"Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays

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Kevorkian Dr. Kevorkian the Act Essay

3 pages (870 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Physician-assisted suicide is not as harmful to society as society believes that it is. Many of the patients seeking such an extreme end to their lives have very little to live for, and often suffer intense pain from incurable ailments. What Dr. Kevorkian was doing has been portrayed as a moral concern, when in fact it is purely a scientific decision to end a life that is incapable of functioning at an acceptable degree of health. There is no moral question, but rather a purely logical one, of whether human life is more precious than the reason of man, or if mankind is capable enough of making the correct decision of ending a life that ceases to be useful. There is nothing for Americans to worry about if people are making this decision to end their lives, these decisions should not be the concern of common people, but only of the individual and physician involved. Even families should only have limited knowledge of this practice, but those families that do choose to allow physician-assisted suicide should be allowed to carry out their wish despite the demands of the state.

Those who are against assisted suicide often cite God's will in their decision, drawing from the Bible various teachings against the act. This belief does not explain the action of the United States making suicide illegal, however, since the state has always been separate from the church. Those who are against Dr. Kevorkian usually play the part of society, while those who are with Dr. Kevorkian think of the patients first. It is these individual's desires to die peacefully and predictably, and it is Dr. Kevorkian's will to fulfill these demands. The government does not need to interfere with this transaction of life, as choice should be the ultimate goal for any human who values freedom and liberty over control.

In conclusion, Dr. Kevorkian took a risky practice and conducted it openly for decades, usually at the relief of his patients who chose to die rather than to suffer. He is a man who is driven strongly by his beliefs, and he deserves respect for approaching all of American society with the question of assisted suicide. His sentencing to jail may be necessary in the eyes of the state, but does not do much to explain why Dr. Kevorkian's practices are necessarily illegitimate. The final question that every body needs to ask is whether an individual should be able to make the choice of death, or whether it is society's role to prevent such…… [read more]


Ethics the Case Touches on Alzheimer-Type Degeneration Reaction Paper

2 pages (583 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Ethics

The case touches on Alzheimer-type degeneration. Alice mother, Martha, suffers from this clinical condition. She is not capable of taking care of her self and relies on her daughter for virtually everything. Her daughter takes her to a special unit where Alzheimer patients are taken care of because the facility can provide long-term care for Martha. Before Martha is taken to this facility, Alice realizes that Martha is in a frail state.

Upon admission at the facility, Alice fails to complete doing the paperwork because of weariness. Unfortunately, only a few forms are in the process signed. She gave her mother's directive that if her heart stopped beating she never be subjected to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). It is however not clear whether the physician cosigned DNR order. After Alice had left the facility, her mother suffered a cardiac episode and was taken to an intensive care unit where she was put on a heart monitor, ventilator, and an intravenous line, something that really infuriated Alice.

This case highlights some important professional obligation of healthcare professional with regards to terminally ill patients or patients under long-term medical care. The case highlights issues pertaining to when CPR can or cannot be withheld. Conventionally and depending on the policies of a particular hospital, CPR is withheld when it is deemed to be of no medical benefit to a patient or when persons designated to make decisions for them indicate that they do not want CPR, should the need arise.

Martha's clinical condition cannot be remedied because there are no medical interventions to it. It is therefore futile administering CPR because it is of no clinical benefit. The caregivers were therefore ethically wrong in administering CPR after she had suffered a cardiac episode because…… [read more]


Living Wills Research Proposal

3 pages (983 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… If there are problems with the initial intervention, there are opportunities to adjust it - but only if the reasons behind the problems can be discovered. A qualitative method that could be used with this intervention is observation. The desire would be to see how many people were "swayed" by what they were told regarding living wills. If a patient was provided information about living wills properly, would that patient decide to create a living will for himself or herself? Would the results of that style of intervention be any different than the results of the current (lack of) intervention that is taking place in hospitals and other medical facilities in the present day? That is a question that cannot be answered without study, but qualitative methods do not necessarily provide enough data to make an accurate assessment.

Another way to assess the intervention is to use quantitative methods. One of the most popular of these types of methods is the survey or questionnaire. However, it can become difficult to use this method on elderly individuals in the hospital and other medical facilities. The best way to measure the intervention quantitatively is through a statistical analysis of whether people are more likely to create a living will after they have been visited by the designated medical professional. If the difference is statistically significant and other variables can be controlled for, the intervention could be seen as having value for those who need information about living wills and are currently not getting that from their interactions with medical professionals. If the intervention is successful, there will be both short-term and long-term goals that will be met, as well. Short-term goals include the creation of more living wills and advance directives, which helps hospitals, doctors, and patients all be more prepared for the inevitability of aging individuals.

Long-term goals are more significant. They will allow the patient to have his or her affairs in order more clearly than would have been possible without the advance directive. It not only helps the patient, but it also helps the family of the patient. The doctors and nurses also benefit, because they are clear on what they need to do for each patient and what wishes that patient has for end of life care. Even though it is a subject many people avoid, end of life care should be addressed. Those who are elderly and/or those who have chronic or terminal conditions must be made more aware of the importance of advance directives. When they do not have living wills, they leave their last wishes and their end of life care decisions to others. An intervention could change all of that and provide them with information on living wills and follow ups where they could get their questions answered and create the documents needed to ensure proper end of life care.… [read more]


Terminally Ill People Research Paper

5 pages (1,633 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Terminally Ill People

The debate on whether or not those considered terminally ill should be allowed to end their lives has been ongoing for a long time. Those in support of physician-assisted suicide continue to advance various viewpoints in support of their assertions. However, those of a contrary opinion advance equally compelling reasons as they seek to oppose physician-assisted suicide.… [read more]


Experiences of African-American Women Who Have Lost a Male Son to Suicide PhD Model Answer

17 pages (7,688 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… ¶ … African-American Women Who Have Lost a Male Son to Suicide

A Re-Examination of cultural factors that mitigate risk and promote resilience in relation to African-American suicide: A review of the literature and recommendations for future research

Accoding to Utsey, Hook & Stanard (2007), there was the discussion of the history of African-American Suicides. Their reports about suicide of… [read more]


Antigone Is the Last Play Essay

3 pages (998 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Antigone warns Ismene not to tell Creon what she has done -- defy his mandate -- and tells her "I shall be hating you soon, and the dead will too,/For your words are hateful. Leave me my foolish plan:/I am not afraid of the danger; if it means death, / It will not be the worst of deaths -- death without honor" (78-81). In this warning, Antigone makes it clear that she believes that there is nothing worse than a dishonorable death, which can either be attributed to Polyneices who is being denied a proper burial or can be construed as foreshadowing as Antigone believes that her death will serve a higher purpose and that she will not die in vain. Additionally, through this statement, she is separating herself from Creon, whom she evidentially believes is ignoble and only wants to secure his position of power and will do anything to ensure that people follow his mandates, whether by force or by fear.

By standing up for what she believed in, Antigone is fulfilling the Theban elders' expectations as outlined in the "Ode to Man." In the final part of the ode, the Theban elders make it abundantly clear that they do not tolerate any person who breaks the laws and sees his city crumble (295-330). By establishing his mandates, Creon demonstrates that he values his own needs above those of the gods. Creon's actions and behaviors are a direct contradiction to what Thebans hold to be noble and valuable in their society, however, Antigone, despite the fact that she appears to be fighting against Creon on her own, embodies the qualities that these Thebans hold dear.

While Antigone is prepared to give her life for what she believes in, and effectively establishes herself as a martyr within the community, Creon is not prepared to handle the consequences of his defiance of divine law. At the end of the play, upon discovering that Antigone has died, Haemon, Creon's son and Antigone's betrothed, commits suicide. His death is subsequently followed by that of Queen Eurydice, his mother and Creon's wife, who commits suicide due to everything that Creon had done and had allowed to be done.

Because Creon ruled with a "might makes right" attitude instead of providing his subjects with what they needed, he not only lost the respect and admiration of his subjects, but also lost his wife and son. On the other hand, Antigone believed that what was right was not determined by those who had power, or the means to attain it, and as such, she was able to capture the hearts of Thebans. However, Antigone is comforted not only by the fact that she stood up for what she believed in, but also because she knows that she will be at peace in Hades because she did what was right, follow divine law.

Works Cited

Sophocles. Antigone. Web. 8…… [read more]


Right to Die Physician-Assisted Suicide Case Study

2 pages (686 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Director, Missouri Department of Health). The refusal of resuscitation thus can legitimately be considered an indicator that the patient would also refuse nutrition even though the court upheld Missouri's specific state requirement for written evidence.

If the state in which Mildred is located does not demand written evidence in the form of a living will that she does not want her life continued artificially, legally and ethically, acting in accordance with the wishes of her loved ones would seem to be the most compassionate action and it would be morally legitimate to withhold nutrition in this case. The family's legal right to make such a decision will vary on a state-by-state basis, but morally, given they are closest to the patient, Mildred's children are clearly in the best possible position to make such a choice. The fact that their decision is unanimous further supports the notion that Mildred made her wishes clear.

There is, of course, a slightly troubling 'other side' to the case. If Mildred felt so strongly, why did she not take the time and the trouble to write a living will, given that she had already suffered two heart attacks and had clearly faced death before? Granted, the subject may have 'come up' in conversation with her family, causing her to express her wishes, but the fact she did not actively put her thoughts down on paper makes her decision more in doubt than would be the case had a living will been authored -- or even simply a non-legal document detailing her feelings. However, given the available evidence and the medical prognosis, deferring to the patient's family in this instance is still the best alternative.

References

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dep't of Health, 497 U.S. 261 (1990). Retrieved:

http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/consent/Cruzan_SC.htm

The right to die. (2012). Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. Retrieved:

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/righttodie.htm… [read more]


Euthanasia it Is Generally Believed That Life Term Paper

2 pages (905 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Euthanasia

It is generally believed that life is "good," and death is "bad;" but there are circumstances when this seemingly universal truth may become clouded and confusing. Lately, the issue of euthanasia has come to the forefront of modern society with many cases in the news. However, while a dictionary may define the term "euthanasia" as a quiet and easy death, or the means to acquire it, Philippa Foot asserts that euthanasia is a more complex and morally ambiguous act that often is misunderstood by the general public. According to Foot, there are a number of difficult issues surrounding the concept of euthanasia, including the idea of good and evil, the value of an individual life, and when, and even if, a person can consent to their own death. Since, as Foot points out, the current health care system already employs euthanasia in a different, albeit indirect manner, the question of euthanasia must be explored to not only define it as a term, but also to define when and if it is to be employed.

The dictionary defines "euthanasia" in a limited manner: a quiet and easy death, or the means to acquire it. But as Philippa Foot explains, there are a number of problems with this definition. According to Foot, a definition of euthanasia must include more than a quiet and easy death, in fact it must include the idea that the quiet and easy death is actually a "good" instead of an "evil." It must also be of benefit for the person being killed, and not simply be beneficial to those around the person. When speaking of "good," Foot is careful to stress that the "good" must be a real and tangible "good," not a perceived "good" on the part of those making the decision. And mostly, it can only be termed "euthanasia" when the death of an individual is a real escape from the greater "evil" of continued life. In other words, euthanasia must be a means of ending the "evil" of a life that is generally accepted by society as intolerable for the person living it.

This definition of euthanasia rejects the idea that a person can die when the pain in their life exceeds the joy. However, Foot asserts that life, even a good life, cannot exist without some pain; and even in cases where the pain exceeds the joy of life, in most cases, life should win out. As Foot stated in making her case, "merely being alive even without suffering is not a good…." (Foot, p.4) it seems that the connection between "good" and "life" is stronger than can be calculated, and as a result, the mere sums of pain and joy cannot be compared…… [read more]


Rabbit Hole the Symbolism Essay

3 pages (927 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Pretending, then, or creating illusions through these "rabbit holes" of the imagination, is at least a way that Izzy deals with conflict and potential pain if not a more consistent character trait.

Howie, Danny's father, immerses himself in fantasy worlds in a more direct and apparent way than Izzy but a more indirect way than Jason. Instead of actually dealing with a future life where Danny is dead, Howie watches old home movies of Danny, immersing himself in the world of the past. Though not exactly the same type of imagining or pretending that the other characters engage in, Howie is still creating a false alternate world with these home movies. He has disappeared through a rabbit hole to a world that used to exist and doesn't any longer, and is in this way perhaps worse than an imagined future.

Becca's reaction to her son's death is the most enigmatic of any of the characters' reactions, and is also perhaps the most obviously profound because of the uncertainty it seems to create in her. While not creating an explicit alternate reality or any clear fictions to cover up or deal with her pain, Becca does not seem at all sure about what reality is like without her son, and with all of the other conflict in her life. In this way, she is perhaps trying to deal with Danny's death in a more direct manner than any of the other characters, but she ultimately fails to do so throughout much of the play/film, as she is to uncertain of how to go about grieving properly. Her "rabbit hole," as it were, is found in her inability to find the right rabbit hole -- to find the world of a future without Danny that can seem real to her, and that offers her a way forward. Until she receives some catharsis at the end of the play/film, Becca's is a journey of finding the rabbit hole rather than of finding her way out again.

All of the characters in Rabbit Hole are stuck in a symbolic rabbit hole created in part by Danny's death, as well as by the other more individual events, personalities, and traits of each of the characters. Through their own explorations of their made-up alternative universes, each character either deals with or avoids dealing with their grief, their confusion, and their pain when it comes to loss and to life. Perhaps the essential point of this text, then, is that we all have rabbit holes to which we must and even should succumb at times. It is human to be rabbit-like in this regard, and impossible to deny the impulse.… [read more]


Unlicensed Caregiver Experience in Dementia Research Paper

3 pages (951 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Depressive symptoms were the second most common (77%) and anxiety and sadness were the primary ones observed. Disruptive behaviors were the least common (60%) and included arguing, irritability, and insomnia.

The dementia-related behaviors that triggered the strongest reactions in ULCs were threats of self-harm, mentioning death, and expressing feelings of low self-worth. Moderate reactions were elicited by threats to harm others and engaging in behaviors that were potentially dangerous. The least upsetting behaviors were memory problems and not finishing things.

A significant positive correlation was found between the number of dementia-related behaviors and how upset an ULC would become (r = 0.73, p < 0.01), with depression-related behaviors triggering the strongest negative reactions (r = 0.64, p < 0.01).

Discussion

The primary finding of this study is that dementia-related behaviors in an assisted living setting have a significant impact on the experiences of ULCs. In essence, the more frequent the behaviors are encountered the more negative the caregiver will perceive their experience, with behaviors related to depression triggering the biggest reactions.

The authors of this study selected a specific question to answer and provided the theoretical context for why this question is important enough to spend research dollars on (Ragin, Nagel, and White, 2004, p. 3-4). The experimental approach was outlined clearly, methods for data collection not controversial, and data analysis straightforward. As designed, this study could be easily replicated by others.

The limitations of the study were discussed openly and honestly by the authors. The main limitation was the ULC sample contained a significant number of certified nursing assistants (53%), which are considered licensed caregivers (McKenzie, Teri, Pike, LaFazia, and van Leynseele, 2012, p. 98). Despite this limitation, this sample still reported low levels of dementia care training overall. It would have been nice though, if the data could have been stratified by unlicensed and licensed caregivers to see if there was an effect. In addition, it would have also been interesting to see if the amount of dementia training influenced the perceived caregiver experience.

The authors discuss the relevance of the findings to prior research, which suggests that dementia-related behavioral problems have a significant negative impact on the morale of caregivers, from registered nurses to nursing assistants. The findings presented by McKenzie and colleagues (2012) reveal that the negative effects of dementia care is universal for all professional caregivers and provides empirical support for promoting increased dementia care training for all caregivers.

References

Chodosh, Joshua, Pearson, Marjorie L., Connor, Karen I., Vassar, Stefanie D., Kaisey, Marwa, Lee, Martin L. et al. (2012). A dementia care management intervention: Which components improve quality? American Journal of Managed Care, 18, 85-94.

McKenzie, Glenise, Teri, Linda, Pike, Kenneth, LaFazia, David, and van Leynseele, June. (2012). Reactions…… [read more]


African-American Suicide Article Review

3 pages (828 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Walker, RL., Wingate, LR, Obasi, EM, Joiner, T (2008).An empirical investigation of acculturative stress and ethnic identity as moderators for depression and suicidal ideation in college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Copyright 2008 by the American Psychological Association 2008, Vol. 14, No. 1, 75 -- 82

This paper explores the relationship that exists between ethnic identity and acculturative stress with depressive symptomology as well as suicide ideation. The scales used are SAFE Acculturative Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Multi-Group Ethnic Identity Measure and Beck Suicide. The work indicated that acculturative stress as well as ethnic identity moderated cases of depression-suicide ideation relationship for the African-Americans but not European-American students.

Literature has indicated that suicide is the leading cause of death among African-Americans aged between 10 and 44 (CDC,2005). It goes further to indicate that every four and half hours, an African-American loses his or her life due to suicide (Crosby & Molock, 2006). Averagely, African-Americans are noted to complete suicide about a decade earlier that persons from other racial or ethnic groups as indicated in the work of Garlow, Purselle, & Heninger (2005).

The paper also indicates that the rate of suicide among the African-American male and youth has seen a significant increase while the completion rates among African-American women has remained relatively low and stable (Griffin-Fennell & Williams, 2006). Due to the high suicide rates among the Whites as compared to the African-Americans as well as the stigmatization of the act of suicide among the African-Americans, case of suicide among the Whites are noted by Anglin, Gabriel, & Kaslow (2005) to dominate the public health as well as research agenda.

Limited number of research has been focused on the risk factors of suicide among the African-Americans. These literature cites the following as the risk factors for suicide completion among the African-Americans; being of male gender and being under 35 years old, substance abuse, firearms at home as well as violence (Barnes, 2006; Willis, Coombs, Drentea, & Cockerham, 2003). The risk factors for suicide attempt are however noted to include; prior attempts, acceptability of suicide, aggression, psychological stress, substance abuse, aggression, hopelessness, familial and marital dysfunction, racial inequality, life stress, income and a myriad of other factors.

In regard to suicide and its effect on families, the paper noted that for each and every suicide case, six to ten survivor or victims are left in bereavement as noted by Jordan and McMenamy, (2004).Suicide survivors are noted to rarely experience any form of…… [read more]


Theme and Symbolism Essay

2 pages (879 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Symbolism

In Kate Chopin's "Story of an Hour" an unexpected turn at the end of story, ends up defining the true theme of this writing. An individual's inability to evade death becomes the overarching theme that surrounds every element of this story. Despite family attempt to avoid death for Mrs. Mallard and for her to accept the death of her own husband, the story teaches us that people can take precautions in order to delay dying, but the twists and turns of life make death completely impossible to avoid.

The author achieves this theme by constantly mentioning the fear that everyone has of death and the steps that they take to prevent an early death for Mrs. Mallard. They do everything possible to prevent Mrs. Mallard from dying. Her heart condition is almost a sure death sentence, so everyone has to tiptoe around her to make sure that nothing too drastic occurs, so as to not upset Mrs. Mallard in anyway. Personifying death as an entity constantly surrounding the house make the readers feel as if death is a gloomy shadowy mist that is always present. Death takes on human characteristics by portraying an action, instead of a state of being, "When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease -- of joy that kills." What was supposed to be a happy moment in her life, ended up killing her. Using personification as a literary device adds on to the impact that the theme is supposed to have on its readers.

Irony is an element used to constantly allow the readers to know the lesson of this story: people are unable to avoid mortality. Mrs. Mallard is confined to the four walls of her own home. She is constantly being looked after as if she were going to die any minute. Upon the death of her husband, her family is torn about how and when to break the news to her, for fear of her untimely death due to her weak heart. However, when the news is broken to Mrs. Mallard, she is in disbelief, yet still alive. Once she has overcome any immediate grief, she pulls herself together, realizing that she must now live for herself (a concept that is ironic in itself). The twist comes in the end, where a symbolic and ironic concept merge as one, Mr. Mallard is still alive. Once Mrs. Mallard sees him, she is in such shock, that she ends up dying. What is ironic about this is not just the fact that Mr. Mallard was indeed still alive, but that in the end, the people who…… [read more]


Assisted Suicide Research Paper

2 pages (760 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… No one should die who is not yet ready.

The primary argument against assisted suicide hinges on a different moral argument than the one used in favor of death with dignity. An opposing view suggests that death is a negative thing, and that life is qualitatively better. This view is ignorant of the gamut of human experience, for all persons do eventually die. The life a person lives should be as good and enjoyable as possible. Andre and Velasquez note that views against assisted suicide call upon "a fundamental reverence for life and the risk of hurling down a slippery slope toward a diminished respect for life." It is easy to rebut this claim, however. Assisted suicide supports even greater reverence for life than does a taboo against it. This is because assisted suicide values the quality of life over the quantity of years spent alive. The slippery slope argument can be rebutted, also. It is essential to ensure a system of checks and balances within healthcare that prevents untimely deaths or physician persuasion of patients and their family members. Moreover, assisted suicide may be only carried out in circumstances in which the patient is already participating in palliative care (Humphry).

Because assisted suicide reflects freedom of choice, patient empowerment, and the right to live as one chooses, it makes perfect sense to legalize practices that promote death with dignity. No person should be forced to be on life support simply because their heart is still beating. If a person is in a persistent vegetative state or "locked in," that person could suffer for years or even decades. To support such conditions is cruel and immoral. Assisted suicide alleviates suffering caused paradoxically by the strength of the medical system.

Works Cited

Andre, Claire and Velasquez, Manuel. "Assisted Suicide: A Right or a Wrong?"Santa Clara University Markkula Center for Ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n1/suicide.html

Humphry, Derek. "Liberty and Death." Assisted Suicide. Retrieved online: http://www.assistedsuicide.org/liberty_and_death_manifesto_right_to_die.html

Topping, Alexandra and Jones, Sam. "Locked-in syndrome sufferer wins high court hearing for his right to die." The Guardian. 12 Mar 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/mar/12/locked-in-syndrome-sufferer-court-hearing… [read more]


Ageism in the United States Essay

3 pages (1,042 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Programs like social security provide funds to elderly people of the country and there are some who question why these people should be entitled to such funds just because they have reached a certain age. This becomes a greater issue with the predominance of figures like the aforementioned Betty White who is illustrating that a person passed the age of ninety can be a fully functioning member of the citizenry. If she can work, why can't all elderly people and why should the American taxpayers be held responsible for those that cannot, seems to be the type of question that comes up in such scenarios.

Thirdly, researcher Susan Letvak poses in the article "Myths and Realities of Ageism and Nursing" that one of the reasons that people mistreat their elders is because of a fear of their own mortality. She says that "Ageism is a form of oppression that not only limits people who are objects of that oppression, but also influences all people, regardless of age, who have ageist attitudes" (1). When forced to encounter aged people on a daily basis, a person cannot help but realize that they will one day also be old and potentially enfeebled. If that group that causes fear is pushed to the margins, then there is less likelihood for constant interaction and the fear can be allowed to move to the margins as well (1). This is similar to the scapegoat theory of ageism in that there is an inherent anger or jealousy of the group that is being marginalized. People who have ageist attitudes will inevitably pass those beliefs on not only to their own progeny but will encourage other people in their community to have their same value system. Thus ageism, becomes a vicious cycle of misplaced fear and anger which some people may not even be aware that they posses.

Ageism is still one of the most common forms of prejudices that occur in the United States. These are but three potential reasons for explaining the psychological reasoning behind the marginalization of the elderly by the majority population of the country. Stereotypes of the elderly are heavily encouraged by the media. Either elderly people are portrayed as weak and close to death or they are shown as vibrant and vivacious to the point of impropriety. There is also the implied irritation by the majority population that the elderly somehow benefits unfairly because of their age. Finally, there is the potential reason that people look at members of the elderly and see their own eventual death and wish to castigate them so as to separate themselves from their mortality. Whatever the reasoning behind this oppression, it must be understood that ageism still occurs and at a rate that is disappointing and unsettling to anyone who believes that America is truly a land of equality.

Works Cited:

Cook, F.L. "Ageism: Rhetoric and Reality." The Gerontologist. 32(3): 292-293. 1992. Print.

Letvak, Susan. "Myths and Realities of Ageism and Nursing." AORN Journal. 2002. Print.… [read more]


Evidence-Based Practice Using PICO Essay

3 pages (964 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Clinical Oncology. Vol 13(3), 209-218.

Kinzbrunner, Barry (1994). Ethical dilemmas in hospice and palliative care. Supportive Care in Cancer. Vol. 3(1), 28-36.

McKinlay, Eileen; McBain, Lynn (2007). Evaluation of the Palliative Care Partnership: a New Zealand solution to the provision of integrated palliative care. The New Zealand Medical Journal. Vol. 120(1263).

After this success, I would pose that the question is better stated as, "Does early entry into a hospice program result in better pain management?" The reason for the change from "early admitted" to "early entry" is that entry brought up much more accurate results. It would appear that entry is the term used within the medical community when referring to admittance into a medical program or department.

The next search I ran was on Medline. I first tried using the same search results as I did with the previous search, but the articles were less helpful. This time I added in the term "and" between the two search terms to see if this narrowed the results. This did not narrow the results at all, there were still 191 documents that came up. Next I tried adding the term "terminal care" in quotations and removed the term "Hospice." While the search widened to 240 documents the titles were more of what I wanted to see. The following was the most helpful titles on the first search page:

Improving Quality of end-of-life care. A possible and necessary change. Epidemiol Prev. August 2011.

I decided to try one more search on this database and put back the term hospice and added the terms "and admission. This brought up 16 new documents including the following:

"Assessing and treating pain in hospices: current state of evidence-based practices." J. Pain Symptom Manage. May 2010. From the lack of useful information obtained from this search site, my best conclusion is to keep the question the same, and continue on to the next search site.

The final search I ran was using the Cochrane Summaries. This site did not seem as helpful. I initially tried using the primary search terms and only one result came up:

Dileo, Bradt (2011). "Music Therepy for End of Life Care."

So, I decided to try some different search terms. First I entered the single search term of hospices. This single term only brought up four articles. The music article came up again and two other slightly applicable articles:

Kolliakou, Hall; et al. (2011). Improving palliative care for older people in care homes.

Shepperd, Wee; et al. (2012). Home-based end of life care.

This search engine did not seem very helpful at all. Perhaps it is meant more for basic definitions as opposed to research-based questions.

The most helpful article that I found during my searching was the Miller article "Does receipt of hospice care in nursing homes improve the management of pain at end of life." I…… [read more]


Difficult Patients Mitigating Risks Research Paper

10 pages (3,786 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 11

… Research Methodology

It is essential to precede any planned review with a search to establish the existence of extant reviews. Such a search will typically identify both quantitative and qualitative systematic reviews. In formulating a review question an existing qualitative systematic review is a helpful starting point because:

1. It may help in identifying key issues that have a bearing… [read more]


Dying Process Pain Is an Inherent Component Essay

2 pages (744 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Dying Process

Pain is an inherent component of human life, which can be either useful or unfortunate. In the case of a terminal illness, it is generally assumed that pain will form part of the dying process, which may range from months to a year or sometimes more. How to manage such pain has been the topic of considerable debate, and continues to be so. Short of euthanasia to help a suffering person end his or her life completely, alternatives have been sedation or pain management by means of prescription medication. Some terminal patients have also begun to enter the family setting rather than the clinical setting for their end of life care needs. The purpose of this study is then to create a quantitative research design to determine the connection between physical and emotional pain, its management, and the role of the family in alleviating such suffering.

As mentioned, the research design will be quantitative. This means that statistical parallels will be drawn among various categories of pain and the choices that such suffering leads to. Claessens et al. (2011), for example, found that palliative care that involves sedation could be offered as an alternative to patients who do not wish to enter the highly controversial debate regarding euthanasia, but whose symptoms are nonetheless non-responsive to pain management offered in ICUs and hospices. Family care offers a further dimension to end-of-life care options (Given et al., 2008). It also means, however, that more dimensions of suffering may be added for family members who are ill prepared to care for such a person. Kahn and Steeves (1996) make it clear that suffering concerns more than just physical pain, which is a dimension worthy of exploration for terminal patients.

In this study, the sample will consist of terminally ill patients nearing the end of their lives. Two groups will be compared; those who have been committed to clinical institutions and those who have, for the majority of their illness, received family care. The families of these groups will also be included in the study. The extent and effect of the illness on the patients themselves and their family members will be monitored and investigated, as well as how this correlates with…… [read more]


Dementia Alzheimer's Disease Term Paper

4 pages (1,177 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… They are believed to produce a neurotoxic effect and are akin to functionless brain scar tissue.

3. Neurofibrillary Tangles. The neurofilaments of a neuron are the skeletal structures of the cell and serve as the transport system for components within the neuron. When these become malformed the cells cannot function properly nor send messages to other neurons. Tangles also lead to cell death.

Third, there is no cure for AD. AD is progressive and is 100% fatal (although many elderly patients may die from other complications). There are many conditions that mimic dementia and are reversible. The average expected lifespan for a person diagnosed with early AD is about seven to eight years, but the course can last anywhere from one to twenty years (Molsa, Marttila, & Rinne, 1995; Ropper & Samuels, 2009).

Fourth, there is no way to predict for certain if a person will develop AD. Recently, there have been a number of studies using PET scanning or other brain scanning techniques that demonstrate promise in identifying individuals at risk to develop AD, but all these at risk individuals will not develop dementia (Ropper & Samuels, 2009).

Fifth, AD appears to have several subtypes which do not have the same progression in every individual (Ropper & Samuels, 2009).

Treatment for AD

There is no cure for AD but there have been medications developed that are hypothesized to slow the course of early AD and one class of medications hypothesized to accomplish this in the later stages. Medications are (Miller & Boeve, 2009; Sadock & Sadock, 2007):

1. Cholinesterase Inhibitors. These are based on the "Cholinergic Hypothesis of AD" from early studies demonstrating a reduction of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brains AD patients. Acetylcholine is also believed to be important in memory. When neurotransmitters are released and have performed their function they can be reabsorbed chemically broken down. Cholinesterase is a by-product of the breakdown process of acetylcholine. Cholinesterase inhibitors reduce the rate at which acetylcholine is broken down. The most commonly used cholinesterase inhibitors approved for AD include Aricept, Razadyne, and Exelon. Most of these medications are hypothesized to be effective in the earlier stages of AD; Aricept has some support for its effectiveness in later stages.

2. NMDA Receptor Antagonists. These work on glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter. When glutamate neurons become overly stimulated for extended periods they may die through a process known as excitotoxicity. The NMDA neuron receptor is a glutamate receptor. These drugs bind to these receptors and inhibit firing of the glutamate neuron. Memantine is the drug in this class also known as Namenda, Akatinol, Axura, Memox and Abixa. These drugs are often used for the later stages of AD, often combined with Aricept.

3. Behavioral Problems in AD. These problems range from apathy, depression, aggression, and hallucinations and delusions. Such issues are commonly treated with psychotropic medications.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders- 4th edition- Text Revision. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association

Launer, L.J., Andersen, K.,… [read more]


Elder Abuse Today, in a Society Reaction Paper

2 pages (677 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Elder Abuse

Today, in a society that is rapidly aging because of the health science we now have available to us, an increasing number of people is also becoming vulnerable to elder abuse. The speaker, Laura Masqueda, there are many contributing factors to this sad phenomenon in society. One of the most important factors, in my view, is a simple unawareness in general society that anybody can be a victim of this crime, and anybody can be a perpetrator. The fact is that older people tend to be less important, to the general mind, than children or younger women who are victims of abuse. This, along with the fact that older people often suffer from disabling conditions that make reporting difficult or impossible, creates a type of bubble of blissful ignorance about the issue for society in general. If we were to call ourselves civilized, I believe that society should gather its collective powers to stop this gross violation of basic human rights.

The words that struck me most in the presentation are probably that "anyone can be a victim" and "anyone can be a perpetrator" of violence against the elderly. It is also a sad fact to me that there are so many possible types of abuse from the openly and physically violent, to the financial, to the more insidious types of abuse like neglect.

Masqueda mentions a number of contributing factors. One of the most important of these is the nature of getting older, which creates in older adults a feeling of powerlessness; many are reluctant to admit to being abused as a result of a sense of shame, for example. They may even be willing to take such mistreatment as a preference to being placed in a nursing home. Older adults may be unable to report abuse as a result of a debilitating mental condition or the removal of freedom and contact by those who are guilty of this crime.

On the part of society in general, the main challenge is ignorance. The common perception…… [read more]


Cardiac Disorders in the Elderly Article Critique

2 pages (617 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Alvez et al., what surprised me most was that cardiovascular conditions could also lead to dementia symptoms. What surprised me even more is that these conditions could be related to Alzheimer's disease as well. In the general, conventional wisdom, the two conditions could not be further apart, with the one being a heart condition and the other affecting mental health. The article therefore provides valuable research, not only in the field of dementia and is potential causes, but also in how some of these causes could be prevented. In a world and society where the population is increasingly aging, the reality is that an increasing number of people are succumbing to dementia, creating a burden for individuals, family, society, and the medical care system. If some causes could be eliminated, thousands of people could live a longer, more productive, and higher quality of life.

The article offers a very thorough literature review and identifies the factors most likely to be implicated in Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular related dementia, or a combination of the two. Potential risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, smoking, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, plasma biomarkers, Arial fibrillation, coronary artery disease and cardiac surgery, and stroke. The literature review ends with a consideration of cardiac diseases as potential risk factors in developing dementia symptoms, as well as a section that focuses on mild cognitive impairment and its connection to vascular risk factors.

The literature review is graphically presented in a table that includes the studies done to focus on the specific risk factor and the outcomes of the studies involved. This presentation provides a valuable view of the outcomes of each study and how each risk factor compares with the others in terms of severity and likelihood to be implicated in developing dementia symptoms. In general, the literature discussion is thorough and critically sound. The specific shortcomings…… [read more]


Consequences of an Older Research Paper

7 pages (1,844 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… The assistance provided to the elderly can also be reduced to a certain extent to ease of the burden of younger employees who will have to work all the time in order to pay off their debts and those of the elderly.

An ageing population also has an impact on social security reforms around the world. Agreed that providing incentives for older people to work longer would increase their productivity and reduce their burden, but they would be pushing the young people out. Here another problem of an ageing population I would like to highlight is that, since they are living longer, they will be receiving benefits for a longer period of time! And we do not want to keep neither party unemployed, so which one is more beneficial?

In a study of Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World (Gruber et al., 2009) it was concluded that older people in the workforce do not necessarily reduce opportunities for the younger population. So there was no evidence found that increasing employment of the ageing population would increase unemployment of the youth.

So even though this ageing population may seem like a bane to our existence, there are upturns and possible preconceived notions about this change, which is another demographic change and which can be tackled with the right management.

References

Jonathan Gruber, Kevin Milligan, David A. Wise (2009). Social Security Programs and Retirement Around the World: The Relationship to Youth Employment, Introduction and Summary. In the National Buraeu Of Economic Research.

Margaret Patrickson, Linley Hartmann, (1995). "Australia's ageing population: implications for human resource management," International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 16 Iss: 5, pp.34 -- 46

Neeraj Kaushal (2009). Elderly immigrants' labor supply response to supplemental security income. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management Volume 29, Issue 1, pages 137 -- 162.

Patricia Apps, Ray Rees, Margi Wood. (2007). Population Ageing, Taxation, Pensions and Health Costs. Australian Journal of Labour Economics. Volume:…… [read more]


Models of Loss Reaction Paper

2 pages (758 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … film I recently saw, one character asked another why we die. He replied that the reason was "to make life important." This is the first thought the first lines of Chapter 9 brought me. Grief, according to the chapter, and I find myself agreeing, is an expression of how precious those who died used to be, and how precious their memory will continue to be. In this light, I do not really agree with Freud's suggestion that "letting go" is an essential part of healing. Instead, I feel that we should, in one sense, never let go.

In my admittedly limited view, Freud's definition of "letting go" appears to be to move past the sense of loss and grief completely in such a way that the memories of the person becomes less important and hence less painful. He seems to suggest that, as human beings, we can only lead healthy and happy lives if we somehow "forget" the intense sense of loss we felt with the passing of a loved one. As such, we should "let the person go" and ourselves move on with life. I believe that this is not a productive way to handle loss.

As mentioned above, life is precious and important because we will all lose it sooner or later. Those who die are a painful and important reminder of this. In this way, the grieving process is much more than simply letting go of painful memories. It is more even than getting over and moving past the sense of loss. While it is not healthy to hold on to painful feelings and mourning for the rest of one's life after the passing of a loved one, I think one can use it as a reminder of the need to appreciate one's own life. In other words, one does not get over the loss as much as use it as a way to become aware of the preciousness of life. We appreciate life and each other much more because we have lost the loved one. Loss becomes an instrument to appreciation, in other words.

In more specific terms, grief and loss also has another important function in terms of the specific person that we have lost to death. The connections we make during…… [read more]


Lived Experiences of African-American Women Article Review

4 pages (1,136 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Nineteen participants from throughout the continental United States participated in this study. Many of the participants were recruited from national conferences that focused on suicidal behaviors, prevention, and intervention in persons of color. Others responded to an advertisement that was placed in a national newsletter for suicide survivors. The interviews were conducted during a 5-year period.

For data analysis, the standardized and exploratory format of interviews was used as the main basis for collecting all the necessary data required to attain the aims of the study. The researcher explained that the interview format was perhaps the most useful way as he was looking to get detailed and profound information.

Keeping in view that qualitative data is not gathered with a standardized method similar to that of quantitative, it was divided into categories so as to be analyzed. In this research the wide-ranging strategy that was utilized for data analysis is reliant on hypothetical propositions, which basically means that this study pursued the original propositions on which the (1) aims and objectives and (2) design of the study were founded upon. With the aim of successfully analyzing the gathered data, the survey results were first classified into identical themes. Thereafter, in the discussion chapter (chapter 4) the researcher attempted to explain the research questions and purposes which transformed the concentration of the research.

Thereafter, the data collected was arranged into different theoretical frameworks and assessed with regards to their consistency and similarity. During some stages of the data analysis, the researcher came across a number of concepts and theories, which had not been revealed by other researchers in their studies. These theories and concepts were thereafter described in great detail and the researcher also proposed a number of ways on how they could be associated with the other theories.

Link theoretical or conceptual frameworks used to support the articles.

The researcher points out that there is a paucity of research on suicide survivors and even fewer studies exist on African-American suicide survivors. He conceptualizes suicide survivors as individuals who have lost a family member to suicide. Furthermore, he illustrates that although suicide is a relatively rare event, particularly among African-Americans, the recent dramatic increase in suicide among African-American youth makes it critical to understand this phenomena.

Subsequently he signifies the phenomenon of suicide survivors by highlighting various facts. For instance, he highlights that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), between 1980 and 1995, rates for African-American youth aged 15 to 19 increased 128% compared to 19% for Whites. Furthermore, he argues that although there has been a recent decline in the suicide rates among African-American youth, suicide continues to be the third-leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old African-Americans (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2004).

He conceptualizes that bereavement with regards to suicide and points out that it has many emotional complexities that may evoke such symptoms as anxiety, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbance, and depression. Lastly, he conceptualizes the awareness o suicide figures amongst… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease Course Project Part II: Reading Research Paper

2 pages (953 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Alzheimer's Disease

Course project part II: Reading and reviewing current epidemiological studies

I selected a variety of studies from international peer-reviewed publications, focusing first on the manifestation of Alzheimer's disease; the second two on causal factors associated with AD in specific genetic populations.

The first article studied behavioral risk factors, the second genetic risk factors, the third genetic and environmental risk factors.

The determinants of the first study were to examine the phenomenon of the expression of the disease itself, the determinants of the other two were to determine the interplay between various risk factors, including genetic predispositions, heart disease, and educational levels (in the case of the third study).

Study

Satler, Corina; Carlos Uribe, Carlos Conde, Sergio Leme Da-Silva, & Carlos Tomaz. (2010).

Emotion processing for arousal and neutral content in Alzheimer's disease.

International Journal of Alzheimer Disease. Retrieved October 10, 2011 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2915644/

Causality Criteria

Description: An assessment of the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients to perceive and process emotional information

Exposure, Intervention: Subjects watched a neutral and emotional story, asked to interpret both

Outcome: As well as memory, emotional interpretation was also impacted by AD

Study design: Experimental; correlative

Study Population: 24 subjects (12 with Alzheimer's Disease, 12 in a control group without AD)

Main Result: Emotional processing is part of the decline associated with AD

Internal Validity

Observation bias: Questionnaires, rather than interviews used to measure validity

Recall bias: Use of Emotional Memory Test, a previously well-tested screening instrument was designed to reduce bias

Confounding: Demographic characteristics were assessed by a t-test; emotional rating scores and total answers for each version of the test were evaluated by a mixed-model ANOVA 2 x 2; Stepwise linear regression analyses were performed for each group to determine the best predictors of dependent variables

Chance: Possible, given the small sample size

Generalizability

Eligible population: Patients with AD

Source population: Yes, can be applied to the source AD population

Other population: Other sources of cognitive decline could reduce emotional recall, but that cannot be determined from this study

Study 2:

Chacon, Aldrin E. Molero; Gloria Pino-Ramirez; Jose A. Luchsinger; Joseph H. Lee; & Gladys

E. Maestre. (2010). Risk of dementia associated with elevated plasma homocysteine in a Latin American population. International Journal of Alzheimer Disease. Retrieved October 10, 2011 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2925085/

Causality Criteria

Description: An assessment of the relationship between total homocysteine (tHcy) and dementia risk

Exposure, Intervention: Plasma tHcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured using blood samples obtained between 7: 00 and 8:00 AM, after overnight fasting to determine plasma levels. Diagnosis of AD was performed according to standard DSM criteria; diagnosis of stroke was self-reported.

Study design: Correlative

Study Population: 2100 Venezuelans (?55 years old) of the Maracaibo Aging Study, designed to study patients with a high genetic risk for developing AD

Main Result: Elevated levels associated with dementia, even when other risk…… [read more]


Eldercare in Assisted Living Facilities Humanity Today Research Paper

6 pages (2,105 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… Eldercare in Assisted Living Facilities

Humanity today has made great progress in terms of not only computer and communication technology, but also in terms of biomedical technology. For this reason, many people today live much longer than was the case a century ago, or even as recently as 50 years ago. Unfortunately, the social and financial worlds are ill prepared… [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease: Summary of Results Case Study

3 pages (1,000 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… , 2003).

Why?

Because cross-sectional analysis provides for observation of the population at large, or a representation of the population, which is critical for studying AD patients; a case study analysis would not provide a large enough sample for providing information for a disease as rampant and variable as AD.

3.Do you agree or disagree with answer Case Study 5 -- Why?

The reliability and validity of proxy respondent information is typically valid in youthful populations (Macarthur, Dougherty & Pless (1997). If the controls were intact, it is likely that this information may be helpful in adding to the information provided from cross-sectional studies. It could contribute significantly to information already gathered on AD. It may not compete with data gathered from observational studies, as this has historically been the primary source of information about AD, however a case control study obtained from controls that were cognitively intact could be comparable to an observational study even on a large population of individuals with AD and dementia, who are less reliable given their mental status difficulties. It is for the most part, a system of checks and balances.

4.Do you agree or disagree with answer Case Study 6 -- Why?

The could be studies that were funded by the tobacco industry; it is not unheard of for say, pharmaceutical companies that wished to put to market a drug to push studies that put their pharmaceutical product in a favorable light. In the same manner, the tobacco industry would seek out studies that would attempt to put tobacco in a favorable light. When tobacco was first discovered, if used moderately without the addictive properties considered, undoubtedly there were many studies published regarding the favorable effects of the product.

However, there are likely far more studies published regarding the negative consequences and effects of tobacco. Studies highlighting the favorable effects of tobacco may also highlight those individuals that are in the earliest stages of AD, rather than those who have already deteriorated rapidly or are in advanced stages of the disease; this would explain why smoking might appear to help the disease, or not have a negative impact or even a positive impact on AD. Many people that are addicted to nicotine feel that it has positive effects on their life. This could be played up or on in marketing campaigns.

References:

Jones, GMM., Reith, M., Philpot, MP, et al. 1987. Smoking and dementia of Alzheimer's type. (Letter).

Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 50; 1383.

Macarthur, C., Dougherty, G., and Pless, B. 1997. Reliability and validity of proxy respondent information about childhood injury: An assessment of a Canadian surveillance system. Am. J. Epidemiol. 145(9): 834-841.

Robert, P.H., Schuck, S., Dubois, B., Lepine, J.P., Gallarda, T., Olie, JP, Goni, S., Troy, S. 2003. Validation of the Short Cognitive Battery B2C. Value in screening for Alzheimer's disease and depressive disorders in psychiatric patients. Encephale, 29(2 Pt1). 266-72.

Wang, H.X., Fratiglioni, L., Frisoni, G.B., Viitanen, M. And Winblad, B. 1999. Smoking and the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease:…… [read more]


Poor Elderly Are a Vulnerable Term Paper

2 pages (732 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Success of the program primarily hinges on management and organization.

Even though the Project CARE Mobile Medical Clinic is slanted to an elderly population, it could easily be expanded to anyone who lives far and could also be appropriate to immigrants who do not understand English. For instance research shows that immigrants of the U.S.A. have worse access to care than non-immigrants of that same country due to their isolation and to their difficulty with the native language (Chesney, 2004). Hispanics, per example, are more likely to receive sub-standard care and to experience poorer outcomes from treatment, with fewer follow-up visits and earlier discontinuation due to their language differences, particularly incomprehension of language nuances relating to health factors, and a consequent fear of dealing with any situation that involves the language on a level that is incomprehensible to them thus causing them to avoid help when they most need it. Differences in cultural idioms used to express comfort or discomfort also play a part as well as somatic presentation (Sandy & Elliott, 1996).

In this case, the vans could serve a dual purpose: by being staffed by people who speak the native tongue e.g. Mexican, who may be Mexican -- American (for instance) themselves thus lessening the intimidation of the encounter, and who come accompanied with booklets written in the immigrant's language. Knowing and appreciating the culture can help volunteers better reach out to an overlooked population.

Such a traveling mobile program, integrating services to the elderly and the immigrant population would be doubly important since both sectors tend to be overlooked, both have difficulties with communication, both are often in need of assistance, and either may be unable to ask for it.

References

The Ark

http://arkchicago.org/content/services

Chesney, A.P., Chavira, J.A., Hall, R.P., & Gary, H.E. (1982). Barriers to medical care of Mexican-Americans: the role of social class, acculturation, and social isolation. Med. Care 20, 88

Orlando Sentinel. (Dec., 04. 1993). Clinic On Wheels To Take Health Care To Elderly Poor

http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1993-12-04/news/9312040190_1_clinic-project-care-seniors

Sandy, R, & Elliott, R.F. (1996). Unions and Risk: Their Impact on the Level of Compensation for Fatal Risk, Economica, 63, 291 -- 309.… [read more]


Physician Assisted Suicide and Active Euthanasia Essay

2 pages (689 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Ethics

Physician-Assisted Suicide and Active Euthanasia

In January of 1983, twenty-five-year-old Nancy Beth Cruzan lost control of her car. The final diagnosis projected she suffered anoxia pr deprivation of oxygen for twelve to fourteen minutes. It is known that generally after six minutes of oxygen deprivation, the brain generally suffers permanent damage. At the time of the U.S. Supreme Court hearing in 1990, Cruzan was able to breathe on her own but was being feed by way of a feeding tube. Doctors had surgically implanted the feeding tube about a month after the accident, subsequent to the consent of her then-husband. Medical experts diagnosed Cruzan to be in a permanent vegetable state, capable of living another thirty years (Courts and the End of Life - The Case of Nancy Cruzan, 2011).

This was the first time the right-to-die issue had been brought before the U.S. Supreme Court, which chose not to rule on whether Cruzan's parents could have her feeding tube removed, but instead, it considered whether the U.S. Constitution prohibited the state of Missouri from calling for clear and convincing evidence that an incompetent person wishes withdrawal of life supporting treatment. In a five-to-four decision the Supreme Court found that the U.S. Constitution did not forbid the state of Missouri from wanting convincing evidence that an incompetent person wants life supporting treatment taken away. The court majority ruled that the State's meticulous requirement of clear and convincing evidence that Cruzan had declined termination of life supporting treatment was warranted (Courts and the End of Life - The Case of Nancy Cruzan, 2011).

The Court felt that they had to be very careful in making this decision due to the fact that an erroneous decision may lead to a consequence that could not be reversed. If it could not be determined for certain that Cruzan would want to be taken off of the life support then the court felt that this was not something that could be allowed to happen. If the court had ruled that clear and convincing evidence was not needed to…… [read more]


Pulmonary Autopsy Findings Essay

6 pages (1,967 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… The differences in the alveoli and their spaces which were identified in the latter group and were used in comparison with the former group should be isolated and studied to confirm that they actually have been caused by negative pressure in the air, as the researchers postulate in the discussion, and are not indicative of some other condition. Such an examination could help to solidify the researcher's conclusion in light of the inconclusive statistics of the number of microscopic fields with longitudinal dimensions greater than 300 mm between these two groups.

Conclusion

In summary, despite the fact that there were a number of prudent measures undertaken in Comparison of pulmonary autopsy findings of the rats drowned at surface and 50 ft depth, it has enough significant lapses in its presentation, methodologies and findings that warrant it far from an ideal study. One of the benefits of this occurrence, however, is that these slights leave plenty of opportunity for further studies on the issue of lung damage in drowning victims as a means for gathering forensic evidence for the cause of death. In particular this study lends itself to further analysis and examination of the histological role of alveoli and its differences and similarities between victims which drowned on the surface and then sank to depths of heightened water pressure and those which actually drowned at those high levels of water pressure.

Also, it should be noted that Comparison of pulmonary autopsy findings of the rats drowned at surface and 50 ft depth has made a significant attempt to further the research in this field of drowning and the physiological responses of the body which may be used for purposes of forensics. Unfortunately, a successful attempt requires more than simply trying, and the identical nature of the histological findings with that of Pathology of the Lung in Near Drowning damper this paper's degree of success of pioneering findings in this field.

References

B. Brinkmann, G. Fechner, K. Puschel, Lung histology in experimental

drowning, Z Rechtsmed 89 (4) (1983) 267 -- 277. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6837169

Toklu AS, Alkan N, Gurel A, Cimsit M, Haktanir D, Korpinar S, Purisa S. Comparison of pulmonary autopsy findings of the rats drowned at surface and 50 ft depth. Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Dec 20;164(2-3):122-5.

Betz, P. Nerlich, A. Penning, R. Eisenmenger, W. Alveolar macrophages and the diagnosis of drowning. Forensic Sci Int. 1993. March 4; 62 (217-224) Retrieved from . http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/7690/1/eisenmenger_wolfgang_7690.pdf

Karch, S.B. Pathology of the lung in near-drowning. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 1986. Jan.; Volume 4 Issue 1 (4-9). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0735675786902408

Knieriem, A., Garcia Hartmann, M. Comparitive histopathology of lungsfrom by-caught Atlantic white-sided dolphins. Aquatic Mammals 2001, 27.273-81. Retrieved from http://www.aquaticmammalsjournal.org/share/AquaticMammalsIssueArchives/2001/AquaticMammals_27-02/27-02_Knieriem.PDF

Calder, I.M. A method for investigating…… [read more]


Bioethics Moral Decision Essay

2 pages (873 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Patient over Seventy Years of Age be given a Liver Transplant?

The woman in question, Mrs. Burgone, needs a liver transplant and has the money to pay for one (they are extremely expensive, costing up to $200,000). However her doctor tells her that "social policy" prevents doctors from conducting liver transplant operations on people 70 years of age or over. Mrs. Burgone argues that she can pay for it herself, to no avail. Then the doctor offers a rather strange justification for his position. He claims that if one older person is given permission to have a transplant -- even if she can afford it -- then "society would have to pay for those who can't afford it, and society can't afford to do that," he argued. That is a strange logic, because in the first place if there is a guideline against anyone 70 or older receiving a liver transplant then that rule should remain in place, no matter whether it is on the taxpayers' dime or the person can pay for it herself. The doctor would have been smarter to just say there are data that show older people are at greater risk than younger people, if that was in fact true.

The Argument -- She Shouldn't be Given a Transplant

For the doctor, he actually had a series of good arguments to use in reply to Mrs. Burgone's wishes to have a liver transplant. For example, professor Paul Flaman of St. Joseph's College at the University of Alberta states that "… a widely used and approved criterion of selection is to give priority to those who have a great need and who are expected to benefit greatly" (www.ualberta.ca). What is Mrs. Burgone's real need? Is she desperately hanging on to life and needs one urgently? Readers don't know that. She does she it is unfair to "condemn someone to pain and a greater risk of death when a way of changing this is available." Also, Flaman writes that ethically, it doesn't make sense to give "a limited number of available" number of organs to those & #8230;. Who are expected to only live marginally longer but suffer much with the transplants, when others would benefit greatly" (Flaman, p. 7). Also, the doctor could have pointed out there is a long list of potential recipients that have been waiting for years, so why would Mrs. Burgone be quickly given a liver when 83 people who truly need a liver -- and have waited years -- to survive are on a list ahead of her? These are all reasons why Mrs. Burgone should…… [read more]


Multiculturalism in Healthcare Aim at Long-Term Care Research Paper

8 pages (3,020 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 20

… Multiculturalism in Healthcare Aim at Long-Term Care

The process of aging is inescapable, as every human being is its victim. Aging does not discriminate; transcending gender, economic class, ethnicity, religion and culture. During this process, individuals are subject to the diseases and disabling consequences associated with growing older. The medical and additional attention needed for the elderly population has the… [read more]


Autonomy and Medical Practice Essay

4 pages (1,470 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Autonomy and Medical Practice

What is the principle of autonomy and what role does in play in physician-assisted suicide, treatment refusal, and truth telling. Is the decision to receive help dying (prior to the body giving out) an absolute moral consideration -- and what makes the decision a good one? There are many more questions, all of them pertinent, surrounding… [read more]


Ethics Assisted Suicide White Paper

6 pages (1,629 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … tried to expand on areas that looked very week. You can copy and paste into your paper. If you have any questions or concerns let me know

I'd put this in either the first section the basic dispute section

The motivation that drives a person to pursue assisted suicide is an important issue in the debates regarding the… [read more]


Business Case for Single Responder Ambulance Paramedic Business Proposal

6 pages (1,814 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Business case for single responder ambulance paramedic to use CPR without stops for ventilating the patient.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a procedure that can be administered from a single person in an attempt to keep a person alive that has suffered from cardiac arrest, which causes the heart to stop. Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the leading cause of death… [read more]


Euthanasia Debate Research Paper

5 pages (1,713 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Euthanasia Debate

The topic of Euthanasia has sparked numerous debates in the recent years, as many continue to consider that the procedure is wrong and that it should not be supported by the authorities. Euthanasia has become a notable solution to people who are in extreme pain and who are reluctant to continue to live as long as their situation… [read more]


Ethical Argument Against Physician Assisted Suicide Essay

10 pages (3,218 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Physician-Assisted Suicide

Physicians-Assisted Suicides:

The Unethical Practice that Allows Doctors to Kill

Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide is a topic that constantly sparks ethical debate. Euthanasia has become a topic of growing interest, especially in the industrialized countries of the world because of the high standards for medical care and the idea that physician-assisted suicide can improve end-of-life care as it… [read more]


Person Is in Inexorable Pain, Suffering Physically Term Paper

3 pages (1,279 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … person is in inexorable pain, suffering physically and even mentally, with no hope for recovery, should they be able to seek surcease through death? What is the physician's responsibility when they can not assuage their patient's suffering? Is their duty to prolong basic bodily functions, or is their duty to stop pain? If a patient seeks death, and is unable to obtain the means to bring an end to their suffering themselves, does their physician have an ethical obligation to provide them with those tools, even if these tools bring about the patient's death? According to John Lachs, Peter Singer, and others, the case for answering yes to the questions above, from both a hedonistic utilitarian and preference utilitarian perspective, is strong. Physician-assisted suicide should be legal and patients suffering from intolerable pain should be free to choose death over a life of agony.

The right of self-determination. How far does a human being's autonomy extend? Certainly, it would be foolhardy to state that a person's right to self-determination is absolute; society would cease to function smoothly if we respected the rights of robbers to be robbers and murderers to be murderers. It is safe to say a person's right to self-determination ends when their actions impinge upon another person's right to autonomy. However, the decision to end one's own life does not interfere with another person's rights or liberties in any way. From a utilitarian perspective, an act is morally right, "If the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone." (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Certainly if an otherwise healthy person chose to end their life on a whim, it could be argued that the consequences of that choice would be negative to that person's friends, family member, employers, people in his or her employ, etc. However, when a patient with a terminal illness or terminal pain chooses to end their life, the distinction is less clear. Terminal illness devastates not only the patient, but their loved ones who have to witness the suffering helplessly. When the end result is death, and the interim is only agony, hastening death in a peaceful way benefits everyone. If the patient wishes to end their life, therefore, from a utilitarian perspective, this act would be morally correct.

It can be argued that in the case of physician-assisted suicide, that because the doctor is the one bringing about the death, this is, "a fundamental moral wrong' -that of one person giving over 'his life and fate to another." (Lachs, 4). But people assign others their rights all the time, and they are free to do so; this is part of autonomy. If a person is a homeowner, they are free to let whomever they wish live in that home, with the occupant enjoying all the benefits of that home. Similarly, one allows schools to act in loco parentis with their children. Are we to say that a terminally ill patient surrenders the ability to assign their rights simply… [read more]


Role of Funerals in Grief Recovery Rituals Essay

3 pages (986 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Role of Funerals in Grief Recovery

Rituals in Human Life and Death

Human societies represent myriad different cultures and social rituals but the degree to which they rely on those types of shared organized behaviors is much more consistent. Even the most widely disparate and geographically diverse human societies maintain some form of ritual in connection with the socially significant events and whatever milestones are recognized in a particular culture. Virtually all known human societies that have ever existed exhibit some ritualistic response to human death. For this reason, anthropologists and evolutionary biologists have even considered the possibility that there are biological influences that contribute to this common phenomenon, especially since there is even evidence that certain non-human animals (such as elephants) also recognize death through shared rituals. In fact, the similarity between the way elephants pay respect to the bones of members of their species, particularly among biological relations, and the way humans pay respect to the remains of loved ones is eerie.

Humans are the only species known to conduct organized funerals but one indication of how important that particular ritual is to society is the fact that archeological funeral artifacts date back to the earliest known human remains and the fact that they exhibit such fundamental similarity in so many respects. There are several functional reasons that the disposal of human remains would have developed independently in all human societies: decaying corpses are sources of disease; exposed corpses are consumed by wildlife; and there are very obvious issues of sensitivity in connection with seeing the dead. Therefore, the practices of burial and cremation probably evolved very similarly, at least to the extent they were related to functional issues about dealing with human death as a society. However, one of the most important functions of the funeral ritual is its role in the psychology of closure in general and of the importance of closure in recovery from grief in particular.

Closure and the Role of Funerals

The psychological concept of closure is a function of the fact that human beings prefer certainty to uncertainty with respect to anything that is extremely important to their lives. The loss of loved ones is always emotionally painful for the members of the surviving family. Initially and for the relatively short-term after the death of close relations or acquaintances, many individuals are inconsolable. Undoubtedly, funerals are said and they can be emotionally wrenching affairs. However, they also serve a crucial psychological function beyond the practical functions that they serve: they provide psychological closure for survivors.

To appreciate the significance of closure in grief and grief recovery, one need look no further than the effects of the loss of loved ones in situations where their surviving family members have certainty about the loss together with the opportunity to hold a funeral compared with the effects of the loss of loved ones in situations where their surviving family members lack certainty about the loss and…… [read more]


Practice Theory Analysis Term Paper

2 pages (598 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Daniel Levinson's (1920) theory (the Seasons of a Mans Life, 1978) on life development was an offshoot from that of Erickson who had developed his theory thirty years earlier.

Erickson's contribution was on the theory of stages in ego development, namely that each age level is characterized by particular challenges or manifestations that the individual has to successfully navigate in order to transition to the next stage. Erickson's first consideration -- and this is what Levinson had in common -- was to the life course per individual rather than to the life course as group or as world / history.

More so, in contradistinction to prominent life development theories, such as those of Piaget and Freud who postulated that development was largely completed at the end of adolescence, and in contradistinction to the trend of the 1950s that focused on geriatrics and gerontology (where it was the elderly who dominated), Levinson (as did Erickson) maintained that life development was an ongoing odyssey. To that end, therefore, his aim was to present a development life course that would focus around the adult.

Levinson (1986) proposed that adults move through particular seasons which include: (1) Early Adult transition 1-22 (2) Entering the adult world 22-28 (3) Age 30 transition 28-33 (4) Culmination of early adulthood: settling down 33-40 (5) Midlife transition 40-45 (6) Entering middle adulthood 45-50 (7) Age 50 transition (8) Culmination of middle adulthood 55-60 (9) Late-adult transition 60-65, and, (10) Late adulthood 65+.

The Stages

1. Preadulthood or Early Adult transition (Ages conception-22) -- the individual grows from dependence to independence recognizing himself as a separate entity distinct from the mother and from other humans around him.

2. Early Adult Transition (17-22): The adult starts to formulate and implement relationships in his external world. These are his initial…… [read more]


Ethics Euthanasia Term Paper

7 pages (2,170 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Ethics and Euthanasia

The first step towards moving society to accept that which is abnormal is to inundate society with the abnormal as a norm, until society begins to accept it as a norm. We see this happening in various ways in American society today, but none with the vigor of the movement to legalize and make moral medical euthanasia.… [read more]


Rising Suicide Rates for South Term Paper

9 pages (2,901 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… " (qtd.). It was later found that the woman was recently divorced and had psychological issues which she tried to address through plastic surgery. Interventions for these women and adolescence should be taken. Such interventions should reflect the unique features of anger expression among girls and teach them how to express anger in acceptable ways. These would focus on problem-solving… [read more]


Fire Mummies of the Philippines Essay

10 pages (3,118 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 9

… Fire Mummies of the Philippines

Life and death have always fascinated human beings as the ultimate mystery of the universe. Cultures throughout the world have speculated about these issues, and constructed rituals and religions around them. The Ibaloi tribe of Kabayan is no different. Like Egyptians, and several other ancient cultures, this tribe mummified the dead from their elite social… [read more]


Legal Implications of Assisted Suicide Book Report

3 pages (988 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Legal Implications of Assisted Suicide

The way people think about assisted suicide or euthanasia is often determined by their religious beliefs about life and death. However issues regarding the right to die ultimately boil down to matters of the law. The idea of legislators making it legal for doctors to help their terminally ill patients die seems ludicrous to some people, while refusing to pass such a law seems just as ludicrous to others. I believe that it should be legal for doctors to help their terminally ill patients end their lives as long as the patient is completely coherent and able to make rational decisions.

The debate about euthanasia in the United States has centered on the case of Dr. Jack Kevorkian, also known as Dr. Death. In 1999 the pro-euthanasia campaigner was sentenced to 10 to 25 years in prison. He was found guilty of second-degree murder for delivering a fatal injection to a terminally ill man at his own request. Dr. Kevorkian had recorded the actual euthanasia on video and handed the tape to television network CBS. It was broadcast nationwide, fuelling the already emotional discussion about euthanasia. Dr. Kevorkian says he has helped at least 130 people to end their lives (Olen, 1999).

Defining the Terms

The question at the heart of the euthanasia debate is whether or not euthanasia is, or should be legally acceptable. However in order to fully address these issues, we must examine the four basic types of euthanasia, which are; passive voluntary, active voluntary, passive non-voluntary, and active non-voluntary (Olen, 1999).

Passive voluntary euthanasia exists when a patient refuses treatment that would extend his or her life. In these cases it is the patient's decision and the doctor does not physically harm the patient in order to hasten death. Active voluntary euthanasia occurs when a patient has a doctor perform an action to induce death, such as giving a lethal injection. Passive non-voluntary euthanasia cases include those in which a patient is unable to communicate his or her wishes about death and a family member asks that the treatments be stopped. Active non-voluntary euthanasia describes a situation in which death is induced by the doctor (i.e. By lethal injection) at the request of a family member who makes the decision for a patient who cannot communicate (Olen, 1999).

Issues of Debate

The distinction between active and passive euthanasia is as much an issue of debate as the pro/con argument regarding euthanasia. Many contend that although it may be permissible in some cases to withhold treatment and allow a patient to die, it is never permissible to take any direct action to bring about that death (Gifford, 1993).

The controversy over Dr. Kevorkian not only sparked numerous ethical debates, but many legal ones as well. A central issue to the euthanasia debate centers on the legal right a person has over the ending of his or her life. With so many technological advances to prolong life…… [read more]


Euthanasia and Particularly the Question of Passive Essay

7 pages (2,136 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… ¶ … euthanasia and particularly the question of passive as opposed active forms of euthanasia have been intensely debated in the media and in medical circles during the last few decades. The very issue of euthanasia is one that is, from one perspective, opposed to the medical ethos and the emphasis on saving rather than terminating life. This is the… [read more]


Group Process and Skill Selection Essay

7 pages (2,342 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… She was trying to block the negative feelings of the daughter. The daughter mentioned that it has been six years that she has not been going out and dating with anybody since her divorce. The wife believed that the daughter should not be talking about these challenges in a group.

The elder caretakers usually agreed with each other whereas they… [read more]


Flint by Louis L. Amour Book Report

4 pages (1,101 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Flint

Louis L'Amour's Flint

James T. Kettleman is dying, and decides to return to the West where he was raised in order to die alone rather than staying in New York with his wife who is actually trying to have him killed. He adopts the name of Flint in honor of the man -- an outlaw -- that took him in when he was an orphan and raised him in the spirit of the West, teaching him about guns, life, and death. On his way out West Flint meets Nancy Kerrigan who must defend her land, bought and passed down by her father, from the encroachment of the crowds coming out to the now-developing West. Flint ends up helping her in this endeavor, using his skill with a gun and his willingness to face death -- something that he is coming up against soon, anyway -- to save her farm and to avenge the death of his benefactor, the original Flint. In the end, the new Flint dies, too, but after finding and helping a true love.

Plot Chart

Exposition: James T. Kettleman is dying; Nancy Kerrigan is young, beautiful, and in trouble, and Kettleman clearly knows how to use a gun.

Rising action: Nancy's land is in jeopardy; men are after Kettleman (Flint) trying to kill him; Flint decides to help Nancy.

Climax: the series of gunfights in town where a large number of people are killed.

Falling action: Nancy and Flint meet for the last time, the few remaining bad guys slink off, Flint is wounded.

Resolution: Nancy land is safely in her hands (for now), Flint's wife is left frustrated in her designs, and Flint ultimately des, though not alone as he had planned.

Point-of-View

The novel is told from a third-person omniscient point-of-view, which allows the motives and secret thoughts of any and all characters to be made explicitly clear to the reader at any time. This is a highly effective way of telling the story because it makes the emotional and intellectual impact and intention of ach moment quite clear, allowing the reader to see how different characters interpret and react to the same situation. It also makes each of the characters appear far more human, because the thought processes, confusions, uncertainties, and misconceptions that lead to what might otherwise appear to be incongruous actions are clearly laid out. With these explanations, the manners in which situations are reacted to and the depth of the emotive values and motivations that exist in the story become much more clearly known.

Setting

It would be impossible to tell this story in any other setting, just as it would be impossible to transpose any other Western to a different time and place. Nowhere else in human history has an undeveloped wilderness been so directly and closely juxtaposed to a major developing power; even the arrival of Europeans in the New World took place at a different pace and in an altogether different spirit. The Wild West was a… [read more]


Euthanasia - Should Be Your Legal Right Essay

5 pages (1,611 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Euthanasia - Should Be Your Legal Right

Euthanasia should be your legal right

The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the very complex issue represented by euthanasia. The main argument of the paper is that euthanasia should be a legal right. I will begin by analyzing the definition of the main concept. I will compare my definitional criteria… [read more]


Hospice and Under Utilization by Minorities Term Paper

10 pages (3,079 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… Hospice and Underutilization by Minorities

Improving end of life care is an important healthcare concern and improving access to hospice services and utilization is a national prerogative. Socioeconomic, cultural and systemic factors affect hospice enrollment leading to a distinct under utilization of hospice services by the minority communities. Educational interventions to create awareness and remove misconceptions, improved insurance coverage, and… [read more]


CPT Codes End-Of-Life Care Pat Rights Essay

2 pages (707 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… CPT code for domiciliatory care facilities involves three key components: a problem focused hisotyr, exminiation, and medical decision making where complexity is low or moderate. The nature of the problem also requires counseling or coordination of care with other providers. The patient's and family's needs are taken into account in this regard. Problems are of moderate to high severity. Usually, physicians spend 30 minutes with the patient, family, or care giver. In this case, the patient is fairly high functioning, and can more or less function on his or her own. Assisted living is provided only to help the person function on a daily basis.

According to Robert M. Walker (2001), there are certain laws that govern the right of patients to make decisions such regarding their end-of-life care. In Oregon, for example, the law states that lethal amounts of medication may be prescribed by physicians in cases where a terminally ill patient is competent and requests such medication. When taking into account the human rights of the patients involved, and the likely quality of life should the patient not have the right to choose death, the legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide becomes a constitutional issue. Some however argue that it is likely that this right could also be extended to non-competent patients, and that the distinction between competence and non-competence is often too vague to be effective. These are very serious issues to consider, and also serve as the basis for no legalizing this option in all the American states.

The Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program was included in the Older Americans Act during the year 1978. This required that every state incorporate an Ombudsman Program to provide dignity and optimal health for older Americans. Several amendments were made to the Program to strengthen its provisions for those who needed it. In 1981, for example, coverage was expanded to include board and care homes. The Nursing Home Ombudsman Program became the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program during this year.

In 1992, the program was strengthened and referred to as the Vulnerable Elder Rights Protection Activities. This included elements such as the Prevention of Elder Abuse,…… [read more]


Hospice Organization Term Paper

4 pages (1,344 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Organizational Behavior: Hospice

History of hospice: National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPC)

While many individuals are familiar with the notion of 'hospice care,' either because one of their family members have been in a hospice or because they have volunteered with the organization, few know its long history in the tradition of ancient medicine -- and its relatively short history in the United States. The term "hospice…can be traced back to medieval times when it referred to a place of shelter and rest for weary or ill travelers on a long journey. The name was first applied to specialized care for dying patients in 1967 by physician Dame Cicely Saunders, who founded the first modern hospice -- St. Christopher's Hospice -- in a residential suburb of London" ("History of hospice care," NHPCO, 2001). Saunders' ideas were based upon her work with a dying patient "who, at the end of life, requested words of comfort and acts of kindness and friendship. Dr. Saunders came to believe and to teach, 'We do not have to cure to heal'" ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010).

A key component of Saunders' work was appropriate pain management. To advocate hospice care, Saunders would show "photographs of patients that dramatically illustrated the difference in them once pain and symptoms were controlled" ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010). The first hospice in America opened in Connecticut in 1974. The philosophy of hospices was influenced by the ideas of Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross' book On Death and Dying. "Based on interviews with dying patients, she identified five stages of grief - denial, anger, depression, bargaining and acceptance" of the dying and their loved ones ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010).

"Today there are more than 3,200 hospices across the country - some are part of hospitals or health systems, others are independent; some are nonprofit agencies, others are for-profit companies…in 2000 about one in every four Americans who died received hospice care at the end of life -- roughly 600,000 people" ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010). The growing acceptance of hospice was manifested when, "In the early 1980s, Congress created legislation establishing Medicare coverage for hospice care. The Medicare Hospice Benefit was made permanent in 1986. Today most states also provide hospice Medicaid coverage" ("Brief history of the hospice movement," Hospice of Michigan, 2010).

The primary advocate for hospices within the U.S. is the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO), founded in 1978 as the National Hospice Organization. "The organization changed its name in February 2000 to include palliative care," which is a broader range of care and services provided by hospices: "Defined by the World Health Organization in 1990, palliative care seeks to address not only physical pain, but also emotional, social, and spiritual pain to achieve the best possible quality of life for patients and their families" ("About NHPCO," NHPCO, 2010).

Definition of hospice care

Hospice's aim is… [read more]


Euthanasia in Cases of Lost Identity Such as Alzheimer Research Paper

8 pages (2,096 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Euthanasia

The Ethics of Euthanasia in Cases of Lost "Identity": Alzheimer's, Dementia, and Self-Direction

As the methods and practices of Western medicine become more powerful, more able to correct disease and more able to foresee disease even when it cannot be prevented or corrected, the ethical complications and implications of these capabilities become ever greater themselves. The ethics of genetic… [read more]


Our Town the Movie 2003 Essay

10 pages (3,697 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Emotions in Our Town

Thornton Wilder's iconic play Our Town works on several different levels, and understanding these levels is critical to understanding the point of the play. On one level, Our Town is the story of the people in a town and the changes that they undergo at the time. On a second level, Our Town is the story… [read more]


Male Psychology Suicide Term Paper

3 pages (949 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Male Psychology: Suicide

"Suicide ranks as the ninth leading cause of death in this country, exceeding homicides," (Larson 1998:39). Modern alarming suicide rates have caused serious concern, both in the United States and abroad. According to the latest research, there are more men committing suicide than females. With over 30,000 suicides committed in the United States annually, it is alarming to find that three fourths of them were committed by males. Research shows that there are much more men who take their own lives; stating this as a cause of social gender role pressure, mental illness, and addiction.

Facts

Modern research paints a very vivid picture, there are much more males committing suicide than their female counterparts. According to this research, white males represent around seventy five percent of the total annual suicides (Larson 1998). Several studies represent the same picture, "While twice as many women attempt suicide, there are four male suicides for every female one," (Larson 1998:40). Male suicide is prominent than female suicide all over the world. It is only within some Asian regions that the ratio is significantly different. Scholars have long examined the concept that "The male rate is consistently greater than that for females in almost every culture," (Maris et al. 2009:148). Even in the most remote culture, there is this common thread of witnessing more male suicides than female suicides. A study conducted in New Zealand (Weaver & Munro 2009) paints this picture in even the most remote corners of the globe. In New Zealand, "There were 3337 male suicides (79.1%) and 879 female suicides (20.8%); something like this ratio is common to many jurisdictions" (Weaver & Munro 2009:934). On average, there are more white males committing suicide, showing a racial pattern that is built both in the culture and biology of the people. This racially increased risk is also augmented by age. Older men represent a larger population of the suicide cases across the country and the world, with "White men over 50 represent 10% of the population, but commit 33% of all suicides," (Larson 1998:40). Most research shows older populations of men as being the greatest risk of suicide. The risk also increases steadily with age. Yet, recent research also shows the increase in younger generations as well; "The suicide rate for men between the ages of 15 and 24 has tripled since 1950," (Larson 1998:40). With so much evidence showing the increased risk, it is clear motives must be examined as a way to help curb such alarming increases.

There are several deciding factors which can be attributed to causing more men to choose to take their own lives. Research of suicide cases shows the common conception that men are more successful in committing the act than most female attempt cases. Thus, this fact "is often explained by noting that women have a lower…… [read more]


Expliactaion: Hamlet Act 3, Scene the Famous Essay

2 pages (628 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Expliactaion: Hamlet Act 3, Scene

The famous "To be or not to be" soliloquy in Hamlet takes its context first from the plot of the play at large. Hamlet, the Prince of Denmark, is caught in what is for him a primarily depressing (or melancholic) situation -- his beloved father has died, almost certainly murdered by Hamlet's uncle, Claudius, who quickly married the widowed Queen (and Hamlet's mother) Gertrude, assuming the crown at the same time. Most recently, Hamlet has hatched a plot to prove his suspicions of Claudius, but even this fails to bring him any sense of joy or relief. Nothing that Hamlet does can restore his father to his life and crown, and this seems to be the driving force behind much of Hamlet's actions. The fact that his mother and everyone else in the court seems either willfully blind to or complicit in his father's murder makes the situation that much more tense for Hamlet.

The general content of the speech is a contemplation of suicide. Hamlet ponders both some of the positive and the negative aspects of killing himself, though he never comes out and says so in a fully explicit manner. The debate that takes place in his mind is not actually as complex as the language might imply; on the one hand, Hamlet sees suicide as a means of escaping the vagaries of the world and all of the misfortunes and pain that life brings -- the positive aspect of suicide -- while on the other hand, death leads to an unknown place that might consist of worse pain and terrors. Though Hamlet does not explicitly mention God, Satan, heaven, or hell, there is definitely some thought of these Christian concepts of the afterlife, as evidenced by Hamlet's use of the word "conscience" in describing his fears and uncertainties -- it is not simply fear, but a…… [read more]


Elderly Abuse Thesis

4 pages (1,181 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Elder Abuse Issues in Canada

Elder abuse is becoming more and more of an important issue in Canada and other countries, particularly in those with a rapidly aging population. According to recent information collected by Environics for Human Resources and Social Development Canada, as many as 10% of Canadian senior citizens may be victims of one or another forms of elder abuse (SeniorsCanada, 2008).

Polls of Canadians indicate that 96% of the population believes that most elder abuse is hidden from public awareness; almost one quarter of Canadians have concerns that a senior they know may be a victim of elder abuse; more than 90% of Canadians consider elder abuse an important issue for governmental intervention; and more than 10% of the population has specifically searched for information about elder abuse (SeniorsCanada, 2008).

Defining Different Types of Elder Abuse

Elder abuse consists of any form of conduct toward an elderly person that is abusive, including: (1) physical abuse such as slapping, hitting, confining against their will, and beating; (2) sexual abuse such as any unwanted sexual touching; (3) mental or emotional abuse such as purposely frightening, intimidating, or humiliating them; (4) neglect such as failing to provide adequate nourishment, shelter, or medical care; and (5) financial abuse such as stealing money or misusing legal authority for personal gain (SeniorsCanada, 2008).

Elder citizens are more vulnerable to abuse for several specific reasons: first, they are weaker and less able to defend themselves from younger abusers; second, they become increasingly dependent on others as they age; and third, they are often confined to the home (or long-term care institutions) where abusive conduct toward them occurs in secret and out of public view (LeBreton, 2008).

Understanding the Cause of Elder Abuse

There are numerous causes of elder abuse. Unfortunately, some people are abusive in general and inclined to abusive or violent conduct at any provocation or even for amusement. These types of individuals are likely to be abusive to anyone who is vulnerable in circumstances where there are unlikely to be any consequences. Within families, young adults who resent having to care for elderly relatives may resort to rough physical mistreatment during arguments or disagreements simply because they lose control and lash out violently (SeniorsCanada, 2008).

In long-term care institutions such as nursing homes, some professionals are dedicated to the health, welfare, and protection of elderly residents, but others may approach their jobs mechanically as a means to a paycheck and without any particular concern for their clientele. Since they have no family ties to the elderly in their care, they may sometimes react inappropriately to frustrations or in response to refusal on the part of clients to follow instructions (LeBreton, 2008).

In many cases, the elderly suffer from cognitive decline such as Alzheimer's and other progressive diseases that make it difficult for them to understand instructions or to cooperate with caregivers (SeniorsCanada, 2008). The frustrations that result can trigger abusive reactions in some individuals. Additionally, many elderly become incontinent and must rely… [read more]


Enkidu and Gilgamesh: The Function of Heroic Thesis

1 pages (373 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Enkidu and Gilgamesh: The Function of Heroic Friendship on the Path to Enlightenment

According to G.S. Kirk, "the main underlying theme" of the early Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh "is mortality" (Kirk 141). The hero Gilgamesh embarks upon a quest to find the secret of eternal life after witnessing the death of his dearest friend. At the beginning of the saga, the leader Gilgamesh is confident in his abilities because he is able to struggle and overcome the wild man of the forest Enkidu. At first, the representative of kingly authority Gilgamesh and 'nature' in the form of Enkidu are adversaries; then they become friends. But the polarization of nature and civilization shows that Gilgamesh, despite his strength, has much to learn from Enkidu. When Enkidu and Gilgamesh encounter Humbaba, the guardian of the cedar forest, Enkidu urges his friend not to kill the creature. Gilgamesh ignores Enkidu and brings the wrath of the gods upon the two men -- Enkidu is killed in punishment for Gilgamesh's crime.

This death changes Gilgamesh. Taming Enkidu made Gilgamesh more confident. Knowing his arrogant actions brought about the death of…… [read more]


King Lear Was Written Around 1605 Thesis

8 pages (3,075 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… ¶ … King Lear was written around 1605, between Othello and Macbeth, and represents one of the four pillars of Shakespearean plays. The tragedy, first published in 1623, depicts events which took place in the eighth century B.C. However unusual this might seem for Shakespeare whose tragedies were anchored in his own time, it is important to note that parallel… [read more]


Organ Donation in Contemporary UK Is the Concept of Presumed Consent the Best Way Forward Research Proposal

8 pages (2,693 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Organ Donation in Contemporary UK

Beginnings, Current Figures and Needs

An organ transplant may be resorted to if one body organ fails or is lost to an illness

or injury (Medline Plus 2009). Organ transplantation involves the removal of the same healthy organ from a donor and transfer to the recipient's body. The most commonly transplanted organs are kidneys, heart,… [read more]


Medical Examiners of Years Past Term Paper

2 pages (602 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Author Timmermans continues, "All states with medical examiners require them to be physicians, and most demand additional certification in anatomical and forensic pathology" (Timmermans). It is important to note that only 22 states have a full medical examiner contingent in every county, and 11 states still use the coroner system. Today, medical examiners do not use a jury or inquest. They use technology that was unavailable just a few decades ago, such as forensic technologies in ballistics, scientific investigation, computer investigation, crime scene investigation, and much more. Many of the techniques available to today's medical examiners were not even possible a few decades ago, and they play a much more important role in crime scene investigation than ever before.

Today, medical examiners are often appointed or elected, as they were in the past. The popularity of medical examiner television shows has popularized the job of the medical examiner, and sometimes they show technology that seems cool, but does not really exist. However, there are advanced technologies that medical examiners use today that were unheard of to the early coroners. "Evidence Technology" magazine, a technical journal for the industry, offers advertisements for "Hemascein to reveal latent bloodstains," software for digital and physical evidence management, digital microscopes, a palm-sized digital evidence identification system, and much more. The job of the medical examiner today is much more scientific and analytical, and they have many more tools to help them identify victims, causes of death, and criminal activity. Today's medical examiners have become celebrities, too, such as "Doctor G," the medical examiner of Orange County, California, who has her own reality show. Most coroners probably never could have imagined that.

References

Timmermans, Stefan. "Postmortem: How Medical Examiners Explain Suspicious Deaths." University of Chicago Press. 2006. 2 Oct. 2009. [read more]


Benjamin Franklin's Epitaphs Essay

1 pages (373 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Benjamin Frankin's Epitaphs

The initial epitaph written by the young Benjamin Franklin is strong and determined. It could even be said that it is dramatic: "the body of," "food for worms" -- it strives to make a strong impression on the reader and shows the determination of the writer for his person to be remembered even after death. The length, content and formulation of the first reveal the spirit and energy of a young person, whereas the second epitaph is plain, revealing an older and tired person.

The first author, the young Franklin, has a romanticized view of death as an event which will guarantee drama and the remembrance of the individual. It could even be said that he impatiently awaits for his death as a moment in time when his work will be even more cherished due to the passing of its creator. The second writer on the other hand, the older Franklin, is tired and no longer reveals energy. He does perceive his death as a dramatic and theatrical event which will generate social turmoil, but sees it as a natural step in the…… [read more]


Physician-Assisted Suicide and Ethical Issues the Medical Essay

3 pages (924 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Physician-Assisted Suicide and Ethical Issues

The medical profession has been governed by the Hippocratic Oath since antiquity, according to which physicians must "do no harm" to their patients. However, toward end of the 20th century, medical science had progressed to the point that the definition of doing harm became much more complex than easily resolved by the types of distinctions and analyses sufficed previously. As medical interventions enabled the treatment of most human disease, that raised bioethical issues such as distinguishing extending life and prolonging suffering (Sharma, 2004). In many respects, it is no longer ethically appropriate to criminalize physician-assisted suicide or to otherwise impose restrictions on decisions that should remain strictly personal, although appropriate ethical and legal guidelines for avoiding mistakes and abuse are essential.

Recent evidence suggests that the incidence of suicide is substantially under-reported in the elderly community, precisely because standard medical care available in most "first-world" nations often extends life without regard to the relative quality of life from the point-of-view of the patient (Humphry, 2002). Increased longevity in the population has led to dramatic increase in debilitating ailments associated with old age, including severe cognitive impairment such as Alzheimer's disease, which has a very long and gradual onset after initial diagnosis. In some cases, elderly patients in good physical health have chosen assisted suicide instead of suffering from Alzheimer's (Humphry, 2002).

Justification for Permitting physician-assisted suicide:

Dr. Jack Kevorkian tried to raise awareness of the need for contemporary bioethics and legal definitions to recognize that situations may exist where physician-assisted suicide is more consistent with the fundamental concept of providing medical care than the unitary literal definitions that may have been appropriate previously. He was eventually convicted by the state of Michigan and incarcerated in connection with his purposely crossing the line between providing passive assistance in the suicide of some of his patients and actually initiating the cause of death directly (Martindale, 2007).

Dr. Kevorkian assisted patients who were already diagnosed with terminal diseases who wished to escape the physical suffering, such as the slow paralysis and eventual suffocation from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as "Lou Gehrig's Disease."

In principle, the justification for physician-assisted suicide is simply that the patient should have the autonomous authority to determine how much suffering is too much to endure. Some of those opposed to allowing any form of suicide argue that human life is sacred and that only God has the authority to give and take life. That particular objection (although one of the most common) is not an appropriate guideline in the United States because any legislation based on that concept violates the First Amendment prohibition on church and state entanglement (Humphry, 2002).

The other principle objection to any form of physician-assisted suicide is based on the…… [read more]


Thin Red Line Essay

1 pages (434 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Red Line

Witt's "essence" is his conflict over the meaning of his life and his death. He attempts to understand his role in the world. Ultimately, he comes to the conclusion that his role is as something of a guardian to his military family, who have taken the place for him of his real family since his mother died. He nurtures them when they are wounded and ultimately sacrifices himself for their good, the way that he believes a guardian would. In this sense, he finds what he is looking for in the end, because he finds for himself a role and a sense of purpose. In his final moments, he returns to the state of child-like wonder that sparked his journey in the first place. He does this even in the midst of conflict because he has found his purpose.

The nature shots illustrate the way in which man and the world interact. While each man is an island unto himself, he still exists within the concept of the world. Soldiers in the midst of battle look up and see bats or lizards, for example, showing that no matter how isolated they can become individually they are all part of something. The nature shots show that men are at all times connected to the…… [read more]


Stem Cell Thesis

1 pages (388 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… A Brief Overview of the Stem Cell Debate
The prospect of stem cell research bears with it tantalizing promise
with respect to that which the medical and scientific communities might be
able to accomplish both in terms of diminishing medical pain and in terms
of improving life expectancy. For those suffering such conditions as
Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or traumatic spinal cord injury, stem cell
research has offered positive prospects for treatment of these otherwise
incurable conditions.
This is why there is a strong endorsement for further research on the
subject from within the medical community. The understanding that stem
cells are capable of transforming into healthy functional cells of almost
any type means that where conditions have occurred because of the death or
deficiency of cells, this could be a promising way of performing
transplant. Today, there is a consensus on the acceptable use of adult stem
cells, though these have treatment limitations because most of these cells
have already differentiated to perform specific cell functions.
In contrast, embryonic stem cell research provokes a great deal more
controversy and have invoked legal challenge leading to the previous Bush
administration's ban on public funding there for.…… [read more]


Euthanasia in All Its Forms Thesis

5 pages (1,495 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Euthanasia in all its forms has become a topic for extreme public debate. Sadly, the issue is not a public one at all but a very personal and excruciating decision that requires self- and social mediation to develop. Over the last few years, organizations have become decidedly split at least publicly falling into two camps, those who believe active euthanasia… [read more]


Design Mobility Limitations and Solutions to Minimize Injury Thesis

4 pages (1,291 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Mobility Limitations

Safety Flooring and Seating for the Elderly

Preserving the mobility of the elderly while simultaneously improving the safety parameters of their living circumstances are twin goals of equal importance. Indeed, the preservation and improvement of mobility in the elderly can have the effect of significantly enhancing the quality and length of life in later years. However, the need to ensure that these levels of mobility and independence are conducted within the confines of safe and advisable circumstances is tantamount. Thus, there is an array of factors to consider with respect to one's living space that speak to the necessity of special accommodations for the elderly or otherwise infirm.

Certainly, one of the most pressing, important and basic aspects of mobility is walking. For the elderly, difficulty walking can make even modest and simple tasks very taxing and potentially dangerous. The quality and nature of one's flooring is especially relevant to this circumstance, with the vulnerability to fracture and the threat that one might fall and be without the ability to contact a relative or emergency medical worker illustrating the need for a heavy emphasis on how flooring is selected and integrated into one's living space.

Accordingly, our research produces the finding that many of the fractures which occur and effect the elderly are as a consequence of floors which do not facilitate the needs of the elderly. Our research denotes that "poor flooring which is slippery and unsuitable footwear are other major factors contributing to the onset of fractures in the home, and the design of buildings should incorporate measures to minimize the risk of falls." (Minns, 1)

As Minns (1999) shows, a statistically significant number of the elderly individuals occupying hospital beds in long-term care facilities are being treated for hip fractures. This, the article argues, is most often because flooring in mainstream settings and far too many homes is of a substance which makes those with unsure footing more susceptible to the loss of balance or bearing. For the elderly, the consequences of a single misstep on such flooring can be catastrophic. Therefore, the flooring in the facility in question here would be fitted with a non-slip material, with hardwood, marble and many types of ceramic tile being eliminated from usability.

Beyond the surface material, cushioning is crucial, both for the shock absorption on the patient's feet and for its ability to cushion any potential fall. Minns describes a few methods, with two of them being particularly relevant to our needs. Namely, he describes the inset of a flooring structure where supports are arranged in a 'honeycomb' layout rather than traditional vertical and horizontal cross-beaming. (Minns, 2) He makes the argument that in spite of the costliness of building this feature into the flooring of an existing structure, it can add considerable to the absorption and give offered by the surface upon a falling body's impact. If this can be deemed cost effective and necessary in the case of our facility, the cost would be assumed… [read more]


Hmg-Coa Reductase Inhibitors for the Treatment and Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease Research Proposal

3 pages (1,071 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… ¶ … Alzheimer's Patients

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are rate-limiting enzymes used to prevent cholesterol synthesis. These drugs are used primarily in patients that are at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease. However, recent studies suggest that statins may also be helpful for patients with Alzheimer's Disease. The use of statins in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease is a new topic, but one that deserves to be considered by future researchers. The following will explore the current body of research concerning the potential benefits of statins for Alzheimer's patients. It will present research plans regarding further exploration of the possibilities that lie in the use of statins in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Literature Review

Literature regarding the use of statins in the reduction of high cholesterol and the prevention of heart disease is abundant. However, only a small number of research studies exist regarding the use of statins in Alzheimer's patients. The potential for using statins in this manner is based on evidence that high cholesterol is linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease, as well as coronary artery disease (Sparks, 2002). This supposition is supported by a study that indicates a reduction in Alzheimer's Disease biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (Riekse, Li, & Petrie et al., 2006). Post-mortem studies also indicated a reduction in Alzheimer's Disease among statin users (Li, Larson, & Sonnen et al., 2007).

Current theory regarding the connection between cholesterol and the development of Alzheimer's Disease is based on the presence of a? aggregation in the formation of neuronal plaques (Hoglund & Blennow, 2007; Meske, Albert, & Richter et al., 2003). The cholesterol hypothesis suggests that increased levels of cholesterol increases the presence of a?, therefore, statins have the effect of lowering the production of a?, thus slowing the development of Alzheimer's Disease (Hoglund & Blennow, 2007). Cohort studies support this supposition (Wolozin, Kellman, & Ruosseau et al., 2000). Algotsson & Winblad, (2004) noted that various statins are not considered therapeutically interchangeable.

Although academic evidence contains studies that support the protective effect of statins for Alzheimer's Disease, other studies caution against inappropriate conclusions. The protective effect of statins in Alzheimer's Disease is questionable, depending on the statistical methods used (Li, Higdon, & Kukull et al., 2005). A case study suggested a lowered risk for the development of dementia associated with statin use (Jick, Zorenberg, & Jick et al., 2001). However, this study used case studies with statistical corrections for confounding variables. It is not considered inconclusive upon closer investigation. Reiss & Wirkoeski (2007) investigated the appropriateness of using statins to treat neurological disorders and also found the evidence to be inconclusive.

Research that suggests statins are helpful in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's Disease are largely based on theory and supposition. No randomized studies could be found that isolated the use of statins in connection to Alzheimer's Disease. Many of the studies regarding the use of statins in connection with Alzheimer's Disease were an… [read more]


Worlds Depicted in Shakespeare's King Lear William Essay

4 pages (1,124 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Worlds Depicted in Shakespeare's King Lear

William Shakespeare's play, King Lear, presents us worth two worlds that are worth comparing when look at the nature of man. The world we encounter at the beginning of the play is familiar and something to which we can relate. The world we encounter at the end of the play is nothing less than brutal and one to which we hope we will never have to relate. One is seemingly realistic in that is gives the impression as normal as it can be under the circumstances; the other is so tragic, it is actually outside of our realm to imagine. Shakespeare sets these worlds in opposition to illustrate the damage we can do when we lose focus on what is important in life. It is to our advantage that we learn from Lear's mistakes so we do not make them ourselves. He lived a long life and he made terrible mistakes and Edmund realizes that his life and death will not be in vain if there is something that can be gained from them. That which is important will not have a price tag attached to it nor will it be measured in material wealth.

The first world in the first scene of the play is realistic and familiar to us. We have two men discussing the kingdom, the king, and Gloucester's son. It seems typical in that the two seem to be making small talk as they wait for the king to arrive. The subplot between Gloucester and his sons is also significant when we look at the different worlds that King Lear presents to us. Gloucester loves his two sons evenly, even though it would not be unreasonable at that time for the man to renounce his bastard son. Instead, he admits to Edmond's inappropriate conception without blushing. However, while Gloucester indicates the inappropriate way in which Edmond was brought into the world, he cannot "wish the fault undone, the issue of it being so proper" (Shakespeare I.i.16-7). Gloucester speaks of his legitimate son that is "no dearer in my account" (I.i.19). Furthermore, Gloucester does not harbor any ill will toward Edmond's mother, claiming that she was "fair" (I.i.21) and that the couple experienced "good sport at his making" (I.i.21-2). When Edmond is introduced to Kent, he demonstrates that he is very well behaved and knows how to mind his manners. This conversation is one that we would think of as real and concrete. These men have an amiable consideration toward one another and their honesty is unfailing. Even when Gloucester must admit that he has a child out of wedlock, he does so without disparaging the child because the child, regardless of how he came into the world, is a decent human being. In this scene, we also see two men that can interpret clearly what is before them. In addition, this world is something we can see actually envision occurring.

The world we experience in the final scene… [read more]


Deontological Response to Euthanasia Thesis

4 pages (1,426 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Deontological Response to Euthanasia

Euthanasia has given birth to numerous debates over the past couple of decades. As with any other major topic, there are those who support, and those who strongly oppose it. This paper looks at the issue of euthanasia from the Deontological standpoint, and strives to evaluate whether euthanasia can be considered rational, or ethically acceptable. However,… [read more]


Art Reflecting Life Through Edgar Allan Poe Thesis

5 pages (1,561 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Art Reflecting Life Through Edgar Allan Poe

We often hear that art imitates life and one author that demonstrates this point is Edgar Allan Poe. Poe's life created the perfect atmosphere for death, sadness, and terror as he watched the people that were closest to him die. Poe's childhood was also tumultuous in that he was abandoned by both parents… [read more]


Baby Boomers and Their Impact on Funeral Service Thesis

3 pages (1,115 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Sociology

The Impact of Baby Boomers on the Funeral Service

Funeral services have changed considerably over the years, each generation bringing its own sensibilities. Death rites once occupied a considerable amount of time and expense. Mourners wore black for a year or more, and funeral services were long and highly ritualized. Such practices suited the rhythms of life of an earlier generation. Yet, the baby boomers changed nearly everything about their society. Tradition became something to be challenged, even assaulted. Not one aspect of customary life was left unchanged, and funeral services were no exception. Traditional funeral services were modified to suit individual tastes and preferences. The new funerals reflected the deceased as they were in life, as well as the needs of those left behind. Cremations began to compete with burials as many baby boomers showed their concern for the environment. Personal orations replaced long prayers. Graveside services, or simple ceremonies beside an urn, took the place of more formal arrangements. Words were made up for the occasion. Poems might be composed and read. Often, a ceremony might be tailored to represent some interest of the deceased. As well, Baby Boomers became increasingly concerned with issues of fairness and consumer rights. Many recognized that death had become a business, and that was now necessary to safeguard the rights of the decedent and the bereaved. Activism came as much to the fore in this area as in other fields of society.

The popularity of cremation reflects the range of these concerns. For many, cremation seems to solve the problem of too much land being taken up by cemeteries, while at the same time being less expensive than traditional burials. (Kopp & Kemp, 2007) in its most extreme forms, cremation offers a chance to "re-build" a dying environment. It represents a symbolic rebirth of the individual as part of the landscape or seascape i.e. The incorporation of urns into undersea reefs. (Kopp & Kemp, 2007) Such practices also reflect a greater concern with linking death to life. The Twentieth Century witnessed an increasing separation between the processes of death and everyday life. Few boomers were exposed to death up close as children. Many did not even experience the loss of a grandparent prior to adolescence or later. (Hayslip & Peveto, 2005, p. 59) Modern death rites can frequently be seen as attempts on the part of those unfamiliar with death to cope with sudden and painful loss. Studies have shown that death, or thoughts of death, occupy a greater place in the minds of many at the turn of the new millennium. A study of college students in the 1990s - most the children of baby boomers - asked the same question as those asked in a 1935 study. The results were astounding - a society obsessed with death and dying. In particular, participants in the recent study were consumed with thoughts of the process of death, and by images of violent death and death from disease. (Hayslip & Peveto, 2005,… [read more]


Gravestone Etchings and the Creative Designs Research Proposal

3 pages (775 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … gravestone etchings and the creative designs now being used to commemorate the deceased final resting grounds. I am interested in learning more about this unique field and thought that this article would provide me with the information I was seeking in order to make an informed decision as to whether to pursue this particular field as a full-time career or a part-time hobby.

What I discovered after reading this article was that I was no further along in my decision than before I began my perusal. The article started off in an interesting manner, but from the starting point only spiraled downward in both content and style.

The article began interestingly enough with Ali Weiss, founder of a company that designs headstones, quoted as saying; "I think baby boomers are going to take back control of the death-care industry" (Heller, 2008, p. 90). The statement piqued my interest having never known that baby boomers had lost control of the death-care industry in the first place. The statement also seemed to lead the reader into what was going to be a controversial article. Further reading of the article seemed to reinforce that idea with one paragraph touting the 'improvements' made to tombstones. These improvements included the efforts to "modernize gravestones (which) involves images etched from photos via computer scans - including Disney characters, Chevy trucks, and wild typography such as the dreaded Comic Sans" (Heller, p. 91). The article even asked a valid question that I looked forward to having answered.

The question was "With options like these - amid an industry suddenly rife with beer-can coffins and sports-logo linings - where is the line between solemnity and silliness?" (Heller, p. 91)

Instead of the answers and information I was seeking from the article, what I discovered was that the article focused on two people who were gravestone cutters and how they practiced and developed their craft.

The article talked about Drew Dernavich a New York cartoonist who has etched type and imagery into "almost 1,000 gravestones" (Heller, p. 92) and Ken Williams, a 65-year-old man who "maintains a sense of tradition in his work" (Heller, p. 92).

That the writer of the article was able to ferret out and interview two reknowned stone cutters is interesting, but the article did not accomplish its stated objective…… [read more]


Disease - Alzheimer Thesis

4 pages (1,169 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Disease - Alzheimer's

ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE as an EMERGING HEALTH and SOCIAL CRISIS

Alzheimer's disease is one form of age-related dementia, previously more often referred to collectively as senile dementia. It is characterized by gradually increasing mental deterioration and corresponding loss of memory, cognition, judgment, and of the ability to communicate. The disease is named for the German physician who first discovered it in 1906 by identifying abnormal amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain tissues. Today, modern imaging technology is used to diagnose these characteristic brain changes that are associated with Alzheimer's (NIA 2006).

Those of advanced age are primarily at risk of Alzheimer's and scientists believe that as many as 4.5 Americans are presently afflicted with the disease. Between the age of 65 and 85, incidence of Alzheimer's increases dramatically, from approximately 5% of the population to almost fifty percent (NIA 2006). Unfortunately, those figures are only expected to rise continually in the next several decades by virtue of the increasing average age of Americans as the post-World War II Baby Boom generation advances into advanced age and the fact that the average American now lives into the age range where the risk of Alzheimer's increases substantially.

Thesis Statement:

Alzheimer's disease is quickly becoming a national health and social crisis by virtue of the increasing age of the population and the fact that the average American now lives long enough to be at risk of late-onset dementias. Stem cell technologies may offer the most realistic hope of a genuine cure but conservative political opposition has severely constrained the ability of scientists to develop effective treatments. Alzheimer's - a Twenty-First Century American Health and Social Crisis:

The increasing incidence of Alzheimer's is now one of the most serious financial drains on the American healthcare system because patients typically survive as long as a decade after the onset of symptoms and almost invariably require at least several years of institutionalized care in long-term medical facilities and nursing homes. That is attributable to the tremendous amount of assistance they eventually come to require after losing virtually all cognitive abilities including those necessary for the simplest tasks.

By the late stages of Alzheimer's, the demands of providing fulltime care surpass the ability of families to provide on their own, after which they must rely on funding assistance from Medicare and Medicaid. All too often, elderly patients who saved all their lives to be able to leave an estate for the benefit of their families have no choice but to first "spend down" all of their financial assets to become eligible for public assistance programs. Nevertheless, some of the greatest costs of Alzheimer's are not measured in dollars but in the prolonged emotional agony experienced by the Alzheimer's patient's loved ones. Because the disease is so slow in developing, caretakers often find themselves gradually more and more involved in caring for loved ones as their family member loses all capacity for communication and even for recognizing their own families. For this reason, the… [read more]


Advertising to Senior Citizens the Commercial Media Term Paper

2 pages (641 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Advertising to Senior Citizens

The commercial media is responsible for luring in thousands of consumers for particular services or products. This is most successfully done through marketing to specific demographics with proven themes guaranteed to bring in numbers. In the 65 and older demographic, there are several constant themes which continually reoccur throughout product and service advertisements, as well as filtering into other forms of public messages. Two of these themes which are most prevalent include the concept of protecting one's loved one's in future years and most recently made popular, the image of the active senior in a new form of retirement.

The first major theme represents the desire for many seniors to protect one's assets and loved ones in case of an emergency or the inevitable. This has always been a major theme in insurance products, and has continued to move into other types of products and services as well. Life insurance, bank products, and other types of insurance policies and agent services have always relied on using the theme of longevity of one's genealogy as part of each senior citizen's responsibility. Recently, in today's insecure economical times, this theme has become more prevalent in everyday life. Going beyond products and service advertising, more and more media outlets have also caught on to this theme. Articles weighing out different bank policies and services, along with informing the general public of the importance of preparing for the inevitable have become more available to public consumers. These types of themes are important to gerontoligical social work because of their expression of a major fear for thousands of senior citizens. These individuals are reaching the end of their lives, and this is constantly regurgitated back to them in such advertising methods. However scary this fact may be, the general and widespread acceptance of these ads represents a sense of understanding rather than pure fear. Regardless, this theme can be…… [read more]


Walking as an Intervention for Older Adults Term Paper

7 pages (2,284 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Walking as an Intervention for Older Adults With Dementia Within the Community

Introduction regular program of walking has been well established as a low-impact way for older adults to regain and maintain their physical fitness. Because UK law stipulates that older adults with dementia be provided the best care possible and because resources are scarce by definition, it just makes… [read more]


Organ Donations Term Paper

2 pages (943 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Organ donation is a controversial ethical subject that must be discussed to see how this donation is just for the donor and beneficial to he recipient. The shortage of donors in the country has led to serious problems for those looking for a transplant. It is felt that donations should somehow be connected with self-interest because altruism alone is failing to meet the demand for organs.

It has been a surprising observation that the shortage of human organs has worsened in recent years. According to reports, as more and more individuals are registering for transplantation of organs, the shortage is becoming even more acute and many patients expired while waiting for a suitable organ. The shortage of the organs for the transplantation has resulted in the decline in the quality of the life, and has adversely affected the health conditions of the patients in critical condition. The non-availability of the organs for the transplantation has been responsible for death warrants against the patients; the physicians in most of the cases do not place the irrespective patients in the waiting list due to the critical situation (Kliemt, 2000).

According to several reports, the increase in use of the living donors is another reason for the shortage of the organs for transplantation, "in 2001, the number of living donors exceeded the number of cadaveric donors" (Alexander, 2004). However, the availability of the cadaveric donors is expected to reduce the conditions which have caused surge in the living donations. The organ procurement system is based upon the presence of altruism, however the motivational programs which were initiated for the purpose of organ donation were not successful, therefore "altruism is a fine thing but it is in short supply" (Alexander, 2004), therefore it has been suggested that "we may hope for love but should plan on self-interest" (Alexander, 2004). It has been recommended that incentives scheme shall be launched to motivate the individuals towards donation, "financial compensation is the most discussed option, but reciprocity proposals are another possibility" (Alexander, 2004). According to the current legislations, the compensation offered to the donors and their families for organ donation is considered to be illegal. According to National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, "It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly acquire, receive or otherwise transfer any human organ for valuable consideration for use in human transplantation" (Alexander, 2004). However due to the shortage of organs, the American Medical Association, the American Society of Transplant Surgeons and the United Network for Organ Sharing has mutually agreed upon the concept of financial compensation.

The United Network for Organ Sharing considers "organs as national resource, owned in common" (Alexander, 2004), therefore what the society has experienced is the "tragedy of the common" (Alexander, 2004), where each individual will like to accept the organ, however will be least interested in…… [read more]


Immortality ) by Kawabata Yasunari Term Paper

2 pages (699 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Immortality (1963) by Kawabata Yasunari

The 1963 short story by the 20th century Nobel-prize winning Japanese author Kawabata Yasunari entitled "Immortality" is a story that seemingly takes the immortality of the soul quite matter-of-factly. It suggests that the ability to confer immortality lies in the memory of the living, not in the land of the dead. The story begins with an old man and a young girl, who are strangely said to be walking side-by-side, much like lovers, despite their apparent gap in ages. Then, the girl passes through the net on the golf driving range where the man is picking up balls. This is the second clue that the reader receives that something is amiss. The reader learns that the girl, Misako, drowned herself when she was eighteen in the ocean near the small village, to which the old man has recently returned.

Unlike the old man, Misako has remained forever young, immortally frozen in the old man's mind, living on as a young girl. She says that he appears young in her eyes, and she is glad that she drowned herself, because this way she will never look old. The old man reveals his guilt that when he was young he left Misako to seek his fortune in Tokyo. Out of despair, she killed herself. The man failed in his ambitions and returned to the village when old to get a job at the driving range, overlooking the sea where she drowned herself.

It is around this point of the story that the reader begins to suspect that Misako is a figment of the man's imagination. The story metaphorically illustrates how in our memories, when people die or even when we leave them and never see them again, they cease to grow old. However, there is one sentence that flies in the face of such interpretation, the fact that both the old man and Misako are said to have walked through the driving range net like they were passing through a breeze, not the ghostly girl. The reader learns that the old man, eventually at the beginning…… [read more]


Med Art Review Engineering the Novel Technology Term Paper

1 pages (393 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Med Art Review

Engineering

The novel technology concerns a coating that is applied to bio-medical implants. The coating is being tested as to its viability in promoting cell and culture growth.

The big picture of such technology is that it will allow for improved acceptance of the bio-medical implants into the body, thereby promoting improved societal health.

The experiment used an in-lab procedure that compared three different coatings to determine cell growth, surface cell coverage, and cell roundage. The cell roundage verifies the interaction of the cells with the bio-medical device as well as being a predictor of cell death. The scientists used the same procedures for all three coatings.

One way that the experiment could be improved is by using live subjects (be they animal or human). In that way, the environment in which the coating(s) would be used would be more realistic.

The key results were remarkable in that platinum coatings and UNCD both proved to be much more viable than silicon coatings, and that UNCD seemed to be much less likely to produce cell roundage. Silicon coatings were much more likely to produce roundage, with UNCD and platinum were fairly close in the…… [read more]


Medical Ethics: Euthanasia Term Paper

5 pages (1,727 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Medical Ethics: Euthanasia

Euthanasia is probably one of the most ethically challenging issues in medicine today. Proponents hold that "dying with dignity" is a right of which every human being should be assured. Opponents on the other hand believe that life in whatever capacity is a human right, and as such no person has the right to take it away… [read more]


Euthanasia Is Wrong Term Paper

3 pages (926 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… Ethics Argument Against Euthanasia

Euthanasia refers to several different the types of act of purposely terminating the life of another. It includes involuntary forced killing, such as that practiced by the Nazis, aggressive voluntary physician-assisted suicide, non-aggressive withdrawal of medical support, and "mercy killing" or assistance in the suicide of a loved one suffering from incurable disease (Garner 2001).

All forms of involuntary euthanasia are wrong, because the killing of another is, by definition, murder. Judeo-Christian religious beliefs prohibit both suicide and, therefore, assisted suicide, as do the laws of the United States. In principle, the only possible exceptions are those where a person of sound mind refuses medical treatment under the "penumbra" of implied privacy rights under the U.S. Constitution (Dershowitz

2002). In those situations, it is not actually euthanasia, since personal refusal of medical treatment does not involve the actions of another person; nor is the mentally competent refusal of medical care defined as suicide, because modern interpretation of constitutional rights includes the right to refuse personal medical care in general (Abrams 1985).

The Argument Against Euthanasia:

During the 1930s, the Nazis instituted a secret program of involuntary euthanasia, killing both children who showed signs of mental retardation and other disabilities, as well as institutionalized adults deemed incapable of a "worthwhile" life (Breitman 1998).

Proponents of voluntary euthanasia suggest that the distinction between voluntary and involuntary euthanasia justifies the former, but the problem is that the lines between them are susceptible to becoming blurred, particularly in the case of those suffering from diminished mental capacity. Likewise, the complexity of modern medicine requires patients to rely on information supplied by physicians. This problem is that where medical euthanasia is permitted, physicians may impose their own beliefs and values in the way that they characterize medical situations and prognoses. One noteworthy example is Dr. Jack Kevorkian, recently released after his incarceration for assisted suicide (Martindale, 2007).

For the same reasons, euthanasia in the form of assisted suicide by non-physicians such as mercy killing by family members) is also impermissible, because family members have the same capacity to impose their own beliefs on their loved ones.

Allowing assisted suicide could provide the opportunity for family members to take advantage of an ailing relative for their own personal gain, particularly in the case of elderly as well as those suffering from dementia or clinical depression.

Euthanasia supporters point out that evidence suggests that suicide and euthanasia in the form of assisted suicide among the elderly is already widely under-reported as a cause of death (Humphry 2002) and that thee is no justification for prolonging life once a person reaches the point where one's life is no longer worth living from his or her perspective. However, the fact that one's outlook on life is susceptible to…… [read more]


Dementia Training Term Paper

8 pages (2,395 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… Dementia Training

The most frequent reason of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. In elder people, it accounts for equal to 65% of dementias. It is very uncommon amongst the populace who are younger than sixty. It turns out to be more ordinary with rising age. It influence only about 1% of the individuals aged 60 to 64 but up to 30%… [read more]

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