Study "Aging / Death / Gerontology" Essays 386-406

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Pain Management Within a Nursing Essay

… Individuals can be encouraged by the care givers through helping them to draft self-help programs which they will follow in their path to elevating their pain and discomfort. They can also be encouraged to form self-help groups where they share their experiences and come up with ideas as a group to deal with the pain and discomfort (Scott, Baluch, Kaye, 2010).

Care givers in the nursing home can also assist individuals so as to ensure that they are positioned in a safe and comfortable manner. This can be done through finding out the comfortable and safe positions which an individuals can stay in .after the establishment of these positions then they can assist in making sure that the individuals are at this positions all the time so that they can not experience pain and discomfort.

There are various measures that have to be agreed upon between the patients and care givers so as to alleviate the pain and discomfort. It should be ensured that the agreed upon measures are followed routinely. Some of the measures can include taking medicine, regular exercises and sitting in particular position. Individuals should be encouraged to carry out the agreed measures. (Scott, Baluch, Kaye, 2010).

Care givers should ensure that they carry out the required monitoring activities that are related to managing an individual's pain and discomfort. This can be achieved through checking if an individual takes their medicine, is carrying out the required exercises, is involved in self-help methods and so on.

The records for an individual's progress when it comes to management of pain should be filled appropriately. This will ensure that it is easy to monitor the progress of individuals as they strive to relieve their pain and discomfort. It is also important to report findings as required as the reports will be used to judge whether a patient's condition is improving or not. The reports will also be used to guide in the next course of action incase there is no positive improvement on the individual.


Scott, J., Baluch, A., Kaye, A. (2010).Pain Management in the elderly population. Retrieved May 12, 2013 from

Severson, D.(2012).How to manage chronic pain in the elderly. Retrieved May 12, 2013 from [read more]

Alzheimer in African Americans Article Critique


In seminar

Popular vs. journal article reviews: Alzheimer's research

Alzheimer's disease is a devastating, progressive illness for both the sufferers of the illness as well as the patients' families. Because of the widespread prevalence of the disease, it is not uncommon to see scientific journal articles on the topic distilled into the popular media. This is evident in the New York Times piece entitled: "In blacks, Alzheimer's study finds same variant genes as in whites" by Gina Kolata. According to Kolata, African-Americans have a slightly higher rate of developing Alzheimer's than European-Americans. However, the study that was profiled determined that the genetic factors which increase one's risk of developing the condition are the same for both groups.

African-Americans "with Alzheimer's disease were slightly more likely to have one gene, ABCA7, that is thought to confer risk for the disease" while both groups were equally likely to have APoE4, which has been proven to increase Alzheimer's risk in older Caucasian populations. "ABCA7 was not very common, still leaving most Alzheimer's risk unexplained" (Kolata 2012). For an article in a popular newspaper, Kolata's article is surprisingly detailed. It is also very realistic and cautious in terms of evaluating the significance of the research findings. Other researchers in the field of genetics note that the associations of the genes in the study and Alzheimer's have long been noted, and it is unsurprising that these findings were generalizable across racial categories. Kolata is also very detailed and precise in her explication of possible reasons why ABCA7 may be so significant: "ABCA7 also moves proteins through the membranes that encase cells. One of the proteins it transports is a precursor of beta amyloid, the major component in the brain plaques found in Alzheimer's disease" as well as influences the development of cholesterol build-up (which may be a possible explanation why Alzheimer's patients often have heart disease)" (Kolata 2012).

The original journal article views the… [read more]

Osteoporosis Pathophysiology: Osteoporosis Presentation Research Paper

… 5 SD or below the average value for premenopausal women warrants a diagnosis (Kanis 2002) "The same absolute value for BMD used in women can be used in men. The recommended site for diagnosis is the proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)" (Kanis 2002).

Management of the pathology


For younger patients in the early stages of the disease, management of the causes of the osteoporosis is essential, such as restoring the patient's normal menstrual cycles with appropriate diet; adjusting the patient's medications to reduce the risk of further bone loss; or establishing a normal endocrine balance of the patient's hormones. For patients at risk because of lifestyle factors such as inactivity, a program of weight-bearing activities may be prescribed.


No surgical treatment is specifically prescribed for osteoporosis, although due to complications from the disorder such as a hip fracture, surgical procedures may be warranted.


Action: The most common pharmaceutical treatment for osteoporosis is calcium supplementation. If this is not effective, bisphosphonate drugs like Fosamax may be prescribed (Osteoporosis, 2011, Mayo Clinic: Treatment and drugs).

Adverse effects: The most common side effects of bisphosphonates include nausea and other gastric conditions. Some women prefer the injectable form of the drugs for this reason. In some patients, the use of bisphosphonate has been linked to stress fractures in the upper femur and jaw osteonecrosis (Osteoporosis, 2011, Mayo Clinic: Treatment and drugs).

Most important nursing considerations: Treatment will vary depending on the severity of the osteoporosis, its cause, and the age and lifestyle of the patient.

Virginia Henderson: Four unmet needs and cares

Unmet needs

"Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others:" (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories). For an elderly patient, avoiding dangers in the environment may entail creating a housing configuration whereby the patient is unlikely to fall and injure herself (through the use of railings by stairs and in the shower, for example); for a younger patient it may require additional weight-bearing activities and exercise to increase bone mass or reduce the rate at which bone mass is lost.

"Move and maintain desirable postures:" (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories). For patients of all ages, yoga or other physical therapy to strengthen postural muscles and cope with the physiological problems caused by osteoporosis (such as a slouched posture or collapsed chest) can be helpful.

"Breathe normally. Eat and drink adequately:" (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories). A diet high in calcium and other minerals, with supplementation may be required.

"Play or participate in various forms of recreation" (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories): Weight-bearing exercise appropriate to the patient's age is warranted. Weight bearing exercises include running, jumping, and weight lifting (versus non-impact activities like swimming or biking).

Unmet cares (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Nursing Theories)

Physiological: Proper nutritional and hormonal balance must be restored through dietary advice or medical treatment.

Safety: Safety must be enhanced with appropriate exercise, nutritional counseling, and changes to the patient's environment.

Belonging: Patient's… [read more]

Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease Dealing Research Paper

… From a different perspective, Gould (2010) there is a significant but small benefit in developing scripted training programs for staff in learning how best to manage dementia patients. In short, a general synthesis of this first area of research strongly promotes the understanding that quality nursing staff and a supportive psychosocial environment are critical to patient outcomes.

Regarding the best treatment of dementia, there is much less consensus. Defilipi (2000) found that typical antipsychotics have a modest effect on psychosis and behavioral symptoms, and preliminary studies suggest that atypical agents are effective. Yet, Steinmetzd (2010) argues that the patients considered difficult often are not in need of medical intervention and are not the ones experiencing major medical problems. Instead, they are the people who behave rudely and want a secondary gain. Patients with multiple non-specific complaints and those with psychosomatic problems are often the most challenging to manage long-term. Lastly, Williams (2009) argued that when discussing a treatment plan the probability of receptiveness to care varied significantly with communication acumen of the practitioner. An increased probability of receptiveness to care occurred with elderspeak compared with normal speak. Individuals with dementia slowly progress from forgetfulness to a stage of confusion which brings them to a new, different, initially strange and threatening mode of being. The patient's want and desire to keep up on their appearances and previous life is abandoned and their memory dissolves progressively more. They tend to live more in their own, dreamlike "world" which mingles the present and past together and the rules and structures of the "old world" looses its importance. During an increase of loss of memory, tends to derive limited vocabulary and verbal communication (Kuske, 2009).

In conclusion, the general literature around dealing with problematic patients and dementia is varied but clear trends emerge. The importance of a positive psychosocial environment is critical along with effective interventions cannot be understand from the studies examined in producing positive patient outcomes. Further research in the field in necessary… [read more]

Positive Aspects of Getting Creative Writing

… Many old people are influenced by society in considering that they should accept their condition and that it is pointless for them to turn to concepts such as creativity, as they apparently lived their lived and there is nothing more for them to do about it. Many older people need to be provided with education and with encouragement in order for them to be able to understand that their life has actually reached a point where they are free to use their inspiration however they want to.

In addition to having the resources necessary for them to put across creative thinking, old people also have access to a multitude of memories that they can successfully use in producing impressive designs. They no longer feel the impulse and the naivety that they did when they were young, this providing them with the opportunity to organize their thoughts. Wisdom is more powerful when people are old, as it can influence them in differentiating between right and wrong and as it makes it possible for them to refrain from making significant mistakes. Wisdom is the product of life experiences, as old people are better prepared to anticipate situations that involve a lot of risk.

It is difficult to determine whether old age provides people with better conditions than young or middle age, but it is only safe to assume that it is not a period when people should abandon their hopes and dreams in favor of waiting to die. People are provided with significant advantages when they become older and this time is perfect for them to try everything that they wanted to try at a certain point in their lives. [read more]

Active and Passive Euthanasia Term Paper

… ¶ … inferred from the content that the writer is a medical doctor or other health professional, however it is unclear from reading the article alone what the author's specific qualifications are to engender the reader's trust in his opinion. It is written in laymen's terms and not specifically geared toward an audience of medical professionals. The article sets itself as an opposing view of the accepted practice of passive euthanasia. The writer, James Rachels, starts by providing definitions of the terms to be discussed, including passive and active euthanasia. He tells the reader that the medical community generally accepts passive euthanasia to be permissible, and active euthanasia is considered inappropriate. He gives his thesis, which is that passive euthanasia should be considered more inhumane than active euthanasia.

Next he offers a passage of direct quotation from the American Medical Association to further illuminate their stance. This second paragraph primarily functions as background information and explication of his thesis. The third paragraph gives his first real-world example of a dying patient and his treatment. He continues the example, providing detail about the family of the patient and the decision of his doctor to withhold treatment. He argues that the withholding of treatment may mean that it will take the patient longer to die, rather than the application of a more active strategy. Then writer gives an account from a doctor's perspective of watching a child die from lack of treatment, a more dramatic and intentionally emotional example. He brings up that his opinion is that passive euthanasia is the worst of all stances to take, whereas he understands the advocacy of active euthanasia or of being opposed to all forms of euthanasia in general. He acknowledges the strong language used in making his argument.

The next paragraph is transitional, designed to lead into the writer's second argument. The writer then returns to his example of infants with Down's syndrome. He argues that oftentimes the reason that parents opt for passive euthanasia is not… [read more]

Preventing Falls Fall Prevention Term Paper

… Preventing Falls

Fall prevention

Preventing falls amongst elderly patients at subacute facilities

Preventing falls amongst elderly patients at subacute facilities

While falling can be dangerous for any individual, regardless of their state of health, due to elderly patient's greater fragility… [read more]

Bible Receiving Eternal Life Requires No Works Essay

… Bible

Receiving eternal life requires no works, but only faith. Understanding this message of scripture is the key to salvation. To receive eternal life, we must first die to our sins and transgressions: "As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world," (Ephesians 2:1-2). Leaving sin behind, we also abandon the life that is full of temptation in favor of the life that is full of mercy and love.

The next step in receiving eternal life is by burrowing our hearts in the gospel. As Paul states, "I became a servant of this gospel by the gift of God's grace given me through the working of his power," (Ephesians 3:7). By grace alone we are saved. We remain measly, humble beings but our spirit is transformed. This is what is meant by eternal life. For me, this was achieved by a leap of faith. I heard the message of the gospel spoken by a friend. He spoke the words from his heart and directed me to scripture. All I had to do was to read a passage and I knew in my heart that eternal life was not just possible, but an imperative. There is no other way to live. Without Christ we are dead in our hearts; in Christ we live eternally. Christ dwells in our hearts, and we dwell with Him.

As sinners in the body, we are nothing. We are "are darkened in their understanding and separated from the life of God," (Ephesians 4:18). Receiving the message of the gospel, however, we become reborn in Christ and ready to receive the Grace of God. We are "made new in the attitude of your minds," and we "put on the new self, created to be like God in true righteousness and holiness," (Ephesians 4:23-24). We are reborn.

"But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions -- it is by grace you have been saved," (Ephesians 2:4-5). To… [read more]

Abuse in Nursing Home Care Thesis

… Abuse and Neglect in Nursing Homes

Elderly abuse in nursing homes is a serious concern both the rapidly growing population that would need nursing care at some point in their lives and their families who depend on nursing staff since… [read more]

Osteoporosis Literally Means Porous Bones Research Proposal

… Osteoporosis literally means porous bones, and is a progressive disease that can cause serious injury. With osteoporosis, bones gradually lose their density to the point where they become brittle and break easily. The hips, spine, and wrist are common fracture zones (National Osteoporosis Foundation). Fractures in turn can cause deformity or severe, chronic pain (National Osteoporosis Foundation). The fractures caused by osteoporosis can be caused by even the slightest stress that would not affect a healthy bone.

Older women are at the highest risk for developing osteoporosis, and are about four times as likely as men for developing the disease (National Osteoporosis Foundation). Certain ethnic groups are at higher risk for the disease, with Caucasian and Asian women being at a higher risk than women of African decent (Shiel). Poor nutrition can contribute to osteoporosis.

Persons with osteoporosis often remain unaware that they have developed the condition until it is too late and they break a bone. However, bone density tests can alert… [read more]

Osteoporosis Is a Debilitating Disease Thesis

… Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break (fractures). Today, approximately 44 million Americans have osteoporosis and low bone mass. "Osteoporosis now causes an estimated two million fractures each year and often results… [read more]

Alzheimer's Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease Medically Speaking Essay



Medically speaking, Alzheimer's disease, named after German neurologist Alois Alzheimer in 1864, is also known as senile dementia and is characterized by mental confusion, memory loss, disorientation, restlessness, speech disturbances, the inability to walk or… [read more]

Euthanasia: Legal Considerations Euthanasia, Doctor-Assisted Suicide Term Paper

… Euthanasia: Legal Considerations

Euthanasia, doctor-assisted suicide, and mercy killing of any type is prohibited by law in the United States. In June of 2007, 79-year-old retired pathologist and patient rights activist Jack Kevorkian was released from federal prison, after serving eight years for his second-degree murder conviction (Martindale, 2007).

Prior assisting in the 1998 suicide of Tomas Youk, then in the final stages of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ("Lou Gehrig's Disease"), Kevorkian had always been very careful to avoid crossing the line between merely advising his patients and documenting their suicides and actually assisting them or implementing their requests by his own hand.

In 1998, Kevorkian deliberately and purposely crossed that line to force his own prosecution and thereby bring national attention to the need for legal reforms pertaining to doctor-assisted suicide.

The Ethics of Physician-Assisted Suicide and the Role of Law:

In Kevorkian's view, euthanasia is sometimes warranted by the ethical desire to end the suffering of patients with fatal illnesses who wish to end their lives instead of enduring unnecessary pain before inevitably succumbing to their ailments. Many contemporary medical ethicists agree with Kevorkian, reasoning that the Hippocratic

Oath to which physician licensed in the United States swear before beginning their medical practice, was conceived long before modern medical science, at a time when life expectancy, and specifically, continued survival after the onset of debilitating disease were virtually inconceivable (Humphry, 2002). Kevorkian and other who share his position believe that the physician's primary role is to prevent suffering, and that this aspect of medical ethics is even more important than the prolongation of life, merely for life's sake (Abrams & Bruckner, 1983).

Proponents of legalizing physician-assisted suicide acknowledge the essential role of legislation to establish guidelines, definitions, criteria, and appropriate regulation. In that sense, physician-assisted suicide… [read more]

Euthanasia as Marker Points Out, the Privilege Term Paper

… Euthanasia

As Marker points out, the privilege of euthanasia can be abused. Unscrupulous family members, doctors and health care centers might view euthanasia as a cost-saving alternative to continued care. However, every single legal right we have as Americans can be abused and it is up to the courts to rectify those rare cases. Restricting the rights of citizens for fear of abuse creates an unnecessarily, illogically intolerant society. For the most part, legalizing physician-assisted suicide would end the enormous pain suffered by a sizable number of terminally ill patients. Moreover, such patients might not want to remain hooked up to life support systems indefinitely, their suffering on display and their family members forced to foot the bill as well as the emotional trauma.

Euthanasia is never a spur-of -- the moment decision. Were it legal, a set of strict regulations and laws would be in place to ensure that neither doctor nor patient abused the privilege. Certain conditions must be met before a doctor could even consider assisting a patient's suicide.… [read more]

Philosophy Practice Dying How Do You Feel Term Paper

… Philosophy

Practice Dying

How do you feel about Plato's advice to "practice dying?" think Plato's advice is well taken for a number of reasons. He is trying to tell us that we should be able to die gracefully and with dignity, but also that we need to live our lives fully and with happiness in order to do that. If we practice dying throughout our lives, we can take a look at where we are and how happy we are, and where we need to change. It is helpful to think of where our priorities and affections are from time to time, and to practice dying is to look at these and see what we would do differently if we knew we would die tomorrow, next week, or next month.

Few people really want to die, but stopping and looking at what dying would mean to us right now gives us a good indication of how well our life is working and how happy we are. Plato is not being morbid or negative about life, but he is encouraging people to always assess their life and what they are doing with their life. Who… [read more]

Tube Feeding Term Paper

… ¶ … feeding tubes at the end of life. The writer examines literature with regards to patients who have dementia, cancer and other end of life issues and reviews what has been concluded about using feeding tubes at this stage.… [read more]

Family Assessment Term Paper

… ¶ … family assessment on the Calhoun family, from the movie the Notebook, written by Nicholas Sparks. The writer includes all of the basic elements that an assessment is supposed to include.

The family members are named Noah and Allie… [read more]

Independent and Dependant Variables Term Paper

… On the other hand, if a longitudinal study were developed, the results could be slightly different. For a longitudinal study, the population would be the same, but the survey would be administered over a longer period of time; in this example, ten years. Over the course of the ten years, the data would be collected from the same population, and thus, could indicate a change in the data over time, as well as link together possible connections between length of time smoking and lung disease. Again, while cause and effect cannot be established, hypotheses about length of time smoking and gradual lung disease could be developed. In the cross sectional study, no relationship over time could be measured, but in the longitudinal study, these measurements could generate a number of new hypotheses.

Clearly, both the cross sectional and longitudinal design have their own advantages and disadvantages. For certain subjects, such as the study of attitudes and behaviors on experimental subjects, a cross sectional design would be the best alternative, since it is low cost, and can generate hypotheses to be used in a quantitative study. For other areas, such as how variables change over time, the longitudinal method is preferred. In both cases, however, a well-structured, well-planned study can easily generate the desired results.


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Saint-Germain, M.A., PhD. (2004). Research Methods. Retrieved October 25, 2005 from California State University. Web site:… [read more]

Articles on Hoarding Behavior in Dementia Patients Term Paper

… ¶ … articles on hoarding behavior in dementia patients and in the elderly. Compulsive hoarding is an interesting and compelling phenomenon in a wide variety of the population. The two studies investigate hoarding in the elderly, and in patients with… [read more]

Firelight in "The Night Term Paper

… That is firelight. It can burn you if you get too close, but it is oh so comforting if you can stay at just the right distance.

I think a good example of people who live in the firelight are old people. Often, when people get very old, they tend to live in their memories, and retreat into times past. They are in their own dream world of thoughts and memories that no one else really understands. Their future is uncertain at best, so they retreat into their past, where the outcome is certain, but dreams can change the facts. My grandfather was like that in the last years of his life. Often he would sit for hours, just staring ahead out of his nearly blind eyes, and he would obviously be lost in thought. He would not talk, but it was easy to see he was thinking about things, and remembering his life past. He could not really tell you what he was thinking about, but it was clear he was in that hypnotic state that comes from warmth, safety, and comfort. I did not understand his silences at the time, and now, it seems as if he had lived a long and good life, and he was eager to remember the good times. When you live in the firelight, you do not have to acknowledge reality, just as the young boy did not want to acknowledge his mother's voice. My grandfather was old, a widower, nearly blind, and dependent on others for his survival. In the firelight, he was young and vital again, and he did not have to face reality.

In conclusion, the firelight is a hypnotic and dreamlike state that can certainly become ambiguous. However, it is mostly a state of mind. They fire hypnotizes us with its warm and promise of comfort, and we are powerless in its grasp.


Wolff, Tobias. The Night in Question. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,… [read more]

Physician-Assisted Suicide Term Paper

… He shows why people who are seriously injured, and have "no hope" of recovery should not give up; they have a lot more to give to the world and the people that love them. If people have the "right" to die, what is the difference if they take their own life, or take another life? How is one life more important than another is? What gives anyone the "right" to die? They were put here on Earth to serve some purpose, and it was not a purpose to be cut short because they do not feel like being here any longer. Life is not easy, but it is better than the alternative, no matter what.

There is another thing that many people do not think about when they think about physician-assisted suicide, and that is someone who cannot make the decision on their own, and their relatives make it for them. "How can we make sure that no one will be pressed to end his or her life by self-interested relatives, friends, enemies, or caretakers?" (Van Den Haag 140). If they are pressured into committing suicide, no one would ever know, and it would not only be morally wrong, it would be horrible. People that even think about that are monsters. There is also the question of terminally ill children. The right to die laws are "limited to adults" (Carter 143), and so what happens if a child wants to commit suicide? Do they have the right to die, too?

Now, many states are looking at laws to allow people to commit physician-assisted suicide in their states. I think states that do this are wrong. People will come there just to die, and then what will happen to them? Will the state have to pay for their funeral and/or burial costs? If they are so ill, how will they get there?

There are too many unanswered questions about physician-assisted suicide, and too many moral issues for it to be a simple decision. Helping someone commit suicide is a felony, and I think it… [read more]

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