"Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays

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Dying Experience in Nursing Home Dissertation

Dissertation  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20

SAMPLE TEXT:

Dying Experience in Nursing Home

Arbuthnot, Elsa; Dawson, Jane; & Hansen-Ketchum, Patti. (2007). Senior women and rural living. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Healthcare. 7(1):1-12. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php/online-journal/article/viewFile/5/179

This article also expresses the individual's desire to experience death within the context of the home, yet shows the high strain such strategies have on resources. Without being able to meet this request, many are forced to experience death in nursing homes and hospices, which then increase anxiety and decrease the quality of the death experience.

Browne, Amy. (2007). Dying and death in a nursing home. Seniors. Associated Content. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/390397/dying_and_death_in_a_nursing_home.html?cat=12

Describes modern care practices for patients dying in a nursing home. It is a common practice to prescribe heavy pain relievers, such as morphine or roxanol in order to decrease discomfort and create a more comfortable context for the individual to experience death.

Consumer Affairs. (2004). Support for dying patients often lacking. News. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/nursing_home_terminal.html

This article reinforces the idea that modern nursing homes are under staffed and under funded. This causes serious gaps in the quality of care which has negative affects on the dying experience of the individual patients. Additionally, poor staff hiring can cause an environment where patients near death are treating with a lack of respect, causing low self-esteem before death.

Ferrell, Betty & Coyle, Nessa. (2006). Textbook of Palliative Nursing. Oxford University Press.

This book outlines traditional hospice care that can be implemented in specific cases dealing with nursing homes that can help increase the quality of the death experience. This work makes sure to advocate the varying nature of the death experience depending on the individual, and presents a model for care that…… [read more]


Voluntary Euthanasia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (349 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … against Voluntary Euthanasia

If a person requests assistance to end their life, it is called voluntary euthanasia. Types of euthanasia include involuntary euthanasia (no patient request) or passive euthanasia (withholding care). This essay will focus on the issue that voluntary euthanasia and highlight the major arguments against this act that have been rigorously studied in the scholarly literature. A prime focus on this discourse is that voluntary euthanasia devalues life. Several points are offered which uphold this stance.

A method of judging the ethical concerns of voluntary euthanasia utilizes the Principle of Double Effect. The "PDE" is a valid foundation to decide when voluntary euthanasia is acceptable. Four factors comprise the PDE; the action must be a good one, only the good effect must be intended, the good effect must not be achieved by way of the bad effect, and the good result must outweigh the bad (Sulmasey and Pelligrino 550).

The PDE upholds this, as the resultant death (via doctor assisted termination) achieves the good result through employment of the bad…… [read more]


Poe's Style, While Not Unique Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,236 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Poe's style, while not unique, is extremely masterful in creating various literary atmospheres and eliciting emotional reactions from readers. He employs several tools in both "The Black Cat" as well as "The Masque of the Red Death" that give the unsuspecting reader a sense of mystery, fear, horror, and sheer excitement. In both short stories Poe skillfully creates a specific tone, successfully employs foreshadowing, and draws the readers attention to various metaphors and symbols to help concoct a truly unique reading experience. As the stories build, they both give the reader a sense of mortality, imminent doom, and the feeling of helplessness or of being trapped. Poe accomplishes this through his writing, and the setting up of each story's climax in a very calculated, deliberate way.

"The Masque of the Red Death" is an excellent example of Poe's ability to both foreshadow events as well as create symbols and metaphors from seemingly innocuous events and objects. He draws the reader in with the grotesque and graphic descriptions of the symptoms of the horrible disease, laying the foundation for the reader's emotion expectations and responses. He skillfully sets up the feeling of dread and doom in his own description of the seventh room of the Prince's abode writing, "The seventh apartment was closely shrouded in black velvet tapestries that hung all over the ceiling and down the walls, falling in heavy folds upon a carpet of the same material and hue. But in this chamber only, the color of the windows failed to correspond with the decorations. The panes here were scarlet -- a deep blood color.." The imagery here is chilling, and each of the seven rooms represents a period in the life of a human being, from birth to death. Poe ingeniously constructs an allegory for moving through each of life's unique time periods through his description of the prince's apartment rooms. The seventh room with its unmatched, melancholy appearance and blood red windows are foreshadowing the events that will soon take place there. It symbolizes death and dread, just as the colors black and red often symbolize these two elements. This room was also the resting place of the gigantic ebony clock. This clock is also a symbol of the impending doom that is to befall the prince and his guests. The wonderful sense of security and feeling that the prince has set up a home impervious to the disease is shaken and destroyed by the end of the story. All of the guests at the party are weary of the ticking of the clock, as Poe uses this to illustrate the fact that they are running out of time, quite glaringly, in a place that has been cut off from the outside world. This feeling of inevitability and helplessness also add to the reader's feelings of fear and horror later in the story.

In "The Black Cat," Poe also successfully employs foreshadowing and metaphor. He begins the story by trying to develop an emotional bond between the… [read more]


Suicide in the Elderly Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,453 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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Suicide in the Elderly

Leading Cause of Death, Rising Incidence

Suicide as one of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States was surpassed by Alzheimer Disease and septicemia more than a decade ago (McKeown 2006). However, it remains a leading cause of death among those aged 10-64 and higher in older persons. Studies showed that suicide rates… [read more]


Sandwich Generation Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,114 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

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¶ … Sandwich Generation, Caregiving, and Alzheimer's

Alzheimer's

The disease that all elderly people -- and their children, their grandchildren, their friends and neighbors -- dread nearly as much as cancer is Alzheimer's, and with good reason. "The worst part is the helplessness," said Sue Irvine, whose mother is an Alzheimer's patient. "You see a loved one struggling and unhappy,… [read more]


Life Long Learning Plan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,411 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … Nursing Home in Liberia

In the past, the need for nursing home facilities in Liberia was small because the culture demanded that immediate family members care for the elderly and given the relatively short life expectancies involved, few people lived long enough to require such care in formal institutional settings. Things are changing in Liberia, though, and improvements… [read more]


Euthanasia Euthenasia the Topic Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,018 words)
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Euthanasia

EUTHENASIA

The topic of euthanasia is one that evokes an extensive and complex range of reactions. These range from outright moral indignation at the very suggestion that the taking of another human life could be legitimized, to arguments that provide rational reasons and justifications for the need for the legalization of euthanasia. Another variable that has to be taken… [read more]


Forensic Anthropology Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,934 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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Forensic anthropology is a function of forensics and physical anthropology that specifically looks at skeletal remains in a forensic or crime detection setting to try to make inferences about those remains. (Ryan, 2002, p. 15) It was once an accepted fact that once a body had decomposed to a certain degree, i.e. skeletal remains little could be done to determine… [read more]


Online Scientific Publication for Current Research Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (583 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … online scientific publication for current research on the role of the cell cycle in aging.

"Loss of Stem Cells Correlates With Premature

Aging In Animal Study." ScienceDaily 8 June 2007. 29 April 2009 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070606235257.htm

While dying and aging are accepted as inevitable facts of life, new research suggests that like so many diseases, aging (or at very least the rate at which we age) is encoded in our genes. Also, new research into what parts of the cell are involved in regeneration hold the promise for forestalling the seemingly inevitable symptoms of growing older. According to the ScienceDaily article "Loss of Stem Cells Correlates With Premature Aging In Animal Study," researchers at the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute of the University of Pennsylvania have found that deleting a gene known as ATR from a mouse's genetic sequence can lead to premature aging and loss of stem cell reservoirs in the affected mice.

This gene, which is essential for normal cell regeneration allows the body to heal normally, in response to damaged DNA. Daily, the body breaks down and rebuilds itself. Our body's ability to regenerate slows down as we age and our reserves of stem cell reservoirs grows smaller, or in some cases loses their integrity through overly frequent division when our systems are particularly stressed. Until now, scientists were uncertain as to why this was the case, on a molecular level. The new model offered by this research could provide scientists with clues as to how to preserve stem cells and suppress or reduce the symptoms of aging and develop new ways to repair DNA damage due to cancer and other disorders in humans on a cellular level.

Aging may be described as a slow loss of stem…… [read more]


Life Expectancy Looking at the Current Data Thesis

Thesis  |  1 pages (313 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

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¶ … Life Expectancy

Looking at the current data on the life expectancy in the United States, it is indeed correct to assume that most people would live to the ages of 100 or more. This assumption is made possible by advances in the field of medical science, according to biologists. This claim is strengthened by the data on life expectancy by birth year in the country, which showed that towards the year 2000, there has been a steady increase in life expectancy, reaching towards the 80 years level. In addition to this, U.S. death rate by age data illustrated that death is practically nil for people with ages below 40 years old, after which death could increase exponentially but will peak at 80 years or older. Lastly, U.S. life expectancy by age supports these assumptions by showing that indeed, 80 years old marks the highest life expectancy for people in the 21st century.

While this…… [read more]


Challenges of Hospice Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,489 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

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¶ … Hospice

The objective of this research is to examine the hospice care community and the challenges associated with treating terminal disease and maintaining quality of life standards that medical professionals, patients and their families face.

Hospice care is becoming more relevant in our society as terminal diseases become a more significant cause of death. This is the reason… [read more]


Superman Only One-Third Mortal, Gilgamesh Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (597 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … superman only one-third mortal, Gilgamesh becomes the unwitting hero of a tragic tale. Being two-thirds a god, the King of Uruk leads his people with an iron fist, letting his divine nature turn him into an arrogant and oppressive leader. The Epic of Gilgamesh explores Gilgamesh's relationship with himself and his own hubris extensively throughout the twelve tablets upon which the Sumerian text was written. However, Gilgamesh needed a major catharsis to initiate his personal transformation. The gods are the primary force responsible for Gilgamesh's changing from a brutal ruler to an altruistic one. Creating Enkidu as Gilgamesh's only viable nemesis turns out to be the catalyst for the title character. Enkidu, unlike Gilgamesh, is entirely mortal. His death is what makes Gilgamesh accept his own mortality. Ironically, it is Enkidu's humanity that makes Gilgamesh a truly godlike figure.

Although Gilgamesh is two-thirds part god and Enkidu is introduced as being animalistic, Enkidu appears the more emotionally intelligent and spiritually strong of the two. Enkidu is created entirely by the gods, even though he is a wholly earthy character. Like an animal, Enkidu lives in the woods and has little contact with humanity before encountering Gilgamesh and before that, a prostitute. Both Gilgamesh and Enkidu are initially shown to be animals even though Gilgamesh is two-thirds part god. Interestingly, Enkidu is more emotionally intelligent than Gilgamesh at the beginning of the story. Enkidu challenges Gilgamesh on the grounds that his behavior as king is out of hand and inhumane. In fact, the gods created Enkidu as a rival for Gilgamesh, one who could challenge, threaten, and undermine the arrogant king's power. Enkidu is first described as a sort of monster, when oddly it is Gilgamesh who is the real monster at the start of the epic…… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Has Become a Concern Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,843 words)
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Alzheimer's Disease has become a concern that is now more widely studied than it used to be. Typically seen in the elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is characterized by several factors, including forgetfulness and agitation (National, 2008). Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, and it gets progressively worse as the patient continues to age (National, 2008). Despite the lack… [read more]


Counseling the Broken Hearted - Memories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,946 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

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Counseling the Broken Hearted - Memories of Grief

Grief is painful. When we talk about grief we are referring to the extreme emotional reaction of an individual to loss, which often includes shock, sadness, fear, anger, confusion, somatic disorders, and loss of identity. If the grief is not resolved, complicated grief will be the outcome; that is, grief that is… [read more]


Edgar Allen Poe's "The Masque Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Edgar Allen Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death" & Robert Olen Butler's "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of Parrot"

In the writing "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of Parrot," by Robert Olen Butler, he gives a comical a detailed description of a man reincarnate as a parrot, and comes to live once again with his wife, however the second time around he is a bird caged in the living room, watching her living here life and bringing different men home, and his reaction to these strangers in his home. The atmosphere of the writing is extremely relaxed and easily related to emotions that people probably feel often throughout their lives.

In the writing "The Masque of the Red Death," by Edger Allen Poe, the overall description and subject matter varies greatly from that of the previously mentioned writing. Poe, discusses death, however it is slightly mentioned at the beginning of the writing than again at the end. The writing by Poe is very descriptive and has a more formal feeling to it as he describes the rooms, and the events going on in each of the rooms.

Both writings compare in giving visuals that are consistent…… [read more]


Individual Determinants Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (911 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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New Product Idea - Fashionable Walker for Seniors

Product: A fashionable walker for older men and women that does not look like the metal one normally used in healthcare facilities. Purpose: To get away from the stigma attached to using a walker.

Determinant -- Age: Although this walker could and would be used by younger individuals, it would predominantly be marketed to older men and women who have difficulty walking on their own. It is a well-known fact that the U.S. population is becoming older. During the 20th century, the number of persons under age 65 tripled. Simultaneously, those aged 65 or over has jumped ll times. As a result, the elderly comprised only 1 in every 25 Americans in 1900 but 1 in 8 in 1994. According to the Census Bureau, the elderly population will more than double between now and 2050 to 80 million. As many as 1 in 5 Americans could be elderly. Most of this growth should occur between 2010 and 2030, when babyboomers enter their elderly years.

The number of elderly will grow rapidly, mostly those aged 85 and over, to 19 million in 2050. Between 1960 and 1994, their numbers rose 274%. In contrast, the elderly population in general rose 100%, and the entire U.S. population grew only 45%. By an average of 2.8% annually.

According to Wolfe (2003), there are a number of different ways to compare the behaviors and reactions of older vs. younger consumers:

Younger minds are more responsive to emotionally neutral, objectively framed propositions.

Older individuals are increasingly responsive to emotional cues. They are less responsive to information that is emotionally neutral.

Older individuals are more adept at getting to deeper meanings.

Younger minds are more literal, and generally respond better to a language style that is direct and detailed.

Older people are repelled by absolutism.

Young often appear to project autonomy in their strident expressions, but in reality they demonstrate considerable dependence on guidance.

Older people generally depend less on others for guidance.

Older minds are generally more responsive to indirect approaches until such time that trust has been fully gained, at which time, they may actually welcome directness even more than a younger person might.

2) Determinant -- Gender: This walker, although different styles for men and women, would most likely be used more by women: First, because women live longer than men and thus have a greater need for them. Second, because women are more self-conscious about the way a typical walker looks than a man. Third, because women suffer more from osteoporosis and have a greater need for walking assistance.

According to the Census Bureau, men generally have higher death rates than women at every age. As a result, elderly women…… [read more]


Hamlet's Soliloquy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,107 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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Hamlet's Soliloquy is touted as one of the most telling of all his rants. In this one passage he discusses the reason people choose to live or die. In short men choose to live because they fear the unknown of death. This passage is a larger answer to Hamlet's own question of why he has chosen to this point to act in life, to avenge his father's death rather than simply to let himself die or be killed as his father was. From this point forward in the work, Hamlet lives without fear of death, Ophelia has shown him that fear is only necessary when one makes no peace with the calamity of his life. Hamlet vows to make his revenge and let his life be taken in the process if it will. If the soft, fair Ophelia can choose death over life to end her worldly calamity, the scorn of his love given and then taken away, than he must no longer live in fear of death, he must avenge himself and his father so that all but the wicked can sleep the peaceful sleep of death.

The language of the passage is a clear indication that Hamlet is at a decision point. He has taken from his life the message that all is calamity, especially in worldly intrigue and that a decision must now be made to live or die, avenged or un-avenged. His fear is built on, the fear of the unknown as well as the fear of living in a world that continues to beat him down with, "whips and scorns of time, / the oppressor's wrong, the proud mans contumely, / the pangs of despised love, the law's delay, / the insolence of office and the spurns / That patient merit of the unworthy takes, When he himself might his quietus make..." The language is wavering, as like all other points in the work, he discusses with himself the nature of his decision. He asks, what is right, to seek out an end to his worldly depravity before or after he has avenged his father or to simply keep living in such calamity, because he is afraid of death? Yet, his resolve is set when he says, "And thus conscience does make cowards of us all; / and thus the native hue of resolution / I sicklied over with the pale crust of thought, / and enterprises of great pith and moment / With this regard their currents turn awry, / and lose the name of action." Hamlet seeks to stop thinking and to start doing, and in his last apology to Ophelia, for using her in his plot and precipitating her own death he tells her, "-Soft you now! The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in they orisons / Be all my sins remember'd." He gives Ophelia the right to hold him responsible for his act of betrayal towards her.

Hamlet vows not to fear death but to take within his own hands the responsibility to… [read more]


1995 Chicago Heat Wave Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,043 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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1995 Chicago Heat Wave

How do we know that the 1995 Chicago heat wave is a disaster? Explain the chronic conditions which enabled this disaster

It was the month of July in the year 1995, in Chicago. The entire city felt like it was tropical, almost like it was Fiji or Guam, and to add to the discomfort of the… [read more]


Streetcar Name Desire Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Streetcar Named Desire

Tennessee Williams play "A Streetcar Named Desire" is filled with various symbols, literary elements, and techniques that carry special meaning and touch the reader's innermost thoughts. It places the reader in a particular historic time when society and a people used to coexist in different ways compared to today's attitudes. One of the most complex characters in the play, Blanche Dubois, experiences numerous incidents and has certain dynamics that solidify her tragic elements, such as leaving Belle Reve, losing her family house, losing a young husband to suicide, deaths of her family members, and these develop into dependence, desperation, superiority, and poverty. The play opens with Blanche's visit to New Orleans to be reunited with her sister. The play's ending is tragic because of the many downfalls and disappointments in her life, and the fact that instead of overcoming them, she allows them to ruin her life. In fact, she allows others to take over control over her life, signifying her life has spun out of control. She does not have control over her own mind, she has lost her sanity, and she does not have control over her future, as indicted when Stanley commits her to the insane asylum at the end of the play.

Blanche is a tragic character and the main character in this play. She is filled with illusions of what life should be like, but which cannot possibly apply to real life. Between reality and her ideals, she struggles to overcome her own weaknesses, but not nearly hard enough. She literally self-destructs by pretending and lying. She pretends to be an innocent Southern belle, but of course, she is aging fast and far past the young innocent stage. This is clear when…… [read more]


My Father Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Death & Dying - Hospice

REFLECTING on the DEATH of MY FATHER

My beloved father died recently. In life, he was the source of many lessons, about love, friendship, honesty, compassion, fairness, responsibility, sacrifice, and the meaning of personal integrity. In his death, he provided one last lesson, a lesson represented more by questions and the opportunity for self-exploration rather than a lesson of definitive answers or solutions.

We all knew that my father was dying, because while still a hospital in-patient, his doctor advised him that he had approximately a week to live without dialysis.

Because dialysis meant merely extending a life that had become more difficult to prolong than to relinquish, my father declined the treatment; he had had enough suffering and discomfort. I recall understanding his decision but being aware of a vague feeling of anger at his choice, despite the fact that I did not want him to suffer.

My father spent the last week of his life confined to his bed at home, where we cared for him 'round the clock, changing his position in bed to avoid bedsores, feeding him, changing him, and keeping him clean. We had arranged for delivery of whatever equipment we could find to make the end of his life as comfortable as possible, including hospital bed and supplemental oxygen.

For the first time, our respective roles had reversed completely, with my father's absolute dependence on us, instead of the other way around, for even the most basic human needs. In many ways, it was similar to caring for an infant. At times, it was difficult for me to grasp the reality that this dependent person barely conscious in a hospital bed was really my father. Looking back on it afterwards, I was already in a mild state of psychological shock, just at my father's deterioration, even before he died.

At the same time, I tried to focus on the fact that my father was still alive, which meant that I hadn't yet lost him. In reality, most of the person my father had been died long before he actually drew his last breath. Psychologists would probably say that I was in a state of denial in pretending that my father was still "OK" when in truth, he obviously was not "OK" in the least. Nevertheless, I had also begun anticipating the grieving process while he was still alive.

At first, my reaction to his death matched my expectations as my tears flowed more freely than ever before, at least more freely than ever before as an adult. The morning after he died, my grief seemed at first to have passed, but gradually, I realized that I had become numb. I helped arrange for his funeral and for family gatherings as well as carrying out daily routines that still had to be done. In some respects, the numbness was even worse than the first day of grief I experienced, because nothing else in my…… [read more]


Nursing Home Problems There Many Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,800 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Nursing Home Problems

There many problems that are associated with old age, as the human body begins to break down in physical ways, and the mind begins to break down as well, resulting in memory loss, psychological issues, and in some cases dementia and even the dreaded Alzheimer's disease.

For most families in America, taking care of their elderly grandparents… [read more]


Palliative Care Is Defined Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Palliative care is defined as care which will improve the quality of life
for a patient and the patient's family when they face life threatening
illness. Palliative care provides prevention and relief of suffering on
the part of the patient. It includes the identification of discomfort, the
treatment of pain and the support of the patient and families in the
physical, psychosocial and spiritual spheres. By definition, palliative
care will neither hasten or postpones death, but rather makes the attempt
to approach death as a normal process, allowing the patient to live as
actively and maintain as much control as possible until death occurs.
In Will's case, the administration of palliative care, by definition,
cannot include the administration of the morphine at such a dose to hasten
his death. This would be defined as euthanasia, which Will is requesting
by the administration of the morphine. Were Will still able to administer
the medication on his own, via activation of his PCA pump, then the act
would be considered passive euthanasia since the likelihood is that the
dose of the medication will suppress Will's respiratory drive rather than
simply treat his pain. The administration of morphine in such doses is
considered ethical in most political jurisdictions, and by most medical
societies. In Will's case, should the physician administer the medication
in such a dose as to suppress Will's respiratory drive, the motive for the
physician would be one of mercy. The difference between this and physician
assisted suicide is the intent behind the act. Physician assisted suicide
is not legal in most states, and the intent behind this act is to allow the
patient to end his or her own life. In Will's case, the physician may
hasten death but the primary reason for the administration of the
medication is to alleviate Will's severe pain and suffering. In this case,
palliative care may in effect hasten Will's death, but that will not be the
primary reason for the administration of his morphine. Ethically and
legally,…… [read more]


Dementia There Are a Number of Individuals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,741 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Dementia

There are a number of individuals who believe that dementia is a disease when in fact it is not. Dementia is actually a condition derived from a variety of diseases. "Many people equate dementia with Alzheimer's Disease, but they are not synonymous though Alzheimer's is one of dementia's major causes." (Levine 2006 p 6)

Dementia can be described as… [read more]


Gothic and Macabre: Explication of Selected Works of Edgar Allan Poe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,105 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Gothic and Macabre: an Explication of Selected Works of Edgar a. Poe

Edgar Allen Poe uses elements both of a gothic and macabre nature in order to develop an atmosphere of intense horror within his short stories. Thus several stories take place in dark and gloomy settings, allow characters to undergo violent and unusual events, and generally end with an inevitably bizarre form of death for some characters.

Many of Poe's stories take place in settings characterized as being dark and oppressive. These settings often contain large, decrepit, and antiquated dwellings with countless rooms and secret vaults and passageways. The dwellings are usually set in remote and desolate locations, which effectively cut occupants off from the rest of civilization. Such a setting can be found in the story "Ligeia," where the narrator explains that after the death of his beloved first wife he took up residence in a dismal abbey located in a remote part of England. Within the abbey is an unusually shaped bridal chamber atop a high tower, which is where the narrator supposedly witnesses both his second wife's demise and first wife's subsequent resurrection.

In the story entitled "William Wilson" one of its major settings is a vast Elizabethan schoolhouse characterized with having countless subdivisions and being located in an ancient town. This schoolhouse setting is significant because it is where the narrator encounters his doppelganger for the first time. The story "The Masque of the Red Death" also contains a dark and gloomy setting, though it is not stated in an outright fashion. The prince's castellated abbey is located in a deeply secluded area and the suite in which he finally loses his life is characterized as being dark and dreary, due to having black furnishings and a blood-red tinted window. One of the most strangely oppressive settings is found in "The Cask of Amontillado" in which much of the story occurs within the gloomy atmosphere of the catacombs.

The story entitled "The Fall of the House of Usher" is the most particular about creating a gothic setting for its tale because the Usher mansion is central to the storyline. It is thus described as being so bleak and full of decay that, much like the terrible state of its owners, the sight of it causes viewers to feel an unbearable sense of gloom. From afar the mansion is described as being structurally stable, but upon closer inspection it is seen that its individual stones are crumbling down and its exterior is covered with fungi. Its interior is described as having dark and complicated passageways and containing outdated furnishings. The mansion's depressing atmosphere is partly responsible for Usher's illness, as he claims that the home is actually a sentient being capable of inflicting mental anguish upon him. Thus due to the mansion's significance to the storyline, the gloomy setting works especially well within this story.

Another gothic and macabre element found within Poe's stories is that characters often undergo violent and unusual events. One… [read more]


Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes

Elder abuse is generally defined as "...neglect, mistreatment, exploitation, or harming of elderly patients in nursing homes, assisted living facilities, or home care environments" (Elder Abuse and Nursing Home Neglect). Abuse of the elderly can take many forms; including physical or sexual abuse, psychological and emotional abuse as well as financial abuse and abandonment. Studies… [read more]


Edgar Allan Poe Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,778 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

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Edgar Allan Poe is considered to be one of the lesser known great artists of the 19th century. Orphaned at a very young age of 3, he nevertheless lived a happy and contented childhood with a kind-hearted and wealthy merchant, John Allan, from whom he derived his middle name. He was sent to a good school and even excelled in… [read more]


Senior Isolation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,020 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Senior Isolation

Today, senior citizens typically live alone and often find themselves isolated from family and the community. Isolation may be caused by the death of a spouse or by the death of close friends and family members. Seniors may find themselves isolated due to divorce, or adult children and close family members may live too far away for regular contact. Senior citizens may feel isolated due to employment retirement or chronic illness may keep them from involvement in social activities. Isolation may lead to a variety of negative effects (Medical).

Isolation often leads to depression for senior citizens. In fact, depression in individuals 65 years of age and older is considered a major health problem, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (Medical). Depression in the elderly often goes undiagnosed because doctors and family assume that the senior has simply slowed down due to advancing age, thus many elderly citizens find themselves coping with symptoms of depression that may actually increase isolation because they have lost interest in normal activities and communications (Medical). Moreover, not only does depression generally lasts longer in senior adults, but it also doubles their risk of developing cardiac diseases and can increase the risk of death from illness, as well as reduce their rehabilitation (Medical).

According to recent research, elderly persons who lack companionship and emotional or social support are vulnerable to heart problems (Ham). The study found that for every unit increase in loneliness, there was a threefold increase among older adults in being diagnosed with at heart condition (Ham). Every unit increase in perceived emotional support indicated a 97% decrease, while every unit increase in perceived social support or companionship decreased the odds of having a heart condition by 91% (Ham). The health effects of social isolation are particularly significant among seniors because they are more vulnerable to disruptions in their personal relationships due to death or illness (Ham). Moreover, many are removed from their social networks by being institutionalized in nursing homes or other managed care facilities (Ham). The authors found that the companionship of just one person was enough to reduce the risk of heart disease, while social support with multiple individuals produced increased health effects (Ham).

Depression in elderly adults also increases the likelihood of suicide, in fact the suicide rates in persons 80 to 84 years of age are twice that of the general population (Medical). Studies suggest that social isolation is associated with attempted suicide and deliberate self-harm among seniors (Sullivan).

Moreover, isolated seniors are less likely to shop for groceries or to cook for themselves, thus they are more likely to skip meals or eat convenience foods and snacks that are high in fat and sodium which increases their risks for diabetes, hypertension and heart disease (Dooley). In fact, surveys indicate that more than 50% of senior citizens live and eat alone, increasing their risk for malnutrition and associated diseases (Dooley). This has led many communities across the country to establish meal programs for seniors… [read more]


Impact of Demographic Changes Term Paper

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Demographic Changes

Demography is the study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth density, distribution or vital statistics (Lexico Publishing Group, LLC 2006). Statistics show that the population of persons aged 65 years and older grew from 4% in 1900 to 12.7% in 1990 and is predicted to reach 21% in the year 2030. It has been observed that the older population is growing older and that the oldest old is the fastest growing group. There are now 3 million elderly people aged 85 years old and over in the U.S. today. Other industrialized countries exhibit the same pattern among their elderly populations so that they are predicted to comprise 1.5 of the world population in the year 2050 (American Association of Retired Persons 1998, Stastny 2006).

Most age distributions are based on chronological age and scientists create groups on this basis in order to analyze the consequences of age distribution (American Association of Retired Persons 1998). Age 65 has been most often used as the start of old age arbitrarily since the 1935 enactment of the Social Security Act, which fixed the age of retirement and benefits could be received. Ageism has since been resorted to as a biased norm in acquiring social resources on account of declining functional ability, in turn due to chronological aging. The role theory basically assumes on the roles set for persons according to their age. Gerontologists who support this theory are unduly fixated with the problems of adjustment that aging persons undergo because of changes that occur later in their lives. In the process, these persons lose their identity, their children become adults themselves and these retirees lose the activities, which used to occupy their time. They, thus,…… [read more]


Aging Society and Changing Family Term Paper

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¶ … elderly are defined and what their roles are in U.S. society. The elderly seem to be the forgotten sect of the American population. As baby boomers grow older, the elderly population is growing, but it simply does not get respect from American media and American society. Many people define anyone over 50 as "elderly," but many 50+ adults defy the definition and act and feel much younger than their years.

There are many problems facing the elderly in American society today. For example, retirement is a growing problem facing society because so many of the baby boom generation are growing older and retiring at the same time. There is worry that Social Security will not be able to afford this great number of retirees. In addition, many other social and community functions are challenged as society ages. There are not enough nursing homes and hospital beds for the elderly population, and so more in-home services, such as meals on wheels and in-home nursing care will need to be provided. The funds for these will have to come from local, state, and the Federal governments, and this means higher taxes for American society overall. In addition, many elderly parents are moving in with their adult children because they have nowhere else to go, and this is changing the face of the American family, which is becoming more blended and more responsible for aging parents and relatives. Besides retirement, there are many other aspects of aging that are difficult to deal with.

The media tends to portray the elderly as helpless, hopeless, and laughable. Most advertising is geared to young consumers, while ads geared to the elderly are usually for prescription drugs and other pharmaceuticals from denture adhesive to arthritis pain medications. The elderly are not usually portrayed as active, but as helpless and hopeless, such as the people in the ads for medical emergency signals they wear if they live alone. These people are portrayed as most American society sees the…… [read more]


Euthanasia (Active and Passive) Term Paper

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Slippery slope arguments encompass logical, psychological and arbitrary line. These different forms share a counter argument that when the first step is taken on a slippery slope the subsequent steps follow inevitably, whether for logical reasons, psychological reasons or to avoid unpredictability in a person's actions. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

RESPONSE TO OBJECTIONS

It is important for the proponents of… [read more]


Osteoporosis Definition of Osteoporosis Term Paper

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Osteoporosis

Definition of Osteoporosis:

Osteoporosis is a developing condition in which bone density is lost, or there is inadequate bone formation, thereby deteriorating the bones and making them more vulnerable to fractures. Osteoporosis is also known as the silent disease and is a familiar bone disease, which makes the bone lean and having holes. Osteoporosis takes place when the body… [read more]


Grief and Loss Term Paper

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Grief and Loss

Although often very painful, grief is a normal and natural response to loss (What pp). Generally, when most people think of loss and grief, they think of the death of a loved one, however, there are many other significant changes in an individual's life that can involve loss and therefore grief (What pp). Everyone experiences loss and… [read more]


Adolescent Suicide Epidemiological Approach Term Paper

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Adolescent suicide is now responsible for more deaths in people between ages 15 to 19 than cardiovascular disease or cancer (Blackman, 1996). Teen suicide has more than tripled since the 1960's (Santrock, 2003). Despite this alarming increased suicide rate, depression in this age group is largely under-diagnosed and can lead to serious difficulties in school, work, and personal adjustment, which… [read more]


Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Term Paper

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¶ … Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Adults in Care Facilities Such as Retirement Homes/Nursing Homes

Do Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Adults in Alternative Care Facilities

The United States is experiencing a fundamental shift in demographics as the percentage of elderly citizens continues to increase. More and more people will become residents of nursing homes,… [read more]


Euthanasia There Can Be Little Term Paper

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True, that the religion of the cancer patients interviewed in the study may have compelled them to believe that life must be valued at all costs. However, it must equally be remembered that respect for the sanctity of life is a foundational societal value, which is inculcated in all citizens. Proponents of euthanasia may argue that people have the right to choose the manner, time, and place of their death (Brock, 1992). But, as Somerville (2003) points out, what such arguments usually fail to take into consideration is that allowing individuals such a right would undermine the capacity of both medicine and law to maintain the respect for human life. In other words, allowing euthanasia would weaken the prohibition on intentional killing, which human society has historically upheld as a sign that human life must be valued (Brock, 1992). Thus, it is not surprising that the cancer patients opined that their trust in their doctors would be impaired if euthanasia was ever discussed as a solution to their constantly being in pain.

Indeed, it appears that the American Medical Association (AMA) agrees with the view taken by the cancer patients. For, this is one of the major reasons why the AMA has taken a strong anti-euthanasia position: "There is, in short, compelling evidence of the need to ensure that all patients have access to quality palliative care, but not of any need for physician-assisted suicide." In addition to this statement, which was issued in an amicus brief in the 9th circuit case for doctor-assisted suicide, the AMA has expressly stated that doctors perform a crucial act of healing and saving life. Accepting a dual role of taking life, while at the same time, protecting life, would undermine their credibility and the sacred trust that exists between a patient and doctor (Life Issues Institute, 1997).

The AMA, as well as the legal system, have other reasons for being anti-euthanasia as well. The first, as the Netherlands experience has shown, is that euthanasia would make it extremely difficult to prevent abuse. This is particularly true of physicians who have opportunities to kill that are not open to other people (Somerville, 2003). A system that permits euthanasia would, in addition, also make it easier for families of mentally incompetent people to claim that a previously lucid patient had expressed a wish for euthanasia. In fact, this is one of the major contentious issues in the recent, much publicized Terri Schiavo case. Over and above individual motives, which can be construed as tantamount to homicidal (Brock, 1992), there is also the fear that euthanasia would be an all too tempting avenue for a society faced with an ageing population and scarce health-care resources (Somerville, 2003). This may lead to severe abuse and the perpetration of grave injustices both at the individual as well as the social level.

Thus, it is evident that the risks of permitting euthanasia far outweigh the benefits, if any. Further, the case for opposing euthanasia does not, at any point,… [read more]


Right to Die Term Paper

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Euthanasia - the Right to Die

Although there are laws in the United States that ban euthanasia, from a logical viewpoint, this type of PAS (physician-assisted suicide) should be legal, due to the fact that it is morally and ethically allowable for a doctor to provide the assistance to a terminally-ill patient to end his/her own life. In essence, this… [read more]


White Noise by Don Delillo Term Paper

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White Noise

Don Delillo's White Noise introduces a character -- Jack Gladney -- who is embroiled in a constant struggle to identify himself as something in opposition to death. Specifically the form his identity may possibly take is difficult for him to conceive; particularly, since he is obsessed with the notion of death, and in fact, defines his whole outward existence around its presence. The plot of his life, the plot of the novel, and indeed, the plot of any novel or tale, to Jack, demands that they culminate in death. Jack faces an identity crisis, and this crisis ultimately centers on the unknown; foremost among the things that remain unknown and unseen to Jack is the end of his life. Consequently, he attempts to manufacture an identity that possesses a fundamental relationship with death and is able to transcend it. The starkest contrast to Jack's character is Wilder, who is both oblivious to his mortal condition and is a whirlwind of impulses and urges. The existence of plot in White Noise implies that it will end -- it will die along with Jack -- however, death does not come because Jack seizes upon the immediate events of life, thus disregarding the fact that life is terminal. Delillo makes use of the plot in his novel to uncover the intrinsic relationship between death and individual conceptions of identity.

The inaccessibility of certain forms of knowledge is a barrier to grasping what something or someone truly is. This is illustrated by the most photographed barn in the world that Jack and Murray visit: the tourists are unable to see the real barn because the advertisements and photographs develop an aura surrounding the barn, and make it into something that it could not be without their presence. So, Murray decides, "They are taking pictures of pictures." (Delillo 13). The existence of the mechanisms of advertisement prevents anyone from truly seeing the barn. Similarly, human beings are inaccessible and require a type of advertisement, because the mechanism of death places them in a concrete setting. By being situated in a specific time and place, there are human drives to associate individuals with something larger, with something that transcends their mortality. This is the point that drives Jack to create an identity for himself that will forever be linked to someone who cannot be forgotten. The realization that his deeds and thoughts are definitively transient is the impetus behind his search for identity. Additionally, he recognizes that the identity he has chosen for himself is just as false as the pictures of the barn, and analogously, prevents him or anyone else from truly knowing who he is.

Jack deliberately links himself with Hitler and is commended for the fact that, "Nobody on the faculty of any college or university in this part of the country can so much as utter the word Hitler without a nod in your direction, literally or metaphorically." (Delillo 11). However, this fact is not enough to solidify Jack's aura… [read more]


Osteoporosis Approximately 8 Million People Term Paper

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Many of the estimates that are made on cost are generally made based on hip fractures (Neer, 1995). However, the overall costs include many other things, such as inability to work, custodial and medical care, reduced quality of life, functional limitations, loss of independence, pain, cost of illness, and death (Neer, 1995). It is relatively easy to measure the cost of osteoporosis when it comes to hip fractures because they result in surgical intervention and hospital admissions, both of which can be measured based on cost in many health care systems (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). Other fractures, however, such as vertebral column fractures in those over the age of 45, are considered to be related to osteoporosis but are generally not documented (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). The costs of these types of fractures include rehabilitation, medical and surgical care, long-term care, loss of productivity, and medication (Kanis & Pitt, 1992).

Even though the costs of much of what is related to osteoporosis cannot be specifically and completely measured, it is clear that something must be done to work to prevent it so that the costs of taking care of the problems that it causes can be reduced, and the very human costs that cannot be measured in dollars and cents can also be reduced. Women should generally be the main focus of preventative measures because they are at a higher risk, but men as well must be made aware of the risks to their health and their independence (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). This idea of loss of independence has only been addressed recently in studies. Up until very recently, it was not something that was seen to be significant because it was not something that was associated with costs in the same way that hospital care and other issues were associated with costs (Kanis & Pitt, 1992).

For most individuals, however, it appears to be safe to say that, once they fracture a hip or some other body part that may cause them chronic pain or difficulty getting around and doing normal daily activities, the quality of life that they have is diminished.

Works Cited

Ray, NF, Chan, JK, Thamer, M, et al.…… [read more]


Shakespeare's Hamlet Term Paper

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Hamlet and the Memento of Death

When the Renaissance brought about a rebirth of many of the philosophies and customs of antiquity, it resurrected the ancient stoical idea that by mediation upon death one might be able to come to terms with it and pass beyond grieving into a more rational relationship with the dead. Of course, even prior to… [read more]


Euthanasia the State Commission Term Paper

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Euthanasia

The State Commission on Euthanasia defined euthanasia as the intentional termination of life by someone other than the patient at the patient's request, while physician-assisted suicide is the intentional assistance given the patient to terminate his or her life and upon his or her request (Philipsen 1997). It is also called "mercy-killing" in describing it as an act of… [read more]


Social Work Internship Experience Term Paper

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Most of the people I interacted with appeared disoriented and confused; however they were suffering from a bonafide condition, Alzheimer's. For example, when working in group activities I often had to repeat the instructions several times. Not because the patients I was working with weren't smart enough to comprehend the instructions the first time, but because their brain functioning had been altered as a result of the progression of the disease.

Most of the elderly at the center were capable of remaining physically active and in moments of clarity when I had discussions with patients most seemed capable of grasping the most basic intellectual concepts and human emotions.

Alzheimer's as described in the text is a degenerative brain disorder. It gradually causes deterioration in ones memory, awareness and their ability to control bodily functions (Gebo, 2004). Irritability, restlessness and impairments of judgment are not uncommon (Gebo, 2004).

One thing became very clear during the visits with patients at the center. The elderly, no matter their cognitive functioning or state of awareness, just as anyone else require companionship, understanding and compassion. Take the case of the gentleman who missed his wife that no longer visited. The obvious distress and grief this person was experiencing was evident in his every day actions. Likewise, the individual I consulted with on the west side experienced similar grief.

Undoubtedly as with anyone it is critical to address these emotions with all patients regardless of their mental function and capacity, to ensure they are given every opportunity to experience life to the fullest potential possible.

Personal, Professional Experiences

Overall I feel my experiences working with Alzheimer's patients at Legacy Gardens impacted me in a positive manner. Up until this point in time I had always considered the state of affairs for elderly individuals as something foreign or distant. It was as if the elderly were an entirely different breed.

I also must admit some fear of working with the elderly initially. When I first started participating in group activities, I thought I would have a member of the trained staff there to assist me. Much to my surprise and eventual delight however, I was left on my own to interact with patients and develop a relationship with each of the patients.

Interacting with each member of the group was much like interaction with anyone else, with the exception that cognitive impairments were evident among group members, and I often had to repeat myself. One of the biggest things I learned from a personal and professional standpoint was the importance of demonstrating compassion, patience and understanding. A majority of the patients I worked with did not required that I do anything more than simply listen to them. Many had been separated from society for so long; they seemed to live in their own complex world of experiences and relationships. Most of the time when they had cognizant moments they preferred to simply reminisce about the way things used to be.

What I also learned was that much… [read more]


Nursing Home Abuse Irrespective Term Paper

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(Nursing Home Abuse: Why Does It Exist?)

A minimum training is essential to be imparted to the nursing home personnel to deal with the disabled patients and in recording their conditions. The form records are often used that are maintained quickly however, not dealing with the realities of the conditions of the patient fully. The pay of the nurses and… [read more]


Euthanasia the Power to Control Term Paper

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These situations are likely to be more difficult for the person to conceptualize. However, asking the questions from both perspectives will likely reveal deeper, and ethically-based responses than if the survey was based strictly on asking a person what they would want in someone else's life.

The survey will be conducted on a cross section of the population, of median age individuals who are likely to have elderly family members who would face the question of euthanasia, if the practice were to become legal. The survey will be conducted via phone interview, and also made available on the internet with connection to significant medical sites, such as Web MD in order to collect date from a large population sample.

This research is expected to uncover the same controversy which Mr. Singer is stirring. This research expects to uncover that then euthanasia is a topic directed at other people, then the subjects attitudes will be much more liberal than if the euthanasia policies were directed toward, and could affect their own life.

Resources

P. Singer, Practical Ethics Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

P. Singer, "Bioethics and Academic Freedom" Bioethics, 4, no. 1, 1990

Wright, W. Historical Analogies, Slippery Slopes and the Question of Euthanasia. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Vol. 28, 2000

O. Tolmein, cited in B. Schone-Seifert and K-P.…… [read more]


Death and Dying Term Paper

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She acknowledges that life is hard, that adversity makes us stronger, and that we all have lessons we must learn in life. She also thinks that when we have learned the lessons we need to learn, the "pain goes away" (Kubler-Ross, 1998, p. 18). This book is the story of Kubler-Ross' incredible life, and through her gift of storytelling, the reader learns about her childhood, her school years, and how she began to study death and dying. It is clear this author has definitive thoughts on how to live the best possible life, and she shares them here as she shares her life. It is also clear that she believes in the ultimate decency of humanity, and those who are miserable will lead miserable lives and fear death. Her ideas may not all be commonplace (she believes she chose her parents), but they are easy and motivating to read, and she makes death seem much more peaceful, and far less frightening than it has seemed before.

References

Kubler-Ross, Elizabeth. (1998). The Wheel of Life: A Memoir of Living and Dying. New York: Scribners.

Gorle, Rev. Howard R. (2002). Grief Theories: Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. Retrieved from the Bereavement.org. Web…… [read more]


Right to Die Term Paper

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According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, "bills on assisted suicide were introduced in twenty-six states in 1997 and 1998...all defeated, usually dying in committee." During this same period, Virginia, Michigan and South Carolina passed new bans on assisted suicide, after Iowa and Rhode Island enacted bans in 1996, and Kansas and South Dakota recently "clarified their existing criminal statutes and added civil penalties for assisting a suicide." In 1999, thirty-eight states had specific statutes against assisted suicide, although "Oregon created an exception for terminally ill patients who fulfill certain guidelines," while eight forbid the practice by common law or interpretation of the state homicide statute, and four, Nevada, Hawaii, Utah and Wyoming have no clear law on the matter.

Those against the right to die see no distinction between pulling the plug to hasten death on patients depending on life support and providing lethal medication to dying patients. Those who support the right to die believe there is a moral line "between an active act by a physician to kill and passively letting nature take its course so that the underlying disease causes death." And then there are those who believe in both, allowing a patient to die with dignity off life support and allowing a patient to obtain assistance in death when he or she feels their physical condition is terminal. It is certain that this issue will continue to be debated in public opinion and courts for years to come.

Works Cited

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida." AP Worldstream. November 01, 2003. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1P1:86544618&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=AP+Worldstream&author=VICKIE+CHACHERE%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Judge+appoints+professor+as+guardian+for+brain%2Ddamaged+woman+in+Florida&date=11%2F01%2F2003&query=Terry+Schiavo+and+the+State+of+Florida%2E&maxdoc=30&idx=2&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 12-03-2003)

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Doerflinger, Richard M. "An Uncertain Future for Assisted Suicide."

The Hastings Center Report. January 01, 1999.

Euthanasia Court Cases Rulings on Medical Killing." Human Life of Washington

http://www.humanlife.net/euthanasiaarticles/courtcases.html.

A accessed 12-03-2003).

Fackelmann, Kathy A. "The conscious mind: Karen Ann Quinlan case yields surprising scientific data." Science News. July 02, 1994.

King, Philip. "Washington v. Glucksberg: influence of the court in care of the terminally ill and physician-assisted suicide." Journal of Law and Health. June 22, 2000.

Reibstein. Larry. "Weighing the right to die." Newsweek. January 13, 1997.

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Fackelmann, Kathy A. "The conscious mind: Karen Ann Quinlan case yields surprising scientific data." Science News. July 02, 1994

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Euthanasia Court Cases Rulings on Medical Killing." Human Life of Washington

http://www.humanlife.net/euthanasiaarticles/courtcases.html.

A accessed 12-03-2003

King, Philip. "Washington v. Glucksberg: influence of the court in care of the terminally ill and physician-assisted suicide." Journal of Law and Health. June 22, 2000.

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida."… [read more]


Euthanasia in Addition to Racism Term Paper

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The basic idea needs to be reinforced. Those that opposed euthanasia believe that it cheapens the value of life. If euthanasia was a legal option, it would also undermine funding of research into these areas like geriatric care and disease associated with aging like Alzheimer's.

While the above are secular reasons for opposing euthanasia, most religions are also opposed to… [read more]


Right to Die Think Term Paper

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Should we not live every day as though it were our last?

We have all got to die, but there are best possible deaths, when our full time has come, and there are deaths, as in the Iraq war and in Israel, when lives are brutally cut short in conditions of great fear, anger and hatred - often leaving behind a legacy of anger, bitterness and sorrow. Because we all have to die is it possible to describe death in the best possible conditions? Is it possible to describe what ought to be our human rights in relation to our deaths? In this section I argue that this is possible. I then go on to compare this with what has happened in Iraq to draw out the contrast hopefully in a clear way.

If we think about our deaths, or those of your loved ones there are things, which I think that we all ideally want to make our passing easier. These are things like: having made a will, an orderly transition of our affairs, reconciliation's and making our peace with people, making sure that vulnerable survivors like children will be looked after (Herbert Hendin)

In the chaos, and rapid moving situation of war none of these things can be guaranteed. Soldiers may tidy their affairs up before they go into battle. For civilians that may occur - but there again, in the sheer random way in which civilians get killed, there is not the predictability or time for many of those things.

Another dimension is the psychological preparation for dying, as the last stage in life journey, as another opportunity for growth and experience. There is now a considerable literature about the psychological preparation for death, which suggests that one's last days, with one's loved ones around one, may be the most beautiful and poignant of one's life, as one becomes aware of how precious and fleeting life is.

Death with ones family cowering against incoming cluster bombs is not like that. There are other things one can say of death that are relevant here.

In Jean Liedloff's book, the Continuum Project, she describes the process of life as stages we all pass through, which if lived properly lead to dying without regrets. As a child one has toys and one plays. There is no problem leaving one's toys behind one, if one has lived that part of one's life properly.

Equally the stage of life for adolescent romance and sexuality and so on. One gets fixated at a stage if one has not lived it properly. The greatest tragedy, for many people in the world, is to be alive but unable to participate in these ordinary satisfactions of living. Finally at death one let's go because one has lived a full life and there are no regrets. (James M. Hoefler)

In that sense the idea of a death cut short in war has particular tragedy, and particularly of children or of the parents of children, which denies the… [read more]


Progeria Is a Somewhat Mysterious Term Paper

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The scientists concede that the increased presence of the acid is unique to progeria patients and others that suffer with other ageing conditions.

There are also other Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities that are characteristic of the syndrome. Studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts have shown that there is a reduced potential in-vitro growth in Progeria patients. There is also evidence the children that have the condition have shortened replicative life span. (Dyer and Sinclair)

It is believed that the cause of Progeria is due to a mutant gene. According to the Progeria Research Foundation,

Progeria is considered to be the result of a dominant mutation because the gene in question has one normal copy and one abnormal copy, as opposed to a recessive mutation in which both copies are abnormal. Because neither parent carries or expresses the mutation, each case is believed to represent a sporadic new mutation which happens at the time of conception." ("What is Progeria?")

Studies have found that there are certain patterns that occur in the families of children with Progeria. For instance, the parents of these children are usually at least six years apart in age which is above the national average of two years. In addition researchers have discovered that siblings or identical twins in the same family usually do not have the condition. ("What is Progeria?")

Children with this condition usually die in the beginning of their second decade. Death usually occurs in the early teenage years-although some patients live to their early twenties. Death is usually caused by heart failure and myocardial infarction. (Dyer and Sinclair)

Recent Developments

Although there is no cure for the disease, in recent weeks scientists have isolated the gene that causes the condition. The discovery was made by scientists at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Remarkably it only took the scientist one year to isolate the gene. CNN reported that,

Progeria is caused by a single-letter misspelling in a gene on chromosome 1. They found 18 of 20 children with classic progeria had the exact same misspelling in the Lamin A gene. Lamin A is a protein that is a key component of the membrane that surrounds the cell's nucleus. The studies showed that almost half of the progeria patient's cells had misshapen nuclear membranes."("Gene is discovered for rapid aging disease in children")

This development is important because it allows scientist to develop a genetic test for the condition.

The genetic test will allow parents to see if they carry the gene before they conceive so that the necessary precautions can be taken. It will also allow researchers to potentially find a cure and treatments for the condition.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to explore the various aspects of the condition known as Progeria. We began by defining Progeria. We found that the condition is rare and only affects about 35 children in the entire world. Our discussion then focused on the characteristics and causes of the condition. Our research found that individuals with the… [read more]


Euthanasia (Against) in North America Term Paper

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" Hence, only God has the right to begin a life, and only God is allowed to end one. Therefore, an individual who commits suicide is doing a sin.

Secondly, God has not sent us any experience that we are unable to handle. He supports and helps people in suffering. Thus, an individual who seeks to end his life would actually signify lack of trust in the promise made by Him.

On the other hand, an important and growing percentage of non-Christians, Agnostics, Humanists, secularists, Atheists and liberal Christians in North America do not accept these theologically based arguments. They argue:

Every individual has independence over their own life. Therefore, those individuals who are not satisfied with their quality of life which is equal to nonexistent should have the right to decide to commit suicide, and to seek support and help if required.

At times a terminal sickness is so painful that it causes life to be very intolerable and unbearable burden; where death can play its part as a relief of such insufferable pain.

Conclusion

Irrespective of whether Euthanasia is legalized by the judicial authorities or not, the subject remains a question to an individual's conscience. With varying ideologies of life that people share throughout the world, the fact differs whether Euthanasia is right or wrong. However, owing to the social roles that every individual plays in the society, Euthanasia cannot be justified for being right. No matter how one's conscience may allow or disallow an individual to end up his life, his interrelationships do not permit him to deprive the society of the roles that he plays and in turn enjoys a social recognition to its own degree.

Works Cited

Horgan, John. Right to Die. Scientific American, May 1996.

Netherlands State Commission on Euthanasia. Definition of Euthanasia.

DeathNet. Oregon Death With Dignity Act. http://www.rights.org/~deathnet/ergo_orlaw.html

Matas, Robert. Oregon Reconsiders Death-With-Dignity Law. The Globe and Mail Newspaper, Toronto ON, Nov 3, 1997 (p. A1)

Oregon Health Division. Oregon's Death with Dignity Act: Annual Report 2000. http://www.ohd.hr.state.or.us/chs/pas/ar-disc.htm

New England Journal of Medicine, Feb 6, 2002.

Toronto Star. New law paved way for 38 to commit suicide in Oregon. Quick Hits, Toronto Star. March 6, 2003.

Jordahl, Steve. Ashcroft Appeals Assisted-Suicide Ruling. Family News in Focus.…… [read more]


Rise of Advanced Technologies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,474 words)
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He supports euthanasia and represents the view that assisted suicide should be a legal option for the patient.

To some extent, my views reflect what I have seen happen to the aged and stricken who have been so unfortunate as to survive crippling paralysis. They suffer, and impose suffering on others, unable even to make a request that their torment… [read more]


Euthanasia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,241 words)
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In addition, they may be given the opportunity to make amends, finalize their affairs, and die in the presence of family and friends. However, in order for the end of life to be considered good, it is critical for the choice to be made by the dying person, not a physician or a family member. Furthermore, death by euthanasia may… [read more]


Slippery Slope Argument Term Paper

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The slippery slope argument in this debate means that once the world starts allowing assisted suicides for those who are terminally ill, it will not be a stretch to start choosing who dies based on other factors. How about the man who is not terminally ill but is in chronic and lifelong pain? Should he be allowed to choose to die now? What about the woman who is mentally ill and is in danger of causing her children emotional harm? Why can't she choose to die and save her children's psyche much the same way a terminally ill person chooses to die and save their family savings account and their emotions?

Once the world starts down the slippery slope of allowing people to choose to die, it is not hard to imagine the slippery slope causing mankind to overshoot the stopping place and going far past the currently accepted criteria for euthanasia. The slippery slope argument presents a valid concern for something that is as irreversible…… [read more]


Hamlet Fits Within Anoulih's Discussion Term Paper

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They must piece the entire puzzle together. There is work associated with reading a tragedy because a reader must open his or her mind in order to make the character's actions plausible. The reader must feel as though the events could happen. What's more, the reader must be able to somehow connect with the characters and their reactions.

In Hamlet, or other tragedies, there is no hope that the characters will survive their hideous death. The reader must follow within the loops and curves that the play offers in order to connect action with reaction and vice versa.

A tragedy always reveals the main character's weakness. In this case, Hamlet's weakness was his vulnerability and his indecision. He wouldn't listen to his associates when he had the chance. He also didn't act promptly when given a chance to avenge his father's death. Had he killed his uncle in the offset of the play, it is arguable that some of the deaths towards the end of the play may not have occurred. Hamlet needed proof that the ghosts were telling the truth. Since he didn't believe them and had gave his uncle the benefit of doubt, the tragedy unfolded.

When Hamlet transforms into a raging madman because of his father's death, the reader knows for certain that people will die at Hamlet's hand. It is uncertain whether the uncle will be killed because such irony is a calling card in tragedies. The reader may surmise that everyone will die except the uncle and that Hamlet may live to grieve over his love, Ophelia.

Another point of contention is set up early in the play. There is the issue of Hamlet's mother. The ghost expressly said the his mother shouldn't be harmed. However, Hamlet doesn't listen. He feels it necessary to question his mother and accuse her. Had he not been in her chambers accusing her of contributing to her husband's death, Hamlet would not have killed.

Ophelia is also warned in this play, another mark of someone who is either going to die or who will play a role in someone else's death -- as in the case of Hamlet himself. She is warned to stay away from Hamlet. Of course, as the reader knows, she won't listen.

Therefore very early in the tragedy the reader is handed a roadmap that will somehow spell out the fate of all of its characters. It is up to the reader to consider the possible outcomes and piece them together. A tragedy such as Hamlet, however, is filled with so many twists and turns that just about any tragic ending is plausible. The reader must play a game in determining whether their guesses will turn out to be realized in the play. Will Shakespeare through us all for a loop or will this play simply verbalize an ending that the reader has already surmised. An artist like Shakespeare, always has a surprise ending at hand. In such case, the ending of the tragedy is… [read more]


Magical Realism in Juan Rulfo Term Paper

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..puts its gentle arm around my waist...then I sink into it...give myself to its pulsing strength..." (96). In this fashion, Juan Rulfo leads Juan and the reader to ponder between Pedro's illusion and Susana's reality. The point to note, however, is that Pedro himself is shown constant in his belief about Susana implying that for Pedro, his vision of Susana was real and true.

Similarly, in Death Constant Beyond Love, Gabriel Garc'a-Marquez's story of Senator Onesimo Sanchez's continual quest for life in the face of imminent death, the question of illusion and reality is highlighted through the Senator's continued campaigning and his indulgence in an affair that ultimately causes his downfall. Was the Senator deluding himself with the only reality being death or was the Senator only continuing to live what had always been his reality as in the false make-believe world of politics and in fact, being realistic, by making most of the time he had left with Laura ("he found the woman of his life": 2430)? Thus, the lines between illusion and reality begin to blur depending on the perspective from which it is considered - the Senator's or the reader's.

Through Death Constant Beyond Love, Marquez uses magical realism to raise questions on illusion and reality. Take, for example, Rosal del Virrey - A rosebush in a dry, desolate land? Or the Senator's careful nurturing of his rose against the odds - preservation of illusion or facing the reality of the rose's poor chances of survival?

To conclude, the use of magical realism in both Pedro Paramo and Death Constant Beyond Love is marked by the blurring of lines between illusion and reality and thereby raising questions about the difference, if…… [read more]


Young Term Paper

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Ashcroft has attempted to overturn the actions of Attorney General Janet Reno, who ruled in favor of Oregon's interpretation of the federal Controlled Substances Act as allowing physicians to prescribe lethal levels of drugs.

In large measure because of her support, the "Death with Dignity Act" went into effect in October 1997. This law includes a variety of safeguards to… [read more]


Elderly in American Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,937 words)
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"Must sell their homes unless they return home within six months or a doctor says it may be possible for the resident to return home at a later time. Must apply any monthly income above $59 to the cost of their care, except in special circumstances or if their spouse at home needs more income.

May transfer their home to a child at least three years prior to entering the nursing home or in the event the son or daughter was living in the home at least two years just prior to their admission (Gordon, 1995)."

Spouses/

"Must submit, at the time of their spouses' admission to a nursing home, to an asset assessment to determine what assets you owned on the day of admission (Gordon, 1995)."

May keep the house, their personal property, a car and the greater of $21,156 of the couple's liquid assets or half of their liquid assets up to $74,820.

May continue to earn unlimited monthly income and do not have to pay further to support their spouses' care (Gordon, 1995)."

In the United States today there are about 20,000 individual nursing homes. Those homes hold a combined bed number of between 1.5 million and 2 million. About five percent of residents in this country over 65 years old reside in a nursing home (Cefalu, 1995).

"Federal law requires nursing homes to have a nursing director who is a registered nurse, a medical director, and other paraprofessional personnel (medical social workers, pharmacists, rehabilitation specialists, a recreational therapist, and di- teary, housekeeping, and maintenance services). More than 90% of nursing home employees are nursing staff, and 80% of care is provided by nursing aides. These may include full-time, part-time, or contract professionals (Cefalu, 1995). "

CONCLUSION

The elderly face many challenges as they advance in age. There are nursing homes that provide total care including developing a social life for its residents. They employ an activities director who plans outings, game nights, dances and other events to encourage social interaction. In addition there are senior centers throughout the nation providing the same type of care for those who still live at home. The social isolation of the elderly is one of the biggest obstacles that we must over come if we want quality of life to keep up with quantity of life in the future. Changes in the financial demands for poverty before admittance needs to be addressed as…… [read more]


Voluntary or Assisted Euthanasia Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,084 words)
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Terri Schiavo case was a very sad story. It was also a story with a huge amount of implications and subject matter topics including euthanasia, nursing ethics, legal requirements, the final wishes of Terri and/or who controlled the same given there was an absence of them being documented and so forth. This report will briefly summarize the case in question, will describe the legal and ethical implications from a nursing and legal standpoint, will describe the stakeholders involved, will describe the impact on social values/norms and so forth and how a general ethical theory or principle might be applied to this subject. While the Terri Schiavo situation was extremely unfortunate, the facts were what they were and a lot of the legal wrangling could have been easily prevented with a little forethought.

Analysis

One striking thing about the Terri Schiavo case is that it actually stretched on for quite a long time. In this case, "a long time" means a decade and a half. Indeed, Terri Schiavo was at her home in 1990 when she collapsed due to experiencing full cardiac arrest. Despite attempts to save her and restore her to health, she came to exist in a "persistent vegetative state" and there was deemed to be no way that she would recover. Given that, Terri's husband and guardian, a man by the name of Michael Schiavo, made the decision to remove life support and that meant removing Terri's feeding tube. This was a particularly vexing and hard decision to make given the fact that Terri was quite often conscious and at least somewhat aware. However, the issue was that her brain was ostensibly damaged beyond repair and she had no awareness, according to doctors, that approached that of a healthy human being. The parents strongly opposed the removal of the feeding tube. However, the removal of the tube was eventually ordered by a judge and it occurred on March 18th, 2005. Terri died a tad less than two weeks later on March 31st, 2005 (CNN, 2015).

When it comes to the obligations or a nurse, there is a bit of a duality that exists. First, the general duty of a nurse is to prolong and sustain life. At the same time, there is the legal question of things like advanced directives, what the "patient would have wanted" and the people who might or must make decisions due to the absence of advanced directives, living wills and so forth. The latter was certainly the case with Schiavo. The nurses and doctors may have felt an ethical or legal fear due to what was going on but they did indeed ultimately have the order of a judge to legally back up what was decided. In terms of other laws, the nurses and doctors would not and could not make such a choice but they are allowed to honor what the guardian or what the law requires, depending on the situation. The stakeholders in the situation were obviously Terri's husband Michael, Terri's… [read more]


Physician-Assisted Suicide and Its Moral and Ethical Standards Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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¶ … against arguments in Doctor Assisted Suicide

This paper examines the much heated arguments in regards to the moral and ethical standards of the idea of doctor-assisted suicide which is also known as physician-assisted suicide. A medical doctor aided suicide stands out among the numerous clinically and morally recognizable practices involving healthcare for patients in their final hours or… [read more]


Hamlet's Demise Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,811 words)
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¶ … Hamlet

It was my fault. How inadequate these words seem, especially in light of the bloodshed and tragedy that has warmed over the throne of Denmark and the remnants of the royal family. Had I known the results, I would have never spoken to Hamlet that particular evening, would have kept the sighting of the apparition to myself,… [read more]


Color of Stigma "Measuring the Grief Experiences Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  18 pages (7,498 words)
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Color of Stigma "measuring the grief experiences of AA women that have lost a son of suicide"

The chapter on methodology seeks to attain the following: 1) explain the methodology this research adopts; 2) the validity of the adopted methodology for this particular research work. For simplifying, the aims stated above this chapter, this section is segmented into three sub-sections:… [read more]


Palliative Care Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,890 words)
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¶ … Life

Legal Issues to Consider

End of life presents several issues to consider for the person dying and the people responsible for them. There a number of ethical and legal issues when approaching end of life such as euthanasia, possible, organ donation, and legal testament. Among the essential staff involved in end of life are critical care nurses.… [read more]


Feminist Ethics Many Arguments Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (923 words)
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It is not difficult to see why doctors that fail to put in place the shunt to prevent the accumulation of fluid in the brain would be abandoning this very basic obligation. It is also easy to see why failing to repair the spinal opening would amount to hastening the death of baby John Doe -- an undertaking or action that cannot be reconciled with the duty to preserve life.

Third, there is also the argument that everybody has the right to life. The right to life, as MacKinnon (2012, p. 82) observes, has got to do with "the right not to be killed." By preventing the necessary interventions from being undertaken so as to save baby John Doe's life, Sarah and Mike would be violating an independent entity's basic right. It is, however, important to note that in some cases, it has been argued that it is possible for individuals to waiver this basic right, thereby cancelling other people's duty not to kill (Wennberg, 1989, p. 58). This is particularly the case when an individual commits murder, whereby it becomes permissible for the courts to prescribe the punishment of death. Baby John Doe has not waived his right to live. Denying him the chance to life just because of a medical condition would be immoral and inappropriate.

There is also the concept of autonomy. In basic terms, autonomy has got to do with "the right of a rational person to self-rule and to generate personal decisions independently" (Butts and Rich, 2005, p. 12). The application of this concept in this scenario would mean that neither the doctors involved nor baby John Doe's parents have the right to make such a critical decision about baby John Doe, especially a decision that has got to do with whether or not he should be allowed to continue living.

In the final analysis, therefore, baby John Doe should be allowed to live. All the necessary measures should be taken to preserve his life. If anything, it is baby John Doe who should be permitted to make that critical decision -- whether or not to live -- once he attains full awareness and is able to appreciate the consequence of his actions.

References

Butts, J.B. & Rich, K. (2005). Nursing Ethics: Across the Curriculum and Into Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

DeWit, S.C. & O'Neill, P.A. (2013). Fundamental Concepts and Skills for Nursing (4th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Health Sciences.

MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

World Medical Association. (1983). International Code of Medical Ethics. Retrieved from http://history.nih.gov/research/downloads/ICME.pdf

Wennberg, R.N. (1989). Terminal Choices: Euthanasia, Suicide, and the Right to Die. Grand Rapids, Mich: Wm.…… [read more]


Brophy Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,370 words)
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Examples of people that could become included in such laws would include those with Down's Syndrome, the autistic, the paraplegic, the quadriplegic and so forth. Taken to the extreme, the paradigm could include the socially unproductive, the ideologically unwanted, the racially unwanted and so forth. If one is noticing a pattern here, that person would be correct because this is precisely what the Nazi euthanasia program and general eugenics proponents would suggest. Noted scholar on the subject of euthanasia Alex Schadenberg, who wrote the book Exposing Vulnerable People to Euthanasia & Assisted Suicide, notes that "the idea that there are lives unworthy to believed is dangerous." He continues by saying "the slippery slope is not imaginary. It exists -- and despite the efforts of euthanasia supporters, it cannot be wished away."

Before concluding this report, there shall be an assessment and review of both justice and beneficence as it relates to the Brophy, Schiavo and similar cases. When it comes to people with no advanced directives but yet a seemingly impossible decision like whether or not removing a feeding tube of someone in a vegetative state is moral or acceptable, the concepts of justice and beneficence come into play. Two terms that were bandied about, and still are, relative to Schiavo's case and ones like it is the ethics of justice vs. The ethics of care. Some argued that she was in surely in a private hell given that she was in that vegetative state for more than a decade. Beyond that, her chances of recovery were zero. While effectively starving someone is something that would give some people pause, a continued life of non-existence and nothingness is something very few people believed Schiavo would want if she were able to make that choice. The hard part of defining justice in this case is that there is no way to truly know for sure. Regardless, the removal of the feeding tube was seemingly the right call given the totality of what was known and what was not known (Hodges et al., 2006). As far as beneficence goes, the term is just another way of saying "benefiting." The ideas of justice and beneficence relating to the removal of Terri Schiavo's feeding tube are often seen as being two sides of the same coin. Schiavo surely did not benefit by having her life continued artificially. While she was not terminally ill, her life as she knew it was over. Letting her go was the best way to benefit it her as keeping her alive was of no real benefit to Terri (Johnson, 2006).

Conclusion

In the end, Brophy was eventually transferred to a different hospital that was not unwilling to remove the feeding tube. He was transferred, the feeding tube was remove and Brophy died in 1986. While the field of bioethics may deem that imposing morality, religion and ethics of any form on others is wrong, it is also very valid for medical professionals and others to act under the "do… [read more]


Ocial Work Practice With Individuals Term Paper

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(Kagawa-Singer, M., & Backhall, L. (2001))

Barbara A. Koening and Jan Gates-Williams also warn against the dangers of stereotyping. One the social worker got enough information about the personal life of a patient, she will carefully analyze and refrain from making assumptions based on what the majority of similar situations might suggest. Comparing is only good when in tandem with… [read more]


Pros and Cons of Euthanasia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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34). Likewise, critics of euthanasia argue that prohibitions on the intentional killing of others represent a basic precept of legal and human relationships that place a high value on human's basic equality (Somerville, 2003).

6.

Conclusion:

Do people have a fundamental right to die when they want? Advocates of euthanasia maintain that people do in fact possess this right under certain circumstances and that some people, such as those suffering terminal illnesses, will be better off dead than alive. Critics of legalizing euthanasia argue that the practice is morally wrong and the fact that the practice requires at least two people, one of them a physician, means that legalizing it would be harmful to the medical profession as well as society at large. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to conclude that most opponents of euthanasia are not living with terminal illnesses that cause enormous suffering or have not experienced the death of a close loved one in this fashion. It is easy enough to pontificate about the niceties of the human condition but it is a far more difficult matter to confront them head-on and take the steps needed to alleviate suffering. The United States should follow the lead of Oregon, The Netherlands and Belgium and legalize euthanasia under certain conditions, including the patient's voluntary and persistent request; the hopeless situation of the patient and consultation of a colleague.

References

Keown, J. (2002). Euthanasia, ethics, and public policy: An argument against legalization.

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Marcoux, I. & Mishara, B.L. (2007, May/June). Confusion between euthanasia and other end-

of-life decisions. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 98(3), 235.

Nelson, F.L. (1984). Suicide: Issues of prevention, intervention and facilitation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40(6), 1328-1335.

Sinha, V. & Basu, S. (2012, April-June). Euthanasia: An Indian perspective. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(2), 177.

Somerville, M. (2003, Spring). The case against: Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

Free Inquiry, 23(2), 33-39.

ten…… [read more]


Euthanasia and Egoism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,380 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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, 1980.

They will not consider others in their actions. The person believes that by promoting their own good they are in accordance with morality. They will believe that for as long as they are doing what they see is best for them, then what they decide to do is morally right Annas, 2008.

Having such a belief would deny… [read more]


Detriments of Euthanasia Essay

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With the desensitization of the taking of life, it may be argued as linking in with an increased level of acceptability with reference to other forms of voluntary suicide, as seen with the way social networking has seen numerous groups emerge to support those who wish to commit suicide (Luxton et al., 2012).

Euthanasia may increase social divisions

An area of significant concern may be the way in which social divisions may impact on the practice of euthanasia. In Oregon, where euthanasia is legal, Kaldjian (2001) found that of those requesting euthanasia, 60% indicated that one of the influences was a desire not to be a burden. Invariably, those who are most likely to feel there are a burden will come from backgrounds where they will require a higher level of social support, often families of a lower social or economic status, which may also be aligned with ethnic minorities and lower education (Ward, 1980). The disparities which may lead to the desire to avoid being a burden are known to more prevalent with in ethnic minorities, and disadvantaged social groups, were ironically, there is likely to be a higher level of terminal illnesses at younger ages due to the health disparities (Geiger et al., 2007). Interestingly, it is noted that ethnic minorities tend to have a lower level of trust in authorities with regard to decisions made euthanasia and the overall practice (Ward, 1980).

Euthanasia may reduce the attention and commitment to developing effective palliative care.

If increasing numbers of people request euthanasia, rather than live… [read more]


Pressure Ulcers in the Elderly Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

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(2002) found out that two hourly repositioning had the capacity to reduce ulcers. In addition, a cohort study by Rich et al. (2011) suggests that there is no relation between manual two hourly repositioning of elderly patients with the rate of ulcer reduction. Another randomized study (Vanderwee et al., 2007) found out that there was no difference in the incidence of pressure ulcer when compared to elderly patients fewer than two repositioning interval regimens. The reasoning behind this literature review is not only to discover whether the incidence of ulcers in the elderly residing in nursing homes can be lowered with automatic and periodic body turning, but also to determine just how important this type of review can be to the nursing field in general. One recent study determined that "pressure ulcer prevention is an important aspect in daily care for residents at risk in nursing homes" (Demarre, et al., 2012, p. 1426). If that statement is true, then this study will help to address the issue of pressure ulcers. Other studies indicate that regardless of the reason for incapacitation, turning is a basic step in improving the PU condition by removing stress and negative stimuli from the wound area (Pak, et al., 2009).

One important aspect of nursing home living is that most of the time the people living there are helpless to accomplish many tasks that are part of everyday living. The employees are trained (for the most part) and as one study found it is "important to assess whether nursing staff levels and skills are meeting nursing home resident care needs" (Zhang, Unruh, Wan, 2013, p. 290). For example, incontinence is a significant risk factor for skin breakdown. The moisture changes the chemical balance of the skin, and often without adequate ventilation and care, a route for bacterial infection. In either case, pressure on the wound area, increased bacteria and moisture, all contribute to the lesions becoming rather serious (Gefen, 2008).

Many of the employees are taught to turn the elderly in their beds to relieve pressure, presumably thereby lowering the incidence of pressure ulcers. According to Fossum et al., "pressure ulcers can be prevented if residents at risk are identified early and relevant preventive measures are implemented" (Fossum, et al.,, 2011, p. 2429).

Current research shows that, at least in nursing homes, employees have a cognitive nature concerning pressure ulcers (amongst other things) and the positive results from taking preventive measures. Much of the current literature espouses the fact that nurses are trained to do so, but there is not really a lot of specific information on… [read more]


Diamonds of the Night Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,219 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Another motif that the film plays with is the idea that even when one is with something, one is still dealing with the lack of something. This is most commonly portrayed in art through the idea that even in life we are in death. For instance, the presentation of the woman who gives the boys the bread and milk: interlaced with that sequence are images of one boy hitting and killing her. Through that choice Nemec highly suggests that even in life we are in death, that all opposites are co-existing with one another at all times. Generosity and scarcity, gratitude and cruelty, existence and pain. In fact, Nemec demonstrates this to be true more than ever when one boy cannot eat the food that he is given simply because he has scurvy. This demonstrates yet another coexistence of opposites which is that with bounty there is lack: with food there is still hunger. This is comparable to the images of the people sledding in the snow: in the midst of the desolation and the barren frigidity, there are still people who are enjoying life and having a good time. In the midst of war, there is still merriment.

Another quality of life that Nemec plays with via the angles he chooses to shoot things in is the fleeting and ephemeral quality of life. Just as in life we are in death, Nemec constantly demonstrates that just as we are experiencing something, it is soon gone or soon taken from us. Nemec often composes shots from the perspective of the moving train or shoots in a manner where the camera is in seeming constant, unstoppable motion, much like the passage of time or the unavoidability of death.

This is part of the reason why the end of the film is quite so perfect because it demonstrates without a doubt just how intermingled life and death are. For example, it's not clear if the boys are in fact really captured or if it is all a dream, a day dream or a fear. The film ends with the idea of the captives and the captors. The boys are taken by the men with gun: we cut to images of the men eating chicken like savages, like wild animals and this helps to further that same theme earlier discussed: it is yet again an intermingling of opposites. The men eat the chicken like jackals and show us that even as humans were animals, even civilized we are wild. The boys are imprisoned and then walk to their death, their execution. Then Nemec deftly cuts back over to the two boys walking in a forest. Thus, even in imprisonment there is freedom and even with imminent death approach there is life with certainty. Thus, it is this particular ending which makes people accuse the film of being ambiguous and causes some to argue that one can't be sure whether or not the boys end up living.

However, the answer doesn't matter. Nemec it… [read more]


Health Promotion for End-Stage Dementia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,184 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

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Step 5: Goals and Objectives

The goal of the health promotion plan is to garner sufficient community support to successfully implement the EA model in a local nursing home, thereby increasing the quality of dementia care for patients with end-stage disease. The objectives are the following:

1. Identify all stakeholders and convince them of the need to improve the quality of care for end-stage dementia patients

2. Obtain the necessary funding from the local, state, and federal governments to implement the EA model

3. Shift the focus away from organizational needs to patient-centered care, including advanced care planning for life-sustaining care decisions

4. Engage patients and family members in the decision-making process

5. Implement dementia-specific care strategies with the assistance of dementia experts

6. Combat the three plagues of nursing home residents: loneliness, helplessness, and boredom (Monkhouse, 2003)

Step 6: Messages

Many of the local stakeholders may not realize the current state of dementia care; therefore, the main message will be that loved ones with end-stage dementia have traditionally suffered needlessly due to suboptimal care and neglect. Fortunately, interventions exist which can remedy this situation, but public support for implementation is needed. The main media outlets chosen to transmit this message are flyers handed out to patients and their families and advertisements in newspapers and on radio and television stations.

Step 7: Timeline and Budget

The timeline that Monkhouse (2003) used when implementing the EA model was three years before evaluating success. The Swiss nursing homes asked for and received a 30% increase in funding levels to support the transformation from the local government. A similar strategy will be implemented for this health promotion plan.

Step 8: Evaluation

The evaluation will be both qualitative and quantitative, since the quality of care depends to a significant extent on the experiences of patients and their loved ones. Questionnaires and validated instruments will be used to assess whether the experiences of residents and their family members have changed. Clinicians will also be asked to record the frequency of signs and symptoms associated with quality of care, including the prevalence of shortness of breath, constipation, fever, eating difficulties, falls, chemical restraint use, and life-sustaining interventions (Parsons, Hughes, Passmore, & Lapane, 2010). Additional measures will include the prevalence of advanced care plans, medication expenditures, sleeping pill use, staff turnover, staff sick days, bed occupancy, effective pain management, and time spent in hospice care

Discussion

The TQM and EA care models offer the promise of dying with dignity for dementia patients, who have been called by some the 'disadvantaged dying.' This often neglected and marginalized patient group deserves high quality care and to be free of the three plagues of traditional nursing home care: loneliness, helplessness, and boredom. This health promotion plan is designed to address the current shortcomings in dementia care through implementation of the TQM and EA models.

References

Brownie, S. & Nancarrow, S. (2013). Effects of person-centered care on residents and staff in aged-care facilities: A systematic review. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8,… [read more]


Parents Would Be What Method Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Part Two

To be perfectly honest, I understand that suicide is tragic in many circumstances (such as in the previous question) but not necessarily as tragic in other circumstances. Specifically, it is believed that the largest number of suicides in the U.S. is actually among the elderly who choose to end their lives consciously and rationally and at a time when the inevitable infirmities of advancing age make life unbearable, or at least less preferable to the alternative (Humphry, 2010). In fact, suicide among this population is thought to be widely underestimated, simply because under ordinary circumstances, law enforcement authorities do not investigate what appear to be deaths by natural causes among the elderly (Humphry, 2010).

In principle, I believe we need to draw distinctions between suicides that are the product of acute depression or acute reactions to temporary circumstances and challenges (or other treatable etiologies) and suicides that reflect more rational decisions. Physician-assisted suicide, for example, is perfectly understandable in many circumstances, such as to escape intractable pain or the slow deterioration of untreatable diseases like Alzheimer's. Certainly, we should direct all possible resources to treating the causes of acute depression and the other circumstances that typically result in suicide, and we should devote more effort to addressing the types of long-term psychological harm caused by traumatic experiences early in life that are statistically associated with higher likelihood of suicide later. However, I believe it is also time that we de-stigmatize the rational decision to end one's life in understandable circumstances, such as by rethinking penal laws prohibiting physician-assisted suicide.

References

Humphry, D. (2010). Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted

Suicide for the Dying. New York: Random House.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides:…… [read more]


Dementia Sufferers at the End Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Dementia Sufferers at the End Stage and Comorbidities

The prevalence of dementia in the United States has increased as a result of the increases in the numbers of the elderly segment of population. As growing numbers of baby boomers join the retirement ranks and the older old increase as well, the prevalence of dementia can be reasonably expected… [read more]


Hypoxia (Flight Physiology) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,200 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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For slower onset, which would be seen with altitude sickness, fatigue, headaches, and shortness of breath will be the first symptoms of a problem. Many people who are becoming hypoxic also feel nauseated and euphoric. When they become severely hypoxic or the hypoxia occurs very rapidly, seizures, coma, changes in consciousness levels, and death occur. By the time the issue is realized by others, there might not be an opportunity to help the person who has been experiencing the lack of oxygen without some type of permanent damage to the brain or other organs. Being aware of the symptoms of hypoxia that comes on slowly -- as it does when flying to a high altitude -- is very important because there is time to reverse the problems that start to occur. The earlier the lack of oxygen is noticed, the better the opportunity to descend to a lower altitude or receive supplemental oxygen to avoid hypoxia.

Altitudes and Onset

At sea level, a person's blood is oxygenated at or near 97%. When that same person goes to an altitude of 10,000 feet, the oxygen saturation in the blood drops to 90%. That is still enough for most normal life functions, although people in the medical field want to see a person's oxygen saturation point at or over 93%. At 14,500 feet (on the top of Pike's Peak, for example), the saturation is closer to 80%. That will cause the majority of people to have difficulty breathing, fatigue, nausea, and other symptoms that come along with altitude sickness. At 25,000 feet, oxygen saturation in the blood has dropped all the way to 55% and the person would lose consciousness. A pulse oximeter that clips on a finger is worn by many pilots today in order to see if they are becoming hypoxic.

The main altitude concerns are as follows:

5000 feet -- the retina of the eye will not get as much oxygen as it needs, and vision will be slightly compromised. This will be noticed most often in night vision. It is easier to misinterpret features on the ground, and maps and instruments in the cockpit can also be misread more easily. While most people can still fly safely at that altitude, it is important to be more careful than one would need to be at lower altitudes.

10,000 feet -- night vision is severely compromised, and this is the highest altitude at which pilots should trust their performance and instincts without supplemental oxygen. The minimum supply of oxygen is all that is being received at that point. Euphoria is common at that altitude, and after four hours or more there could be headaches and tingling that will also surface. Once a person flies over 10,000 feet in altitude, he or she will be severely disabled and will have dim vision and many other problems.

Conclusion

As can be seen, hypoxia is a very serious issue that can actually lead to death if not caught in time and taken seriously.… [read more]


Euthanasia in the Style Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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Terri's husband, perhaps the single person who knew her the best, petitioned the Court to remove her feeding tube and free her from what he called "inhuman torture." Terri's parents and a host of conservatives, including President George W. Bush, opposed this and legally sought to block Mr. Shiavo's motion. In total, this case involved over 14 appeals, hundreds of… [read more]


Caring for Elderly Patients Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Slide 4: How are the 3 Ds alike?

Delirium is a confused state caused by a psychological or physiological condition (Peacock et al. 2012:26). It is not a permanent mental state. Persons of all ages can experience delirium. However, the elderly are particularly apt to manifest it, given that the conditions which can cause it such as over-medication, a lack of sleep, and physical stressors are more likely to be suffered by aging patients (Peacock et al. 2012:26). Likewise, depression is also manifested in an estimated 40% of all elderly patients in resident care even though it is not an elder-specific disease (Peacock et al. 2012:26). All three -- dementia, delirium, and depression -- can manifest themselves as sharp changes of mood; shifts in eating and sleeping patterns; confusion; irrational behavior; and physical acting out.

Slide 5: How are they different

However, from the point-of-view of the clinician, the most important difference between all of these conditions is their cause. A patient experiencing delirium can potentially be returned to a coherent state if the underlying physical cause of the delirium can be addressed. A person with depression may not be irrational and unable to be reasoned with even though his or her mood is deflated and he or she may manifest a lack of affect: counseling and antidepressants are potentially beneficial treatments for a mood imbalance. In contrast, these forms of psychological counseling will not help someone with delirium and no pharmaceutical or therapy has been found to eradicate dementia.

References

Joosse, L, Palmer, D. & Lang, N. (2013). Caring for elderly patients with dementia: nursing

Interventions. Nursing Research and Reviews, 3: 107 -- 117

Peacock R., Hopton A., Featherstone I., & Edwards J.…… [read more]


Caregivers Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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The question and the objective of the study match the purpose of the study in that the perceptions and the experiences of the staff at the care homes will help in identifying the differences in dementia, delirium, and depression in patients admitted in such facilities. Dependent variables are the caregivers' perceptions and experiences while the independent variables are the identification of dementia, delirium, and depression. Because this was a qualitative research it is not appropriate to have a hypothesis.

Literature review is comprehensive as it uses only several sources. Only one source in the literature review was published more than a decade a go, the rest were published less than five years ago. Landmark publication in the literature review include the works of Siddiqi, Clegg and Young (2009) that talks about prevalence of dementia in care homes and Featherstone, Hopton and Siddiqi (2010) that reckons the challenges faced in differentiating between dementia, delirium, and depression. Mitchell and Kakkadasam (2011) aver that when people are depressed, withdrawal and sleepiness caused by delirium may be overlooked. This to me is new knowledge that should be explored further.

The study is of high quality bearing in mind that it uses very current literature in its literature review section. Despite the fact that the research question is not explicitly stated it can be identified by just reading the introductory section. The objective of the study is explicitly stated. It is the hypothesis that is not clearly stated because of the qualitative nature of the study.

References List

Featherstone, I., Hopton, A. & Siddiqi, N. (2010). An Intervention to Reduce Delirium in Care

Homes. Nursing Older People, 22(1), 16-21.

Mitchell, A. & Kakkadasam, V. (2011). Ability of Nurses to Identify Depression in Primary

Care, Secondary Care, and Nursing Homes -- A Meta-Analysis of Routine Clinical

Accuracy. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48(3), 359-368.

Peacock, R., Hopton, A., Featherstone, I. & Jill, E. (2012). Care Home Staff can detect the Difference between Delirium, Dementia, and Depression. Nursing Older People, 24(1),

26-30.

Siddiqi, N., Clegg, A.,…… [read more]


Robots: The Future or Elder Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

I am sure that scientists will be able to work these out sufficiently for robots to function very well as carers in the future. Indeed, once robots become readily available, the question might become would I like such a machine to look after me in my old age? Again, the answer would be yes. I would apprciate not only the company, but the platform for connecting with others without having to leave my home. The importance of human contact for emotional well-being cannot be stressed enough. Thes Robots can help to combat the problme of isolation among the elderly by offering a chat forum.

For the brevity of the article, I think I was well written. I would, however, have liked seeing more of Kelly's views, especially if this could offer a counterbalance for Antonio Espingardeiro, whom she quotes frequently throughout the work. Espingardeiro is an expert in robotics, and is therefore a good source for the aricle. Still, I feel that some information was missing from the article.

One such element was the fact that Kelly mentions "many" ethical issues, without naming any of them beyond the possibility that users could become emotionally attached to them. I would have liked to see what other challenges and bridges there are on the way to creating the perfect robotic care giver.

In general, I am impressed with the article. I believe that robotic technology will have to be the way of the future, especially when it comes to human beings as an increasingly aging population. I do not believe that anything is wrong with using robots or any other technology to improve the lives of any age group. As long as ethical challenges and other issues are thoroughly investigated, which the article clearly states as being done, I would approve of this technology in my home when…… [read more]


Suicide Is a Unique Topic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (462 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Suicide is a unique topic, especially when dealing with forensic psychology. The purpose of this essay is to summarize a research study on the topic of suicide and how forensic psychology can apply to this study and under what circumstances a psychologist may use the information presented in the article to conduct evaluations on potentially suicidal patients.

McCarthy's (2010) article entitled " Internet Monitoring of Suicide Risk in the Population" is a very useful piece of research that can be used to a great extent for those working in forensic psychology. The author's premise of the article suggested that public health statistics are released too late, and when they are, the data is somewhat irrelevant. To help with this problem, McCarthy looked to internet search volume techniques, used in other disease control monitoring situations for an answer.

The research was quite simple but provided large amounts of useful information. The method used in this research was done through the search engine Google. "The terms "suicide," "teen suicide," "depression," "divorce" and "unemployment" were entered into Google Trends (Google Trends, 2009), an online log of internet search volumes. Results were limited to the United States. Search terms were chosen for their widespread use in the lay public and hypothesized relevance to suicide risk."

McCarthy soon found distinct cycles and patterns in the data he collected. During certain points of the year,…… [read more]


Kennedy Assassination the Entire Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

There is simply no point to conducting a series of autopsy photographs if there is no identifiable entry and exit point for the fatal wounds -- yet this was done in the case of Kennedy's autopsy. Similarly, the dearth of internal organs being visible in the pictures, and the lack of scale to determine the size of the wounds simply reeks of a cover-up. All of these points are definitely cause for alarm that the autopsy photos were egregiously mishandled.

Additionally, it is highly curious that of the bullet fragments examined 14 years after the president's murder, there were only two found that "differed slightly in their composition" (cite). What exactly does that mean, and how common is it for bullets fired in the same gun to be made up of different composition? Furthermore, if the bullets did have different compositions, how can "experts" (cite) be so certain that the came from the same gun?

As the textbook states, the evidence in determining whether or not there was more than one marksman is inconclusive at best. Therefore, when attempting to determine whether or not he had help in assassinating the president, it is difficult to say. However, it certainly seems that there was help given in maligning the investigation of the murder and the autopsy. If that sort of help was given in order to confuse the people about what events took place to lead to the murder of Kennedy then yes, it appears as though Oswald certainly had help indeed.

Similarly, it appears as though the most important perspective of the crime scense from this assassination would be that of the bullets that entered the president's back, since those are no longer traceable.

References

YOU'VE GOT THE TEXTBOOK, I DON'T

Clarke, T. (2013). "A death in the first family." Vanity Fair. Retrieved from http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/2013/07/icebergs-jfk-jackie-death-patrick… [read more]


Environmental Design Environmental &amp Interior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

Hearing-impaired persons will appreciate a reduction of 'white noise' that further impairs their ability to listen (Kopec 2006: 174).

Geriatric populations

Even persons over the age of 80 can lead vibrant and active lives, and the environment must be orchestrated to allow them to accomplish daily tasks. Compensating, asking for help from others, restricting some activities and optimizing (planning the most effective way to perform the activity) are all ways for the elderly to cope with the challenges of aging (Kopec 2006: 175). Design improvements can better enable elderly persons to maintain an active lifestyle by compensating for age-related challenges, such as deterioration of balance (Kopec 2006: 176). Something as simple as an L-shaped kitchen that allows for greater maneuverability (given that elderly persons often cannot reach or use all of the burners) can make a great difference in the resident's life (Kopec 2006: 177)

Dementia of Alzheimer's Type

Alzheimer's, a form of cognitive decline has become an increasingly common problem amongst the population of America's elderly. To extend the time which the patient may remain with his or her family outside of nursing home care, designers can modify the environment to reduce the stressors of the illness, such as providing visual cues to prevent subjects from walking into doors or positioning the bathroom near the bedroom to reduce incontinence (Kopec 2006: 179). Remaining in a familiar place as long as possible can be highly beneficial for the patient.

Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease is a neurological disease caused by a deficit of dopamine that is most common in (but not exclusive to) the elderly which causes rigidity, tremors, and freezing in place. One important accommodation for sufferers is including 'grab rails' in frequent places, as the tremors typically appear when physical motion ceases and muscles are relaxed (Kopec 2006: 181).

Summary review

Changes in the physical environment can have a profound positive influence upon the ability of elderly and disabled populations to be functional. Designers must anticipate the specific needs of the populations which…… [read more]

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