"Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays 141-210

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Social Support the Importance Research Paper

… The support groups also help one avoid getting into risky health behaviors like smoking, drug abuse or alcoholism. Since after retirement the old person will be having a lot of time in their hands, the temptation to get involved in alcoholism and drug use is high. To avoid this, they need to get a social support groups that will be keeping them busy in the course of the regular meetings that they will be having over the week. Within the support groups are also specialists in counseling and other social support skills that will be in a good position to help the elders to avoid the temptation of getting into alcoholism or such behaviors.

Since the old people are likely to suffer from the old age diseases and conditions, such support groups can work very well in helping the person cope with the pain and the stress of the condition that they may find themselves in. If the old person is sick and has no one to express the pain to and receive empathy from, there is likelihood that the pain will be magnified to the emotional realm and not just be a physical pain. With the company of many friends who are regular, the pain of the old age disease becomes lighter.

The presence of the social groups and the social support also encourages the old person to overcome the feeling of fatigue. Once the individual sees his peers taking up the challenge of walking a given number of miles, he will also feel challenged hence join them and not succumb to old age fatigue (Susan G. Komen, 2012).

Conclusion

As indicated in the text above, there is need to have various networks that will involve the aged people in frequent interaction among themselves and even with other social support experts. The social support should be in totality and encompass everything that can work to make the lives of the old people easier, be it their self-esteem, need for information, socializing need and any other special needs that they may have. It is only when all these are met that one can confidently say that the old person could be living a comfortable life as far as social support is concerned.

References

Department of Development Services, (2010). Social Support Systems and Maintaining Mental Health. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.ddssafety.net/content/social-support-systems-and-maintaining-mental-health

Elizabeth Scott, (2010). The Value of All Types of Social Support. Retrieved May 25, 2012 from http://forum.psychlinks.ca/family-and-friends/22227-4-types-of-social-support.html

Harold L. Burke, (2009). Healthy Aging. Retrieved May 23, 2012 from http://www.brain-injury-therapy.com/articles/healthy_aging.htm

Stephanie K. Glassman, (2012). Benefits of Social Support. Retrieved May 24, 2012 from http://www.glassmanpsyd.com/benefits-of-social-support/

Susan G. Komen, (2012). Benefits of…… [read more]


Program Budget and Cost Research Paper

… For example, the Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine, by Doyle et al. (2004), would provide a comprehensive overview of all relevant topics. A more user-friendly example would be Palliative and End of Life Care: Clinical Practice Guidelines, 2nd Edition, by… [read more]


Rinpoche in the Tibetan Book Essay

… This life can and should be viewed as a means to hone the mind. The natural bardo is in the here and now, and the true nature of the mind is absolute stillness. A practice of "bringing the mind home," which Rinpoche discusses in Chapter 5, is crucial to making the most of this life and making the most of death.

Rinpoche's views on death are echoed by those of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, author of the classic On Death and Dying. In On Death and Dying, Ross discusses the fear of death that plagues modern Westerners. Although Kubler-Ross's four stages of grieving are different from Rinpoche's Tibetan bardos, both authors offer their readers spiritual and psychological tools they can use to embrace the reality of death with wisdom and compassion. The goal is to develop the "peaceful confidence" to face death (Rinpoche, 2002, p. 4). When helping other people go through the process of dying, both authors advocate compassion as a primary spiritual support.

Ultimately, the goal of Tibetan spiritual practice is not just to accept death; but to master it. Mastery of death entails first purifying the mind during this lifetime. The practitioner becomes fully aware during all stages of existence including sleep. Then, dying becomes a process. Dying is a transition. In the final section of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Rinpoche (2002) discusses the nature of rebirth. Rinpoche (2002) asserts the reality of reincarnation, stating that the mastery of the mind can help the individual to peacefully make the transition from one life to the next. The goal of self-mastery is to become a "servant of peace," to help others achieve the same level of consciousness evolution (Rinpoche, 2002, p. 360).

References

Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying.…… [read more]


Assisted Suicide the Issues Susan Wolf Raises Research Paper

… Assisted Suicide

The issues Susan Wolf raises surrounding the events concerning the death of her father suggest a multitude of controversial questions that delve into many gray areas of what we value as human beings and a society. The instinct for self preservation is strong and many belief systems teach that suicide and assisted suicide is wrong regardless of the circumstances, however life is messy and the line between right and wrong is often blurred.

If I were in Wolf's place I would feel obligated to begin by reviewing the facts of the situation. At the time of his final hospitalizations her father was 79 years-old with a five-year history of metastatic thyroid cancer plus emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During his initial battle with metastatic head and neck cancer in 2002 her father had "argued that the Holocaust was incompatible with the existence of God. There is no afterlife. This is it, and he wanted every last bit of "it" on any terms" (Wolf, 2008). At this point he wanted all avenues explored and no effort spared.

In 2007 her father took a turn for the worse. He became increasingly weak and his powers of concentration began to diminish until he decided he wanted to stop the tube feeding. It is at this point that the situation becomes complicated. Wolf reports the reason he gives for wanting to remove the feeding tube is that he feels he is becoming a burden. Furthermore the doctors advised him not to follow this course of action, saying he "would suffer a painful death, that morphine would be required to control the discomfort, and that my father would lose consciousness before the day was out" (Wolf, 2008). They failed to assure him that there are methods designed to support his comfort if he did demand the feeding tubes be replaced. Because of this he decided to "solider on." Later he would reveal that he regretted this change of heart.

As his condition continued to deteriorate her father became more dependent on others to ensure his everyday survival. Eventually he developed a gastric bleed that required a transfusion of most of his blood. This led him to ask for and consider all of his options, and he decided once again to suspend treatment. Furthermore, he wanted to accelerate the process. The question then becomes does her father have the right to seek a quicker path to the inevitable?

Discussion

The main consideration at this point should be the patient's quality of life. Johansson, Axelsson, and Danielson (2005) found that patient's with incurable cancer indentified five themes of relivance relating to quality of life. These include the ability to lead an ordinary life, maintain significant realtions, maintain a positive life, alieviate suffering, and manage their lives when ill.

Leading an ordinary life was described as the abilty to appreciate normal things and to feel functional. The…… [read more]


Taste and Smell Age Related Term Paper

… Moreover, it is not uncommon for older individuals to report that 'things don't taste right', and these complaints have been generally attributable to changes in odor perception (Rawson, 2003).

Rawson (2003) posits a significant number of medications that have the ability to elicit chemosensory side effects which has the ability to lead to poor pharmacological compliance or altered selection of nutritional status and foods. Metabolites or the medications themselves can be secreted into the nasal mucus or into the saliva and directly impact receptor cells. This is often evidenced by the unpleasant taste frequently associated with antibiotics (Chodosh et al., 1998). In instances when medication known to alter the senses must be taken for extended periods of time, however, an adjustment in dosage may serve to remediate the problem.

Analysis and Conclusion

Rawson, in the aforementioned article provided scholarly and empirical information regarding the impact on the perceptions of flavor and aroma and the senses of taste, smell and chemical irritation as it relates to older age. The peer reviewed article provided both physiological, pharmacological social consequences of changes the elderly can experience as a result of changes and/or deficits in the sensory system. Empirical studies were provided as a foundation by which the research was posited upon, issues of well being, taste aversion, and food/drink altering were addressed. Chemosensory loss was explored in significant detail and issues of infections, and medication were discussed.

Further, the researcher advised that as age related issues of taste and smell perception are not universal with the elderly or across senses, it creates the challenges of how to effectively address the problem not just for reduced flavor intensity but also a shift in sensory profile of particularly complex aromas and flavors of food (Ransom, 2003). The researcher suggests that because odors of a particular concentration may be perceived as less than half as intense by the elderly, some flavor supplementation may be necessary in order to produce equivalency in taste as supplementation has been proven to enhance satisfaction levels among the elderly will diminished ability to smell (Mathey et al., 2001).

Most importantly, the researcher reminds of the importance of taking concerns and complaints expressed by the elderly regarding an inability or increased difficulty to taste or smell seriously as it could represent symptomology for major illnesses or can result in pharmacological non-compliance. Moreover, because loss in chemosensory systems are real in the elderly and have the ability to impact well being and quality of life it is important that particularly health professionals not disregard these concerns and help in the development of coping strategies that can also help to avoid health hazards.

References

Chodosh, S., et al. (1998). Efficacy and safety of a ten day course of 400 or 600

milligrams of grepafloxacin once daily for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: comparison with a ten day course of 500 milligrams of Ciprofloxacin twice daily. Antimicrobial Agents in Chemotherapy, 42(1), 114-120.

Mathey, M., et al. (2001). Flavor enhancement of food improves… [read more]


Coping With Life There Are Numerous Points Essay

… ¶ … Coping With Life

There are numerous points of comparisons to be found between Annie Dillard's essay entitled "Total Eclipse and Randy Shilts' essay entitled "Talking AIDS To Death." The central premise of both essays is certainly one such point, which is the eventual dissolution of life before the yawning maw of death. However, there are a number of specific aspects of these works detailing the importance of life and its intrinsic properties such as time, immortality (or the lack thereof) and certain attributes of death in which the writers either eminently present contrasting opinions or share startling similarities. A close examination of both of these texts, however, reveals the fact that Dillard ends her chronicle of and journey of death on a more peaceful, accepting note, whereas Shilts' essay concludes in a similar array of doubt and disbelief which typified the majority of the author's metaphorical journey while composing this particular piece of literature.

In order to properly assess the facets of life and its partnership with death that Dillard finds to be of importance in "Total Eclipse," one should consider the overarching circumstances in which her essay was composed and in what, on a literal level, it inherently reveals. The author traveled with her husband (who was recently deceased at the time of the essay's writing) to a location in which they can view a total eclipse -- the effect of which helped the author to contextualize life, the seemingly immortal nature of God's design (such as the earth and the sun), as well as the relatively modest role in which mankind plays in all of these varying designs. The essay, of course, utilizes the conception of the eclipse as a metaphor for the quickening accuracy of death, while revealing the profundity of certain acts and rituals in life which the following quotation makes readily apparent.

We teach our children one thing only, as we were taught: to wake up. We teach our children to look alive there, to join by words and activities the life of human culture on the planet's crust…We live half our waking lives and all of our sleeping lives in some private, useless, and insensible waters we never mention or recall…Valueless, I might add -- until someone hauls the wealth up to the surface and into the wide awake city, in a form that people can use (Dillard).

There are a number of salient aspects of this quote, not the least of which is the value that the author attributes to the joining of activities that are part of life and which she refers to as a sense of waking up and looking alive. The half-awoke moments of going through the motions of life are devalued by the author, who largely conceives of the immortal facet of death as arriving with the celeritous speed and rapid time of the spreading of the shadow of the eclipse.

There are a number of points in Shilts' essay that are at considerable variance to these… [read more]


Ethical Dilemma of Assisted Research Paper

… This often leads a large percentage of physicians to support religious beliefs during the last stages of life, so that the patient prepares and accepts what is coming. Patients, on the other hand view a "good death" differently, seeing it… [read more]


Elderly Boseman, J. And L. Victor. ) Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … Elderly

Boseman, J. And L. Victor. (2008). "Aging Americans and Diabetes: A Public Health

and Clinical Response." Geriatrics. 59 (4): 14-17.

Diabetes is more than a moral and medical problem -- it is, in fact, a holistic issue interrelated to culture and most assuredly economics. One rarely thinks of the numerous consequences illness, lethargy, and/or inability to find treatment may have on populations unprepared for mass cases of type II diabetes:

Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets lead to more disease, days away from work, and burdens on the social systems of countries

Risk factors rise for cardiac disease, or an inability to remain part of the labor force as long as a healthy person

Greater siphoning of resources away from necessary programs and into control of an epidemic caused by behavior patterns.

Gan, W., et.al., (2011). Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Hospitalization and Mortality. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (4): 501-16.

As individuals age, we know that their body lacks the immune response to toxins and is therefore more at risk for developing disease based on environmental factors. In a modern world, it is almost impossible not to be exposed to carcinogens and toxins from air-pollution and traffic fumes, which in turn, increase the risk of coronary issues requiring hospitalization in the elderly.

Nemerogg, C. (2007). The Curiously Strong Relationship Between Cardiovascular

Disease and Depression in the Elderly. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 15 (2): 217-33.

Depression is one of those conditions that can return if proper preventative measures are not taken. Patients need to understand that depression can return at any time and certain precautions must be taken. Research also shows there is a statistical correlation between heart disease and depression and, oddly enough, visa versa. Patients with heart issues tend to see mortality as an approaching inevitability, contributing to depression. Similarly, depression causes many older adults to have little interest in eating right, in exercising, and in engaging in social tasks with other adults.

Rinker, A.G. Jr. (January-February 2009) Recognition and perception of elder abuse by prehospital and hospital-based care providers. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 48 (1) 110-115.

Scholarly article focusing on ways that medical professionals can recognize symptoms of elder abuse and make appropriate recommendations and reports surrounding the issue. Elder abuse is a hidden problem, yet faces an approximate 28 per cent of populations over 70 as both a health and mental health related issue.

Weisshopg, M., et.al., (2010). Association of Cumulative Lead Exposure with Parkinson's Disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118 (11): 1609-21.

We are learning more and more that repeated exposure to environmental issues has the potential to cause, or exacerbate, certain health related issues. As people age, it is logical that…… [read more]


Die, Reflections on Life's Final Chapter Book Report

… ¶ … Die, Reflections on Life's Final Chapter by Sherwin B. Nuland

Although the ultimate outcome for all living things is death, the aging and dying process and the terminal consequences of mortality are understood in very different ways by… [read more]


Access and Relevance of Data Sources Research Paper

… Access and Relevance of Data Sources

Identify two areas that are relevant to criminal justice and criminology:

Elder maltreatment; and,

Intimate partner violence.

Complete the following information based on two examples:

Topic No. 1: Elder maltreatment

Elder maltreatment involves a… [read more]


African-American Males Between the Ages Research Proposal

… The quality of interpersonal relations seriously affected the risk of suicide among young males and females. It was also discovered that black men and women were more likely to say that a person died because that is what God has in his mind for them. They feel that if a person commits suicide, he does that because God has planned this for him. This is a major difference between the attitude of young black men and women and Europeans Americans. Data in this case was collected through administration of Stigma Questionnaire, and Suicide Ideation Questionnaire to 251 undergraduate college students. The study holds significance for the development of culturally appropriate interventions in the case of patients at higher risk of suicide.

Poussaint and Alexander (2000) discussed the issue of suicide among young black males more deeply in their book: Lay down my Burden. The book was a personal account of her brother's suicide so her research is far more personal with good statistics and accurate facts. The purpose of her research was more personal for that reason. She can be slightly biased since it was something that was close to her heart but overall the book was written with good factual information. They found that compared to black women, the rate of suicide in young black men was increasing at an alarming rate. They discovered that there was no difference in presence of the cases of suicide across all social and income levels. They found that young black men were far more likely to be at higher risk of suicide than black women. Even the rate of suicide has gone up so dramatically that the gap between young white male suicides and black males was getting narrower.

Literature on the subject agrees that rate of suicide among young black males is increasing and there is multitude of factors affecting this outcome. Black men have to undergo years of racist behavior and develop a thinner skin to survive but since their nerves are fragile from years of racism, they fall easy prey to thoughts of suicide. Studies unanimously agreed that depression played a significant role in predicting suicidal behavior. These researches and studies also proved that suicide was not only common in lower income groups but also affected other social and income groups. Mothers in most cases remained unaware of their children suffering from any problems or depression and hence received a very rude shock when they heard of the suicide.

References

Poussaint, A., & Alexander, A. (2000). Lay my burden down: Unraveling suicide and the mental health crisis among African-Americans. Boston: Beacon

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control.

Suicide injury deaths and rates. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov

Barnes, DH (2006). The Aftermath of Suicide Among African-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(3), 335-348.

Walker, Rheeda L; Lester, David. Lay theories of suicide: An examination of culturally relevant suicide beliefs and attributions among African-Americans and European-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology Vol: 32 Issue: 3 ISSN: 0095-7984 Date: 08/2006… [read more]


Immigration Bongaarts ) Reports Research Proposal

… In addition the research will analyze various studies that have been conducted concerning the impact that replacement migration might have on public policy.

Resources for the proposed research will include scholarly journals, legal journals and books. These sources are most likely to contain the information that is relevant and pertinent to the topic of replacement immigration and its potential impact on social security.

Outline

I. Chapter I Introduction

A. Background Information

Replacement Migration has long been a subject of significant debate as it pertains to the impact is has on the age of any given population.

B. Problem Statement

The median age in developed nations are increasing while there are fewer people entering the workforce. This creates a scenario in which public systems such as social security is not sustainable. The unstable nature of these public systems could jeopardize the lives of people for years to come.

C. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the ways in which replacement migration may assist the social security system and ensure its sustainability for years to come.

D. Research Questions

How does the presence of an aging population affect public pension programs?

How do current immigration laws dictate how replacement immigration might be impacted by immigration laws?

E. Objectives of the Study

F. Definition of Terms

II. Chapter II Review of Literature

A. Immigration Laws

B. Ageing Population

C. Replacement immigration and Social Security

D. Positive and Negative outcomes associated with replacement migration in the context of immigration law.

III. Chapter III Methodology

IV. Chapter IV Results and Discussion

V. Chapter V Conclusion and Recommendations

VI. References

Bibliography

Bongaarts, John. Population Aging and the Rising Cost of Public Pensions

http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/wp/185.pdf

Chand, Sheetal and Albert Jaeger. 1996. "Aging populations and public pension schemes," IMF

Occasional Paper Number 147. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Coleman, D.A. (2002) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 29 April 2002 vol. 357 no. 1420 583-598

Espenshade T.J. (2001), "Replacement Migration" from the Perspective of Equilibrium

Stationary Populations, Population and Environment 22 (4): 383-400.

Feinleib J., Warner, D. 2005. The Impact of Immigration on Social Security and the National Economy. http://www.ssab.gov/documents/IMMIG_Issue_Brief_Final_Version_000.pdf

Keely C. 2002. Replacement Migration: the wave of the future? International Migration. 39(6): 103-110.

Lesthaeghe, R. 2001 Postponement and recuperation: recent fertility trends and forecasts in six Western European countries.

In IUSSP international perspectives on low fertility: trends, theories and policies. IUSSP Working Paper Series. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

Saczuk K. (2003) A DEVELOPMENT AND CRITIQUE OF THE CONCEPT OF REPLACEMENT MIGRATION. http://www.cefmr.pan.pl/docs/cefmr_wp_2003-04.pdf

United Nations 2000 Replacement migration: is it a solution to declining and ageing populations? New York: United Nations.…… [read more]


Active and Passive Euthanasia Term Paper

… Active and Passive Euthanasia

In his 1975 article "Active and Passive Euthanasia," James Rachels sets out a number of arguments why the medical profession has misunderstood what they consider a moral difference between two types of treatment that Rachels asserts… [read more]


Euthanasia War and Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … non-moral or religious standpoint; while individual suicide is illigeal in many countries, the more legalistic issue is final exit, or assisted suicide that is advocated by many right-to-die organizations. There is not necessarily a completely clear legal distinction between "assisted suicide" and "final exit suicide." Advocates of final exit suicide will say that the decision to end one's life should remain with the individual, not the State. And if a group or another person lends information that can help someone end pain and suffering, that is not murder or manslaughter. If another individual assists in helping someone commit suicide, they are, in legal terms, abetting a felony. The predominant medical view in the United States holds that anyone who wants to willingly end their life must have a mental health condition, and is therefore not qualified to make a life and death decision. Other countries are liberalizing the legalities, and find a clear difference in an individual with a terminal illness choosing quality of life over quantity.

Part 2 -- the idea of euthanasia often uses incurable pain as a reason for ending life. However, pain is a relative term. For example, in the Terri Schiavo case, pain was not the seminal issue, but quality of life and the ability to be an actualized human being. Schiavo was diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state, causing her husband to petition the Court to remove her feeding tube. This was opposed by Terri's parents and a host of other conservative and pro-life movements, including President George W. Bush. In total, the Schiavo case involved 14 appeals, numerous motions, petitions, and hearings in Florida, and five in Federal District Court, the Florida Supreme Court, Federal legislation, and four denials of certiorari from the U.S. Supreme Court. Finally, after 15 years of legislation, the local Court's decision to disconnect Terri was carried out in March, 2005 (Goodman, 2009).

Part 3 -- the idea of doctors practicing euthanasia is not a clear-cut argument. Do these doctors simply practice the speciality -- or are they part of the decision making process in deciding whether the person's own individualized view of life meets their own; or in the opposite case, if someone is in excruciating pain but wants to live, would the doctor overmedicate in order to "make the patient comfortable?" At the very center of the debate on euthanasia lies the core of individual and societal ethics. Ethics is a philosophical concept that attempts to explain the moral organization within a given chronological time and cultural event. It is more concerned with understanding the way that ethnical ideas are presented, than judging those concepts within the construct of the society. On one hand, allowing a doctor to assist a patient in a predetermined decision would alleviate the suffering of the terminally ill, and allow they a dignified and self-choosen death. However, despite the advances in medical science, doctors cannot yet predict remission or…… [read more]


Ageism it Is a Commonly Known Fact Book Review

… Ageism

It is a commonly known fact that today, because of advances in medical science and a generally healthier lifestyle, that people in Western countries die at a much more advanced age than was the case a few centuries ago.… [read more]


Effects of Non-Thermal Plasma on Mammalian Cell Activity and Apoptosis Literature Review Chapter

… ¶ … non-thermal plasma on mammalian cell activity and apoptosis, including a background and overview, as well as a description, summary and comparison of relevant related studies. These sections are followed by a discussion concerning the gaps that were identified… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Is the Seventh Leading Cause Research Paper

… Alzheimer's disease is the seventh leading cause of all deaths in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans who are 65 years of age or older. The reason that the number of people afflicted with… [read more]


Elderly Living Arrangements Thesis

… ¶ … elderly are among the fastest growing segments of the population in the United States today. Moreover, this growth is projected to continue well into the mid-21st century as the baby boomer generation reaches retirement age. Although estimates vary,… [read more]


Immorality in the Epic of Gilgamesh Term Paper

… Gilgamesh

IN FLESH AND SPIRIT: THE QUEST FOR HUMAN IMMORTALITY

The search for immortality seems has fascinated mankind throughout history. Although the thought of everlasting life is mythical, most of us hope for some form life after death. While we tend not to dwell on this subject because we are uncomfortable with the unknown, on those rare occasions when we allow ourselves to think about the fact that our days are numbered, we wonder if death can be cheated and immortality gained. Some have suggested that being remembered is just as enduring as living forever. Thoughts of destiny and the here after are not new. They have engaged the hearts and minds of men for ages. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, a king investigates the possibility of immortality following the saddening death of his friend Enkidu and ultimately discovers the method to obtain it.

Gilgamesh, the ruler of ancient Uruk, is blessed with the gift of foresight. He has numerous dreams about his destiny and has accepted his mortal fate. In interpreting a dream given to Gilgamesh by the gods, Endiku states that the gods have "given you kingship, such is your destiny, everlasting life is not your destiny." (70). With this early revelation, Gilgamesh accepts the gods choice to not give him eternal life. Instead, Gilgamesh is determined to make himself famous so that his name will be set in the place where the names of famous men are written (70-1). It is here that the epic first toys with the notion of spiritual immortality. Throughout the story Gilgamesh first battles with and then adapts his own definition of eternal life.

Gilgamesh succeeds obtaining fame by first defeating the guardian of the forest, Humbaba, and shortly after, the bull of heaven. During these battles Gilgamesh declares that "there is nothing to fear! If I fall I leave behind me a name that endures." (71). Having reconciled himself to the fact that fate has indeed determined when he will die, he still desires that his name live on eternally. It is not until the death of his friend Endiku, by the gods' decree that he questions the concept of human mortality with the knowledge that "What my brother is now, that shall I be." (97).

Endiku, himself grapples with the meaning of immortality and his death serves to both act as a catalyst for Gilgamesh's own quest and to foreshadow Gilgamesh's eventual findings. After cursing the house of Gilgamesh for being the forbearer of his death, Shamash reminds Enkidu that he will be mourned by the people of Uruk and by Gilgamesh himself ["when you are dead [Gilgamesh] will let his hair grow long for your sake, he will wear a lion's pelt and wander through the desert," (91)]. Hearing Shamash, Enkidu changes his curse to a blessing. Bitter as his death is to him, and to Gilgamesh, it gives meaning to his life, for only upon death can on be remembered in whole.

Upon Enkidu's death, Gilgamesh insists that… [read more]


Elder Abuse it Is a Sad Fact Essay

… Elder Abuse

It is a sad fact of reality that the elderly in the United States and indeed across the world are or have been abused by those they depend upon for their care. According to the National Center on… [read more]


Dying Experience in Nursing Home Dissertation

… Dying Experience in Nursing Home

Arbuthnot, Elsa; Dawson, Jane; & Hansen-Ketchum, Patti. (2007). Senior women and rural living. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Healthcare. 7(1):1-12. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php/online-journal/article/viewFile/5/179

This article also expresses the individual's desire to experience death within the context of the home, yet shows the high strain such strategies have on resources. Without being able to meet this request, many are forced to experience death in nursing homes and hospices, which then increase anxiety and decrease the quality of the death experience.

Browne, Amy. (2007). Dying and death in a nursing home. Seniors. Associated Content. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/390397/dying_and_death_in_a_nursing_home.html?cat=12

Describes modern care practices for patients dying in a nursing home. It is a common practice to prescribe heavy pain relievers, such as morphine or roxanol in order to decrease discomfort and create a more comfortable context for the individual to experience death.

Consumer Affairs. (2004). Support for dying patients often lacking. News. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/nursing_home_terminal.html

This article reinforces the idea that modern nursing homes are under staffed and under funded. This causes serious gaps in the quality of care which has negative affects on the dying experience of the individual patients. Additionally, poor staff hiring can cause an environment where patients near death are treating with a lack of respect, causing low self-esteem before death.

Ferrell, Betty & Coyle, Nessa. (2006). Textbook of Palliative Nursing. Oxford University Press.

This book outlines traditional hospice care that can be implemented in specific cases dealing with nursing homes that can help increase the quality of the death experience. This work makes sure to advocate the varying nature of the death experience depending on the individual, and presents a model for care that…… [read more]


Voluntary Euthanasia Term Paper

… ¶ … against Voluntary Euthanasia

If a person requests assistance to end their life, it is called voluntary euthanasia. Types of euthanasia include involuntary euthanasia (no patient request) or passive euthanasia (withholding care). This essay will focus on the issue that voluntary euthanasia and highlight the major arguments against this act that have been rigorously studied in the scholarly literature. A prime focus on this discourse is that voluntary euthanasia devalues life. Several points are offered which uphold this stance.

A method of judging the ethical concerns of voluntary euthanasia utilizes the Principle of Double Effect. The "PDE" is a valid foundation to decide when voluntary euthanasia is acceptable. Four factors comprise the PDE; the action must be a good one, only the good effect must be intended, the good effect must not be achieved by way of the bad effect, and the good result must outweigh the bad (Sulmasey and Pelligrino 550).

The PDE upholds this, as the resultant death (via doctor assisted termination) achieves the good result through employment of the bad…… [read more]


Poe's Style, While Not Unique Research Paper

… Poe's style, while not unique, is extremely masterful in creating various literary atmospheres and eliciting emotional reactions from readers. He employs several tools in both "The Black Cat" as well as "The Masque of the Red Death" that give the unsuspecting reader a sense of mystery, fear, horror, and sheer excitement. In both short stories Poe skillfully creates a specific tone, successfully employs foreshadowing, and draws the readers attention to various metaphors and symbols to help concoct a truly unique reading experience. As the stories build, they both give the reader a sense of mortality, imminent doom, and the feeling of helplessness or of being trapped. Poe accomplishes this through his writing, and the setting up of each story's climax in a very calculated, deliberate way.

"The Masque of the Red Death" is an excellent example of Poe's ability to both foreshadow events as well as create symbols and metaphors from seemingly innocuous events and objects. He draws the reader in with the grotesque and graphic descriptions of the symptoms of the horrible disease, laying the foundation for the reader's emotion expectations and responses. He skillfully sets up the feeling of dread and doom in his own description of the seventh room of the Prince's abode writing, "The seventh apartment was closely shrouded in black velvet tapestries that hung all over the ceiling and down the walls, falling in heavy folds upon a carpet of the same material and hue. But in this chamber only, the color of the windows failed to correspond with the decorations. The panes here were scarlet -- a deep blood color.." The imagery here is chilling, and each of the seven rooms represents a period in the life of a human being, from birth to death. Poe ingeniously constructs an allegory for moving through each of life's unique time periods through his description of the prince's apartment rooms. The seventh room with its unmatched, melancholy appearance and blood red windows are foreshadowing the events that will soon take place there. It symbolizes death and dread, just as the colors black and red often symbolize these two elements. This room was also the resting place of the gigantic ebony clock. This clock is also a symbol of the impending doom that is to befall the prince and his guests. The wonderful sense of security and feeling that the prince has set up a home impervious to the disease is shaken and destroyed by the end of the story. All of the guests at the party are weary of the ticking of the clock, as Poe uses this to illustrate the fact that they are running out of time, quite glaringly, in a place that has been cut off from the outside world. This feeling of inevitability and helplessness also add to the reader's feelings of fear and horror later in the story.

In "The Black Cat," Poe also successfully employs foreshadowing and metaphor. He begins the story by trying to develop an emotional bond between the… [read more]


Suicide in the Elderly Thesis

… Suicide in the Elderly

Leading Cause of Death, Rising Incidence

Suicide as one of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States was surpassed by Alzheimer Disease and septicemia more than a decade ago (McKeown 2006). However, it… [read more]


Sandwich Generation Thesis

… ¶ … Sandwich Generation, Caregiving, and Alzheimer's

Alzheimer's

The disease that all elderly people -- and their children, their grandchildren, their friends and neighbors -- dread nearly as much as cancer is Alzheimer's, and with good reason. "The worst part… [read more]


Life Long Learning Plan Research Proposal

… ¶ … Nursing Home in Liberia

In the past, the need for nursing home facilities in Liberia was small because the culture demanded that immediate family members care for the elderly and given the relatively short life expectancies involved, few… [read more]


Euthanasia Euthenasia the Topic Essay

… Euthanasia

EUTHENASIA

The topic of euthanasia is one that evokes an extensive and complex range of reactions. These range from outright moral indignation at the very suggestion that the taking of another human life could be legitimized, to arguments that… [read more]


Forensic Anthropology Thesis

… Forensic anthropology is a function of forensics and physical anthropology that specifically looks at skeletal remains in a forensic or crime detection setting to try to make inferences about those remains. (Ryan, 2002, p. 15) It was once an accepted… [read more]


Online Scientific Publication for Current Research Research Proposal

… ¶ … online scientific publication for current research on the role of the cell cycle in aging.

"Loss of Stem Cells Correlates With Premature

Aging In Animal Study." ScienceDaily 8 June 2007. 29 April 2009 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070606235257.htm

While dying and aging are accepted as inevitable facts of life, new research suggests that like so many diseases, aging (or at very least the rate at which we age) is encoded in our genes. Also, new research into what parts of the cell are involved in regeneration hold the promise for forestalling the seemingly inevitable symptoms of growing older. According to the ScienceDaily article "Loss of Stem Cells Correlates With Premature Aging In Animal Study," researchers at the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute of the University of Pennsylvania have found that deleting a gene known as ATR from a mouse's genetic sequence can lead to premature aging and loss of stem cell reservoirs in the affected mice.

This gene, which is essential for normal cell regeneration allows the body to heal normally, in response to damaged DNA. Daily, the body breaks down and rebuilds itself. Our body's ability to regenerate slows down as we age and our reserves of stem cell reservoirs grows smaller, or in some cases loses their integrity through overly frequent division when our systems are particularly stressed. Until now, scientists were uncertain as to why this was the case, on a molecular level. The new model offered by this research could provide scientists with clues as to how to preserve stem cells and suppress or reduce the symptoms of aging and develop new ways to repair DNA damage due to cancer and other disorders in humans on a cellular level.

Aging may be described as a slow loss of stem…… [read more]


Life Expectancy Looking at the Current Data Thesis

… ¶ … Life Expectancy

Looking at the current data on the life expectancy in the United States, it is indeed correct to assume that most people would live to the ages of 100 or more. This assumption is made possible by advances in the field of medical science, according to biologists. This claim is strengthened by the data on life expectancy by birth year in the country, which showed that towards the year 2000, there has been a steady increase in life expectancy, reaching towards the 80 years level. In addition to this, U.S. death rate by age data illustrated that death is practically nil for people with ages below 40 years old, after which death could increase exponentially but will peak at 80 years or older. Lastly, U.S. life expectancy by age supports these assumptions by showing that indeed, 80 years old marks the highest life expectancy for people in the 21st century.

While this…… [read more]


Challenges of Hospice Thesis

… ¶ … Hospice

The objective of this research is to examine the hospice care community and the challenges associated with treating terminal disease and maintaining quality of life standards that medical professionals, patients and their families face.

Hospice care is… [read more]


Superman Only One-Third Mortal, Gilgamesh Essay

… ¶ … superman only one-third mortal, Gilgamesh becomes the unwitting hero of a tragic tale. Being two-thirds a god, the King of Uruk leads his people with an iron fist, letting his divine nature turn him into an arrogant and oppressive leader. The Epic of Gilgamesh explores Gilgamesh's relationship with himself and his own hubris extensively throughout the twelve tablets upon which the Sumerian text was written. However, Gilgamesh needed a major catharsis to initiate his personal transformation. The gods are the primary force responsible for Gilgamesh's changing from a brutal ruler to an altruistic one. Creating Enkidu as Gilgamesh's only viable nemesis turns out to be the catalyst for the title character. Enkidu, unlike Gilgamesh, is entirely mortal. His death is what makes Gilgamesh accept his own mortality. Ironically, it is Enkidu's humanity that makes Gilgamesh a truly godlike figure.

Although Gilgamesh is two-thirds part god and Enkidu is introduced as being animalistic, Enkidu appears the more emotionally intelligent and spiritually strong of the two. Enkidu is created entirely by the gods, even though he is a wholly earthy character. Like an animal, Enkidu lives in the woods and has little contact with humanity before encountering Gilgamesh and before that, a prostitute. Both Gilgamesh and Enkidu are initially shown to be animals even though Gilgamesh is two-thirds part god. Interestingly, Enkidu is more emotionally intelligent than Gilgamesh at the beginning of the story. Enkidu challenges Gilgamesh on the grounds that his behavior as king is out of hand and inhumane. In fact, the gods created Enkidu as a rival for Gilgamesh, one who could challenge, threaten, and undermine the arrogant king's power. Enkidu is first described as a sort of monster, when oddly it is Gilgamesh who is the real monster at the start of the epic…… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Has Become a Concern Thesis

… Alzheimer's Disease has become a concern that is now more widely studied than it used to be. Typically seen in the elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is characterized by several factors, including forgetfulness and agitation (National, 2008). Currently, there is no… [read more]


Counseling the Broken Hearted - Memories Term Paper

… Counseling the Broken Hearted - Memories of Grief

Grief is painful. When we talk about grief we are referring to the extreme emotional reaction of an individual to loss, which often includes shock, sadness, fear, anger, confusion, somatic disorders, and… [read more]


Edgar Allen Poe's "The Masque Term Paper

… Edgar Allen Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death" & Robert Olen Butler's "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of Parrot"

In the writing "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of Parrot," by Robert Olen Butler, he gives a comical a detailed description of a man reincarnate as a parrot, and comes to live once again with his wife, however the second time around he is a bird caged in the living room, watching her living here life and bringing different men home, and his reaction to these strangers in his home. The atmosphere of the writing is extremely relaxed and easily related to emotions that people probably feel often throughout their lives.

In the writing "The Masque of the Red Death," by Edger Allen Poe, the overall description and subject matter varies greatly from that of the previously mentioned writing. Poe, discusses death, however it is slightly mentioned at the beginning of the writing than again at the end. The writing by Poe is very descriptive and has a more formal feeling to it as he describes the rooms, and the events going on in each of the rooms.

Both writings compare in giving visuals that are consistent…… [read more]


Individual Determinants Term Paper

… New Product Idea - Fashionable Walker for Seniors

Product: A fashionable walker for older men and women that does not look like the metal one normally used in healthcare facilities. Purpose: To get away from the stigma attached to using a walker.

Determinant -- Age: Although this walker could and would be used by younger individuals, it would predominantly be marketed to older men and women who have difficulty walking on their own. It is a well-known fact that the U.S. population is becoming older. During the 20th century, the number of persons under age 65 tripled. Simultaneously, those aged 65 or over has jumped ll times. As a result, the elderly comprised only 1 in every 25 Americans in 1900 but 1 in 8 in 1994. According to the Census Bureau, the elderly population will more than double between now and 2050 to 80 million. As many as 1 in 5 Americans could be elderly. Most of this growth should occur between 2010 and 2030, when babyboomers enter their elderly years.

The number of elderly will grow rapidly, mostly those aged 85 and over, to 19 million in 2050. Between 1960 and 1994, their numbers rose 274%. In contrast, the elderly population in general rose 100%, and the entire U.S. population grew only 45%. By an average of 2.8% annually.

According to Wolfe (2003), there are a number of different ways to compare the behaviors and reactions of older vs. younger consumers:

Younger minds are more responsive to emotionally neutral, objectively framed propositions.

Older individuals are increasingly responsive to emotional cues. They are less responsive to information that is emotionally neutral.

Older individuals are more adept at getting to deeper meanings.

Younger minds are more literal, and generally respond better to a language style that is direct and detailed.

Older people are repelled by absolutism.

Young often appear to project autonomy in their strident expressions, but in reality they demonstrate considerable dependence on guidance.

Older people generally depend less on others for guidance.

Older minds are generally more responsive to indirect approaches until such time that trust has been fully gained, at which time, they may actually welcome directness even more than a younger person might.

2) Determinant -- Gender: This walker, although different styles for men and women, would most likely be used more by women: First, because women live longer than men and thus have a greater need for them. Second, because women are more self-conscious about the way a typical walker looks than a man. Third, because women suffer more from osteoporosis and have a greater need for walking assistance.

According to the Census Bureau, men generally have higher death rates than women at every age. As a result, elderly women…… [read more]


Hamlet's Soliloquy Term Paper

… Hamlet's Soliloquy is touted as one of the most telling of all his rants. In this one passage he discusses the reason people choose to live or die. In short men choose to live because they fear the unknown of death. This passage is a larger answer to Hamlet's own question of why he has chosen to this point to act in life, to avenge his father's death rather than simply to let himself die or be killed as his father was. From this point forward in the work, Hamlet lives without fear of death, Ophelia has shown him that fear is only necessary when one makes no peace with the calamity of his life. Hamlet vows to make his revenge and let his life be taken in the process if it will. If the soft, fair Ophelia can choose death over life to end her worldly calamity, the scorn of his love given and then taken away, than he must no longer live in fear of death, he must avenge himself and his father so that all but the wicked can sleep the peaceful sleep of death.

The language of the passage is a clear indication that Hamlet is at a decision point. He has taken from his life the message that all is calamity, especially in worldly intrigue and that a decision must now be made to live or die, avenged or un-avenged. His fear is built on, the fear of the unknown as well as the fear of living in a world that continues to beat him down with, "whips and scorns of time, / the oppressor's wrong, the proud mans contumely, / the pangs of despised love, the law's delay, / the insolence of office and the spurns / That patient merit of the unworthy takes, When he himself might his quietus make..." The language is wavering, as like all other points in the work, he discusses with himself the nature of his decision. He asks, what is right, to seek out an end to his worldly depravity before or after he has avenged his father or to simply keep living in such calamity, because he is afraid of death? Yet, his resolve is set when he says, "And thus conscience does make cowards of us all; / and thus the native hue of resolution / I sicklied over with the pale crust of thought, / and enterprises of great pith and moment / With this regard their currents turn awry, / and lose the name of action." Hamlet seeks to stop thinking and to start doing, and in his last apology to Ophelia, for using her in his plot and precipitating her own death he tells her, "-Soft you now! The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in they orisons / Be all my sins remember'd." He gives Ophelia the right to hold him responsible for his act of betrayal towards her.

Hamlet vows not to fear death but to take within his own hands the responsibility to… [read more]


1995 Chicago Heat Wave Term Paper

… 1995 Chicago Heat Wave

How do we know that the 1995 Chicago heat wave is a disaster? Explain the chronic conditions which enabled this disaster

It was the month of July in the year 1995, in Chicago. The entire city… [read more]


Streetcar Name Desire Term Paper

… Streetcar Named Desire

Tennessee Williams play "A Streetcar Named Desire" is filled with various symbols, literary elements, and techniques that carry special meaning and touch the reader's innermost thoughts. It places the reader in a particular historic time when society and a people used to coexist in different ways compared to today's attitudes. One of the most complex characters in the play, Blanche Dubois, experiences numerous incidents and has certain dynamics that solidify her tragic elements, such as leaving Belle Reve, losing her family house, losing a young husband to suicide, deaths of her family members, and these develop into dependence, desperation, superiority, and poverty. The play opens with Blanche's visit to New Orleans to be reunited with her sister. The play's ending is tragic because of the many downfalls and disappointments in her life, and the fact that instead of overcoming them, she allows them to ruin her life. In fact, she allows others to take over control over her life, signifying her life has spun out of control. She does not have control over her own mind, she has lost her sanity, and she does not have control over her future, as indicted when Stanley commits her to the insane asylum at the end of the play.

Blanche is a tragic character and the main character in this play. She is filled with illusions of what life should be like, but which cannot possibly apply to real life. Between reality and her ideals, she struggles to overcome her own weaknesses, but not nearly hard enough. She literally self-destructs by pretending and lying. She pretends to be an innocent Southern belle, but of course, she is aging fast and far past the young innocent stage. This is clear when…… [read more]


My Father Term Paper

… Death & Dying - Hospice

REFLECTING on the DEATH of MY FATHER

My beloved father died recently. In life, he was the source of many lessons, about love, friendship, honesty, compassion, fairness, responsibility, sacrifice, and the meaning of personal integrity. In his death, he provided one last lesson, a lesson represented more by questions and the opportunity for self-exploration rather than a lesson of definitive answers or solutions.

We all knew that my father was dying, because while still a hospital in-patient, his doctor advised him that he had approximately a week to live without dialysis.

Because dialysis meant merely extending a life that had become more difficult to prolong than to relinquish, my father declined the treatment; he had had enough suffering and discomfort. I recall understanding his decision but being aware of a vague feeling of anger at his choice, despite the fact that I did not want him to suffer.

My father spent the last week of his life confined to his bed at home, where we cared for him 'round the clock, changing his position in bed to avoid bedsores, feeding him, changing him, and keeping him clean. We had arranged for delivery of whatever equipment we could find to make the end of his life as comfortable as possible, including hospital bed and supplemental oxygen.

For the first time, our respective roles had reversed completely, with my father's absolute dependence on us, instead of the other way around, for even the most basic human needs. In many ways, it was similar to caring for an infant. At times, it was difficult for me to grasp the reality that this dependent person barely conscious in a hospital bed was really my father. Looking back on it afterwards, I was already in a mild state of psychological shock, just at my father's deterioration, even before he died.

At the same time, I tried to focus on the fact that my father was still alive, which meant that I hadn't yet lost him. In reality, most of the person my father had been died long before he actually drew his last breath. Psychologists would probably say that I was in a state of denial in pretending that my father was still "OK" when in truth, he obviously was not "OK" in the least. Nevertheless, I had also begun anticipating the grieving process while he was still alive.

At first, my reaction to his death matched my expectations as my tears flowed more freely than ever before, at least more freely than ever before as an adult. The morning after he died, my grief seemed at first to have passed, but gradually, I realized that I had become numb. I helped arrange for his funeral and for family gatherings as well as carrying out daily routines that still had to be done. In some respects, the numbness was even worse than the first day of grief I experienced, because nothing else in my…… [read more]


Nursing Home Problems There Many Term Paper

… Nursing Home Problems

There many problems that are associated with old age, as the human body begins to break down in physical ways, and the mind begins to break down as well, resulting in memory loss, psychological issues, and in… [read more]


Palliative Care Is Defined Term Paper

… Palliative care is defined as care which will improve the quality of life
for a patient and the patient's family when they face life threatening
illness. Palliative care provides prevention and relief of suffering on
the part of the patient. It includes the identification of discomfort, the
treatment of pain and the support of the patient and families in the
physical, psychosocial and spiritual spheres. By definition, palliative
care will neither hasten or postpones death, but rather makes the attempt
to approach death as a normal process, allowing the patient to live as
actively and maintain as much control as possible until death occurs.
In Will's case, the administration of palliative care, by definition,
cannot include the administration of the morphine at such a dose to hasten
his death. This would be defined as euthanasia, which Will is requesting
by the administration of the morphine. Were Will still able to administer
the medication on his own, via activation of his PCA pump, then the act
would be considered passive euthanasia since the likelihood is that the
dose of the medication will suppress Will's respiratory drive rather than
simply treat his pain. The administration of morphine in such doses is
considered ethical in most political jurisdictions, and by most medical
societies. In Will's case, should the physician administer the medication
in such a dose as to suppress Will's respiratory drive, the motive for the
physician would be one of mercy. The difference between this and physician
assisted suicide is the intent behind the act. Physician assisted suicide
is not legal in most states, and the intent behind this act is to allow the
patient to end his or her own life. In Will's case, the physician may
hasten death but the primary reason for the administration of the
medication is to alleviate Will's severe pain and suffering. In this case,
palliative care may in effect hasten Will's death, but that will not be the
primary reason for the administration of his morphine. Ethically and
legally,…… [read more]


Dementia There Are a Number of Individuals Term Paper

… Dementia

There are a number of individuals who believe that dementia is a disease when in fact it is not. Dementia is actually a condition derived from a variety of diseases. "Many people equate dementia with Alzheimer's Disease, but they… [read more]


Gothic and Macabre: Explication of Selected Works of Edgar Allan Poe Term Paper

… ¶ … Gothic and Macabre: an Explication of Selected Works of Edgar a. Poe

Edgar Allen Poe uses elements both of a gothic and macabre nature in order to develop an atmosphere of intense horror within his short stories. Thus several stories take place in dark and gloomy settings, allow characters to undergo violent and unusual events, and generally end with an inevitably bizarre form of death for some characters.

Many of Poe's stories take place in settings characterized as being dark and oppressive. These settings often contain large, decrepit, and antiquated dwellings with countless rooms and secret vaults and passageways. The dwellings are usually set in remote and desolate locations, which effectively cut occupants off from the rest of civilization. Such a setting can be found in the story "Ligeia," where the narrator explains that after the death of his beloved first wife he took up residence in a dismal abbey located in a remote part of England. Within the abbey is an unusually shaped bridal chamber atop a high tower, which is where the narrator supposedly witnesses both his second wife's demise and first wife's subsequent resurrection.

In the story entitled "William Wilson" one of its major settings is a vast Elizabethan schoolhouse characterized with having countless subdivisions and being located in an ancient town. This schoolhouse setting is significant because it is where the narrator encounters his doppelganger for the first time. The story "The Masque of the Red Death" also contains a dark and gloomy setting, though it is not stated in an outright fashion. The prince's castellated abbey is located in a deeply secluded area and the suite in which he finally loses his life is characterized as being dark and dreary, due to having black furnishings and a blood-red tinted window. One of the most strangely oppressive settings is found in "The Cask of Amontillado" in which much of the story occurs within the gloomy atmosphere of the catacombs.

The story entitled "The Fall of the House of Usher" is the most particular about creating a gothic setting for its tale because the Usher mansion is central to the storyline. It is thus described as being so bleak and full of decay that, much like the terrible state of its owners, the sight of it causes viewers to feel an unbearable sense of gloom. From afar the mansion is described as being structurally stable, but upon closer inspection it is seen that its individual stones are crumbling down and its exterior is covered with fungi. Its interior is described as having dark and complicated passageways and containing outdated furnishings. The mansion's depressing atmosphere is partly responsible for Usher's illness, as he claims that the home is actually a sentient being capable of inflicting mental anguish upon him. Thus due to the mansion's significance to the storyline, the gloomy setting works especially well within this story.

Another gothic and macabre element found within Poe's stories is that characters often undergo violent and unusual events. One… [read more]


Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes Term Paper

… Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes

Elder abuse is generally defined as "...neglect, mistreatment, exploitation, or harming of elderly patients in nursing homes, assisted living facilities, or home care environments" (Elder Abuse and Nursing Home Neglect). Abuse of the elderly can… [read more]


Edgar Allan Poe Term Paper

… Edgar Allan Poe is considered to be one of the lesser known great artists of the 19th century. Orphaned at a very young age of 3, he nevertheless lived a happy and contented childhood with a kind-hearted and wealthy merchant,… [read more]


Senior Isolation Term Paper

… Senior Isolation

Today, senior citizens typically live alone and often find themselves isolated from family and the community. Isolation may be caused by the death of a spouse or by the death of close friends and family members. Seniors may find themselves isolated due to divorce, or adult children and close family members may live too far away for regular contact. Senior citizens may feel isolated due to employment retirement or chronic illness may keep them from involvement in social activities. Isolation may lead to a variety of negative effects (Medical).

Isolation often leads to depression for senior citizens. In fact, depression in individuals 65 years of age and older is considered a major health problem, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (Medical). Depression in the elderly often goes undiagnosed because doctors and family assume that the senior has simply slowed down due to advancing age, thus many elderly citizens find themselves coping with symptoms of depression that may actually increase isolation because they have lost interest in normal activities and communications (Medical). Moreover, not only does depression generally lasts longer in senior adults, but it also doubles their risk of developing cardiac diseases and can increase the risk of death from illness, as well as reduce their rehabilitation (Medical).

According to recent research, elderly persons who lack companionship and emotional or social support are vulnerable to heart problems (Ham). The study found that for every unit increase in loneliness, there was a threefold increase among older adults in being diagnosed with at heart condition (Ham). Every unit increase in perceived emotional support indicated a 97% decrease, while every unit increase in perceived social support or companionship decreased the odds of having a heart condition by 91% (Ham). The health effects of social isolation are particularly significant among seniors because they are more vulnerable to disruptions in their personal relationships due to death or illness (Ham). Moreover, many are removed from their social networks by being institutionalized in nursing homes or other managed care facilities (Ham). The authors found that the companionship of just one person was enough to reduce the risk of heart disease, while social support with multiple individuals produced increased health effects (Ham).

Depression in elderly adults also increases the likelihood of suicide, in fact the suicide rates in persons 80 to 84 years of age are twice that of the general population (Medical). Studies suggest that social isolation is associated with attempted suicide and deliberate self-harm among seniors (Sullivan).

Moreover, isolated seniors are less likely to shop for groceries or to cook for themselves, thus they are more likely to skip meals or eat convenience foods and snacks that are high in fat and sodium which increases their risks for diabetes, hypertension and heart disease (Dooley). In fact, surveys indicate that more than 50% of senior citizens live and eat alone, increasing their risk for malnutrition and associated diseases (Dooley). This has led many communities across the country to establish meal programs for seniors… [read more]


Impact of Demographic Changes Term Paper

… Demographic Changes

Demography is the study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth density, distribution or vital statistics (Lexico Publishing Group, LLC 2006). Statistics show that the population of persons aged 65 years and older grew from 4% in 1900 to 12.7% in 1990 and is predicted to reach 21% in the year 2030. It has been observed that the older population is growing older and that the oldest old is the fastest growing group. There are now 3 million elderly people aged 85 years old and over in the U.S. today. Other industrialized countries exhibit the same pattern among their elderly populations so that they are predicted to comprise 1.5 of the world population in the year 2050 (American Association of Retired Persons 1998, Stastny 2006).

Most age distributions are based on chronological age and scientists create groups on this basis in order to analyze the consequences of age distribution (American Association of Retired Persons 1998). Age 65 has been most often used as the start of old age arbitrarily since the 1935 enactment of the Social Security Act, which fixed the age of retirement and benefits could be received. Ageism has since been resorted to as a biased norm in acquiring social resources on account of declining functional ability, in turn due to chronological aging. The role theory basically assumes on the roles set for persons according to their age. Gerontologists who support this theory are unduly fixated with the problems of adjustment that aging persons undergo because of changes that occur later in their lives. In the process, these persons lose their identity, their children become adults themselves and these retirees lose the activities, which used to occupy their time. They, thus,…… [read more]


Aging Society and Changing Family Term Paper

… ¶ … elderly are defined and what their roles are in U.S. society. The elderly seem to be the forgotten sect of the American population. As baby boomers grow older, the elderly population is growing, but it simply does not get respect from American media and American society. Many people define anyone over 50 as "elderly," but many 50+ adults defy the definition and act and feel much younger than their years.

There are many problems facing the elderly in American society today. For example, retirement is a growing problem facing society because so many of the baby boom generation are growing older and retiring at the same time. There is worry that Social Security will not be able to afford this great number of retirees. In addition, many other social and community functions are challenged as society ages. There are not enough nursing homes and hospital beds for the elderly population, and so more in-home services, such as meals on wheels and in-home nursing care will need to be provided. The funds for these will have to come from local, state, and the Federal governments, and this means higher taxes for American society overall. In addition, many elderly parents are moving in with their adult children because they have nowhere else to go, and this is changing the face of the American family, which is becoming more blended and more responsible for aging parents and relatives. Besides retirement, there are many other aspects of aging that are difficult to deal with.

The media tends to portray the elderly as helpless, hopeless, and laughable. Most advertising is geared to young consumers, while ads geared to the elderly are usually for prescription drugs and other pharmaceuticals from denture adhesive to arthritis pain medications. The elderly are not usually portrayed as active, but as helpless and hopeless, such as the people in the ads for medical emergency signals they wear if they live alone. These people are portrayed as most American society sees the…… [read more]


Euthanasia (Active and Passive) Term Paper

… Slippery slope arguments encompass logical, psychological and arbitrary line. These different forms share a counter argument that when the first step is taken on a slippery slope the subsequent steps follow inevitably, whether for logical reasons, psychological reasons or to… [read more]


Osteoporosis Definition of Osteoporosis Term Paper

… Osteoporosis

Definition of Osteoporosis:

Osteoporosis is a developing condition in which bone density is lost, or there is inadequate bone formation, thereby deteriorating the bones and making them more vulnerable to fractures. Osteoporosis is also known as the silent disease… [read more]


Grief and Loss Term Paper

… Grief and Loss

Although often very painful, grief is a normal and natural response to loss (What pp). Generally, when most people think of loss and grief, they think of the death of a loved one, however, there are many… [read more]


Adolescent Suicide Epidemiological Approach Term Paper

… Adolescent suicide is now responsible for more deaths in people between ages 15 to 19 than cardiovascular disease or cancer (Blackman, 1996). Teen suicide has more than tripled since the 1960's (Santrock, 2003). Despite this alarming increased suicide rate, depression… [read more]


Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Term Paper

… ¶ … Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Adults in Care Facilities Such as Retirement Homes/Nursing Homes

Do Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Adults in Alternative Care Facilities

The United States is experiencing a fundamental shift in… [read more]


Euthanasia There Can Be Little Term Paper

… True, that the religion of the cancer patients interviewed in the study may have compelled them to believe that life must be valued at all costs. However, it must equally be remembered that respect for the sanctity of life is a foundational societal value, which is inculcated in all citizens. Proponents of euthanasia may argue that people have the right to choose the manner, time, and place of their death (Brock, 1992). But, as Somerville (2003) points out, what such arguments usually fail to take into consideration is that allowing individuals such a right would undermine the capacity of both medicine and law to maintain the respect for human life. In other words, allowing euthanasia would weaken the prohibition on intentional killing, which human society has historically upheld as a sign that human life must be valued (Brock, 1992). Thus, it is not surprising that the cancer patients opined that their trust in their doctors would be impaired if euthanasia was ever discussed as a solution to their constantly being in pain.

Indeed, it appears that the American Medical Association (AMA) agrees with the view taken by the cancer patients. For, this is one of the major reasons why the AMA has taken a strong anti-euthanasia position: "There is, in short, compelling evidence of the need to ensure that all patients have access to quality palliative care, but not of any need for physician-assisted suicide." In addition to this statement, which was issued in an amicus brief in the 9th circuit case for doctor-assisted suicide, the AMA has expressly stated that doctors perform a crucial act of healing and saving life. Accepting a dual role of taking life, while at the same time, protecting life, would undermine their credibility and the sacred trust that exists between a patient and doctor (Life Issues Institute, 1997).

The AMA, as well as the legal system, have other reasons for being anti-euthanasia as well. The first, as the Netherlands experience has shown, is that euthanasia would make it extremely difficult to prevent abuse. This is particularly true of physicians who have opportunities to kill that are not open to other people (Somerville, 2003). A system that permits euthanasia would, in addition, also make it easier for families of mentally incompetent people to claim that a previously lucid patient had expressed a wish for euthanasia. In fact, this is one of the major contentious issues in the recent, much publicized Terri Schiavo case. Over and above individual motives, which can be construed as tantamount to homicidal (Brock, 1992), there is also the fear that euthanasia would be an all too tempting avenue for a society faced with an ageing population and scarce health-care resources (Somerville, 2003). This may lead to severe abuse and the perpetration of grave injustices both at the individual as well as the social level.

Thus, it is evident that the risks of permitting euthanasia far outweigh the benefits, if any. Further, the case for opposing euthanasia does not, at any point,… [read more]


Right to Die Term Paper

… Euthanasia - the Right to Die

Although there are laws in the United States that ban euthanasia, from a logical viewpoint, this type of PAS (physician-assisted suicide) should be legal, due to the fact that it is morally and ethically… [read more]


White Noise by Don Delillo Term Paper

… White Noise

Don Delillo's White Noise introduces a character -- Jack Gladney -- who is embroiled in a constant struggle to identify himself as something in opposition to death. Specifically the form his identity may possibly take is difficult for him to conceive; particularly, since he is obsessed with the notion of death, and in fact, defines his whole outward existence around its presence. The plot of his life, the plot of the novel, and indeed, the plot of any novel or tale, to Jack, demands that they culminate in death. Jack faces an identity crisis, and this crisis ultimately centers on the unknown; foremost among the things that remain unknown and unseen to Jack is the end of his life. Consequently, he attempts to manufacture an identity that possesses a fundamental relationship with death and is able to transcend it. The starkest contrast to Jack's character is Wilder, who is both oblivious to his mortal condition and is a whirlwind of impulses and urges. The existence of plot in White Noise implies that it will end -- it will die along with Jack -- however, death does not come because Jack seizes upon the immediate events of life, thus disregarding the fact that life is terminal. Delillo makes use of the plot in his novel to uncover the intrinsic relationship between death and individual conceptions of identity.

The inaccessibility of certain forms of knowledge is a barrier to grasping what something or someone truly is. This is illustrated by the most photographed barn in the world that Jack and Murray visit: the tourists are unable to see the real barn because the advertisements and photographs develop an aura surrounding the barn, and make it into something that it could not be without their presence. So, Murray decides, "They are taking pictures of pictures." (Delillo 13). The existence of the mechanisms of advertisement prevents anyone from truly seeing the barn. Similarly, human beings are inaccessible and require a type of advertisement, because the mechanism of death places them in a concrete setting. By being situated in a specific time and place, there are human drives to associate individuals with something larger, with something that transcends their mortality. This is the point that drives Jack to create an identity for himself that will forever be linked to someone who cannot be forgotten. The realization that his deeds and thoughts are definitively transient is the impetus behind his search for identity. Additionally, he recognizes that the identity he has chosen for himself is just as false as the pictures of the barn, and analogously, prevents him or anyone else from truly knowing who he is.

Jack deliberately links himself with Hitler and is commended for the fact that, "Nobody on the faculty of any college or university in this part of the country can so much as utter the word Hitler without a nod in your direction, literally or metaphorically." (Delillo 11). However, this fact is not enough to solidify Jack's aura… [read more]


Osteoporosis Approximately 8 Million People Term Paper

… Many of the estimates that are made on cost are generally made based on hip fractures (Neer, 1995). However, the overall costs include many other things, such as inability to work, custodial and medical care, reduced quality of life, functional limitations, loss of independence, pain, cost of illness, and death (Neer, 1995). It is relatively easy to measure the cost of osteoporosis when it comes to hip fractures because they result in surgical intervention and hospital admissions, both of which can be measured based on cost in many health care systems (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). Other fractures, however, such as vertebral column fractures in those over the age of 45, are considered to be related to osteoporosis but are generally not documented (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). The costs of these types of fractures include rehabilitation, medical and surgical care, long-term care, loss of productivity, and medication (Kanis & Pitt, 1992).

Even though the costs of much of what is related to osteoporosis cannot be specifically and completely measured, it is clear that something must be done to work to prevent it so that the costs of taking care of the problems that it causes can be reduced, and the very human costs that cannot be measured in dollars and cents can also be reduced. Women should generally be the main focus of preventative measures because they are at a higher risk, but men as well must be made aware of the risks to their health and their independence (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). This idea of loss of independence has only been addressed recently in studies. Up until very recently, it was not something that was seen to be significant because it was not something that was associated with costs in the same way that hospital care and other issues were associated with costs (Kanis & Pitt, 1992).

For most individuals, however, it appears to be safe to say that, once they fracture a hip or some other body part that may cause them chronic pain or difficulty getting around and doing normal daily activities, the quality of life that they have is diminished.

Works Cited

Ray, NF, Chan, JK, Thamer, M, et al.…… [read more]


Shakespeare's Hamlet Term Paper

… Hamlet and the Memento of Death

When the Renaissance brought about a rebirth of many of the philosophies and customs of antiquity, it resurrected the ancient stoical idea that by mediation upon death one might be able to come to… [read more]


Euthanasia the State Commission Term Paper

… Euthanasia

The State Commission on Euthanasia defined euthanasia as the intentional termination of life by someone other than the patient at the patient's request, while physician-assisted suicide is the intentional assistance given the patient to terminate his or her life… [read more]


Social Work Internship Experience Term Paper

… Most of the people I interacted with appeared disoriented and confused; however they were suffering from a bonafide condition, Alzheimer's. For example, when working in group activities I often had to repeat the instructions several times. Not because the patients I was working with weren't smart enough to comprehend the instructions the first time, but because their brain functioning had been altered as a result of the progression of the disease.

Most of the elderly at the center were capable of remaining physically active and in moments of clarity when I had discussions with patients most seemed capable of grasping the most basic intellectual concepts and human emotions.

Alzheimer's as described in the text is a degenerative brain disorder. It gradually causes deterioration in ones memory, awareness and their ability to control bodily functions (Gebo, 2004). Irritability, restlessness and impairments of judgment are not uncommon (Gebo, 2004).

One thing became very clear during the visits with patients at the center. The elderly, no matter their cognitive functioning or state of awareness, just as anyone else require companionship, understanding and compassion. Take the case of the gentleman who missed his wife that no longer visited. The obvious distress and grief this person was experiencing was evident in his every day actions. Likewise, the individual I consulted with on the west side experienced similar grief.

Undoubtedly as with anyone it is critical to address these emotions with all patients regardless of their mental function and capacity, to ensure they are given every opportunity to experience life to the fullest potential possible.

Personal, Professional Experiences

Overall I feel my experiences working with Alzheimer's patients at Legacy Gardens impacted me in a positive manner. Up until this point in time I had always considered the state of affairs for elderly individuals as something foreign or distant. It was as if the elderly were an entirely different breed.

I also must admit some fear of working with the elderly initially. When I first started participating in group activities, I thought I would have a member of the trained staff there to assist me. Much to my surprise and eventual delight however, I was left on my own to interact with patients and develop a relationship with each of the patients.

Interacting with each member of the group was much like interaction with anyone else, with the exception that cognitive impairments were evident among group members, and I often had to repeat myself. One of the biggest things I learned from a personal and professional standpoint was the importance of demonstrating compassion, patience and understanding. A majority of the patients I worked with did not required that I do anything more than simply listen to them. Many had been separated from society for so long; they seemed to live in their own complex world of experiences and relationships. Most of the time when they had cognizant moments they preferred to simply reminisce about the way things used to be.

What I also learned was that much… [read more]


Nursing Home Abuse Irrespective Term Paper

… (Nursing Home Abuse: Why Does It Exist?)

A minimum training is essential to be imparted to the nursing home personnel to deal with the disabled patients and in recording their conditions. The form records are often used that are maintained… [read more]


Euthanasia the Power to Control Term Paper

… These situations are likely to be more difficult for the person to conceptualize. However, asking the questions from both perspectives will likely reveal deeper, and ethically-based responses than if the survey was based strictly on asking a person what they would want in someone else's life.

The survey will be conducted on a cross section of the population, of median age individuals who are likely to have elderly family members who would face the question of euthanasia, if the practice were to become legal. The survey will be conducted via phone interview, and also made available on the internet with connection to significant medical sites, such as Web MD in order to collect date from a large population sample.

This research is expected to uncover the same controversy which Mr. Singer is stirring. This research expects to uncover that then euthanasia is a topic directed at other people, then the subjects attitudes will be much more liberal than if the euthanasia policies were directed toward, and could affect their own life.

Resources

P. Singer, Practical Ethics Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

P. Singer, "Bioethics and Academic Freedom" Bioethics, 4, no. 1, 1990

Wright, W. Historical Analogies, Slippery Slopes and the Question of Euthanasia. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Vol. 28, 2000

O. Tolmein, cited in B. Schone-Seifert and K-P.…… [read more]


Death and Dying Term Paper

… She acknowledges that life is hard, that adversity makes us stronger, and that we all have lessons we must learn in life. She also thinks that when we have learned the lessons we need to learn, the "pain goes away" (Kubler-Ross, 1998, p. 18). This book is the story of Kubler-Ross' incredible life, and through her gift of storytelling, the reader learns about her childhood, her school years, and how she began to study death and dying. It is clear this author has definitive thoughts on how to live the best possible life, and she shares them here as she shares her life. It is also clear that she believes in the ultimate decency of humanity, and those who are miserable will lead miserable lives and fear death. Her ideas may not all be commonplace (she believes she chose her parents), but they are easy and motivating to read, and she makes death seem much more peaceful, and far less frightening than it has seemed before.

References

Kubler-Ross, Elizabeth. (1998). The Wheel of Life: A Memoir of Living and Dying. New York: Scribners.

Gorle, Rev. Howard R. (2002). Grief Theories: Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. Retrieved from the Bereavement.org. Web…… [read more]


Right to Die Term Paper

… According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, "bills on assisted suicide were introduced in twenty-six states in 1997 and 1998...all defeated, usually dying in committee." During this same period, Virginia, Michigan and South Carolina passed new bans on assisted suicide, after Iowa and Rhode Island enacted bans in 1996, and Kansas and South Dakota recently "clarified their existing criminal statutes and added civil penalties for assisting a suicide." In 1999, thirty-eight states had specific statutes against assisted suicide, although "Oregon created an exception for terminally ill patients who fulfill certain guidelines," while eight forbid the practice by common law or interpretation of the state homicide statute, and four, Nevada, Hawaii, Utah and Wyoming have no clear law on the matter.

Those against the right to die see no distinction between pulling the plug to hasten death on patients depending on life support and providing lethal medication to dying patients. Those who support the right to die believe there is a moral line "between an active act by a physician to kill and passively letting nature take its course so that the underlying disease causes death." And then there are those who believe in both, allowing a patient to die with dignity off life support and allowing a patient to obtain assistance in death when he or she feels their physical condition is terminal. It is certain that this issue will continue to be debated in public opinion and courts for years to come.

Works Cited

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida." AP Worldstream. November 01, 2003. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1P1:86544618&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=AP+Worldstream&author=VICKIE+CHACHERE%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Judge+appoints+professor+as+guardian+for+brain%2Ddamaged+woman+in+Florida&date=11%2F01%2F2003&query=Terry+Schiavo+and+the+State+of+Florida%2E&maxdoc=30&idx=2&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 12-03-2003)

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Doerflinger, Richard M. "An Uncertain Future for Assisted Suicide."

The Hastings Center Report. January 01, 1999.

Euthanasia Court Cases Rulings on Medical Killing." Human Life of Washington

http://www.humanlife.net/euthanasiaarticles/courtcases.html.

A accessed 12-03-2003).

Fackelmann, Kathy A. "The conscious mind: Karen Ann Quinlan case yields surprising scientific data." Science News. July 02, 1994.

King, Philip. "Washington v. Glucksberg: influence of the court in care of the terminally ill and physician-assisted suicide." Journal of Law and Health. June 22, 2000.

Reibstein. Larry. "Weighing the right to die." Newsweek. January 13, 1997.

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Fackelmann, Kathy A. "The conscious mind: Karen Ann Quinlan case yields surprising scientific data." Science News. July 02, 1994

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Euthanasia Court Cases Rulings on Medical Killing." Human Life of Washington

http://www.humanlife.net/euthanasiaarticles/courtcases.html.

A accessed 12-03-2003

King, Philip. "Washington v. Glucksberg: influence of the court in care of the terminally ill and physician-assisted suicide." Journal of Law and Health. June 22, 2000.

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida."… [read more]


Euthanasia in Addition to Racism Term Paper

… The basic idea needs to be reinforced. Those that opposed euthanasia believe that it cheapens the value of life. If euthanasia was a legal option, it would also undermine funding of research into these areas like geriatric care and disease… [read more]


Right to Die Think Term Paper

… Should we not live every day as though it were our last?

We have all got to die, but there are best possible deaths, when our full time has come, and there are deaths, as in the Iraq war and in Israel, when lives are brutally cut short in conditions of great fear, anger and hatred - often leaving behind a legacy of anger, bitterness and sorrow. Because we all have to die is it possible to describe death in the best possible conditions? Is it possible to describe what ought to be our human rights in relation to our deaths? In this section I argue that this is possible. I then go on to compare this with what has happened in Iraq to draw out the contrast hopefully in a clear way.

If we think about our deaths, or those of your loved ones there are things, which I think that we all ideally want to make our passing easier. These are things like: having made a will, an orderly transition of our affairs, reconciliation's and making our peace with people, making sure that vulnerable survivors like children will be looked after (Herbert Hendin)

In the chaos, and rapid moving situation of war none of these things can be guaranteed. Soldiers may tidy their affairs up before they go into battle. For civilians that may occur - but there again, in the sheer random way in which civilians get killed, there is not the predictability or time for many of those things.

Another dimension is the psychological preparation for dying, as the last stage in life journey, as another opportunity for growth and experience. There is now a considerable literature about the psychological preparation for death, which suggests that one's last days, with one's loved ones around one, may be the most beautiful and poignant of one's life, as one becomes aware of how precious and fleeting life is.

Death with ones family cowering against incoming cluster bombs is not like that. There are other things one can say of death that are relevant here.

In Jean Liedloff's book, the Continuum Project, she describes the process of life as stages we all pass through, which if lived properly lead to dying without regrets. As a child one has toys and one plays. There is no problem leaving one's toys behind one, if one has lived that part of one's life properly.

Equally the stage of life for adolescent romance and sexuality and so on. One gets fixated at a stage if one has not lived it properly. The greatest tragedy, for many people in the world, is to be alive but unable to participate in these ordinary satisfactions of living. Finally at death one let's go because one has lived a full life and there are no regrets. (James M. Hoefler)

In that sense the idea of a death cut short in war has particular tragedy, and particularly of children or of the parents of children, which denies the… [read more]


Progeria Is a Somewhat Mysterious Term Paper

… The scientists concede that the increased presence of the acid is unique to progeria patients and others that suffer with other ageing conditions.

There are also other Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities that are characteristic of the syndrome. Studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts have shown that there is a reduced potential in-vitro growth in Progeria patients. There is also evidence the children that have the condition have shortened replicative life span. (Dyer and Sinclair)

It is believed that the cause of Progeria is due to a mutant gene. According to the Progeria Research Foundation,

Progeria is considered to be the result of a dominant mutation because the gene in question has one normal copy and one abnormal copy, as opposed to a recessive mutation in which both copies are abnormal. Because neither parent carries or expresses the mutation, each case is believed to represent a sporadic new mutation which happens at the time of conception." ("What is Progeria?")

Studies have found that there are certain patterns that occur in the families of children with Progeria. For instance, the parents of these children are usually at least six years apart in age which is above the national average of two years. In addition researchers have discovered that siblings or identical twins in the same family usually do not have the condition. ("What is Progeria?")

Children with this condition usually die in the beginning of their second decade. Death usually occurs in the early teenage years-although some patients live to their early twenties. Death is usually caused by heart failure and myocardial infarction. (Dyer and Sinclair)

Recent Developments

Although there is no cure for the disease, in recent weeks scientists have isolated the gene that causes the condition. The discovery was made by scientists at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Remarkably it only took the scientist one year to isolate the gene. CNN reported that,

Progeria is caused by a single-letter misspelling in a gene on chromosome 1. They found 18 of 20 children with classic progeria had the exact same misspelling in the Lamin A gene. Lamin A is a protein that is a key component of the membrane that surrounds the cell's nucleus. The studies showed that almost half of the progeria patient's cells had misshapen nuclear membranes."("Gene is discovered for rapid aging disease in children")

This development is important because it allows scientist to develop a genetic test for the condition.

The genetic test will allow parents to see if they carry the gene before they conceive so that the necessary precautions can be taken. It will also allow researchers to potentially find a cure and treatments for the condition.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to explore the various aspects of the condition known as Progeria. We began by defining Progeria. We found that the condition is rare and only affects about 35 children in the entire world. Our discussion then focused on the characteristics and causes of the condition. Our research found that individuals with the… [read more]


Euthanasia (Against) in North America Term Paper

… " Hence, only God has the right to begin a life, and only God is allowed to end one. Therefore, an individual who commits suicide is doing a sin.

Secondly, God has not sent us any experience that we are unable to handle. He supports and helps people in suffering. Thus, an individual who seeks to end his life would actually signify lack of trust in the promise made by Him.

On the other hand, an important and growing percentage of non-Christians, Agnostics, Humanists, secularists, Atheists and liberal Christians in North America do not accept these theologically based arguments. They argue:

Every individual has independence over their own life. Therefore, those individuals who are not satisfied with their quality of life which is equal to nonexistent should have the right to decide to commit suicide, and to seek support and help if required.

At times a terminal sickness is so painful that it causes life to be very intolerable and unbearable burden; where death can play its part as a relief of such insufferable pain.

Conclusion

Irrespective of whether Euthanasia is legalized by the judicial authorities or not, the subject remains a question to an individual's conscience. With varying ideologies of life that people share throughout the world, the fact differs whether Euthanasia is right or wrong. However, owing to the social roles that every individual plays in the society, Euthanasia cannot be justified for being right. No matter how one's conscience may allow or disallow an individual to end up his life, his interrelationships do not permit him to deprive the society of the roles that he plays and in turn enjoys a social recognition to its own degree.

Works Cited

Horgan, John. Right to Die. Scientific American, May 1996.

Netherlands State Commission on Euthanasia. Definition of Euthanasia.

DeathNet. Oregon Death With Dignity Act. http://www.rights.org/~deathnet/ergo_orlaw.html

Matas, Robert. Oregon Reconsiders Death-With-Dignity Law. The Globe and Mail Newspaper, Toronto ON, Nov 3, 1997 (p. A1)

Oregon Health Division. Oregon's Death with Dignity Act: Annual Report 2000. http://www.ohd.hr.state.or.us/chs/pas/ar-disc.htm

New England Journal of Medicine, Feb 6, 2002.

Toronto Star. New law paved way for 38 to commit suicide in Oregon. Quick Hits, Toronto Star. March 6, 2003.

Jordahl, Steve. Ashcroft Appeals Assisted-Suicide Ruling. Family News in Focus.…… [read more]


Rise of Advanced Technologies Term Paper

… He supports euthanasia and represents the view that assisted suicide should be a legal option for the patient.

To some extent, my views reflect what I have seen happen to the aged and stricken who have been so unfortunate as… [read more]

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