"Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays

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Medical and Personal Responsibilities on Euthanasia Term Paper

3 pages (1,090 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Euthanasia in all its forms has become a topic for extreme public debate. Sadly, the issue is not a public one at all but a very personal and excruciating decision that requires self- and social mediation to develop. Over the last few years, organizations have become decidedly split at least publicly falling into two camps, those who believe active euthanasia should be allowed to all who believe their life is not worth living and that the medical and legal communities should support this and those who believe that all acts including even the most passive acts of euthanasia, such as the removal of feeding tubes should be legally and morally banned. The "truth" of the matter is that there are many more middle road positions that support a more personal emphasis on the subject. Three experts on the subject, Conolly, Humphry and Lederman will be compared in this work to show that there is a compromise to be had, that will respect the individual and curtail the medical community from aggressive acts that prolong suffering rather than "life."

Conolly's view on personal responsibilities with regard to euthanasia is that is its the personal responsibility of each human to sustain life in a humanitarian manner, including allowing the natural coarse of death to take human life, where it is unavoidable. Conolly feels that people must understand that there is no obligation to sustain treatments that are clearly not working, and prolong life to a point where the act of dying is feared. He contends that hard cases do not warrant legislating active euthanasia as the balance would go unchecked and such laws would disproportionately effect those who are most vulnerable, as they suffer most tragically, the poor and the disenfranchised. "The first problem is that once we take ourselves to the right actively to terminate human life, we will have no means of controlling it." (158)

Connolly's view on medical responsibilities are that the existing system needs to put in check the utilization of what he terms useless technology to prolong life and therefore suffering and instead seek to improve and extend existing utilization of palliative care. An example he uses is medical professionals abysmal use of aggressive technological medicine, underutilization of pain medication and lack of compassion. "Experience with hospice care in England and the United States has shown repeatedly that in every case, pain and suffering can be overwhelmingly reduced. In many cases in can be abolished altogether." (159) in short Conolly, asserts that personal responsibility lies in seeking out appropriate care for the dying patient rather than giving them the dire responsibility of choosing to end their own life to save their family from what can be a valuable time of healing, and that medical care needs to focus more on palliative care and less on aggressive and useless prolonging of suffering.

Humphrey on the other hand is demonstratively in favor of euthanasia, though in a markedly passive form, such as the removal of naso-gastric feedings, that have… [read more]


Sapphire Term Paper

5 pages (1,889 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Grey Wolf by Sapphire [...] theme of death and dying in the story. "The Grey Wolf" starts out like a Native American legend story, but takes a disturbing turn by the end of the tale. It seems the women in the story are afraid of the grey wolf, but in reality, they are afraid of death, and of… [read more]


Hamlet Prince of Denmark Term Paper

4 pages (1,317 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Three vengeful sons: Hamlet, Fortinbras, and Laertes

Hamlet is a play driven by the question of how to revenge the death of the protagonist's father. It begins upon the battlements, which are apparently haunted by the ghost of the recently deceased king, Old Hamlet's. The ghost's reasons for remaining upon the earth, rather than residing in heaven become clear when he is given an opportunity to explain to his son the manner of his demise. Old Hamlet's brother Claudius, the current King of Denmark happened upon Old Hamlet while his brother was napping in an orchard, and poured poison in his ear. The king was murdered without the ability to make a full confession and is doomed to walk the earth until he is purged of all of his sins. Thus, Hamlet, the son of a murdered father, must avenge his father's death, and he vows to do so.

But the first encounter the audience has with an openly vengeful son is not with Hamlet, who is in mourning but still unaware of his father's murder at the beginning of the play, but Fortinbras, a young, hot-headed Norwegian king. Unlike Hamlet's melancholic attitude, for Hamlet is always characterized by relentless self-searching and exploration of his soul, psyche, and motivation, Fortinbras is a man of action. Once he learns about his father's death, Fortinbras feels no compunction about avenging his father, or at least the wrongs done to his father's estate. Unlike Hamlet and Laertes, Fortinbras' father was not murdered. However, Fortinbras is irate that his father's lands were lost, and is determined to recover them. Fortinbras' quest is not moral, or even based upon familial feeling.

It is for his own self-aggrandizement and enrichment that Fortinbras goes: "Importing the surrender of those lands/Lost by his father, with all bonds of law, / to our most valiant brother" (I.2). The politically savvy and cynical Claudius speculates, not without some justification that Fortinbras is seeking these lands not out of outrage for an old crime done to Fortinbras' father, but because he thinks Denmark is a state of transition, after the recent death of Old Hamlet, and thus will not be able to defend itself. Fortinbras later is proven right to some degree, as he assumes the Danish crown at the end of the play, after the court is decimated as a result of Claudius', Laertes', and Hamlet's actions during the final duel.

Later on in the play, Hamlet himself, after thinking about killing Claudius at prayer, and then deciding not to literally become a 'back stabber' will half-admire, half-despise Fortinbras' bloody military quest. Fortinbras goes to gain:.".. A little patch of ground / That hath in it no profit but the name. / to pay five ducats, five, I would not farm it;" says a Norwegian captain, to Hamlet. However, for his own name, Fortinbras will sacrifice the lives of his men (IV.4). This suggests that Fortinbras' revenge has nothing to do with honoring the memory of… [read more]


Everyman: A Medieval Morality Play Term Paper

2 pages (655 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Everyman": A Medieval Morality Play

The medieval morality play "Everyman" uses the literary device of allegory to show how all worldly values are false in a way that is profoundly alien to a modern viewer. In the play, the character of 'Everyman,' who symbolically represents every human being, realizes that death is near. Everyman asks for another person to accompany him on his journey, but his former friends of Beauty, Kindred, or Worldly Goods, and other friends refuse. The only thing he has to protect him in the afterlife is his Good Deeds. Good Deeds are represented literally as a character, not simply as a symbol.

One of the interesting aspects of the play to a modern reader, aside from its explicit use of symbolism, is its representation of Death. Death is not a bad character, although he is not welcomed by any living human being. However, because Death comes to everyone, including Everyman, Death's presence on earth is accepted, not regarded as evil. This reflects the medieval mindset, where living with the chance of dying young was a constant threat. Everyman tries to avoid death, but he accepts the fact he cannot cheat death. Rather the play suggests he can only act morally, and hope that this will result in a good judgment, in the life to come. Death says: "I am Death, that no man dreadeth. / for every man I rest and no man spareth; / for it is God's commandment/That all to me should be obedient." Just as men must be obedient to God, so they must be obedient to God's messenger, death.

Another striking difference between contemporary and medieval attitudes exemplified in "Everyman" is the fact that Fellowship and other aspects of modern, secular life that might be regarded as positive attributes to cultivate will not go with Everyman to the afterlife. Friends, family, even knowledge, are all seen as important in modern society -- and in modern cliches. But the medieval…… [read more]


Euthanasia Baird, Robert M., Rosennaum, Stuart Term Paper

4 pages (995 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Euthanasia

Baird, Robert M., Rosennaum, Stuart E. Euthanasia: The Moral Issues (Contemporary Issues in Philosophy). New York: Prometheus Books, 1998.

This book is an excellent source for ethical debate and critical thought on the topic of euthanasia. This work is a collection of argumentative essays and commentary on both the prose and cons of euthanasia as a medical practice. Further, many of the presented argumentative essays are in the form of first person stories from people who have experienced either the horrors or the blessings of the euthanasia practice with family members and friends. There are also several group statements on the topic. The result is that both sides of the debate are fairly and fully presented.

Brock, D. Voluntary Active Euthanasia. Hastings Center Report 22, No. 2: 1993. p.p. 10-22.

In this study, the author explores the issue of voluntary active euthanasia from the unique perspective of self-determination. Accordingly, through self-determination individuals are able to evaluate their own lives in terms of accessing overall quality by using their own values and belief systems. Thus, in order to preserve human dignity, the public has to respect these individual evaluations and allow individuals to act accordingly. Therefore, based on this line of reasoning, euthanasia should be legalized as individuals are fully competent and therefore capable of making their own decisions.

Commission on the Study of Medical Practice Concerning Euthanasia. Medical Decisions Concerning the End of Life. The Hague: SDU, 1991.

This report is based on an internationally conducted study on the use of euthanasia as a medical practice. The study was conducted around the world, examining both the various forms of international policy relating to the practice, the ethical backgrounds of the medical professions in the nations that both allow euthanasia and prohibit it, along with the actual medical methods on administering euthanasia within the medical field. Being an international document coming out of the Hague, the report takes a human rights approach to the issue as opposed to a strictly medical or ethical approach to the act. In other words, the approach is more focused on the rights of the patient instead of the ethics of the doctor.

Beck-Friis, B., Strang, P. "The Family is Hospital-Based Home Care with Special Cancer Patients." Journal of Palliative Care. 1993, Issue 9, p.p. 5-13.

This study was conducted on 87 next of kin, 80 spouses and 7 adult children who were the primary caregivers of terminally ill patients cared for at the hospital-based home care unit of a local hospital. All of the patients involved died at their homes. The care-givers were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their experiences and perceptions of the home care system. The overwhelming majority were satisfied with the system and felt it was more humane than simply leaving the individual in a hospital setting.

Cherny, N.I., Coyle, N., Foley, K.M. "Suffering in the Advanced Cancer Patient: A Definition and Taxonomy." Journal of Palliative Care. 1994, Issue 10, p.p. 57-70.

This study focuses on the…… [read more]


Hamlet Having Been Away, Laertes Ignores Term Paper

1 pages (378 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Hamlet

Having been away, Laertes ignores the truth about what has happened at the royal court. This makes it easier for Claudius to convince Laertes that Hamlet carries the entire blame for the death of Polonius and Ophelia. Claudius nourishes Laertes's hunger for revenge by suggesting that killing Hamlet represents a demonstration of love towards his dead father. Nevertheless, as the king calculates his moves thoroughly, it comes as no surprise that the confrontation between the two should not be an equitable one. Claudius sets a trap, he poisons both the tip of Laertes's sword and the wine form the cup of victory. No matter what, Hamlet cannot escape. Although Laertes allows himself to accomplish Claudius's game, his sense of honor pushes him in the end to confess the king's treachery. He has done evil in order to correct what he thought to be evil, and he realized his mistake when it was already too late. Death falls upon the royal court. Queen Gertrude drinks from the poisoned cup, Claudius is stabbed by Hamlet, which in his turn dies wounded by Laertes's poisoned sword. During the fight, the protagonists…… [read more]


Suicide Rates Term Paper

7 pages (2,135 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… ¶ … Australia concluded that social factors are responsible for the mental disorders and rise in suicide cases. It is therefore important to implement policies which can address the social and economic responses; the measure should be implemented 'beyond provision of mental health services'. Presently, the socio-economic conditions are considered to have minor impact on the suicide attempts, and research… [read more]


Pro-Physician Assisted Suicide Term Paper

4 pages (1,441 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

The debate about Euthanasia is an ancient one but it has acquired a new relevance in recent times as advances in medical science have greatly extended human life-spans and it is now possible to sustain life for indefinite periods through artificial means. A closely related issue is whether it is ethical for physicians to assist in… [read more]


Assisted Suicide California Term Paper

3 pages (1,017 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … Assisted Suicide

California once again has written a bill to legalize assisted suicides. The last two died, but the legislators keep on trying. The proposed law is modeled after the one that passed in Oregon, which in 2006 resulted in 46 residents, most of them suffering from cancer, killing themselves after their physician gave them a prescription for a lethal amount of drugs. Should such a law become national? Should everyone in the country be allowed to have assisted suicides? Given the Supreme Court's recent ruling and some of the studies that have been conducted, I believe that this is a right people should have, but it is necessary for the patient to talk with more than one doctor when making the decision.

The issue of assisted suicide became newsworthy in 1990 when Dr. Jack Kevorkian helped Janet Adkins, a 54-year-old Alzheimer's patient, take her life. He met Adkins in a Volkswagen van he had outfitted with a "suicide machine" consisting of three chemical solutions fed into an intravenous line needle. Dr. Kevorkian is not the only one who supports doctor assisted suicide. The Hemlock Society is a group committed to promoting the legalization of euthanasia. In 1994, Oregon passed the "Death with Dignity" act, which allows the terminally-ill to end their lives through the voluntary self-administration of lethal medications, expressly prescribed by a physician.

In 1997 the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that people have no constitutional right to die, upholding state bans on physician-assisted suicide. That opinion, by then-Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, said individual states could decide to allow the practice. Thus, it is now left to the states to decide.

Although much of the controversy revolves around whether or not the assisted suicide should take place, given the Supreme Court ruling, perhaps it is better to go the next step and determine when a person has this right. For example, Oregon states that, in order to participate, a patient must be: 1) 18 years of age or older, 2) a resident of Oregon 3) capable of making and communicating health care decisions for him/herself, and 4) diagnosed with a terminal illness that will lead to death within six months. It is up to the attending physician to determine whether these criteria have been met (Moskowitz, 2003, p. 46).

Is this enough? Some say that it is important to give more attention to the patient's reasoning before making a decision. Muskin argues that not discussing a patient's motivation for assisted suicide is the real violation of his or her rights. Varghese and Kelly agree, saying that legal and ethical debates about suicide focus on "rational" decision making, the patient's psychiatric condition, and determination of "competency" to make decisions. However, they believe "These issues are less important at the clinical level than understanding the nature and degree of suffering for patients with terminal illness and the ways in which psychological and social factors influence decision making in this setting."

It is normally thought that patients who have… [read more]


Nursing Home Care Verses Assisted Living Term Paper

6 pages (2,258 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Assisted Living Care vs. Nursing Home Care

NURSING HOME CARE vs. ASSISTED LIVING CARE

The objective of this work is to examine the pros and cons of nursing home care vs. assisted living care for the elderly. This work will examine the positive and negative aspects of each in terms of care, health, quality of life, and costs associated with… [read more]


Will Social Security Be Around in Thirty Years Term Paper

3 pages (974 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… ¶ … Social Security be Around in Thirty Years?

As the 21st century moves forward in America, socioeconomic and demographic trends emerging in the nation pose their own unique challenges. To be more specific, America is faced with an aging population, increasing costs of national defense and social programs, and the ongoing effort to balance the federal budget. All of these challenges place a tremendous strain on programs that were created to serve the interests of the masses, such as Social Security. With this in mind, the question of whether or not Social Security will be around in thirty years poses an interesting argument. A position will be taken on this argument, and reinforced with secondary sources. This paper will conclude with recommendations as well.

Thesis Statement

While the conventional wisdom of the average American holds that Social Security is akin to a sinking ship, and that the future of the program is all but doomed, this is not a completely valid argument. Actually, the argument that is correct, and can be validated through additional sources, is that Social Security will be around in thirty years. With this thesis in mind, evidence will now be presented to reinforce the argument.

Reinforcement of the Argument

Maintaining that Social Security is going to survive over the long-term is far from a glib statement without proof; rather, a closer look at the many underlying factors of the Social Security issue result in compelling proof of the likelihood of its long-term viability.

First, the very nature of Social Security itself may hold one of the keys to its future. One of the largest groups of benefactors from the program is the senior citizens of the nation, many of whom will be relying on Social Security as their primary income upon retirement. Far from quiet and feeble individuals, senior citizens en masse represent a huge political lobby, thanks in large part to organizations like the AARP, who gather senior citizens together under common causes important to them (Price, 1997). Going hand in hand with the lobbying power of senior citizens is political clout. Commanding large blocks of potential votes for elected officials, senior citizens have the ear of all levels of government. if, in this instance, any elected official was foolhardy enough to advocate the dissolution of Social Security, he or she would very likely see an abrupt end to their political career.

Aside from those who are now senior citizens, as was alluded to earlier, the demographic trend in America is currently leaning toward a rapidly aging population; as such, those who have the most vested interest in Social Security will only continue to grow in future years (Rappaport, 1993), thereby amplifying the fight to save Social Security and the ensuing political pressure to do so.

There is also a public welfare dynamic that supports the argument that Social Security will be around in thirty years. Having shown that the American…… [read more]


Justice What Is Justice? To Me Term Paper

2 pages (729 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Justice

What is Justice?

To me, justice means more than wrongdoers receiving punishment for their misdeeds, but also that people get rewarded when they behave in an exemplary manner. Essential to my concept of institutionalized justice is the idea that the criminal justice system should not become involved in a situation where a person has not caused harm to society, or where a person may have caused harm, but did so with the honest, reasonable, and rationale belief that his or her actions would not cause harm or would actually do good. While I acknowledge that written laws help form and shape the criminal justice system, I believe that moral beliefs are far more central to the justice system. Therefore, in order to determine whether or not Dale's punishment was justified, one must first investigate whether or not Dale behaved in a moral manner.

Although Dale shot his ailing brother, there is little evidence to support a homicide charge. Mike clearly had an intent to commit suicide; he wrote a suicide note. Furthermore, Mike's decision to commit suicide was based on his understanding that his cancer diagnosis gave him only a limited time to live, and that he would be facing tremendous pain if he waited to die from that cancer. Mike engaged his brother Dale in his decision to commit suicide. In fact, Mike asked Dale to be the agent of his suicide; having Dale put tranquilizers into his meal and then eating that meal. Dale was not acting on an independent decision to kill Mike when he shot him after discovering that the tranquilizers had not killed him. On the contrary, Dale was simply trying to carry out Mike's wishes to end his life.

However, the fact that Dale was acting on Mike's wishes does little to determine the morality of Dale's actions. In many cultures, suicide itself is an immoral taboo, and helping someone commit suicide is equally taboo. However, there is a growing awareness of personal autonomy, and a feeling that it is not society or the legislature's place to determine whether or not someone should have the ability to end his or her own life. The fact…… [read more]


Grief Observed Quotations Cut One Off Term Paper

1 pages (366 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Grief Observed Quotations

Cut one off, or cut both off simultaneously. Either way, mustn't the conversation stop? (p.14)

Lewis suggests that the particular nature of the intimate, individualistic conversation between the beloved and the lover ends upon death. He believes in eternal life. But Lewis sees death as transforming the nature of the dead person, and so although his wife may be with God (a common comfort spoken by others) this does not mean his relationship with his wife can be the same after Lewis dies. Whether two lovers die simultaneously, or at different times, like Lewis and his wife, there is a stoppage of the earthly type of conversation and happiness that makes ordinary, earthly marriage so pleasant.

A say their landfalls, not their arrivals. (p.34)

Lewis speaks of Joy and his mother's landfalls on the other side of death as haunting him. He paints a dark picture of the sea of life and death, not because he believes that the ends of his loved ones are dark, but because of the way he sees the 'other side,' from the point-of-view of…… [read more]


Euthanasia Kant Levinas Mills Rawls Term Paper

7 pages (2,168 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Euthanasia

There are lots of issues that need to be addressed when talking about euthanasia - this can be related to moral values, religions and ethics.

Euthanasia directly disrespects the religious sectors' love for life.

Thomas Aquinas documented and condemned all forms of suicide. Church and religious people agree with him that euthanasia (whether assisted or not) violates one's natural… [read more]


Terri Schiavo Term Paper

3 pages (803 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Terry Schiavo

The Case of Terri Schiavo: Euthanasia from the Utilitarian and Deontologist Perspectives and Technology-Centric Social Context

The Terri Schiavo case is a complicated study of medical ethics as it relates to the contemporary philosophies, theories, and even technologies in medicine and science. Terri Schiavo is the most recent example of how euthanasia is assessed in a period in time wherein life is determined quantitatively, through the help of electronic gadgets that help identify signs of life, from strictly biological and physiological points-of-view.

Schiavo was hospitalized for years and was sustained only through the help of life-sustaining feeding protocols. Controversy regarding her hospitalization and continued survival despite the non-responsive nature of her body and mind developed as a result of debates on whether she should be given the chance to survive, in the hopes of dying a natural death, or not.

This paper looks into two perspectives from which the Schiavo case can be assessed. Using the principles of utilitarianism and deontology, this paper posits that these perspectives provide opposing views on the issue of euthanasia: deontology as determined by Immanuel Kant argues that an individual has the right to live unless s/he decides not to, while the utilitarian perspective developed by John Stuart Mill asserts that the decision to live or die ultimately depends on whether the individual's survival is beneficial to people concerned (in this case, Schiavo's husband and immediate family).

In addition to the analysis of these two theoretical perspectives in medical ethics, this paper also looks into the role that technology played in developing the dynamics and opposing views that later formed the Schiavo case a very complicated and tumultuous study in medical ethics. This paper assumes the stance that the existence of technology (i.e., feeding protocols or life-sustaining gadgets) in the Schiavo case altered the way society viewed life and death both as philosophical and biological concepts.

The deontological perspective subsists to the belief that individuals must have respect for each other's free will. Thus, as a response to this belief, an individual must be allowed by his society to determine for himself how to live his life, which involves deciding his own fate. This determination of fate involves, primarily, one's decision to live or die, so long as the individual's decision does not cause direct and explicit harm to other people. As an example, deontology considers it permissible for an individual to choose death…… [read more]


Psychological and Emotional Stress Experienced by Older Adults as a Result of Natural Disasters Term Paper

3 pages (1,292 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Psychological and Emotional Stress Experienced by Older Adults as a Result of Natural Disasters

The effect of natural disasters on the elderly has become a focus of research and concern in the last decade. One of the reasons for this is that the number of older people is on the increase nationally and worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that "...200 million of the 355 million people older than 65 years are in the developing world." (Care for the growing number of elderly people in developing countries needs to be addressed)

Studies have also focused on the fact that the elderly experience certain identifiable and particular stress factors and vulnerabilities in the face of natural disasters. "We must acknowledge that certain vulnerabilities exist among many elders and that these vulnerabilities are likely to intensify at times of disaster and during the often lengthy recovery process" (Oriol W.) the realization of the vulnerability of older people to disaster is evidenced by the collaboration between Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) and the National Council on the Aging (NCOA), in bringing an important resource to communities to improve crisis counseling for the elderly. (Oriol W.) Therefore there is a growing body of research which mirrors the concern about the effects of emotional and psychological stress on the elderly in times of natural disaster.

One of the central aspects that affect emotional and psychological stress in this age group is the feeling of vulnerability in the event of natural disasters. This is especially the case in those above seventy - five years of age. (Oriol W.) This sense of vulnerability and the concomitant high levels of anxiety and stress have many contributing factors. Stress in the face of natural disasters can also be exacerbated by a strong sense of personal loss that is increased with age in many cases.

For example, the feeling of isolation and vulnerability that can lead to anxiety and stress is often increased by the actual situation of the elderly person who may be living alone or without support. "An older person who lives alone may be plunged into despair or apathy if it appears that disaster help is available only at distant emergency centers..." (Oriol W.)

There are numerous instances of vulnerability factors that can increase stress and anxiety in the elderly in dire situations. For instance, the common physical decline in old age may result in forms of sensory deprivation, which would tend to increase stress during and after a disaster. "Older persons' sense of smell, touch, vision, and hearing are likely to be less acute than that of the general population causing potential difficulties in emergencies. "(Oriol W.)

This may lead to numerous stressful and psychologically anxious times during a disaster.

An important fact that should be borne in mind is that very often elderly people are more susceptible to and very often already suffer from emotional and psychological problems, such as various Dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease. These problems can then be exacerbated… [read more]


Assisted Suicide Should Be Legalized Term Paper

2 pages (670 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … pass away from a lingering illness, an accident or simple old age, each of us has a private experience of death to look forward to, whether with dread or relief.

Similar to birth, our death experiences are varied and individual, and most often arrive at a moment we cannot exactly predict. Nevertheless, the death belongs to us and is our own personal passage. Should we have the right to control its timing and method?

The universe hands us, for free, only one material thing in life: a body. Our one and only naturally-granted possession is innately ours to destroy or nurture as we choose.

The right to end our own personal lives, and stop the beating of our own hearts is absolutely the one right in which the government cannot, and should not, interfere.

If we are to remain a country dedicated to human rights and civil liberties, we must address the question of assisted suicide without the distractions of religious beliefs and moral judgment, but base our arguments on the original intent of the Constitution. This argument goes far beyond abortion, since it directly affects no other living person, but puts at issue the one and only thing that we truly have control over. If our government exerts control over the moment we choose to end our lives, then we have lost all control, and do not have anything close to a true democracy.

The Supreme Court maintains that we do not, under the constitution, possess the "right to die." (Hess).

If only for humanitarian reasons, we should not prohibit assisted suicide.

Those of us who have never been terminally ill and lived to tell about it cannot possibly judge whether the pain and suffering endured by an ill person justifies ending his or her own life. When the gift of life has become a toxic hell, and the body has become a chamber of torture, we must allow the sufferer to end his suffering peacefully and quickly.

Our laws do not…… [read more]


Suicide Has Been of Interest Term Paper

10 pages (3,406 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… They are too young to truly understand the ramifications of their actions. However, they are not too young to realize that they want to find a means of escape from the unhappiness in their home. Perhaps they saw ending their lives as a better option than trying to make it on their own in the outside world -- especially since… [read more]


To End a Suffering Term Paper

10 pages (3,344 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Euthanasia (pro)

Debates regarding the ethical validity of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide date back to ancient times. However, it is reasonably safe to say that little progress has been made towards reaching a consensus one way of the other, either within the field of medicine or the field of philosophy, through the millennia that the topic has been discussed. Largely,… [read more]


Role of Radiodiagnostic Imaging in Forensic Medicine Term Paper

6 pages (1,581 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Role of Radiodiagnostic Imaging in Forensic Medicine

The objective of this work is to evaluate the role of radiodiagnostic imaging in forensic medicine and to critically appraise the use of radiodiagnostic imaging in forensic investigation.

There has been an increase in the use of MRI in forensics in making a diagnosis when death involved either injury or disease. Stated to… [read more]


Euthanasia Term Paper

2 pages (525 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Euthanasia, or what is generally referred to as physician-assisted suicide, has been an issue of heated debate within the United States during the last few decades. The word of euthanasia is rooted in Greek, meaning "good death," and is regarded as the practice of killing an individual in a painless manner for merciful reasons, in order to end his or her suffering (Euthanasia pp). This term includes assisting those who are suffering to commit suicide, especially when assisted by a physician (Euthanasia pp). Physician-assisted suicide usually involves what is called a terminal sedation, which is a combination of medically inducing a deep sleep, while at the same time terminated all other treatment, with the exception of medication for symptom control, such as analgesia (Euthanasia pp). Although this is considered to be euthanasia by many, under current law and medical practice it is considered a form of palliative care (Euthanasia pp).

Most advocates of euthanasia believe that it should be a voluntary process that requires informed consent, and should only involve those individuals who are terminally ill and in great pain and suffering (Euthanasia pp). Those who are against it, feel that the entire issue is subject to unethical grounds, because it is considered the first step toward compulsory euthanasia, much as society accepts now for animals who are suffering or whose medical care is too costly financially (Euthanasia pp).

In 2003, the Netherlands had 1626 cases that were officially reported as euthanasia in the sense of a physician causing death (Euthanasia pp). Usually the sedative sodium thiopental is administered intravenously in order…… [read more]


Old Age: Confucius Term Paper

1 pages (372 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Old people are that audience that we all need when we are young so we are certain that our good actions would be rightly applauded and bad actions severely criticized. We have all been with old people in some relationship. Most of us have them as grandparents and it is important to see how wise, unbiased, frank and honest they are. Life has taught them one thing i.e. be true to your beliefs because nothing else really matters. This is something most young people do not know and thus we need old people to be around us to teach us valuable lessons of life. Old age, according to Confucius, is something to be cherished for it brings you to a point in life where you no longer want to aggressively fight on the stage of life, where you are more interested in human company and truly understand worth and value of human relationships. In short, old age is the time when you have gained all the wisdom that if you wish you had when you were younger.… [read more]


Decision to End One's Own Term Paper

3 pages (1,216 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… In a religious sense, these persons may believe their religious figures have abandoned them, and thus are no longer figures able to bestow privileges. Morally, these individuals may feel their loved ones would be happier and more advantaged if they were no longer in existence. Legally, they may believe that the government has no control over their lives since they are not viable members of society. Spiritually, these persons may feel their lives are no longer worth living.

The above circumstances are just some in which individuals may feel they have a right to take their own lives. However, as stated previously, when discussing the rights of any individual, it is imperative to also discuss those rights in terms of the people and social institutions that surround that person. In many circumstances, as in those discussed below, the justification given by an individual as to why suicide is his or her right clearly violates the rights of those around the person.

For example, while an individual may feel it is their moral right to take their own life in light of terminal illness, many life insurance companies will not honor payment in cases of suicide. Therefore, by choosing to act on his or her right to die, the individual may be taking away his or her family's right to a secure future. In the case of the convicted murderer, the choice to commit suicide takes away the victim's right to justice. Additionally, the criminal also removes the right of his or her family to say goodbye. The chemically imbalanced person, by choosing to die, ignores the rights of his or her family and friends to assist him or her in receiving assistance that may alter their perceptions. Furthermore, in all of the above circumstances, the perceived right to die on the part of the individual may remove his or her right to a funeral or service in the church to which they belong.

There can be no question that some circumstances lead an individual to the belief that he or she has the right to take his or her own life. Illnesses, criminal acts, chemical imbalance, hopelessness, and many other circumstances can lead to the conclusion that death is a viable alternative and one that is a right based on religious, moral, legal, or spiritual beliefs. Since the term "right" in and of its self is subjective by nature, this perception can hardly be said to be incorrect. In all cases, all individuals have the "right" to commit suicide if their personal belief systems allow this privilege to exist.

However, in light of the fact that the "right" for an individual to take his or her own life adversely affects the rights of others without their permission or input, the choice to act on the right to die is unjustifiable. If by committing suicide an individual removes his or her children's ability to attend college, his or her family's ability to come to terms with an unavoidable death, his or… [read more]


Ethical Issues of Assisted Suicide Term Paper

16 pages (6,393 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… It is also squabbled that assisted suicide for fatally ill people undergoing severe pain can be differentiated from euthanasia used for the purpose of genocide on the basis that it is on the basis of the principles of self-respect, respect, and reverence and is selected and performed by the dying persons, instead of being forced on them in opposition to… [read more]


Euthanasia the Foremost Contentious Concern Term Paper

12 pages (4,959 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Therefore, euthanasia fosters benefit or the health of sick patients. Undeniably, in case of certain people the mere knowledge that there is a probability of having euthanasia or PAS might be psychological advantageous, although they might ultimately in no way apply these interferences. Subsequently, supporters contend that euthanasia is ethically inseparable from the acknowledged customs keeping and taking out life-giving… [read more]


Metaphor the Two Poems Term Paper

2 pages (968 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… .. I'd like to go by climbing a birch tree." How the metaphor actually functions, however, might be served by a bit of explication. In the poem's beginning, the author sees rows of half-dead trees, bowed down under some invisible and explicable weight. He immediately thinks of his own childhood when he would bend down birches and they would spring back. If the birches represent (as the seem to do) the physicality of life experience), then one can see in his childhood games a certain innocence about conscquences and reality. When snow -- true age and time-- come, however, the birches do not spring back but remain bent. So it is that all life prostrates itself to death. Yet the image here of girls drying their hair in the sun, face down, is at once an image of subjugation and also of peace. Traditional death, bowing to the will of God (who is often imagined as being solar), is both peaceful and too final for the author. He prefers to imagine that an innocent child ego-self could somehow subjugate reality to his own will, and bend the birches himself until they obeyed him. This is the beginning of the wish to overcome death. He then continues to describe the way that in walking birches one is at first carried towards the sky (as in death) and then bends towards the world again: "Up to the brim, and even above the brim. Then he flung outward, feet first, with a swish, Kicking his way down through the air to the ground..." Though he himself is not so innocent anymore, and comprehends that the woods of reality are far darker than he had imagined them as a child, being "too much like a pathless wood Where your face burns and tickles with the cobwebs Broken across it, and one eye is weeping," yet he would nonetheless like to go back to that innocence and "escape." He quickly swears off any wish to die -- in case it should be taken too far and he should end up truly dead and unable to return to earth-- but he longs to be able to embrace death if he could be sure that he would return immediately to earth as a child so that he could "begin over." In short, this is a metaphorical longing for childhood which recognizes that such a childhood is only approachable now if one were to die and be reborn. The symbols of the birches at once represent the futility of such a hope (after all, they are bent down now and have no more spring in them to lift one up and down) and the possibility that such a…… [read more]


Euthanasia (Pro) the Debate About Euthanasia (Greek Term Paper

3 pages (1,067 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Euthanasia (pro)

The debate about Euthanasia (Greek for "happy death") is an ancient one but it has acquired a new relevance in recent times as advances in medical science have greatly extended human life-spans and it is now possible to sustain life for indefinite periods through artificial means. Such advancement has created new legal and ethical problems in determining when to use medical interventions to prolong a patient's life, and when a patient should be permitted to die. Seemingly valid arguments have been advanced both for and against euthanasia. However, after examining both pro and con arguments, as done in this essay, it only seems reasonable to me that the right to die should be an individual decision.

Different Kinds of Euthanasia

The debate about "euthanasia" covers a wide range of end of life issues. For example, "active euthanasia" refers to causing a thirds person's death by, e.g., giving a lethal injection, while "passive euthanasia" is causing death by passive inaction, such as not providing medication, care or food and water. "Assisted suicide" is providing an individual with the information, guidance, and means to take his or her own life. "Voluntary euthanasia" is when a person makes a voluntary request to be helped to die and "non-voluntary euthanasia" is a circumstance where a person is helped to die when he or she is either not competent to, or unable to make such a request.

The Ethical and Legal Considerations

The Euthanasia issue presents several ethical and legal problems. For example, the main ethical dilemma is whether is morally justified to take someone else's life, irrespective of the circumstances; on the other hand, is it morally right to deny a voluntary wish to die by a person and extend his or her suffering. The legal issue is whether assisted someone to die is a criminal activity?

The Arguments against Euthanasia and their Rebuttal

One of the main arguments against euthanasia is the "religious argument" that God gives life and therefore only God has the right to take it away. Such argument is hardly sustainable since religious beliefs do not give a people a right to impose their subjective views on other people. Moreover, how can the religious people argue for postponing death of terminally ill patients through artificial means? Isn't such postponement, interfering with God's will? The religious argument for an absolute ban against "taking lives" seems even stranger when we consider that many Christian opponents of euthanasia support capital punishment.

Another argument against euthanasia is that once we permit any form of euthanasia, it would put us on a "moral slippery slope" leading to targeting of vulnerable groups of people and euthanasia would be used as a "cost cutting solution" by putting elderly and 'non-productive' people to death. Such alleged psychological inevitability of moving from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia is not supported by credible evidence. The example of Hitler's Germany is irrelevant because what the Nazis practiced was eugenics and terming it as euthanasia is a misnomer. Evidence from the… [read more]


Terri Schiavo- a Case Term Paper

5 pages (1,427 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… "What Terri Schiavo manifests is a classic vegetative state," he said to the Post. "It looks like she's looking at you, but really she's not. It looks like she's grinning at you, but she's really not." Cranford added that she does not show key signs of consciousness -- the ability to "track" with her eyes." (Marus, 2003)

Euthanasia or physician-assisted… [read more]


Physician-Assisted Suicide. Physician-Assisted Suicide Is an Emotional Term Paper

6 pages (2,037 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … physician-assisted suicide. Physician-assisted suicide is an emotional issue that is flooding the news with the current Terri Schiavo situation in Florida. When is physician-assisted suicide warranted, and who makes the terribly difficult decision to "pull the plug?" Physician-assisted suicide is controversial, but it can be the most humane option for many terminally ill patients who have no hope… [read more]


Story of an Hour Term Paper

3 pages (906 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Relationships between Louise and Brently emerged if their deaths, true or not, were studied in the context of the story. Since the story was created using a feminist paradigm, the death of man, as shown in Brently's being killed in a railroad accident, was actually the beginning of the woman's birth, as symbolically described in Louise's new resolve to life a brand new life -- single and without a husband to subjugate her. Moreover, death signifies life, as shown in Louise's new appreciation of her life as she has experienced freedom from her husband and the bondage of being married and a woman.

Thus, at the literal level, death's meaning is associated with positive concepts such as freedom and life, primarily because this was when Louise was at her happiest self. The death of her husband allowed her to reclaim her freedom, while her own death meant freedom once more to an even greater bondage -- the limits that society puts against women, which was especially more difficult when the woman is also married, as in the case of Louise.

Figurative meaning embedded in the word death is the end of patriarchy. This is a strong and very serious issue that Chopin creatively disguises through the characters of Brently and Louise in "Story." Brently's death led to Louise's freedom, which tells the reader that it is only with the 'death' -- literal death of men -- that women can truly be themselves, be free from any limits or following discriminating norms of the society. His death may also mean that it is only when men are 'under the earth,' an imagery of death, that women can be free and be happy. Notice that the imagery, 'under the earth' is also synonymous with the meaning of being subjugated, wherein one is put under someone's control involuntarily. Thus, it is in death that one achieves freedom, and the other, subjugation or passiveness (a characteristic of death).

Louise's death, meanwhile, suggests that the protest against gender inequality is futile. Thus, her death illustrates that Brently's failure to 'die,' either through literal death or subjugation to his wife, meant that women would suffer the consequences of men's (Brently's) failure to die. Thus, death in Louise's case is a response among oppressed women who had no other form of expressed protest against their state but to experience death -- either by subjugating herself to her husband, or experiencing death itself, as what Chopin's character did at the end of the story.

Work cited

Chopin, K. (1894). "The story of an hour." Available at: http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/chopin.html.… [read more]


Organ Donation the Process of Donating Organs Term Paper

2 pages (562 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Organ Donation

The process of donating organs after death is misunderstood and underutilized by many. The benefits to society as a whole are numerous. The number of people awaiting transplants has greatly outpaced the number of people donating their organs. Currently, there are over 83,000 people on the national transplant list (Snell, Levvey, & Williams, 2004). Commonly-donated organs and their uses to recipients are described below.

A kidney transplant is generally more effective in treating kidney failure than many other forms of treatment, such as dialysis (Rosendale, 2003). The ability to discontinue dialysis treatment has an enormous impact on quality of life and increases life expectancy and general health. Most kidneys used for transplants come from people who have died in a hospital intensive care unit.

The liver is a commonly-donated organ. Alcohol abuse is the primary reason for liver transplant. The success rate of this procedure is ~80% (Rosendale, 2003).

The small bowel can be damaged so much by severe infection or in an accident that the person can no longer absorb enough food to stay alive. Transplantation of the small bowel is not yet widely available. Pancreatic transplantation is offered only to people with very severe diabetes and renal failure who have both a kidney and pancreas transplant at the same time. Occasionally, a diabetic may have such uncontrollable disease that transplant of a pancreas alone may be considered. Serious injury to the cornea can lead to scarring that prevents light from passing through to the retina and causes partial or complete blindness. Cornea transplants are generally highly successful and can be carried out under general or local anesthetic.

In most cases, the recipient of the organ…… [read more]


Assisted Suicide Legal History US Term Paper

5 pages (1,535 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Physician-Assisted Suicide

For the most part, the current argument for physician-assisted suicide in the United States has much to do with whether or not, under special circumstances, is it morally and ethically permissible for a physician to provide the knowledge and/or means whereby a terminally ill patient can have his/her own life ended. In modern terms, this medical act, sometimes… [read more]


Brutus in Julius Caesar Term Paper

2 pages (639 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… However, Brutus goes beyond just being present when the assassination happens. He helps lure Caesar to his death. Caesar has been convinced by his wife, who has noted numerous omens and has dreamed of his murder all night, that he should stay home. However, Brutus comes to his house and argues that he may lose the crown if he does not come, saying,

"And know it now: the senate have concluded

To give this day a crown to mighty Caesar.

If you shall send them word you will not come,

Their minds may change." II.ii.98-101

Brutus not only agrees to the conspiracy but makes sure that Caesar will be at the spot chosen for his murder, guaranteeing that Caesar will be killed.

Finally, after Brutus has delivered the final stab wound and Caesar has died, Brutus has the opportunity to grieve for his dead friend. Even though he believes the assassination was necessary, surely a good friend would express grief. If he does not express grief for his friend's death, at least he will express grief that t was so necessary. Instead, Cassius offers the opinion that they have saved Caesar twenty years of worrying about when he would die. Brutus, who knew Caesar well enough to know what the audience knows -- that Caesar does not fear death -- instead joins in the rationalization, saying,

"Grant that, and then is death a benefit:

So are we Caesar's friends, that have abridged

His time of fearing death." III.I.113-115.

All through the play, Brutus shows the audience that he has turned on his friend. Instead of warning him, he participates in the plot, helps lure his friend to his death, and then callously rationalizes that it was better for Caesar to die. These choices make Brutus an opportunistic villain, not a hero.… [read more]


Assisted Suicide, or Called Euthanasia Term Paper

2 pages (633 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… " In 1995, 21% of the patients who were killed without consent were competent.

The legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide is still being debated nowadays. Specifically, most of the debates and issues were represented by representatives from the medical practice, from the government, and from religious groups who believe that Euthanasia and Assisted Suicides should not be legalized. Opposing its legalization, Luke Gormally (1997) has the following reasons why Assisted Suicide should not be legalized.

The 'justification' of voluntary euthanasia involves rejection of a tenet fundamental to a just framework of laws in society

To legalize assistance in suicide is also inconsistent with the same fundamental tenet of a just legal system

If voluntary euthanasia is legalized then the most compelling reason for opposing the legalization of non-voluntary euthanasia has been abandoned

Legalization of voluntary euthanasia would also encourage the practice of non-voluntary euthanasia without benefit of legalization

Euthanasia undermines the dispositions we require in doctors and is therefore destructive of the practice of medicine

The legalization of euthanasia undermines the impetus to develop truly compassionate approaches to the care of the suffering and the dying

The pros and cons of Assisted Suicide seem to cover a wide area that up to now, no nation has totally agreed or disagreed with the practice. Despite of the different types of assisted suicide, the result of the practice is still to end one's life, whether it is voluntary or involuntary. And the question of morality and ethics will remain in the issues that the practice endlessly presents.

Bibliography

Earll, Carrie G. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia.

2001. Focus on Social Issues Online. 2004.

http://www.family.org/cforum/fosi/bioethics/euthanasia/a0027997.cfm

B.A. Robinson. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: All Sides

1997. Ontario Religious Consultants Online. 2004.

http://www.religioustolerance.org/euth1.htm

Gormally, L. Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide.

1997. Linacre.Org. 2004.

http://www.linacre.org/newsle~1.htm… [read more]


Voluntary Euthanasia the Right to Die Term Paper

10 pages (2,504 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Euthanasia: Pros and Cons

Euthanasia is the most debated topic in medical circles carrying very sensitive ethical and moral implications to it. While by no means can the right to put an end to life be considered a rightful decision sometimes the plight of the patient justifies this merciful intervention. A careful study of the pros and cons of the… [read more]


Osteoporosis Is a Disease Term Paper

4 pages (1,248 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Prevalence: Men and women, aged 50 and older, are most susceptible to the onset of osteoporosis. However, it is important to note that women are far more prone to the disease. For example, of the 10 million Americans estimated to have the disease, 8 million are women. Osteoporosis has also been reported as a significant risk in people of all ethnic backgrounds, though it is believed that Caucasians and Asians are more prone to developing the disease. Finally, although osteoporosis is often thought of as an older person's disease, it can strike at any age (NOF, 2004).

Role of Diet: Diet has a definite role to play in preventing osteoporosis. As has been observed earlier, low lifetime calcium intake increases the risk of osteoporosis. In addition, since calcium requirements increase with age, it is important to regulate the amount of calcium intake. For example, in most pre-menopausal women, and in men, at least 800 milligrams of calcium per day is required to maintain body calcium, while post-menopausal women require 1,200 to 1,500 milligrams daily. Another dietary factor is protein intake, since this affects the daily calcium requirement. An increased intake speeds calcium excretion, especially in the case of high-meat diets. Thus, careful regulation of diet can help reduce he risk of osteoporosis: "Ensure an adequate calcium intake, in the diet itself if possible (milk, yogurt) or at least by supplemental calcium. Calcium supplements may exert a partial suppressive effect on bone remodeling, whereas calcium in milk does not, so milk is preferred." Besides calcium, attention also needs to be paid to vitamin D intake, and it is recommended that excessive phosphates be avoided (Walford, 2000, p. 132-133).

The Role of Diet in Managing the Disease: A diet that is high in calcium, along with activities such as walking, running, tennis or even climbing stairs can all promote bone density. Thus, diet, body weight, and exercise can play an instrumental role in preventing and managing the disease. However, once osteoporosis has been diagnosed, treatment is dependent on age, sex, medical history and which bones have been broken. The treatments available include Hormone Replacement Therapy, Testosterone Therapy, calcium and vitamin D supplements (BBC, 2004).

Cure: Currently, there is no cure for osteoporosis (NOF, 2004). However, as mentioned earlier, there are treatments and medications that are available for treatment of the disease. The only role diet plays once the disease has been diagnosed is in increasing the level of calcium and vitamin D intake through foods such as milk and yogurt. But even here, usually the patients are advised to increase their intake through calcium supplements.

Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a disease that can be debilitating. Unfortunately, not enough attention is being paid to either prevent or detect the disease at an early stage. Thus, there is a great deal of effort that needs to be made in the area of educating the public about the role diet and exercise plays in preventing the disease. Similarly, the medical fraternity needs to mobilize greater efforts… [read more]


Pros and Cons of Assisted Suicide Term Paper

4 pages (1,923 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Assisted Suicide

The fright of continuing endless agony, of remaining captive by medical devices, of waning physical reliability and individual self-esteem and being a cause of emotional and monetary depletion on one's near and dear ones - these frights gives force to the campaign for euthanasia and for physician-assisted suicide - PAS. The expressions willful active euthanasia and… [read more]


Physician-Assisted Suicide a Review Term Paper

8 pages (3,042 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The argument could be made that people just die and there is no real difference but there is a strong difference between a good death and a bad one (Brody, 1992). People that are made to be afraid, to suffer, and to rely solely on others for any kind of care often do not wish to live any longer and… [read more]


Human Central Nervous System Plays Term Paper

2 pages (795 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The amygdala is strongly associated with emotional processing in the brain, and is a pea-sized new center of the brain (Dye).

A recent Stanford University study used functional MRI scans to investigate the connection between personality and the amygdala. The researchers selected 15 subjects, and tested the subjects to determine their degree of extroversion (outgoing and optimistic), or whether these individuals for slightly worried, insecure, and potentially shy. Participants were then showed a series of photographs, while being scanned by the functional MRI. In all subjects, an unpleasant or threatening expression on the face was associated with activity in the amygdala. However, the two groups differed significantly in their reaction to a happy face. Specifically, extroverted individuals showed a consistent activation of the amygdala in response to a happy face. In contrast, shy individuals showed little or no reaction to the happy face (Dye).

Diseases like Alzheimer's disease can also offer an interesting insight into how the Central Nervous System controls are personality. It Alzheimer's disease, large numbers of brain cells die over time. The death of these brain cells results in dementia, mental deterioration, and eventual death. Alzheimer's symptoms include problems with abstract thinking, impaired language and social skills, loss of short- and long-term memory, and significant personality changes (Windsor).

The personality changes seen in Alzheimer's disease can be linked directly to changes in the CNS. Personality changes seen in Alzheimer's disease can include uncharacteristic violence, paranoia, increased apathy, and social reclusion. In turn, these personality changes a result from the death of brain cells (Windsor).

In conclusion, studies of brain damage, individuals with Alzheimer's disease, and brain imaging have revealed a strong link between the CNS and personality. Specific regions of the brain, in particular, are linked to specific personality characteristics. However, as Dye notes, "we still have a long ways to go before we will understand why each of us became what we are."

References

Medline plus. Medical Encyclopedia: Central Nervous System. 15 November 2004.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/8679.htm

Dye, Lee. Scientists Seek Personality's Roots in Brain. ABC News, June 27, 2004. 15

November 2004. http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=97961& page=1

ThinkQuest. The Nervous System: The Mind. 15 November 2004.

library.thinkquest.org/26773/a16.htm

Windsor, Eliza. THE I-FUNCTION AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: WHERE IS THE

PERSON? 15 November 2004. http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro98/202s98-

paper1/Windsor.html… [read more]


Romeo and Juliet the Protagonist Term Paper

1 pages (445 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Romeo and Juliet reaches a climax when Romeo believes that Juliet is dead. Taking the poison, he kills himself before knowing that Juliet's state was temporary and that she was still alive. When Juliet awakens and sees her lover dead, she too commits suicide and the play's plot is soon resolved.

The resolution of the play occurs when Juliet stabs herself. Now the lovers are united in death. Their parents' fighting indirectly caused their suicides; the sight of their dead children inspires the Montagues and Capulets to resolve their differences and cease the feud.

Romeo and Juliet is set in Verona, a town in Italy. The setting accentuates the romantic theme of the play, for Italy is commonly thought of as a romantic locale. The setting is also important in bringing out the nature of the characters and of the two families: both the Capulets and Montagues are prominent, wealthy families in the town.

Finally, the theme of Romeo and Juliet centers on love. Love is shown to be a powerful, all-encompassing force of passion, but is also shown to be potentially destructive. The love between Romeo and Juliet is passionate and romantic, but it leads to their deaths. Nevertheless, their expression of love eventually caused their warring families to reunite.… [read more]


Eurydice by Jean Anouilh Contrasting Term Paper

3 pages (1,076 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… This begins as a light romance, and ends as a highly disturbing play that makes the reader really think about what just happened.

Eurydice is portrayed as an innocent. Her mother laments, "...she protects all the lame things in the world, God knows why - old cats, lost dogs, helpless drunkards'" (Anouilh 63). However, Eurydice is really worldly and not innocent at all, for she has lived a difficult life. She knows more about love than Orpheus does, but together, they form just the right combination of innocence and worldliness to make the reader believe they just might make it together. Of course, the reality is they are doomed from the start, but that is clearer to Eurydice than it is to Orpheus, who still holds out hope for true happiness. Eurydice knows happiness is really not available, and that is why she leaves, and consistently says, "It's so difficult'" (Anouilh 85). Life is difficult, and if Orpheus refuses to recognize this, Eurydice does. She can live with the memories of her one happy day, but Orpheus cannot. In fact, he cannot live without Eurydice at all.

Orpheus is not wrongheaded about Eurydice - they are simply two different people. Orpheus is really the innocent and the idealist, while Eurydice is the realist. He loves her so completely that it does not matter to him how she looks, but Eurydice knows, and tells him "Yes, but perhaps you thought I was someone else. And when you see me as I am...'" (Anouilh 91). Eurydice sees herself more clearly than Orpheus does, and so, she knows if they stay together, she will never live up to his worship and adoration. She is human, but Orpheus has put her on a pedestal. This does not make him wrong about her, because anyone can rise up to expectations of greatness. However, Orpheus is innocent, and does not see the realities of their relationship, or the reality that death is the only thing that can truly bring them together. M. Henri tells him, "You're unfair. Why should you hate death? She alone can create the proper setting for love'" (Anouilh 116). Thus, the final reality is set. Death is the only thing that can keep the lovers together, because life will always get in the way. The realities of life, from embarrassing mothers and incapable fathers will always get in the way of the illusion of idealism and love. Orpheus has to learn this the hard way, and he does when he sees his love dead in the street. The reality of life comes home to him then, and he understands the finality of death, and the end of his idealism. He and Eurydice will never be the same, but, they will be together, and that is the only thing that truly matters to him by the end of the play. Idealism and realism have come full circle, and everyone has learned a lesson in them when the playwright is finished.

References

Anouilh, Jean.… [read more]


Epic of Gilgamesh Term Paper

7 pages (2,674 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… He does not listen to Shamash, his personal god-friend, nor does he take the advice of Siduri. Gilgamesh, like most humans, has to learn the hard way. He learns from each mistake as the reader follows him through his journey of life. The death of Enkidu is the point at which personal introspection overtakes his bravado. Yet, Gilgamesh is still… [read more]


Anti) Right to Die Science Term Paper

8 pages (2,264 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… This study was conducted on chronically ill patients who have attempted suicide. Many families who were overwhelmed with the difficulties of caring for their ill relatives often did not want them resuscitated. However, the state initiated a program wherein home health care costs would be shouldered by the state. When this program was created, there was a marked decrease in… [read more]


Shakespeare's Hamlet and Herman Hesse Term Paper

2 pages (640 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… However, towards the end of the play he sees the evils of society as a reflection of larger human social evils, including but not limited to the fact that a good king's memory can be easily erased and forgotten. When contemplating Yorick's skull in the graveyard before the suicide Ophelia's funeral, he realizes that even Caesar's existence, not only his father's ended in death and dust. It is this fact that spurs him to state, much like a proto-Buddhist, "let be," to his friend Horatio when facing the duel that takes place before the bloody last scene of the play, not caring whether he dies or lives, and accepting that vengeance will come, not when he wills it, but when the world's actions meet in the correct constellation. Or, as Eliot says, "Quick now, here, now, always -- /A condition of complete simplicity/(Costing not less than everything)/And all shall be well and/All manner of things shall be well," echoing Hamlet's words of comfort to his mother after the infamous closet scene.

Hamlet kills Claudius at the end, but there is no catharsis or final revelation from the audience's point-of-view, only the protagonist's own demise and the promise of final revelation of Horatio to the usurping Fortinbras. However, the true resolution of the play is Hamlet's final sense of peace, though he leaves behind a bloody scene -- much like the Buddha achieves peace, though he does not change the material nature of the world of death, sickness, and human suffering. The change comes within both character's minds, rather in a physical sense. Both Hamlet and Siddhartha begin and end in the same place in body, but in spirit and mind they have traveled across oceans of human misunderstanding, through the "unknown remembered gate," as spoken of in Eliot, into a realm of true understanding.… [read more]


Holistic/Diagnostic You're Going Essay

2 pages (654 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… The story inspired her and she was better able to understand what I was trying to say. Anecdotes, I have found, often bridge the gap between intended thought and verbiage. However, I also wanted to tell Loreen that I felt that she might have been repressing her anger all this time: anyone who has been diagnosed with a terminal illness must on some level, at some time, feel incredible anger, resentment, and fear. I wanted to let Loreen known that it was alright to experience and express these emotions. However, when I tried to tell her this, the words came out garbled and they didn't really connect with what I was trying to communicate via the anecdote about spontaneous healing.

I'm just saying that being angry might be necessary for you."

She agreed but still didn't see how that connected with her dilemma between accepting death and fighting it. Later on, reflecting on what I should or shouldn't have said to Loreen, I realized that I should have told her that I thought that regardless of which path she chose, I felt that confronting her emotions would be more beneficial than repressing them.

Confronting a terminal illness or any other issue that touches upon the sensitive subject of death can be one of the most difficult topics to talk about. Words are totally inadequate to communicate the fear, empathy, and anger that accompany human mortality. Especially when speaking directly with someone who is acutely aware of their immanent mortality, talking about death can be frustrating and nearly futile. Here I am, a healthy, vital human being talking to a woman whose body is deteriorating. I can't possibly relate to what she is going through and yet I must in some way communicate love and understanding.… [read more]


Gilgamesh the King Term Paper

3 pages (977 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… He travels far and wide in search of immortality and comes across various important figures who remind him of the reality and certainty of death. Siduri the barmaid tells him categorically that immortality was an elusive thing that couldn't be attained by mortals because death was meant to be the final and definite conclusion of human life. She reminds him of the one crucial difference between man and god and that lied in the phenomenon of death. While human beings died, God is meant to live forever. Siduri further offers sound suggestions for enrichment of life and seeking a different kind of immortality. She tells Gilgamesh that he must fill his days with as much fun and frolic as he could while remaining kind towards others including his wife as such things had the power to enrich his life and give him spiritual immortality.

However Gilgamesh is not enlightened enough to understand the meaning of any kind of immortality other than the physical one and therefore even though he understands that he was being told the truth but is still not willing to give up his quest for immortality. He finally gets a chance to meet a man who had achieved immortality only to realize that pursuit of an endless life was a not worthwhile since it could lead to more misery and loneliness.

Gilgamesh however finally manages to get the immortality plant which a serpent steals on his way back. This incident opens the doors of enlightenment and Gilgamesh realizes that there must have been a lesson in this. He finally accepts that he must die too since human beings couldn't attain physical immortality. "One of the purposes of this [work] or the original that lies behind it, was surely to emphasize that even the king, in spite of his divine associations, must die; and to assert that this was no anomaly reflecting on the king's authority on earth, but the result of a solemn divine decree." (Kirk, 142)

Conclusion

Once he accepts the truth about life and death, Gilgamesh give sup his old ways and instead starts ruling with compassion and kindness. We must understand that one part of Gilgamesh's was not human and thus while his human side had to die, his god-like side was indeed immortal. But one person cannot be expected to die as well as live forever. Therefore we notice that while the physical side of Gilgamesh was meant to die, his spiritual side was destined to remain immortal. Gilgamesh attains this kind of immorality through his virtues and compassion. It is because of Gilgamesh's spiritual immortality that he is still one of the most widely talked and written about figures in the world.

REFERENCE

Kirk, G.S. Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures. Cambridge U.P. And California U.P., 1970… [read more]


Euthanasia: "Should Physicians Be Allowed Term Paper

7 pages (2,286 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Inconvenienced relatives could be encouraged to persuade patients to "voluntarily" ask for death; handicapped children and senile persons who are considered as burdens on the families and societies could be the next targets.

Another valid concern associated with assisted suicide is its potential for abuse as a cost containment tool. "Lethal medication" has been termed as the "least costly treatment… [read more]


Preservation of Assets Term Paper

3 pages (754 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… It is important for the elderly to understand the way property and cash affect their liability when it comes to medical bills and other costs such as nursing homes.

The government does provide a Medicaid program for those who have low incomes. Because a low income is a requirement of being in the program the elderly that have assets generally do not qualify. Instead those residents are forced to find ways to preserve their assets in the event they encounter such situations. Often times the elderly put their property or assets into the names of their children or other family members. Because there are time tables by which this has to be done or it will still be counted against the elderly income, it is important that the assets are transferred in a timely manner (Gurny, 1992).

In addition there are certain assets that are not attachable, including assets that are willed to family members in some cases. This allows the elderly to will certain types of assets to the family members and protect those assets from seizure or inclusion in the calculation for medical responsibility.

The government is constantly evaluating the criteria for paying the medical bills of the elderly as well as the criteria for financial assets of those who have to reside in a nursing home (Hogan, 1993).

The elderly have several options for preserving assets including gifting or selling their property to family members, willing some types of assets to those who will receive them, investing in things that do not show a profit and others. The elderly person who wants to preserve his or her assets in the face of medical bills and nursing homes would be prudent to ask an attorney for all of the ways they can do so.

REFERENCES

Family Unit Incomes of the Elderly and Children, 1994.(Statistical Data Included)

Date: 12/22/1996; Publication: Social Security Bulletin; Author: Radner, Daniel B.

A description of Medicaid eligibility. (Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement)

Date: 01/01/1992; Publication: Health Care Financing Review; Author: Gurny, Paul Baugh, David K. Davis, Feather Ann

Health insurance and the elderly: data from MCBS. (Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey)

Date: 03/22/1993; Publication: Health Care Financing Review; Author: Chulis, George S. Eppig, Franklin J. Hogan, Mary…… [read more]


Suicide Among Youth and Elderly Term Paper

3 pages (870 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Other identified risk factors include a family history of mental or substance abuse disorders, a history of physical and/or sexual abuse, low levels of communication with parents, the possession of certain cultural and religious beliefs about suicide (for instance, the belief that suicide is a noble resolution of a personal dilemma), and lack of access or an unwillingness to seek mental health treatment.

Youth suicide protective factors can include an individual's genetic makeup, behavior and the environment. Other voluntary protective factors are learned skills in problem solving, impulse control, conflict resolution, and nonviolent handling of disputes. Family and community support is very important; as is access to effective and appropriate mental health care A scientific approach to preventing suicide involves describing and monitoring the problem, understanding risk factors and causes of suicidal behavior and protective factors, developing and implementing interventions and prevention strategies in the context of evaluation research, and disseminating information about effective strategies. The research is focused on promoting overall mental health among school-aged children by reducing early risk factors for depression, substance abuse and aggressive behaviors and building resiliency. Another approach is to detect youth most likely to be suicidal by confidentially screening for depression, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation. Efforts should be made to develop and implement strategies to reduce the stigma associated with accessing mental health, substance abuse, and suicide prevention treatments. Additionally, efforts to limit young people's access to lethal agents -- including firearms and medications -- may hold great suicide prevention value. Persons deemed at risk for suicide should then be referred for additional mental health services. (NIMH, 2003)

People involved with children and youth like parents and school personnel should be aware of the warning signs such as loss of energy or "making negative comments about oneself, behaviors.

Suicide disproportionately impacts the elderly. In 1998, the elderly represented 13% of the population, but suffered 19% of all suicide deaths. Firearms (71%), overdose [liquids, pills or gas] (11%) and suffocation (11%) were the three most common methods of suicide used by persons aged 65+ years. It is estimated that 20% of elderly (over 65 years) persons who commit suicide visited a physician within 24 hours of their act, 41% visited within a… [read more]


Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide Term Paper

3 pages (970 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… On the contrary, the artificial extension of life imposes a state-defined state of existence, one that denies personal liberty and the possibility of ending pain and suffering. The terminally ill contend with degrees of physical pain that most moralists cannot fathom. Moreover, voluntary euthanasia is often the only means by which a dying person can regain control of their life. Just as each person should able to choose their own lifestyle, so too should individuals be able to decide when they have had enough of hanging on by a thread.

Permitting terminally ill patients, many of which suffer from extraordinary mental and physical pain, to end their lives also significantly helps the family members of those who suffer. No one likes to watch their loved ones linger in a brain-dead state indefinitely. Voluntary euthanasia is often an expression of compassion for the family members as well as the individual in question also because of the exorbitant medical costs incurred with the artificial extension of life. Euthanasia is often a sacred pact between patient, family, and physician. Voluntary euthanasia is not a spur-of-the-moment decision based on momentary pain; it arises out of chronic illness and a willingness to accept mortality in a healthy manner.

Voluntary euthanasia, by definition, precludes unauthorized mercy killings predicated on delusional or malicious intent. In order for euthanasia to become fully legal, a strict definition should be devised. Voluntary euthanasia is also not depression-related suicide. Mental illnesses that evoke suicidal tendencies can be treated and do not warrant the premature termination of life. However, terminally ill patients who are hooked up to life support equipment or who have suffered irreparable brain damage, are candidates for legalized euthanasia, not angry teenagers or depressed housewives.

When considered in a legal context, euthanasia is first and foremost an issue of personal choice. The state should ensure the rights of its citizens to end their lives in instances of terminal illness. As with abortion, those who do not support the practice can do so without interfering with the rights of others. Furthermore, voluntary euthanasia, when addressed ethical grounds, is actually a morally upstanding choice. In most cases, voluntary euthanasia allows people to die pain-free, without lingering on a death bed any longer than is necessary and without expensive and cumbersome medical equipment designed to artificially extend life. Voluntary euthanasia is so controversial because it invokes our ingrained fear of death.

Works Cited

Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Introduction." Religious Tolerance.org. http://www.religioustolerance.org/euth1.htm.

Gula, Richard. "Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring?" Christian Century. 5 May 1999. Online at Find Articles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1058/14_116/54588537/p1/article.jhtml?term=euthanasia.

Leutwyler, Kristen. "In Cases of Euthanasia, Men Most Often Kill Women." Scientific American. 24 Sept 2001. Online at http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000B5030-819D-1C61-B882809EC588ED9F&catID=1.… [read more]


Intergenerational Conflict Term Paper

2 pages (807 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… (Fox-Grage) The burden of paying for those could conceivably fall on the younger generation if the government bowed out of long-term care and left it to individuals.

Second, it would not address the real issue at hand which is this: all generations need to begin to take better care of themselves to avoid the illnesses that can be avoided (cancer from smoking, for example), and possibly diminish the severity of those that may be inevitable for many (Alzheimer's). Washington points out that most insurers do not reimburse patients for weight-loss programs but do pay for dealing with illnesses related to obesity, such as hypertension and diabetes. She also cites Rand Corporation, which claims obese patients spend 36% more on medical services and 77% more on prescription drugs than those of average weight. Smokers spend 21% more on care and 28% more on drugs.

Third, in the event that people do get sick, even after taking preventive health maintenance steps, such as not smoking, a better solution would be community-based services before people get to the point of needing a nursing home. Several states, including Wisconsin, already have such a program in place. And they find it saves on the average nursing home cost of $3,000 a month for bare-bones care, coming in at about $23,000 a year. (Fox-Grage)

It is clear that medical costs in old age begin in the things we do when we are younger, and putting a short-term stop to rising costs by denying care to current elders would do nothing to solve the problem in the long-term, and would heap even further generational stress on both generations. It is ridiculous to penalize elders for failing to heed health warnings that we are still failing to heed. It is apparent that the long-term solution to elder medical costs is to begin now by finding more community-based and less expensive alternatives to nursing homes to mitigate those costs without undue stress; to encourage insurance companies to pay for curing the base problems (smoking, overweight) rather than applying band-aids at enormous cost to the results, and; to begin, in all generations, to pay attention to the real science that can not only keep down elder medical costs, but make us all healthier and conceivably happier on the way to and through inevitable old age.

References

Caring for elderly parents is a health wake-up call. (2002, March 19). The Washington Times, p.…… [read more]


School Response to Student Suicide Term Paper

10 pages (3,279 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… King asserts that the very day of the suicide, the principal needs to inform all teachers there will be a face-to-face session the following morning, ensuring that staff have the facts correct.

Each first period teacher the following day, has a duty to announce the death of the student, and inform students as to where and when counseling is available.… [read more]


Euthanasia Science and Technology Term Paper

2 pages (692 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Though she mentions the financial and emotional toll on the Spring family, Goodman thus concludes that Spring must be given "the benefit of the doubt" (628).

Unlike Golway, Goodman does not believe in moral absolutes, particularly in questions like euthanasia. Though the position may seem vacillating, it also allows her to look at individual interests and to discern the moral nuances of euthanasia. Thus, she partly agrees with Golway in that euthanasia is forcing a change in the way society allocates resources for treatment. However, she stops short of Golway's value judgments.

Golway and Goodman's differing positions stem not only from different political stands, but different ethical precepts. At issue is what Ronald Dworkin terms people's belief in "the sanctity of life," a multidimensional value measured in several factors. First, life itself has an instrumental value, because everyone's life can contribute to the interests and well being of society as a whole. Second, life has a personal value, a good or personal worth to the living individual. Finally, beyond the instrumental and personal, life also has an intrinsic value. This intrinsic value exists independently of other people's valuation, regardless of the beliefs of its possessor or other observers (McMahan, 330).

For Golway and all opponents of euthanasia, any life has intrinsic value. This trumps any instrumental value (as assigned by society) or any personal value (as articulated by an individual seeking euthanasia). Goodman tries a different approach, one that combines intrinsic, instrumental and personal value. It is a more nuanced approach, but is most likely to face controversy and stiff opposition.

Since euthanasia is largely a question of morality and ethics, addressing this question through legislation will do little to quell the debate. The only certainty is that as science continues to advance, society will continue to grapple with the moral questions raised by the silent figures of Karen Ann Quinlan and Earle Spring.

Works Cited

Golway, Terry. "The Culture of Death."

Goodman, Ellen. "Who Lives? Who Dies? Who Decides?"

McMahan, Jeff. The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins…… [read more]


Active Euthanasia Term Paper

3 pages (925 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… This 'slippery slope' theory owes more to atrocities committed by Hitler's Nazi regime, than to any objective or empirical evidence. The number of people requesting physician-assisted euthanasia would be as small as that which currently persuades others to act illegally in order to ease their suffering. Such an argument displays a frighteningly high level of paranoia, and worryingly low level of faith in the individual's desire for life and in the integrity of the medical profession. Human beings have an incredible will to live, and it is only when that life is no longer worth fighting for that anyone would resort to seeking assistance in ending it. If an individual's suffering is such that they would prefer to die, then no one else has the right to deny them that final choice.

The debate on active euthanasia often focuses on whether or not physicians should be permitted to assist terminally ill patients to end their life peacefully. Of greater relevance would be a campaign to ensure that active euthanasia should be restricted only to the assistance of physicians. Simply decriminalizing euthanasia would result in a similar situation to the present, with desperate individuals seeking assistance from already distraught family members. Only if active euthanasia were legally restricted to physician assistance would opposition arguments of system abuse and lack of safeguards be allayed. Permitting physician-assisted euthanasia allows the physicians to become actively involved in the decision making process, with the patient and their family, which would ensure important safeguards and allow the appropriate level of information and palliative care was available throughout the decision-making process.

The issue of legalized euthanasia, especially the involvement of physician assistance, is a potential battlefield of opinions and beliefs. There are many strongly held arguments opposed to permitting the medical profession to become involved in the process of active suicide. These arguments are important, in that they ensure that the topic is fully debated and, if given the legal go-ahead, will ensure that relevant safeguards are in place. However, opposition to physician-assisted euthanasia of terminally ill patients has no foundation in empirical evidence, but are based on subjective and emotional concerns. Above all other concerns must be the respect for an individual's right to self-determination and the freedom to make personal decisions about their life and death. By permitting physicians to assist in the process of upholding this basic human right, society can ensure that those who find themselves in such a position will be assured of the relevant safeguards and care

Reference

Brock, W., Dan, (1992). Voluntary Active Euthanasia. Hastings Center Report, March/April, 11-12, 14-17, 19-21.… [read more]


Shakespeare's Hamlet Contains Messages Term Paper

2 pages (647 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Hamlet is aware that he possesses the "cause and will and strength and means / To do't," (IV, 4). But because Hamlet is basically a good man, he struggles with actually taking revenge.

Obsessed with death and revenge, Hamlet frequently ponders both the spiritual and physical nature of the end of life. "To be, or not to be, that is the question," is a meditation on the nature of human existence. These ponderings are universal and timeless. Hamlet also considers suicide, and struggles with the morality of that act. Hamlet's preoccupation with death is evident since the first act of the play, when he still wears mourning clothes. He also criticizes his mother for remarrying so soon after her husband's death: "O God, a beast that wants discourse of reason would have mourned longer," Hamlet says of Queen Gertrude (I, ii). He believes that his mother did not properly honor her husband's death. In Act 5, Hamlet fondles the lips of Yorick's skull, making the morbid reality of decaying human flesh real. "Here hung those lips that I have kissed I not how oft," (V, i). Although the afterlife is uncertain, death cannot be escaped. It is the final physical reality.

The themes of death and revenge are closely linked throughout Shakespeare's Hamlet. The play's protagonist preoccupies himself with the spiritual nature of death and the afterlife since his father's ghost appears to him in the first act. Hamlet is an introspective character that reflects on the nature of life, death, and revenge. Killing Claudius is Hamlet's only way to exact revenge for King Hamlet's murder. Throughout the play, Hamlet struggles with the timing of his revenge and finally achieves a type of salvation at the end of the play when he receives a soldier's funeral. The human desire for vengeance is not unique to Elizabethan times. Even today revenge is a primal drive of…… [read more]


Right to Die Term Paper

15 pages (4,327 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… "In Quinlan, the court wrote, "The only practical way to prevent destruction of the right is to permit the guardian and family of Quinlan to render their best judgment." They concluded that, "Quinlan's right of privacy may be asserted on her behalf by her guardian." [6] In Bludworth, the Florida Supreme Court stated that,"The primary concern of these cases is… [read more]


Small, Crimson Birthmark on Georgiana Term Paper

1 pages (310 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Hawthorne is making the point here that people tend to pay undue attention to flaws and ignore positive traits, often at great expense.

4: Aylmer had an obsession with science and the perfection of mankind beyond an earthly level. He had a passionate love of science and believed he could conquer any obstacle through the use of his mind and skills. Aylmer's failure in the laboratory to successfully and safely remove Georgiana's birthmark represents his failure as a husband and as a decent human being. This failure shows how an obsession with superficial perfection results in a degradation of humanity. Aylmer had the confidence that he could play God and rid Georgiana of her earthly imperfection in order to make her divine.

His failure to do so after taking drastic measures symbolizes the misdeed in attempting to conquer or change the essence of humanity,…… [read more]


Active and Passive Euthanasia Term Paper

2 pages (650 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… If active euthanasia is benevolent, or done with compassion and love, then passive euthanasia is malevolent, and wrong. If done for the wrong reasons of course, such as personal gain, any euthanasia is wrong, but that is not Rachels' argument here, it is whether active euthanasia should be recognized and applied.

Similarly, the utilitarian principle of the "greatest good" also applies here. "The Christian love ethic, searching seriously for a social policy, forms a coalition with the utilitarian principle of the 'greatest good of the greatest number.' Of course it reshapes it into the 'most love for the most neighbors'"

Fletcher 19). The greatest good applied here ultimately comes down to passive euthanasia as the greatest good for the greatest number of suffering, terminal patients. If a doctor must justify his or the family's decision to end the life of a patient, the principle of the "greatest good" not only applies to the suffering of the patient, but the suffering of the family as they watch their loved one die a prolonged and agonized death.

In conclusion, euthanasia is a controversial and emotional issue. Rachels treats it as a moral issue that must be addressed by the medical community, and his arguments are persuasive and rational. In a country where we routinely put beloved pets "to sleep" to end their suffering, it seems ridiculous and hypocritical that we cannot do the same for suffering loved ones. Many people are opposed to euthanasia on the religious grounds that it is murder. However, the merciful ending of a life that has already ended in every other sense seems not only compassionate and benevolent, it seems the only rational thing to do, and the last act of love and devotion a family member can provide their loved ones.

References

Rachels, James. "Active and passive Euthanasia." PLEASE ADD BOOK HERE.

A www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=85664345"Fletcher, Joseph. Moral Responsibility: Situation Ethics at Work. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1967.… [read more]


Crow Flies Term Paper

3 pages (990 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… She informs P.K. that although she has seen the angel of death, she is going to defeat it and keep it from its intended destination. P.K. is greatly relieved and reassured when his wife tells him that she intends to remain in charge of everything. He takes his golf clubs and leaves for another imaginary round of golf.

Even though Mrs. Chan is determined to battle Sandra Smith, no one realizes that the angel of death has already won the battle and is merely waiting like the "crow sitting on the window sill," for Mrs. Chan to come and follow it "home." Mrs. Chan cannot outsmart the ghost with Chinese ruses, she cannot use goldfish to keep the angel at bay, she cannot rely upon her front steps to keep the angel from entering the house, because the angel is already inside the house, and Mrs. Chan has already met her face-to-face.

In another instance of showing human similarities in spite of cultural difference, Mrs. Chan explains that she is not at all similar to foolish Americans who "Never think of death. Never prepare for anything. Always think, life goes on and on, forever." In claiming that she is dissimilar to people who think in this manner, she does not see that she is actually describing herself, another human oversight that is nearly universal.

The meaning of the white slips worn by both Hannah and Mrs. Chan under their dresses can be interpreted in at least two ways. Because both are wearing white slips under outer garments or disguises, one can see this as yet another example of the author's use of symbolism to infer that under the surfaces humans are rather alike. An additional interpretation is that when Hannah removes her disguise and sits down in Mrs. Chan's chair wearing a slip, she is displaying a sense of comfortable familiarity in the household. She will not have to use a disguise or subterfuge with P.K., because he has already stated he will have no resistance to her. She merely needs to wait for him. As Mrs. Chan departs through the garden to "go home," Hannah waits in Mrs. Chan's chair for P.K., knowing that he will come to the chair expecting to find his wife, and will instead come face-to-face with death. P.K. arrives shortly from his wanderings and approaches the chair from behind, exactly as Hannah expects him to do. Death is now at home in the Chan's house, and the Chans will soon both "be home" elsewhere.

With his use of symbolism and his humorous touches, Hwang not only put a human face on Death in this short play, but he also painted a picture of universality in human traits. He showed that despite the outward differences and the stereotypes, human beings are actually very similar at the core.… [read more]


Another Person's Perspective on Terri Schiavo Interview

2 pages (441 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Euthanasia Worldview

The author of this response spoke to a young adult about the same age as the author. The author of this report agreed not to use the person's name in exchange for their brutal honesty and candor about what they thought about euthanasia. The interviewee noted that he is a Catholic. He cited the spiel that Catholics typically believe that suicide is a mortal sin and that means that the person would go straight to Hell. However, he noted that the fact that Terri was in a vegetative state would probably negate that. The respondent noted that he does not believe or agree in euthanasia or suicide but that he knows he cannot force others to believe or do the same way that he does. He also noted that he is not sure what he would do if he had terminal cancer or something like that and knew he was going to die.

The interviewee noted that he hated how the Terri Schiavo situation became such a media circus. He says the situation itself was complex and he understood that the husband of Terri and the parents of Terri had differing opinions. The interviewee noted that the biggest problem is that nobody could prove what Terri would have wanted. He said it was hard to say if the…… [read more]


PICO Revision Clinical Question A2 Coursework

1 pages (350 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… PICO Revision

Clinical Question

There is clear evidence that hospice services are being underutilized by advanced dementia patients in Lee County, Florida. Although patient/family- and organizational-barriers to hospice utilization can sometimes be substantial, clinician-associated barriers are theoretically preventable. The clinical question addressed by this quality improvement project is whether clinician exposure to evidence- and knowledge-based recommendations will improve clinician attitudes towards palliative and hospice services, thereby increasing hospice referral rates of patients suffering from advanced dementia.

The PICO format (patients, intervention, comparison, and outcome) is used to frame the clinical question (Clanton, 2014, p. 256-258); however, no comparison intervention or exposure will be used. The patient population will be physicians and DNPs caring for patient with a primary diagnosis of advanced dementia, who will evaluate the clinical efficacy of the ADEPP tool with respect to EOL care planning and prognosis determination. This includes patients with AD, vascular dementia, Lewy bodies dementia, and/or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (Alzheimer's Association, 2014, p. e49), who are residing in Lee County, Florida. The vast majority of these patients are expected…… [read more]


Plan for an Advanced Directive Workshop Research Paper

1 pages (329 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Advanced Directive Health Promotion Plan

Advanced Directive Health Promotion Evaluation Plan

Advanced directives are an important health tool that could help preserve patient quality of life during the dying process and protect both patients and loved ones from unnecessary suffering. Hunter-Johnson (2014) describes the different elements that may constitute an advanced directive and why each could provide protection for the patient's care preferences. The intervention involves educational workshops combined with individual clinician-led assessment sessions, although it was unclear whether the intervention was based on prior research findings or what nursing theories were relevant. In addition, the content of the intervention was not mentioned, which would have been helpful for evaluating the potential effectiveness and relevance of the questions included in the survey instrument. The instrument content was adapted from surveys used by the AARP and another state agency, but it was unclear whether these survey instruments would be appropriate for not only the content of the intervention or the target population.

Other details that…… [read more]


Suicide Rates Research Paper

3 pages (1,155 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… , 2000.

This strategy is often effective since it promotes public awareness of suicide and encourages individuals to commit to social change.

There is also need to monitor emotional difficulties in this vulnerable group. Emotions such as stress and depression are precedents of suicide. Therefore there is need to encourage and counsel these individuals in order to prevent suicides. This strategy is often effective since it involves recognizing and reducing the factors that increase risk of suicide. It also fosters positive communication and dialogue and counters shame and prejudice which comes from stressful or depressing events Jr., 1999()

Another strategy that is often effective in preventing suicide is promoting policy, systems and environmental changes that facilitate suicide prevention Flavin & Radcliff, 2009.

These include increased scrutiny on prescriptions of opioids and increasing gun control policies to reduce access to firearms. These strategies promote public health and reduce access to lethal mechanisms of committing suicide.

Alternative strategies that can be used to prevent suicide

Increasing surveillance of suicidal behaviors is an important strategy in the prevention of suicides. This is because it ensures that the vulnerable people are identified early and that they receive mental health care and counseling to help prevent suicide. There is also need for the government to integrate prevention of suicide into reforms of the health care system. This will encourage the private sector to adopt similar measures thus helping to create a positive net effect on reduction of suicide rates. This can be done by increasing the proficiency of the health care workers to respond so suicidal people through crisis counseling.

There are other specific strategies that are available in prevention of suicide. One is reducing access to mechanisms of suicide to the vulnerable group. This includes keeping away toxic substances, ropes and belts that can be used for hanging and firearms. Reducing domestic violence and abuse of drugs are also effective long-term strategies in preventing suicide since they prevent mental health problems Bearman, 1991()

Pharmacies or local drug stores can also play a part in preventing suicide by reducing the amount of drugs supplied in packages of non-prescription medicines that can be used in committing suicide such as aspirin. Health and community education programs regarding suicide and its risk factors can help to identify early warning signs easily and also increase the number of people requesting for help about suicidal tendencies Booth, Briscoe, & Powell, 2000()

References

Bearman, P.S. (1991). The Social Structure of Suicide. Sociological Forum, 6(3), 501-524. doi: 10.2307/684516

Booth, N., Briscoe, M., & Powell, R. (2000). Suicide in the Farming Community: Methods Used and Contact with Health Services. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57(9), 642-644. doi: 10.2307/27731384

Flavin, P., & Radcliff, B. (2009). Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States. Social Indicators Research, 90(2), 195-209. doi: 10.2307/27734783

Jr, T.E.J. (1999). The Clustering and Contagion of Suicide. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(3), 89-92. doi: 10.2307/20182569

Luo, F., Florence, C.S., Quispe-Agnoli, M., Ouyang, L., & Crosby, A.E. (2011). Impact of Business Cycles… [read more]


Ethical Leadership Advance Directives Essay

3 pages (1,076 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… E's decision at the time. I believe that a more ethical protocol would have been to contact the patient advocate involved and ask questions relating to the conditions that would have excluded the family from Mr. E's directive decisions.

In the case of Mr. Y, the most ethical decision he might have made in this case was to ask whether Mr. E expressed any wishes regarding his care in the event that he was unable to make such decisions. Mr. Y's appointment as medical power of attorney gives him the ethical responsibility to ensure that his brother's wishes are carried out. Hence, I do not believe it was ethical for him to authorize the use of a respirator for his brother.

There are several factors complicating the decision making process for Mr. E. First, his developmental challenges might have impacted his ability to make sound decisions regarding his care in the event of life-threatening conditions. Further, the fact that there was no clear family involvement in the decisions made might indicate that Mr. E did not truly understand the gravity of the advance directive. Finally, Mr. E's appointment of his brother as medical power of attorney without clearly informing him of the advance directive begs questions regarding his state of mind at the time.

The main HIPAA violation that occurred in the case of Mr. E is the fact that his brother, as medical power of attorney, did not receive full disclosure of his brother's advance directive (Pathfinder, 2010). Indeed, even without input from the patient advocate involved at the time, the brother could have provided insight into Mr. E's ability to make decisions of the kind. This could have provided important insight into the decisions to be made by the medical personnel working with Mr. E.

The nurses in this case all appear to have had a somewhat disrespectful and flippant attitude to Mr. E's situation. Referring to him as "retarded," for example, is a blatant indication of disrespect for his life, his needs, and his decisions. Further, pleading ignorance is not acceptable when it comes to nursing practice; all nurses should be lifelong learners to ensure that both their medical and ethical practices remain up-to-date. Failing to do so negatively impacts the image of the profession and can even lead to expensive law suits.

In this case, my first duty as nurse would be to ensure that the family is fully informed of Mr. E's advance directive. I would then question them about their involvement in the directive and whether this document could be considered valid, given Mr. E's developmental challenges. If their responses were to prove unsatisfactory, I would contact that patient advocate involved at the time. In all these steps, my main consideration as professional nurse should be honoring the rights of the patient.

References

ANA Board of Directors (2010, Jun. 14). Revised Position Statement. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/Ethics-Position-Statements/etpain14426.pdf

Mitty, E.L. (2012, Jul). Advance Directives: Geriatric Nursing Protocol. Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing. Retrieved from: http://consultgerirn.org/topics/advance_directives/want_to_know_more

Pathfinder.… [read more]


Active Support Person-Centred Care Essay

2 pages (556 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… According to one elderly resident of a facility which had chosen to implement person-centered care: "The hopelessness has been taken away from me. You have got reassurance wherever you go with staff and patients & #8230; and you seem to have a purpose" (McCormack, Dewing, & McCance, 2011).

Regardless of the individual's stage of life, there is a desire to feel a sense of competence and mastery over something and a reason and a purpose for going on day-to-day. When implementing the program in the nursing home, "the residents were provided with a greater range and number of choices. Specific activities, such as resident and family groups, have been initiated and established in the majority of settings to encourage more choices for residents" (McCormack, Dewing, & McCance, 2011). Being able to choose meals, activities, and mobility during the day is a profoundly empowering experience for nursing home residents who otherwise feel a sense of loss over the most basic physical and social activities.

When patients struggle, breaking down activities into meaningful stages or 'chunks' is more useful than simply performing the task for the patient. Even patients who cannot perform all of the tasks required to perform a particular action independently can at least perform some of them, giving the patient a sense of normalcy and accomplishment.

References

McCormack, B., Dewing. J., McCance, T. (2011). Developing person-centred care: Addressing contextual challenges through practice development. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues

in Nursing, 16, 2: 3. Retrieved: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-16-2011/No2-May-2011/Developing-Person-Centred-Care.html… [read more]


Pain Management Within a Nursing Essay

2 pages (788 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Individuals can be encouraged by the care givers through helping them to draft self-help programs which they will follow in their path to elevating their pain and discomfort. They can also be encouraged to form self-help groups where they share their experiences and come up with ideas as a group to deal with the pain and discomfort (Scott, Baluch, Kaye, 2010).

Care givers in the nursing home can also assist individuals so as to ensure that they are positioned in a safe and comfortable manner. This can be done through finding out the comfortable and safe positions which an individuals can stay in .after the establishment of these positions then they can assist in making sure that the individuals are at this positions all the time so that they can not experience pain and discomfort.

There are various measures that have to be agreed upon between the patients and care givers so as to alleviate the pain and discomfort. It should be ensured that the agreed upon measures are followed routinely. Some of the measures can include taking medicine, regular exercises and sitting in particular position. Individuals should be encouraged to carry out the agreed measures. (Scott, Baluch, Kaye, 2010).

Care givers should ensure that they carry out the required monitoring activities that are related to managing an individual's pain and discomfort. This can be achieved through checking if an individual takes their medicine, is carrying out the required exercises, is involved in self-help methods and so on.

The records for an individual's progress when it comes to management of pain should be filled appropriately. This will ensure that it is easy to monitor the progress of individuals as they strive to relieve their pain and discomfort. It is also important to report findings as required as the reports will be used to judge whether a patient's condition is improving or not. The reports will also be used to guide in the next course of action incase there is no positive improvement on the individual.

References

Scott, J., Baluch, A., Kaye, A. (2010).Pain Management in the elderly population. Retrieved May 12, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096211/

Severson, D.(2012).How to manage chronic pain in the elderly. Retrieved May 12, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/how_4929178_manage-chronic-pain-elderly.html… [read more]


Alzheimer in African Americans Article Critique

2 pages (643 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ALZHEIMER'S RESEARCH

In seminar

Popular vs. journal article reviews: Alzheimer's research

Alzheimer's disease is a devastating, progressive illness for both the sufferers of the illness as well as the patients' families. Because of the widespread prevalence of the disease, it is not uncommon to see scientific journal articles on the topic distilled into the popular media. This is evident in the New York Times piece entitled: "In blacks, Alzheimer's study finds same variant genes as in whites" by Gina Kolata. According to Kolata, African-Americans have a slightly higher rate of developing Alzheimer's than European-Americans. However, the study that was profiled determined that the genetic factors which increase one's risk of developing the condition are the same for both groups.

African-Americans "with Alzheimer's disease were slightly more likely to have one gene, ABCA7, that is thought to confer risk for the disease" while both groups were equally likely to have APoE4, which has been proven to increase Alzheimer's risk in older Caucasian populations. "ABCA7 was not very common, still leaving most Alzheimer's risk unexplained" (Kolata 2012). For an article in a popular newspaper, Kolata's article is surprisingly detailed. It is also very realistic and cautious in terms of evaluating the significance of the research findings. Other researchers in the field of genetics note that the associations of the genes in the study and Alzheimer's have long been noted, and it is unsurprising that these findings were generalizable across racial categories. Kolata is also very detailed and precise in her explication of possible reasons why ABCA7 may be so significant: "ABCA7 also moves proteins through the membranes that encase cells. One of the proteins it transports is a precursor of beta amyloid, the major component in the brain plaques found in Alzheimer's disease" as well as influences the development of cholesterol build-up (which may be a possible explanation why Alzheimer's patients often have heart disease)" (Kolata 2012).

The original journal article views the…… [read more]


Osteoporosis Pathophysiology: Osteoporosis Presentation Research Paper

4 pages (1,109 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… 5 SD or below the average value for premenopausal women warrants a diagnosis (Kanis 2002) "The same absolute value for BMD used in women can be used in men. The recommended site for diagnosis is the proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)" (Kanis 2002).

Management of the pathology

Medical

For younger patients in the early stages of the disease, management of the causes of the osteoporosis is essential, such as restoring the patient's normal menstrual cycles with appropriate diet; adjusting the patient's medications to reduce the risk of further bone loss; or establishing a normal endocrine balance of the patient's hormones. For patients at risk because of lifestyle factors such as inactivity, a program of weight-bearing activities may be prescribed.

Surgical

No surgical treatment is specifically prescribed for osteoporosis, although due to complications from the disorder such as a hip fracture, surgical procedures may be warranted.

Pharmaceutical

Action: The most common pharmaceutical treatment for osteoporosis is calcium supplementation. If this is not effective, bisphosphonate drugs like Fosamax may be prescribed (Osteoporosis, 2011, Mayo Clinic: Treatment and drugs).

Adverse effects: The most common side effects of bisphosphonates include nausea and other gastric conditions. Some women prefer the injectable form of the drugs for this reason. In some patients, the use of bisphosphonate has been linked to stress fractures in the upper femur and jaw osteonecrosis (Osteoporosis, 2011, Mayo Clinic: Treatment and drugs).

Most important nursing considerations: Treatment will vary depending on the severity of the osteoporosis, its cause, and the age and lifestyle of the patient.

Virginia Henderson: Four unmet needs and cares

Unmet needs

"Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others:" (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories). For an elderly patient, avoiding dangers in the environment may entail creating a housing configuration whereby the patient is unlikely to fall and injure herself (through the use of railings by stairs and in the shower, for example); for a younger patient it may require additional weight-bearing activities and exercise to increase bone mass or reduce the rate at which bone mass is lost.

"Move and maintain desirable postures:" (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories). For patients of all ages, yoga or other physical therapy to strengthen postural muscles and cope with the physiological problems caused by osteoporosis (such as a slouched posture or collapsed chest) can be helpful.

"Breathe normally. Eat and drink adequately:" (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories). A diet high in calcium and other minerals, with supplementation may be required.

"Play or participate in various forms of recreation" (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories): Weight-bearing exercise appropriate to the patient's age is warranted. Weight bearing exercises include running, jumping, and weight lifting (versus non-impact activities like swimming or biking).

Unmet cares (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories)

Physiological: Proper nutritional and hormonal balance must be restored through dietary advice or medical treatment.

Safety: Safety must be enhanced with appropriate exercise, nutritional counseling, and changes to the patient's environment.

Belonging: Patient's… [read more]


Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease Dealing Research Paper

2 pages (686 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… From a different perspective, Gould (2010) there is a significant but small benefit in developing scripted training programs for staff in learning how best to manage dementia patients. In short, a general synthesis of this first area of research strongly promotes the understanding that quality nursing staff and a supportive psychosocial environment are critical to patient outcomes.

Regarding the best treatment of dementia, there is much less consensus. Defilipi (2000) found that typical antipsychotics have a modest effect on psychosis and behavioral symptoms, and preliminary studies suggest that atypical agents are effective. Yet, Steinmetzd (2010) argues that the patients considered difficult often are not in need of medical intervention and are not the ones experiencing major medical problems. Instead, they are the people who behave rudely and want a secondary gain. Patients with multiple non-specific complaints and those with psychosomatic problems are often the most challenging to manage long-term. Lastly, Williams (2009) argued that when discussing a treatment plan the probability of receptiveness to care varied significantly with communication acumen of the practitioner. An increased probability of receptiveness to care occurred with elderspeak compared with normal speak. Individuals with dementia slowly progress from forgetfulness to a stage of confusion which brings them to a new, different, initially strange and threatening mode of being. The patient's want and desire to keep up on their appearances and previous life is abandoned and their memory dissolves progressively more. They tend to live more in their own, dreamlike "world" which mingles the present and past together and the rules and structures of the "old world" looses its importance. During an increase of loss of memory, tends to derive limited vocabulary and verbal communication (Kuske, 2009).

In conclusion, the general literature around dealing with problematic patients and dementia is varied but clear trends emerge. The importance of a positive psychosocial environment is critical along with effective interventions cannot be understand from the studies examined in producing positive patient outcomes. Further research in the field in necessary…… [read more]


Positive Aspects of Getting Creative Writing

2 pages (579 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Many old people are influenced by society in considering that they should accept their condition and that it is pointless for them to turn to concepts such as creativity, as they apparently lived their lived and there is nothing more for them to do about it. Many older people need to be provided with education and with encouragement in order for them to be able to understand that their life has actually reached a point where they are free to use their inspiration however they want to.

In addition to having the resources necessary for them to put across creative thinking, old people also have access to a multitude of memories that they can successfully use in producing impressive designs. They no longer feel the impulse and the naivety that they did when they were young, this providing them with the opportunity to organize their thoughts. Wisdom is more powerful when people are old, as it can influence them in differentiating between right and wrong and as it makes it possible for them to refrain from making significant mistakes. Wisdom is the product of life experiences, as old people are better prepared to anticipate situations that involve a lot of risk.

It is difficult to determine whether old age provides people with better conditions than young or middle age, but it is only safe to assume that it is not a period when people should abandon their hopes and dreams in favor of waiting to die. People are provided with significant advantages when they become older and this time is perfect for them to try everything that they wanted to try at a certain point in their lives.… [read more]


Active and Passive Euthanasia Term Paper

2 pages (667 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … inferred from the content that the writer is a medical doctor or other health professional, however it is unclear from reading the article alone what the author's specific qualifications are to engender the reader's trust in his opinion. It is written in laymen's terms and not specifically geared toward an audience of medical professionals. The article sets itself as an opposing view of the accepted practice of passive euthanasia. The writer, James Rachels, starts by providing definitions of the terms to be discussed, including passive and active euthanasia. He tells the reader that the medical community generally accepts passive euthanasia to be permissible, and active euthanasia is considered inappropriate. He gives his thesis, which is that passive euthanasia should be considered more inhumane than active euthanasia.

Next he offers a passage of direct quotation from the American Medical Association to further illuminate their stance. This second paragraph primarily functions as background information and explication of his thesis. The third paragraph gives his first real-world example of a dying patient and his treatment. He continues the example, providing detail about the family of the patient and the decision of his doctor to withhold treatment. He argues that the withholding of treatment may mean that it will take the patient longer to die, rather than the application of a more active strategy. Then writer gives an account from a doctor's perspective of watching a child die from lack of treatment, a more dramatic and intentionally emotional example. He brings up that his opinion is that passive euthanasia is the worst of all stances to take, whereas he understands the advocacy of active euthanasia or of being opposed to all forms of euthanasia in general. He acknowledges the strong language used in making his argument.

The next paragraph is transitional, designed to lead into the writer's second argument. The writer then returns to his example of infants with Down's syndrome. He argues that oftentimes the reason that parents opt for passive euthanasia is not…… [read more]


Preventing Falls Fall Prevention Term Paper

4 pages (1,289 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Preventing Falls

Fall prevention

Preventing falls amongst elderly patients at subacute facilities

Preventing falls amongst elderly patients at subacute facilities

While falling can be dangerous for any individual, regardless of their state of health, due to elderly patient's greater fragility falls are particularly dangerous for seniors. Having a serious fall is one of the greatest predictors of future degeneration and fragility for older patients. Although the common image of an elderly fall victim is someone who has 'fallen and can't get up,' and is lying alone at home, in subacute hospitals falls are reported to occur between 13% and 32% of admitted patients and in stroke rehabilitation units, falls have been reported in up to 47% of patients. Up to 70% of falls result in injuries and 1-10% of falls result in fractures as well as long-standing psychological effects for the elderly person (Haines et al. 2004). Falls are costly for the patient's and the patient's family in terms of psychological distress and also for the subacute facility in terms of additional healthcare costs, when treating the patient.

One recent study, as reported in the British Medical Journal found that a specific fall prevention program was extremely helpful in dramatically reducing fall rates. "Participants in the intervention group received a targeted falls prevention programme in addition to usual care. This programme consisted of a falls risk alert card with information brochure, an exercise programme, an education programme, and hip protectors" (Haines et al. 2004). The type of intervention depended upon the patient's specific complaint, level of cognitive impairment, and age. Regardless, all 310 patients who received intervention and care showed a significantly lower rate of falls than the 316 in the control group: 30% less.

Current research conducted by Dr. Andrea Trombetti of the University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva suggests that many types of educational programs can be helpful for the elderly in preventing falls -- the important thing is that an interventional fall-prevention program is indeed undertaken. A trial of 134 people, average age 75, with notable unsteadiness and identified as being at high risk for falls received weekly hour-long eurhythmics sessions. Eurhythmics focuses on teaching movement in time to music, having patients "walk and turn around, stay in step with changing tempos, learn to shift their weight and balance, handle objects while walking, and make exaggerated upper-body movements while walking" (Rabin 2010). Only 24 of the elderly patients in the experimental group experienced falls, versus 54 in the control group, suggesting that intervention of various kinds can have a demonstrable positive effect for the elderly. Despite the small number of participants in the study, the difference between the two groups is significant

Balance is a skill that can quickly deteriorate with age, if not reinforced. In another recent study comparing the balance of healthy elderly volunteers (average age 75), with undergraduates, despite the fact that the older individuals were in good health and exercised an hour a day: "They thought they were in good shape… [read more]


Bible Receiving Eternal Life Requires No Works Essay

2 pages (707 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Bible

Receiving eternal life requires no works, but only faith. Understanding this message of scripture is the key to salvation. To receive eternal life, we must first die to our sins and transgressions: "As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world," (Ephesians 2:1-2). Leaving sin behind, we also abandon the life that is full of temptation in favor of the life that is full of mercy and love.

The next step in receiving eternal life is by burrowing our hearts in the gospel. As Paul states, "I became a servant of this gospel by the gift of God's grace given me through the working of his power," (Ephesians 3:7). By grace alone we are saved. We remain measly, humble beings but our spirit is transformed. This is what is meant by eternal life. For me, this was achieved by a leap of faith. I heard the message of the gospel spoken by a friend. He spoke the words from his heart and directed me to scripture. All I had to do was to read a passage and I knew in my heart that eternal life was not just possible, but an imperative. There is no other way to live. Without Christ we are dead in our hearts; in Christ we live eternally. Christ dwells in our hearts, and we dwell with Him.

As sinners in the body, we are nothing. We are "are darkened in their understanding and separated from the life of God," (Ephesians 4:18). Receiving the message of the gospel, however, we become reborn in Christ and ready to receive the Grace of God. We are "made new in the attitude of your minds," and we "put on the new self, created to be like God in true righteousness and holiness," (Ephesians 4:23-24). We are reborn.

"But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions -- it is by grace you have been saved," (Ephesians 2:4-5). To…… [read more]


Abuse in Nursing Home Care Thesis

4 pages (1,281 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Abuse and Neglect in Nursing Homes

Elderly abuse in nursing homes is a serious concern both the rapidly growing population that would need nursing care at some point in their lives and their families who depend on nursing staff since they cannot provide the care their elderly need. However quality of nursing care is deteriorating as has been evidenced by many researches and studies nationwide. There may be more than one reason for deteriorating quality of care in nursing homes that lead to elderly abuse. But some reasons are found more consistently in researches.

Citing the example of Colorado, Valerie Corzine (2005) found that the main underlying problem is insufficient staff that has led to compromised care which constitutes abuse of elderly in nursing homes. Corzine's research depends on Government Accountability Office (GAO) report among other sources and shows how despite nursing home care reforms of 1987, elderly abuse continues to be a serious problem in nursing homes nationwide. "Despite [some] impressive federal requirements, GAO reports conclude that nursing homes continue to have serious problems, such as malnutrition, abuse, pressure sores, and over-medication." (p. 31)

Catherine Hawes (2002) also found that elderly abuse is a common in country's 17,000 nursing homes and many more residential care facilities. Her research depends on complaints received by Atlanta Ombudsmen and Office of DHHS Inspector General. Instead of focusing on any researches and studies, Hawes bases her research on actual complaints, interviews and surveys where residents or workers at nursing homes spoke about incidents of abuse they had witnessed or experienced. Discussing the prevalence of abuse in nursing homes, Hawes reports: "Ninety-five percent of the residents who were interviewed as part of the Atlanta Long-Term Care Ombudsman study reported that they had experienced neglect or witnessed other residents being neglected...Similarly, in one study, 37% of the CNAs reported they had seen neglect of a resident's care needs…" (p. 5). According to her research, the main problem is lack of adequate training. Unlike Corzine who had blamed shortage of nursing staff for abuse issues, Hawes finds that lack of proper training is the main cause of neglect and abuse in nursing homes. "61% of the aide registry directors argued that poor training was a significant factor causing abuse;…58% of the ombudsmen identified inadequate training of CNAs as a major obstacle to quality of care in nursing homes." (p. 9)

The third source we found useful for our report is a report prepared for Rep. Henry A. Waxman by the Minority Staff, Special Investigation Division. This report will be mentioned as Waxman report in this paper. The Waxman report (2001) depends on findings of state investigations conducted under the orders of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. These state investigations found that apart from physical and emotional abuse, residents had also been subjected to sexual abuse in many nursing homes nationwide. It was also reported that in most cases, abuse problems were discovered only after a formal complaint had been filed. The increase in cases… [read more]


Osteoporosis Literally Means Porous Bones Research Proposal

1 pages (326 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Osteoporosis literally means porous bones, and is a progressive disease that can cause serious injury. With osteoporosis, bones gradually lose their density to the point where they become brittle and break easily. The hips, spine, and wrist are common fracture zones (National Osteoporosis Foundation). Fractures in turn can cause deformity or severe, chronic pain (National Osteoporosis Foundation). The fractures caused by osteoporosis can be caused by even the slightest stress that would not affect a healthy bone.

Older women are at the highest risk for developing osteoporosis, and are about four times as likely as men for developing the disease (National Osteoporosis Foundation). Certain ethnic groups are at higher risk for the disease, with Caucasian and Asian women being at a higher risk than women of African decent (Shiel). Poor nutrition can contribute to osteoporosis.

Persons with osteoporosis often remain unaware that they have developed the condition until it is too late and they break a bone. However, bone density tests can alert…… [read more]


Osteoporosis Is a Debilitating Disease Thesis

3 pages (1,239 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break (fractures). Today, approximately 44 million Americans have osteoporosis and low bone mass. "Osteoporosis now causes an estimated two million fractures each year and often results in immobility, pain, placement in a nursing home, isolation and other health problems -- conditions and circumstances that could largely be prevented through proper bone density testing and diagnosis," said Robert Recker, M.D., president of the National Osteoporosis Foundation (Access to Osteoporosis…, 2009, para. 8).

If not prevented or if left untreated, osteoporosis can progress painlessly until a bone breaks. Your body normally makes new bone as old bone is reabsorbed (broken down). Osteoporosis occurs when your body reabsorbs more bone than it makes, causing a loss of bone mass (amount of bone). Some loss of bone mass is normal as people age, especially for women after menopause. Bone loss can also be caused by other factors. Some of these factors include genetics (inherited from family), medicines such as steroids, or not eating enough calcium-rich foods (Calcium and osteoporosis, 2008 ).

Although there is no cure for osteoporosis, there are steps you can take to prevent, slow, or stop its progress. In some cases you may even be able to improve bone density and reverse the disorder to some degree (Osteoporosis what is it?, 2008).

Preventive Health Study

A preventive health program identified three million patients of the Kaiser Permanente Group of California at risk for osteoporosis. The program involved screening, and provided treatment for the disease, significantly reducing the overall incidence of hip fracture by 37% over five years, according to a study presented at the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

in 2009 (Boughton, 2009 ).

Five Steps to Bone Health and Osteoporosis Prevention

Eat Right: Get your daily recommended amounts of Calcium and Vitamin D Adults under age 50 need 1,000 mg of calcium daily, and adults age 50 and over need 1,200 mg of calcium daily. Vitamin D is needed for the body to absorb calcium. Adults under age 50 need 400-800 IU of vitamin D daily, and adults age 50 and over need 800-1,000 IU of vitamin D daily (Osteoporosis what is it?, 2008).

The nutrients strontium and vitamin K2 are effective additions to calcium and vitamin D supplementation for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Any nontoxic strontium salt (not radioactive strontium-90) can strengthen bone, according to Jonathan V. Wright, MD (Strontium, vitamin K2 ..., 2009).

Exercise: Engage in regular weight-bearing and muscle strengthening exercise. The best exercise for your bones is weight-bearing exercise such as walking, dancing, jogging, stair-climbing, racquet sports and hiking.

Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle: Avoid smoking and drink alcohol in moderation. Drinking alcohol in excess (more than two drinks per day) may cause bone loss.

Get Tested: Have a bone density test and take medication when appropriate. A Bone

Mineral Density test (BMD) is the only way to diagnose osteoporosis and determine your risk for future fracture. Since osteoporosis can develop… [read more]


Alzheimer's Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease Medically Speaking Essay

4 pages (1,174 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ALZHEIMER'S

EARLY ONSET ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

Medically speaking, Alzheimer's disease, named after German neurologist Alois Alzheimer in 1864, is also known as senile dementia and is characterized by mental confusion, memory loss, disorientation, restlessness, speech disturbances, the inability to walk or sit properly and sometimes hallucinations. The person afflicted with this disease may often refuse to eat and may be unable to feed oneself and lose control of bowel movements. Under most circumstances, Alzheimer's disease begins in the later years of life after the age of 65 with slight defects in memory and behavior and occurs with equal frequency in men and women. In the human brain, Alzheimer's is based upon certain types of plaque that accumulate in the cerebral cortex and on the surfaces of ganglion cells. Within recent years, treatment for Alzheimer's disease has included specific medications and changes in a person's diet, but the main cause of the disease is still under examination but has been linked to certain chemicals and substances in the environment.

Alzheimer's disease is almost always found in people over the age of 65, but there is another form of the disease known as early onset Alzheimer's which occurs, although very rarely, in persons in their 30's, 40's and early to mid-50's. Exactly why these persons become affected by Alzheimer's is not known, but recent research has suggested that these persons are genetically predisposed to early onset, much like inheriting a specific defective gene that leads to diseases like Parkinson's and Huntington's disorders.

Generally, there are seven specific stages that a person afflicted with Alzheimer's experiences within a prescribed length of time, ranging from seven to nine years. These stages are also experienced by those with early onset Alzheimer's and depending upon when the disease begins its progression, the person with early onset may not survive much past the age of sixty. According to the Alzheimer's Association, these seven stages "provide useful frames of reference for understanding how the disease may unfold and for making future plans" when the affected person becomes unable to care for him/herself during the final stages of the disease (2009, "The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's," Internet).

These seven stages are as follows. First, the affected person will generally have no impairment during stage one related to memory and the ability to function normally, both physically and mentally. Upon entering stage two, the affected person will experience very mild cognitive decline which may include lapses in memory, such as forgetting a person's name or being unable to locate common objects used on a daily basis. However, during this stage, friends and family members may not be aware of any cognitive decline and might consider small lapses of memory as nothing out of the ordinary (2009, "The Warning Signs of Alzheimer's," Internet).

In stage three, the affected person will experience mild cognitive decline which unlike stage two will be noticed by friends and family members. Some of the more common traits linked to stage two include a decreased ability to recall… [read more]


Euthanasia: Legal Considerations Euthanasia, Doctor-Assisted Suicide Term Paper

2 pages (595 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Euthanasia: Legal Considerations

Euthanasia, doctor-assisted suicide, and mercy killing of any type is prohibited by law in the United States. In June of 2007, 79-year-old retired pathologist and patient rights activist Jack Kevorkian was released from federal prison, after serving eight years for his second-degree murder conviction (Martindale, 2007).

Prior assisting in the 1998 suicide of Tomas Youk, then in the final stages of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ("Lou Gehrig's Disease"), Kevorkian had always been very careful to avoid crossing the line between merely advising his patients and documenting their suicides and actually assisting them or implementing their requests by his own hand.

In 1998, Kevorkian deliberately and purposely crossed that line to force his own prosecution and thereby bring national attention to the need for legal reforms pertaining to doctor-assisted suicide.

The Ethics of Physician-Assisted Suicide and the Role of Law:

In Kevorkian's view, euthanasia is sometimes warranted by the ethical desire to end the suffering of patients with fatal illnesses who wish to end their lives instead of enduring unnecessary pain before inevitably succumbing to their ailments. Many contemporary medical ethicists agree with Kevorkian, reasoning that the Hippocratic

Oath to which physician licensed in the United States swear before beginning their medical practice, was conceived long before modern medical science, at a time when life expectancy, and specifically, continued survival after the onset of debilitating disease were virtually inconceivable (Humphry, 2002). Kevorkian and other who share his position believe that the physician's primary role is to prevent suffering, and that this aspect of medical ethics is even more important than the prolongation of life, merely for life's sake (Abrams & Bruckner, 1983).

Proponents of legalizing physician-assisted suicide acknowledge the essential role of legislation to establish guidelines, definitions, criteria, and appropriate regulation. In that sense, physician-assisted suicide…… [read more]


Euthanasia as Marker Points Out, the Privilege Term Paper

1 pages (345 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Euthanasia

As Marker points out, the privilege of euthanasia can be abused. Unscrupulous family members, doctors and health care centers might view euthanasia as a cost-saving alternative to continued care. However, every single legal right we have as Americans can be abused and it is up to the courts to rectify those rare cases. Restricting the rights of citizens for fear of abuse creates an unnecessarily, illogically intolerant society. For the most part, legalizing physician-assisted suicide would end the enormous pain suffered by a sizable number of terminally ill patients. Moreover, such patients might not want to remain hooked up to life support systems indefinitely, their suffering on display and their family members forced to foot the bill as well as the emotional trauma.

Euthanasia is never a spur-of -- the moment decision. Were it legal, a set of strict regulations and laws would be in place to ensure that neither doctor nor patient abused the privilege. Certain conditions must be met before a doctor could even consider assisting a patient's suicide.…… [read more]


Philosophy Practice Dying How Do You Feel Term Paper

1 pages (388 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Philosophy

Practice Dying

How do you feel about Plato's advice to "practice dying?" think Plato's advice is well taken for a number of reasons. He is trying to tell us that we should be able to die gracefully and with dignity, but also that we need to live our lives fully and with happiness in order to do that. If we practice dying throughout our lives, we can take a look at where we are and how happy we are, and where we need to change. It is helpful to think of where our priorities and affections are from time to time, and to practice dying is to look at these and see what we would do differently if we knew we would die tomorrow, next week, or next month.

Few people really want to die, but stopping and looking at what dying would mean to us right now gives us a good indication of how well our life is working and how happy we are. Plato is not being morbid or negative about life, but he is encouraging people to always assess their life and what they are doing with their life. Who…… [read more]

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