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Globalization of Agriculture, Food Production

When DeGregori criticizes the pity environmental activists feel "for the pigs fed diluted ice cream obtained by cleaning Ben & Jerry's machines because they "never made it to 600 pound adulthood" (DeGregori, 2002 15), "dying at 200 pounds of arteriosclerosis" he actually, unwittingly raises a concern very much in the modern media and modern eye, that of the unsanitary farming practices that have caused the rampant spread of illnesses in recent date, such as mad cow disease. DeGregori says that pity should be directed to starving humans, but neglects to consider that changes in the consumption of feed animals can, and is now having, implications for human health. Thus, the question of environmentalism as a movement, which has its excesses and moral sanctimony, must be separated from the real and dangerous effects of modern commercial farming. Although DeGregori's criticisms of the ideological tone of the movement have some value, and his generalized assertion that technology has been more of a help rather than a harm to humanity -- and whether we like it or not, it is here to stay, not all technological innovations can be embraced in an uncomplicated fashion. And, the innovations of the capitalist market and the modern farm industry in particular, designed for profit rather than the benefit of human consumption and health, seem to require particular scrutiny that DeGregori's own ideology of the unquestioned benefits capitalism and science are unwilling to confer. Works Cited DeGregori, Thomas R. (2002). The……

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Corporate Food Regimes Profit From Global Food Crises

Fair Trade certification has historically been available only to farmers and farms in developing countries. Of the food consumed in the United States, more than 80% is produced domestically, which means that most of the people and sources associated with this food production fall outside the scope of Fair Trade certification. Moreover, Fair Trade certification has far-reaching and substantive impact beyond sustainability and commodity prices. Food growers who seek Fair Trade certification must meet and "adhere to stringent social and environmental standards" (Gonzales, 2014). These standards include equal opportunity employment, freedom of association, regulated chemical use, recruitment best practices, and safe working conditions (Gonzales, 2014). Moreover, Fair Trade certified participants can also benefit from the premiums they earn by improving education, healthcare, and housing (Gonzales, 2014). References Austin, J.E. & Reavis, C. (2002, October 2). Starbucks and Conservation International [Case]. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School. Prod. #: 303055-PDF-ENG. Retreived http://hbr.org/product/starbucks-and-conservation-international/an/303055-PDF-ENG Banco, J. (2010). Is fair trade really fair? Inspired Economist. Retreived http://inspiredeconomist.com/2010/09/03/is-fair-trade-really-fair/ Gonzales, D. (2014, March 31). Making the food trade work for all. Food for All. Huffington Post. Retreived http://www.huffingtonpost.com/daniel-gonzales/making-the-food-trade-wor_b_5065465.html Graef, F., Sieber, S., Mutabazi, K., Asch, F., Biesalski, H.K.,Bitegeko, J., Bokelmann, W., Bruentrup, M., Dietrich, O., Elly, N., Germerd, U., Grote, U., Herrmann, L., Herrmann, R., Hoffmann, H., Kahimba, F.C., Kersebaum, K-C., Kilembe, C., Kimaro, A., Kinabo, J., Konigg, B., Konigs, H., Lana, M. Levy P.C., Lyimo-Macha, A.J., Makoku, B. Mazoko, G., Mbagav, S.H., Mbogorou, W., Milling, M.H., Mtambow, K., Mueller, J., Mueller, C., Mueller, B.K., Nkonjan, E., Reif, B., Ringlern, C., Ruvyg., S., Schaefer, M. (2014, February). Framework for participatory food security research in rural food value chains. Global Food Security, 3(1), 8-15. Retrieved http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211912414000029 Holt-Gimenez, E. & Wang, Y. (2011). Reform or transformation?: The pivotal role of food justice in the U.S. food movement. Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts, 5(1), 83-102. Retrieved http://muse.jhu.edu/hournals/rac/sumary/v005/5.1.holt-giminex.html Lean, G. (2008, May 4). Multinationals make billions in profit out of growing global food crisis. The Independent/UK. Retrieved http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_12088.cfm Magdoff, F. & Tokar, B. (2010). Agriculture and food in crisis: Conflict, resistance, and renewal. New York, NY: Monthly Review Press. Porter, J.R., Dyball, R., Dumaresq, D., Deutsch, L, & Matsuda, H. (2014, February). Feeding capitals: Urban food security and self-provisioning in Canberra, Copenhagen and Tokyo. Global……

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


History of Bacon

¶ … History of Bacon The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service defines bacon as "the cured belly of a swine carcass." If the meat of a pig is cured in a fashion similar to bacon but the meat is taken from a different part of the animal other than the belly, the product name must be qualified to indicate to the customer what part of the animal was used. For example, cured pork shoulder can technically be called bacon, but it must be called "pork shoulder bacon" (USDA). Similarly, meat from other animals may be prepared in a manner that is similar to the way bacon is prepared, but the product must again be qualified to indicate the meat that is used. As a result, bacon made with pork is simply called bacon, but a turkey-based product must be called "turkey bacon," and a beef-based product must be called "beef bacon." In addition, meat from the pig's belly that is prepared differently is called ham. A specific set of circumstances must be met in order for pig meat to be considered bacon. Fresh bacon is created when it undergoes a curing process. Curing is a food preservation process that consists of adding a combination of salt, sugar, nitrates, or nitrite to the meat. Sometimes the curing process also involves smoking the meat. Fresh bacon is cured in a brine or in a dry packing; both the brine and the dry packing that may be used for curing bacon contain large amounts of salt. Once fresh bacon has been made, it may be further dried, boiled or smoked. Bacon brine can also be flavored with brown sugar or maple, which creates different tastes and textures for the meat. Using various types of wood during the smoking process can also vary the flavor of bacon. It is unclear when bacon was actually invented since the term was used to refer to all pork in general until well into the sixteenth century (Filippone). Today, bacon is growing in popularity despite the nation's growing concern with healthy eating. Admittedly, bacon is a fatty meat, but chef Joanna Preuss reveals that "the fat is the very thing that gives bacon its taste" (Preuss). Bacon has firmly woven its way into American life, but it is meat with a popularity that predates the country. In fact, perhaps the most popular bacon-related…

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Consumer Behavior- Processed Ham Ham, Specifically Processed

Consumer Behavior- Processed Ham Ham, specifically processed ham, is the most common ingredient of a sandwich. This readily available and seemingly simple food, however, undergoes different processes before it conveniently reaches the refrigerated shelves of grocery stores, supermarkets, or even the local neighborhood's delicatessen. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), ham is commonly processed in three ways: by curing, dry curing, and brine (or 'wet') curing. All processes involve the application of salt to the ham, to be 'aged' for a year (in the case of dry curing) or less (regular or wet curing). Although the usual manner of curing is applying salt to the meat, chemicals such potassium nitrate, nitrites, and especially sodium ascorbate, are used to "accelerate" the ham curing process. While there are numerous available resources on the different methods of processing ham, information on its distribution processes and systems are scarce. The most relevant source on the distribution system for the processed ham market is from the U.S. Department of Commerce, which looks into all distribution channels that the processed meat products go through in the said category. Based on this government document, processed ham comes from two sources: local suppliers and importers. Distribution of processed meat, which includes ham, is centralized because of the high demand from big grocery stores and leading supermarkets in different states in the country. However, while processed hams are supplied locally, there has been a marked change in the processed meat market, as importers began to emerge as one of the dominant players in this market. Importers have challenged the local suppliers' dominance in the processed meat market because of the former's cheaper price and competitive quality. Imported processed ham may enter the country as semi-processed ham; the curing process will be completed in the United States, and will be packaged and distributed by the distribution companies to wholesale and retail channels, such grocery stores and supermarkets. This is basically the general process illustrated in official documents on processed meat importation in the country, and specific process flow information, from ham processing to retail and wholesale distribution, are not readily available. It is possible that the difficulty in finding free and readily available sources is due to the competitive nature of the market, wherein vital information such as manufacturing processes and distribution channels are case sensitive, and generated and collated through rigorous market research methods. Thus, this case-sensitive…

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Blueberries a Brief Synopsis of

Blueberries are known for having very thin fibrous roots devoid of root hairs with the finest ones being no more than twenty µm in their diameter (Valehzuela 2009). Highbush blueberry plants have endotrophic mvcorhizza, which assist the roots in absorbing water and nutrients, while lowbush blueberry plants have rhizomes instead of roots, allowing them to grow more in the area…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 14


Chrf CSA Case Study: What

There are few supermarkets in the area, leaving the low-income consumers at the mercy of higher-priced bodegas that often only stock 'junk' foods rather than produce.[footnoteRef:4] Special arrangements were made with farmers to lower the costs of typical CSAs and request payment in advance of one week, versus seasonally or monthly, given the dependence of residents upon food stamps to supply themselves with their regular groceries. Long-term goals include creating a corporate structure in which the shareholders have a 'say' in terms of how the food is grown and distributed. [footnoteRef:5] [3: Cohen & Derryck 2011:5] [4: Cohen & Derryck 2011:7-9] [5: Cohen & Derryck 2011:10] However, while as much as an observer might want CHRF to succeed, there seem to be several inherent problems within its business model. First and foremost, the focus is upon fruits and vegetables alone, which will not change other components of the shareholders' diets and will not necessarily result in a reduction of BMI. Poorer individuals also often face additional challenges in eating a healthy diet, including having adequate time to prepare food and adequate access to sanitary food preparation facilities (adequate time may also impede the ambition to involve shareholders in the governing of the CSA). The structure of a CSA is to give a general 'share' of food, not foods based upon the customer's request. This can be extremely problematic for low-income consumers who may be given foods like turnips, celery root, and other foods during the fall and winter seasons that require intensive cooking and preparation to be edible. Also, on a cultural basis, consumers may be reluctant to eat certain vegetables of which they are unfamiliar. This lack of flexibility has impeded the success of CSAs, even amongst the affluent. A more viable way to bring fruits and vegetables to the Bronx might be a farmer's market where consumers could use food stamps. This would give them some choices in what they selected. Bibliography Cohen, N., & Derryck, D. "Corbin Hill Road Farm Share: A hybrid food value chain in practice." Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development. Advance online……

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Agriculture and Genetically Modified Food in the Development of Third World Countries Pros and Cons

Agriculture and Genetically Modified Food in the Development of Third World Countries The term genetically modified foods or GMOs (genetically-modified organisms) is used to describe agricultural crops and plants which are grown for both human and animal consumption, through the use of techniques from the science of molecular biology. The plants or crops are modified or 'genetically engineered' to enhance…

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Culinary Food History of Russian

When the foam has gone, the chopped onions are to be added and, stirring frequently, cooked over moderate heat for 3 or 4 minutes, or until they are soft and lightly colored. Then the onions are to be moved into a large mixing bowl where the meat, pork fat, salt, pepper and 1/2 cup of cold water are added and mixed with a large spoon or hands until the ingredients are well combined and the mixture becomes smooth. Then on a lightly floured surface, the prepared dough should be rolled into a rough rectangle about 1/8 inches thick. Then dough is to be stretched carefully until it is thin like a paper. This is then spread and cut into an 18-inch square. Then the square is to be cut into rounds of 21/2- to 3-inch. Then ae teaspoon of the filling is dropped in the lower half of each round, and another round placed on top. Then the edges are sealed. Finally a round or triangular pouch is formed. Then 3 quarts of water are brought to a vigorous boil in a 4- to 6-quart casserole, about a dozen of the dumplings are dropped into the water, and cooked uncovered for 8 to 10 minutes, or till the dumplings rise to the surface of the water. Then the dumplings are to be taken out and dried. Pelmeni is served in one of two ways: as individual portions with melted butter or sour cream, or as a garnish for clear soup as beef or chicken broth. (Russian Cuisine -- Entrees) It is clear that most items are available almost everywhere. What is needed is skill to make it perfect. Conclusion: We are having a global world and every item is available everywhere, but individuals do not gather enough skills to make perfect dishes. References Insight into the history of Russian cuisine. Retrieved from http://www.foreign-love.com/history_of_russian_cuisine.html Accessed 7 October, 2005 Russian Cuisine -- Entrees. Retrieved from http://www.russia-in-us.com/Cuisine/Dadiani/entrees.htm#Russian%20Cuisine%20-- -- %20Entrees Accessed 7 October, 2005 Russian Cuisine. Retrieved from http://www.russianembassy.org/RUSSIA/cuisine.htm Accessed 7 October, 2005 Russian Cuisine. Retrieved from http://www.russianlegacy.com/en/go_to/culture/russian_cuisine/russian_cuisine.htm Accessed 7 October, 2005…

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Food in Ancient Egypt

Food in Ancient Egypt Food as a Marker of Social Status in Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt under the rule of Pharaohs was a highly stratified society. At the top of the social layer were the kings and their close relatives. Below them were the nobility, priests, and rich merchants, followed by soldiers and craftsmen. Peasants represented the low class but…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 8


Organic Food

Ethics and Morality Organic Food Instructions: Should the promotion and use of locally-grown, non-genetically modified, organic produce, if cost effective, be a mandatory ethical responsibility of all participates within the culinary art field? Some points to include are cost effectiveness, cold weather climates that only get fresh vegetables part of the year, and the complexity of the food production system PLEASE INCLUDE: compare and contrast differing arguments on the topic, demonstrate your mastery of your research sources (paraphrasing, quoting and citing them).. Here you are encouraged to state your preferred viewpoint [i.e Consequentialist (Utilitarian) Ethicist, Nonconsequentialist (Rational) Ethicist, Virtue Ethicist, etc. Or some combination of the different positions] and how that viewpoint will impact on your approach to the material. A conclusion that summarizes your argument and considers the wider issues at stake. The Sustainable Food Movement and Ethics Introduction The sustainable food movement embodies a fundamental challenge to the American way of life. It forces Americans to examine their lifestyle and the consequences it has on the environment, on animal life, and even on their own health. Although the sustainable food movement certainly has valid critiques of our current system of food production, it has not provided a feasible alternative to the current system that accounts for basic economic realities such as the world's growing population. The organic food movement in particular overlooks the many benefits of the current system of food production, which allows us to produce far more food on less land than pre-industrial agriculture. Its proposal that the nation switch to a local produce model is neither necessary nor economically feasible for the United States. Thesis: From a utilitarian perspective, it would harm the interests of a large majority of society, who do not live next to small farms producing the foods that the need. The Organic Food Movement In Omnivore's Dilemma, Michael Pollan presents a damning critique of the American food distribution system. He illustrates how the country's huge industrial might has turned our natural, sun-based food production system into a fossil-fuel-based food production system. These fossil fuels process corn into feed for our livestock as a substitute for grass as well as corn syrup and other derivatives for humans in order to preserve packaged goods. Pollan argues that the switch to a fossil-fuel-based system is toxic both to our environment as well as our bodies. He claims that the use of feed in lieu…

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Importance of Agriculture in People's Lives

Agriculture in Daily Life Though most of us are not faced on a daily basis with the realities of the agriculture industry, it still plays a huge part in our lives. With the rising price of oil likely to cause a continuing and sharper rise in food prices, the effects of the agriculture industry might son be felt even more sharply by the average American citizen (USDA). Agriculture provides us with our sustenance, whether or not we are always aware of this fact, and is therefore of immense importance not only to our happiness and well being, but even to the continued day-to-day operations of our society and civilization. Throughout much of 2008, food prices around the world fluctuated wildly as part of the early fall-out of the economic crisis, and government interventions into such pricing issues usually costs a significant amount of our hard-earned tax dollars (USDA). Not acknowledging the impact of agriculture in today's world is simply naive. Agriculture does not just provide us with the fruits and vegetables with which it is most commonly associated, either. Almost everything we ingest, whether we ought to or not, comes from an agricultural product. Beer cannot be brewed without various grains, nor can bread be baked; and steak must ruminate on something before it ends up on the plate. For this reason, agricultural fluctuations tend to have a ripple effect on other aspects of the economy, especially food production. A rise in beef prices is being narrowly avoided right now; wheat fields in the southern plains that are used as grazing grounds for cattle have been dwindling, and usually when this occurs ranchers must purchase feed and establish their herds in feed lots -- all at great expense -- in order to retain their herd's value, and these costs are passed on to the consumer (Aldrich, 1). Luckily, however, an increase in grass growth is making up the difference, for now at least (Aldrich, 2). Other agricultural issues are not fixed so easily. Farmland around the country has diminished by 16.9 million acres between 2002 and 2007 (House,……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Agriculture in Italy

Agriculture in Italy Agriculture Products and Sustainability of Agriculture in Italy Agriculture is one of the oldest activities undergone by the humans in order to sustain life. And it was the primary source of food and income for the majority of individuals across the globe. However, with the industrial and technological revolutions, more and more people begun to work within…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 6


Importance of Convenience Food to Generation Y Students

¶ … Convenience Food to Generation Y Students Generation Y is the group of individuals who are presently between 10 and 28 years of age. This group is also referred to as the 'Echo Boomers' which comprise 24% of the population. This group represents $625 billion in annual buying power and are a diverse group who leads trends. This group…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 35


Is Genetic Engineering a Solution to the Food Security Problem in Developing Countries?

Genetic Engineering of Food "Protagonists argue that genetic engineering entails a more controlled transfer of genes because the transfer is limited to a single gene, or just a few selected genes, whereas traditional breeding risks transferring unwanted genes together with the desired ones. Against that advantage, antagonists argue that the side effects in terms of potentially adverse impacts on the…

Pages: 14  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 25


Issue With Food Supply

¶ … Food Supply Technology, Industrialization, and the Problem of the Modern Food Industry One of the interesting features of modernity is that human beings today are almost obsessed with efficiency, trying to achieve the maximum at the shortest time, get the most out of least effort, and earn as much profit as possible. There is certainly nothing wrong with efficiency -- it is essentially a good thing -- but the way efficiency is pursued today somehow blinds people to the extent that they no longer see hidden costs of many of their efforts. For example, because of too much focus on the directly quantifiable costs of production, industries, and to a lesser extent ordinary folks, cannot differentiate between the price of producing a good and the cost of it. This is most evident in the way the food industry operates today. Attempts to maximize the food production while spending less and working less have made us negligent to the hidden costs of this business -- costs such as irreparable damage done to the Earth's crust, atmosphere, and human health. The nature without human intervention operates in a balanced and cyclic way, where every living organism and chemical contributes to overall stability. McDonough and Braungart (2002) explain that the system of nutrients and metabolism in nature make sure that there is no such thing as waste. For instance, extra blossoms on trees that fall are not useless. They decompose on the ground and feed a variety of organisms and microorganisms, while also enriching the soil. Another example is how carbon dioxide exhaled by humans and animals are taken in by plants for their own growth. Animal dung is the safest and most natural fertilizer humans have used for ages. In other words, the cycling and recycling of the Earth's nutrients in a natural way ensures that "waste equals food" (McDonough and Braungart, 2002, p. 92). This natural equilibrium of the Earth's ecosystem, however, was disrupted by the Industrial Revolution when humans began to alter the equilibrium, taking away substances from the land and altering them substantially, making the return of these substances to the soil almost impossible (McDonough and Braungart, 2002, pp. 98, 101-2). With the technological development during Industrialization, which allowed better transportation and more efficient means of harvesting and gathering agricultural products, people began massively transfer nutrients from place to place, disrupting the natural balance that ensured ecological…

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Food Safety for America Recent

However, others would counter that the food supply is growing safer, and the increase in recalls is a good thing, because it indicates that contagions are being caught before they can impact the lives of massive numbers of consumers. The Grocery Manufacturers Association says "it may look like the food supply is getting less safe, but it actually means that…

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Pennsylvania Dutch

¶ … American culinary sub-region of the Pennsylvania Dutch. Specifically, it will cover some of the influences on the foods and cooking of the Pennsylvania Dutch, and discuss some of the regions' most popular dishes and specialties. The Pennsylvania Dutch inhabit rural areas of southeastern Pennsylvania, and their cooking is a unique blend of their lifestyle, history, culture, and local…

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Culinary Baking and Pastry Influences

Culinary/Baking & Pastry influences Culinary, baking and pastry influences Baking is one of my favorite activities in the world. It soothes me and keeps me calm; it brings out the best in me and it drives me to evolve and learn new things. Baking helps me interact better socially; I love to share my own experiences and to learn from those of others. And I also love to bake for my friends on occasion, who are all so busy, but who all enjoy so much bakeries and pastries. In my spare time, I also volunteer at the local theater, where I do some improvised comedy. Once, I helped the theater move to another location and I also baked a specialty cake for the occasion. They enjoyed its taste as well as its look. My early inspiration for cooking in general came from my grandmother. Even though she is no longer with us, I still remember the rich autumns when she would fill her pantry with home made gems, preserved fruits, pickles and so on. I often wish I had such a pantry, filled with home made goodies, which are not only delicious, but more trustworthy than anything. In the recent years, my inspiration came from Wolfgang Puck, who has come to represent not only a successful chef, but also a notable business success. Wolfgang is charismatic and charming and the primary things that inspired me in regard to him were represented by his courage and unconventionalism. Puck will not become entangled in the traditional recipes, but will continually try to create new ones, from ingredients regular chefs……

Pages: 2  |  Admission Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Culture Food History of French

E. Seasonings run the gamut from French sea salt (some of the best in the world) to fresh ground pepper, saffron, and all the fresh herbs that are available in France, such as tarragon, sage, rosemary, thyme, and other seasonal herbs. F. The styles of French cuisine can be very different. Some areas, like Brittany, Normandy, and Provence all include quite a bit of seafood in their cooking because they are located along coastlines. Some areas have created more rustic, rural type cooking, such as Alsace with its quiche and casseroles, and the Midi region near Spain with its cassoulet. Other areas have a more formal style of cooking, filled with rich sauces, creams, and presentation on the plate is very important (Vogel). Expert Vogel continues, "Vegetables, for example, are often cut with obsessive-compulsive perfection and uniformity. Dishes are typically not presented in a rustic fashion but rather in a sophisticated, aesthetic, and organized manner" (Vogel). Many people feel French cooking is quite formal, and that can be true, but it is also inventive and very important to world cuisine. G. Cooking procedures in French kitchens go back to the first cooks like La Varenne, who developed new ways of working in the kitchen that were defined and well thought out. Historian Fromkin notes that the famous French chef Auguste Escoffier developed many modern aspects of the restaurant kitchen. He writes, "Escoffier brought a division of labor into the restaurant kitchen -- an assembly line of sorts -- in which each member of the cooking staff has an assigned function, so that each dish prepared is the product of many hands -- and can be produced swiftly" (Fromkin 72). This type of cooking is still used in restaurants today, and it is one reason that complicated French dishes can be completed in a shorter amount of time and served to diners quickly. French cooking is an essential part of the world's cuisine, and it has a long and interesting history. References Fromkin, David. "Once upon a Time in France." New Criterion Mar. 2001: 72. Hartman, Dr. Paul V. "Historical Origins of French Cuisine." Personal Web Page. 1996. 14 Oct. 2005. < http://www.naciente.com/essay93.htm Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York, Crown Publishers, 1988. Vogel, Mark R. "French Food." RecipeLand.com. 2004.……

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Human Eating Habits and Food Cultivation for

Human Eating Habits and Food Cultivation for Sustainability Changes must happen in both human eating habits and food cultivation if the human race is to survive The paper gives a discussion on the need for change in human eating and food cultivation habits. It is observed that sustainability of the human race and life on the globe is threatened by, the way human beings cultivate and eat. The paper looks at human eating habits and cultivation methods and the extent they strain the earth. The continued expansion of human population is also a concern since there is no extra capacity for the globe to provide given the current depletion of resources. The paper recommends a redirection to consider sustainability and reservation of the globes capacity in the future. Human Eating Habits and Food Cultivation for Sustainability At the onset of the 21st century, mankind has come to terms with an advent of new extremes in an effort to exploit resources in the globe. The technological advancements realized in the recent past are powerful to increase global productivity but not sufficient for sustenance. Inevitably, mankind has continued to increase their potential to consume all that is produced thanks the sustainability and growth in population attributive to medical health advancements UNEP, 2010. There is a concern that given the trend in population and the unmatched expansion in production, the resources within the globe will become insufficient. The human population is slowly eating itself out of the globe. The trend in insufficiency of the globe to feed the population is already observable with a report by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) indicating close to one billion people are malnourished FAO, 2010. In the report, it is reviewed that, in every year there are up to six million deaths of children associated with malnourishment FAO, 2010. This report indicates inadequacy of food leading to malnourish related deaths is partly attributable to the eating habits and food cultivation methods. Human race has embraced new technologies in production with an absolute disregard to the sustainability needs FAO, 2010() According to Cheng & Timilsina G., 2010() the world's population is steadily increasing and is expected to reach 9.2 billion people in 2050. On the contrary, agricultural productivity has been slowing down over the last two decades significantly indicating a shortage in the global capacity to sustain population in the world. The rising cases in the number of…

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Urban Agriculture Is Generally Employed

Additionally, Frostproof does not allow for Home Occupations to produce "noise, noxious odors, or any other hazards dangerous to the public health, safety, and welfare" (Polk County Research Matrix). Dickson Despommier emphasized in a 2009 issue of Scientific American the urgent need for an alternative to outdoor agriculture, which ruins the environment and cannot sustain humankind in the long run. The author argues that not enough arable land is available on the planet to feed a projected 9.5 billion population by 2050 (80). Thus, he suggested a comprehensive model of vertical indoor farms comprised in 30-story buildings (84) that could yield the equivalent of 2,400 outdoor acres' worth of produce (80) in aeroponics, hydroponics or drip irrigation-based greenhouses (84), with less subsequent spoilage, and would overcome the major drawbacks of mainstream outdoor farming, namely "fertilizer runoff, fossil-fuel emissions, and loss of trees and grasslands" (Despommier 86). At this point in time, vertical farms might hold the promise of a genuine, sustainable urban life, by recycling otherwise polluting city wastewater in order to provide irrigation water, and the remaining solid waste, along with inedible plant matter, would be incinerated in designated ground-level chambers, which in their turn would be used to create steam that would set turbines in motion, and so generate electricity that would guarantee the farm's continuous maintenance (Despommier 84). In conclusion, it can be asserted that while the policies regarding urban farms and community gardens may vary from state to state, urban agriculture in general can be deemed an advantageous development model for any city, and urban vertical farms in particular present a viable prototype for future sustainability. References Despommier, Dickson. "The Rise of Vertical Farms: Growing crops in city skyscrapers would use less water and fuel than outdoor farming, eliminate agricultural runoff and provide fresh food." Scientific American November 2009: 80-87. Erickson, L., Griggs, K., Maria, M. And Serebrin, H. Urban Agriculture in Seattle: Policy & Barriers. Seattle, WA: City of Seattle. Online. Available: http://www.seattle.gov/neighborhoods/ppatch/pubs/Urban%20Agriculture%20in%20Seattle%20Policy%20and%20Barriers.pdf Polk County Urban Farm/Community Garden Research Matrix, 2013. Ranney, V., Kirley, K., Sands, M.……

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


About Food, Inc. Documentary Film

¶ … Food, Inc. As its title suggests, the film Food, Inc. is an expose of American, commercialized agriculture. Instead of a family farm producing and raising meat, milk, vegetables, and grains, our food system is based on mass production. Food is no longer simply 'food' but rather is a part of a massive industrialized system of corporate control embodied in the personas of Monsanto, Smithfield, Perdue, Tyson, and McDonald's. No aspect of the food system is free of such controls. The film is thus very much informed by the work of cultural critics such as Michael Pollan, author of the Omnivore's Dilemma and Erich Schlosser, author of Fast Food nation, both of whom make appearances in the film. What is particularly surprising about the film is the extent to which the American food system has changed so fast. During the 1930s and 1940s, independent farms were still a reality in many sections of the country. However mass production and fast food changed the way that food was produced and sourced. Fast food companies and conventional food retailers make up so much of the demand for food, they can dictate the terms of how it is produced, giving emphasis to speed and cheapness rather than health and ethics. Large meat retailers dictate to farmers how food will be grown and produced: what type of animals they will raise and how, and what type of crops they will raise (corn and soy vs. healthy fruits and vegetables, and genetically modified and commercially-produced Monsanto seeds vs. heritage and organic varieties). This focus on standardization and mechanization is obviously disastrous for the health of the animals caught in the wheel of industrialized agriculture. One does not need to be a vegetarian to shudder at the unhealthy ways animals are processed to become food. For example, most beef cattle raised in the U.S. are 'finished' on corn. Because they are fed this unnatural diet far too young before they can digest such foods (to hasten the time to slaughter), they must be fed antibiotics. Antibiotics also enhances the growth of cattle but has led to a myriad of biological problems, including the explosion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Animals in factory farms are closely confined, subjected to constant stress as the result of their conditions and are fed an unnatural diet. This is in direct context to the natural methods of farming adopted by Joel Salatin…

Pages: 3  |  Film Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Food Justice Many Facets of

Food Justice Many Facets of Food Justice Background on Gottlieb and Joshi's Food Justice. Background on Garcia's The Future of Food. Introduction of the broader issues of social, economic, and political justice. Labor Issues (mainly related to Food Justice) Modern-day slavery Pesticides Need to introduce labor issues into the food justice discourse. Consumer Issues Awareness, knowledge of pesticide content, GMOs.…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Food Wars Place of Publication:

" This agreement may have been drawn up and agreed to in 1948, but it would do us good to review it and to remind ourselves of its importance. This is what Susan Waltz, in her article "Reclaiming and Rebuilding the History of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights," would have us do. Reviewing this document "indeed raises questions about great power support for efforts to craft international human rights standards," she writes (Waltz 437). Taken one step further, we can look to the work of Jack Donnelly. As he points out, in the UDHR "we can see a set of rights formulated to protect basic human -- not merely cultural -- values against the special threats posed by modern institutions" (Donnelly 415). The urgency of this document becomes even more so after reading a volume like Bello's. Although he has a flair for the dramatic in some of his more impassioned passages, his work is strongly supported with solid data and securely grounded in historical context and well-considered philosophical theory. "Philosophy, in any case, provides only one of the paths to consideration of human rights," writes Waltz (438). That idea is, arguably, central to Bello's message in The Food Wars. Works Cited Bello, Walden. The Food Wars. New York: Verso, 2009. Donnelly, Jack. "Cultural Relativism and Universal Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 4 400-419. 1984. Waltz, Susan. "Reclaiming and Rebuilding the History of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights."……

Pages: 5  |  Book Review  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


Political Ecology: The World Food

Al, 2011). Also, the preparation of food has various techniques. Considering the type of food eaten, it is obvious that use of normal gas stove to microwave ovens alone with bar-b-q grills, is rather common for Melanders. Whereas, Natomos cook their food by burning wood which is very common in Mali? By having a simple glance at the two pictures, one can easily observe that starting from procurement till final consumption, the eating habits of both the families who reflection of the areas they live in, are completely opposite to each other. Also, it is quite easy to observe how there exist two global cultures; one which is a result of industrialization of food industry and the other is a consequence of simple poverty. The industrialization of food industry started back in 1970s where the main emphasis was on consumption of healthy food components only (of course, by those who could afford it). Markets were flooded with food having only carbohydrates and least fat. Time proved that this notion was wrong and leads the world to obesity. Resultant is the today's world of consuming processed food only, which is refined but lacks nutritional value (Pollan, 2008). One cannot ignore the role of international monetary bodies in this food disparity all across the globe. It's the policies of organizations like IMF and World Bank, who have made the affluent countries more rich and the poor ones drained out of their resources. 1980s was the era when the African states decided to rely on their internal production and curtailing imports. As Africa is one of the most populated regions of the world, reduction in importance could have had a drastic impact on GNP of developed countries. But due to the policies of World Bank, this plan of sovereignty collapsed completely, burring African nations in debt, and causing their future mortgaged to the commodities with declining value (Patel, 2009). Also, IMF is an equal culprit in this global inequality. We can take example of Malawi here, a country destroyed by IMF policies where hundreds starved to death. Due to erroneous data presented by IMF, Malawian government reduced its grain storage by 3/4th. The intention was to reduce the storage cost; however the result was hundreds of people dying of famine. Malawi government had to take loan from IMF which further indebted the country and worsened its state (Rowan, 2002). Although IMF claimed in…

Pages: 4  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Whole Foods New Service Proposal

Many of these might have a cost advantage due to the locations that they operate in or their retail size which makes square footage more cost effective. Barriers to entry also is inclusive of them having a more timely and reliable access to various distribution channels and networks (such as supermarkets having their own delivery services). Bargaining power of Suppliers…

Pages: 12  |  Business Plan  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Transition to Agriculture Transition From

The new way of life based in permanent settlements led to the emergence of human 'communities.' These permanent communities were responsible for numerous other developments and the growth of 'civilizations' as we know them today. For example, archeological findings indicate that construction of solid buildings coincided with the appearance of the first agricultural societies. Since mobility was no longer a requirement, the human 'tool kit' began to expand. Technology started to develop since 'specialization' now became possible with people adopting specialized activities at which they were skilled. Population began to expand exponentially since it was now desirable to have more children with agriculture requiring more 'hands' in the fields. Not all changes necessitated by the transition from a nomadic to a sedentary way of life were positive. The dependence of a group of people on a limited piece of land for their food now meant that human beings were more vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather. Living closely together in towns and villages created problems of hygiene and diseases previously unknown to the hunting / gathering communities. Accumulation of goods and wealth gave rise to problems of security and the creation of hierarchies in societies. These new developments forced the human communities towards more complex organizations such as governments and the military. Whether the changes brought about by the transition to an agricultural society were positive or negative, there is no doubt that few other events in human history have been as important as the Agricultural Revolution and it been rightly termed as the greatest event of pre-history by some historians. Bibliography Agricultural Revolution" (2003) Washington State University's Agricultural Revolution Student Module Retrieved on September 24, 2003 at http://www.wsu.edu/gened/learn-modules/top_agrev/agrev-index.html Coffin, Judith G., et. al. (2002). "Western Civilizations, Volume 1," Fourteenth Edition. W.W. Norton & Company: New York. Hunting and Gathering societies still exist in certain parts of the world and remain mainly unchanged in character In the Nile Valley, in Anatolia (modern Turkey), in northern Syria, and along the Jordan River valley Climatic change in these regions following the retreat of glaciers may have been one of the reasons. History…

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Food Inc. Robert Kenner's Film

Food Inc. Robert Kenner's film Food, Inc. is a documentary about industrial food production in America, and the problems associated with it. The film depicts animal food production facilities, showing how animals are treated when they are being raised for mass slaughter. In addition to showing where American meat is coming from, the film shows how large-scale agriculture works in the United States. As with the factory-raised meat, the agriculture production in the United States works fairly well from a business perspective, but entails the use of potentially dangerous chemicals. In conjunction with these issues, Kenner discusses the problems with corporate control of food, which is why the film's name is Food, Inc. Food production, manufacturing, and marketing is big business, and it is linked to other big business sectors including chemicals and petro-chemicals. Companies are capitalizing on trends in consumer demand, such as for "organic" and other presumably healthy items, which are still being controlled by the major food conglomerates. Among the interrelated issues that are discussed in Food, Inc. includes problems like obesity and health issues, the ethics associated with factory farming, and consumer empowerment. The film is divided into three segments to address in detail the specifics of each area. First, the filmmaker discusses the forces leading to mass production of food in America. Kenner shows how the origins of agro-business started in the early twentieth century, when trust in science was higher than the mistrust of business. Small scale farmers were poor, and easy targets to get bought out by burgeoning food industry conglomerates. The discovery of synthetic corn products such as high fructose corn syrup bolstered interest in massive replanting of America's land for monocrops like corn and soy. Within a relatively short period of time, much of America's farmland was concentrated into the hands of a few major companies. This was true for agriculture as well as for animals. The forces leading to mass production started with the Great Depression, leading to World War Two, and through the middle of the twentieth century. America went from economic hardship to prosperity relatively soon after the end of the Second World War. The image of America as the land of prosperity was fostered in part by the country's ability to produce massive amounts of food efficiently using new technology and the chemicals that had been discovered and developed during wartime by the military. It is impossible…

Pages: 3  |  Film Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Food Inc. Film Inc. Is

Food Inc. Film Inc. is a documentary that covers the subject of the food industry, specifically in the United States. It works through a series of vignettes that study the issue from a number of different perspectives, each woven together by three common themes. These three themes are the forces that lead to the mass production of food the toll of current food production methods of humans and animals the rights of consumers to what is in their food With respect to the first theme there are a number of forces at work that have led to the mass production of food. In part, farming has simply become a job few want to do, and urban flight forces the agriculture industry to concentrate. There are other issues, too, like government encouraging this degree of concentration in a number of different ways and consumer demand for low cost food. Before supermarkets, most stores would have used local suppliers and had very little bargaining power. Today, that has changed and with greater bargaining power at the retail level consumers are also price sensitive about food. This leads to cycle of larger agricultural firms and lower prices. Fast food and other large restaurant operations also contribute to this problem by operating with business models that require large scale farms and factories to meet their needs. A rising population has not helped. Addressing this problem has to come from the demand side. Business can be the driver of demand, but ultimately consumers (uninformed or not) are the ones whose decision will dictate the patterns of production. We have seen the increase in demand for organic foods and how that has convinced more farmers to get into organic production. If there are markets and profits in food that is source from smaller farms, be it organic, heirloom or otherwise, the supply will follow. The solution is not going to come from industry, because its business models are entrenched and unless there is competition that is winning market share the industry has no incentive to change. The change will also not come from government because if its actions result in an increase in food prices, the government will face strong pressure from the voters. No government wants to be seen as taking food out of the mouths of the poor, and rising food prices tend to be perceived that way, rightly or wrongly. So this side…

Pages: 3  |  Film Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of

¶ … Fast food nation: The dark side of the all-American meal by Eric Schlosser. Specifically it will contain a book review of the book. Schlosser's book, made into a major motion picture, discusses America's obsession with fast food, and what that food is doing to the nation's health. It also looks at large-scale factory farming and how the fast…

Pages: 6  |  Book Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Sustainable Agriculture and Labor Conditions

Sustainable Agriculture There are many aspects of sustainable farming. Not only does this include healthy foods grown, healthy farming practices and systems, but, furthermore, healthy working conditions on the farm. There are a number of solutions proposed on the international scale that have been discussed or even implemented, but in order to achieve true sustainability in agriculture, not only do…

Pages: 10  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Food System in Global Justice

Global Food Global Justice and the Food System In a world where obesity is the number one public health concern in many countries at the same time as the rest of the world is suffering from under-nutrition, it makes sense to ask about the global food system that would allow, or even create, such gross inequities. Ever since the Green…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Genetically Modified Foods Harmful or Helpful

Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? Research proposal for finding out the usefulness and harmfulness of consumption of genetically modified foods The usefulness and harmfulness of the consumption of genetically modified foods is a continuing debate. Genetically modified foods have been used to tackle the problem of food shortage due to the world's ever growing population. It leaves the question…

Pages: 9  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Kudler Fine Foods Communications Plan

Kudler Fine Foods -- Communication Plan Established in 1998, Kudler Fine Foods is the culmination of Kathy Kudler's vision to establish her own gourmet food store. She started the store in reaction the relatively limited choice of fine foods in her area. So successful was her venture, that Kathy was able to open a second and third store in her area. To increase the perceived expertise of her personnel, Kathy hired specialists to advise and assist clients with their culinary needs. In addition, Kudler Fine Foods has been concerned with constructing an image that adheres to organic foods. This has created a customer base of health and food conscious people, all concerned with purchasing only the best that Kudler has to offer. Because of the increasing success of the store, possibilities of international expansion have been investigated. Particularly, Canada and Italy were considered as good candidates for Kudler Fine Foods. When expanding, certain factors need to be taken into account, including specific national factors in the target country, politics, and the market demand for specialized foods and drinks. Marketing Communications Plan Canada When constructing a marketing communications plan for Canada, one specific factor that must be taken into account is the country's strict standards concerning organic food and wine. One factor that is important in this regard is the fact that the concept of "organic" is, more often than not, flexible in the collective minds of territories, countries, and even individuals. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency put national standards for organic food in place on June 30, 2009. According to these standards, any food products certified as organic must have 95% organic content, even to the extent of having the variation of the word "organic" displayed anywhere on the product. In addition, natural fertilizers must be used to grow the product (Going organic, 2009, CBC). This is something that must be kept in mind before a U.S. food company can expand into Canada. In addition, these factors must also be incorporated into the communication plan for marketing the product in the country. What Kudler can use in its market strategy, is the fact that there has been an increase in Canadian demand for organic wines. Kudler can therefore focus on its organic wine products when creating a communications strategy. This focus can then be used as a vehicle for the sale of its food products as well. In Italy, an…

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Ground Water Used for Agriculture in West Texas

Groundwater usage for Agriculture inTexas Groundwater is found below the earth's surface in crevices of soil and rock Rubicon Real Estate Services. The laws in Texas regarding groundwater use is based on the English common law of "absolute use" or the "Rule of Capture" Rubicon. This means the property owner has complete determination of the usage of the groundwater located…

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Food Choices

Food Choices Food politics: Would you like a side order of pesticides with that chicken parmesan? Food politics: Would you like a side order of pesticides with that chicken parmesan? Protein: Chicken Chicken is often thought of as 'the healthy alternative' to beef and pork, presumably because of its lower fat content, particularly its breast meat. However, the ways that chickens are raised in conventional factory farming is arguably even more inhumane than cows or pigs. The chickens have been bred "to grow so rapidly" that their "legs can collapse under the weight" of their "ballooning" breasts because of the demand for white meat by American consumers (Williams 2010). Birds are kept in such close quarters their beaks and claws must be clipped or amputated, to prevent self-harm or harming other birds. Chickens are forced to live in dim lighting, denied the ability to engage in normal resting or roosting behavior (Williams 2010). Birds are fed antibiotics to make them more easily digest the foods they are fed and given hormones to speed growth. When slaughtered, birds have high levels of stress hormones, due to rough handling and being unaccustomed to being handled by humans for most of their lives. Organically-raised chickens, according to law, must not be fed with chicken feed grown with conventional chemical pesticides, antibiotics, or growth hormones, or bioengineered materials. Organic farms must be inspected to make sure that they meet USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) standards. But in terms of the way chickens are raised, ethically speaking, techniques may vary. Some small farms use traditional raising methods, giving chickens free access to peck, move, and do not tamper with their natural behaviors. But regarding official U.S. organic standards the only regulations for poultry raised for slaughter or eggs is that "the birds are uncaged inside barns or warehouses, and are required to have outdoor access" and having their beaks clipped is acceptable (Speier 2009). Some small farms advertise that their chickens are humanely as well as organically raised. Produce: Tomatoes Organic produce must be grown without conventional pesticides or fertilizers and must be certified as organic by the USDA. Conventionally grown tomatoes, even when washed, clearly have "remnants of pesticides" on the surface (Foreman 2008:1). However, while the long-term effects……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Culinary Scholarship

¶ … Friends of the FCI 2010 Scholarship My earliest childhood memories unfold in a wave of tastes and smells. My father, an experienced cook, always let me watch him as he prepared dinner or harvested vegetables from our small garden. It was from my father that I learned about the healing power of food: the healing power of a good meal to reinvigorate the soul, and the healing power of fresh and healthy plants and herbs to make a young body grow. It was from my father -- and the Mother Earth of our garden -- that I learned to respect the land. My father allowed me to cook and eventually to plant my own peppers, herbs, and tomatoes. As I grew bolder I began to seek out cooking books and experiment with new recipes. I also created a compost heap for my garden. Sometimes life presents great obstacles that turn out to be blessings in disguise. Despite the golden memories of my childhood, when I was twenty, my family began to experience financial difficulties. I assumed the burden of paying for my own college, medical insurance and living expenses. I wanted to help my family financially. Because of my love of caring for people, I took a full-time job as a Residential Counselor at Silver Hill Hospital, running an acute transitional unit for mentally-ill patients. Once again, during this difficult time in my own life, I was reminded of the healing power of food. I was given the task of teaching the residents how to cook and grow crops during the spring and summer. Watching the residents find confidence within themselves as their cooking skills improved was one of the proudest times of my life. Cooking and feeding yourself is a tremendous source of empowerment. Nurturing others with food can give the most depressed or distracted person hope. I……

Pages: 2  |  Application Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop

Transgenic Foods (genetically Modified Crop) The objective of this work is to write the ethical issue, history, whole process, application, advantage or risk in regards to transgenic food or GM crops in a historical, factual or argumentative paper. Transgenic crops or plants are those containing genes which have been inserted artificially rather than through pollination. The inserted gene sequence is…

Pages: 8  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 10


Fast Food Nation

Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All American Meal: Changing the Land, Workforce, And Above All Culture According to Eric Schlosser's Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All American Meal, the fast food industry has completely and irrevocably changed the American landscape, workforce, and culture. Many of the aspects of fast food culture Schlosser demonizes are also applicable to other forms of American capitalism -- for example, Wal-Mart also makes use of poorly paid workers who receive few benefits, and are used as disposable commodities, rather than participants in a company who can look forward to being promoted and share in its profits. The overconsumption of meat and high-fructose corn syrup is endemic to American processed food, as well as fast food. But the eradication of cooking, the idea that food is not food but entertainment, that food is a product for children rather than adults and that it is acceptable to have the family meal in a car are all aspects of modern life for which the fast food industry must accept sole blame. It is perhaps the automobile that really changed the American landscape and made fast food possible: "The triumph of the automobile encouraged not only a geographic separation between buildings, but also a manmade landscape that was loud and bold" (Schlosser 17). Anonymous roadside 'pit stops' replaced lunch counters where everyone knew one another's name. The demand for cheap beef transformed the cattle industry, and made factory farming king. Sustainable agriculture, always a tenuous proposition in a land with a tendency to over-farm and over-graze the soil, became replaced with industrialized agriculture and factory farming. Today, Schlosser writes, poultry farmers are "trapped by debt," captives of large processors and the meat industry may be going the same way (Schlosser 139). The patterns of ownership and management on Americans farms today parallels that of 19th century rural England, not that of the independent homesteaders of previous eras (Schlosser 118). Today, America has more prison inmates than full-time farmers (Schlosser 8). "In the potato fields and processing plants of Idaho, in the ranchlands east of Colorado Springs, in the feedlots and slaughterhouses of the High Plains, you can see the effects of fast food on the nation's rural life, its environment, its workers, and its health… the hardy, independent farmers whom Thomas Jefferson considered the bedrock of American democracy are a truly vanishing breed"…

Pages: 4  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 2


Industrialized Agriculture Sustainability We Are What We

Industrialized Agriculture Sustainability We are what we reap: Sustainable vs. industrialized agriculture in America What is commonly referred to a 'conventional' agriculture, or the type of industrialized farming that is the norm in America is actually a fairly recent development. Ironically, although conventionally practiced, conventional agricultural is anything but natural -- a better term might be mass-produced agriculture, as it…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4

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