Study "Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays 166-220

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Life Long Learning Plan Research Proposal

… ¶ … Nursing Home in Liberia

In the past, the need for nursing home facilities in Liberia was small because the culture demanded that immediate family members care for the elderly and given the relatively short life expectancies involved, few… [read more]


Euthanasia Euthenasia the Topic Essay

… Euthanasia

EUTHENASIA

The topic of euthanasia is one that evokes an extensive and complex range of reactions. These range from outright moral indignation at the very suggestion that the taking of another human life could be legitimized, to arguments that… [read more]


Forensic Anthropology Thesis

… Forensic anthropology is a function of forensics and physical anthropology that specifically looks at skeletal remains in a forensic or crime detection setting to try to make inferences about those remains. (Ryan, 2002, p. 15) It was once an accepted… [read more]


Online Scientific Publication for Current Research Research Proposal

… ¶ … online scientific publication for current research on the role of the cell cycle in aging.

"Loss of Stem Cells Correlates With Premature

Aging In Animal Study." ScienceDaily 8 June 2007. 29 April 2009 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070606235257.htm

While dying and aging are accepted as inevitable facts of life, new research suggests that like so many diseases, aging (or at very least the rate at which we age) is encoded in our genes. Also, new research into what parts of the cell are involved in regeneration hold the promise for forestalling the seemingly inevitable symptoms of growing older. According to the ScienceDaily article "Loss of Stem Cells Correlates With Premature Aging In Animal Study," researchers at the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute of the University of Pennsylvania have found that deleting a gene known as ATR from a mouse's genetic sequence can lead to premature aging and loss of stem cell reservoirs in the affected mice.

This gene, which is essential for normal cell regeneration allows the body to heal normally, in response to damaged DNA. Daily, the body breaks down and rebuilds itself. Our body's ability to regenerate slows down as we age and our reserves of stem cell reservoirs grows smaller, or in some cases loses their integrity through overly frequent division when our systems are particularly stressed. Until now, scientists were uncertain as to why this was the case, on a molecular level. The new model offered by this research could provide scientists with clues as to how to preserve stem cells and suppress or reduce the symptoms of aging and develop new ways to repair DNA damage due to cancer and other disorders in humans on a cellular level.

Aging may be described as a slow loss of stem…… [read more]


Life Expectancy Looking at the Current Data Thesis

… ¶ … Life Expectancy

Looking at the current data on the life expectancy in the United States, it is indeed correct to assume that most people would live to the ages of 100 or more. This assumption is made possible by advances in the field of medical science, according to biologists. This claim is strengthened by the data on life expectancy by birth year in the country, which showed that towards the year 2000, there has been a steady increase in life expectancy, reaching towards the 80 years level. In addition to this, U.S. death rate by age data illustrated that death is practically nil for people with ages below 40 years old, after which death could increase exponentially but will peak at 80 years or older. Lastly, U.S. life expectancy by age supports these assumptions by showing that indeed, 80 years old marks the highest life expectancy for people in the 21st century.

While this…… [read more]


Challenges of Hospice Thesis

… ¶ … Hospice

The objective of this research is to examine the hospice care community and the challenges associated with treating terminal disease and maintaining quality of life standards that medical professionals, patients and their families face.

Hospice care is… [read more]


Superman Only One-Third Mortal, Gilgamesh Essay

… ¶ … superman only one-third mortal, Gilgamesh becomes the unwitting hero of a tragic tale. Being two-thirds a god, the King of Uruk leads his people with an iron fist, letting his divine nature turn him into an arrogant and oppressive leader. The Epic of Gilgamesh explores Gilgamesh's relationship with himself and his own hubris extensively throughout the twelve tablets upon which the Sumerian text was written. However, Gilgamesh needed a major catharsis to initiate his personal transformation. The gods are the primary force responsible for Gilgamesh's changing from a brutal ruler to an altruistic one. Creating Enkidu as Gilgamesh's only viable nemesis turns out to be the catalyst for the title character. Enkidu, unlike Gilgamesh, is entirely mortal. His death is what makes Gilgamesh accept his own mortality. Ironically, it is Enkidu's humanity that makes Gilgamesh a truly godlike figure.

Although Gilgamesh is two-thirds part god and Enkidu is introduced as being animalistic, Enkidu appears the more emotionally intelligent and spiritually strong of the two. Enkidu is created entirely by the gods, even though he is a wholly earthy character. Like an animal, Enkidu lives in the woods and has little contact with humanity before encountering Gilgamesh and before that, a prostitute. Both Gilgamesh and Enkidu are initially shown to be animals even though Gilgamesh is two-thirds part god. Interestingly, Enkidu is more emotionally intelligent than Gilgamesh at the beginning of the story. Enkidu challenges Gilgamesh on the grounds that his behavior as king is out of hand and inhumane. In fact, the gods created Enkidu as a rival for Gilgamesh, one who could challenge, threaten, and undermine the arrogant king's power. Enkidu is first described as a sort of monster, when oddly it is Gilgamesh who is the real monster at the start of the epic…… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Has Become a Concern Thesis

… Alzheimer's Disease has become a concern that is now more widely studied than it used to be. Typically seen in the elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is characterized by several factors, including forgetfulness and agitation (National, 2008). Currently, there is no… [read more]


Counseling the Broken Hearted - Memories Term Paper

… Counseling the Broken Hearted - Memories of Grief

Grief is painful. When we talk about grief we are referring to the extreme emotional reaction of an individual to loss, which often includes shock, sadness, fear, anger, confusion, somatic disorders, and… [read more]


Edgar Allen Poe's "The Masque Term Paper

… Edgar Allen Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death" & Robert Olen Butler's "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of Parrot"

In the writing "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of Parrot," by Robert Olen Butler, he gives a comical a detailed description of a man reincarnate as a parrot, and comes to live once again with his wife, however the second time around he is a bird caged in the living room, watching her living here life and bringing different men home, and his reaction to these strangers in his home. The atmosphere of the writing is extremely relaxed and easily related to emotions that people probably feel often throughout their lives.

In the writing "The Masque of the Red Death," by Edger Allen Poe, the overall description and subject matter varies greatly from that of the previously mentioned writing. Poe, discusses death, however it is slightly mentioned at the beginning of the writing than again at the end. The writing by Poe is very descriptive and has a more formal feeling to it as he describes the rooms, and the events going on in each of the rooms.

Both writings compare in giving visuals that are consistent…… [read more]


Individual Determinants Term Paper

… New Product Idea - Fashionable Walker for Seniors

Product: A fashionable walker for older men and women that does not look like the metal one normally used in healthcare facilities. Purpose: To get away from the stigma attached to using a walker.

Determinant -- Age: Although this walker could and would be used by younger individuals, it would predominantly be marketed to older men and women who have difficulty walking on their own. It is a well-known fact that the U.S. population is becoming older. During the 20th century, the number of persons under age 65 tripled. Simultaneously, those aged 65 or over has jumped ll times. As a result, the elderly comprised only 1 in every 25 Americans in 1900 but 1 in 8 in 1994. According to the Census Bureau, the elderly population will more than double between now and 2050 to 80 million. As many as 1 in 5 Americans could be elderly. Most of this growth should occur between 2010 and 2030, when babyboomers enter their elderly years.

The number of elderly will grow rapidly, mostly those aged 85 and over, to 19 million in 2050. Between 1960 and 1994, their numbers rose 274%. In contrast, the elderly population in general rose 100%, and the entire U.S. population grew only 45%. By an average of 2.8% annually.

According to Wolfe (2003), there are a number of different ways to compare the behaviors and reactions of older vs. younger consumers:

Younger minds are more responsive to emotionally neutral, objectively framed propositions.

Older individuals are increasingly responsive to emotional cues. They are less responsive to information that is emotionally neutral.

Older individuals are more adept at getting to deeper meanings.

Younger minds are more literal, and generally respond better to a language style that is direct and detailed.

Older people are repelled by absolutism.

Young often appear to project autonomy in their strident expressions, but in reality they demonstrate considerable dependence on guidance.

Older people generally depend less on others for guidance.

Older minds are generally more responsive to indirect approaches until such time that trust has been fully gained, at which time, they may actually welcome directness even more than a younger person might.

2) Determinant -- Gender: This walker, although different styles for men and women, would most likely be used more by women: First, because women live longer than men and thus have a greater need for them. Second, because women are more self-conscious about the way a typical walker looks than a man. Third, because women suffer more from osteoporosis and have a greater need for walking assistance.

According to the Census Bureau, men generally have higher death rates than women at every age. As a result, elderly women…… [read more]


Hamlet's Soliloquy Term Paper

… Hamlet's Soliloquy is touted as one of the most telling of all his rants. In this one passage he discusses the reason people choose to live or die. In short men choose to live because they fear the unknown of death. This passage is a larger answer to Hamlet's own question of why he has chosen to this point to act in life, to avenge his father's death rather than simply to let himself die or be killed as his father was. From this point forward in the work, Hamlet lives without fear of death, Ophelia has shown him that fear is only necessary when one makes no peace with the calamity of his life. Hamlet vows to make his revenge and let his life be taken in the process if it will. If the soft, fair Ophelia can choose death over life to end her worldly calamity, the scorn of his love given and then taken away, than he must no longer live in fear of death, he must avenge himself and his father so that all but the wicked can sleep the peaceful sleep of death.

The language of the passage is a clear indication that Hamlet is at a decision point. He has taken from his life the message that all is calamity, especially in worldly intrigue and that a decision must now be made to live or die, avenged or un-avenged. His fear is built on, the fear of the unknown as well as the fear of living in a world that continues to beat him down with, "whips and scorns of time, / the oppressor's wrong, the proud mans contumely, / the pangs of despised love, the law's delay, / the insolence of office and the spurns / That patient merit of the unworthy takes, When he himself might his quietus make..." The language is wavering, as like all other points in the work, he discusses with himself the nature of his decision. He asks, what is right, to seek out an end to his worldly depravity before or after he has avenged his father or to simply keep living in such calamity, because he is afraid of death? Yet, his resolve is set when he says, "And thus conscience does make cowards of us all; / and thus the native hue of resolution / I sicklied over with the pale crust of thought, / and enterprises of great pith and moment / With this regard their currents turn awry, / and lose the name of action." Hamlet seeks to stop thinking and to start doing, and in his last apology to Ophelia, for using her in his plot and precipitating her own death he tells her, "-Soft you now! The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in they orisons / Be all my sins remember'd." He gives Ophelia the right to hold him responsible for his act of betrayal towards her.

Hamlet vows not to fear death but to take within his own hands the responsibility to… [read more]


1995 Chicago Heat Wave Term Paper

… 1995 Chicago Heat Wave

How do we know that the 1995 Chicago heat wave is a disaster? Explain the chronic conditions which enabled this disaster

It was the month of July in the year 1995, in Chicago. The entire city… [read more]


Streetcar Name Desire Term Paper

… Streetcar Named Desire

Tennessee Williams play "A Streetcar Named Desire" is filled with various symbols, literary elements, and techniques that carry special meaning and touch the reader's innermost thoughts. It places the reader in a particular historic time when society and a people used to coexist in different ways compared to today's attitudes. One of the most complex characters in the play, Blanche Dubois, experiences numerous incidents and has certain dynamics that solidify her tragic elements, such as leaving Belle Reve, losing her family house, losing a young husband to suicide, deaths of her family members, and these develop into dependence, desperation, superiority, and poverty. The play opens with Blanche's visit to New Orleans to be reunited with her sister. The play's ending is tragic because of the many downfalls and disappointments in her life, and the fact that instead of overcoming them, she allows them to ruin her life. In fact, she allows others to take over control over her life, signifying her life has spun out of control. She does not have control over her own mind, she has lost her sanity, and she does not have control over her future, as indicted when Stanley commits her to the insane asylum at the end of the play.

Blanche is a tragic character and the main character in this play. She is filled with illusions of what life should be like, but which cannot possibly apply to real life. Between reality and her ideals, she struggles to overcome her own weaknesses, but not nearly hard enough. She literally self-destructs by pretending and lying. She pretends to be an innocent Southern belle, but of course, she is aging fast and far past the young innocent stage. This is clear when…… [read more]


My Father Term Paper

… Death & Dying - Hospice

REFLECTING on the DEATH of MY FATHER

My beloved father died recently. In life, he was the source of many lessons, about love, friendship, honesty, compassion, fairness, responsibility, sacrifice, and the meaning of personal integrity. In his death, he provided one last lesson, a lesson represented more by questions and the opportunity for self-exploration rather than a lesson of definitive answers or solutions.

We all knew that my father was dying, because while still a hospital in-patient, his doctor advised him that he had approximately a week to live without dialysis.

Because dialysis meant merely extending a life that had become more difficult to prolong than to relinquish, my father declined the treatment; he had had enough suffering and discomfort. I recall understanding his decision but being aware of a vague feeling of anger at his choice, despite the fact that I did not want him to suffer.

My father spent the last week of his life confined to his bed at home, where we cared for him 'round the clock, changing his position in bed to avoid bedsores, feeding him, changing him, and keeping him clean. We had arranged for delivery of whatever equipment we could find to make the end of his life as comfortable as possible, including hospital bed and supplemental oxygen.

For the first time, our respective roles had reversed completely, with my father's absolute dependence on us, instead of the other way around, for even the most basic human needs. In many ways, it was similar to caring for an infant. At times, it was difficult for me to grasp the reality that this dependent person barely conscious in a hospital bed was really my father. Looking back on it afterwards, I was already in a mild state of psychological shock, just at my father's deterioration, even before he died.

At the same time, I tried to focus on the fact that my father was still alive, which meant that I hadn't yet lost him. In reality, most of the person my father had been died long before he actually drew his last breath. Psychologists would probably say that I was in a state of denial in pretending that my father was still "OK" when in truth, he obviously was not "OK" in the least. Nevertheless, I had also begun anticipating the grieving process while he was still alive.

At first, my reaction to his death matched my expectations as my tears flowed more freely than ever before, at least more freely than ever before as an adult. The morning after he died, my grief seemed at first to have passed, but gradually, I realized that I had become numb. I helped arrange for his funeral and for family gatherings as well as carrying out daily routines that still had to be done. In some respects, the numbness was even worse than the first day of grief I experienced, because nothing else in my…… [read more]


Nursing Home Problems There Many Term Paper

… Nursing Home Problems

There many problems that are associated with old age, as the human body begins to break down in physical ways, and the mind begins to break down as well, resulting in memory loss, psychological issues, and in… [read more]


Palliative Care Is Defined Term Paper

… Palliative care is defined as care which will improve the quality of life
for a patient and the patient's family when they face life threatening
illness. Palliative care provides prevention and relief of suffering on
the part of the patient. It includes the identification of discomfort, the
treatment of pain and the support of the patient and families in the
physical, psychosocial and spiritual spheres. By definition, palliative
care will neither hasten or postpones death, but rather makes the attempt
to approach death as a normal process, allowing the patient to live as
actively and maintain as much control as possible until death occurs.
In Will's case, the administration of palliative care, by definition,
cannot include the administration of the morphine at such a dose to hasten
his death. This would be defined as euthanasia, which Will is requesting
by the administration of the morphine. Were Will still able to administer
the medication on his own, via activation of his PCA pump, then the act
would be considered passive euthanasia since the likelihood is that the
dose of the medication will suppress Will's respiratory drive rather than
simply treat his pain. The administration of morphine in such doses is
considered ethical in most political jurisdictions, and by most medical
societies. In Will's case, should the physician administer the medication
in such a dose as to suppress Will's respiratory drive, the motive for the
physician would be one of mercy. The difference between this and physician
assisted suicide is the intent behind the act. Physician assisted suicide
is not legal in most states, and the intent behind this act is to allow the
patient to end his or her own life. In Will's case, the physician may
hasten death but the primary reason for the administration of the
medication is to alleviate Will's severe pain and suffering. In this case,
palliative care may in effect hasten Will's death, but that will not be the
primary reason for the administration of his morphine. Ethically and
legally,…… [read more]


Dementia There Are a Number of Individuals Term Paper

… Dementia

There are a number of individuals who believe that dementia is a disease when in fact it is not. Dementia is actually a condition derived from a variety of diseases. "Many people equate dementia with Alzheimer's Disease, but they… [read more]


Gothic and Macabre: Explication of Selected Works of Edgar Allan Poe Term Paper

… ¶ … Gothic and Macabre: an Explication of Selected Works of Edgar a. Poe

Edgar Allen Poe uses elements both of a gothic and macabre nature in order to develop an atmosphere of intense horror within his short stories. Thus several stories take place in dark and gloomy settings, allow characters to undergo violent and unusual events, and generally end with an inevitably bizarre form of death for some characters.

Many of Poe's stories take place in settings characterized as being dark and oppressive. These settings often contain large, decrepit, and antiquated dwellings with countless rooms and secret vaults and passageways. The dwellings are usually set in remote and desolate locations, which effectively cut occupants off from the rest of civilization. Such a setting can be found in the story "Ligeia," where the narrator explains that after the death of his beloved first wife he took up residence in a dismal abbey located in a remote part of England. Within the abbey is an unusually shaped bridal chamber atop a high tower, which is where the narrator supposedly witnesses both his second wife's demise and first wife's subsequent resurrection.

In the story entitled "William Wilson" one of its major settings is a vast Elizabethan schoolhouse characterized with having countless subdivisions and being located in an ancient town. This schoolhouse setting is significant because it is where the narrator encounters his doppelganger for the first time. The story "The Masque of the Red Death" also contains a dark and gloomy setting, though it is not stated in an outright fashion. The prince's castellated abbey is located in a deeply secluded area and the suite in which he finally loses his life is characterized as being dark and dreary, due to having black furnishings and a blood-red tinted window. One of the most strangely oppressive settings is found in "The Cask of Amontillado" in which much of the story occurs within the gloomy atmosphere of the catacombs.

The story entitled "The Fall of the House of Usher" is the most particular about creating a gothic setting for its tale because the Usher mansion is central to the storyline. It is thus described as being so bleak and full of decay that, much like the terrible state of its owners, the sight of it causes viewers to feel an unbearable sense of gloom. From afar the mansion is described as being structurally stable, but upon closer inspection it is seen that its individual stones are crumbling down and its exterior is covered with fungi. Its interior is described as having dark and complicated passageways and containing outdated furnishings. The mansion's depressing atmosphere is partly responsible for Usher's illness, as he claims that the home is actually a sentient being capable of inflicting mental anguish upon him. Thus due to the mansion's significance to the storyline, the gloomy setting works especially well within this story.

Another gothic and macabre element found within Poe's stories is that characters often undergo violent and unusual events. One… [read more]


Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes Term Paper

… Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes

Elder abuse is generally defined as "...neglect, mistreatment, exploitation, or harming of elderly patients in nursing homes, assisted living facilities, or home care environments" (Elder Abuse and Nursing Home Neglect). Abuse of the elderly can… [read more]


Edgar Allan Poe Term Paper

… Edgar Allan Poe is considered to be one of the lesser known great artists of the 19th century. Orphaned at a very young age of 3, he nevertheless lived a happy and contented childhood with a kind-hearted and wealthy merchant,… [read more]


Senior Isolation Term Paper

… Senior Isolation

Today, senior citizens typically live alone and often find themselves isolated from family and the community. Isolation may be caused by the death of a spouse or by the death of close friends and family members. Seniors may find themselves isolated due to divorce, or adult children and close family members may live too far away for regular contact. Senior citizens may feel isolated due to employment retirement or chronic illness may keep them from involvement in social activities. Isolation may lead to a variety of negative effects (Medical).

Isolation often leads to depression for senior citizens. In fact, depression in individuals 65 years of age and older is considered a major health problem, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (Medical). Depression in the elderly often goes undiagnosed because doctors and family assume that the senior has simply slowed down due to advancing age, thus many elderly citizens find themselves coping with symptoms of depression that may actually increase isolation because they have lost interest in normal activities and communications (Medical). Moreover, not only does depression generally lasts longer in senior adults, but it also doubles their risk of developing cardiac diseases and can increase the risk of death from illness, as well as reduce their rehabilitation (Medical).

According to recent research, elderly persons who lack companionship and emotional or social support are vulnerable to heart problems (Ham). The study found that for every unit increase in loneliness, there was a threefold increase among older adults in being diagnosed with at heart condition (Ham). Every unit increase in perceived emotional support indicated a 97% decrease, while every unit increase in perceived social support or companionship decreased the odds of having a heart condition by 91% (Ham). The health effects of social isolation are particularly significant among seniors because they are more vulnerable to disruptions in their personal relationships due to death or illness (Ham). Moreover, many are removed from their social networks by being institutionalized in nursing homes or other managed care facilities (Ham). The authors found that the companionship of just one person was enough to reduce the risk of heart disease, while social support with multiple individuals produced increased health effects (Ham).

Depression in elderly adults also increases the likelihood of suicide, in fact the suicide rates in persons 80 to 84 years of age are twice that of the general population (Medical). Studies suggest that social isolation is associated with attempted suicide and deliberate self-harm among seniors (Sullivan).

Moreover, isolated seniors are less likely to shop for groceries or to cook for themselves, thus they are more likely to skip meals or eat convenience foods and snacks that are high in fat and sodium which increases their risks for diabetes, hypertension and heart disease (Dooley). In fact, surveys indicate that more than 50% of senior citizens live and eat alone, increasing their risk for malnutrition and associated diseases (Dooley). This has led many communities across the country to establish meal programs for seniors… [read more]


Impact of Demographic Changes Term Paper

… Demographic Changes

Demography is the study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth density, distribution or vital statistics (Lexico Publishing Group, LLC 2006). Statistics show that the population of persons aged 65 years and older grew from 4% in 1900 to 12.7% in 1990 and is predicted to reach 21% in the year 2030. It has been observed that the older population is growing older and that the oldest old is the fastest growing group. There are now 3 million elderly people aged 85 years old and over in the U.S. today. Other industrialized countries exhibit the same pattern among their elderly populations so that they are predicted to comprise 1.5 of the world population in the year 2050 (American Association of Retired Persons 1998, Stastny 2006).

Most age distributions are based on chronological age and scientists create groups on this basis in order to analyze the consequences of age distribution (American Association of Retired Persons 1998). Age 65 has been most often used as the start of old age arbitrarily since the 1935 enactment of the Social Security Act, which fixed the age of retirement and benefits could be received. Ageism has since been resorted to as a biased norm in acquiring social resources on account of declining functional ability, in turn due to chronological aging. The role theory basically assumes on the roles set for persons according to their age. Gerontologists who support this theory are unduly fixated with the problems of adjustment that aging persons undergo because of changes that occur later in their lives. In the process, these persons lose their identity, their children become adults themselves and these retirees lose the activities, which used to occupy their time. They, thus,…… [read more]


Aging Society and Changing Family Term Paper

… ¶ … elderly are defined and what their roles are in U.S. society. The elderly seem to be the forgotten sect of the American population. As baby boomers grow older, the elderly population is growing, but it simply does not get respect from American media and American society. Many people define anyone over 50 as "elderly," but many 50+ adults defy the definition and act and feel much younger than their years.

There are many problems facing the elderly in American society today. For example, retirement is a growing problem facing society because so many of the baby boom generation are growing older and retiring at the same time. There is worry that Social Security will not be able to afford this great number of retirees. In addition, many other social and community functions are challenged as society ages. There are not enough nursing homes and hospital beds for the elderly population, and so more in-home services, such as meals on wheels and in-home nursing care will need to be provided. The funds for these will have to come from local, state, and the Federal governments, and this means higher taxes for American society overall. In addition, many elderly parents are moving in with their adult children because they have nowhere else to go, and this is changing the face of the American family, which is becoming more blended and more responsible for aging parents and relatives. Besides retirement, there are many other aspects of aging that are difficult to deal with.

The media tends to portray the elderly as helpless, hopeless, and laughable. Most advertising is geared to young consumers, while ads geared to the elderly are usually for prescription drugs and other pharmaceuticals from denture adhesive to arthritis pain medications. The elderly are not usually portrayed as active, but as helpless and hopeless, such as the people in the ads for medical emergency signals they wear if they live alone. These people are portrayed as most American society sees the…… [read more]


Euthanasia (Active and Passive) Term Paper

… Slippery slope arguments encompass logical, psychological and arbitrary line. These different forms share a counter argument that when the first step is taken on a slippery slope the subsequent steps follow inevitably, whether for logical reasons, psychological reasons or to… [read more]


Osteoporosis Definition of Osteoporosis Term Paper

… Osteoporosis

Definition of Osteoporosis:

Osteoporosis is a developing condition in which bone density is lost, or there is inadequate bone formation, thereby deteriorating the bones and making them more vulnerable to fractures. Osteoporosis is also known as the silent disease… [read more]


Grief and Loss Term Paper

… Grief and Loss

Although often very painful, grief is a normal and natural response to loss (What pp). Generally, when most people think of loss and grief, they think of the death of a loved one, however, there are many… [read more]


Adolescent Suicide Epidemiological Approach Term Paper

… Adolescent suicide is now responsible for more deaths in people between ages 15 to 19 than cardiovascular disease or cancer (Blackman, 1996). Teen suicide has more than tripled since the 1960's (Santrock, 2003). Despite this alarming increased suicide rate, depression… [read more]


Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Term Paper

… ¶ … Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Adults in Care Facilities Such as Retirement Homes/Nursing Homes

Do Educational Activities Lead to Wellness in Older Adults in Alternative Care Facilities

The United States is experiencing a fundamental shift in… [read more]


Euthanasia There Can Be Little Term Paper

… True, that the religion of the cancer patients interviewed in the study may have compelled them to believe that life must be valued at all costs. However, it must equally be remembered that respect for the sanctity of life is a foundational societal value, which is inculcated in all citizens. Proponents of euthanasia may argue that people have the right to choose the manner, time, and place of their death (Brock, 1992). But, as Somerville (2003) points out, what such arguments usually fail to take into consideration is that allowing individuals such a right would undermine the capacity of both medicine and law to maintain the respect for human life. In other words, allowing euthanasia would weaken the prohibition on intentional killing, which human society has historically upheld as a sign that human life must be valued (Brock, 1992). Thus, it is not surprising that the cancer patients opined that their trust in their doctors would be impaired if euthanasia was ever discussed as a solution to their constantly being in pain.

Indeed, it appears that the American Medical Association (AMA) agrees with the view taken by the cancer patients. For, this is one of the major reasons why the AMA has taken a strong anti-euthanasia position: "There is, in short, compelling evidence of the need to ensure that all patients have access to quality palliative care, but not of any need for physician-assisted suicide." In addition to this statement, which was issued in an amicus brief in the 9th circuit case for doctor-assisted suicide, the AMA has expressly stated that doctors perform a crucial act of healing and saving life. Accepting a dual role of taking life, while at the same time, protecting life, would undermine their credibility and the sacred trust that exists between a patient and doctor (Life Issues Institute, 1997).

The AMA, as well as the legal system, have other reasons for being anti-euthanasia as well. The first, as the Netherlands experience has shown, is that euthanasia would make it extremely difficult to prevent abuse. This is particularly true of physicians who have opportunities to kill that are not open to other people (Somerville, 2003). A system that permits euthanasia would, in addition, also make it easier for families of mentally incompetent people to claim that a previously lucid patient had expressed a wish for euthanasia. In fact, this is one of the major contentious issues in the recent, much publicized Terri Schiavo case. Over and above individual motives, which can be construed as tantamount to homicidal (Brock, 1992), there is also the fear that euthanasia would be an all too tempting avenue for a society faced with an ageing population and scarce health-care resources (Somerville, 2003). This may lead to severe abuse and the perpetration of grave injustices both at the individual as well as the social level.

Thus, it is evident that the risks of permitting euthanasia far outweigh the benefits, if any. Further, the case for opposing euthanasia does not, at any point,… [read more]


Right to Die Term Paper

… Euthanasia - the Right to Die

Although there are laws in the United States that ban euthanasia, from a logical viewpoint, this type of PAS (physician-assisted suicide) should be legal, due to the fact that it is morally and ethically… [read more]


White Noise by Don Delillo Term Paper

… White Noise

Don Delillo's White Noise introduces a character -- Jack Gladney -- who is embroiled in a constant struggle to identify himself as something in opposition to death. Specifically the form his identity may possibly take is difficult for him to conceive; particularly, since he is obsessed with the notion of death, and in fact, defines his whole outward existence around its presence. The plot of his life, the plot of the novel, and indeed, the plot of any novel or tale, to Jack, demands that they culminate in death. Jack faces an identity crisis, and this crisis ultimately centers on the unknown; foremost among the things that remain unknown and unseen to Jack is the end of his life. Consequently, he attempts to manufacture an identity that possesses a fundamental relationship with death and is able to transcend it. The starkest contrast to Jack's character is Wilder, who is both oblivious to his mortal condition and is a whirlwind of impulses and urges. The existence of plot in White Noise implies that it will end -- it will die along with Jack -- however, death does not come because Jack seizes upon the immediate events of life, thus disregarding the fact that life is terminal. Delillo makes use of the plot in his novel to uncover the intrinsic relationship between death and individual conceptions of identity.

The inaccessibility of certain forms of knowledge is a barrier to grasping what something or someone truly is. This is illustrated by the most photographed barn in the world that Jack and Murray visit: the tourists are unable to see the real barn because the advertisements and photographs develop an aura surrounding the barn, and make it into something that it could not be without their presence. So, Murray decides, "They are taking pictures of pictures." (Delillo 13). The existence of the mechanisms of advertisement prevents anyone from truly seeing the barn. Similarly, human beings are inaccessible and require a type of advertisement, because the mechanism of death places them in a concrete setting. By being situated in a specific time and place, there are human drives to associate individuals with something larger, with something that transcends their mortality. This is the point that drives Jack to create an identity for himself that will forever be linked to someone who cannot be forgotten. The realization that his deeds and thoughts are definitively transient is the impetus behind his search for identity. Additionally, he recognizes that the identity he has chosen for himself is just as false as the pictures of the barn, and analogously, prevents him or anyone else from truly knowing who he is.

Jack deliberately links himself with Hitler and is commended for the fact that, "Nobody on the faculty of any college or university in this part of the country can so much as utter the word Hitler without a nod in your direction, literally or metaphorically." (Delillo 11). However, this fact is not enough to solidify Jack's aura… [read more]


Osteoporosis Approximately 8 Million People Term Paper

… Many of the estimates that are made on cost are generally made based on hip fractures (Neer, 1995). However, the overall costs include many other things, such as inability to work, custodial and medical care, reduced quality of life, functional limitations, loss of independence, pain, cost of illness, and death (Neer, 1995). It is relatively easy to measure the cost of osteoporosis when it comes to hip fractures because they result in surgical intervention and hospital admissions, both of which can be measured based on cost in many health care systems (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). Other fractures, however, such as vertebral column fractures in those over the age of 45, are considered to be related to osteoporosis but are generally not documented (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). The costs of these types of fractures include rehabilitation, medical and surgical care, long-term care, loss of productivity, and medication (Kanis & Pitt, 1992).

Even though the costs of much of what is related to osteoporosis cannot be specifically and completely measured, it is clear that something must be done to work to prevent it so that the costs of taking care of the problems that it causes can be reduced, and the very human costs that cannot be measured in dollars and cents can also be reduced. Women should generally be the main focus of preventative measures because they are at a higher risk, but men as well must be made aware of the risks to their health and their independence (Kanis & Pitt, 1992). This idea of loss of independence has only been addressed recently in studies. Up until very recently, it was not something that was seen to be significant because it was not something that was associated with costs in the same way that hospital care and other issues were associated with costs (Kanis & Pitt, 1992).

For most individuals, however, it appears to be safe to say that, once they fracture a hip or some other body part that may cause them chronic pain or difficulty getting around and doing normal daily activities, the quality of life that they have is diminished.

Works Cited

Ray, NF, Chan, JK, Thamer, M, et al.…… [read more]


Shakespeare's Hamlet Term Paper

… Hamlet and the Memento of Death

When the Renaissance brought about a rebirth of many of the philosophies and customs of antiquity, it resurrected the ancient stoical idea that by mediation upon death one might be able to come to… [read more]


Euthanasia the State Commission Term Paper

… Euthanasia

The State Commission on Euthanasia defined euthanasia as the intentional termination of life by someone other than the patient at the patient's request, while physician-assisted suicide is the intentional assistance given the patient to terminate his or her life… [read more]


Social Work Internship Experience Term Paper

… Most of the people I interacted with appeared disoriented and confused; however they were suffering from a bonafide condition, Alzheimer's. For example, when working in group activities I often had to repeat the instructions several times. Not because the patients I was working with weren't smart enough to comprehend the instructions the first time, but because their brain functioning had been altered as a result of the progression of the disease.

Most of the elderly at the center were capable of remaining physically active and in moments of clarity when I had discussions with patients most seemed capable of grasping the most basic intellectual concepts and human emotions.

Alzheimer's as described in the text is a degenerative brain disorder. It gradually causes deterioration in ones memory, awareness and their ability to control bodily functions (Gebo, 2004). Irritability, restlessness and impairments of judgment are not uncommon (Gebo, 2004).

One thing became very clear during the visits with patients at the center. The elderly, no matter their cognitive functioning or state of awareness, just as anyone else require companionship, understanding and compassion. Take the case of the gentleman who missed his wife that no longer visited. The obvious distress and grief this person was experiencing was evident in his every day actions. Likewise, the individual I consulted with on the west side experienced similar grief.

Undoubtedly as with anyone it is critical to address these emotions with all patients regardless of their mental function and capacity, to ensure they are given every opportunity to experience life to the fullest potential possible.

Personal, Professional Experiences

Overall I feel my experiences working with Alzheimer's patients at Legacy Gardens impacted me in a positive manner. Up until this point in time I had always considered the state of affairs for elderly individuals as something foreign or distant. It was as if the elderly were an entirely different breed.

I also must admit some fear of working with the elderly initially. When I first started participating in group activities, I thought I would have a member of the trained staff there to assist me. Much to my surprise and eventual delight however, I was left on my own to interact with patients and develop a relationship with each of the patients.

Interacting with each member of the group was much like interaction with anyone else, with the exception that cognitive impairments were evident among group members, and I often had to repeat myself. One of the biggest things I learned from a personal and professional standpoint was the importance of demonstrating compassion, patience and understanding. A majority of the patients I worked with did not required that I do anything more than simply listen to them. Many had been separated from society for so long; they seemed to live in their own complex world of experiences and relationships. Most of the time when they had cognizant moments they preferred to simply reminisce about the way things used to be.

What I also learned was that much… [read more]


Nursing Home Abuse Irrespective Term Paper

… (Nursing Home Abuse: Why Does It Exist?)

A minimum training is essential to be imparted to the nursing home personnel to deal with the disabled patients and in recording their conditions. The form records are often used that are maintained… [read more]


Euthanasia the Power to Control Term Paper

… These situations are likely to be more difficult for the person to conceptualize. However, asking the questions from both perspectives will likely reveal deeper, and ethically-based responses than if the survey was based strictly on asking a person what they would want in someone else's life.

The survey will be conducted on a cross section of the population, of median age individuals who are likely to have elderly family members who would face the question of euthanasia, if the practice were to become legal. The survey will be conducted via phone interview, and also made available on the internet with connection to significant medical sites, such as Web MD in order to collect date from a large population sample.

This research is expected to uncover the same controversy which Mr. Singer is stirring. This research expects to uncover that then euthanasia is a topic directed at other people, then the subjects attitudes will be much more liberal than if the euthanasia policies were directed toward, and could affect their own life.

Resources

P. Singer, Practical Ethics Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

P. Singer, "Bioethics and Academic Freedom" Bioethics, 4, no. 1, 1990

Wright, W. Historical Analogies, Slippery Slopes and the Question of Euthanasia. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Vol. 28, 2000

O. Tolmein, cited in B. Schone-Seifert and K-P.…… [read more]


Death and Dying Term Paper

… She acknowledges that life is hard, that adversity makes us stronger, and that we all have lessons we must learn in life. She also thinks that when we have learned the lessons we need to learn, the "pain goes away" (Kubler-Ross, 1998, p. 18). This book is the story of Kubler-Ross' incredible life, and through her gift of storytelling, the reader learns about her childhood, her school years, and how she began to study death and dying. It is clear this author has definitive thoughts on how to live the best possible life, and she shares them here as she shares her life. It is also clear that she believes in the ultimate decency of humanity, and those who are miserable will lead miserable lives and fear death. Her ideas may not all be commonplace (she believes she chose her parents), but they are easy and motivating to read, and she makes death seem much more peaceful, and far less frightening than it has seemed before.

References

Kubler-Ross, Elizabeth. (1998). The Wheel of Life: A Memoir of Living and Dying. New York: Scribners.

Gorle, Rev. Howard R. (2002). Grief Theories: Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. Retrieved from the Bereavement.org. Web…… [read more]


Right to Die Term Paper

… According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, "bills on assisted suicide were introduced in twenty-six states in 1997 and 1998...all defeated, usually dying in committee." During this same period, Virginia, Michigan and South Carolina passed new bans on assisted suicide, after Iowa and Rhode Island enacted bans in 1996, and Kansas and South Dakota recently "clarified their existing criminal statutes and added civil penalties for assisting a suicide." In 1999, thirty-eight states had specific statutes against assisted suicide, although "Oregon created an exception for terminally ill patients who fulfill certain guidelines," while eight forbid the practice by common law or interpretation of the state homicide statute, and four, Nevada, Hawaii, Utah and Wyoming have no clear law on the matter.

Those against the right to die see no distinction between pulling the plug to hasten death on patients depending on life support and providing lethal medication to dying patients. Those who support the right to die believe there is a moral line "between an active act by a physician to kill and passively letting nature take its course so that the underlying disease causes death." And then there are those who believe in both, allowing a patient to die with dignity off life support and allowing a patient to obtain assistance in death when he or she feels their physical condition is terminal. It is certain that this issue will continue to be debated in public opinion and courts for years to come.

Works Cited

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida." AP Worldstream. November 01, 2003. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?querydocid=1P1:86544618&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&pubname=AP+Worldstream&author=VICKIE+CHACHERE%2C+Associated+Press+Writer&title=Judge+appoints+professor+as+guardian+for+brain%2Ddamaged+woman+in+Florida&date=11%2F01%2F2003&query=Terry+Schiavo+and+the+State+of+Florida%2E&maxdoc=30&idx=2&ctrlInfo=result%3ASR%3Aprod.(accessed 12-03-2003)

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Doerflinger, Richard M. "An Uncertain Future for Assisted Suicide."

The Hastings Center Report. January 01, 1999.

Euthanasia Court Cases Rulings on Medical Killing." Human Life of Washington

http://www.humanlife.net/euthanasiaarticles/courtcases.html.

A accessed 12-03-2003).

Fackelmann, Kathy A. "The conscious mind: Karen Ann Quinlan case yields surprising scientific data." Science News. July 02, 1994.

King, Philip. "Washington v. Glucksberg: influence of the court in care of the terminally ill and physician-assisted suicide." Journal of Law and Health. June 22, 2000.

Reibstein. Larry. "Weighing the right to die." Newsweek. January 13, 1997.

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Fackelmann, Kathy A. "The conscious mind: Karen Ann Quinlan case yields surprising scientific data." Science News. July 02, 1994

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. Of Health." Citation: 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Concepts: Right to Die/State Police Powers. http://www.tourolaw.edu/patch/CaseSummary.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Brennecke, Shari J. "Right to Die: An Overview" Gerontology Manual. http://otpt.ups.edu/Gerontological_Resources/Gerontology_Manual/Brennecke.html.(accessed 12-03-2003).

Euthanasia Court Cases Rulings on Medical Killing." Human Life of Washington

http://www.humanlife.net/euthanasiaarticles/courtcases.html.

A accessed 12-03-2003

King, Philip. "Washington v. Glucksberg: influence of the court in care of the terminally ill and physician-assisted suicide." Journal of Law and Health. June 22, 2000.

Chachere, Vickie. "Judge appoints professor as guardian for brain-damaged woman in Florida."… [read more]


Euthanasia in Addition to Racism Term Paper

… The basic idea needs to be reinforced. Those that opposed euthanasia believe that it cheapens the value of life. If euthanasia was a legal option, it would also undermine funding of research into these areas like geriatric care and disease… [read more]


Right to Die Think Term Paper

… Should we not live every day as though it were our last?

We have all got to die, but there are best possible deaths, when our full time has come, and there are deaths, as in the Iraq war and in Israel, when lives are brutally cut short in conditions of great fear, anger and hatred - often leaving behind a legacy of anger, bitterness and sorrow. Because we all have to die is it possible to describe death in the best possible conditions? Is it possible to describe what ought to be our human rights in relation to our deaths? In this section I argue that this is possible. I then go on to compare this with what has happened in Iraq to draw out the contrast hopefully in a clear way.

If we think about our deaths, or those of your loved ones there are things, which I think that we all ideally want to make our passing easier. These are things like: having made a will, an orderly transition of our affairs, reconciliation's and making our peace with people, making sure that vulnerable survivors like children will be looked after (Herbert Hendin)

In the chaos, and rapid moving situation of war none of these things can be guaranteed. Soldiers may tidy their affairs up before they go into battle. For civilians that may occur - but there again, in the sheer random way in which civilians get killed, there is not the predictability or time for many of those things.

Another dimension is the psychological preparation for dying, as the last stage in life journey, as another opportunity for growth and experience. There is now a considerable literature about the psychological preparation for death, which suggests that one's last days, with one's loved ones around one, may be the most beautiful and poignant of one's life, as one becomes aware of how precious and fleeting life is.

Death with ones family cowering against incoming cluster bombs is not like that. There are other things one can say of death that are relevant here.

In Jean Liedloff's book, the Continuum Project, she describes the process of life as stages we all pass through, which if lived properly lead to dying without regrets. As a child one has toys and one plays. There is no problem leaving one's toys behind one, if one has lived that part of one's life properly.

Equally the stage of life for adolescent romance and sexuality and so on. One gets fixated at a stage if one has not lived it properly. The greatest tragedy, for many people in the world, is to be alive but unable to participate in these ordinary satisfactions of living. Finally at death one let's go because one has lived a full life and there are no regrets. (James M. Hoefler)

In that sense the idea of a death cut short in war has particular tragedy, and particularly of children or of the parents of children, which denies the… [read more]


Progeria Is a Somewhat Mysterious Term Paper

… The scientists concede that the increased presence of the acid is unique to progeria patients and others that suffer with other ageing conditions.

There are also other Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities that are characteristic of the syndrome. Studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts have shown that there is a reduced potential in-vitro growth in Progeria patients. There is also evidence the children that have the condition have shortened replicative life span. (Dyer and Sinclair)

It is believed that the cause of Progeria is due to a mutant gene. According to the Progeria Research Foundation,

Progeria is considered to be the result of a dominant mutation because the gene in question has one normal copy and one abnormal copy, as opposed to a recessive mutation in which both copies are abnormal. Because neither parent carries or expresses the mutation, each case is believed to represent a sporadic new mutation which happens at the time of conception." ("What is Progeria?")

Studies have found that there are certain patterns that occur in the families of children with Progeria. For instance, the parents of these children are usually at least six years apart in age which is above the national average of two years. In addition researchers have discovered that siblings or identical twins in the same family usually do not have the condition. ("What is Progeria?")

Children with this condition usually die in the beginning of their second decade. Death usually occurs in the early teenage years-although some patients live to their early twenties. Death is usually caused by heart failure and myocardial infarction. (Dyer and Sinclair)

Recent Developments

Although there is no cure for the disease, in recent weeks scientists have isolated the gene that causes the condition. The discovery was made by scientists at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Remarkably it only took the scientist one year to isolate the gene. CNN reported that,

Progeria is caused by a single-letter misspelling in a gene on chromosome 1. They found 18 of 20 children with classic progeria had the exact same misspelling in the Lamin A gene. Lamin A is a protein that is a key component of the membrane that surrounds the cell's nucleus. The studies showed that almost half of the progeria patient's cells had misshapen nuclear membranes."("Gene is discovered for rapid aging disease in children")

This development is important because it allows scientist to develop a genetic test for the condition.

The genetic test will allow parents to see if they carry the gene before they conceive so that the necessary precautions can be taken. It will also allow researchers to potentially find a cure and treatments for the condition.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to explore the various aspects of the condition known as Progeria. We began by defining Progeria. We found that the condition is rare and only affects about 35 children in the entire world. Our discussion then focused on the characteristics and causes of the condition. Our research found that individuals with the… [read more]


Euthanasia (Against) in North America Term Paper

… " Hence, only God has the right to begin a life, and only God is allowed to end one. Therefore, an individual who commits suicide is doing a sin.

Secondly, God has not sent us any experience that we are unable to handle. He supports and helps people in suffering. Thus, an individual who seeks to end his life would actually signify lack of trust in the promise made by Him.

On the other hand, an important and growing percentage of non-Christians, Agnostics, Humanists, secularists, Atheists and liberal Christians in North America do not accept these theologically based arguments. They argue:

Every individual has independence over their own life. Therefore, those individuals who are not satisfied with their quality of life which is equal to nonexistent should have the right to decide to commit suicide, and to seek support and help if required.

At times a terminal sickness is so painful that it causes life to be very intolerable and unbearable burden; where death can play its part as a relief of such insufferable pain.

Conclusion

Irrespective of whether Euthanasia is legalized by the judicial authorities or not, the subject remains a question to an individual's conscience. With varying ideologies of life that people share throughout the world, the fact differs whether Euthanasia is right or wrong. However, owing to the social roles that every individual plays in the society, Euthanasia cannot be justified for being right. No matter how one's conscience may allow or disallow an individual to end up his life, his interrelationships do not permit him to deprive the society of the roles that he plays and in turn enjoys a social recognition to its own degree.

Works Cited

Horgan, John. Right to Die. Scientific American, May 1996.

Netherlands State Commission on Euthanasia. Definition of Euthanasia.

DeathNet. Oregon Death With Dignity Act. http://www.rights.org/~deathnet/ergo_orlaw.html

Matas, Robert. Oregon Reconsiders Death-With-Dignity Law. The Globe and Mail Newspaper, Toronto ON, Nov 3, 1997 (p. A1)

Oregon Health Division. Oregon's Death with Dignity Act: Annual Report 2000. http://www.ohd.hr.state.or.us/chs/pas/ar-disc.htm

New England Journal of Medicine, Feb 6, 2002.

Toronto Star. New law paved way for 38 to commit suicide in Oregon. Quick Hits, Toronto Star. March 6, 2003.

Jordahl, Steve. Ashcroft Appeals Assisted-Suicide Ruling. Family News in Focus.…… [read more]


Rise of Advanced Technologies Term Paper

… He supports euthanasia and represents the view that assisted suicide should be a legal option for the patient.

To some extent, my views reflect what I have seen happen to the aged and stricken who have been so unfortunate as… [read more]


Euthanasia Term Paper

… In addition, they may be given the opportunity to make amends, finalize their affairs, and die in the presence of family and friends. However, in order for the end of life to be considered good, it is critical for the… [read more]


Slippery Slope Argument Term Paper

… The slippery slope argument in this debate means that once the world starts allowing assisted suicides for those who are terminally ill, it will not be a stretch to start choosing who dies based on other factors. How about the man who is not terminally ill but is in chronic and lifelong pain? Should he be allowed to choose to die now? What about the woman who is mentally ill and is in danger of causing her children emotional harm? Why can't she choose to die and save her children's psyche much the same way a terminally ill person chooses to die and save their family savings account and their emotions?

Once the world starts down the slippery slope of allowing people to choose to die, it is not hard to imagine the slippery slope causing mankind to overshoot the stopping place and going far past the currently accepted criteria for euthanasia. The slippery slope argument presents a valid concern for something that is as irreversible…… [read more]


Hamlet Fits Within Anoulih's Discussion Term Paper

… They must piece the entire puzzle together. There is work associated with reading a tragedy because a reader must open his or her mind in order to make the character's actions plausible. The reader must feel as though the events could happen. What's more, the reader must be able to somehow connect with the characters and their reactions.

In Hamlet, or other tragedies, there is no hope that the characters will survive their hideous death. The reader must follow within the loops and curves that the play offers in order to connect action with reaction and vice versa.

A tragedy always reveals the main character's weakness. In this case, Hamlet's weakness was his vulnerability and his indecision. He wouldn't listen to his associates when he had the chance. He also didn't act promptly when given a chance to avenge his father's death. Had he killed his uncle in the offset of the play, it is arguable that some of the deaths towards the end of the play may not have occurred. Hamlet needed proof that the ghosts were telling the truth. Since he didn't believe them and had gave his uncle the benefit of doubt, the tragedy unfolded.

When Hamlet transforms into a raging madman because of his father's death, the reader knows for certain that people will die at Hamlet's hand. It is uncertain whether the uncle will be killed because such irony is a calling card in tragedies. The reader may surmise that everyone will die except the uncle and that Hamlet may live to grieve over his love, Ophelia.

Another point of contention is set up early in the play. There is the issue of Hamlet's mother. The ghost expressly said the his mother shouldn't be harmed. However, Hamlet doesn't listen. He feels it necessary to question his mother and accuse her. Had he not been in her chambers accusing her of contributing to her husband's death, Hamlet would not have killed.

Ophelia is also warned in this play, another mark of someone who is either going to die or who will play a role in someone else's death -- as in the case of Hamlet himself. She is warned to stay away from Hamlet. Of course, as the reader knows, she won't listen.

Therefore very early in the tragedy the reader is handed a roadmap that will somehow spell out the fate of all of its characters. It is up to the reader to consider the possible outcomes and piece them together. A tragedy such as Hamlet, however, is filled with so many twists and turns that just about any tragic ending is plausible. The reader must play a game in determining whether their guesses will turn out to be realized in the play. Will Shakespeare through us all for a loop or will this play simply verbalize an ending that the reader has already surmised. An artist like Shakespeare, always has a surprise ending at hand. In such case, the ending of the tragedy is… [read more]


Magical Realism in Juan Rulfo Term Paper

… ..puts its gentle arm around my waist...then I sink into it...give myself to its pulsing strength..." (96). In this fashion, Juan Rulfo leads Juan and the reader to ponder between Pedro's illusion and Susana's reality. The point to note, however, is that Pedro himself is shown constant in his belief about Susana implying that for Pedro, his vision of Susana was real and true.

Similarly, in Death Constant Beyond Love, Gabriel Garc'a-Marquez's story of Senator Onesimo Sanchez's continual quest for life in the face of imminent death, the question of illusion and reality is highlighted through the Senator's continued campaigning and his indulgence in an affair that ultimately causes his downfall. Was the Senator deluding himself with the only reality being death or was the Senator only continuing to live what had always been his reality as in the false make-believe world of politics and in fact, being realistic, by making most of the time he had left with Laura ("he found the woman of his life": 2430)? Thus, the lines between illusion and reality begin to blur depending on the perspective from which it is considered - the Senator's or the reader's.

Through Death Constant Beyond Love, Marquez uses magical realism to raise questions on illusion and reality. Take, for example, Rosal del Virrey - A rosebush in a dry, desolate land? Or the Senator's careful nurturing of his rose against the odds - preservation of illusion or facing the reality of the rose's poor chances of survival?

To conclude, the use of magical realism in both Pedro Paramo and Death Constant Beyond Love is marked by the blurring of lines between illusion and reality and thereby raising questions about the difference, if…… [read more]


Young Term Paper

… Ashcroft has attempted to overturn the actions of Attorney General Janet Reno, who ruled in favor of Oregon's interpretation of the federal Controlled Substances Act as allowing physicians to prescribe lethal levels of drugs.

In large measure because of her… [read more]


Elderly in American Society Term Paper

… "Must sell their homes unless they return home within six months or a doctor says it may be possible for the resident to return home at a later time. Must apply any monthly income above $59 to the cost of their care, except in special circumstances or if their spouse at home needs more income.

May transfer their home to a child at least three years prior to entering the nursing home or in the event the son or daughter was living in the home at least two years just prior to their admission (Gordon, 1995)."

Spouses/

"Must submit, at the time of their spouses' admission to a nursing home, to an asset assessment to determine what assets you owned on the day of admission (Gordon, 1995)."

May keep the house, their personal property, a car and the greater of $21,156 of the couple's liquid assets or half of their liquid assets up to $74,820.

May continue to earn unlimited monthly income and do not have to pay further to support their spouses' care (Gordon, 1995)."

In the United States today there are about 20,000 individual nursing homes. Those homes hold a combined bed number of between 1.5 million and 2 million. About five percent of residents in this country over 65 years old reside in a nursing home (Cefalu, 1995).

"Federal law requires nursing homes to have a nursing director who is a registered nurse, a medical director, and other paraprofessional personnel (medical social workers, pharmacists, rehabilitation specialists, a recreational therapist, and di- teary, housekeeping, and maintenance services). More than 90% of nursing home employees are nursing staff, and 80% of care is provided by nursing aides. These may include full-time, part-time, or contract professionals (Cefalu, 1995). "

CONCLUSION

The elderly face many challenges as they advance in age. There are nursing homes that provide total care including developing a social life for its residents. They employ an activities director who plans outings, game nights, dances and other events to encourage social interaction. In addition there are senior centers throughout the nation providing the same type of care for those who still live at home. The social isolation of the elderly is one of the biggest obstacles that we must over come if we want quality of life to keep up with quantity of life in the future. Changes in the financial demands for poverty before admittance needs to be addressed as…… [read more]


Voluntary or Assisted Euthanasia Essay

… Terri Schiavo case was a very sad story. It was also a story with a huge amount of implications and subject matter topics including euthanasia, nursing ethics, legal requirements, the final wishes of Terri and/or who controlled the same given there was an absence of them being documented and so forth. This report will briefly summarize the case in question, will describe the legal and ethical implications from a nursing and legal standpoint, will describe the stakeholders involved, will describe the impact on social values/norms and so forth and how a general ethical theory or principle might be applied to this subject. While the Terri Schiavo situation was extremely unfortunate, the facts were what they were and a lot of the legal wrangling could have been easily prevented with a little forethought.

Analysis

One striking thing about the Terri Schiavo case is that it actually stretched on for quite a long time. In this case, "a long time" means a decade and a half. Indeed, Terri Schiavo was at her home in 1990 when she collapsed due to experiencing full cardiac arrest. Despite attempts to save her and restore her to health, she came to exist in a "persistent vegetative state" and there was deemed to be no way that she would recover. Given that, Terri's husband and guardian, a man by the name of Michael Schiavo, made the decision to remove life support and that meant removing Terri's feeding tube. This was a particularly vexing and hard decision to make given the fact that Terri was quite often conscious and at least somewhat aware. However, the issue was that her brain was ostensibly damaged beyond repair and she had no awareness, according to doctors, that approached that of a healthy human being. The parents strongly opposed the removal of the feeding tube. However, the removal of the tube was eventually ordered by a judge and it occurred on March 18th, 2005. Terri died a tad less than two weeks later on March 31st, 2005 (CNN, 2015).

When it comes to the obligations or a nurse, there is a bit of a duality that exists. First, the general duty of a nurse is to prolong and sustain life. At the same time, there is the legal question of things like advanced directives, what the "patient would have wanted" and the people who might or must make decisions due to the absence of advanced directives, living wills and so forth. The latter was certainly the case with Schiavo. The nurses and doctors may have felt an ethical or legal fear due to what was going on but they did indeed ultimately have the order of a judge to legally back up what was decided. In terms of other laws, the nurses and doctors would not and could not make such a choice but they are allowed to honor what the guardian or what the law requires, depending on the situation. The stakeholders in the situation were obviously Terri's husband Michael, Terri's… [read more]


Physician-Assisted Suicide and Its Moral and Ethical Standards Research Paper

… ¶ … against arguments in Doctor Assisted Suicide

This paper examines the much heated arguments in regards to the moral and ethical standards of the idea of doctor-assisted suicide which is also known as physician-assisted suicide. A medical doctor aided… [read more]


Hamlet's Demise Book Report

… ¶ … Hamlet

It was my fault. How inadequate these words seem, especially in light of the bloodshed and tragedy that has warmed over the throne of Denmark and the remnants of the royal family. Had I known the results,… [read more]


Color of Stigma "Measuring the Grief Experiences Methodology Chapter

… Color of Stigma "measuring the grief experiences of AA women that have lost a son of suicide"

The chapter on methodology seeks to attain the following: 1) explain the methodology this research adopts; 2) the validity of the adopted methodology… [read more]

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