"Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays

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Social Support the Importance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The support groups also help one avoid getting into risky health behaviors like smoking, drug abuse or alcoholism. Since after retirement the old person will be having a lot of time in their hands, the temptation to get involved in alcoholism and drug use is high. To avoid this, they need to get a social support groups that will be keeping them busy in the course of the regular meetings that they will be having over the week. Within the support groups are also specialists in counseling and other social support skills that will be in a good position to help the elders to avoid the temptation of getting into alcoholism or such behaviors.

Since the old people are likely to suffer from the old age diseases and conditions, such support groups can work very well in helping the person cope with the pain and the stress of the condition that they may find themselves in. If the old person is sick and has no one to express the pain to and receive empathy from, there is likelihood that the pain will be magnified to the emotional realm and not just be a physical pain. With the company of many friends who are regular, the pain of the old age disease becomes lighter.

The presence of the social groups and the social support also encourages the old person to overcome the feeling of fatigue. Once the individual sees his peers taking up the challenge of walking a given number of miles, he will also feel challenged hence join them and not succumb to old age fatigue (Susan G. Komen, 2012).


As indicated in the text above, there is need to have various networks that will involve the aged people in frequent interaction among themselves and even with other social support experts. The social support should be in totality and encompass everything that can work to make the lives of the old people easier, be it their self-esteem, need for information, socializing need and any other special needs that they may have. It is only when all these are met that one can confidently say that the old person could be living a comfortable life as far as social support is concerned.


Department of Development Services, (2010). Social Support Systems and Maintaining Mental Health. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.ddssafety.net/content/social-support-systems-and-maintaining-mental-health

Elizabeth Scott, (2010). The Value of All Types of Social Support. Retrieved May 25, 2012 from http://forum.psychlinks.ca/family-and-friends/22227-4-types-of-social-support.html

Harold L. Burke, (2009). Healthy Aging. Retrieved May 23, 2012 from http://www.brain-injury-therapy.com/articles/healthy_aging.htm

Stephanie K. Glassman, (2012). Benefits of Social Support. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.glassmanpsyd.com/benefits-of-social-support/

Susan G. Komen, (2012). Benefits of…… [read more]

Nursing Home Abuse Irrespective Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (3,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Nursing Home Abuse: Why Does It Exist?)

A minimum training is essential to be imparted to the nursing home personnel to deal with the disabled patients and in recording their conditions. The form records are often used that are maintained quickly however, not dealing with the realities of the conditions of the patient fully. The pay of the nurses and… [read more]

Euthanasia the State Commission Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,899 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The State Commission on Euthanasia defined euthanasia as the intentional termination of life by someone other than the patient at the patient's request, while physician-assisted suicide is the intentional assistance given the patient to terminate his or her life and upon his or her request (Philipsen 1997). It is also called "mercy-killing" in describing it as an act of… [read more]

Social Work Internship Experience Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Most of the people I interacted with appeared disoriented and confused; however they were suffering from a bonafide condition, Alzheimer's. For example, when working in group activities I often had to repeat the instructions several times. Not because the patients I was working with weren't smart enough to comprehend the instructions the first time, but because their brain functioning had been altered as a result of the progression of the disease.

Most of the elderly at the center were capable of remaining physically active and in moments of clarity when I had discussions with patients most seemed capable of grasping the most basic intellectual concepts and human emotions.

Alzheimer's as described in the text is a degenerative brain disorder. It gradually causes deterioration in ones memory, awareness and their ability to control bodily functions (Gebo, 2004). Irritability, restlessness and impairments of judgment are not uncommon (Gebo, 2004).

One thing became very clear during the visits with patients at the center. The elderly, no matter their cognitive functioning or state of awareness, just as anyone else require companionship, understanding and compassion. Take the case of the gentleman who missed his wife that no longer visited. The obvious distress and grief this person was experiencing was evident in his every day actions. Likewise, the individual I consulted with on the west side experienced similar grief.

Undoubtedly as with anyone it is critical to address these emotions with all patients regardless of their mental function and capacity, to ensure they are given every opportunity to experience life to the fullest potential possible.

Personal, Professional Experiences

Overall I feel my experiences working with Alzheimer's patients at Legacy Gardens impacted me in a positive manner. Up until this point in time I had always considered the state of affairs for elderly individuals as something foreign or distant. It was as if the elderly were an entirely different breed.

I also must admit some fear of working with the elderly initially. When I first started participating in group activities, I thought I would have a member of the trained staff there to assist me. Much to my surprise and eventual delight however, I was left on my own to interact with patients and develop a relationship with each of the patients.

Interacting with each member of the group was much like interaction with anyone else, with the exception that cognitive impairments were evident among group members, and I often had to repeat myself. One of the biggest things I learned from a personal and professional standpoint was the importance of demonstrating compassion, patience and understanding. A majority of the patients I worked with did not required that I do anything more than simply listen to them. Many had been separated from society for so long; they seemed to live in their own complex world of experiences and relationships. Most of the time when they had cognizant moments they preferred to simply reminisce about the way things used to be.

What I also learned was that much… [read more]

Shakespeare's Hamlet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,600 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hamlet and the Memento of Death

When the Renaissance brought about a rebirth of many of the philosophies and customs of antiquity, it resurrected the ancient stoical idea that by mediation upon death one might be able to come to terms with it and pass beyond grieving into a more rational relationship with the dead. Of course, even prior to… [read more]

Osteoporosis Approximately 8 Million People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Many of the estimates that are made on cost are generally made based on hip fractures (Neer, 1995). However, the overall costs include many other things, such as inability to work, custodial and medical care, reduced quality of life, functional limitations, loss of independence, pain, cost of illness, and death (Neer, 1995). It is relatively easy to measure the cost of osteoporosis when it comes to hip fractures because they result in surgical intervention and hospital admissions, both of which can be measured based on cost in many health care systems (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). Other fractures, however, such as vertebral column fractures in those over the age of 45, are considered to be related to osteoporosis but are generally not documented (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). The costs of these types of fractures include rehabilitation, medical and surgical care, long-term care, loss of productivity, and medication (Kanis & Pitt, 1992).

Even though the costs of much of what is related to osteoporosis cannot be specifically and completely measured, it is clear that something must be done to work to prevent it so that the costs of taking care of the problems that it causes can be reduced, and the very human costs that cannot be measured in dollars and cents can also be reduced. Women should generally be the main focus of preventative measures because they are at a higher risk, but men as well must be made aware of the risks to their health and their independence (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). This idea of loss of independence has only been addressed recently in studies. Up until very recently, it was not something that was seen to be significant because it was not something that was associated with costs in the same way that hospital care and other issues were associated with costs (Kanis & Pitt, 1992).

For most individuals, however, it appears to be safe to say that, once they fracture a hip or some other body part that may cause them chronic pain or difficulty getting around and doing normal daily activities, the quality of life that they have is diminished.

Works Cited

Ray, NF, Chan, JK, Thamer, M, et al.…… [read more]

White Noise by Don Delillo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


White Noise

Don Delillo's White Noise introduces a character -- Jack Gladney -- who is embroiled in a constant struggle to identify himself as something in opposition to death. Specifically the form his identity may possibly take is difficult for him to conceive; particularly, since he is obsessed with the notion of death, and in fact, defines his whole outward existence around its presence. The plot of his life, the plot of the novel, and indeed, the plot of any novel or tale, to Jack, demands that they culminate in death. Jack faces an identity crisis, and this crisis ultimately centers on the unknown; foremost among the things that remain unknown and unseen to Jack is the end of his life. Consequently, he attempts to manufacture an identity that possesses a fundamental relationship with death and is able to transcend it. The starkest contrast to Jack's character is Wilder, who is both oblivious to his mortal condition and is a whirlwind of impulses and urges. The existence of plot in White Noise implies that it will end -- it will die along with Jack -- however, death does not come because Jack seizes upon the immediate events of life, thus disregarding the fact that life is terminal. Delillo makes use of the plot in his novel to uncover the intrinsic relationship between death and individual conceptions of identity.

The inaccessibility of certain forms of knowledge is a barrier to grasping what something or someone truly is. This is illustrated by the most photographed barn in the world that Jack and Murray visit: the tourists are unable to see the real barn because the advertisements and photographs develop an aura surrounding the barn, and make it into something that it could not be without their presence. So, Murray decides, "They are taking pictures of pictures." (Delillo 13). The existence of the mechanisms of advertisement prevents anyone from truly seeing the barn. Similarly, human beings are inaccessible and require a type of advertisement, because the mechanism of death places them in a concrete setting. By being situated in a specific time and place, there are human drives to associate individuals with something larger, with something that transcends their mortality. This is the point that drives Jack to create an identity for himself that will forever be linked to someone who cannot be forgotten. The realization that his deeds and thoughts are definitively transient is the impetus behind his search for identity. Additionally, he recognizes that the identity he has chosen for himself is just as false as the pictures of the barn, and analogously, prevents him or anyone else from truly knowing who he is.

Jack deliberately links himself with Hitler and is commended for the fact that, "Nobody on the faculty of any college or university in this part of the country can so much as utter the word Hitler without a nod in your direction, literally or metaphorically." (Delillo 11). However, this fact is not enough to solidify Jack's aura… [read more]

Euthanasia There Can Be Little Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


True, that the religion of the cancer patients interviewed in the study may have compelled them to believe that life must be valued at all costs. However, it must equally be remembered that respect for the sanctity of life is a foundational societal value, which is inculcated in all citizens. Proponents of euthanasia may argue that people have the right to choose the manner, time, and place of their death (Brock, 1992). But, as Somerville (2003) points out, what such arguments usually fail to take into consideration is that allowing individuals such a right would undermine the capacity of both medicine and law to maintain the respect for human life. In other words, allowing euthanasia would weaken the prohibition on intentional killing, which human society has historically upheld as a sign that human life must be valued (Brock, 1992). Thus, it is not surprising that the cancer patients opined that their trust in their doctors would be impaired if euthanasia was ever discussed as a solution to their constantly being in pain.

Indeed, it appears that the American Medical Association (AMA) agrees with the view taken by the cancer patients. For, this is one of the major reasons why the AMA has taken a strong anti-euthanasia position: "There is, in short, compelling evidence of the need to ensure that all patients have access to quality palliative care, but not of any need for physician-assisted suicide." In addition to this statement, which was issued in an amicus brief in the 9th circuit case for doctor-assisted suicide, the AMA has expressly stated that doctors perform a crucial act of healing and saving life. Accepting a dual role of taking life, while at the same time, protecting life, would undermine their credibility and the sacred trust that exists between a patient and doctor (Life Issues Institute, 1997).

The AMA, as well as the legal system, have other reasons for being anti-euthanasia as well. The first, as the Netherlands experience has shown, is that euthanasia would make it extremely difficult to prevent abuse. This is particularly true of physicians who have opportunities to kill that are not open to other people (Somerville, 2003). A system that permits euthanasia would, in addition, also make it easier for families of mentally incompetent people to claim that a previously lucid patient had expressed a wish for euthanasia. In fact, this is one of the major contentious issues in the recent, much publicized Terri Schiavo case. Over and above individual motives, which can be construed as tantamount to homicidal (Brock, 1992), there is also the fear that euthanasia would be an all too tempting avenue for a society faced with an ageing population and scarce health-care resources (Somerville, 2003). This may lead to severe abuse and the perpetration of grave injustices both at the individual as well as the social level.

Thus, it is evident that the risks of permitting euthanasia far outweigh the benefits, if any. Further, the case for opposing euthanasia does not, at any point,… [read more]

Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Adults in Care Facilities Such as Retirement Homes/Nursing Homes

Do Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Adults in Alternative Care Facilities

The United States is experiencing a fundamental shift in demographics as the percentage of elderly citizens continues to increase. More and more people will become residents of nursing homes,… [read more]

Adolescent Suicide Epidemiological Approach Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Adolescent suicide is now responsible for more deaths in people between ages 15 to 19 than cardiovascular disease or cancer (Blackman, 1996). Teen suicide has more than tripled since the 1960's (Santrock, 2003). Despite this alarming increased suicide rate, depression in this age group is largely under-diagnosed and can lead to serious difficulties in school, work, and personal adjustment, which… [read more]

Right to Die Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Euthanasia - the Right to Die

Although there are laws in the United States that ban euthanasia, from a logical viewpoint, this type of PAS (physician-assisted suicide) should be legal, due to the fact that it is morally and ethically allowable for a doctor to provide the assistance to a terminally-ill patient to end his/her own life. In essence, this… [read more]

Osteoporosis Definition of Osteoporosis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (4,085 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Definition of Osteoporosis:

Osteoporosis is a developing condition in which bone density is lost, or there is inadequate bone formation, thereby deteriorating the bones and making them more vulnerable to fractures. Osteoporosis is also known as the silent disease and is a familiar bone disease, which makes the bone lean and having holes. Osteoporosis takes place when the body… [read more]

Grief and Loss Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Grief and Loss

Although often very painful, grief is a normal and natural response to loss (What pp). Generally, when most people think of loss and grief, they think of the death of a loved one, however, there are many other significant changes in an individual's life that can involve loss and therefore grief (What pp). Everyone experiences loss and… [read more]

Euthanasia (Active and Passive) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,210 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Slippery slope arguments encompass logical, psychological and arbitrary line. These different forms share a counter argument that when the first step is taken on a slippery slope the subsequent steps follow inevitably, whether for logical reasons, psychological reasons or to avoid unpredictability in a person's actions. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)


It is important for the proponents of… [read more]

Aging Society and Changing Family Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … elderly are defined and what their roles are in U.S. society. The elderly seem to be the forgotten sect of the American population. As baby boomers grow older, the elderly population is growing, but it simply does not get respect from American media and American society. Many people define anyone over 50 as "elderly," but many 50+ adults defy the definition and act and feel much younger than their years.

There are many problems facing the elderly in American society today. For example, retirement is a growing problem facing society because so many of the baby boom generation are growing older and retiring at the same time. There is worry that Social Security will not be able to afford this great number of retirees. In addition, many other social and community functions are challenged as society ages. There are not enough nursing homes and hospital beds for the elderly population, and so more in-home services, such as meals on wheels and in-home nursing care will need to be provided. The funds for these will have to come from local, state, and the Federal governments, and this means higher taxes for American society overall. In addition, many elderly parents are moving in with their adult children because they have nowhere else to go, and this is changing the face of the American family, which is becoming more blended and more responsible for aging parents and relatives. Besides retirement, there are many other aspects of aging that are difficult to deal with.

The media tends to portray the elderly as helpless, hopeless, and laughable. Most advertising is geared to young consumers, while ads geared to the elderly are usually for prescription drugs and other pharmaceuticals from denture adhesive to arthritis pain medications. The elderly are not usually portrayed as active, but as helpless and hopeless, such as the people in the ads for medical emergency signals they wear if they live alone. These people are portrayed as most American society sees the…… [read more]

Impact of Demographic Changes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Demographic Changes

Demography is the study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth density, distribution or vital statistics (Lexico Publishing Group, LLC 2006). Statistics show that the population of persons aged 65 years and older grew from 4% in 1900 to 12.7% in 1990 and is predicted to reach 21% in the year 2030. It has been observed that the older population is growing older and that the oldest old is the fastest growing group. There are now 3 million elderly people aged 85 years old and over in the U.S. today. Other industrialized countries exhibit the same pattern among their elderly populations so that they are predicted to comprise 1.5 of the world population in the year 2050 (American Association of Retired Persons 1998, Stastny 2006).

Most age distributions are based on chronological age and scientists create groups on this basis in order to analyze the consequences of age distribution (American Association of Retired Persons 1998). Age 65 has been most often used as the start of old age arbitrarily since the 1935 enactment of the Social Security Act, which fixed the age of retirement and benefits could be received. Ageism has since been resorted to as a biased norm in acquiring social resources on account of declining functional ability, in turn due to chronological aging. The role theory basically assumes on the roles set for persons according to their age. Gerontologists who support this theory are unduly fixated with the problems of adjustment that aging persons undergo because of changes that occur later in their lives. In the process, these persons lose their identity, their children become adults themselves and these retirees lose the activities, which used to occupy their time. They, thus,…… [read more]

Senior Isolation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Senior Isolation

Today, senior citizens typically live alone and often find themselves isolated from family and the community. Isolation may be caused by the death of a spouse or by the death of close friends and family members. Seniors may find themselves isolated due to divorce, or adult children and close family members may live too far away for regular contact. Senior citizens may feel isolated due to employment retirement or chronic illness may keep them from involvement in social activities. Isolation may lead to a variety of negative effects (Medical).

Isolation often leads to depression for senior citizens. In fact, depression in individuals 65 years of age and older is considered a major health problem, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (Medical). Depression in the elderly often goes undiagnosed because doctors and family assume that the senior has simply slowed down due to advancing age, thus many elderly citizens find themselves coping with symptoms of depression that may actually increase isolation because they have lost interest in normal activities and communications (Medical). Moreover, not only does depression generally lasts longer in senior adults, but it also doubles their risk of developing cardiac diseases and can increase the risk of death from illness, as well as reduce their rehabilitation (Medical).

According to recent research, elderly persons who lack companionship and emotional or social support are vulnerable to heart problems (Ham). The study found that for every unit increase in loneliness, there was a threefold increase among older adults in being diagnosed with at heart condition (Ham). Every unit increase in perceived emotional support indicated a 97% decrease, while every unit increase in perceived social support or companionship decreased the odds of having a heart condition by 91% (Ham). The health effects of social isolation are particularly significant among seniors because they are more vulnerable to disruptions in their personal relationships due to death or illness (Ham). Moreover, many are removed from their social networks by being institutionalized in nursing homes or other managed care facilities (Ham). The authors found that the companionship of just one person was enough to reduce the risk of heart disease, while social support with multiple individuals produced increased health effects (Ham).

Depression in elderly adults also increases the likelihood of suicide, in fact the suicide rates in persons 80 to 84 years of age are twice that of the general population (Medical). Studies suggest that social isolation is associated with attempted suicide and deliberate self-harm among seniors (Sullivan).

Moreover, isolated seniors are less likely to shop for groceries or to cook for themselves, thus they are more likely to skip meals or eat convenience foods and snacks that are high in fat and sodium which increases their risks for diabetes, hypertension and heart disease (Dooley). In fact, surveys indicate that more than 50% of senior citizens live and eat alone, increasing their risk for malnutrition and associated diseases (Dooley). This has led many communities across the country to establish meal programs for seniors… [read more]

Dementia There Are a Number of Individuals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,741 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



There are a number of individuals who believe that dementia is a disease when in fact it is not. Dementia is actually a condition derived from a variety of diseases. "Many people equate dementia with Alzheimer's Disease, but they are not synonymous though Alzheimer's is one of dementia's major causes." (Levine 2006 p 6)

Dementia can be described as… [read more]

Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Active Euthanasia Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (902 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Dissenting Views

According to Mappes and DeGrazia, Callahan is convinced that a clear distinction exists between allowing to die and killing (399). One of the perspectives that Callahan uses to defend his assertion is the medical view. According to Callahan, physicians have a historical role to use the knowledge they possess to comfort and/or cure patients as opposed to bringing about their death (Mappes and DeGrazia 401). Thus in seeking to exercise that role, physicians must not do anything that can prematurely end the life of a patient. Callahan's assertion in this case conflicts with one of Brock's proposals in regard to when euthanasia should be allowed. In the opinion of Brock, as far as the well-being of an individual is concerned, a patient should be granted his or her request for euthanasia if such a patient's life becomes unbearable as a result of a critical illness (Mappes and DeGrazia 402). For instance, for some critically ill patients, further treatment may cease to make sense. This is more so the case in those instances where an illness is accompanied by a great deal of pain. Callahan is however adamant that even in such a case, the doctor's role should be limited to keeping such a patient comfortable.

A Response to the Objection

It is however important to note that although valid, Callahan's assertion in this case is largely one-sided i.e. It fails to take into consideration the agony of a patient suffering from a miserable chronic illness that ends up making his life unbearable. Callahan seems to recommend that a condition be let to assume its own course. This in my opinion does not seem to reconcile with his assertion to the effect that the key role of doctors should be to comfort as well as cure patients (Mappes and DeGrazia 401). However, can watching a patient struggling with an incurable disease that visits an unimaginable pain and discomfort on him or her be regarded part of the said care and comfort? I am convinced that in those instances where patients have explicitly requested for euthanasia based on the agony they are suffering or going through, the same should not be denied to them. This in my opinion amounts to guaranteeing the well-being of such patients. This is the real essence of care i.e. easing the suffering of patients. Anything contrary to that is in my opinion not only unjust but also insensitive to the well-being of the suffering patients.

Works Cited

Mappes, Thomas A., and David DeGrazia, eds. Biomedical Ethics. 6th…… [read more]

Business Strategy Class, Group Assigned Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


There are no easy answers to these philosophical questions and the laws regarding euthanasia are not consistent in the major industrialized nations and also very from state to state.

In the United States, despite its emphasis on individual autonomy in the law, while "the competent terminally ill patient has the right to make a legally binding advanced directive in anticipation of inability to choose withdrawal of treatment (for example gastrostomy tubes)," he or she is "not permitted to hasten death by means of additional medication given with physician advice and/or assistance in the final stages of illness" (Fraser & Walters 2000). Thus, the idea that sins of omission are worse than sins of commission seems to be enshrined in the law. The patient can refuse heroic means to keep him or herself alive, but not deliberately hasten death.

However, there is a gray area as to what constitutes hastening death. For patients undergoing hospice care, physicians will often observe what is called the 'doctrine of double effect.' The administration of morphine may hasten the patient's death, but does not directly cause the death, and by making the patient's final days more comfortable, the physician is considered to be 'doing good' ("Euthanasia," BBC News, 2012). Issues of euthanasia are often viewed along more of a continuum, rather than in terms of black-and-white. While there are extremes on both sides -- some people have suggested that chronically depressed patients have a 'right' to take their lives, while others, like Grace Lee's religious parents, believe that heroic measures must be sustained indefinitely because only God can take life -- the courts and the dominant beliefs amongst ordinary citizens and ethicists fall somewhere along the middle. This ever-shifting ethical line is why legal consensus is so difficult.

In the case of patients that can no longer express their views, there is the commonly-accepted standard of the New Jersey Supreme Court in another right-to-die case, that of Karen Ann Quinlan as follows: "If the patient could wake up for 15 minutes and understand his or her condition fully, and then had to return to it, what would he or she tell you to do?" (Quill 2005). Hence, the reliance upon living wills and advanced directives. The case of a patient, like Grace Lee, who is mentally competent and wishes to have the heroic instruments sustaining her life withdrawn, seems to meet this standard. But if Lee wished to end her suffering early in a conscious fashion and was not on a respirator, this would not be permitted. This imperfect consensus on euthanasia is what we have established as a society, although it is a far from a satisfactory one, or even, some would say, a wholly consistent one.

Works Cited

Fraser, Sharon I. & James W. Walters. Death - whose decision? Euthanasia and the terminally ill. Medical Ethics 26 (2000):121-125. [21 Oct 2012]


Quill, Timothy E. "Terri Schiavo -- a tragedy compounded." The New England Journal of Medicine, 352(2005):1630-1633. [21 Oct 2012] http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp058062

Scott,… [read more]

Emily Dickinson, Keetje Kuipers Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  1 pages (350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Instead, it can also be looked at as something that is perfectly normal and that differentiates between beautiful living individuals and lifeless bodies.

Although the writer underlines the fact that all of the poets are actively involved in promoting a topic that is somewhat common from their point-of-view, it is difficult to follow the exact relationship between the three and their poems as seen from the writer's perspective. To a certain degree, it is actually intriguing that the writer focuses on how each of the poets understands the idea of death. Not only are they inclined to believe that death is actually not very different from living, as they actually consider that there is a strong relationship between the two concepts and that people need to accept the fact that dying does not necessarily that the departed individual is no longer connected to the living world.… [read more]

Demographic Transition Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Demographic Transition and Its Phases

Demographic Transition

Demographic transition is defined as the population growth as per time. The developed country enjoys the phase IV in which both the CBR and CDR are low. As per (Montgomery, n.d). Demographic transition is a model that defines population change over time. This idea was presented by an American demographer Warren Thompson in 1929. Demographic transition is expressed through a demographic transition model. There are IV phases of demographic transition (Demographic Transition, Hofstra.edu).

Phase I is categorized by high birth and death rate. In the first phase of demographic transition the rate of death and birth remains stationary or grows on a slow pace. The demise rate during this phase is high because of undeveloped medical sector. Common diseases become threatening and take lives of the people. Malnutrition also may become a hurdle in one's life and may cause death if get severe. The birth rate in this phase is higher because of the low survival rate of newborns. The unhygienic environment is another reason of high death rates. Dirty water, open sewerage and other harmful flaws in the society makes it worse. Also, in underdeveloped societies, parents want to have more children who can enhance their labor force. There are some religious and cultural values behind these large family systems. There is lack of family planning in this phase. The death and birth rates fluctuate. There are high deaths and lower births during war time and opposite is true in normal days.

Phase II is marked as the beginning of demographic transition. During the second phase the death rate gets lower and the birth rate stays high. This condition takes place because of the improved medical facilities, cleanliness and hygiene conditions in the localities of the country. The country's food production also becomes better both in terms of quality and quantity. The transportation facilities become upgraded which helps providing the food in the remote areas of the country. The population in this phase increases at a swift speed.

Phase III of demographic transition deals with a drop in the birth rate while the death rate remains almost unchanged. The reason of such fluctuation may be industrialization and urbanization in which the labor force is needed less. Another reason of such changes may be the socioeconomic issues. There are better sources of family planning in urban areas and the cost life in these areas is also high. Small families in these areas may spend a happy life with fewer worries.

The final phase IV of the demographic transition has a steadiness between the death rate and the birth rate. Due to improved medical science, the death rate has declined significantly as common diseases do not threaten death anymore. While, on the other hand, the birth rate has been controlled by the parents themselves as the bringing up of the children has become very expansive in terms…… [read more]

Bucket List Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The movie does a very good job of provoking one's own personal thoughts on death and dying, making the viewer consider how they have lived their own life up until this point and how they might want to live the rest of their life. It also forces one to consider the very real mortality that we all face, and even though we may not be terminally ill cancer patients, we must face the reality that one day, somehow, death will take us as well. In some ways, I felt that these two gentlemen were lucky. They knew that their end was coming in a finite amount of time, and they knew exactly how they wanted to spend their final days. Of course, I also felt pain and sympathy for them both, as it was clear that what they truly wanted was more time to live and especially, more time to love. Edward is estranged from his daughter and this is clearly a sore point, though he attempts to hide it. It is interesting to me that in the end, what everything comes down to in life is our relationships with others. If we love well and live well, our death anxiety will be lower, we will have fewer regrets and we will be able to meet our end with a sense of peace. Overall, I believe that this movie does an excellent job of portraying the journey that we all take through the eyes of two very different men as they attempt to… [read more]

Dead Skeleton (Calavera) Art Anthropology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,182 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The uniqueness of the celebration of the Day of the Dead is in the food offerings practiced by Mexicans. This is because this is a cultural practice only evident in Mexico, and the existing elaborate presentation of the food sacrifices and sugar moldings makes use of sugar as a principle ingredient for sculpted figurines symbolic (Frank 26). There is an… [read more]

Mortality and Life Review Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Social distress associated with love and belonging play a role in this stage. McPherson cited multiple studies where 40-84% of dying individuals report feeling like a burden to their families or as a source of hardship to others (2007). These feelings of burden are exacerbated by fears about things ranging from physical safety to the fear of death itself because… [read more]

Program Budget and Cost Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,858 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


For example, the Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine, by Doyle et al. (2004), would provide a comprehensive overview of all relevant topics. A more user-friendly example would be Palliative and End of Life Care: Clinical Practice Guidelines, 2nd Edition, by Kuebler et al. (2006), which would provide a ready reference for practical information. Book use will be limited to the… [read more]

Rinpoche in the Tibetan Book Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


This life can and should be viewed as a means to hone the mind. The natural bardo is in the here and now, and the true nature of the mind is absolute stillness. A practice of "bringing the mind home," which Rinpoche discusses in Chapter 5, is crucial to making the most of this life and making the most of death.

Rinpoche's views on death are echoed by those of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, author of the classic On Death and Dying. In On Death and Dying, Ross discusses the fear of death that plagues modern Westerners. Although Kubler-Ross's four stages of grieving are different from Rinpoche's Tibetan bardos, both authors offer their readers spiritual and psychological tools they can use to embrace the reality of death with wisdom and compassion. The goal is to develop the "peaceful confidence" to face death (Rinpoche, 2002, p. 4). When helping other people go through the process of dying, both authors advocate compassion as a primary spiritual support.

Ultimately, the goal of Tibetan spiritual practice is not just to accept death; but to master it. Mastery of death entails first purifying the mind during this lifetime. The practitioner becomes fully aware during all stages of existence including sleep. Then, dying becomes a process. Dying is a transition. In the final section of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Rinpoche (2002) discusses the nature of rebirth. Rinpoche (2002) asserts the reality of reincarnation, stating that the mastery of the mind can help the individual to peacefully make the transition from one life to the next. The goal of self-mastery is to become a "servant of peace," to help others achieve the same level of consciousness evolution (Rinpoche, 2002, p. 360).


Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying.…… [read more]

African-American Males Between the Ages Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The quality of interpersonal relations seriously affected the risk of suicide among young males and females. It was also discovered that black men and women were more likely to say that a person died because that is what God has in his mind for them. They feel that if a person commits suicide, he does that because God has planned this for him. This is a major difference between the attitude of young black men and women and Europeans Americans. Data in this case was collected through administration of Stigma Questionnaire, and Suicide Ideation Questionnaire to 251 undergraduate college students. The study holds significance for the development of culturally appropriate interventions in the case of patients at higher risk of suicide.

Poussaint and Alexander (2000) discussed the issue of suicide among young black males more deeply in their book: Lay down my Burden. The book was a personal account of her brother's suicide so her research is far more personal with good statistics and accurate facts. The purpose of her research was more personal for that reason. She can be slightly biased since it was something that was close to her heart but overall the book was written with good factual information. They found that compared to black women, the rate of suicide in young black men was increasing at an alarming rate. They discovered that there was no difference in presence of the cases of suicide across all social and income levels. They found that young black men were far more likely to be at higher risk of suicide than black women. Even the rate of suicide has gone up so dramatically that the gap between young white male suicides and black males was getting narrower.

Literature on the subject agrees that rate of suicide among young black males is increasing and there is multitude of factors affecting this outcome. Black men have to undergo years of racist behavior and develop a thinner skin to survive but since their nerves are fragile from years of racism, they fall easy prey to thoughts of suicide. Studies unanimously agreed that depression played a significant role in predicting suicidal behavior. These researches and studies also proved that suicide was not only common in lower income groups but also affected other social and income groups. Mothers in most cases remained unaware of their children suffering from any problems or depression and hence received a very rude shock when they heard of the suicide.


Poussaint, A., & Alexander, A. (2000). Lay my burden down: Unraveling suicide and the mental health crisis among African-Americans. Boston: Beacon

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control.

Suicide injury deaths and rates. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov

Barnes, DH (2006). The Aftermath of Suicide Among African-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(3), 335-348.

Walker, Rheeda L; Lester, David. Lay theories of suicide: An examination of culturally relevant suicide beliefs and attributions among African-Americans and European-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology Vol: 32 Issue: 3 ISSN: 0095-7984 Date: 08/2006… [read more]

Immigration Bongaarts ) Reports Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (1,944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


In addition the research will analyze various studies that have been conducted concerning the impact that replacement migration might have on public policy.

Resources for the proposed research will include scholarly journals, legal journals and books. These sources are most likely to contain the information that is relevant and pertinent to the topic of replacement immigration and its potential impact on social security.


I. Chapter I Introduction

A. Background Information

Replacement Migration has long been a subject of significant debate as it pertains to the impact is has on the age of any given population.

B. Problem Statement

The median age in developed nations are increasing while there are fewer people entering the workforce. This creates a scenario in which public systems such as social security is not sustainable. The unstable nature of these public systems could jeopardize the lives of people for years to come.

C. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the ways in which replacement migration may assist the social security system and ensure its sustainability for years to come.

D. Research Questions

How does the presence of an aging population affect public pension programs?

How do current immigration laws dictate how replacement immigration might be impacted by immigration laws?

E. Objectives of the Study

F. Definition of Terms

II. Chapter II Review of Literature

A. Immigration Laws

B. Ageing Population

C. Replacement immigration and Social Security

D. Positive and Negative outcomes associated with replacement migration in the context of immigration law.

III. Chapter III Methodology

IV. Chapter IV Results and Discussion

V. Chapter V Conclusion and Recommendations

VI. References


Bongaarts, John. Population Aging and the Rising Cost of Public Pensions


Chand, Sheetal and Albert Jaeger. 1996. "Aging populations and public pension schemes," IMF

Occasional Paper Number 147. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Coleman, D.A. (2002) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 29 April 2002 vol. 357 no. 1420 583-598

Espenshade T.J. (2001), "Replacement Migration" from the Perspective of Equilibrium

Stationary Populations, Population and Environment 22 (4): 383-400.

Feinleib J., Warner, D. 2005. The Impact of Immigration on Social Security and the National Economy. http://www.ssab.gov/documents/IMMIG_Issue_Brief_Final_Version_000.pdf

Keely C. 2002. Replacement Migration: the wave of the future? International Migration. 39(6): 103-110.

Lesthaeghe, R. 2001 Postponement and recuperation: recent fertility trends and forecasts in six Western European countries.

In IUSSP international perspectives on low fertility: trends, theories and policies. IUSSP Working Paper Series. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

Saczuk K. (2003) A DEVELOPMENT AND CRITIQUE OF THE CONCEPT OF REPLACEMENT MIGRATION. http://www.cefmr.pan.pl/docs/cefmr_wp_2003-04.pdf

United Nations 2000 Replacement migration: is it a solution to declining and ageing populations? New York: United Nations.…… [read more]

Biomedical Ethics: Euthanasia Mercy Killing Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The family sued her despite the knowledge that they gave authorization for him to undergo the process. They viewed the incidence as an act of deliberate killing, which indicates that the concerns against the process of euthanasia are genuine morally (Diaconescu 22). All these reasons lead to the conclusion that no person has the moral right to take the life of another; neither does any person have the moral right to take their own life. Thus, the case of Paul and Dr. Morrison was too lenient to grant her indictment. Euthanasia has no moral basis; thus, accepting the terms of euthanasia is equivalent of suicide and murder combined for all involved in making decisions and executing them.

Arguments for Euthanasia

Euthanasia continues to be a leading discussion subject among the medical professionals. The moral basis of practice that supports the process includes the following. First, euthanasia does not occur without the consent of the individual responsible for the patient. As is the case with Paul, the family agreed to the process and thus, morally, the aspect of the consent of a person to an action gives them the moral responsibility to execute it (Sneiderman & Raymond 13). Thus, euthanasia does have a moral basis in the consent. Secondly, morally, every person should have a life free of suffering. However, a terminally ill person undergoes lots of suffering and pain. Therefore, it is only moral to aid this terminally ill person from undergoing the suffering and pain, and ensuring quality of life for them. Thus, if terminally ill, the safest and surest way to eliminate the suffering of the person is by the process of euthanasia. Additionally, a terminally ill person causes economic costs on the family. The economic impact of the illness on the family necessitates means to ensure they have a quality life, free of financial constrains. Therefore, conducting euthanasia on the patient reduces the social impacts on the family, which leads to the moral basis of the ability to live a life free of financial strains. Thus, morally, conducting euthanasia helps the family to eliminate unrealistic expenditures while people are not contributing positively to the society (Sneiderman & Raymond 19). Therefore, euthanasia eliminates pain, suffering and debts to the family members. Euthanasia is a necessary process in the society Dr. Nancy Morrison favored Paul when she agreed to facilitate the process, despite knowing the risks involved.


Euthanasia, in view of the arguments above, presents a case for further evaluation. According to this case, the doctor acted as the family instructed. Legally, the family authorized the process, and thus she is not liable to the consequences. However, it is clear that the process used to end the supposed suffering of the patient did not meet the quality standards expected. The world is changing, and there are new technologies that can aid the process of euthanasia without complicating the situation. The recommendation; therefore is for the hospital policy to establish the legal basis for conducting euthanasia. Additionally, we should… [read more]

Falls in the Elderly Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Having caregivers and having grab bars in the home can help elderly people reduce their risk of both fatal and non-fatal falls. Another concern to avoid falls is medication. There are many elderly people taking antidepressants and hypnotics, both of which have been associated with a higher risk of falls (Blake, et al., 1988). While it may not be possible for all elderly people to get off of these medications, it may be possible for some. Additionally, reducing the level of medication or switching to something less likely to cause a problem can also work to the advantage of elderly people in order to keep them from falling (Blake, et al., 1988). It is not realistic to assume that all falls in the elderly population can be avoided. People of all ages fall occasionally.

However, through an understanding of more tenuous balance in older age, coupled with the other concerns that elderly people have regarding mobility, grip strength, and medication usage, options can be made available that will help these people focus on better health and safer mobility options. Proposed solutions include grab bars and caregivers in the homes of elderly people who need them, but also working with medical professionals to adjust dosages and switch medications so that elderly people have better balance. Taking these two steps, especially in combination, can reduce the number of falls -- and the number of fatal falls -- so more elderly people can remain safe in their homes. Being able to stay independent is very important for many elderly people, but they will not be able to do that if they fall frequently. Helping them take steps that create fewer falls is a vital part of that independence, and can also reduce the overall health care burden on the country.


Blake, A.J., Morgan, K., Bendall, M.J., Dallosso, H., Ebrahim, S.B., Arie, T.H., Fentem, P.H., & Bassey, E.J. (1988). Falls by elderly people at home: Prevalence and associated factors. Age Ageing, 17(6): 365-72.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Falls among older adults: An overview. CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html

Yoshida, S. (n.d.) A global report on falls prevention. Epidemiology of falls. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/projects/1.Epidemiology%20of %20falls%20in%20older%20age.pdf… [read more]

Young Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,216 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ashcroft has attempted to overturn the actions of Attorney General Janet Reno, who ruled in favor of Oregon's interpretation of the federal Controlled Substances Act as allowing physicians to prescribe lethal levels of drugs.

In large measure because of her support, the "Death with Dignity Act" went into effect in October 1997. This law includes a variety of safeguards to… [read more]

Magical Realism in Juan Rulfo Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


..puts its gentle arm around my waist...then I sink into it...give myself to its pulsing strength..." (96). In this fashion, Juan Rulfo leads Juan and the reader to ponder between Pedro's illusion and Susana's reality. The point to note, however, is that Pedro himself is shown constant in his belief about Susana implying that for Pedro, his vision of Susana was real and true.

Similarly, in Death Constant Beyond Love, Gabriel Garc'a-Marquez's story of Senator Onesimo Sanchez's continual quest for life in the face of imminent death, the question of illusion and reality is highlighted through the Senator's continued campaigning and his indulgence in an affair that ultimately causes his downfall. Was the Senator deluding himself with the only reality being death or was the Senator only continuing to live what had always been his reality as in the false make-believe world of politics and in fact, being realistic, by making most of the time he had left with Laura ("he found the woman of his life": 2430)? Thus, the lines between illusion and reality begin to blur depending on the perspective from which it is considered - the Senator's or the reader's.

Through Death Constant Beyond Love, Marquez uses magical realism to raise questions on illusion and reality. Take, for example, Rosal del Virrey - A rosebush in a dry, desolate land? Or the Senator's careful nurturing of his rose against the odds - preservation of illusion or facing the reality of the rose's poor chances of survival?

To conclude, the use of magical realism in both Pedro Paramo and Death Constant Beyond Love is marked by the blurring of lines between illusion and reality and thereby raising questions about the difference, if…… [read more]

Hamlet Fits Within Anoulih's Discussion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


They must piece the entire puzzle together. There is work associated with reading a tragedy because a reader must open his or her mind in order to make the character's actions plausible. The reader must feel as though the events could happen. What's more, the reader must be able to somehow connect with the characters and their reactions.

In Hamlet, or other tragedies, there is no hope that the characters will survive their hideous death. The reader must follow within the loops and curves that the play offers in order to connect action with reaction and vice versa.

A tragedy always reveals the main character's weakness. In this case, Hamlet's weakness was his vulnerability and his indecision. He wouldn't listen to his associates when he had the chance. He also didn't act promptly when given a chance to avenge his father's death. Had he killed his uncle in the offset of the play, it is arguable that some of the deaths towards the end of the play may not have occurred. Hamlet needed proof that the ghosts were telling the truth. Since he didn't believe them and had gave his uncle the benefit of doubt, the tragedy unfolded.

When Hamlet transforms into a raging madman because of his father's death, the reader knows for certain that people will die at Hamlet's hand. It is uncertain whether the uncle will be killed because such irony is a calling card in tragedies. The reader may surmise that everyone will die except the uncle and that Hamlet may live to grieve over his love, Ophelia.

Another point of contention is set up early in the play. There is the issue of Hamlet's mother. The ghost expressly said the his mother shouldn't be harmed. However, Hamlet doesn't listen. He feels it necessary to question his mother and accuse her. Had he not been in her chambers accusing her of contributing to her husband's death, Hamlet would not have killed.

Ophelia is also warned in this play, another mark of someone who is either going to die or who will play a role in someone else's death -- as in the case of Hamlet himself. She is warned to stay away from Hamlet. Of course, as the reader knows, she won't listen.

Therefore very early in the tragedy the reader is handed a roadmap that will somehow spell out the fate of all of its characters. It is up to the reader to consider the possible outcomes and piece them together. A tragedy such as Hamlet, however, is filled with so many twists and turns that just about any tragic ending is plausible. The reader must play a game in determining whether their guesses will turn out to be realized in the play. Will Shakespeare through us all for a loop or will this play simply verbalize an ending that the reader has already surmised. An artist like Shakespeare, always has a surprise ending at hand. In such case, the ending of the tragedy is… [read more]

Slippery Slope Argument Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (414 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The slippery slope argument in this debate means that once the world starts allowing assisted suicides for those who are terminally ill, it will not be a stretch to start choosing who dies based on other factors. How about the man who is not terminally ill but is in chronic and lifelong pain? Should he be allowed to choose to die now? What about the woman who is mentally ill and is in danger of causing her children emotional harm? Why can't she choose to die and save her children's psyche much the same way a terminally ill person chooses to die and save their family savings account and their emotions?

Once the world starts down the slippery slope of allowing people to choose to die, it is not hard to imagine the slippery slope causing mankind to overshoot the stopping place and going far past the currently accepted criteria for euthanasia. The slippery slope argument presents a valid concern for something that is as irreversible…… [read more]

Rise of Advanced Technologies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,474 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He supports euthanasia and represents the view that assisted suicide should be a legal option for the patient.

To some extent, my views reflect what I have seen happen to the aged and stricken who have been so unfortunate as to survive crippling paralysis. They suffer, and impose suffering on others, unable even to make a request that their torment… [read more]

Euthanasia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,241 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In addition, they may be given the opportunity to make amends, finalize their affairs, and die in the presence of family and friends. However, in order for the end of life to be considered good, it is critical for the choice to be made by the dying person, not a physician or a family member. Furthermore, death by euthanasia may… [read more]

Euthanasia (Against) in North America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" Hence, only God has the right to begin a life, and only God is allowed to end one. Therefore, an individual who commits suicide is doing a sin.

Secondly, God has not sent us any experience that we are unable to handle. He supports and helps people in suffering. Thus, an individual who seeks to end his life would actually signify lack of trust in the promise made by Him.

On the other hand, an important and growing percentage of non-Christians, Agnostics, Humanists, secularists, Atheists and liberal Christians in North America do not accept these theologically based arguments. They argue:

Every individual has independence over their own life. Therefore, those individuals who are not satisfied with their quality of life which is equal to nonexistent should have the right to decide to commit suicide, and to seek support and help if required.

At times a terminal sickness is so painful that it causes life to be very intolerable and unbearable burden; where death can play its part as a relief of such insufferable pain.


Irrespective of whether Euthanasia is legalized by the judicial authorities or not, the subject remains a question to an individual's conscience. With varying ideologies of life that people share throughout the world, the fact differs whether Euthanasia is right or wrong. However, owing to the social roles that every individual plays in the society, Euthanasia cannot be justified for being right. No matter how one's conscience may allow or disallow an individual to end up his life, his interrelationships do not permit him to deprive the society of the roles that he plays and in turn enjoys a social recognition to its own degree.

Works Cited

Horgan, John. Right to Die. Scientific American, May 1996.

Netherlands State Commission on Euthanasia. Definition of Euthanasia.

DeathNet. Oregon Death With Dignity Act. http://www.rights.org/~deathnet/ergo_orlaw.html

Matas, Robert. Oregon Reconsiders Death-With-Dignity Law. The Globe and Mail Newspaper, Toronto ON, Nov 3, 1997 (p. A1)

Oregon Health Division. Oregon's Death with Dignity Act: Annual Report 2000. http://www.ohd.hr.state.or.us/chs/pas/ar-disc.htm

New England Journal of Medicine, Feb 6, 2002.

Toronto Star. New law paved way for 38 to commit suicide in Oregon. Quick Hits, Toronto Star. March 6, 2003.

Jordahl, Steve. Ashcroft Appeals Assisted-Suicide Ruling. Family News in Focus.…… [read more]

Progeria Is a Somewhat Mysterious Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,316 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The scientists concede that the increased presence of the acid is unique to progeria patients and others that suffer with other ageing conditions.

There are also other Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities that are characteristic of the syndrome. Studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts have shown that there is a reduced potential in-vitro growth in Progeria patients. There is also evidence the children that have the condition have shortened replicative life span. (Dyer and Sinclair)

It is believed that the cause of Progeria is due to a mutant gene. According to the Progeria Research Foundation,

Progeria is considered to be the result of a dominant mutation because the gene in question has one normal copy and one abnormal copy, as opposed to a recessive mutation in which both copies are abnormal. Because neither parent carries or expresses the mutation, each case is believed to represent a sporadic new mutation which happens at the time of conception." ("What is Progeria?")

Studies have found that there are certain patterns that occur in the families of children with Progeria. For instance, the parents of these children are usually at least six years apart in age which is above the national average of two years. In addition researchers have discovered that siblings or identical twins in the same family usually do not have the condition. ("What is Progeria?")

Children with this condition usually die in the beginning of their second decade. Death usually occurs in the early teenage years-although some patients live to their early twenties. Death is usually caused by heart failure and myocardial infarction. (Dyer and Sinclair)

Recent Developments

Although there is no cure for the disease, in recent weeks scientists have isolated the gene that causes the condition. The discovery was made by scientists at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Remarkably it only took the scientist one year to isolate the gene. CNN reported that,

Progeria is caused by a single-letter misspelling in a gene on chromosome 1. They found 18 of 20 children with classic progeria had the exact same misspelling in the Lamin A gene. Lamin A is a protein that is a key component of the membrane that surrounds the cell's nucleus. The studies showed that almost half of the progeria patient's cells had misshapen nuclear membranes."("Gene is discovered for rapid aging disease in children")

This development is important because it allows scientist to develop a genetic test for the condition.

The genetic test will allow parents to see if they carry the gene before they conceive so that the necessary precautions can be taken. It will also allow researchers to potentially find a cure and treatments for the condition.


The purpose of this discussion was to explore the various aspects of the condition known as Progeria. We began by defining Progeria. We found that the condition is rare and only affects about 35 children in the entire world. Our discussion then focused on the characteristics and causes of the condition. Our research found that individuals with the… [read more]

Euthanasia in Addition to Racism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,494 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The basic idea needs to be reinforced. Those that opposed euthanasia believe that it cheapens the value of life. If euthanasia was a legal option, it would also undermine funding of research into these areas like geriatric care and disease associated with aging like Alzheimer's.

While the above are secular reasons for opposing euthanasia, most religions are also opposed to… [read more]

Right to Die Think Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,169 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Should we not live every day as though it were our last?

We have all got to die, but there are best possible deaths, when our full time has come, and there are deaths, as in the Iraq war and in Israel, when lives are brutally cut short in conditions of great fear, anger and hatred - often leaving behind a legacy of anger, bitterness and sorrow. Because we all have to die is it possible to describe death in the best possible conditions? Is it possible to describe what ought to be our human rights in relation to our deaths? In this section I argue that this is possible. I then go on to compare this with what has happened in Iraq to draw out the contrast hopefully in a clear way.

If we think about our deaths, or those of your loved ones there are things, which I think that we all ideally want to make our passing easier. These are things like: having made a will, an orderly transition of our affairs, reconciliation's and making our peace with people, making sure that vulnerable survivors like children will be looked after (Herbert Hendin)

In the chaos, and rapid moving situation of war none of these things can be guaranteed. Soldiers may tidy their affairs up before they go into battle. For civilians that may occur - but there again, in the sheer random way in which civilians get killed, there is not the predictability or time for many of those things.

Another dimension is the psychological preparation for dying, as the last stage in life journey, as another opportunity for growth and experience. There is now a considerable literature about the psychological preparation for death, which suggests that one's last days, with one's loved ones around one, may be the most beautiful and poignant of one's life, as one becomes aware of how precious and fleeting life is.

Death with ones family cowering against incoming cluster bombs is not like that. There are other things one can say of death that are relevant here.

In Jean Liedloff's book, the Continuum Project, she describes the process of life as stages we all pass through, which if lived properly lead to dying without regrets. As a child one has toys and one plays. There is no problem leaving one's toys behind one, if one has lived that part of one's life properly.

Equally the stage of life for adolescent romance and sexuality and so on. One gets fixated at a stage if one has not lived it properly. The greatest tragedy, for many people in the world, is to be alive but unable to participate in these ordinary satisfactions of living. Finally at death one let's go because one has lived a full life and there are no regrets. (James M. Hoefler)

In that sense the idea of a death cut short in war has particular tragedy, and particularly of children or of the parents of children, which denies the… [read more]

Right to Die Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,116 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, "bills on assisted suicide were introduced in twenty-six states in 1997 and 1998...all defeated, usually dying in committee." During this same period, Virginia, Michigan and South Carolina passed new bans on assisted suicide, after Iowa and Rhode Island enacted bans in 1996, and Kansas and South Dakota recently "clarified their existing criminal statutes and added civil penalties for assisting a suicide." In 1999, thirty-eight states had specific statutes against assisted suicide, although "Oregon created an exception for terminally ill patients who fulfill certain guidelines," while eight forbid the practice by common law or interpretation of the state homicide statute, and four, Nevada, Hawaii, Utah and Wyoming have no clear law on the matter.

Those against the right to die see no distinction between pulling the plug to hasten death on patients depending on life support and providing lethal medication to dying patients. Those who support the right to die believe there is a moral line "between an active act by a physician to kill and passively letting nature take its course so that the underlying disease causes death." And then there are those who believe in both, allowing a patient to die with dignity off life support and allowing a patient to obtain assistance in death when he or she feels their physical condition is terminal. It is certain that this issue will continue to be debated in public opinion and courts for years to come.

Works Cited

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida." AP Worldstream. November 01, 2003. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1P1:86544618&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=AP+Worldstream&author=VICKIE+CHACHERE%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Judge+appoints+professor+as+guardian+for+brain%2Ddamaged+woman+in+Florida&date=11%2F01%2F2003&query=Terry+Schiavo+and+the+State+of+Florida%2E&maxdoc=30&idx=2&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 12-03-2003)

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Doerflinger, Richard M. "An Uncertain Future for Assisted Suicide."

The Hastings Center Report. January 01, 1999.

Euthanasia Court Cases Rulings on Medical Killing." Human Life of Washington


A accessed 12-03-2003).

Fackelmann, Kathy A. "The conscious mind: Karen Ann Quinlan case yields surprising scientific data." Science News. July 02, 1994.

King, Philip. "Washington v. Glucksberg: influence of the court in care of the terminally ill and physician-assisted suicide." Journal of Law and Health. June 22, 2000.

Reibstein. Larry. "Weighing the right to die." Newsweek. January 13, 1997.

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Fackelmann, Kathy A. "The conscious mind: Karen Ann Quinlan case yields surprising scientific data." Science News. July 02, 1994

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Euthanasia Court Cases Rulings on Medical Killing." Human Life of Washington


A accessed 12-03-2003

King, Philip. "Washington v. Glucksberg: influence of the court in care of the terminally ill and physician-assisted suicide." Journal of Law and Health. June 22, 2000.

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida."… [read more]

Death and Dying Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (421 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


She acknowledges that life is hard, that adversity makes us stronger, and that we all have lessons we must learn in life. She also thinks that when we have learned the lessons we need to learn, the "pain goes away" (Kubler-Ross, 1998, p. 18). This book is the story of Kubler-Ross' incredible life, and through her gift of storytelling, the reader learns about her childhood, her school years, and how she began to study death and dying. It is clear this author has definitive thoughts on how to live the best possible life, and she shares them here as she shares her life. It is also clear that she believes in the ultimate decency of humanity, and those who are miserable will lead miserable lives and fear death. Her ideas may not all be commonplace (she believes she chose her parents), but they are easy and motivating to read, and she makes death seem much more peaceful, and far less frightening than it has seemed before.


Kubler-Ross, Elizabeth. (1998). The Wheel of Life: A Memoir of Living and Dying. New York: Scribners.

Gorle, Rev. Howard R. (2002). Grief Theories: Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. Retrieved from the Bereavement.org. Web…… [read more]

Euthanasia the Power to Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,527 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These situations are likely to be more difficult for the person to conceptualize. However, asking the questions from both perspectives will likely reveal deeper, and ethically-based responses than if the survey was based strictly on asking a person what they would want in someone else's life.

The survey will be conducted on a cross section of the population, of median age individuals who are likely to have elderly family members who would face the question of euthanasia, if the practice were to become legal. The survey will be conducted via phone interview, and also made available on the internet with connection to significant medical sites, such as Web MD in order to collect date from a large population sample.

This research is expected to uncover the same controversy which Mr. Singer is stirring. This research expects to uncover that then euthanasia is a topic directed at other people, then the subjects attitudes will be much more liberal than if the euthanasia policies were directed toward, and could affect their own life.


P. Singer, Practical Ethics Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

P. Singer, "Bioethics and Academic Freedom" Bioethics, 4, no. 1, 1990

Wright, W. Historical Analogies, Slippery Slopes and the Question of Euthanasia. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Vol. 28, 2000

O. Tolmein, cited in B. Schone-Seifert and K-P.…… [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease Examining Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  10 pages (3,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Variants of APP from mice were re-injected after allelic regeneration and exposed to the beta secretase enzyme. The genes generated targeted separate lines of knock-in mice on the APP cut differently (Ring et al., 2007).

The authors sought to identify the primary sites of APP where the beta secretase would target possibly when truncated. With the use of the mice,… [read more]

Music Therapy Reduce the Level Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  7 pages (2,312 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Participation in the music program did not significantly affect agitation and anxiety in older people with dementia. Both the music and reading group activities, however, gave some participants a 'voice' and increased their verbalization behavior. Agitation was found to be predicted by a number of background factors (namely level of cognitive impairment, length of time in the facility and gender)… [read more]

Prostate Cancer Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,412 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Moreover, the study will use genetic and pharmacology approach to carry out the experiment. Typically, the autophagy pharmacological inhibition is to use TR induced cell death to detect its effect on PC3 cells. To detect the presence of autophagic, it is critical to use TEM (transmission electron microscopy) which is the widely used technique to monitor the presence of autophagy.… [read more]

Nursing Critique on Law: LIFE Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" (Durante, 2009, p. 29) Lindsay's argument is for self-determination on the part of the patient stating specifically as follows:

"Respecting the right of a terminally ill person to make his own decision about the course of his remaining days hardly seems to evince an attitude of diminished respect for life. Thus, a key element of the causal slippery slope argument is missing." (Lindsay, 2009, p. 19)

According to Durante, the observations of Lindsay in relation to compassion and respect to autonomy, may be on base, however, that which is described by Lindsay is not "so much a respect for human life, per se, but rather respect for various aspects of a particular vision of the good life, which again is founded upon the idea of autonomy and liberty. Respecting self-determination is not the same as respect life, it is respecting liberty." (Durante, 2009, p. 30) As such, Lindsay does not distinguish between the two and thereby fails in the comprehension of what PAS opponents believe is at stake. The argument exists that the Oregon Death with Dignity ACT, which constitutes respect for self-determination and liberty is such that "trumps consideration regarding the respect for life." (Durante, 2009, p. 30) The adoption of the view upheld by Lindsay appears to entail adopting a view that somehow the patient's life is no longer worth living and this means that alleviating suffering takes precedence over the respect for life. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act makes PAS an option for a patient who is terminally ill and who desires to end their suffering. Included in the options of this act is the use of PTS which effectively alleviates the suffering of the patient and ultimately offers a passive method of PAS to the patient.

While Durante seems to distinguish between the self-determination and liberty of the patient and Lindsay's evaluation of what constitutes respect for life, in essence self-determination and liberty are primary aspects of that which constitute respect for life. The empowerment of the individual to choose their own course in life or in the ending of their life due to suffering is inclusive of the right to choose PTS or PAS. Whether liberty and self-determination in choosing to live or choosing to die that liberty and self-determination should never be refused to or removed from the patient's possession in the opinion of this writer. Therefore, the attempt of Durante (2009) to disqualify the arguments of Lindsay based on some idea of separating self-determination and liberty from respect for life is a flawed and erroneous argument.


Durante, C. (2009) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Palliation: Re-Evaluating Ronald Lindsay's Evaluation of the Oregon…… [read more]

Demographic Transition: England Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (675 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Figure 2

Demographic Transition in England 1700-2000

Sources: (Clark, 2010; and Slideshare, 2014)

4. Birth Rate in England

From the chart it is clear that the fertility rate or birth rate in England declined sharply beginning in the first two decades of the 1800s. However, the fertility or birth rate rose again briefly in the mid-1800s and them dropped sharply and steadily until the 1970s rising slightly and then beginning a steady decline until the year 2000.

5. Death Rate in England

The death rate in England rose in the first half of the 1700s decade and dropped significantly until 1800 when the death rate rose sharply and leveled out pretty much until about 1850 rising again steadily for about 15 years and since that time steadily declining.

6. Population Rate in England

The population rate in England has risen steadily since the 1700s as illustrated the demographic transition chart in this study and this is despite the fertility or birth rate rising or falling and despite the rising or falling of the death rate in England.

7. Summary and Conclusion

The birth rate or fertility rates in England fell sharply in the early 1800s and rise again in the mid-1800s followed by a sharp and steady decline until the 1970s when it rose again slightly but has since that time declined steadily. The death rate in England while rising during the first fifty years of the 1700s decade begin a significant decline for the next fifty years when the death rate rose sharply then leveled out for the next fifty years. In 1850 the death rate in England rose steadily for approximately 15 years and has since that time steadily declined. Despite the rising and falling of the birth rate in England and the Death rate the population in England has experienced steady growth since 1700 until the present.


Clark, G. (2010) Mathus to Modernity: England's First Fertility Transition, 1760-1800. Retrieved from: http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/faculty/gclark/papers/Demographic%20Transition%202010.pdf

Population Changes in England and Wales 1700-2000 (2014) Slideshare. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/reservoirgeogs/demographic-transition-presentation…… [read more]

Physician Assisted Death Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


While the first three options may be initiated by surrogate decision makers, the final two should be initiated by the patient. The seeming inability of palliative care to address all end-of-life sufferings is a strong justification for physician-assisted suicide. Therefore, the least harmful way of responding to intolerable end-of-life suffering would be helpful to clinicians, patients, and families. This harmful method should be conducted in a manner that is effective and respects the values of the major stakeholders in delivery of care. In expressing his support for legalization of physician-assisted suicide given the inability of palliative care to address all end-of-life suffering, Quill (2012) states that the benefits of an open, legally permitted practice outweigh the dangers of a secret practice (p.63).


As previously mentioned, physician assisted death is a major contentious issue because it creates concerns on preservation of a dying person's independence and the need to safeguard patients from pressures in the process of dying (Messer, 2012). The article presents significant insights for legalization of the practice, which illegal in many states and countries. It is a balanced opinion on the issue because the author includes recommendations for the most suitable kind of treatment before consideration of physician-assisted suicide.

Quill offers a balanced and critical review of physician-assisted suicide as a last resort after delivery of high quality palliative care. Moreover, his argument for its legalization includes the need for the practice to be initiated by the patient through a strong sense of personal will. The evaluation of the benefits of an open, legally allowed practice over the dangers of a secret practice helps in addressing concerns regarding potential abuse, error, and coercion.


Messer, T. (2012, October 29). Physician-Assisted Death: In Consideration of the Right to Die.

Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nyam.org/social-work-leadership-institute-v2/geriatric-social-work/hppae/for-students/Physician-Assisted-Death-Paper-Submission-10-29-12-1.pdf

Quill, T.E. (2012). Physicians Should 'Assist in Suicide' When it is Appropriate. Journal of Law,

Medicine & Ethics, 40(1), 57-65.… [read more]

Voluntary Euthanasia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (349 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … against Voluntary Euthanasia

If a person requests assistance to end their life, it is called voluntary euthanasia. Types of euthanasia include involuntary euthanasia (no patient request) or passive euthanasia (withholding care). This essay will focus on the issue that voluntary euthanasia and highlight the major arguments against this act that have been rigorously studied in the scholarly literature. A prime focus on this discourse is that voluntary euthanasia devalues life. Several points are offered which uphold this stance.

A method of judging the ethical concerns of voluntary euthanasia utilizes the Principle of Double Effect. The "PDE" is a valid foundation to decide when voluntary euthanasia is acceptable. Four factors comprise the PDE; the action must be a good one, only the good effect must be intended, the good effect must not be achieved by way of the bad effect, and the good result must outweigh the bad (Sulmasey and Pelligrino 550).

The PDE upholds this, as the resultant death (via doctor assisted termination) achieves the good result through employment of the bad…… [read more]

Studies on the Elderly and Loneliness Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  3 pages (1,484 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Aging -- Loneliness and its Prevention

Before reading resource materials about ageing and loneliness, I believed that decades of research and hundreds of thousands of elderly subjects would result in clear-cut definitions and well-established measures to prevent loneliness. However, upon reading those sources, I found that the definitions, preventive measures and rates of success are uncertain. The reading resources taught… [read more]

Tackling Provider-Associated Barriers Concerning End-Of-Life Dementia Care Dissertation

Dissertation  |  21 pages (5,857 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


End-Stage Dementia

Addressing the Unmet Care Needs of End-Stage Dementia Patients through Provider Education: The Advanced Dementia EOL Planning and Prognosis (ADEPP) Tool

Acknowledgements and Credits: [? ] (will need permission from anyone being acknowledged)

Geraldine Bodven, [Academic Degrees], University of South Alabama

Funding: [grant numbers or funding information]

Corresponding Author: [name, institutional affiliation, current address, phone, fax, email]

Addressing… [read more]

Epicurus and the Afterlife Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,332 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Epicurean Notions of Death

The arguments for Epicurus's claim in the passage for this assignment that "death is nothing to us" (Epicurus) involve a fairly simple dichotomy that render them lucid. That dichotomy involves a nothing associated with death, based on the notion that all sensations and conceptions of good and evil effectively cease. The other end of that dichotomy is that death's opposite is life, which is completely unrelated to anything pertaining to death because there are sensations and notions of good and evil. Therefore, the crux of the author's argument is that life involves everything related to the human experience, whereas death is a complete denial or obliteration of that experience. Based on this premise, the author of this particular passage has concluded that "death is nothing" (Epicurus).

Interestingly enough, there is another implicit dichotomy that the author of this passage refers to which helps to bolster the aforementioned premise and lead to the conclusion. That dichotomy is that found between the notions of heaven and hell, which are alluded to more than once in this passage and have been dichotomized with contrasting imagery throughout literature (Blake). When the author of the quotation states that "good and evil imply the capacity for sensation" (Epicurus), he is actually referring to the sort of sensation accorded to an afterlife existence in either heaven or hell. Yet in this particular context, the author is stating that there is a definite lack of sensation that death provides which is "the privation of all sentience" (Epicurus) that renders the feeling of any sort of good or evil (found in the afterlife in heaven or hell) impossible. In such a way, he is propagating the notion that there is an absence of sensation which makes the notion of an afterlife obsolete -- which is the fundamental principle of his dichotomy that death is the opposite of life and is akin to nothing.

As previously denoted, the opposite end of that dichotomy on which death rests is life. Due to that opposition, the author is stating that life is everything. It is quite clear that this valuation of life is ascribed to its relationship to death, which is why the author writes that an "understanding" of death's lack of anything (or its nothingness) that renders the "mortality of life enjoyable" (Epicurus). Notice that there is a definite sort of sensation imputed to life in this statement, since the fact that it is enjoyable means that people are able to feel and experience its joys. It is also important to understand the reason that the author believes that life is so enjoyable. That reason again harps on his implicit dichotomy of heaven and hell. The author writes that death creates a joy in life because it effectively subtracts "the yearning after immortality" (Epicurus). That desire for immortality, of course, is another thinly veiled reference to the "limitless time" (Epicurus) of the afterlife. Thus, the dichotomy that life provides everything for human experience is directly contrasted with… [read more]

Stigma of Suicide and Grief in African-American Mothers Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  45 pages (13,960 words)
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Suicide Grief among African-American Mothers


This research will explore the experience of representative African-American mothers who lost their sons to suicide. The biopsychosocial contextual model of stress, as specifically applied to suicide as stressor, by Clark, Anderson, Clark and Williams (1999) will guide the following research questions:

Does perceived stigma due to suicide, as measured by… [read more]

Euthanasia Debate Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Euthanasia Debate

The topic of Euthanasia has sparked numerous debates in the recent years, as many continue to consider that the procedure is wrong and that it should not be supported by the authorities. Euthanasia has become a notable solution to people who are in extreme pain and who are reluctant to continue to live as long as their situation… [read more]

Ethical Argument Against Physician Assisted Suicide Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,218 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Physician-Assisted Suicide

Physicians-Assisted Suicides:

The Unethical Practice that Allows Doctors to Kill

Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide is a topic that constantly sparks ethical debate. Euthanasia has become a topic of growing interest, especially in the industrialized countries of the world because of the high standards for medical care and the idea that physician-assisted suicide can improve end-of-life care as it… [read more]

Person Is in Inexorable Pain, Suffering Physically Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … person is in inexorable pain, suffering physically and even mentally, with no hope for recovery, should they be able to seek surcease through death? What is the physician's responsibility when they can not assuage their patient's suffering? Is their duty to prolong basic bodily functions, or is their duty to stop pain? If a patient seeks death, and is unable to obtain the means to bring an end to their suffering themselves, does their physician have an ethical obligation to provide them with those tools, even if these tools bring about the patient's death? According to John Lachs, Peter Singer, and others, the case for answering yes to the questions above, from both a hedonistic utilitarian and preference utilitarian perspective, is strong. Physician-assisted suicide should be legal and patients suffering from intolerable pain should be free to choose death over a life of agony.

The right of self-determination. How far does a human being's autonomy extend? Certainly, it would be foolhardy to state that a person's right to self-determination is absolute; society would cease to function smoothly if we respected the rights of robbers to be robbers and murderers to be murderers. It is safe to say a person's right to self-determination ends when their actions impinge upon another person's right to autonomy. However, the decision to end one's own life does not interfere with another person's rights or liberties in any way. From a utilitarian perspective, an act is morally right, "If the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone." (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Certainly if an otherwise healthy person chose to end their life on a whim, it could be argued that the consequences of that choice would be negative to that person's friends, family member, employers, people in his or her employ, etc. However, when a patient with a terminal illness or terminal pain chooses to end their life, the distinction is less clear. Terminal illness devastates not only the patient, but their loved ones who have to witness the suffering helplessly. When the end result is death, and the interim is only agony, hastening death in a peaceful way benefits everyone. If the patient wishes to end their life, therefore, from a utilitarian perspective, this act would be morally correct.

It can be argued that in the case of physician-assisted suicide, that because the doctor is the one bringing about the death, this is, "a fundamental moral wrong' -that of one person giving over 'his life and fate to another." (Lachs, 4). But people assign others their rights all the time, and they are free to do so; this is part of autonomy. If a person is a homeowner, they are free to let whomever they wish live in that home, with the occupant enjoying all the benefits of that home. Similarly, one allows schools to act in loco parentis with their children. Are we to say that a terminally ill patient surrenders the ability to assign their rights simply… [read more]

Practice Theory Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Daniel Levinson's (1920) theory (the Seasons of a Mans Life, 1978) on life development was an offshoot from that of Erickson who had developed his theory thirty years earlier.

Erickson's contribution was on the theory of stages in ego development, namely that each age level is characterized by particular challenges or manifestations that the individual has to successfully navigate in order to transition to the next stage. Erickson's first consideration -- and this is what Levinson had in common -- was to the life course per individual rather than to the life course as group or as world / history.

More so, in contradistinction to prominent life development theories, such as those of Piaget and Freud who postulated that development was largely completed at the end of adolescence, and in contradistinction to the trend of the 1950s that focused on geriatrics and gerontology (where it was the elderly who dominated), Levinson (as did Erickson) maintained that life development was an ongoing odyssey. To that end, therefore, his aim was to present a development life course that would focus around the adult.

Levinson (1986) proposed that adults move through particular seasons which include: (1) Early Adult transition 1-22 (2) Entering the adult world 22-28 (3) Age 30 transition 28-33 (4) Culmination of early adulthood: settling down 33-40 (5) Midlife transition 40-45 (6) Entering middle adulthood 45-50 (7) Age 50 transition (8) Culmination of middle adulthood 55-60 (9) Late-adult transition 60-65, and, (10) Late adulthood 65+.

The Stages

1. Preadulthood or Early Adult transition (Ages conception-22) -- the individual grows from dependence to independence recognizing himself as a separate entity distinct from the mother and from other humans around him.

2. Early Adult Transition (17-22): The adult starts to formulate and implement relationships in his external world. These are his initial…… [read more]

Ethics Euthanasia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,170 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Ethics and Euthanasia

The first step towards moving society to accept that which is abnormal is to inundate society with the abnormal as a norm, until society begins to accept it as a norm. We see this happening in various ways in American society today, but none with the vigor of the movement to legalize and make moral medical euthanasia.… [read more]

Fire Mummies of the Philippines Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,118 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Fire Mummies of the Philippines

Life and death have always fascinated human beings as the ultimate mystery of the universe. Cultures throughout the world have speculated about these issues, and constructed rituals and religions around them. The Ibaloi tribe of Kabayan is no different. Like Egyptians, and several other ancient cultures, this tribe mummified the dead from their elite social… [read more]

Legal Implications of Assisted Suicide Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Legal Implications of Assisted Suicide

The way people think about assisted suicide or euthanasia is often determined by their religious beliefs about life and death. However issues regarding the right to die ultimately boil down to matters of the law. The idea of legislators making it legal for doctors to help their terminally ill patients die seems ludicrous to some people, while refusing to pass such a law seems just as ludicrous to others. I believe that it should be legal for doctors to help their terminally ill patients end their lives as long as the patient is completely coherent and able to make rational decisions.

The debate about euthanasia in the United States has centered on the case of Dr. Jack Kevorkian, also known as Dr. Death. In 1999 the pro-euthanasia campaigner was sentenced to 10 to 25 years in prison. He was found guilty of second-degree murder for delivering a fatal injection to a terminally ill man at his own request. Dr. Kevorkian had recorded the actual euthanasia on video and handed the tape to television network CBS. It was broadcast nationwide, fuelling the already emotional discussion about euthanasia. Dr. Kevorkian says he has helped at least 130 people to end their lives (Olen, 1999).

Defining the Terms

The question at the heart of the euthanasia debate is whether or not euthanasia is, or should be legally acceptable. However in order to fully address these issues, we must examine the four basic types of euthanasia, which are; passive voluntary, active voluntary, passive non-voluntary, and active non-voluntary (Olen, 1999).

Passive voluntary euthanasia exists when a patient refuses treatment that would extend his or her life. In these cases it is the patient's decision and the doctor does not physically harm the patient in order to hasten death. Active voluntary euthanasia occurs when a patient has a doctor perform an action to induce death, such as giving a lethal injection. Passive non-voluntary euthanasia cases include those in which a patient is unable to communicate his or her wishes about death and a family member asks that the treatments be stopped. Active non-voluntary euthanasia describes a situation in which death is induced by the doctor (i.e. By lethal injection) at the request of a family member who makes the decision for a patient who cannot communicate (Olen, 1999).

Issues of Debate

The distinction between active and passive euthanasia is as much an issue of debate as the pro/con argument regarding euthanasia. Many contend that although it may be permissible in some cases to withhold treatment and allow a patient to die, it is never permissible to take any direct action to bring about that death (Gifford, 1993).

The controversy over Dr. Kevorkian not only sparked numerous ethical debates, but many legal ones as well. A central issue to the euthanasia debate centers on the legal right a person has over the ending of his or her life. With so many technological advances to prolong life…… [read more]

Euthanasia and Particularly the Question of Passive Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,136 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … euthanasia and particularly the question of passive as opposed active forms of euthanasia have been intensely debated in the media and in medical circles during the last few decades. The very issue of euthanasia is one that is, from one perspective, opposed to the medical ethos and the emphasis on saving rather than terminating life. This is the… [read more]

Flint by Louis L. Amour Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Louis L'Amour's Flint

James T. Kettleman is dying, and decides to return to the West where he was raised in order to die alone rather than staying in New York with his wife who is actually trying to have him killed. He adopts the name of Flint in honor of the man -- an outlaw -- that took him in when he was an orphan and raised him in the spirit of the West, teaching him about guns, life, and death. On his way out West Flint meets Nancy Kerrigan who must defend her land, bought and passed down by her father, from the encroachment of the crowds coming out to the now-developing West. Flint ends up helping her in this endeavor, using his skill with a gun and his willingness to face death -- something that he is coming up against soon, anyway -- to save her farm and to avenge the death of his benefactor, the original Flint. In the end, the new Flint dies, too, but after finding and helping a true love.

Plot Chart

Exposition: James T. Kettleman is dying; Nancy Kerrigan is young, beautiful, and in trouble, and Kettleman clearly knows how to use a gun.

Rising action: Nancy's land is in jeopardy; men are after Kettleman (Flint) trying to kill him; Flint decides to help Nancy.

Climax: the series of gunfights in town where a large number of people are killed.

Falling action: Nancy and Flint meet for the last time, the few remaining bad guys slink off, Flint is wounded.

Resolution: Nancy land is safely in her hands (for now), Flint's wife is left frustrated in her designs, and Flint ultimately des, though not alone as he had planned.


The novel is told from a third-person omniscient point-of-view, which allows the motives and secret thoughts of any and all characters to be made explicitly clear to the reader at any time. This is a highly effective way of telling the story because it makes the emotional and intellectual impact and intention of ach moment quite clear, allowing the reader to see how different characters interpret and react to the same situation. It also makes each of the characters appear far more human, because the thought processes, confusions, uncertainties, and misconceptions that lead to what might otherwise appear to be incongruous actions are clearly laid out. With these explanations, the manners in which situations are reacted to and the depth of the emotive values and motivations that exist in the story become much more clearly known.


It would be impossible to tell this story in any other setting, just as it would be impossible to transpose any other Western to a different time and place. Nowhere else in human history has an undeveloped wilderness been so directly and closely juxtaposed to a major developing power; even the arrival of Europeans in the New World took place at a different pace and in an altogether different spirit. The Wild West was a… [read more]

Euthanasia - Should Be Your Legal Right Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Euthanasia - Should Be Your Legal Right

Euthanasia should be your legal right

The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the very complex issue represented by euthanasia. The main argument of the paper is that euthanasia should be a legal right. I will begin by analyzing the definition of the main concept. I will compare my definitional criteria… [read more]

Hospice and Under Utilization by Minorities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Hospice and Underutilization by Minorities

Improving end of life care is an important healthcare concern and improving access to hospice services and utilization is a national prerogative. Socioeconomic, cultural and systemic factors affect hospice enrollment leading to a distinct under utilization of hospice services by the minority communities. Educational interventions to create awareness and remove misconceptions, improved insurance coverage, and… [read more]

CPT Codes End-Of-Life Care Pat Rights Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (707 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


CPT code for domiciliatory care facilities involves three key components: a problem focused hisotyr, exminiation, and medical decision making where complexity is low or moderate. The nature of the problem also requires counseling or coordination of care with other providers. The patient's and family's needs are taken into account in this regard. Problems are of moderate to high severity. Usually, physicians spend 30 minutes with the patient, family, or care giver. In this case, the patient is fairly high functioning, and can more or less function on his or her own. Assisted living is provided only to help the person function on a daily basis.

According to Robert M. Walker (2001), there are certain laws that govern the right of patients to make decisions such regarding their end-of-life care. In Oregon, for example, the law states that lethal amounts of medication may be prescribed by physicians in cases where a terminally ill patient is competent and requests such medication. When taking into account the human rights of the patients involved, and the likely quality of life should the patient not have the right to choose death, the legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide becomes a constitutional issue. Some however argue that it is likely that this right could also be extended to non-competent patients, and that the distinction between competence and non-competence is often too vague to be effective. These are very serious issues to consider, and also serve as the basis for no legalizing this option in all the American states.

The Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program was included in the Older Americans Act during the year 1978. This required that every state incorporate an Ombudsman Program to provide dignity and optimal health for older Americans. Several amendments were made to the Program to strengthen its provisions for those who needed it. In 1981, for example, coverage was expanded to include board and care homes. The Nursing Home Ombudsman Program became the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program during this year.

In 1992, the program was strengthened and referred to as the Vulnerable Elder Rights Protection Activities. This included elements such as the Prevention of Elder Abuse,…… [read more]

Euthanasia in Cases of Lost Identity Such as Alzheimer Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,096 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



The Ethics of Euthanasia in Cases of Lost "Identity": Alzheimer's, Dementia, and Self-Direction

As the methods and practices of Western medicine become more powerful, more able to correct disease and more able to foresee disease even when it cannot be prevented or corrected, the ethical complications and implications of these capabilities become ever greater themselves. The ethics of genetic… [read more]

Business Case for Single Responder Ambulance Paramedic Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  6 pages (1,814 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Business case for single responder ambulance paramedic to use CPR without stops for ventilating the patient.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a procedure that can be administered from a single person in an attempt to keep a person alive that has suffered from cardiac arrest, which causes the heart to stop. Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the leading cause of death… [read more]

Role of Funerals in Grief Recovery Rituals Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (986 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Role of Funerals in Grief Recovery

Rituals in Human Life and Death

Human societies represent myriad different cultures and social rituals but the degree to which they rely on those types of shared organized behaviors is much more consistent. Even the most widely disparate and geographically diverse human societies maintain some form of ritual in connection with the socially significant events and whatever milestones are recognized in a particular culture. Virtually all known human societies that have ever existed exhibit some ritualistic response to human death. For this reason, anthropologists and evolutionary biologists have even considered the possibility that there are biological influences that contribute to this common phenomenon, especially since there is even evidence that certain non-human animals (such as elephants) also recognize death through shared rituals. In fact, the similarity between the way elephants pay respect to the bones of members of their species, particularly among biological relations, and the way humans pay respect to the remains of loved ones is eerie.

Humans are the only species known to conduct organized funerals but one indication of how important that particular ritual is to society is the fact that archeological funeral artifacts date back to the earliest known human remains and the fact that they exhibit such fundamental similarity in so many respects. There are several functional reasons that the disposal of human remains would have developed independently in all human societies: decaying corpses are sources of disease; exposed corpses are consumed by wildlife; and there are very obvious issues of sensitivity in connection with seeing the dead. Therefore, the practices of burial and cremation probably evolved very similarly, at least to the extent they were related to functional issues about dealing with human death as a society. However, one of the most important functions of the funeral ritual is its role in the psychology of closure in general and of the importance of closure in recovery from grief in particular.

Closure and the Role of Funerals

The psychological concept of closure is a function of the fact that human beings prefer certainty to uncertainty with respect to anything that is extremely important to their lives. The loss of loved ones is always emotionally painful for the members of the surviving family. Initially and for the relatively short-term after the death of close relations or acquaintances, many individuals are inconsolable. Undoubtedly, funerals are said and they can be emotionally wrenching affairs. However, they also serve a crucial psychological function beyond the practical functions that they serve: they provide psychological closure for survivors.

To appreciate the significance of closure in grief and grief recovery, one need look no further than the effects of the loss of loved ones in situations where their surviving family members have certainty about the loss together with the opportunity to hold a funeral compared with the effects of the loss of loved ones in situations where their surviving family members lack certainty about the loss and…… [read more]

Hospice Organization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Organizational Behavior: Hospice

History of hospice: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPC)

While many individuals are familiar with the notion of 'hospice care,' either because one of their family members have been in a hospice or because they have volunteered with the organization, few know its long history in the tradition of ancient medicine -- and its relatively short history in the United States. The term "hospice…can be traced back to medieval times when it referred to a place of shelter and rest for weary or ill travelers on a long journey. The name was first applied to specialized care for dying patients in 1967 by physician Dame Cicely Saunders, who founded the first modern hospice -- St. Christopher's Hospice -- in a residential suburb of London" ("History of hospice care," NHPCO, 2001). Saunders' ideas were based upon her work with a dying patient "who, at the end of life, requested words of comfort and acts of kindness and friendship. Dr. Saunders came to believe and to teach, 'We do not have to cure to heal'" ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010).

A key component of Saunders' work was appropriate pain management. To advocate hospice care, Saunders would show "photographs of patients that dramatically illustrated the difference in them once pain and symptoms were controlled" ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010). The first hospice in America opened in Connecticut in 1974. The philosophy of hospices was influenced by the ideas of Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross' book On Death and Dying. "Based on interviews with dying patients, she identified five stages of grief - denial, anger, depression, bargaining and acceptance" of the dying and their loved ones ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010).

"Today there are more than 3,200 hospices across the country - some are part of hospitals or health systems, others are independent; some are nonprofit agencies, others are for-profit companies…in 2000 about one in every four Americans who died received hospice care at the end of life -- roughly 600,000 people" ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010). The growing acceptance of hospice was manifested when, "In the early 1980s, Congress created legislation establishing Medicare coverage for hospice care. The Medicare Hospice Benefit was made permanent in 1986. Today most states also provide hospice Medicaid coverage" ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010).

The primary advocate for hospices within the U.S. is the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO), founded in 1978 as the National Hospice Organization. "The organization changed its name in February 2000 to include palliative care," which is a broader range of care and services provided by hospices: "Defined by the World Health Organization in 1990, palliative care seeks to address not only physical pain, but also emotional, social, and spiritual pain to achieve the best possible quality of life for patients and their families" ("About NHPCO," NHPCO, 2010).

Definition of hospice care

Hospice's aim is… [read more]

Our Town the Movie 2003 Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Emotions in Our Town

Thornton Wilder's iconic play Our Town works on several different levels, and understanding these levels is critical to understanding the point of the play. On one level, Our Town is the story of the people in a town and the changes that they undergo at the time. On a second level, Our Town is the story… [read more]

Expliactaion: Hamlet Act 3, Scene the Famous Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Expliactaion: Hamlet Act 3, Scene

The famous "To be or not to be" soliloquy in Hamlet takes its context first from the plot of the play at large. Hamlet, the Prince of Denmark, is caught in what is for him a primarily depressing (or melancholic) situation -- his beloved father has died, almost certainly murdered by Hamlet's uncle, Claudius, who quickly married the widowed Queen (and Hamlet's mother) Gertrude, assuming the crown at the same time. Most recently, Hamlet has hatched a plot to prove his suspicions of Claudius, but even this fails to bring him any sense of joy or relief. Nothing that Hamlet does can restore his father to his life and crown, and this seems to be the driving force behind much of Hamlet's actions. The fact that his mother and everyone else in the court seems either willfully blind to or complicit in his father's murder makes the situation that much more tense for Hamlet.

The general content of the speech is a contemplation of suicide. Hamlet ponders both some of the positive and the negative aspects of killing himself, though he never comes out and says so in a fully explicit manner. The debate that takes place in his mind is not actually as complex as the language might imply; on the one hand, Hamlet sees suicide as a means of escaping the vagaries of the world and all of the misfortunes and pain that life brings -- the positive aspect of suicide -- while on the other hand, death leads to an unknown place that might consist of worse pain and terrors. Though Hamlet does not explicitly mention God, Satan, heaven, or hell, there is definitely some thought of these Christian concepts of the afterlife, as evidenced by Hamlet's use of the word "conscience" in describing his fears and uncertainties -- it is not simply fear, but a…… [read more]

Elderly Abuse Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,181 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Elder Abuse Issues in Canada

Elder abuse is becoming more and more of an important issue in Canada and other countries, particularly in those with a rapidly aging population. According to recent information collected by Environics for Human Resources and Social Development Canada, as many as 10% of Canadian senior citizens may be victims of one or another forms of elder abuse (SeniorsCanada, 2008).

Polls of Canadians indicate that 96% of the population believes that most elder abuse is hidden from public awareness; almost one quarter of Canadians have concerns that a senior they know may be a victim of elder abuse; more than 90% of Canadians consider elder abuse an important issue for governmental intervention; and more than 10% of the population has specifically searched for information about elder abuse (SeniorsCanada, 2008).

Defining Different Types of Elder Abuse

Elder abuse consists of any form of conduct toward an elderly person that is abusive, including: (1) physical abuse such as slapping, hitting, confining against their will, and beating; (2) sexual abuse such as any unwanted sexual touching; (3) mental or emotional abuse such as purposely frightening, intimidating, or humiliating them; (4) neglect such as failing to provide adequate nourishment, shelter, or medical care; and (5) financial abuse such as stealing money or misusing legal authority for personal gain (SeniorsCanada, 2008).

Elder citizens are more vulnerable to abuse for several specific reasons: first, they are weaker and less able to defend themselves from younger abusers; second, they become increasingly dependent on others as they age; and third, they are often confined to the home (or long-term care institutions) where abusive conduct toward them occurs in secret and out of public view (LeBreton, 2008).

Understanding the Cause of Elder Abuse

There are numerous causes of elder abuse. Unfortunately, some people are abusive in general and inclined to abusive or violent conduct at any provocation or even for amusement. These types of individuals are likely to be abusive to anyone who is vulnerable in circumstances where there are unlikely to be any consequences. Within families, young adults who resent having to care for elderly relatives may resort to rough physical mistreatment during arguments or disagreements simply because they lose control and lash out violently (SeniorsCanada, 2008).

In long-term care institutions such as nursing homes, some professionals are dedicated to the health, welfare, and protection of elderly residents, but others may approach their jobs mechanically as a means to a paycheck and without any particular concern for their clientele. Since they have no family ties to the elderly in their care, they may sometimes react inappropriately to frustrations or in response to refusal on the part of clients to follow instructions (LeBreton, 2008).

In many cases, the elderly suffer from cognitive decline such as Alzheimer's and other progressive diseases that make it difficult for them to understand instructions or to cooperate with caregivers (SeniorsCanada, 2008). The frustrations that result can trigger abusive reactions in some individuals. Additionally, many elderly become incontinent and must rely… [read more]

Enkidu and Gilgamesh: The Function of Heroic Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (373 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Enkidu and Gilgamesh: The Function of Heroic Friendship on the Path to Enlightenment

According to G.S. Kirk, "the main underlying theme" of the early Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh "is mortality" (Kirk 141). The hero Gilgamesh embarks upon a quest to find the secret of eternal life after witnessing the death of his dearest friend. At the beginning of the saga, the leader Gilgamesh is confident in his abilities because he is able to struggle and overcome the wild man of the forest Enkidu. At first, the representative of kingly authority Gilgamesh and 'nature' in the form of Enkidu are adversaries; then they become friends. But the polarization of nature and civilization shows that Gilgamesh, despite his strength, has much to learn from Enkidu. When Enkidu and Gilgamesh encounter Humbaba, the guardian of the cedar forest, Enkidu urges his friend not to kill the creature. Gilgamesh ignores Enkidu and brings the wrath of the gods upon the two men -- Enkidu is killed in punishment for Gilgamesh's crime.

This death changes Gilgamesh. Taming Enkidu made Gilgamesh more confident. Knowing his arrogant actions brought about the death of…… [read more]

King Lear Was Written Around 1605 Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (3,075 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … King Lear was written around 1605, between Othello and Macbeth, and represents one of the four pillars of Shakespearean plays. The tragedy, first published in 1623, depicts events which took place in the eighth century B.C. However unusual this might seem for Shakespeare whose tragedies were anchored in his own time, it is important to note that parallel… [read more]

Organ Donation in Contemporary UK Is the Concept of Presumed Consent the Best Way Forward Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,693 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Organ Donation in Contemporary UK

Beginnings, Current Figures and Needs

An organ transplant may be resorted to if one body organ fails or is lost to an illness

or injury (Medline Plus 2009). Organ transplantation involves the removal of the same healthy organ from a donor and transfer to the recipient's body. The most commonly transplanted organs are kidneys, heart,… [read more]

Medical Examiners of Years Past Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Author Timmermans continues, "All states with medical examiners require them to be physicians, and most demand additional certification in anatomical and forensic pathology" (Timmermans). It is important to note that only 22 states have a full medical examiner contingent in every county, and 11 states still use the coroner system. Today, medical examiners do not use a jury or inquest. They use technology that was unavailable just a few decades ago, such as forensic technologies in ballistics, scientific investigation, computer investigation, crime scene investigation, and much more. Many of the techniques available to today's medical examiners were not even possible a few decades ago, and they play a much more important role in crime scene investigation than ever before.

Today, medical examiners are often appointed or elected, as they were in the past. The popularity of medical examiner television shows has popularized the job of the medical examiner, and sometimes they show technology that seems cool, but does not really exist. However, there are advanced technologies that medical examiners use today that were unheard of to the early coroners. "Evidence Technology" magazine, a technical journal for the industry, offers advertisements for "Hemascein to reveal latent bloodstains," software for digital and physical evidence management, digital microscopes, a palm-sized digital evidence identification system, and much more. The job of the medical examiner today is much more scientific and analytical, and they have many more tools to help them identify victims, causes of death, and criminal activity. Today's medical examiners have become celebrities, too, such as "Doctor G," the medical examiner of Orange County, California, who has her own reality show. Most coroners probably never could have imagined that.


Timmermans, Stefan. "Postmortem: How Medical Examiners Explain Suspicious Deaths." University of Chicago Press. 2006. 2 Oct. 2009. [read more]

Benjamin Franklin's Epitaphs Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (373 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Benjamin Frankin's Epitaphs

The initial epitaph written by the young Benjamin Franklin is strong and determined. It could even be said that it is dramatic: "the body of," "food for worms" -- it strives to make a strong impression on the reader and shows the determination of the writer for his person to be remembered even after death. The length, content and formulation of the first reveal the spirit and energy of a young person, whereas the second epitaph is plain, revealing an older and tired person.

The first author, the young Franklin, has a romanticized view of death as an event which will guarantee drama and the remembrance of the individual. It could even be said that he impatiently awaits for his death as a moment in time when his work will be even more cherished due to the passing of its creator. The second writer on the other hand, the older Franklin, is tired and no longer reveals energy. He does perceive his death as a dramatic and theatrical event which will generate social turmoil, but sees it as a natural step in the…… [read more]

Physician-Assisted Suicide and Ethical Issues the Medical Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (924 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Physician-Assisted Suicide and Ethical Issues

The medical profession has been governed by the Hippocratic Oath since antiquity, according to which physicians must "do no harm" to their patients. However, toward end of the 20th century, medical science had progressed to the point that the definition of doing harm became much more complex than easily resolved by the types of distinctions and analyses sufficed previously. As medical interventions enabled the treatment of most human disease, that raised bioethical issues such as distinguishing extending life and prolonging suffering (Sharma, 2004). In many respects, it is no longer ethically appropriate to criminalize physician-assisted suicide or to otherwise impose restrictions on decisions that should remain strictly personal, although appropriate ethical and legal guidelines for avoiding mistakes and abuse are essential.

Recent evidence suggests that the incidence of suicide is substantially under-reported in the elderly community, precisely because standard medical care available in most "first-world" nations often extends life without regard to the relative quality of life from the point-of-view of the patient (Humphry, 2002). Increased longevity in the population has led to dramatic increase in debilitating ailments associated with old age, including severe cognitive impairment such as Alzheimer's disease, which has a very long and gradual onset after initial diagnosis. In some cases, elderly patients in good physical health have chosen assisted suicide instead of suffering from Alzheimer's (Humphry, 2002).

Justification for Permitting physician-assisted suicide:

Dr. Jack Kevorkian tried to raise awareness of the need for contemporary bioethics and legal definitions to recognize that situations may exist where physician-assisted suicide is more consistent with the fundamental concept of providing medical care than the unitary literal definitions that may have been appropriate previously. He was eventually convicted by the state of Michigan and incarcerated in connection with his purposely crossing the line between providing passive assistance in the suicide of some of his patients and actually initiating the cause of death directly (Martindale, 2007).

Dr. Kevorkian assisted patients who were already diagnosed with terminal diseases who wished to escape the physical suffering, such as the slow paralysis and eventual suffocation from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as "Lou Gehrig's Disease."

In principle, the justification for physician-assisted suicide is simply that the patient should have the autonomous authority to determine how much suffering is too much to endure. Some of those opposed to allowing any form of suicide argue that human life is sacred and that only God has the authority to give and take life. That particular objection (although one of the most common) is not an appropriate guideline in the United States because any legislation based on that concept violates the First Amendment prohibition on church and state entanglement (Humphry, 2002).

The other principle objection to any form of physician-assisted suicide is based on the…… [read more]

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