Study "Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays 111-164

12345. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Death and Dying Term Paper

… Death and Dying

The five stages of dying as expressed in the Kubler-Ross theory may apply to some instances but they do not fit all cultural and individual cases. The five stages she describes in her book, on Death and Dying are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. However, these reactions are also subject to various cultural influences and differences.

These stages are possibly more applicable to Western secular society and typically modern responses to death and dying. Different cultures have different modes and ways of understanding the meaning of death and particular views with regard to dealing with the inevitability of the fact of death.

Most of these stages mentioned by Kubler-Ross for example would not apply to most traditional Eastern views of death and dying. In the first instance, Eastern views of death are often very different and the stage of denial would generally not be acceptable to this view. This would apply to Buddhist views where death is seen as a form of welcome 'releasement' or transcendence of… [read more]


Dementia Deficiency of Mental Ability Acute Enough Term Paper

… Dementia

deficiency of mental ability acute enough to hinder with normal actions of daily living, which persists for more than six months, which is not present from birth and which is not connected with loss or modification of consciousness is… [read more]


Social Aging Term Paper

… Aging & Personal Motivation

At present, I would consider myself as a mix between being internally oriented and field independent. This means that most of the time, I believe that I am capable of controlling my environment, especially in determining my choices and chances in life. Moreover, I believe my trait of being internally-oriented is also related to my being field independent, where I feel no need to depend on other people in order to accomplish my daily tasks, or simply because I feel the need to socialize or interact with them. Right now, I have a lot of opportunities that I alone can decide what to choose, and it is only through my skills and knowledge that I will be able to become successful as an individual. At present, I believe that I still have a lot to prove to myself, I yearn things in order to improve myself as an individual. Thus, right now, my concern is to contribute further to my personal development as an individual, allowing myself to be influenced by my social environment only once in a while, especially when the need… [read more]


Tuesdays With Morrie People React Term Paper

… I want to tell you about my life. I want to tell you before I can't tell you any more. I want someone to hear my story." (p. 63) It was one more indication of the terrible nature of Morrie's… [read more]


Images of Aging Term Paper

… Images of aging have been observing some old people for some time now, and I have noticed some distinct outstanding features that set them apart from people of other age groups.

One of the most outstanding features is their positive attitude to life. On having lived a long life and experienced a lot of things, they know and have accepted life's vicissitudes. They, no longer, complain about why what happened in their lives. They would, in fact, tell you that they learned a greater deal from the bad situations in their lives.

This does not mean elderly don't complain at all. They would, especially complain about young generations' attitude towards life (which is usually care-free, seeking short-cuts in life, ingratitude etc.) and their treatment (or rather mistreatment) of important things/people in life including themselves. The latter is something that annoys them most, the reason clearly being their old age and amass experience.Due to which they demand for respect, which they quiet rightly deserve.

Another feature of the old people that can never go unnoticed is their continuous reiteration of their life's special moments with all the details, including who was present then and how they reacted. They would incessantly remind you of importance of principles in life (hard work, patience, tolerance, respect) and how they (the old people) implied them in their lives and succeeded.

While, remembering those moments, you can see how all the emotions they felt then, reappear, making the environment extremely nostalgic and stories, very interesting.

Another interesting part of their conversation is their witty sense of humor.

One more thing that is very adorable is their absolute bluntness with zero percent of pretence.They ask for what they want, regardless of whether they know you or not and you can't help, helping them. They don't pretend to be anyone, they say what they want to, whether you like it or not. And they don't feel bad about it because they believe it's their right which is something everyone knows and therefore no one complains.

But, however, someone's constant demand for attention can be very irritating. Some might pretend to be sick to get that extra care and attention. However, those who have been working all their lives (mainly men), could still love to work and remain involved in some activity or hobby. They might be very reluctant to help.

Some typical activities of old people are going to church or any holy place, gardening, reading newspapers for long hours and walking in the park. Old people don't like to be left alone and it may be one of many… [read more]


Hospitalization of Older People Term Paper

… Hospitalization of Older People

Hospitals as Recovery Institutions

Hospitals are designed to be places of caring and nurturing with an emphasis on the physical healing and recovery of the patient. Typically - and as in their day-to-day living situations - special care is mandatory for senior citizens if inherent risks are to be reduced and/or avoided.

With the largest percentage - in recorded history - of the population nearing senior age, the inherent and controllable factors to the dangers of hospitalization must be dealt with - and soon.

The focus of this paper is to delve into some the issues facing aging patients and how the day-to-day role and interaction of a nurse can impact that risk.

Decline - Physical

Decline is a key problem facing older patients and the hospitalization experience often accelerates the problem. Being in a bed for long periods places the elderly at risk for decubitus growth, respiratory diseases such as bronchial infections or deadly pneumonia, and psychological decline. Well meaning enough, hospitals often ignore the special needs of such patients. Offering them foods to which they are unaccustomed, allowing long periods of bedfast inactivity, and delaying critical physical therapy are all factors which can quickly contribute to their rapid decline and even death.

Decline - Cognitive

Memory problems, confusion, dementia, situational hallucinations, and the reduction in mental coping skills are all inherent in placing older people into an institutional setting where the patient may not have the level of comfort and sense of safety they may have at home.

Advantages - Physical

Hospitalization for senior people can be desirable situation. Timed care, intervention medical procedures, poly-pharmacy management, and other support services can prolong life, provide safety measures, and the like.

According to the Irish Medical Organisation, Mallow General Hospital is addressing the aging dynamic through the "Aging with Confidence" programs. This program "will allow the elderly to be treated in their own community and lessen the effects of institutionalisation of our elderly (the biggest increasing work load for the future).

By treating the geriatric patient in a community setting, much of the cognitive problem is avoided; the patient is familiar with their surroundings and much of their normal routine may be implemented into their daily care.

Nursing Interventions

The nurse is the first line of defense in caring for the patient; senior patients benefit from nurses who have a high degree of empathy for the patient's needs and experiences.

In one hospital system - the Cabell Huntington Medical - nurses and nurse… [read more]


Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Term Paper

… ¶ … CPR: Analysis of "Sudden Death and the Myth of CPR" by Stefan Timmermans

Although it has become the norm of most medical institutions when dealing with sudden death, out-of-hospital CPR or cardiopulmonary resuscitation is statistically-proven to be an ineffective form of intervention to prevent sudden deaths. In Stefan Timmermans' "Sudden death and the myth of CPR," he explores the nature of CPR as it is experienced by hospital personnel, wherein a different perspective in practicing the said life-saving procedure can be generated. The author's discussion and analysis of CPR critically assesses how CPR, despite its ineffectiveness in saving lives, has perpetuated and dominated the medical field, especially in this period of advanced medical technology.

The analysis evidently subscribes to the conflict perspective, wherein a critical analysis demonstrates the reinforcement of CPR in order to alleviate worries and apprehensions of the patient's family and relatives. Moreover, the analysis also shows that preoccupation on preventing sudden deaths through CPR results to the gradually decreasing value of community-shared (or family-shared) tradition of mourning the dead and grievance. These are the important points that reflect contemporary society today, wherein fear of death is perpetuated and death in itself becomes a technical concept that must be dealt with through the medical staff or hospital personnel -- that is, death an impersonal view of death.

Timmermans' main points are expressed effectively all throughout the book. In discussing the myth of CPR, he criticizes the mass media in bringing into the minds of their audience an inaccurate perception of what CPR is. His ethnographic research for more than one year of observing medical procedures conducted at the event of sudden death in hospitals show that "...if the purpose and expectation of CPR is to save human lives from sudden death, resuscitative interventions are largely failures...Belief in the resuscitation has the value of a revered cultural myth perpetuated by "real-life" television shows and… [read more]


Ljl Human Development Term Paper

… Because so many of the elderly don't have their drivers license, and many don't need to have one, and also need care to the extent that they are unable to attend to the toiletry task on their own. This is… [read more]


People Grow Older Term Paper

… Methods and procedures

In order to collect data, I visited a large local cemetery. I recorded the birth and death dates from all of the headstones. From this data, I did not calculate the average life span, which is usually the procedure. Instead, I calculated the most dangerous time of life based on age. I eliminated anyone who was marked as being in the military because the unnatural death rates of soldiers would have skewed the results.

Evaluation

By interpreting the data collected, I found that life is very dangerous when people are very young. However, once infancy is safely passed, there is less danger. From that point, the risk of death starts getting higher and higher as a person ages. Especially after the age of 50, and for the next 30 years, it is especially dangerous and death rates increase rapidly. After the age of 80, there seems to be less deaths, which is probably because such a significant number of people have already died by that age. However, it is possible this represents some return to safety. Further research will be required.

References

There are a great number of sources that reveal people are more likely to die as they get older. Birth and death records, and also medical records, would be primary sources.

Badget and Justification

This is important because not enough scientific research is being put into stopping aging. Much research is being done towards fighting cancer and AIDS, but aging seems to be a major contributing factor to death, which if independently controlled might be able to cause less deaths.

Human Subjects

There were no living human subjects used in this research. However, there… [read more]


Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide Term Paper

… The authors' article illustrates the sensitivity of the issue of euthanasia, where society, especially people who have strong religious beliefs against euthanasia, often view it as an undesirable process to end a suffering patient's life, equating it to killing. However, Gert et. al. cautions that physicians' moral views must be able to be compatible with the patient's views. This means that in order to administer VPE, the physician must be (a) compatible with patient's moral views about euthanasia; or, in the event that the patient disagrees to VPE, (b) must at least inform the patient's right that s/he has the right to physician-assisted suicide/death (PAS).

These alternatives and precautions that the authors discuss in their article show how the issues of morality are the primary consideration in conducting VPE. What is evident in the article is the reminder that in issues pertaining to euthanasia, the important considerations are the physician and patient's position on VPE, not what society will perceive or think of the said action/process.

Thus, Gert, Culver, and Clouser 'sensitively' discusses in a moralistically practical way in which a sensitive issue such as euthanasia can be achieved with utmost objectivity and practicality (i.e., to end a patient's suffering from an ailment). True enough, the authors argue in parting that the only strong argument about their recommended alternative PAS method is that "it does not provide sufficient benefit to individual patients to justify societal risks." [read more]


Epicurus and the Afterlife Term Paper

… Epicurean Notions of Death

The arguments for Epicurus's claim in the passage for this assignment that "death is nothing to us" (Epicurus) involve a fairly simple dichotomy that render them lucid. That dichotomy involves a nothing associated with death, based… [read more]


Tackling Provider-Associated Barriers Concerning End-Of-Life Dementia Care Dissertation

… End-Stage Dementia

Addressing the Unmet Care Needs of End-Stage Dementia Patients through Provider Education: The Advanced Dementia EOL Planning and Prognosis (ADEPP) Tool

Acknowledgements and Credits: [? ] (will need permission from anyone being acknowledged)

Geraldine Bodven, [Academic Degrees], University… [read more]


Studies on the Elderly and Loneliness Reaction Paper

… Aging -- Loneliness and its Prevention

Before reading resource materials about ageing and loneliness, I believed that decades of research and hundreds of thousands of elderly subjects would result in clear-cut definitions and well-established measures to prevent loneliness. However, upon… [read more]


Stigma of Suicide and Grief in African-American Mothers Literature Review

… Suicide Grief among African-American Mothers

THE COLOR OF STIGMA

This research will explore the experience of representative African-American mothers who lost their sons to suicide. The biopsychosocial contextual model of stress, as specifically applied to suicide as stressor, by Clark,… [read more]


Physician Assisted Death Article Review

… While the first three options may be initiated by surrogate decision makers, the final two should be initiated by the patient. The seeming inability of palliative care to address all end-of-life sufferings is a strong justification for physician-assisted suicide. Therefore, the least harmful way of responding to intolerable end-of-life suffering would be helpful to clinicians, patients, and families. This harmful method should be conducted in a manner that is effective and respects the values of the major stakeholders in delivery of care. In expressing his support for legalization of physician-assisted suicide given the inability of palliative care to address all end-of-life suffering, Quill (2012) states that the benefits of an open, legally permitted practice outweigh the dangers of a secret practice (p.63).

Reflection

As previously mentioned, physician assisted death is a major contentious issue because it creates concerns on preservation of a dying person's independence and the need to safeguard patients from pressures in the process of dying (Messer, 2012). The article presents significant insights for legalization of the practice, which illegal in many states and countries. It is a balanced opinion on the issue because the author includes recommendations for the most suitable kind of treatment before consideration of physician-assisted suicide.

Quill offers a balanced and critical review of physician-assisted suicide as a last resort after delivery of high quality palliative care. Moreover, his argument for its legalization includes the need for the practice to be initiated by the patient through a strong sense of personal will. The evaluation of the benefits of an open, legally allowed practice over the dangers of a secret practice helps in addressing concerns regarding potential abuse, error, and coercion.

References

Messer, T. (2012, October 29). Physician-Assisted Death: In Consideration of the Right to Die.

Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nyam.org/social-work-leadership-institute-v2/geriatric-social-work/hppae/for-students/Physician-Assisted-Death-Paper-Submission-10-29-12-1.pdf

Quill, T.E. (2012). Physicians Should 'Assist in Suicide' When it is Appropriate. Journal of Law,

Medicine & Ethics, 40(1), 57-65. [read more]


Demographic Transition: England Term Paper

… Figure 2

Demographic Transition in England 1700-2000

Sources: (Clark, 2010; and Slideshare, 2014)

4. Birth Rate in England

From the chart it is clear that the fertility rate or birth rate in England declined sharply beginning in the first two decades of the 1800s. However, the fertility or birth rate rose again briefly in the mid-1800s and them dropped sharply and steadily until the 1970s rising slightly and then beginning a steady decline until the year 2000.

5. Death Rate in England

The death rate in England rose in the first half of the 1700s decade and dropped significantly until 1800 when the death rate rose sharply and leveled out pretty much until about 1850 rising again steadily for about 15 years and since that time steadily declining.

6. Population Rate in England

The population rate in England has risen steadily since the 1700s as illustrated the demographic transition chart in this study and this is despite the fertility or birth rate rising or falling and despite the rising or falling of the death rate in England.

7. Summary and Conclusion

The birth rate or fertility rates in England fell sharply in the early 1800s and rise again in the mid-1800s followed by a sharp and steady decline until the 1970s when it rose again slightly but has since that time declined steadily. The death rate in England while rising during the first fifty years of the 1700s decade begin a significant decline for the next fifty years when the death rate rose sharply then leveled out for the next fifty years. In 1850 the death rate in England rose steadily for approximately 15 years and has since that time steadily declined. Despite the rising and falling of the birth rate in England and the Death rate the population in England has experienced steady growth since 1700 until the present.

References

Clark, G. (2010) Mathus to Modernity: England's First Fertility Transition, 1760-1800. Retrieved from: http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/faculty/gclark/papers/Demographic%20Transition%202010.pdf

Population Changes in England and Wales 1700-2000 (2014) Slideshare. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/reservoirgeogs/demographic-transition-presentation… [read more]


Nursing Critique on Law: LIFE Research Paper

… " (Durante, 2009, p. 29) Lindsay's argument is for self-determination on the part of the patient stating specifically as follows:

"Respecting the right of a terminally ill person to make his own decision about the course of his remaining days hardly seems to evince an attitude of diminished respect for life. Thus, a key element of the causal slippery slope argument is missing." (Lindsay, 2009, p. 19)

According to Durante, the observations of Lindsay in relation to compassion and respect to autonomy, may be on base, however, that which is described by Lindsay is not "so much a respect for human life, per se, but rather respect for various aspects of a particular vision of the good life, which again is founded upon the idea of autonomy and liberty. Respecting self-determination is not the same as respect life, it is respecting liberty." (Durante, 2009, p. 30) As such, Lindsay does not distinguish between the two and thereby fails in the comprehension of what PAS opponents believe is at stake. The argument exists that the Oregon Death with Dignity ACT, which constitutes respect for self-determination and liberty is such that "trumps consideration regarding the respect for life." (Durante, 2009, p. 30) The adoption of the view upheld by Lindsay appears to entail adopting a view that somehow the patient's life is no longer worth living and this means that alleviating suffering takes precedence over the respect for life. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act makes PAS an option for a patient who is terminally ill and who desires to end their suffering. Included in the options of this act is the use of PTS which effectively alleviates the suffering of the patient and ultimately offers a passive method of PAS to the patient.

While Durante seems to distinguish between the self-determination and liberty of the patient and Lindsay's evaluation of what constitutes respect for life, in essence self-determination and liberty are primary aspects of that which constitute respect for life. The empowerment of the individual to choose their own course in life or in the ending of their life due to suffering is inclusive of the right to choose PTS or PAS. Whether liberty and self-determination in choosing to live or choosing to die that liberty and self-determination should never be refused to or removed from the patient's possession in the opinion of this writer. Therefore, the attempt of Durante (2009) to disqualify the arguments of Lindsay based on some idea of separating self-determination and liberty from respect for life is a flawed and erroneous argument.

Bibliography

Durante, C. (2009) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon… [read more]


Prostate Cancer Research Proposal

… Moreover, the study will use genetic and pharmacology approach to carry out the experiment. Typically, the autophagy pharmacological inhibition is to use TR induced cell death to detect its effect on PC3 cells. To detect the presence of autophagic, it… [read more]


Music Therapy Reduce the Level Capstone Project

… Participation in the music program did not significantly affect agitation and anxiety in older people with dementia. Both the music and reading group activities, however, gave some participants a 'voice' and increased their verbalization behavior. Agitation was found to be… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Examining Multiple Chapters

… Variants of APP from mice were re-injected after allelic regeneration and exposed to the beta secretase enzyme. The genes generated targeted separate lines of knock-in mice on the APP cut differently (Ring et al., 2007).

The authors sought to identify… [read more]


Falls in the Elderly Essay

… d.).

Having caregivers and having grab bars in the home can help elderly people reduce their risk of both fatal and non-fatal falls. Another concern to avoid falls is medication. There are many elderly people taking antidepressants and hypnotics, both of which have been associated with a higher risk of falls (Blake, et al., 1988). While it may not be possible for all elderly people to get off of these medications, it may be possible for some. Additionally, reducing the level of medication or switching to something less likely to cause a problem can also work to the advantage of elderly people in order to keep them from falling (Blake, et al., 1988). It is not realistic to assume that all falls in the elderly population can be avoided. People of all ages fall occasionally.

However, through an understanding of more tenuous balance in older age, coupled with the other concerns that elderly people have regarding mobility, grip strength, and medication usage, options can be made available that will help these people focus on better health and safer mobility options. Proposed solutions include grab bars and caregivers in the homes of elderly people who need them, but also working with medical professionals to adjust dosages and switch medications so that elderly people have better balance. Taking these two steps, especially in combination, can reduce the number of falls -- and the number of fatal falls -- so more elderly people can remain safe in their homes. Being able to stay independent is very important for many elderly people, but they will not be able to do that if they fall frequently. Helping them take steps that create fewer falls is a vital part of that independence, and can also reduce the overall health care burden on the country.

References

Blake, A.J., Morgan, K., Bendall, M.J., Dallosso, H., Ebrahim, S.B., Arie, T.H., Fentem, P.H., & Bassey, E.J. (1988). Falls by elderly people at home: Prevalence and associated factors. Age Ageing, 17(6): 365-72.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Falls among older adults: An overview. CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html

Yoshida, S. (n.d.) A global report on falls prevention. Epidemiology of falls. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/projects/1.Epidemiology%20of %20falls%20in%20older%20age.pdf [read more]


Biomedical Ethics: Euthanasia Mercy Killing Case Study

… The family sued her despite the knowledge that they gave authorization for him to undergo the process. They viewed the incidence as an act of deliberate killing, which indicates that the concerns against the process of euthanasia are genuine morally (Diaconescu 22). All these reasons lead to the conclusion that no person has the moral right to take the life of another; neither does any person have the moral right to take their own life. Thus, the case of Paul and Dr. Morrison was too lenient to grant her indictment. Euthanasia has no moral basis; thus, accepting the terms of euthanasia is equivalent of suicide and murder combined for all involved in making decisions and executing them.

Arguments for Euthanasia

Euthanasia continues to be a leading discussion subject among the medical professionals. The moral basis of practice that supports the process includes the following. First, euthanasia does not occur without the consent of the individual responsible for the patient. As is the case with Paul, the family agreed to the process and thus, morally, the aspect of the consent of a person to an action gives them the moral responsibility to execute it (Sneiderman & Raymond 13). Thus, euthanasia does have a moral basis in the consent. Secondly, morally, every person should have a life free of suffering. However, a terminally ill person undergoes lots of suffering and pain. Therefore, it is only moral to aid this terminally ill person from undergoing the suffering and pain, and ensuring quality of life for them. Thus, if terminally ill, the safest and surest way to eliminate the suffering of the person is by the process of euthanasia. Additionally, a terminally ill person causes economic costs on the family. The economic impact of the illness on the family necessitates means to ensure they have a quality life, free of financial constrains. Therefore, conducting euthanasia on the patient reduces the social impacts on the family, which leads to the moral basis of the ability to live a life free of financial strains. Thus, morally, conducting euthanasia helps the family to eliminate unrealistic expenditures while people are not contributing positively to the society (Sneiderman & Raymond 19). Therefore, euthanasia eliminates pain, suffering and debts to the family members. Euthanasia is a necessary process in the society Dr. Nancy Morrison favored Paul when she agreed to facilitate the process, despite knowing the risks involved.

Conclusion

Euthanasia, in view of the arguments above, presents a case for further evaluation. According to this case, the doctor acted as the family instructed. Legally, the family authorized the process, and thus she is not liable to the consequences. However, it is clear that the process used to end the supposed suffering of the patient did not meet the quality standards expected. The world is changing, and there are new technologies that can aid the process of euthanasia without complicating the situation. The recommendation; therefore is for the hospital policy to establish the legal basis for conducting euthanasia. Additionally, we should… [read more]


Emily Dickinson, Keetje Kuipers Peer Reviewed Journal

… Instead, it can also be looked at as something that is perfectly normal and that differentiates between beautiful living individuals and lifeless bodies.

Although the writer underlines the fact that all of the poets are actively involved in promoting a topic that is somewhat common from their point-of-view, it is difficult to follow the exact relationship between the three and their poems as seen from the writer's perspective. To a certain degree, it is actually intriguing that the writer focuses on how each of the poets understands the idea of death. Not only are they inclined to believe that death is actually not very different from living, as they actually consider that there is a strong relationship between the two concepts and that people need to accept the fact that dying does not necessarily that the departed individual is no longer connected to the living world. [read more]


Demographic Transition Research Paper

… Demographic Transition and Its Phases

Demographic Transition

Demographic transition is defined as the population growth as per time. The developed country enjoys the phase IV in which both the CBR and CDR are low. As per (Montgomery, n.d). Demographic transition is a model that defines population change over time. This idea was presented by an American demographer Warren Thompson in 1929. Demographic transition is expressed through a demographic transition model. There are IV phases of demographic transition (Demographic Transition, Hofstra.edu).

Phase I is categorized by high birth and death rate. In the first phase of demographic transition the rate of death and birth remains stationary or grows on a slow pace. The demise rate during this phase is high because of undeveloped medical sector. Common diseases become threatening and take lives of the people. Malnutrition also may become a hurdle in one's life and may cause death if get severe. The birth rate in this phase is higher because of the low survival rate of newborns. The unhygienic environment is another reason of high death rates. Dirty water, open sewerage and other harmful flaws in the society makes it worse. Also, in underdeveloped societies, parents want to have more children who can enhance their labor force. There are some religious and cultural values behind these large family systems. There is lack of family planning in this phase. The death and birth rates fluctuate. There are high deaths and lower births during war time and opposite is true in normal days.

Phase II is marked as the beginning of demographic transition. During the second phase the death rate gets lower and the birth rate stays high. This condition takes place because of the improved medical facilities, cleanliness and hygiene conditions in the localities of the country. The country's food production also becomes better both in terms of quality and quantity. The transportation facilities become upgraded which helps providing the food in the remote areas of the country. The population in this phase increases at a swift speed.

Phase III of demographic transition deals with a drop in the birth rate while the death rate remains almost unchanged. The reason of such fluctuation may be industrialization and urbanization in which the labor force is needed less. Another reason of such changes may be the socioeconomic issues. There are better sources of family planning in urban areas and the cost life in these areas is also high. Small families in these areas may spend a happy life with fewer worries.

The final phase IV of the demographic transition has a steadiness between the death rate and the birth rate. Due to improved medical science, the death rate has declined significantly as common diseases do not threaten death anymore. While, on the other hand, the birth rate has been controlled by the parents themselves as the bringing up of the children has become very expansive in terms… [read more]


Bucket List Term Paper

… The movie does a very good job of provoking one's own personal thoughts on death and dying, making the viewer consider how they have lived their own life up until this point and how they might want to live the rest of their life. It also forces one to consider the very real mortality that we all face, and even though we may not be terminally ill cancer patients, we must face the reality that one day, somehow, death will take us as well. In some ways, I felt that these two gentlemen were lucky. They knew that their end was coming in a finite amount of time, and they knew exactly how they wanted to spend their final days. Of course, I also felt pain and sympathy for them both, as it was clear that what they truly wanted was more time to live and especially, more time to love. Edward is estranged from his daughter and this is clearly a sore point, though he attempts to hide it. It is interesting to me that in the end, what everything comes down to in life is our relationships with others. If we love well and live well, our death anxiety will be lower, we will have fewer regrets and we will be able to meet our end with a sense of peace. Overall, I believe that this movie does an excellent job of portraying the journey that we all take through the eyes of two very different men as they attempt to [read more]


Business Strategy Class, Group Assigned Essay

… There are no easy answers to these philosophical questions and the laws regarding euthanasia are not consistent in the major industrialized nations and also very from state to state.

In the United States, despite its emphasis on individual autonomy in the law, while "the competent terminally ill patient has the right to make a legally binding advanced directive in anticipation of inability to choose withdrawal of treatment (for example gastrostomy tubes)," he or she is "not permitted to hasten death by means of additional medication given with physician advice and/or assistance in the final stages of illness" (Fraser & Walters 2000). Thus, the idea that sins of omission are worse than sins of commission seems to be enshrined in the law. The patient can refuse heroic means to keep him or herself alive, but not deliberately hasten death.

However, there is a gray area as to what constitutes hastening death. For patients undergoing hospice care, physicians will often observe what is called the 'doctrine of double effect.' The administration of morphine may hasten the patient's death, but does not directly cause the death, and by making the patient's final days more comfortable, the physician is considered to be 'doing good' ("Euthanasia," BBC News, 2012). Issues of euthanasia are often viewed along more of a continuum, rather than in terms of black-and-white. While there are extremes on both sides -- some people have suggested that chronically depressed patients have a 'right' to take their lives, while others, like Grace Lee's religious parents, believe that heroic measures must be sustained indefinitely because only God can take life -- the courts and the dominant beliefs amongst ordinary citizens and ethicists fall somewhere along the middle. This ever-shifting ethical line is why legal consensus is so difficult.

In the case of patients that can no longer express their views, there is the commonly-accepted standard of the New Jersey Supreme Court in another right-to-die case, that of Karen Ann Quinlan as follows: "If the patient could wake up for 15 minutes and understand his or her condition fully, and then had to return to it, what would he or she tell you to do?" (Quill 2005). Hence, the reliance upon living wills and advanced directives. The case of a patient, like Grace Lee, who is mentally competent and wishes to have the heroic instruments sustaining her life withdrawn, seems to meet this standard. But if Lee wished to end her suffering early in a conscious fashion and was not on a respirator, this would not be permitted. This imperfect consensus on euthanasia is what we have established as a society, although it is a far from a satisfactory one, or even, some would say, a wholly consistent one.

Works Cited

Fraser, Sharon I. & James W. Walters. Death - whose decision? Euthanasia and the terminally ill. Medical Ethics 26 (2000):121-125. [21 Oct 2012]

http://jme.bmj.com/content/26/2/121.full

Quill, Timothy E. "Terri Schiavo -- a tragedy compounded." The New England Journal of Medicine, 352(2005):1630-1633. [21 Oct 2012] http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp058062

Scott,… [read more]


Dead Skeleton (Calavera) Art Anthropology Research Paper

… The uniqueness of the celebration of the Day of the Dead is in the food offerings practiced by Mexicans. This is because this is a cultural practice only evident in Mexico, and the existing elaborate presentation of the food sacrifices… [read more]


Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Active Euthanasia Essay

… Dissenting Views

According to Mappes and DeGrazia, Callahan is convinced that a clear distinction exists between allowing to die and killing (399). One of the perspectives that Callahan uses to defend his assertion is the medical view. According to Callahan, physicians have a historical role to use the knowledge they possess to comfort and/or cure patients as opposed to bringing about their death (Mappes and DeGrazia 401). Thus in seeking to exercise that role, physicians must not do anything that can prematurely end the life of a patient. Callahan's assertion in this case conflicts with one of Brock's proposals in regard to when euthanasia should be allowed. In the opinion of Brock, as far as the well-being of an individual is concerned, a patient should be granted his or her request for euthanasia if such a patient's life becomes unbearable as a result of a critical illness (Mappes and DeGrazia 402). For instance, for some critically ill patients, further treatment may cease to make sense. This is more so the case in those instances where an illness is accompanied by a great deal of pain. Callahan is however adamant that even in such a case, the doctor's role should be limited to keeping such a patient comfortable.

A Response to the Objection

It is however important to note that although valid, Callahan's assertion in this case is largely one-sided i.e. It fails to take into consideration the agony of a patient suffering from a miserable chronic illness that ends up making his life unbearable. Callahan seems to recommend that a condition be let to assume its own course. This in my opinion does not seem to reconcile with his assertion to the effect that the key role of doctors should be to comfort as well as cure patients (Mappes and DeGrazia 401). However, can watching a patient struggling with an incurable disease that visits an unimaginable pain and discomfort on him or her be regarded part of the said care and comfort? I am convinced that in those instances where patients have explicitly requested for euthanasia based on the agony they are suffering or going through, the same should not be denied to them. This in my opinion amounts to guaranteeing the well-being of such patients. This is the real essence of care i.e. easing the suffering of patients. Anything contrary to that is in my opinion not only unjust but also insensitive to the well-being of the suffering patients.

Works Cited

Mappes, Thomas A., and David DeGrazia, eds. Biomedical Ethics. 6th… [read more]


Mortality and Life Review Research Paper

… Social distress associated with love and belonging play a role in this stage. McPherson cited multiple studies where 40-84% of dying individuals report feeling like a burden to their families or as a source of hardship to others (2007). These… [read more]


Social Support the Importance Research Paper

… The support groups also help one avoid getting into risky health behaviors like smoking, drug abuse or alcoholism. Since after retirement the old person will be having a lot of time in their hands, the temptation to get involved in alcoholism and drug use is high. To avoid this, they need to get a social support groups that will be keeping them busy in the course of the regular meetings that they will be having over the week. Within the support groups are also specialists in counseling and other social support skills that will be in a good position to help the elders to avoid the temptation of getting into alcoholism or such behaviors.

Since the old people are likely to suffer from the old age diseases and conditions, such support groups can work very well in helping the person cope with the pain and the stress of the condition that they may find themselves in. If the old person is sick and has no one to express the pain to and receive empathy from, there is likelihood that the pain will be magnified to the emotional realm and not just be a physical pain. With the company of many friends who are regular, the pain of the old age disease becomes lighter.

The presence of the social groups and the social support also encourages the old person to overcome the feeling of fatigue. Once the individual sees his peers taking up the challenge of walking a given number of miles, he will also feel challenged hence join them and not succumb to old age fatigue (Susan G. Komen, 2012).

Conclusion

As indicated in the text above, there is need to have various networks that will involve the aged people in frequent interaction among themselves and even with other social support experts. The social support should be in totality and encompass everything that can work to make the lives of the old people easier, be it their self-esteem, need for information, socializing need and any other special needs that they may have. It is only when all these are met that one can confidently say that the old person could be living a comfortable life as far as social support is concerned.

References

Department of Development Services, (2010). Social Support Systems and Maintaining Mental Health. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.ddssafety.net/content/social-support-systems-and-maintaining-mental-health

Elizabeth Scott, (2010). The Value of All Types of Social Support. Retrieved May 25, 2012 from http://forum.psychlinks.ca/family-and-friends/22227-4-types-of-social-support.html

Harold L. Burke, (2009). Healthy Aging. Retrieved May 23, 2012 from http://www.brain-injury-therapy.com/articles/healthy_aging.htm

Stephanie K. Glassman, (2012). Benefits of Social Support. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.glassmanpsyd.com/benefits-of-social-support/

Susan G. Komen, (2012). Benefits of… [read more]


Program Budget and Cost Research Paper

… For example, the Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine, by Doyle et al. (2004), would provide a comprehensive overview of all relevant topics. A more user-friendly example would be Palliative and End of Life Care: Clinical Practice Guidelines, 2nd Edition, by… [read more]


Rinpoche in the Tibetan Book Essay

… This life can and should be viewed as a means to hone the mind. The natural bardo is in the here and now, and the true nature of the mind is absolute stillness. A practice of "bringing the mind home," which Rinpoche discusses in Chapter 5, is crucial to making the most of this life and making the most of death.

Rinpoche's views on death are echoed by those of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, author of the classic On Death and Dying. In On Death and Dying, Ross discusses the fear of death that plagues modern Westerners. Although Kubler-Ross's four stages of grieving are different from Rinpoche's Tibetan bardos, both authors offer their readers spiritual and psychological tools they can use to embrace the reality of death with wisdom and compassion. The goal is to develop the "peaceful confidence" to face death (Rinpoche, 2002, p. 4). When helping other people go through the process of dying, both authors advocate compassion as a primary spiritual support.

Ultimately, the goal of Tibetan spiritual practice is not just to accept death; but to master it. Mastery of death entails first purifying the mind during this lifetime. The practitioner becomes fully aware during all stages of existence including sleep. Then, dying becomes a process. Dying is a transition. In the final section of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Rinpoche (2002) discusses the nature of rebirth. Rinpoche (2002) asserts the reality of reincarnation, stating that the mastery of the mind can help the individual to peacefully make the transition from one life to the next. The goal of self-mastery is to become a "servant of peace," to help others achieve the same level of consciousness evolution (Rinpoche, 2002, p. 360).

References

Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying.… [read more]


Assisted Suicide the Issues Susan Wolf Raises Research Paper

… Assisted Suicide

The issues Susan Wolf raises surrounding the events concerning the death of her father suggest a multitude of controversial questions that delve into many gray areas of what we value as human beings and a society. The instinct for self preservation is strong and many belief systems teach that suicide and assisted suicide is wrong regardless of the circumstances, however life is messy and the line between right and wrong is often blurred.

If I were in Wolf's place I would feel obligated to begin by reviewing the facts of the situation. At the time of his final hospitalizations her father was 79 years-old with a five-year history of metastatic thyroid cancer plus emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During his initial battle with metastatic head and neck cancer in 2002 her father had "argued that the Holocaust was incompatible with the existence of God. There is no afterlife. This is it, and he wanted every last bit of "it" on any terms" (Wolf, 2008). At this point he wanted all avenues explored and no effort spared.

In 2007 her father took a turn for the worse. He became increasingly weak and his powers of concentration began to diminish until he decided he wanted to stop the tube feeding. It is at this point that the situation becomes complicated. Wolf reports the reason he gives for wanting to remove the feeding tube is that he feels he is becoming a burden. Furthermore the doctors advised him not to follow this course of action, saying he "would suffer a painful death, that morphine would be required to control the discomfort, and that my father would lose consciousness before the day was out" (Wolf, 2008). They failed to assure him that there are methods designed to support his comfort if he did demand the feeding tubes be replaced. Because of this he decided to "solider on." Later he would reveal that he regretted this change of heart.

As his condition continued to deteriorate her father became more dependent on others to ensure his everyday survival. Eventually he developed a gastric bleed that required a transfusion of most of his blood. This led him to ask for and consider all of his options, and he decided once again to suspend treatment. Furthermore, he wanted to accelerate the process. The question then becomes does her father have the right to seek a quicker path to the inevitable?

Discussion

The main consideration at this point should be the patient's quality of life. Johansson, Axelsson, and Danielson (2005) found that patient's with incurable cancer indentified five themes of relivance relating to quality of life. These include the ability to lead an ordinary life, maintain significant realtions, maintain a positive life, alieviate suffering, and manage their lives when ill.

Leading an ordinary life was described as the abilty to appreciate normal things and to feel functional. The… [read more]


Taste and Smell Age Related Term Paper

… Moreover, it is not uncommon for older individuals to report that 'things don't taste right', and these complaints have been generally attributable to changes in odor perception (Rawson, 2003).

Rawson (2003) posits a significant number of medications that have the ability to elicit chemosensory side effects which has the ability to lead to poor pharmacological compliance or altered selection of nutritional status and foods. Metabolites or the medications themselves can be secreted into the nasal mucus or into the saliva and directly impact receptor cells. This is often evidenced by the unpleasant taste frequently associated with antibiotics (Chodosh et al., 1998). In instances when medication known to alter the senses must be taken for extended periods of time, however, an adjustment in dosage may serve to remediate the problem.

Analysis and Conclusion

Rawson, in the aforementioned article provided scholarly and empirical information regarding the impact on the perceptions of flavor and aroma and the senses of taste, smell and chemical irritation as it relates to older age. The peer reviewed article provided both physiological, pharmacological social consequences of changes the elderly can experience as a result of changes and/or deficits in the sensory system. Empirical studies were provided as a foundation by which the research was posited upon, issues of well being, taste aversion, and food/drink altering were addressed. Chemosensory loss was explored in significant detail and issues of infections, and medication were discussed.

Further, the researcher advised that as age related issues of taste and smell perception are not universal with the elderly or across senses, it creates the challenges of how to effectively address the problem not just for reduced flavor intensity but also a shift in sensory profile of particularly complex aromas and flavors of food (Ransom, 2003). The researcher suggests that because odors of a particular concentration may be perceived as less than half as intense by the elderly, some flavor supplementation may be necessary in order to produce equivalency in taste as supplementation has been proven to enhance satisfaction levels among the elderly will diminished ability to smell (Mathey et al., 2001).

Most importantly, the researcher reminds of the importance of taking concerns and complaints expressed by the elderly regarding an inability or increased difficulty to taste or smell seriously as it could represent symptomology for major illnesses or can result in pharmacological non-compliance. Moreover, because loss in chemosensory systems are real in the elderly and have the ability to impact well being and quality of life it is important that particularly health professionals not disregard these concerns and help in the development of coping strategies that can also help to avoid health hazards.

References

Chodosh, S., et al. (1998). Efficacy and safety of a ten day course of 400 or 600

milligrams of grepafloxacin once daily for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: comparison with a ten day course of 500 milligrams of Ciprofloxacin twice daily. Antimicrobial Agents in Chemotherapy, 42(1), 114-120.

Mathey, M., et al. (2001). Flavor enhancement of food improves… [read more]


Coping With Life There Are Numerous Points Essay

… ¶ … Coping With Life

There are numerous points of comparisons to be found between Annie Dillard's essay entitled "Total Eclipse and Randy Shilts' essay entitled "Talking AIDS To Death." The central premise of both essays is certainly one such… [read more]


Ethical Dilemma of Assisted Research Paper

… This often leads a large percentage of physicians to support religious beliefs during the last stages of life, so that the patient prepares and accepts what is coming. Patients, on the other hand view a "good death" differently, seeing it… [read more]


Elderly Boseman, J. And L. Victor. ) Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … Elderly

Boseman, J. And L. Victor. (2008). "Aging Americans and Diabetes: A Public Health

and Clinical Response." Geriatrics. 59 (4): 14-17.

Diabetes is more than a moral and medical problem -- it is, in fact, a holistic issue interrelated to culture and most assuredly economics. One rarely thinks of the numerous consequences illness, lethargy, and/or inability to find treatment may have on populations unprepared for mass cases of type II diabetes:

Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets lead to more disease, days away from work, and burdens on the social systems of countries

Risk factors rise for cardiac disease, or an inability to remain part of the labor force as long as a healthy person

Greater siphoning of resources away from necessary programs and into control of an epidemic caused by behavior patterns.

Gan, W., et.al., (2011). Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Hospitalization and Mortality. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (4): 501-16.

As individuals age, we know that their body lacks the immune response to toxins and is therefore more at risk for developing disease based on environmental factors. In a modern world, it is almost impossible not to be exposed to carcinogens and toxins from air-pollution and traffic fumes, which in turn, increase the risk of coronary issues requiring hospitalization in the elderly.

Nemerogg, C. (2007). The Curiously Strong Relationship Between Cardiovascular

Disease and Depression in the Elderly. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 15 (2): 217-33.

Depression is one of those conditions that can return if proper preventative measures are not taken. Patients need to understand that depression can return at any time and certain precautions must be taken. Research also shows there is a statistical correlation between heart disease and depression and, oddly enough, visa versa. Patients with heart issues tend to see mortality as an approaching inevitability, contributing to depression. Similarly, depression causes many older adults to have little interest in eating right, in exercising, and in engaging in social tasks with other adults.

Rinker, A.G. Jr. (January-February 2009) Recognition and perception of elder abuse by prehospital and hospital-based care providers. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 48 (1) 110-115.

Scholarly article focusing on ways that medical professionals can recognize symptoms of elder abuse and make appropriate recommendations and reports surrounding the issue. Elder abuse is a hidden problem, yet faces an approximate 28 per cent of populations over 70 as both a health and mental health related issue.

Weisshopg, M., et.al., (2010). Association of Cumulative Lead Exposure with Parkinson's Disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118 (11): 1609-21.

We are learning more and more that repeated exposure to environmental issues has the potential to cause, or exacerbate, certain health related issues. As people age, it is logical that… [read more]


Die, Reflections on Life's Final Chapter Book Report

… ¶ … Die, Reflections on Life's Final Chapter by Sherwin B. Nuland

Although the ultimate outcome for all living things is death, the aging and dying process and the terminal consequences of mortality are understood in very different ways by… [read more]


Access and Relevance of Data Sources Research Paper

… Access and Relevance of Data Sources

Identify two areas that are relevant to criminal justice and criminology:

Elder maltreatment; and,

Intimate partner violence.

Complete the following information based on two examples:

Topic No. 1: Elder maltreatment

Elder maltreatment involves a… [read more]


African-American Males Between the Ages Research Proposal

… The quality of interpersonal relations seriously affected the risk of suicide among young males and females. It was also discovered that black men and women were more likely to say that a person died because that is what God has in his mind for them. They feel that if a person commits suicide, he does that because God has planned this for him. This is a major difference between the attitude of young black men and women and Europeans Americans. Data in this case was collected through administration of Stigma Questionnaire, and Suicide Ideation Questionnaire to 251 undergraduate college students. The study holds significance for the development of culturally appropriate interventions in the case of patients at higher risk of suicide.

Poussaint and Alexander (2000) discussed the issue of suicide among young black males more deeply in their book: Lay down my Burden. The book was a personal account of her brother's suicide so her research is far more personal with good statistics and accurate facts. The purpose of her research was more personal for that reason. She can be slightly biased since it was something that was close to her heart but overall the book was written with good factual information. They found that compared to black women, the rate of suicide in young black men was increasing at an alarming rate. They discovered that there was no difference in presence of the cases of suicide across all social and income levels. They found that young black men were far more likely to be at higher risk of suicide than black women. Even the rate of suicide has gone up so dramatically that the gap between young white male suicides and black males was getting narrower.

Literature on the subject agrees that rate of suicide among young black males is increasing and there is multitude of factors affecting this outcome. Black men have to undergo years of racist behavior and develop a thinner skin to survive but since their nerves are fragile from years of racism, they fall easy prey to thoughts of suicide. Studies unanimously agreed that depression played a significant role in predicting suicidal behavior. These researches and studies also proved that suicide was not only common in lower income groups but also affected other social and income groups. Mothers in most cases remained unaware of their children suffering from any problems or depression and hence received a very rude shock when they heard of the suicide.

References

Poussaint, A., & Alexander, A. (2000). Lay my burden down: Unraveling suicide and the mental health crisis among African-Americans. Boston: Beacon

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control.

Suicide injury deaths and rates. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov

Barnes, DH (2006). The Aftermath of Suicide Among African-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(3), 335-348.

Walker, Rheeda L; Lester, David. Lay theories of suicide: An examination of culturally relevant suicide beliefs and attributions among African-Americans and European-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology Vol: 32 Issue: 3 ISSN: 0095-7984 Date: 08/2006… [read more]


Immigration Bongaarts ) Reports Research Proposal

… In addition the research will analyze various studies that have been conducted concerning the impact that replacement migration might have on public policy.

Resources for the proposed research will include scholarly journals, legal journals and books. These sources are most likely to contain the information that is relevant and pertinent to the topic of replacement immigration and its potential impact on social security.

Outline

I. Chapter I Introduction

A. Background Information

Replacement Migration has long been a subject of significant debate as it pertains to the impact is has on the age of any given population.

B. Problem Statement

The median age in developed nations are increasing while there are fewer people entering the workforce. This creates a scenario in which public systems such as social security is not sustainable. The unstable nature of these public systems could jeopardize the lives of people for years to come.

C. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the ways in which replacement migration may assist the social security system and ensure its sustainability for years to come.

D. Research Questions

How does the presence of an aging population affect public pension programs?

How do current immigration laws dictate how replacement immigration might be impacted by immigration laws?

E. Objectives of the Study

F. Definition of Terms

II. Chapter II Review of Literature

A. Immigration Laws

B. Ageing Population

C. Replacement immigration and Social Security

D. Positive and Negative outcomes associated with replacement migration in the context of immigration law.

III. Chapter III Methodology

IV. Chapter IV Results and Discussion

V. Chapter V Conclusion and Recommendations

VI. References

Bibliography

Bongaarts, John. Population Aging and the Rising Cost of Public Pensions

http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/wp/185.pdf

Chand, Sheetal and Albert Jaeger. 1996. "Aging populations and public pension schemes," IMF

Occasional Paper Number 147. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Coleman, D.A. (2002) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 29 April 2002 vol. 357 no. 1420 583-598

Espenshade T.J. (2001), "Replacement Migration" from the Perspective of Equilibrium

Stationary Populations, Population and Environment 22 (4): 383-400.

Feinleib J., Warner, D. 2005. The Impact of Immigration on Social Security and the National Economy. http://www.ssab.gov/documents/IMMIG_Issue_Brief_Final_Version_000.pdf

Keely C. 2002. Replacement Migration: the wave of the future? International Migration. 39(6): 103-110.

Lesthaeghe, R. 2001 Postponement and recuperation: recent fertility trends and forecasts in six Western European countries.

In IUSSP international perspectives on low fertility: trends, theories and policies. IUSSP Working Paper Series. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

Saczuk K. (2003) A DEVELOPMENT AND CRITIQUE OF THE CONCEPT OF REPLACEMENT MIGRATION. http://www.cefmr.pan.pl/docs/cefmr_wp_2003-04.pdf

United Nations 2000 Replacement migration: is it a solution to declining and ageing populations? New York: United Nations.… [read more]


Active and Passive Euthanasia Term Paper

… Active and Passive Euthanasia

In his 1975 article "Active and Passive Euthanasia," James Rachels sets out a number of arguments why the medical profession has misunderstood what they consider a moral difference between two types of treatment that Rachels asserts… [read more]


Euthanasia War and Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … non-moral or religious standpoint; while individual suicide is illigeal in many countries, the more legalistic issue is final exit, or assisted suicide that is advocated by many right-to-die organizations. There is not necessarily a completely clear legal distinction between "assisted suicide" and "final exit suicide." Advocates of final exit suicide will say that the decision to end one's life should remain with the individual, not the State. And if a group or another person lends information that can help someone end pain and suffering, that is not murder or manslaughter. If another individual assists in helping someone commit suicide, they are, in legal terms, abetting a felony. The predominant medical view in the United States holds that anyone who wants to willingly end their life must have a mental health condition, and is therefore not qualified to make a life and death decision. Other countries are liberalizing the legalities, and find a clear difference in an individual with a terminal illness choosing quality of life over quantity.

Part 2 -- the idea of euthanasia often uses incurable pain as a reason for ending life. However, pain is a relative term. For example, in the Terri Schiavo case, pain was not the seminal issue, but quality of life and the ability to be an actualized human being. Schiavo was diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state, causing her husband to petition the Court to remove her feeding tube. This was opposed by Terri's parents and a host of other conservative and pro-life movements, including President George W. Bush. In total, the Schiavo case involved 14 appeals, numerous motions, petitions, and hearings in Florida, and five in Federal District Court, the Florida Supreme Court, Federal legislation, and four denials of certiorari from the U.S. Supreme Court. Finally, after 15 years of legislation, the local Court's decision to disconnect Terri was carried out in March, 2005 (Goodman, 2009).

Part 3 -- the idea of doctors practicing euthanasia is not a clear-cut argument. Do these doctors simply practice the speciality -- or are they part of the decision making process in deciding whether the person's own individualized view of life meets their own; or in the opposite case, if someone is in excruciating pain but wants to live, would the doctor overmedicate in order to "make the patient comfortable?" At the very center of the debate on euthanasia lies the core of individual and societal ethics. Ethics is a philosophical concept that attempts to explain the moral organization within a given chronological time and cultural event. It is more concerned with understanding the way that ethnical ideas are presented, than judging those concepts within the construct of the society. On one hand, allowing a doctor to assist a patient in a predetermined decision would alleviate the suffering of the terminally ill, and allow they a dignified and self-choosen death. However, despite the advances in medical science, doctors cannot yet predict remission or… [read more]


Ageism it Is a Commonly Known Fact Book Review

… Ageism

It is a commonly known fact that today, because of advances in medical science and a generally healthier lifestyle, that people in Western countries die at a much more advanced age than was the case a few centuries ago.… [read more]


Effects of Non-Thermal Plasma on Mammalian Cell Activity and Apoptosis Literature Review

… ¶ … non-thermal plasma on mammalian cell activity and apoptosis, including a background and overview, as well as a description, summary and comparison of relevant related studies. These sections are followed by a discussion concerning the gaps that were identified… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Is the Seventh Leading Cause Research Paper

… Alzheimer's disease is the seventh leading cause of all deaths in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans who are 65 years of age or older. The reason that the number of people afflicted with… [read more]


Elderly Living Arrangements Thesis

… ¶ … elderly are among the fastest growing segments of the population in the United States today. Moreover, this growth is projected to continue well into the mid-21st century as the baby boomer generation reaches retirement age. Although estimates vary,… [read more]


Immorality in the Epic of Gilgamesh Term Paper

… Gilgamesh

IN FLESH AND SPIRIT: THE QUEST FOR HUMAN IMMORTALITY

The search for immortality seems has fascinated mankind throughout history. Although the thought of everlasting life is mythical, most of us hope for some form life after death. While we… [read more]


Elder Abuse it Is a Sad Fact Essay

… Elder Abuse

It is a sad fact of reality that the elderly in the United States and indeed across the world are or have been abused by those they depend upon for their care. According to the National Center on… [read more]


Dying Experience in Nursing Home Dissertation

… Dying Experience in Nursing Home

Arbuthnot, Elsa; Dawson, Jane; & Hansen-Ketchum, Patti. (2007). Senior women and rural living. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Healthcare. 7(1):1-12. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php/online-journal/article/viewFile/5/179

This article also expresses the individual's desire to experience death within the context of the home, yet shows the high strain such strategies have on resources. Without being able to meet this request, many are forced to experience death in nursing homes and hospices, which then increase anxiety and decrease the quality of the death experience.

Browne, Amy. (2007). Dying and death in a nursing home. Seniors. Associated Content. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/390397/dying_and_death_in_a_nursing_home.html?cat=12

Describes modern care practices for patients dying in a nursing home. It is a common practice to prescribe heavy pain relievers, such as morphine or roxanol in order to decrease discomfort and create a more comfortable context for the individual to experience death.

Consumer Affairs. (2004). Support for dying patients often lacking. News. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/nursing_home_terminal.html

This article reinforces the idea that modern nursing homes are under staffed and under funded. This causes serious gaps in the quality of care which has negative affects on the dying experience of the individual patients. Additionally, poor staff hiring can cause an environment where patients near death are treating with a lack of respect, causing low self-esteem before death.

Ferrell, Betty & Coyle, Nessa. (2006). Textbook of Palliative Nursing. Oxford University Press.

This book outlines traditional hospice care that can be implemented in specific cases dealing with nursing homes that can help increase the quality of the death experience. This work makes sure to advocate the varying nature of the death experience depending on the individual, and presents a model for care that… [read more]


Voluntary Euthanasia Term Paper

… ¶ … against Voluntary Euthanasia

If a person requests assistance to end their life, it is called voluntary euthanasia. Types of euthanasia include involuntary euthanasia (no patient request) or passive euthanasia (withholding care). This essay will focus on the issue that voluntary euthanasia and highlight the major arguments against this act that have been rigorously studied in the scholarly literature. A prime focus on this discourse is that voluntary euthanasia devalues life. Several points are offered which uphold this stance.

A method of judging the ethical concerns of voluntary euthanasia utilizes the Principle of Double Effect. The "PDE" is a valid foundation to decide when voluntary euthanasia is acceptable. Four factors comprise the PDE; the action must be a good one, only the good effect must be intended, the good effect must not be achieved by way of the bad effect, and the good result must outweigh the bad (Sulmasey and Pelligrino 550).

The PDE upholds this, as the resultant death (via doctor assisted termination) achieves the good result through employment of the bad… [read more]


Poe's Style, While Not Unique Research Paper

… Poe's style, while not unique, is extremely masterful in creating various literary atmospheres and eliciting emotional reactions from readers. He employs several tools in both "The Black Cat" as well as "The Masque of the Red Death" that give the… [read more]


Suicide in the Elderly Thesis

… Suicide in the Elderly

Leading Cause of Death, Rising Incidence

Suicide as one of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States was surpassed by Alzheimer Disease and septicemia more than a decade ago (McKeown 2006). However, it… [read more]


Sandwich Generation Thesis

… ¶ … Sandwich Generation, Caregiving, and Alzheimer's

Alzheimer's

The disease that all elderly people -- and their children, their grandchildren, their friends and neighbors -- dread nearly as much as cancer is Alzheimer's, and with good reason. "The worst part… [read more]


12345. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.