go on living if it is kept alive by machines. In this way, the body is still alive even though the brain is dead and the body is no longer able to function in the world. The body loses all of its ability to see, to smell, to hear, to touch and to be mobile, yet it lives on in the most basic sense. If we are to believe that there is a life in us that cannot die (that is, a spirit), this spirit is not able to keep up alive in the sense of what we know life to be. We may believe that we are eternal, but whatever we may be eternal in ourselves will not be able to keep us functioning in the world as human beings.

Death is something that is a universal concept. Even as children we are aware of our own mortality. Death is a concept that is ingrained in our biology. Even the youngest child cries when it is in danger. The child wants to… [read more]

Psychology in the 1950 Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In the test, subjects rated and described themselves using the five traits. Friends and family would then rate the subjects as well as observers at social situations such as parties and work. The groundbreaking data showed that if the subject described themselves as introspective for example, others would too (Belsky, 1999). Therefore, the way people view and describe their personality traits are generally accurate and are viewed similarly by others. In addition to this, their studies showed that a pessimistic outlook on life is generally a stressful burden older people will carry with them if not altered in youth (Belsky, 1999).

When the elderly pass away, people often speak of the legacy of the deceased and what they have left behind. This is also generally something the elderly contemplate often before their passing (Belsky, 1999). The idea of leaving behind a legacy and having hope for future generations of humanity to strive is referred to as generativity in the psychological sense. Psychologists Dan McAdams proved through several charts and tests that generativity is heightened at later stages of life (Belsky, 1999). This appears to be because older adults have had a long amount of time to contemplate life and it's priorities. Also, the elderly have more time to establish an emotional connection with the world and its inhabitants before they leave and therefore may have more desire than their younger counterparts for the world and life to continue (Belsky, 1999).

Psychologist Hazel Markus introduced the concept of the self-schema in which humans gain knowledge of who they are and envision what their future will be like (Belsky, 1999). According to Markus, our self-schemas guide us to choices as they are our perceived idea of our adult-development and therefore greatly effect it (Belsky, 1999). In an all-encompassing manner, Laura Cartensen developed the Socioemotional-Selectivity Theory which explains humans attachments to particularly people. Basically, due to aging, humans generally come to a point where they attempt to focus more on the present and creating a positive emotional state for themselves (Belsky, 1999). Because of this, people want to surround themselves with people and things they feel familiar, at peace, and joyous with. Death can be a time of darkness for many and therefore being surrounded by love and joy is important to the elderly which leads to the selectivity of positivity.

Reference List

The Psychology of Aging. (2009) University of Southern California. .

F. De Fruyt, R.R. McCrae, Z. Szirmak, & J. Nagy (2004). The Five-factor Personality

Inventory as a measure of the Five-factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R. NCBI Vol. 11 (3), 207-15.

Belsky, J. (1999). The Psychology…… [read more]

Death Stats One of the Problems Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  2 pages (593 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Death Stats

One of the problems that can be examined in this data is whether life expectancy in England and Wales has increased or decreased overall over the past decade. Both of the presentations of data above help to examine this data. The bar graphs very clearly demonstrate how dramatically the number of deaths in the highest age group especially have been decreased, likely due to medical improved interventions. The mean age of death amongst the population for which data was given, however, dropped only slightly. This must be intercepted carefully; the bar graphs make it clear that a change has occurred even if the averages do not indicate a major change, but it must be remembered that the data sets only include individuals that dies between the ages of 45 and 69. Even within this population, the mean age of death has decreased slightly, and the lower absolute numbers in each category between 1998 and 2008 mean that more people are surviving to 70 and beyond.

The data was likely originally collected through medical records and death records logged with various officials. Deaths are recorded as a matter of policy, making the data something the government would automatically have in its possession in most cases. Data was likely culled from these sources, then, and in fact it is likely that a running tally of certain information is kept and fairly regularly updated from incoming death records as hospitals and other medical personnel report them. A frequently updated database would make it incredibly easy for anyone with access to this database to view the original data and its totals. If such a database is not maintained, collating and totaling this data would have been much more time consuming, but would still have been fairly straightforward in…… [read more]

Strong Issue Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


He saw prisoners tortured, shot and worked to death by the thousands, their money and property stolen and their lives ended suddenly and with maximum brutality. In April 1939, a typhus epidemic in Buchenwald that spread to the Germans in the surrounding districts led Hitler to issue an order that all Jews who had visas to leave the country would be released from the camps. Bettleheim noted the irony of inmates who "began thinking of their tormentor as their savior," but he was fortunate to escape to America before Hitler issued his Final Solution order (Pollak, p. 89). Once he and his family escaped, of course, he did everything possible to warn the Allied nations of the true situation in Germany and what was really happening in the camps.

Most people in history did not even regard death as an evil but as a passport into the afterlife, which they hoped would be better. This was particularly true in those times when only 5% of the population lived to age sixty and the majority died in childhood. In that situation, humanity had lower expectations and a more stoic attitude about suffering and death, as in the case in poor countries today. Perhaps science will advance in the future to the point where poverty, suffering, disease and death will become extinct on earth, and humans in the centuries ahead will move out into space and encounter other advanced civilizations. No one can know this with any certainty, but it may very well be possible, at least to the degree that it would be better to take a gamble on the future being an improvement on the present. Given that this possibility exists, then it will not do to simply take a blase attitude toward death and ultimate extinction -- insofar as these ideas are something more than cynical philosophical poses.


Bauman, Z. (2003). Liquid Love: On the Frailty of Human Bonds. Polity Press.

Benatar, D. (2204). "Why It Is Better Never to Come into Existence" in D. Benatar (ed). Life, Death and Meaning. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Lenman,…… [read more]

Death by Thomas Nagel Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Nagel says that the most serious difficulty with the view that death is always an evil is determining whether death is (always) misfortunate given the human limitation of mortality. He raises a question of how possible a possibility (in this case, continued life) must be in order for it to be considered a misfortune. Because humans have a standard lifespan of no more than 100 years (and an upper limit not much higher than that), Nagel questions whether a person who dies close to that limit (age 82 in his example) has suffered a misfortune (given that he could not possibly have lived much longer). He concludes that even though death is inevitable, it would still be good to live longer. He thinks that the 82-year-old has been deprived of some life, and all of the goods with which life has acquainted him, so death must be a misfortune because it presents "an abrupt cancellation of indefinitely extensive possible goods" (p. 80). Therefore, he concludes that death, regardless of when it happens, by its nature, is bad.

I do not necessarily agree that death is always an evil for several reasons. First, Nagel explicitly says that "life is a good and death is the corresponding deprivation or loss." However, he failed to really establish that life is (necessarily) a good aside from listing things like perception and thought as "goods." To determine this, questions of psychological states and lived experiences seem to need to be addressed. For example, if someone where chronically depressed or in pain, would death, which brings corresponding deprivation (in this case of pain or depression) be evil? Nagel speaks of potential as part of his argument for death's evil, so he might say that people have the potential to enjoy life and death still deprives them of that potential. However, if someone has enjoyed their life little and suffered much, that potential does not negate the lived experience of the person and death might be the only end to their pain. If one views life as both good and bad, then death would negate both good and bad. It would seem, in this view, death's villainous status would depend a lot on experiences while living (answering the question "what exactly is one losing or being deprived of?"). Further, I am not convinced that cessation of pleasurable things (i.e., those things which give life "good" status) is bad either. For example, ending one's cocaine addiction is probably a better than continuing to use, even though it ends his or her experience of pleasure. This raises other questions, such as what qualifies and quantifies good in life.

Second, I am not convinced that he properly dismissed Lucretius' problem of temporal asymmetry. Nagel argues that while it is not possible to have lived before one's birth, it would be possible to live after one's death (if death had not occurred). Being born early, for example, would have either made one a different person or caused him/her to not… [read more]

Puritan Life Was Heavily Contaminated Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The funeral is used as a metaphor for this loss and due to its association with death. She is present for the funeral, signifying her ability to watch herself slip in to this new state of existence. She is the subject of the funeral, as well as a participant. She "feels" the service rather than experiencing it. The death mentioned in this poem marks a psychological change of mental state and although it may appear unorthodox, it continues to follow the puritan belief that nothing can be done to change one's destiny. According to puritan theology, a person's life is pre-determined, denying them the ability to change the path they are on, which can be seen in the poem. As the narrator states, "and when they all were seated, a service like a drum kept beating, beating, till I thought my mind was going numb." Here, the reader can feel the narrator's involuntary journey to insanity. By the end of the poem, she sees herself as "some strange race," marking the end of her transformation in to a sort of reclusive oddity and leaving her old self behind and deceased.

These three poems all describe death in different ways. The first mentions an un-known transcendence to the afterlife that is terribly interrupted by an insect. It marks the physical process that is brought on by death and brings the narrator face-to-face with her own mortality. The second poem describes a spiritual yet involuntary process that occurs when a person dies. It is a peaceful transition from life to death and represents a person that has lived a full and satisfying life. The third and final poem explains a mental death, one that takes place while the person is still breathing. It explores the dangers of solitary confinement and suggests that death may occur when the heart…… [read more]

God and Good Death Concept Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (642 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Those providing treatment for whatever malady is creating the reasons for the suicide consideration are armed with volumes of information. Additionally, the afflicted patient has his or her own quality of life issues in her own consciousness to be of assistance.

It is the third prong of the analysis voluntariness that causes the most concern. Voluntariness is unfortunately a state of mind and, as such, it is impossible to ever be sure. State of mind is a purely personal thing and so impossible to measure but the physical expression of voluntariness is easier to ascertain.

In the legal arena consent is often a determining factor. It comes into play in determining the difference between theft and loans. It is the difference in determining whether an act is "having sex" or rape. Someone society finds a way to make a determination in these situations so why not in the case of assisted suicide?

The legality of assisted suicide is likely to remain a hotly contested issue for many years. There are a variety of philosophies on both sides of the issue and some are irreconcilable. Nevertheless, in a society that professes the individual right to choose some form of legal assisted suicide should be available as an option. Through legalization adequate counseling can be provided to insure that the person requesting the suicide has the requisite capacity to decide, is fully informed, and is doing so voluntarily. Finally, legalization would insure that the process was being done under the guidance and control of medical professionals trained in the procedure. This combination of personnel would create the situation long sought by philosophers of providing the "good death." The debates will continue but at least those seeking relief will be in control of their own destiny. (Frey)

Works Cited

Frey, R.G., and Wellman, Christopher Heath. A Companion to Applied Ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.… [read more]

Epicurus on the Fear of Death Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,887 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Epicurus on the Fear of Death

You know, it's really very peculiar. To be mortal is the most basic human experience and yet man has never been able to accept it, grasp it, and behave accordingly. Man doesn't know how to be mortal. -- Milan Kundera, Immortality

Epicurus (341-270 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher's whose chief goal was to convince… [read more]

Mental Aging Journal

Journal  |  3 pages (794 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Mental aging is a natural process where as age increases, mental abilities tend to decline. It is however generally believed that higher mental activity or exercise to lead to better performance of mental faculties as age increases. The article chosen for this paper tests this hypothesis to finally reveal that there is no significant evidence to indicate optimistic results of mental exercise. The article titled, "Mental Exercise and Mental Aging-Evaluating the Validity of the "Use It or Lose It" Hypothesis, is written by Timothy A. Salthouse for both the sophisticated academia and the student of psychology. The branch of psychology that deals with aging is known as Geriatric psychology.

The article presents its hypothesis, limitations, data and conclusion very clearly and explains the limitations and reasons for conclusion effectively. The author examines various previous study and shows why there had been an optimistic view of mental exercise before. The article is quite lengthy, around 84 pages, but it consists of very useful information and is hence worth reading, the various headings found in the article are as follows:


Investigating the Mental activity hypothesis

Training Interventions

Comparisons of pre-existing groups

Special Reports of mental activity


These are the main headings and some headings are followed by sub-headings to clearly identify the different sections in the article.

The author writes the hypothesis clearly and the hypothesis is as follows: "…the

Rate of age-related decline in measures of cognitive functioning will be less pronounced for people who are more mentally active, or, equivalently, that the cognitive differences among people who vary in level of mental activity will be greater with increased age." (p.1)

In my own words, the hypothesis states that the rate at which mental aging would occur in an individual is indirectly proportional to the level of mental exercise that the adult had been engaged in during his life. Higher the level of mental activity, slower would be the rate of mental aging.

The article itself is an amalgamation of analyses of various previous studies. The author himself did not carry out a study but presents data collected from secondary sources. The population for these studies varied with most consisting of older people while some even had college students and younger population for comparison purposes. In some studies two groups of older individuals were compared and in some only self-reported data was used which again had…… [read more]

Caregiving to Elderly People Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It would help them to provide a caregiver from the same ethnical background who understands the culture and rituals of the certain ethnical background. The strategy would be organizing some social groups including caregivers and elderly people sharing same ethnical background and language. It could be more beneficial for them to exchanging ideas than being lectured. Therefore, they should be talking, explaining their feelings and experiences during these social work groups.

These classes for the caregivers should be given at the conference rooms of the Hope Hospice to provide a high attendance and opportunity to experiment the theories given during the theoretical sessions. Elderly caregiving is difficult not only for the caregiver but also the elder person. Therefore, some collaborative classes should be projected with counselors and psychologists.

The meeting is going to take place at 21st of October between 1 pm and 2pm at Hope Hospice Community Room. The participants will be enlightened in the aspects of physical and mental changes of elderly people as well as the quality of caregiving and caregiver's physical and psychological states. The counseling service of the Hope Hospice would provide lectures how to deal with cognitive and perceptual aspects of aging.

The expected outcome of this project is to provide better and more prepared caregivers for the elder people as a result of rapidly growing age related industries.


Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's disease and Other Dementias" American Psychiatric Association. October 2007. http://www.psychiatryonline.com/pracGuide/loadGuidelinePdf.aspx?file=AlzPG101007. Retrieved 2007-12-28.… [read more]

Death and Dying the Last Lecture a Video Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Life According to the Last Lecture

It is difficult to conceptualize and verbalize those things which should be seen as most important to us in life. This is, of course, a deeply subjective discussion and one highly subject to changes in perspective as one goes through various stages of one's life. The terminal stage though is one which imposes perhaps the greatest demand for introspection, for evaluation and for reflection on how the life behind one stacks up to the life which one perceived ahead of him so many years ago. This seems to be the challenge at the center of Pausch's () sobering and simultaneously affirming meditation on death.

Indeed, Pausch provides us with a compelling meditation on the cusp of his own tragically young and impending death that centers on the identification of those things which truly matter. As expected and understood, Pausch spends considerable focus on the importance of his wife and family. In his perspective, these constituted his highest priority, his legacy and his purpose on earth. But this resolution was not in and of itself satisfying for the professor, lecturer and author. Instead, he sought a way to validate himself more personally and directly, and in such a manner that the priorities of greatest importance could be reiterated for his children as they became old enough to understand them.

In light of this self-imposed task, Pausch would arrive at one major ambition that seems to be repeated throughout his text, which is that one should remain committed to the ambitions and fantasies that form during childhood. To this end, Pausch may be seen as a lucky man. While we are troubled by the arbitrary misfortune that would strike down a smart, attractive and powerful man during his prime years, Pausch insists that his priorities have allowed him to be completely fulfilled even on the cusp of death. He claims that "whatever my accomplishments, all of the things I loved were rooted in the…… [read more]

Euthanasia: The Good Death You Matter Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Euthanasia: The Good Death

"You matter because you are you.

You matter to the last moment of your life, and we will do all we can, not only to help you die peacefully, but also to live until you die."

-Dame Cicely Saunders, founder of Hospice

The history of the euthanasia debate is long and the debate continues… [read more]

American Psychological Association/Adult Development and Aging Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (375 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


American Psychological Association/Adult Development and Aging

The American Psychological Association as we know it today is structured as a collection of special interest divisions. When it was formed in 1945 at the end of WWII, it contained 19 charter divisions. Division 20, which turned out to be the first expansion division of APA, was formed by a group of psychologists who felt there was a need for a new division that dealt with adulthood and old age (Marsiske, 2008).

Those who belong to the APA's Division 20 represent psychologists with a wide range of interests that are related to aging, including direct service, academia and research. This division distributes a quarterly newsletter, which includes announcements of meetings, grant offers and jobs. It also has a publication that is directed towards students which details the mission of the division, lists its activities and databases and provides an online membership application (Adult Development and Aging, 2009).

People that are 65 years old and older are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. By the year 2030 it is estimated that older adults will make up 20% of our…… [read more]

Tolstoy and Chekhov Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,633 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Death of Ivan Ilych" and Ward No. 6"

An analysis of "The Death of Ivan Ilych" and "Ward No. 6" reveals that death is a critical concept in both. While Ivan Ilyich and Dr. Andrei Yefimich are similar characters, the significance of their death is very different. While these are clearly different characters, they share similar viewpoints regarding… [read more]

Aging as a Vulnerable Population Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (3,316 words)
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Senior Citizens as a Vulnerable Population

In recent years there has been a change in the perception and understanding of the ageing population and what it means to be an elderly or senior citizen. While many assume that the elderly are much better off in the contemporary world than in past historical periods, yet research reveals that in many instances… [read more]

Death &amp Dying - Euthanasia the Ethical Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,165 words)
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Death & Dying - Euthanasia


Since the inception of medicine, the most fundamental concept guiding physicians in the ethical practice of medicine has been the traditional principle of "do no harm" expressed in the Hippocratic Oath. However, in the modern era of medicine, that ancient maxim is inadequate because contemporary medical science and treatments often make it possible to prolong life beyond the point where a natural death would otherwise occur (Levine, 2008; Tong, 2007).

Much more often than not, the prolongation of human life through methods of medical intervention that were never conceived by Hypocrites provides a profound benefit. Less frequently, some of those same technologies prolong human life even where doing so is neither desired by, nor in the best interests of patients suffering from certain ailments (Humphry, 2002).

In some cases, for example, individuals have no other means of eliminating excruciating pain or preventing a more painful "natural" death besides physician-assisted suicide. In the United States, one of the most ardent supporters of the right to a death at the time and in the manner of one's choosing was Dr. Jack Kevorkian, only recently released after his incarceration for violating Michigan state laws prohibiting physicians from assisting in euthanasia. Doctor Kevorkian is unable to continue as a public advocate of euthanasia rights as a condition of his parole (Martindale, 2007).

Nevertheless, his efforts demonstrated that a new ethical consideration may be overdue to whatever extent the purpose of modern medicine is to reduce suffering; such changes may also be overdue purely in the modern context of individual rights of privacy and personal autonomy that have evolved as much since the time of Hypocrites as the "hard science" of medicine.

Governmental Paternalism, Suicide, and Euthanasia:

Suicide is prohibited by all of the predominant Western religions, as well as under secular law of most modern human societies, probably as a direct consequence. In the U.S., secular law must, at least in theory, reflect only objective ethical analyses rather than religious ideals. Certainly, there are ethical bases that justify the involvement of societal authorities in efforts to prevent suicide in many instances. Prevention of reckless suicide is justified from the simplest perspective of protecting innocent members of society from being harmed by reckless forms of suicide that put others at risk without their consent.

Similarly, society may have a legitimate right to intervene where the motivation for suicide is as a symptom of a recognizable illness, particularly if it is treatable. In those cases, it is reasonable and not violative of any individual rights to privacy or autonomy to prevent suicide where the individual would almost certainly be appreciative after the fact, as opposed to situations where an individual in his so-called "right mind" would not be appreciative. In that regard, it is difficult to articulate any logically cogent rational for intruding in what should be purely private matters.

Physician-Assisted Suicide:

There may indeed be other valid reasons for governmental regulation of suicide apart… [read more]

Oregon Death With Dignity Act Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (420 words)
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Oregon Dignity

Oregon's Death With Dignity Act (1994)

In 1994, the Oregon legislature passed Measure 16 of the state's pre-existent Death With Dignity Act. Designed to protect and ensure the medical rights of the terminally ill, the measure was approved by a very slim majority through public referendum, establishing a standard by which physicians may assist, without fear of legal reprisal, in the termination of life for patients who desire an immediate cessation of pain due to intractable and fatal conditions. One of the bill's key segments, section 127.885, indicates that "no person shall be subject to civil or criminal liability or professional disciplinary action for participating in good faith compliance," with the conditions set forth in the measure. (Oregon, 7) This is to indicate that for physicians adhering to the parameters allowing for the administering of life-suspending procedures as set forth in the legislation, the State of Oregon may take no retaliatory action. Such legislation would be the first of its kind in the United States, though it has yet to achieve any genuine penetration to precedent on the federal level.

Though suicide, as an autonomous and self-executed act, is no longer considered a felony, thus removing a sociological obligation to prosecute anybody in the peripheral sequence of such…… [read more]

Tuesdays With Morrie: An Old Man Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,491 words)
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¶ … Tuesdays with Morrie: An old man, a young man, and life's greatest lesson by Mitch Albom. Specifically it will discuss the essence of aging portrayed in the book and existential psychology. Albom's book is an emotional look at the end of a man's life, and how that man's life made a difference in the world, and with the… [read more]

Lack of Stimulation in the Elderly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,415 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … stimulation in nursing homes for the purpose of helping residents remain active. The writer, who has worked in nursing homes for the past 27 years has experienced first hand the negative impact that lack of stimulation has had on her clients. The writer explores research regarding the topic and designs a plan in which it would be mandatory… [read more]

Policy on the Oregon Death With Dignity Act Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (622 words)
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¶ … death with dignity is a contentious issue with opposition in courts and in the public. The California Compassionate Choices Act would allow those diagnosed with a terminal illness to choose to end their life with dignity, including choosing physician-assisted suicide. The bill recently failed, but it will certainly return to the ballot in a different form. However, similar measures in many other states have failed, including Michigan, and the only state to currently allow death with dignity is Oregon. Congress has passed laws allowing patients to choose to refuse certain medical care.

End of life issues are complicated. Indeed modern medical practices have improved care and further complicate the issues of when and where a person ends their life. Many prominent medical cases indicate the difficulty of making these decisions, including Karen Quinlan, Elizabeth Bouvia, Robert Wendland, and most recently, Terri Schiavo.

Social workers must be cognizant of the ethical and moral considerations of these difficult choices, and cultural practices and beliefs are a major factor in death with dignity choices.

The Oregon Death with Dignity Act as added to the controversy, but was recently upheld by the Supreme Court. The law has brought death with dignity into the public view, and writings by David Gil continue to inform the public and inflame the issue in some people's minds. The act attempts to give terminally ill or incapacitated patients the choice to die with dignity, when they choose to die. Many European countries have laws defining "terminal" and other conditions, and have condoned euthanasia for many years. A majority of Americans believe a person has the right to end their life in certain situations, and the Oregon law confirms this, as there are more elderly suicides in Oregon than other states.

Two of the most well-known advocates of physician-assisted suicide are Dr. Jack Kevorkian and Dr. Timothy Quill. Moral…… [read more]

Nursing Death and Dying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


137). Many other cultures, including the Jewish culture and Catholics, believe the dying person must confess their sins on their deathbed, to clear the pathway to Heaven and assure their soul's repose in Heaven.

In most Arabic countries, their beliefs on death and dying are closely related to the writings in the Qur'an. Muslims also believe in reincarnation or life after death, and that the dying person must prepare for death. However, they also believe there is a barrier between death and delivery to Heaven, and some souls cannot cross that barrier. "According to traditional accounts, once separated from the body the soul begins a journey heavenward. Modeled on the mystical journey taken by the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem to heaven, the soul is escorted by the angel Gabriel through seven layers of heaven" (Kramer, 1988, p. 160). Many Catholics believe some souls remain in purgatory for eternity, never reaching Heaven or Hell. However, Muslims believe souls will reach the seven layers of heaven or burn in Hell, there is no in between. Muslims must also prepare for death, it is quite important to them. They believe, "The best way to prepare for dying is to practice the sacred art of dying while alive. Practicing fana is to concentrate one's purpose on loving God everywhere, in everyone, and on maintaining recollection upon God's truth" (Kramer, 1988, p. 163). Thus, most Arabic cultures spend their lives trying to live spiritual lives to prepare themselves for death.

Humans are not the only species that have elaborate and varied beliefs about life and death. Even animals have been seen creating elaborate graves for their dead. For example, elephants in the wild have been observed burying their own dead and even other animals, and covering them with leaves, mud, and dirt (Aiken, 2001, p. 127). It is important, even vital, to understand the beliefs and practices of other cultures when it comes to death and dying, so that the nurse does not offend family and friends as their loved one passes on.


Aiken, L.R. (2001). Dying, death, and bereavement (4th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kramer, K.P. (1988). The sacred art…… [read more]

Graying of America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Aging and Politics

One definition of politics is "the process for determining who gets what, when, and how." Of course, politics don't exist without people, and the average age of the people who populate the United States is changing. Due to the combination of the "baby boomer" generation approaching retirement and a significant increase in how long people live, older people are going to become a larger and larger segment of the U.S. population. From 1990 to 2000 the number of people from ages 45 to 54 increased from about 19 million to about 38 million. 38 million people is a large constituency, and the aging of America will continue for decades.

Older people in the U.S. have already discovered political clout as evidenced by organizations such as the "Gray Panthers" and the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP).

As people of retirement age make up more and more of the country's population, fewer people will be available…… [read more]

Death and Dying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (342 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Death and Dying

The five stages of dying as expressed in the Kubler-Ross theory may apply to some instances but they do not fit all cultural and individual cases. The five stages she describes in her book, on Death and Dying are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. However, these reactions are also subject to various cultural influences and differences.

These stages are possibly more applicable to Western secular society and typically modern responses to death and dying. Different cultures have different modes and ways of understanding the meaning of death and particular views with regard to dealing with the inevitability of the fact of death.

Most of these stages mentioned by Kubler-Ross for example would not apply to most traditional Eastern views of death and dying. In the first instance, Eastern views of death are often very different and the stage of denial would generally not be acceptable to this view. This would apply to Buddhist views where death is seen as a form of welcome 'releasement' or transcendence of…… [read more]

Dementia Deficiency of Mental Ability Acute Enough Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



deficiency of mental ability acute enough to hinder with normal actions of daily living, which persists for more than six months, which is not present from birth and which is not connected with loss or modification of consciousness is Dementia. (Dementia: (http://www.healthatoz.com) Dementia is the deficiency of mental abilities and most normally arises only in the later part of… [read more]

Social Aging Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Aging & Personal Motivation

At present, I would consider myself as a mix between being internally oriented and field independent. This means that most of the time, I believe that I am capable of controlling my environment, especially in determining my choices and chances in life. Moreover, I believe my trait of being internally-oriented is also related to my being field independent, where I feel no need to depend on other people in order to accomplish my daily tasks, or simply because I feel the need to socialize or interact with them. Right now, I have a lot of opportunities that I alone can decide what to choose, and it is only through my skills and knowledge that I will be able to become successful as an individual. At present, I believe that I still have a lot to prove to myself, I yearn things in order to improve myself as an individual. Thus, right now, my concern is to contribute further to my personal development as an individual, allowing myself to be influenced by my social environment only once in a while, especially when the need…… [read more]

Tuesdays With Morrie People React Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I want to tell you about my life. I want to tell you before I can't tell you any more. I want someone to hear my story." (p. 63) It was one more indication of the terrible nature of Morrie's illness: the time would come when his brain would still work but he would not have any way to communicate with people.

Morrie had lots of things he wanted to talk with Albom about -- feeling sorry for oneself, the fear of aging, and one that has probably crossed many people's minds -- regrets. Albom insightfully puts this issue where it belongs: it's an issue of selfishness. What have I missed out on? What did I deserve that I didn't get? Where was I deprived? Interestingly, Morrie understands the issue in the same way, even though Albom didn't present it in selfish terms. He said that people are so busy acquiring things and experiences that they do not stop to think about what they really do and do not want. The discussion had impact and importance for Albom. He made a list of major life issues, realizing that there were no definitive answers to life's questions. Morrie faced the same questions, but instead of telling Mitch Albom what he had discovered are and are not important, he insisted that Mitch sort it out himself. Even as he was dying, Morrie was still the professor.

Morrie began to deteriorate in the one area still useful for him -- communication. Mitch watched him on a TV show and saw that he couldn't gesture with his hands the way he had in the past, and that he had trouble pronouncing some words. Morrie was now losing what had become most important to him. In this interview, Morrie also revealed how profoundly he understood loss: his mother had died seventy years ago, and he still wept at the thought of losing her. Morrie knew very well what those who loved him were going through.

Throughout the book, Mitch includes anecdotes from his own life, written in short sections and printed in italics. After Mitch talks about the death of Morrie's mother, Mitch tells how his brother and he were nearly hit by a car on a sled. At the last moment the car swerves, and they are safe. The juxtaposition of their possible brush with death and Morrie's inexorable march toward death, with no chance that the car will swerve for him, dramatizes the significant difference between how people think about death when it's an abstract possibility compared to facing death as an impending certainty.

At the end of the book, Morrie does reveal that he has a regret: a friend with whom he has had a schism tries to repair the friendship several times, but Morrie declines. The friend dies of cancer before Morrie can forgive him and re-establish what was once an important friendship. Once again, Morrie has refused to sugar-coat either his life or his death. To the very end, Morrie… [read more]

Images of Aging Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (865 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Images of aging have been observing some old people for some time now, and I have noticed some distinct outstanding features that set them apart from people of other age groups.

One of the most outstanding features is their positive attitude to life. On having lived a long life and experienced a lot of things, they know and have accepted life's vicissitudes. They, no longer, complain about why what happened in their lives. They would, in fact, tell you that they learned a greater deal from the bad situations in their lives.

This does not mean elderly don't complain at all. They would, especially complain about young generations' attitude towards life (which is usually care-free, seeking short-cuts in life, ingratitude etc.) and their treatment (or rather mistreatment) of important things/people in life including themselves. The latter is something that annoys them most, the reason clearly being their old age and amass experience.Due to which they demand for respect, which they quiet rightly deserve.

Another feature of the old people that can never go unnoticed is their continuous reiteration of their life's special moments with all the details, including who was present then and how they reacted. They would incessantly remind you of importance of principles in life (hard work, patience, tolerance, respect) and how they (the old people) implied them in their lives and succeeded.

While, remembering those moments, you can see how all the emotions they felt then, reappear, making the environment extremely nostalgic and stories, very interesting.

Another interesting part of their conversation is their witty sense of humor.

One more thing that is very adorable is their absolute bluntness with zero percent of pretence.They ask for what they want, regardless of whether they know you or not and you can't help, helping them. They don't pretend to be anyone, they say what they want to, whether you like it or not. And they don't feel bad about it because they believe it's their right which is something everyone knows and therefore no one complains.

But, however, someone's constant demand for attention can be very irritating. Some might pretend to be sick to get that extra care and attention. However, those who have been working all their lives (mainly men), could still love to work and remain involved in some activity or hobby. They might be very reluctant to help.

Some typical activities of old people are going to church or any holy place, gardening, reading newspapers for long hours and walking in the park. Old people don't like to be left alone and it may be one of many…… [read more]

Hospitalization of Older People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hospitalization of Older People

Hospitals as Recovery Institutions

Hospitals are designed to be places of caring and nurturing with an emphasis on the physical healing and recovery of the patient. Typically - and as in their day-to-day living situations - special care is mandatory for senior citizens if inherent risks are to be reduced and/or avoided.

With the largest percentage - in recorded history - of the population nearing senior age, the inherent and controllable factors to the dangers of hospitalization must be dealt with - and soon.

The focus of this paper is to delve into some the issues facing aging patients and how the day-to-day role and interaction of a nurse can impact that risk.

Decline - Physical

Decline is a key problem facing older patients and the hospitalization experience often accelerates the problem. Being in a bed for long periods places the elderly at risk for decubitus growth, respiratory diseases such as bronchial infections or deadly pneumonia, and psychological decline. Well meaning enough, hospitals often ignore the special needs of such patients. Offering them foods to which they are unaccustomed, allowing long periods of bedfast inactivity, and delaying critical physical therapy are all factors which can quickly contribute to their rapid decline and even death.

Decline - Cognitive

Memory problems, confusion, dementia, situational hallucinations, and the reduction in mental coping skills are all inherent in placing older people into an institutional setting where the patient may not have the level of comfort and sense of safety they may have at home.

Advantages - Physical

Hospitalization for senior people can be desirable situation. Timed care, intervention medical procedures, poly-pharmacy management, and other support services can prolong life, provide safety measures, and the like.

According to the Irish Medical Organisation, Mallow General Hospital is addressing the aging dynamic through the "Aging with Confidence" programs. This program "will allow the elderly to be treated in their own community and lessen the effects of institutionalisation of our elderly (the biggest increasing work load for the future).

By treating the geriatric patient in a community setting, much of the cognitive problem is avoided; the patient is familiar with their surroundings and much of their normal routine may be implemented into their daily care.

Nursing Interventions

The nurse is the first line of defense in caring for the patient; senior patients benefit from nurses who have a high degree of empathy for the patient's needs and experiences.

In one hospital system - the Cabell Huntington Medical - nurses and nurse…… [read more]

Functionalist, Conflict, &amp Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (635 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … CPR: Analysis of "Sudden Death and the Myth of CPR" by Stefan Timmermans

Although it has become the norm of most medical institutions when dealing with sudden death, out-of-hospital CPR or cardiopulmonary resuscitation is statistically-proven to be an ineffective form of intervention to prevent sudden deaths. In Stefan Timmermans' "Sudden death and the myth of CPR," he explores the nature of CPR as it is experienced by hospital personnel, wherein a different perspective in practicing the said life-saving procedure can be generated. The author's discussion and analysis of CPR critically assesses how CPR, despite its ineffectiveness in saving lives, has perpetuated and dominated the medical field, especially in this period of advanced medical technology.

The analysis evidently subscribes to the conflict perspective, wherein a critical analysis demonstrates the reinforcement of CPR in order to alleviate worries and apprehensions of the patient's family and relatives. Moreover, the analysis also shows that preoccupation on preventing sudden deaths through CPR results to the gradually decreasing value of community-shared (or family-shared) tradition of mourning the dead and grievance. These are the important points that reflect contemporary society today, wherein fear of death is perpetuated and death in itself becomes a technical concept that must be dealt with through the medical staff or hospital personnel -- that is, death an impersonal view of death.

Timmermans' main points are expressed effectively all throughout the book. In discussing the myth of CPR, he criticizes the mass media in bringing into the minds of their audience an inaccurate perception of what CPR is. His ethnographic research for more than one year of observing medical procedures conducted at the event of sudden death in hospitals show that "...if the purpose and expectation of CPR is to save human lives from sudden death, resuscitative interventions are largely failures...Belief in the resuscitation has the value of a revered cultural myth perpetuated by "real-life" television shows and…… [read more]

Ljl Human Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Because so many of the elderly don't have their drivers license, and many don't need to have one, and also need care to the extent that they are unable to attend to the toiletry task on their own. This is something that is alienating and regressive and plays a part in the cognitive and emotional deterioration of the elderly

:… [read more]

People Grow Older Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Methods and procedures

In order to collect data, I visited a large local cemetery. I recorded the birth and death dates from all of the headstones. From this data, I did not calculate the average life span, which is usually the procedure. Instead, I calculated the most dangerous time of life based on age. I eliminated anyone who was marked as being in the military because the unnatural death rates of soldiers would have skewed the results.


By interpreting the data collected, I found that life is very dangerous when people are very young. However, once infancy is safely passed, there is less danger. From that point, the risk of death starts getting higher and higher as a person ages. Especially after the age of 50, and for the next 30 years, it is especially dangerous and death rates increase rapidly. After the age of 80, there seems to be less deaths, which is probably because such a significant number of people have already died by that age. However, it is possible this represents some return to safety. Further research will be required.


There are a great number of sources that reveal people are more likely to die as they get older. Birth and death records, and also medical records, would be primary sources.

Badget and Justification

This is important because not enough scientific research is being put into stopping aging. Much research is being done towards fighting cancer and AIDS, but aging seems to be a major contributing factor to death, which if independently controlled might be able to cause less deaths.

Human Subjects

There were no living human subjects used in this research. However, there…… [read more]

Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (533 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The authors' article illustrates the sensitivity of the issue of euthanasia, where society, especially people who have strong religious beliefs against euthanasia, often view it as an undesirable process to end a suffering patient's life, equating it to killing. However, Gert et. al. cautions that physicians' moral views must be able to be compatible with the patient's views. This means that in order to administer VPE, the physician must be (a) compatible with patient's moral views about euthanasia; or, in the event that the patient disagrees to VPE, (b) must at least inform the patient's right that s/he has the right to physician-assisted suicide/death (PAS).

These alternatives and precautions that the authors discuss in their article show how the issues of morality are the primary consideration in conducting VPE. What is evident in the article is the reminder that in issues pertaining to euthanasia, the important considerations are the physician and patient's position on VPE, not what society will perceive or think of the said action/process.

Thus, Gert, Culver, and Clouser 'sensitively' discusses in a moralistically practical way in which a sensitive issue such as euthanasia can be achieved with utmost objectivity and practicality (i.e., to end a patient's suffering from an ailment). True enough, the authors argue in parting that the only strong argument about their recommended alternative PAS method is that "it does not provide sufficient benefit to individual patients to justify societal risks."… [read more]

Epicurus and the Afterlife Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,332 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Epicurean Notions of Death

The arguments for Epicurus's claim in the passage for this assignment that "death is nothing to us" (Epicurus) involve a fairly simple dichotomy that render them lucid. That dichotomy involves a nothing associated with death, based on the notion that all sensations and conceptions of good and evil effectively cease. The other end of that dichotomy is that death's opposite is life, which is completely unrelated to anything pertaining to death because there are sensations and notions of good and evil. Therefore, the crux of the author's argument is that life involves everything related to the human experience, whereas death is a complete denial or obliteration of that experience. Based on this premise, the author of this particular passage has concluded that "death is nothing" (Epicurus).

Interestingly enough, there is another implicit dichotomy that the author of this passage refers to which helps to bolster the aforementioned premise and lead to the conclusion. That dichotomy is that found between the notions of heaven and hell, which are alluded to more than once in this passage and have been dichotomized with contrasting imagery throughout literature (Blake). When the author of the quotation states that "good and evil imply the capacity for sensation" (Epicurus), he is actually referring to the sort of sensation accorded to an afterlife existence in either heaven or hell. Yet in this particular context, the author is stating that there is a definite lack of sensation that death provides which is "the privation of all sentience" (Epicurus) that renders the feeling of any sort of good or evil (found in the afterlife in heaven or hell) impossible. In such a way, he is propagating the notion that there is an absence of sensation which makes the notion of an afterlife obsolete -- which is the fundamental principle of his dichotomy that death is the opposite of life and is akin to nothing.

As previously denoted, the opposite end of that dichotomy on which death rests is life. Due to that opposition, the author is stating that life is everything. It is quite clear that this valuation of life is ascribed to its relationship to death, which is why the author writes that an "understanding" of death's lack of anything (or its nothingness) that renders the "mortality of life enjoyable" (Epicurus). Notice that there is a definite sort of sensation imputed to life in this statement, since the fact that it is enjoyable means that people are able to feel and experience its joys. It is also important to understand the reason that the author believes that life is so enjoyable. That reason again harps on his implicit dichotomy of heaven and hell. The author writes that death creates a joy in life because it effectively subtracts "the yearning after immortality" (Epicurus). That desire for immortality, of course, is another thinly veiled reference to the "limitless time" (Epicurus) of the afterlife. Thus, the dichotomy that life provides everything for human experience is directly contrasted with… [read more]

Tackling Provider-Associated Barriers Concerning End-Of-Life Dementia Care Dissertation

Dissertation  |  21 pages (5,857 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


End-Stage Dementia

Addressing the Unmet Care Needs of End-Stage Dementia Patients through Provider Education: The Advanced Dementia EOL Planning and Prognosis (ADEPP) Tool

Acknowledgements and Credits: [? ] (will need permission from anyone being acknowledged)

Geraldine Bodven, [Academic Degrees], University of South Alabama

Funding: [grant numbers or funding information]

Corresponding Author: [name, institutional affiliation, current address, phone, fax, email]

Addressing… [read more]

Studies on the Elderly and Loneliness Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (1,484 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Aging -- Loneliness and its Prevention

Before reading resource materials about ageing and loneliness, I believed that decades of research and hundreds of thousands of elderly subjects would result in clear-cut definitions and well-established measures to prevent loneliness. However, upon reading those sources, I found that the definitions, preventive measures and rates of success are uncertain. The reading resources taught… [read more]

Stigma of Suicide and Grief in African-American Mothers Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  45 pages (13,960 words)
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Suicide Grief among African-American Mothers


This research will explore the experience of representative African-American mothers who lost their sons to suicide. The biopsychosocial contextual model of stress, as specifically applied to suicide as stressor, by Clark, Anderson, Clark and Williams (1999) will guide the following research questions:

Does perceived stigma due to suicide, as measured by… [read more]

Physician Assisted Death Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


While the first three options may be initiated by surrogate decision makers, the final two should be initiated by the patient. The seeming inability of palliative care to address all end-of-life sufferings is a strong justification for physician-assisted suicide. Therefore, the least harmful way of responding to intolerable end-of-life suffering would be helpful to clinicians, patients, and families. This harmful method should be conducted in a manner that is effective and respects the values of the major stakeholders in delivery of care. In expressing his support for legalization of physician-assisted suicide given the inability of palliative care to address all end-of-life suffering, Quill (2012) states that the benefits of an open, legally permitted practice outweigh the dangers of a secret practice (p.63).


As previously mentioned, physician assisted death is a major contentious issue because it creates concerns on preservation of a dying person's independence and the need to safeguard patients from pressures in the process of dying (Messer, 2012). The article presents significant insights for legalization of the practice, which illegal in many states and countries. It is a balanced opinion on the issue because the author includes recommendations for the most suitable kind of treatment before consideration of physician-assisted suicide.

Quill offers a balanced and critical review of physician-assisted suicide as a last resort after delivery of high quality palliative care. Moreover, his argument for its legalization includes the need for the practice to be initiated by the patient through a strong sense of personal will. The evaluation of the benefits of an open, legally allowed practice over the dangers of a secret practice helps in addressing concerns regarding potential abuse, error, and coercion.


Messer, T. (2012, October 29). Physician-Assisted Death: In Consideration of the Right to Die.

Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nyam.org/social-work-leadership-institute-v2/geriatric-social-work/hppae/for-students/Physician-Assisted-Death-Paper-Submission-10-29-12-1.pdf

Quill, T.E. (2012). Physicians Should 'Assist in Suicide' When it is Appropriate. Journal of Law,

Medicine & Ethics, 40(1), 57-65.… [read more]

Demographic Transition: England Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (675 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Figure 2

Demographic Transition in England 1700-2000

Sources: (Clark, 2010; and Slideshare, 2014)

4. Birth Rate in England

From the chart it is clear that the fertility rate or birth rate in England declined sharply beginning in the first two decades of the 1800s. However, the fertility or birth rate rose again briefly in the mid-1800s and them dropped sharply and steadily until the 1970s rising slightly and then beginning a steady decline until the year 2000.

5. Death Rate in England

The death rate in England rose in the first half of the 1700s decade and dropped significantly until 1800 when the death rate rose sharply and leveled out pretty much until about 1850 rising again steadily for about 15 years and since that time steadily declining.

6. Population Rate in England

The population rate in England has risen steadily since the 1700s as illustrated the demographic transition chart in this study and this is despite the fertility or birth rate rising or falling and despite the rising or falling of the death rate in England.

7. Summary and Conclusion

The birth rate or fertility rates in England fell sharply in the early 1800s and rise again in the mid-1800s followed by a sharp and steady decline until the 1970s when it rose again slightly but has since that time declined steadily. The death rate in England while rising during the first fifty years of the 1700s decade begin a significant decline for the next fifty years when the death rate rose sharply then leveled out for the next fifty years. In 1850 the death rate in England rose steadily for approximately 15 years and has since that time steadily declined. Despite the rising and falling of the birth rate in England and the Death rate the population in England has experienced steady growth since 1700 until the present.


Clark, G. (2010) Mathus to Modernity: England's First Fertility Transition, 1760-1800. Retrieved from: http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/faculty/gclark/papers/Demographic%20Transition%202010.pdf

Population Changes in England and Wales 1700-2000 (2014) Slideshare. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/reservoirgeogs/demographic-transition-presentation…… [read more]

Nursing Critique on Law: LIFE Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Durante, 2009, p. 29) Lindsay's argument is for self-determination on the part of the patient stating specifically as follows:

"Respecting the right of a terminally ill person to make his own decision about the course of his remaining days hardly seems to evince an attitude of diminished respect for life. Thus, a key element of the causal slippery slope argument is missing." (Lindsay, 2009, p. 19)

According to Durante, the observations of Lindsay in relation to compassion and respect to autonomy, may be on base, however, that which is described by Lindsay is not "so much a respect for human life, per se, but rather respect for various aspects of a particular vision of the good life, which again is founded upon the idea of autonomy and liberty. Respecting self-determination is not the same as respect life, it is respecting liberty." (Durante, 2009, p. 30) As such, Lindsay does not distinguish between the two and thereby fails in the comprehension of what PAS opponents believe is at stake. The argument exists that the Oregon Death with Dignity ACT, which constitutes respect for self-determination and liberty is such that "trumps consideration regarding the respect for life." (Durante, 2009, p. 30) The adoption of the view upheld by Lindsay appears to entail adopting a view that somehow the patient's life is no longer worth living and this means that alleviating suffering takes precedence over the respect for life. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act makes PAS an option for a patient who is terminally ill and who desires to end their suffering. Included in the options of this act is the use of PTS which effectively alleviates the suffering of the patient and ultimately offers a passive method of PAS to the patient.

While Durante seems to distinguish between the self-determination and liberty of the patient and Lindsay's evaluation of what constitutes respect for life, in essence self-determination and liberty are primary aspects of that which constitute respect for life. The empowerment of the individual to choose their own course in life or in the ending of their life due to suffering is inclusive of the right to choose PTS or PAS. Whether liberty and self-determination in choosing to live or choosing to die that liberty and self-determination should never be refused to or removed from the patient's possession in the opinion of this writer. Therefore, the attempt of Durante (2009) to disqualify the arguments of Lindsay based on some idea of separating self-determination and liberty from respect for life is a flawed and erroneous argument.


Durante, C. (2009) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon…… [read more]

Prostate Cancer Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,412 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Moreover, the study will use genetic and pharmacology approach to carry out the experiment. Typically, the autophagy pharmacological inhibition is to use TR induced cell death to detect its effect on PC3 cells. To detect the presence of autophagic, it is critical to use TEM (transmission electron microscopy) which is the widely used technique to monitor the presence of autophagy.… [read more]

Music Therapy Reduce the Level Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  7 pages (2,312 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Participation in the music program did not significantly affect agitation and anxiety in older people with dementia. Both the music and reading group activities, however, gave some participants a 'voice' and increased their verbalization behavior. Agitation was found to be predicted by a number of background factors (namely level of cognitive impairment, length of time in the facility and gender)… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Examining Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  10 pages (3,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Variants of APP from mice were re-injected after allelic regeneration and exposed to the beta secretase enzyme. The genes generated targeted separate lines of knock-in mice on the APP cut differently (Ring et al., 2007).

The authors sought to identify the primary sites of APP where the beta secretase would target possibly when truncated. With the use of the mice,… [read more]

Falls in the Elderly Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Having caregivers and having grab bars in the home can help elderly people reduce their risk of both fatal and non-fatal falls. Another concern to avoid falls is medication. There are many elderly people taking antidepressants and hypnotics, both of which have been associated with a higher risk of falls (Blake, et al., 1988). While it may not be possible for all elderly people to get off of these medications, it may be possible for some. Additionally, reducing the level of medication or switching to something less likely to cause a problem can also work to the advantage of elderly people in order to keep them from falling (Blake, et al., 1988). It is not realistic to assume that all falls in the elderly population can be avoided. People of all ages fall occasionally.

However, through an understanding of more tenuous balance in older age, coupled with the other concerns that elderly people have regarding mobility, grip strength, and medication usage, options can be made available that will help these people focus on better health and safer mobility options. Proposed solutions include grab bars and caregivers in the homes of elderly people who need them, but also working with medical professionals to adjust dosages and switch medications so that elderly people have better balance. Taking these two steps, especially in combination, can reduce the number of falls -- and the number of fatal falls -- so more elderly people can remain safe in their homes. Being able to stay independent is very important for many elderly people, but they will not be able to do that if they fall frequently. Helping them take steps that create fewer falls is a vital part of that independence, and can also reduce the overall health care burden on the country.


Blake, A.J., Morgan, K., Bendall, M.J., Dallosso, H., Ebrahim, S.B., Arie, T.H., Fentem, P.H., & Bassey, E.J. (1988). Falls by elderly people at home: Prevalence and associated factors. Age Ageing, 17(6): 365-72.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Falls among older adults: An overview. CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html

Yoshida, S. (n.d.) A global report on falls prevention. Epidemiology of falls. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/projects/1.Epidemiology%20of %20falls%20in%20older%20age.pdf… [read more]

Biomedical Ethics: Euthanasia Mercy Killing Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The family sued her despite the knowledge that they gave authorization for him to undergo the process. They viewed the incidence as an act of deliberate killing, which indicates that the concerns against the process of euthanasia are genuine morally (Diaconescu 22). All these reasons lead to the conclusion that no person has the moral right to take the life of another; neither does any person have the moral right to take their own life. Thus, the case of Paul and Dr. Morrison was too lenient to grant her indictment. Euthanasia has no moral basis; thus, accepting the terms of euthanasia is equivalent of suicide and murder combined for all involved in making decisions and executing them.

Arguments for Euthanasia

Euthanasia continues to be a leading discussion subject among the medical professionals. The moral basis of practice that supports the process includes the following. First, euthanasia does not occur without the consent of the individual responsible for the patient. As is the case with Paul, the family agreed to the process and thus, morally, the aspect of the consent of a person to an action gives them the moral responsibility to execute it (Sneiderman & Raymond 13). Thus, euthanasia does have a moral basis in the consent. Secondly, morally, every person should have a life free of suffering. However, a terminally ill person undergoes lots of suffering and pain. Therefore, it is only moral to aid this terminally ill person from undergoing the suffering and pain, and ensuring quality of life for them. Thus, if terminally ill, the safest and surest way to eliminate the suffering of the person is by the process of euthanasia. Additionally, a terminally ill person causes economic costs on the family. The economic impact of the illness on the family necessitates means to ensure they have a quality life, free of financial constrains. Therefore, conducting euthanasia on the patient reduces the social impacts on the family, which leads to the moral basis of the ability to live a life free of financial strains. Thus, morally, conducting euthanasia helps the family to eliminate unrealistic expenditures while people are not contributing positively to the society (Sneiderman & Raymond 19). Therefore, euthanasia eliminates pain, suffering and debts to the family members. Euthanasia is a necessary process in the society Dr. Nancy Morrison favored Paul when she agreed to facilitate the process, despite knowing the risks involved.


Euthanasia, in view of the arguments above, presents a case for further evaluation. According to this case, the doctor acted as the family instructed. Legally, the family authorized the process, and thus she is not liable to the consequences. However, it is clear that the process used to end the supposed suffering of the patient did not meet the quality standards expected. The world is changing, and there are new technologies that can aid the process of euthanasia without complicating the situation. The recommendation; therefore is for the hospital policy to establish the legal basis for conducting euthanasia. Additionally, we should… [read more]

Emily Dickinson, Keetje Kuipers Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  1 pages (350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Instead, it can also be looked at as something that is perfectly normal and that differentiates between beautiful living individuals and lifeless bodies.

Although the writer underlines the fact that all of the poets are actively involved in promoting a topic that is somewhat common from their point-of-view, it is difficult to follow the exact relationship between the three and their poems as seen from the writer's perspective. To a certain degree, it is actually intriguing that the writer focuses on how each of the poets understands the idea of death. Not only are they inclined to believe that death is actually not very different from living, as they actually consider that there is a strong relationship between the two concepts and that people need to accept the fact that dying does not necessarily that the departed individual is no longer connected to the living world.… [read more]

Demographic Transition Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Demographic Transition and Its Phases

Demographic Transition

Demographic transition is defined as the population growth as per time. The developed country enjoys the phase IV in which both the CBR and CDR are low. As per (Montgomery, n.d). Demographic transition is a model that defines population change over time. This idea was presented by an American demographer Warren Thompson in 1929. Demographic transition is expressed through a demographic transition model. There are IV phases of demographic transition (Demographic Transition, Hofstra.edu).

Phase I is categorized by high birth and death rate. In the first phase of demographic transition the rate of death and birth remains stationary or grows on a slow pace. The demise rate during this phase is high because of undeveloped medical sector. Common diseases become threatening and take lives of the people. Malnutrition also may become a hurdle in one's life and may cause death if get severe. The birth rate in this phase is higher because of the low survival rate of newborns. The unhygienic environment is another reason of high death rates. Dirty water, open sewerage and other harmful flaws in the society makes it worse. Also, in underdeveloped societies, parents want to have more children who can enhance their labor force. There are some religious and cultural values behind these large family systems. There is lack of family planning in this phase. The death and birth rates fluctuate. There are high deaths and lower births during war time and opposite is true in normal days.

Phase II is marked as the beginning of demographic transition. During the second phase the death rate gets lower and the birth rate stays high. This condition takes place because of the improved medical facilities, cleanliness and hygiene conditions in the localities of the country. The country's food production also becomes better both in terms of quality and quantity. The transportation facilities become upgraded which helps providing the food in the remote areas of the country. The population in this phase increases at a swift speed.

Phase III of demographic transition deals with a drop in the birth rate while the death rate remains almost unchanged. The reason of such fluctuation may be industrialization and urbanization in which the labor force is needed less. Another reason of such changes may be the socioeconomic issues. There are better sources of family planning in urban areas and the cost life in these areas is also high. Small families in these areas may spend a happy life with fewer worries.

The final phase IV of the demographic transition has a steadiness between the death rate and the birth rate. Due to improved medical science, the death rate has declined significantly as common diseases do not threaten death anymore. While, on the other hand, the birth rate has been controlled by the parents themselves as the bringing up of the children has become very expansive in terms…… [read more]

Bucket List Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The movie does a very good job of provoking one's own personal thoughts on death and dying, making the viewer consider how they have lived their own life up until this point and how they might want to live the rest of their life. It also forces one to consider the very real mortality that we all face, and even though we may not be terminally ill cancer patients, we must face the reality that one day, somehow, death will take us as well. In some ways, I felt that these two gentlemen were lucky. They knew that their end was coming in a finite amount of time, and they knew exactly how they wanted to spend their final days. Of course, I also felt pain and sympathy for them both, as it was clear that what they truly wanted was more time to live and especially, more time to love. Edward is estranged from his daughter and this is clearly a sore point, though he attempts to hide it. It is interesting to me that in the end, what everything comes down to in life is our relationships with others. If we love well and live well, our death anxiety will be lower, we will have fewer regrets and we will be able to meet our end with a sense of peace. Overall, I believe that this movie does an excellent job of portraying the journey that we all take through the eyes of two very different men as they attempt to… [read more]

Business Strategy Class, Group Assigned Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


There are no easy answers to these philosophical questions and the laws regarding euthanasia are not consistent in the major industrialized nations and also very from state to state.

In the United States, despite its emphasis on individual autonomy in the law, while "the competent terminally ill patient has the right to make a legally binding advanced directive in anticipation of inability to choose withdrawal of treatment (for example gastrostomy tubes)," he or she is "not permitted to hasten death by means of additional medication given with physician advice and/or assistance in the final stages of illness" (Fraser & Walters 2000). Thus, the idea that sins of omission are worse than sins of commission seems to be enshrined in the law. The patient can refuse heroic means to keep him or herself alive, but not deliberately hasten death.

However, there is a gray area as to what constitutes hastening death. For patients undergoing hospice care, physicians will often observe what is called the 'doctrine of double effect.' The administration of morphine may hasten the patient's death, but does not directly cause the death, and by making the patient's final days more comfortable, the physician is considered to be 'doing good' ("Euthanasia," BBC News, 2012). Issues of euthanasia are often viewed along more of a continuum, rather than in terms of black-and-white. While there are extremes on both sides -- some people have suggested that chronically depressed patients have a 'right' to take their lives, while others, like Grace Lee's religious parents, believe that heroic measures must be sustained indefinitely because only God can take life -- the courts and the dominant beliefs amongst ordinary citizens and ethicists fall somewhere along the middle. This ever-shifting ethical line is why legal consensus is so difficult.

In the case of patients that can no longer express their views, there is the commonly-accepted standard of the New Jersey Supreme Court in another right-to-die case, that of Karen Ann Quinlan as follows: "If the patient could wake up for 15 minutes and understand his or her condition fully, and then had to return to it, what would he or she tell you to do?" (Quill 2005). Hence, the reliance upon living wills and advanced directives. The case of a patient, like Grace Lee, who is mentally competent and wishes to have the heroic instruments sustaining her life withdrawn, seems to meet this standard. But if Lee wished to end her suffering early in a conscious fashion and was not on a respirator, this would not be permitted. This imperfect consensus on euthanasia is what we have established as a society, although it is a far from a satisfactory one, or even, some would say, a wholly consistent one.

Works Cited

Fraser, Sharon I. & James W. Walters. Death - whose decision? Euthanasia and the terminally ill. Medical Ethics 26 (2000):121-125. [21 Oct 2012]


Quill, Timothy E. "Terri Schiavo -- a tragedy compounded." The New England Journal of Medicine, 352(2005):1630-1633. [21 Oct 2012] http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp058062

Scott,… [read more]

Dead Skeleton (Calavera) Art Anthropology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,182 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The uniqueness of the celebration of the Day of the Dead is in the food offerings practiced by Mexicans. This is because this is a cultural practice only evident in Mexico, and the existing elaborate presentation of the food sacrifices and sugar moldings makes use of sugar as a principle ingredient for sculpted figurines symbolic (Frank 26). There is an… [read more]

Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Active Euthanasia Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (902 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Dissenting Views

According to Mappes and DeGrazia, Callahan is convinced that a clear distinction exists between allowing to die and killing (399). One of the perspectives that Callahan uses to defend his assertion is the medical view. According to Callahan, physicians have a historical role to use the knowledge they possess to comfort and/or cure patients as opposed to bringing about their death (Mappes and DeGrazia 401). Thus in seeking to exercise that role, physicians must not do anything that can prematurely end the life of a patient. Callahan's assertion in this case conflicts with one of Brock's proposals in regard to when euthanasia should be allowed. In the opinion of Brock, as far as the well-being of an individual is concerned, a patient should be granted his or her request for euthanasia if such a patient's life becomes unbearable as a result of a critical illness (Mappes and DeGrazia 402). For instance, for some critically ill patients, further treatment may cease to make sense. This is more so the case in those instances where an illness is accompanied by a great deal of pain. Callahan is however adamant that even in such a case, the doctor's role should be limited to keeping such a patient comfortable.

A Response to the Objection

It is however important to note that although valid, Callahan's assertion in this case is largely one-sided i.e. It fails to take into consideration the agony of a patient suffering from a miserable chronic illness that ends up making his life unbearable. Callahan seems to recommend that a condition be let to assume its own course. This in my opinion does not seem to reconcile with his assertion to the effect that the key role of doctors should be to comfort as well as cure patients (Mappes and DeGrazia 401). However, can watching a patient struggling with an incurable disease that visits an unimaginable pain and discomfort on him or her be regarded part of the said care and comfort? I am convinced that in those instances where patients have explicitly requested for euthanasia based on the agony they are suffering or going through, the same should not be denied to them. This in my opinion amounts to guaranteeing the well-being of such patients. This is the real essence of care i.e. easing the suffering of patients. Anything contrary to that is in my opinion not only unjust but also insensitive to the well-being of the suffering patients.

Works Cited

Mappes, Thomas A., and David DeGrazia, eds. Biomedical Ethics. 6th…… [read more]

Mortality and Life Review Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Social distress associated with love and belonging play a role in this stage. McPherson cited multiple studies where 40-84% of dying individuals report feeling like a burden to their families or as a source of hardship to others (2007). These feelings of burden are exacerbated by fears about things ranging from physical safety to the fear of death itself because… [read more]

Social Support the Importance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The support groups also help one avoid getting into risky health behaviors like smoking, drug abuse or alcoholism. Since after retirement the old person will be having a lot of time in their hands, the temptation to get involved in alcoholism and drug use is high. To avoid this, they need to get a social support groups that will be keeping them busy in the course of the regular meetings that they will be having over the week. Within the support groups are also specialists in counseling and other social support skills that will be in a good position to help the elders to avoid the temptation of getting into alcoholism or such behaviors.

Since the old people are likely to suffer from the old age diseases and conditions, such support groups can work very well in helping the person cope with the pain and the stress of the condition that they may find themselves in. If the old person is sick and has no one to express the pain to and receive empathy from, there is likelihood that the pain will be magnified to the emotional realm and not just be a physical pain. With the company of many friends who are regular, the pain of the old age disease becomes lighter.

The presence of the social groups and the social support also encourages the old person to overcome the feeling of fatigue. Once the individual sees his peers taking up the challenge of walking a given number of miles, he will also feel challenged hence join them and not succumb to old age fatigue (Susan G. Komen, 2012).


As indicated in the text above, there is need to have various networks that will involve the aged people in frequent interaction among themselves and even with other social support experts. The social support should be in totality and encompass everything that can work to make the lives of the old people easier, be it their self-esteem, need for information, socializing need and any other special needs that they may have. It is only when all these are met that one can confidently say that the old person could be living a comfortable life as far as social support is concerned.


Department of Development Services, (2010). Social Support Systems and Maintaining Mental Health. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.ddssafety.net/content/social-support-systems-and-maintaining-mental-health

Elizabeth Scott, (2010). The Value of All Types of Social Support. Retrieved May 25, 2012 from http://forum.psychlinks.ca/family-and-friends/22227-4-types-of-social-support.html

Harold L. Burke, (2009). Healthy Aging. Retrieved May 23, 2012 from http://www.brain-injury-therapy.com/articles/healthy_aging.htm

Stephanie K. Glassman, (2012). Benefits of Social Support. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.glassmanpsyd.com/benefits-of-social-support/

Susan G. Komen, (2012). Benefits of…… [read more]

Program Budget and Cost Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,858 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


For example, the Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine, by Doyle et al. (2004), would provide a comprehensive overview of all relevant topics. A more user-friendly example would be Palliative and End of Life Care: Clinical Practice Guidelines, 2nd Edition, by Kuebler et al. (2006), which would provide a ready reference for practical information. Book use will be limited to the… [read more]

Rinpoche in the Tibetan Book Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This life can and should be viewed as a means to hone the mind. The natural bardo is in the here and now, and the true nature of the mind is absolute stillness. A practice of "bringing the mind home," which Rinpoche discusses in Chapter 5, is crucial to making the most of this life and making the most of death.

Rinpoche's views on death are echoed by those of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, author of the classic On Death and Dying. In On Death and Dying, Ross discusses the fear of death that plagues modern Westerners. Although Kubler-Ross's four stages of grieving are different from Rinpoche's Tibetan bardos, both authors offer their readers spiritual and psychological tools they can use to embrace the reality of death with wisdom and compassion. The goal is to develop the "peaceful confidence" to face death (Rinpoche, 2002, p. 4). When helping other people go through the process of dying, both authors advocate compassion as a primary spiritual support.

Ultimately, the goal of Tibetan spiritual practice is not just to accept death; but to master it. Mastery of death entails first purifying the mind during this lifetime. The practitioner becomes fully aware during all stages of existence including sleep. Then, dying becomes a process. Dying is a transition. In the final section of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Rinpoche (2002) discusses the nature of rebirth. Rinpoche (2002) asserts the reality of reincarnation, stating that the mastery of the mind can help the individual to peacefully make the transition from one life to the next. The goal of self-mastery is to become a "servant of peace," to help others achieve the same level of consciousness evolution (Rinpoche, 2002, p. 360).


Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying.…… [read more]

Assisted Suicide the Issues Susan Wolf Raises Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Assisted Suicide

The issues Susan Wolf raises surrounding the events concerning the death of her father suggest a multitude of controversial questions that delve into many gray areas of what we value as human beings and a society. The instinct for self preservation is strong and many belief systems teach that suicide and assisted suicide is wrong regardless of the circumstances, however life is messy and the line between right and wrong is often blurred.

If I were in Wolf's place I would feel obligated to begin by reviewing the facts of the situation. At the time of his final hospitalizations her father was 79 years-old with a five-year history of metastatic thyroid cancer plus emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During his initial battle with metastatic head and neck cancer in 2002 her father had "argued that the Holocaust was incompatible with the existence of God. There is no afterlife. This is it, and he wanted every last bit of "it" on any terms" (Wolf, 2008). At this point he wanted all avenues explored and no effort spared.

In 2007 her father took a turn for the worse. He became increasingly weak and his powers of concentration began to diminish until he decided he wanted to stop the tube feeding. It is at this point that the situation becomes complicated. Wolf reports the reason he gives for wanting to remove the feeding tube is that he feels he is becoming a burden. Furthermore the doctors advised him not to follow this course of action, saying he "would suffer a painful death, that morphine would be required to control the discomfort, and that my father would lose consciousness before the day was out" (Wolf, 2008). They failed to assure him that there are methods designed to support his comfort if he did demand the feeding tubes be replaced. Because of this he decided to "solider on." Later he would reveal that he regretted this change of heart.

As his condition continued to deteriorate her father became more dependent on others to ensure his everyday survival. Eventually he developed a gastric bleed that required a transfusion of most of his blood. This led him to ask for and consider all of his options, and he decided once again to suspend treatment. Furthermore, he wanted to accelerate the process. The question then becomes does her father have the right to seek a quicker path to the inevitable?


The main consideration at this point should be the patient's quality of life. Johansson, Axelsson, and Danielson (2005) found that patient's with incurable cancer indentified five themes of relivance relating to quality of life. These include the ability to lead an ordinary life, maintain significant realtions, maintain a positive life, alieviate suffering, and manage their lives when ill.

Leading an ordinary life was described as the abilty to appreciate normal things and to feel functional. The…… [read more]

Taste and Smell Age Related Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Moreover, it is not uncommon for older individuals to report that 'things don't taste right', and these complaints have been generally attributable to changes in odor perception (Rawson, 2003).

Rawson (2003) posits a significant number of medications that have the ability to elicit chemosensory side effects which has the ability to lead to poor pharmacological compliance or altered selection of nutritional status and foods. Metabolites or the medications themselves can be secreted into the nasal mucus or into the saliva and directly impact receptor cells. This is often evidenced by the unpleasant taste frequently associated with antibiotics (Chodosh et al., 1998). In instances when medication known to alter the senses must be taken for extended periods of time, however, an adjustment in dosage may serve to remediate the problem.

Analysis and Conclusion

Rawson, in the aforementioned article provided scholarly and empirical information regarding the impact on the perceptions of flavor and aroma and the senses of taste, smell and chemical irritation as it relates to older age. The peer reviewed article provided both physiological, pharmacological social consequences of changes the elderly can experience as a result of changes and/or deficits in the sensory system. Empirical studies were provided as a foundation by which the research was posited upon, issues of well being, taste aversion, and food/drink altering were addressed. Chemosensory loss was explored in significant detail and issues of infections, and medication were discussed.

Further, the researcher advised that as age related issues of taste and smell perception are not universal with the elderly or across senses, it creates the challenges of how to effectively address the problem not just for reduced flavor intensity but also a shift in sensory profile of particularly complex aromas and flavors of food (Ransom, 2003). The researcher suggests that because odors of a particular concentration may be perceived as less than half as intense by the elderly, some flavor supplementation may be necessary in order to produce equivalency in taste as supplementation has been proven to enhance satisfaction levels among the elderly will diminished ability to smell (Mathey et al., 2001).

Most importantly, the researcher reminds of the importance of taking concerns and complaints expressed by the elderly regarding an inability or increased difficulty to taste or smell seriously as it could represent symptomology for major illnesses or can result in pharmacological non-compliance. Moreover, because loss in chemosensory systems are real in the elderly and have the ability to impact well being and quality of life it is important that particularly health professionals not disregard these concerns and help in the development of coping strategies that can also help to avoid health hazards.


Chodosh, S., et al. (1998). Efficacy and safety of a ten day course of 400 or 600

milligrams of grepafloxacin once daily for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: comparison with a ten day course of 500 milligrams of Ciprofloxacin twice daily. Antimicrobial Agents in Chemotherapy, 42(1), 114-120.

Mathey, M., et al. (2001). Flavor enhancement of food improves… [read more]

Coping With Life There Are Numerous Points Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Coping With Life

There are numerous points of comparisons to be found between Annie Dillard's essay entitled "Total Eclipse and Randy Shilts' essay entitled "Talking AIDS To Death." The central premise of both essays is certainly one such point, which is the eventual dissolution of life before the yawning maw of death. However, there are a number of specific aspects of these works detailing the importance of life and its intrinsic properties such as time, immortality (or the lack thereof) and certain attributes of death in which the writers either eminently present contrasting opinions or share startling similarities. A close examination of both of these texts, however, reveals the fact that Dillard ends her chronicle of and journey of death on a more peaceful, accepting note, whereas Shilts' essay concludes in a similar array of doubt and disbelief which typified the majority of the author's metaphorical journey while composing this particular piece of literature.

In order to properly assess the facets of life and its partnership with death that Dillard finds to be of importance in "Total Eclipse," one should consider the overarching circumstances in which her essay was composed and in what, on a literal level, it inherently reveals. The author traveled with her husband (who was recently deceased at the time of the essay's writing) to a location in which they can view a total eclipse -- the effect of which helped the author to contextualize life, the seemingly immortal nature of God's design (such as the earth and the sun), as well as the relatively modest role in which mankind plays in all of these varying designs. The essay, of course, utilizes the conception of the eclipse as a metaphor for the quickening accuracy of death, while revealing the profundity of certain acts and rituals in life which the following quotation makes readily apparent.

We teach our children one thing only, as we were taught: to wake up. We teach our children to look alive there, to join by words and activities the life of human culture on the planet's crust…We live half our waking lives and all of our sleeping lives in some private, useless, and insensible waters we never mention or recall…Valueless, I might add -- until someone hauls the wealth up to the surface and into the wide awake city, in a form that people can use (Dillard).

There are a number of salient aspects of this quote, not the least of which is the value that the author attributes to the joining of activities that are part of life and which she refers to as a sense of waking up and looking alive. The half-awoke moments of going through the motions of life are devalued by the author, who largely conceives of the immortal facet of death as arriving with the celeritous speed and rapid time of the spreading of the shadow of the eclipse.

There are a number of points in Shilts' essay that are at considerable variance to these… [read more]

Ethical Dilemma of Assisted Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,126 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


This often leads a large percentage of physicians to support religious beliefs during the last stages of life, so that the patient prepares and accepts what is coming. Patients, on the other hand view a "good death" differently, seeing it as a greater individual decision capability. Another study conducted here in the United States was Craig et al. (2009) the… [read more]

Elderly Boseman, J. And L. Victor. ) Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Elderly

Boseman, J. And L. Victor. (2008). "Aging Americans and Diabetes: A Public Health

and Clinical Response." Geriatrics. 59 (4): 14-17.

Diabetes is more than a moral and medical problem -- it is, in fact, a holistic issue interrelated to culture and most assuredly economics. One rarely thinks of the numerous consequences illness, lethargy, and/or inability to find treatment may have on populations unprepared for mass cases of type II diabetes:

Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets lead to more disease, days away from work, and burdens on the social systems of countries

Risk factors rise for cardiac disease, or an inability to remain part of the labor force as long as a healthy person

Greater siphoning of resources away from necessary programs and into control of an epidemic caused by behavior patterns.

Gan, W., et.al., (2011). Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Hospitalization and Mortality. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (4): 501-16.

As individuals age, we know that their body lacks the immune response to toxins and is therefore more at risk for developing disease based on environmental factors. In a modern world, it is almost impossible not to be exposed to carcinogens and toxins from air-pollution and traffic fumes, which in turn, increase the risk of coronary issues requiring hospitalization in the elderly.

Nemerogg, C. (2007). The Curiously Strong Relationship Between Cardiovascular

Disease and Depression in the Elderly. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 15 (2): 217-33.

Depression is one of those conditions that can return if proper preventative measures are not taken. Patients need to understand that depression can return at any time and certain precautions must be taken. Research also shows there is a statistical correlation between heart disease and depression and, oddly enough, visa versa. Patients with heart issues tend to see mortality as an approaching inevitability, contributing to depression. Similarly, depression causes many older adults to have little interest in eating right, in exercising, and in engaging in social tasks with other adults.

Rinker, A.G. Jr. (January-February 2009) Recognition and perception of elder abuse by prehospital and hospital-based care providers. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 48 (1) 110-115.

Scholarly article focusing on ways that medical professionals can recognize symptoms of elder abuse and make appropriate recommendations and reports surrounding the issue. Elder abuse is a hidden problem, yet faces an approximate 28 per cent of populations over 70 as both a health and mental health related issue.

Weisshopg, M., et.al., (2010). Association of Cumulative Lead Exposure with Parkinson's Disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118 (11): 1609-21.

We are learning more and more that repeated exposure to environmental issues has the potential to cause, or exacerbate, certain health related issues. As people age, it is logical that…… [read more]

Die, Reflections on Life's Final Chapter Book Report

Book Report  |  5 pages (1,607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Die, Reflections on Life's Final Chapter by Sherwin B. Nuland

Although the ultimate outcome for all living things is death, the aging and dying process and the terminal consequences of mortality are understood in very different ways by different people. From a strictly biological perspective, all things begin dying as soon as they are born, of course, but… [read more]

Access and Relevance of Data Sources Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Access and Relevance of Data Sources

Identify two areas that are relevant to criminal justice and criminology:

Elder maltreatment; and,

Intimate partner violence.

Complete the following information based on two examples:

Topic No. 1: Elder maltreatment

Elder maltreatment involves a wide range of behaviors that typically include violence that are directed against individuals aged 60 years and above (Understanding elder… [read more]

African-American Males Between the Ages Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The quality of interpersonal relations seriously affected the risk of suicide among young males and females. It was also discovered that black men and women were more likely to say that a person died because that is what God has in his mind for them. They feel that if a person commits suicide, he does that because God has planned this for him. This is a major difference between the attitude of young black men and women and Europeans Americans. Data in this case was collected through administration of Stigma Questionnaire, and Suicide Ideation Questionnaire to 251 undergraduate college students. The study holds significance for the development of culturally appropriate interventions in the case of patients at higher risk of suicide.

Poussaint and Alexander (2000) discussed the issue of suicide among young black males more deeply in their book: Lay down my Burden. The book was a personal account of her brother's suicide so her research is far more personal with good statistics and accurate facts. The purpose of her research was more personal for that reason. She can be slightly biased since it was something that was close to her heart but overall the book was written with good factual information. They found that compared to black women, the rate of suicide in young black men was increasing at an alarming rate. They discovered that there was no difference in presence of the cases of suicide across all social and income levels. They found that young black men were far more likely to be at higher risk of suicide than black women. Even the rate of suicide has gone up so dramatically that the gap between young white male suicides and black males was getting narrower.

Literature on the subject agrees that rate of suicide among young black males is increasing and there is multitude of factors affecting this outcome. Black men have to undergo years of racist behavior and develop a thinner skin to survive but since their nerves are fragile from years of racism, they fall easy prey to thoughts of suicide. Studies unanimously agreed that depression played a significant role in predicting suicidal behavior. These researches and studies also proved that suicide was not only common in lower income groups but also affected other social and income groups. Mothers in most cases remained unaware of their children suffering from any problems or depression and hence received a very rude shock when they heard of the suicide.


Poussaint, A., & Alexander, A. (2000). Lay my burden down: Unraveling suicide and the mental health crisis among African-Americans. Boston: Beacon

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control.

Suicide injury deaths and rates. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov

Barnes, DH (2006). The Aftermath of Suicide Among African-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(3), 335-348.

Walker, Rheeda L; Lester, David. Lay theories of suicide: An examination of culturally relevant suicide beliefs and attributions among African-Americans and European-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology Vol: 32 Issue: 3 ISSN: 0095-7984 Date: 08/2006… [read more]

Immigration Bongaarts ) Reports Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


In addition the research will analyze various studies that have been conducted concerning the impact that replacement migration might have on public policy.

Resources for the proposed research will include scholarly journals, legal journals and books. These sources are most likely to contain the information that is relevant and pertinent to the topic of replacement immigration and its potential impact on social security.


I. Chapter I Introduction

A. Background Information

Replacement Migration has long been a subject of significant debate as it pertains to the impact is has on the age of any given population.

B. Problem Statement

The median age in developed nations are increasing while there are fewer people entering the workforce. This creates a scenario in which public systems such as social security is not sustainable. The unstable nature of these public systems could jeopardize the lives of people for years to come.

C. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the ways in which replacement migration may assist the social security system and ensure its sustainability for years to come.

D. Research Questions

How does the presence of an aging population affect public pension programs?

How do current immigration laws dictate how replacement immigration might be impacted by immigration laws?

E. Objectives of the Study

F. Definition of Terms

II. Chapter II Review of Literature

A. Immigration Laws

B. Ageing Population

C. Replacement immigration and Social Security

D. Positive and Negative outcomes associated with replacement migration in the context of immigration law.

III. Chapter III Methodology

IV. Chapter IV Results and Discussion

V. Chapter V Conclusion and Recommendations

VI. References


Bongaarts, John. Population Aging and the Rising Cost of Public Pensions


Chand, Sheetal and Albert Jaeger. 1996. "Aging populations and public pension schemes," IMF

Occasional Paper Number 147. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Coleman, D.A. (2002) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 29 April 2002 vol. 357 no. 1420 583-598

Espenshade T.J. (2001), "Replacement Migration" from the Perspective of Equilibrium

Stationary Populations, Population and Environment 22 (4): 383-400.

Feinleib J., Warner, D. 2005. The Impact of Immigration on Social Security and the National Economy. http://www.ssab.gov/documents/IMMIG_Issue_Brief_Final_Version_000.pdf

Keely C. 2002. Replacement Migration: the wave of the future? International Migration. 39(6): 103-110.

Lesthaeghe, R. 2001 Postponement and recuperation: recent fertility trends and forecasts in six Western European countries.

In IUSSP international perspectives on low fertility: trends, theories and policies. IUSSP Working Paper Series. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

Saczuk K. (2003) A DEVELOPMENT AND CRITIQUE OF THE CONCEPT OF REPLACEMENT MIGRATION. http://www.cefmr.pan.pl/docs/cefmr_wp_2003-04.pdf

United Nations 2000 Replacement migration: is it a solution to declining and ageing populations? New York: United Nations.…… [read more]

Active and Passive Euthanasia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Active and Passive Euthanasia

In his 1975 article "Active and Passive Euthanasia," James Rachels sets out a number of arguments why the medical profession has misunderstood what they consider a moral difference between two types of treatment that Rachels asserts are really the same. Since this debate is still raging today, a thorough assessment of Rachels' and his opponents' positions… [read more]

Euthanasia War and Terrorism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … non-moral or religious standpoint; while individual suicide is illigeal in many countries, the more legalistic issue is final exit, or assisted suicide that is advocated by many right-to-die organizations. There is not necessarily a completely clear legal distinction between "assisted suicide" and "final exit suicide." Advocates of final exit suicide will say that the decision to end one's life should remain with the individual, not the State. And if a group or another person lends information that can help someone end pain and suffering, that is not murder or manslaughter. If another individual assists in helping someone commit suicide, they are, in legal terms, abetting a felony. The predominant medical view in the United States holds that anyone who wants to willingly end their life must have a mental health condition, and is therefore not qualified to make a life and death decision. Other countries are liberalizing the legalities, and find a clear difference in an individual with a terminal illness choosing quality of life over quantity.

Part 2 -- the idea of euthanasia often uses incurable pain as a reason for ending life. However, pain is a relative term. For example, in the Terri Schiavo case, pain was not the seminal issue, but quality of life and the ability to be an actualized human being. Schiavo was diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state, causing her husband to petition the Court to remove her feeding tube. This was opposed by Terri's parents and a host of other conservative and pro-life movements, including President George W. Bush. In total, the Schiavo case involved 14 appeals, numerous motions, petitions, and hearings in Florida, and five in Federal District Court, the Florida Supreme Court, Federal legislation, and four denials of certiorari from the U.S. Supreme Court. Finally, after 15 years of legislation, the local Court's decision to disconnect Terri was carried out in March, 2005 (Goodman, 2009).

Part 3 -- the idea of doctors practicing euthanasia is not a clear-cut argument. Do these doctors simply practice the speciality -- or are they part of the decision making process in deciding whether the person's own individualized view of life meets their own; or in the opposite case, if someone is in excruciating pain but wants to live, would the doctor overmedicate in order to "make the patient comfortable?" At the very center of the debate on euthanasia lies the core of individual and societal ethics. Ethics is a philosophical concept that attempts to explain the moral organization within a given chronological time and cultural event. It is more concerned with understanding the way that ethnical ideas are presented, than judging those concepts within the construct of the society. On one hand, allowing a doctor to assist a patient in a predetermined decision would alleviate the suffering of the terminally ill, and allow they a dignified and self-choosen death. However, despite the advances in medical science, doctors cannot yet predict remission or…… [read more]

Ageism it Is a Commonly Known Fact Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



It is a commonly known fact that today, because of advances in medical science and a generally healthier lifestyle, that people in Western countries die at a much more advanced age than was the case a few centuries ago. In such a society, it is therefore quite ironic that ageism is one of the most insidious and prevalent prejudices… [read more]

Effects of Non-Thermal Plasma on Mammalian Cell Activity and Apoptosis Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  10 pages (2,758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … non-thermal plasma on mammalian cell activity and apoptosis, including a background and overview, as well as a description, summary and comparison of relevant related studies. These sections are followed by a discussion concerning the gaps that were identified in the existing body of knowledge and the need for further research in determining the effects of non-thermal plasma on… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Is the Seventh Leading Cause Research Paper

Research Paper  |  14 pages (4,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Alzheimer's disease is the seventh leading cause of all deaths in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans who are 65 years of age or older. The reason that the number of people afflicted with Alzheimer's is growing so fast is simple: the baby boom generation is quickly becoming the older generation. This paper presents… [read more]

Elderly Living Arrangements Thesis

Thesis  |  16 pages (4,464 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … elderly are among the fastest growing segments of the population in the United States today. Moreover, this growth is projected to continue well into the mid-21st century as the baby boomer generation reaches retirement age. Although estimates vary, it is also projected that about one in five of this elderly segment of the population will need some level… [read more]

Immorality in the Epic of Gilgamesh Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,129 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1




The search for immortality seems has fascinated mankind throughout history. Although the thought of everlasting life is mythical, most of us hope for some form life after death. While we tend not to dwell on this subject because we are uncomfortable with the unknown, on those rare occasions when we allow ourselves to think about the fact that our days are numbered, we wonder if death can be cheated and immortality gained. Some have suggested that being remembered is just as enduring as living forever. Thoughts of destiny and the here after are not new. They have engaged the hearts and minds of men for ages. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, a king investigates the possibility of immortality following the saddening death of his friend Enkidu and ultimately discovers the method to obtain it.

Gilgamesh, the ruler of ancient Uruk, is blessed with the gift of foresight. He has numerous dreams about his destiny and has accepted his mortal fate. In interpreting a dream given to Gilgamesh by the gods, Endiku states that the gods have "given you kingship, such is your destiny, everlasting life is not your destiny." (70). With this early revelation, Gilgamesh accepts the gods choice to not give him eternal life. Instead, Gilgamesh is determined to make himself famous so that his name will be set in the place where the names of famous men are written (70-1). It is here that the epic first toys with the notion of spiritual immortality. Throughout the story Gilgamesh first battles with and then adapts his own definition of eternal life.

Gilgamesh succeeds obtaining fame by first defeating the guardian of the forest, Humbaba, and shortly after, the bull of heaven. During these battles Gilgamesh declares that "there is nothing to fear! If I fall I leave behind me a name that endures." (71). Having reconciled himself to the fact that fate has indeed determined when he will die, he still desires that his name live on eternally. It is not until the death of his friend Endiku, by the gods' decree that he questions the concept of human mortality with the knowledge that "What my brother is now, that shall I be." (97).

Endiku, himself grapples with the meaning of immortality and his death serves to both act as a catalyst for Gilgamesh's own quest and to foreshadow Gilgamesh's eventual findings. After cursing the house of Gilgamesh for being the forbearer of his death, Shamash reminds Enkidu that he will be mourned by the people of Uruk and by Gilgamesh himself ["when you are dead [Gilgamesh] will let his hair grow long for your sake, he will wear a lion's pelt and wander through the desert," (91)]. Hearing Shamash, Enkidu changes his curse to a blessing. Bitter as his death is to him, and to Gilgamesh, it gives meaning to his life, for only upon death can on be remembered in whole.

Upon Enkidu's death, Gilgamesh insists that… [read more]

Elder Abuse it Is a Sad Fact Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (4,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Elder Abuse

It is a sad fact of reality that the elderly in the United States and indeed across the world are or have been abused by those they depend upon for their care. According to the National Center on Elder Abuse (2005), 1 to 2 million Americans who have reached the age of 65 and beyond have been abused… [read more]

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