"Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays 1-70

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Globalization of Agriculture, Food Production Term Paper

… When DeGregori criticizes the pity environmental activists feel "for the pigs fed diluted ice cream obtained by cleaning Ben & Jerry's machines because they "never made it to 600 pound adulthood" (DeGregori, 2002 15), "dying at 200 pounds of arteriosclerosis" he actually, unwittingly raises a concern very much in the modern media and modern eye, that of the unsanitary farming practices that have caused the rampant spread of illnesses in recent date, such as mad cow disease. DeGregori says that pity should be directed to starving humans, but neglects to consider that changes in the consumption of feed animals can, and is now having, implications for human health.

Thus, the question of environmentalism as a movement, which has its excesses and moral sanctimony, must be separated from the real and dangerous effects of modern commercial farming. Although DeGregori's criticisms of the ideological tone of the movement have some value, and his generalized assertion that technology has been more of a help rather than a harm to humanity -- and whether we like it or not, it is here to stay, not all technological innovations can be embraced in an uncomplicated fashion. And, the innovations of the capitalist market and the modern farm industry in particular, designed for profit rather than the benefit of human consumption and health, seem to require particular scrutiny that DeGregori's own ideology of the unquestioned benefits capitalism and science are unwilling to confer.

Works Cited

DeGregori, Thomas R. (2002). The…… [read more]

Corporate Food Regimes Profit From Global Food Crises Essay

… Fair Trade certification has historically been available only to farmers and farms in developing countries. Of the food consumed in the United States, more than 80% is produced domestically, which means that most of the people and sources associated with this food production fall outside the scope of Fair Trade certification. Moreover, Fair Trade certification has far-reaching and substantive impact beyond sustainability and commodity prices. Food growers who seek Fair Trade certification must meet and "adhere to stringent social and environmental standards" (Gonzales, 2014). These standards include equal opportunity employment, freedom of association, regulated chemical use, recruitment best practices, and safe working conditions (Gonzales, 2014). Moreover, Fair Trade certified participants can also benefit from the premiums they earn by improving education, healthcare, and housing (Gonzales, 2014).


Austin, J.E. & Reavis, C. (2002, October 2). Starbucks and Conservation International [Case]. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School. Prod. #: 303055-PDF-ENG. Retreived http://hbr.org/product/starbucks-and-conservation-international/an/303055-PDF-ENG

Banco, J. (2010). Is fair trade really fair? Inspired Economist. Retreived http://inspiredeconomist.com/2010/09/03/is-fair-trade-really-fair/

Gonzales, D. (2014, March 31). Making the food trade work for all. Food for All. Huffington Post. Retreived http://www.huffingtonpost.com/daniel-gonzales/making-the-food-trade-wor_b_5065465.html

Graef, F., Sieber, S., Mutabazi, K., Asch, F., Biesalski, H.K.,Bitegeko, J., Bokelmann, W., Bruentrup, M., Dietrich, O., Elly, N., Germerd, U., Grote, U., Herrmann, L., Herrmann, R., Hoffmann, H., Kahimba, F.C., Kersebaum, K-C., Kilembe, C., Kimaro, A., Kinabo, J., Konigg, B., Konigs, H., Lana, M. Levy P.C., Lyimo-Macha, A.J., Makoku, B. Mazoko, G., Mbagav, S.H., Mbogorou, W., Milling, M.H., Mtambow, K., Mueller, J., Mueller, C., Mueller, B.K., Nkonjan, E., Reif, B., Ringlern, C., Ruvyg., S., Schaefer, M. (2014, February). Framework for participatory food security research in rural food value chains. Global Food Security, 3(1), 8-15. Retrieved http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211912414000029

Holt-Gimenez, E. & Wang, Y. (2011). Reform or transformation?: The pivotal role of food justice in the U.S. food movement. Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts, 5(1), 83-102. Retrieved http://muse.jhu.edu/hournals/rac/sumary/v005/5.1.holt-giminex.html

Lean, G. (2008, May 4). Multinationals make billions in profit out of growing global food crisis. The Independent/UK. Retrieved http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_12088.cfm

Magdoff, F. & Tokar, B. (2010). Agriculture and food in crisis: Conflict, resistance, and renewal. New York, NY: Monthly Review Press.

Porter, J.R., Dyball, R., Dumaresq, D., Deutsch, L, & Matsuda, H. (2014, February). Feeding capitals: Urban food security and self-provisioning in Canberra, Copenhagen and Tokyo. Global…… [read more]

History of Bacon Research Paper

… ¶ … History of Bacon

The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service defines bacon as "the cured belly of a swine carcass." If the meat of a pig is cured in a fashion similar to bacon but the meat is taken from a different part of the animal other than the belly, the product name must be qualified to indicate to the customer what part of the animal was used. For example, cured pork shoulder can technically be called bacon, but it must be called "pork shoulder bacon" (USDA). Similarly, meat from other animals may be prepared in a manner that is similar to the way bacon is prepared, but the product must again be qualified to indicate the meat that is used. As a result, bacon made with pork is simply called bacon, but a turkey-based product must be called "turkey bacon," and a beef-based product must be called "beef bacon." In addition, meat from the pig's belly that is prepared differently is called ham. A specific set of circumstances must be met in order for pig meat to be considered bacon.

Fresh bacon is created when it undergoes a curing process. Curing is a food preservation process that consists of adding a combination of salt, sugar, nitrates, or nitrite to the meat. Sometimes the curing process also involves smoking the meat. Fresh bacon is cured in a brine or in a dry packing; both the brine and the dry packing that may be used for curing bacon contain large amounts of salt. Once fresh bacon has been made, it may be further dried, boiled or smoked. Bacon brine can also be flavored with brown sugar or maple, which creates different tastes and textures for the meat. Using various types of wood during the smoking process can also vary the flavor of bacon.

It is unclear when bacon was actually invented since the term was used to refer to all pork in general until well into the sixteenth century (Filippone). Today, bacon is growing in popularity despite the nation's growing concern with healthy eating. Admittedly, bacon is a fatty meat, but chef Joanna Preuss reveals that "the fat is the very thing that gives bacon its taste" (Preuss). Bacon has firmly woven its way into American life, but it is meat with a popularity that predates the country. In fact, perhaps the most popular bacon-related colloquialism is rooted in England. In the twelfth century, a church in Dunmow England promised a gift to any married man who could swear before God and the church that he had not argued with his wife for a year and a day. The promised gift was a side of bacon, and a husband who could "bring home the bacon" earned a great deal of respect from his community (Filippone).

Undaunted by its Old World history, however, citizens of the United States seem to have flung themselves fully into what has been called "bacon mania." It is a movement with… [read more]

Consumer Behavior- Processed Ham Thesis

… Consumer Behavior- Processed Ham

Ham, specifically processed ham, is the most common ingredient of a sandwich. This readily available and seemingly simple food, however, undergoes different processes before it conveniently reaches the refrigerated shelves of grocery stores, supermarkets, or even the local neighborhood's delicatessen. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), ham is commonly processed in three ways: by curing, dry curing, and brine (or 'wet') curing. All processes involve the application of salt to the ham, to be 'aged' for a year (in the case of dry curing) or less (regular or wet curing). Although the usual manner of curing is applying salt to the meat, chemicals such potassium nitrate, nitrites, and especially sodium ascorbate, are used to "accelerate" the ham curing process.

While there are numerous available resources on the different methods of processing ham, information on its distribution processes and systems are scarce. The most relevant source on the distribution system for the processed ham market is from the U.S. Department of Commerce, which looks into all distribution channels that the processed meat products go through in the said category. Based on this government document, processed ham comes from two sources: local suppliers and importers. Distribution of processed meat, which includes ham, is centralized because of the high demand from big grocery stores and leading supermarkets in different states in the country. However, while processed hams are supplied locally, there has been a marked change in the processed meat market, as importers began to emerge as one of the dominant players in this market. Importers have challenged the local suppliers' dominance in the processed meat market because of the former's cheaper price and competitive quality. Imported processed ham may enter the country as semi-processed ham; the curing process will be completed in the United States, and will be packaged and distributed by the distribution companies to wholesale and retail channels, such grocery stores and supermarkets. This is basically the general process illustrated in official documents on processed meat importation in the country, and specific process flow information, from ham processing to retail and wholesale distribution, are not readily available. It is possible that the difficulty in finding free and readily available sources is due to the competitive nature of the market, wherein vital information such as manufacturing processes and distribution channels are case sensitive, and generated and collated through rigorous market research methods. Thus, this case-sensitive information is available but for a particular price, and cannot be retrieved readily and free-of-charge.

Pilcher's discussion in the chapter, "Nouvelle cuisines," provides an interesting…… [read more]

Chrf CSA Case Study

… There are few supermarkets in the area, leaving the low-income consumers at the mercy of higher-priced bodegas that often only stock 'junk' foods rather than produce.[footnoteRef:4] Special arrangements were made with farmers to lower the costs of typical CSAs and request payment in advance of one week, versus seasonally or monthly, given the dependence of residents upon food stamps to supply themselves with their regular groceries. Long-term goals include creating a corporate structure in which the shareholders have a 'say' in terms of how the food is grown and distributed. [footnoteRef:5] [3: Cohen & Derryck 2011:5] [4: Cohen & Derryck 2011:7-9] [5: Cohen & Derryck 2011:10]

However, while as much as an observer might want CHRF to succeed, there seem to be several inherent problems within its business model. First and foremost, the focus is upon fruits and vegetables alone, which will not change other components of the shareholders' diets and will not necessarily result in a reduction of BMI. Poorer individuals also often face additional challenges in eating a healthy diet, including having adequate time to prepare food and adequate access to sanitary food preparation facilities (adequate time may also impede the ambition to involve shareholders in the governing of the CSA). The structure of a CSA is to give a general 'share' of food, not foods based upon the customer's request. This can be extremely problematic for low-income consumers who may be given foods like turnips, celery root, and other foods during the fall and winter seasons that require intensive cooking and preparation to be edible. Also, on a cultural basis, consumers may be reluctant to eat certain vegetables of which they are unfamiliar. This lack of flexibility has impeded the success of CSAs, even amongst the affluent. A more viable way to bring fruits and vegetables to the Bronx might be a farmer's market where consumers could use food stamps. This would give them some choices in what they selected.


Cohen, N., & Derryck, D. "Corbin Hill Road Farm Share: A hybrid food value chain in practice." Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development. Advance online…… [read more]

Blueberries a Brief Synopsis Research Paper

… Blueberries are known for having very thin fibrous roots devoid of root hairs with the finest ones being no more than twenty µm in their diameter (Valehzuela 2009). Highbush blueberry plants have endotrophic mvcorhizza, which assist the roots in absorbing… [read more]

Culinary Food History of Russian Term Paper

… When the foam has gone, the chopped onions are to be added and, stirring frequently, cooked over moderate heat for 3 or 4 minutes, or until they are soft and lightly colored. Then the onions are to be moved into a large mixing bowl where the meat, pork fat, salt, pepper and 1/2 cup of cold water are added and mixed with a large spoon or hands until the ingredients are well combined and the mixture becomes smooth.

Then on a lightly floured surface, the prepared dough should be rolled into a rough rectangle about 1/8 inches thick. Then dough is to be stretched carefully until it is thin like a paper. This is then spread and cut into an 18-inch square. Then the square is to be cut into rounds of 21/2- to 3-inch. Then ae teaspoon of the filling is dropped in the lower half of each round, and another round placed on top. Then the edges are sealed. Finally a round or triangular pouch is formed. Then 3 quarts of water are brought to a vigorous boil in a 4- to 6-quart casserole, about a dozen of the dumplings are dropped into the water, and cooked uncovered for 8 to 10 minutes, or till the dumplings rise to the surface of the water. Then the dumplings are to be taken out and dried. Pelmeni is served in one of two ways: as individual portions with melted butter or sour cream, or as a garnish for clear soup as beef or chicken broth. (Russian Cuisine -- Entrees) It is clear that most items are available almost everywhere. What is needed is skill to make it perfect.


We are having a global world and every item is available everywhere, but individuals do not gather enough skills to make perfect dishes.


Insight into the history of Russian cuisine. Retrieved from http://www.foreign-love.com/history_of_russian_cuisine.html Accessed 7 October, 2005

Russian Cuisine -- Entrees. Retrieved from http://www.russia-in-us.com/Cuisine/Dadiani/entrees.htm#Russian%20Cuisine%20-- -- %20Entrees Accessed 7 October, 2005

Russian Cuisine. Retrieved from http://www.russianembassy.org/RUSSIA/cuisine.htm Accessed 7 October, 2005

Russian Cuisine. Retrieved from http://www.russianlegacy.com/en/go_to/culture/russian_cuisine/russian_cuisine.htm

Accessed 7 October, 2005… [read more]

Agriculture and Genetically Modified Food in the Development of Third World Countries Pros and Cons Term Paper

… Agriculture and Genetically Modified Food in the Development of Third World Countries

The term genetically modified foods or GMOs (genetically-modified organisms) is used to describe agricultural crops and plants which are grown for both human and animal consumption, through the… [read more]

Organic Food Term Paper

… Ethics and Morality

Organic Food


Should the promotion and use of locally-grown, non-genetically modified, organic produce, if cost effective, be a mandatory ethical responsibility of all participates within the culinary art field? Some points to include are cost effectiveness, cold weather climates that only get fresh vegetables part of the year, and the complexity of the food production system


compare and contrast differing arguments on the topic, demonstrate your mastery of your research sources (paraphrasing, quoting and citing them).. Here you are encouraged to state your preferred viewpoint [i.e Consequentialist (Utilitarian) Ethicist, Nonconsequentialist (Rational) Ethicist, Virtue Ethicist, etc. Or some combination of the different positions] and how that viewpoint will impact on your approach to the material. A conclusion that summarizes your argument and considers the wider issues at stake.

The Sustainable Food Movement and Ethics


The sustainable food movement embodies a fundamental challenge to the American way of life. It forces Americans to examine their lifestyle and the consequences it has on the environment, on animal life, and even on their own health. Although the sustainable food movement certainly has valid critiques of our current system of food production, it has not provided a feasible alternative to the current system that accounts for basic economic realities such as the world's growing population.

The organic food movement in particular overlooks the many benefits of the current system of food production, which allows us to produce far more food on less land than pre-industrial agriculture. Its proposal that the nation switch to a local produce model is neither necessary nor economically feasible for the United States. Thesis: From a utilitarian perspective, it would harm the interests of a large majority of society, who do not live next to small farms producing the foods that the need.

The Organic Food Movement

In Omnivore's Dilemma, Michael Pollan presents a damning critique of the American food distribution system. He illustrates how the country's huge industrial might has turned our natural, sun-based food production system into a fossil-fuel-based food production system. These fossil fuels process corn into feed for our livestock as a substitute for grass as well as corn syrup and other derivatives for humans in order to preserve packaged goods.

Pollan argues that the switch to a fossil-fuel-based system is toxic both to our environment as well as our bodies. He claims that the use of feed in lieu of grass diminishes the nutritional value of the meat produced from the livestock.

Pollan believes that we need to revolutionize our way of getting food in order to detoxify our diets and our environment. Traditional alternatives to the industrial food-distribution system, such as organic foods and certifiably "free-range" chickens, are no longer sufficient. (Pollan, 135). In fact, organic farming has simply become another branch of the industrial food-distribution system.

Pollan argues that Americans should attempt to return to a pre-industrial agricultural system. Food would be sourced locally, from family farms such as Joel Salatin's minor ecological rotation farm. (Pollan, 229).… [read more]

Food in Ancient Egypt Term Paper

… Food in Ancient Egypt

Food as a Marker of Social Status in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt under the rule of Pharaohs was a highly stratified society. At the top of the social layer were the kings and their close relatives.… [read more]

Food Inc. Film Film Review

… Food Inc.

Film Inc. is a documentary that covers the subject of the food industry, specifically in the United States. It works through a series of vignettes that study the issue from a number of different perspectives, each woven together by three common themes. These three themes are

the forces that lead to the mass production of food

the toll of current food production methods of humans and animals

the rights of consumers to what is in their food

With respect to the first theme there are a number of forces at work that have led to the mass production of food. In part, farming has simply become a job few want to do, and urban flight forces the agriculture industry to concentrate. There are other issues, too, like government encouraging this degree of concentration in a number of different ways and consumer demand for low cost food. Before supermarkets, most stores would have used local suppliers and had very little bargaining power. Today, that has changed and with greater bargaining power at the retail level consumers are also price sensitive about food. This leads to cycle of larger agricultural firms and lower prices. Fast food and other large restaurant operations also contribute to this problem by operating with business models that require large scale farms and factories to meet their needs. A rising population has not helped.

Addressing this problem has to come from the demand side. Business can be the driver of demand, but ultimately consumers (uninformed or not) are the ones whose decision will dictate the patterns of production. We have seen the increase in demand for organic foods and how that has convinced more farmers to get into organic production. If there are markets and profits in food that is source from smaller farms, be it organic, heirloom or otherwise, the supply will follow. The solution is not going to come from industry, because its business models are entrenched and unless there is competition that is winning market share the industry has no incentive to change. The change will also not come from government because if its actions result in an increase in food prices, the government will face strong pressure from the voters. No government wants to be seen as taking food out of the mouths of the poor, and rising food prices tend to be perceived that way, rightly or wrongly. So this side of the issue has to be driven by demand, because where there is a high volume of people committed to something, there are companies that will respond to those market needs and there are governments that will listen to the opinions of a large segment of the public.

The second issue is covered in a few different segments of the movie, and that is the toll of current food production methods on both…… [read more]

Food Inc. Robert Kenner's Film Film Review

… Food Inc.

Robert Kenner's film Food, Inc. is a documentary about industrial food production in America, and the problems associated with it. The film depicts animal food production facilities, showing how animals are treated when they are being raised for mass slaughter. In addition to showing where American meat is coming from, the film shows how large-scale agriculture works in the United States. As with the factory-raised meat, the agriculture production in the United States works fairly well from a business perspective, but entails the use of potentially dangerous chemicals. In conjunction with these issues, Kenner discusses the problems with corporate control of food, which is why the film's name is Food, Inc. Food production, manufacturing, and marketing is big business, and it is linked to other big business sectors including chemicals and petro-chemicals. Companies are capitalizing on trends in consumer demand, such as for "organic" and other presumably healthy items, which are still being controlled by the major food conglomerates. Among the interrelated issues that are discussed in Food, Inc. includes problems like obesity and health issues, the ethics associated with factory farming, and consumer empowerment. The film is divided into three segments to address in detail the specifics of each area.

First, the filmmaker discusses the forces leading to mass production of food in America. Kenner shows how the origins of agro-business started in the early twentieth century, when trust in science was higher than the mistrust of business. Small scale farmers were poor, and easy targets to get bought out by burgeoning food industry conglomerates. The discovery of synthetic corn products such as high fructose corn syrup bolstered interest in massive replanting of America's land for monocrops like corn and soy. Within a relatively short period of time, much of America's farmland was concentrated into the hands of a few major companies. This was true for agriculture as well as for animals. The forces leading to mass production started with the Great Depression, leading to World War Two, and through the middle of the twentieth century. America went from economic hardship to prosperity relatively soon after the end of the Second World War. The image of America as the land of prosperity was fostered in part by the country's ability to produce massive amounts of food efficiently using new technology and the chemicals that had been discovered and developed during wartime by the military. It is impossible to ignore the connection between military chemical production and the need to sell off the chemicals for other business sectors so that companies could still make a profit in peacetime. Monsanto is the prime example of a company that links chemicals with food. Chemical industries worked together with agribusinesses to ensure that both sectors thrived, with the assistance of course of the government. Whatever could not be practiced in America, in terms of chemical pesticides…… [read more]

Urban Agriculture Is Generally Employed Research Paper

… Additionally, Frostproof does not allow for Home Occupations to produce "noise, noxious odors, or any other hazards dangerous to the public health, safety, and welfare" (Polk County Research Matrix).

Dickson Despommier emphasized in a 2009 issue of Scientific American the urgent need for an alternative to outdoor agriculture, which ruins the environment and cannot sustain humankind in the long run. The author argues that not enough arable land is available on the planet to feed a projected 9.5 billion population by 2050 (80). Thus, he suggested a comprehensive model of vertical indoor farms comprised in 30-story buildings (84) that could yield the equivalent of 2,400 outdoor acres' worth of produce (80) in aeroponics, hydroponics or drip irrigation-based greenhouses (84), with less subsequent spoilage, and would overcome the major drawbacks of mainstream outdoor farming, namely "fertilizer runoff, fossil-fuel emissions, and loss of trees and grasslands" (Despommier 86). At this point in time, vertical farms might hold the promise of a genuine, sustainable urban life, by recycling otherwise polluting city wastewater in order to provide irrigation water, and the remaining solid waste, along with inedible plant matter, would be incinerated in designated ground-level chambers, which in their turn would be used to create steam that would set turbines in motion, and so generate electricity that would guarantee the farm's continuous maintenance (Despommier 84).

In conclusion, it can be asserted that while the policies regarding urban farms and community gardens may vary from state to state, urban agriculture in general can be deemed an advantageous development model for any city, and urban vertical farms in particular present a viable prototype for future sustainability.


Despommier, Dickson. "The Rise of Vertical Farms: Growing crops in city skyscrapers would use less water and fuel than outdoor farming, eliminate agricultural runoff and provide fresh food." Scientific American November 2009: 80-87.

Erickson, L., Griggs, K., Maria, M. And Serebrin, H. Urban Agriculture in Seattle: Policy & Barriers. Seattle, WA: City of Seattle. Online. Available: http://www.seattle.gov/neighborhoods/ppatch/pubs/Urban%20Agriculture%20in%20Seattle%20Policy%20and%20Barriers.pdf

Polk County Urban Farm/Community Garden Research Matrix, 2013.

Ranney, V., Kirley, K., Sands, M.…… [read more]

About Food, Inc. Documentary Film Film Review

… ¶ … Food, Inc.

As its title suggests, the film Food, Inc. is an expose of American, commercialized agriculture. Instead of a family farm producing and raising meat, milk, vegetables, and grains, our food system is based on mass production. Food is no longer simply 'food' but rather is a part of a massive industrialized system of corporate control embodied in the personas of Monsanto, Smithfield, Perdue, Tyson, and McDonald's. No aspect of the food system is free of such controls. The film is thus very much informed by the work of cultural critics such as Michael Pollan, author of the Omnivore's Dilemma and Erich Schlosser, author of Fast Food nation, both of whom make appearances in the film.

What is particularly surprising about the film is the extent to which the American food system has changed so fast. During the 1930s and 1940s, independent farms were still a reality in many sections of the country. However mass production and fast food changed the way that food was produced and sourced. Fast food companies and conventional food retailers make up so much of the demand for food, they can dictate the terms of how it is produced, giving emphasis to speed and cheapness rather than health and ethics. Large meat retailers dictate to farmers how food will be grown and produced: what type of animals they will raise and how, and what type of crops they will raise (corn and soy vs. healthy fruits and vegetables, and genetically modified and commercially-produced Monsanto seeds vs. heritage and organic varieties).

This focus on standardization and mechanization is obviously disastrous for the health of the animals caught in the wheel of industrialized agriculture. One does not need to be a vegetarian to shudder at the unhealthy ways animals are processed to become food. For example, most beef cattle raised in the U.S. are 'finished' on corn. Because they are fed this unnatural diet far too young before they can digest such foods (to hasten the time to slaughter), they must be fed antibiotics. Antibiotics also enhances the growth of cattle but has led to a myriad of biological problems, including the explosion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Animals in factory farms are closely confined, subjected to constant stress as the result of their conditions and are fed an unnatural diet. This is in direct context to the natural methods of farming adopted by Joel Salatin of Polyface Farm. Salatin's farm is entirely self-sustaining. His cattle graze as they are rotated through paddocks; chicken peck for food in cow dung and create fertilizer. Salatin is the hero of a film that otherwise shows human being's complete depersonalization of the food system.

What is particularly tragic about the human-animal relationship portrayed in Food Inc. is the lack of choice humans have in terms of their food. Big…… [read more]

Food Justice Many Facets Essay

… Food Justice

Many Facets of Food Justice

Background on Gottlieb and Joshi's Food Justice.

Background on Garcia's The Future of Food.

Introduction of the broader issues of social, economic, and political justice.

Labor Issues (mainly related to Food Justice)

Modern-day… [read more]

Human Eating Habits and Food Cultivation Research Paper

… Human Eating Habits and Food Cultivation for Sustainability

Changes must happen in both human eating habits and food cultivation if the human race is to survive

The paper gives a discussion on the need for change in human eating and food cultivation habits. It is observed that sustainability of the human race and life on the globe is threatened by, the way human beings cultivate and eat. The paper looks at human eating habits and cultivation methods and the extent they strain the earth. The continued expansion of human population is also a concern since there is no extra capacity for the globe to provide given the current depletion of resources. The paper recommends a redirection to consider sustainability and reservation of the globes capacity in the future.

Human Eating Habits and Food Cultivation for Sustainability

At the onset of the 21st century, mankind has come to terms with an advent of new extremes in an effort to exploit resources in the globe. The technological advancements realized in the recent past are powerful to increase global productivity but not sufficient for sustenance. Inevitably, mankind has continued to increase their potential to consume all that is produced thanks the sustainability and growth in population attributive to medical health advancements UNEP, 2010.

There is a concern that given the trend in population and the unmatched expansion in production, the resources within the globe will become insufficient. The human population is slowly eating itself out of the globe.

The trend in insufficiency of the globe to feed the population is already observable with a report by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) indicating close to one billion people are malnourished FAO, 2010.

In the report, it is reviewed that, in every year there are up to six million deaths of children associated with malnourishment FAO, 2010.

This report indicates inadequacy of food leading to malnourish related deaths is partly attributable to the eating habits and food cultivation methods. Human race has embraced new technologies in production with an absolute disregard to the sustainability needs FAO, 2010()

According to Cheng & Timilsina G., 2010()

the world's population is steadily increasing and is expected to reach 9.2 billion people in 2050. On the contrary, agricultural productivity has been slowing down over the last two decades significantly indicating a shortage in the global capacity to sustain population in the world. The rising cases in the number of hunger related deaths today, it is evident that there a lot that needs to be done to meet global demand for food in the coming decade Palupi E., Jayanegara a., & Ploeger a., 2012()

Food production

Looking at the food cultivation methods embraced in the new era of technology we see the constrained conviction that food production is geared towards profit maximization. The farming methods used target to increase per acreage yield as opposed to, providing for the population. This productive/cultivation measure end up depleting the naturally occurring minerals in the soils leaving the portion of land used barren for… [read more]

Food Wars Place of Publication Book Review

… " This agreement may have been drawn up and agreed to in 1948, but it would do us good to review it and to remind ourselves of its importance. This is what Susan Waltz, in her article "Reclaiming and Rebuilding the History of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights," would have us do. Reviewing this document "indeed raises questions about great power support for efforts to craft international human rights standards," she writes (Waltz 437). Taken one step further, we can look to the work of Jack Donnelly. As he points out, in the UDHR "we can see a set of rights formulated to protect basic human -- not merely cultural -- values against the special threats posed by modern institutions" (Donnelly 415).

The urgency of this document becomes even more so after reading a volume like Bello's. Although he has a flair for the dramatic in some of his more impassioned passages, his work is strongly supported with solid data and securely grounded in historical context and well-considered philosophical theory. "Philosophy, in any case, provides only one of the paths to consideration of human rights," writes Waltz (438). That idea is, arguably, central to Bello's message in The Food Wars.

Works Cited

Bello, Walden. The Food Wars. New York: Verso, 2009.

Donnelly, Jack. "Cultural Relativism and Universal Human Rights." Human Rights Quarterly,

Vol. 6, No. 4 400-419. 1984.

Waltz, Susan. "Reclaiming and Rebuilding the History of the Universal Declaration of Human

Rights."…… [read more]

Culinary Baking and Pastry Influences Admission Essay

… Culinary/Baking & Pastry influences

Culinary, baking and pastry influences

Baking is one of my favorite activities in the world. It soothes me and keeps me calm; it brings out the best in me and it drives me to evolve and learn new things. Baking helps me interact better socially; I love to share my own experiences and to learn from those of others. And I also love to bake for my friends on occasion, who are all so busy, but who all enjoy so much bakeries and pastries.

In my spare time, I also volunteer at the local theater, where I do some improvised comedy. Once, I helped the theater move to another location and I also baked a specialty cake for the occasion. They enjoyed its taste as well as its look.

My early inspiration for cooking in general came from my grandmother. Even though she is no longer with us, I still remember the rich autumns when she would fill her pantry with home made gems, preserved fruits, pickles and so on. I often wish I had such a pantry, filled with home made goodies, which are not only delicious, but more trustworthy than anything.

In the recent years, my inspiration came from Wolfgang Puck, who has come to represent not only a successful chef, but also a notable business success. Wolfgang is charismatic and charming and the primary things that inspired me in regard to him were represented by his courage and unconventionalism. Puck will not become entangled in the traditional recipes, but will continually try to create new ones, from ingredients regular chefs…… [read more]

Political Ecology: The World Food Research Paper

… Al, 2011). Also, the preparation of food has various techniques. Considering the type of food eaten, it is obvious that use of normal gas stove to microwave ovens alone with bar-b-q grills, is rather common for Melanders. Whereas, Natomos cook their food by burning wood which is very common in Mali?

By having a simple glance at the two pictures, one can easily observe that starting from procurement till final consumption, the eating habits of both the families who reflection of the areas they live in, are completely opposite to each other.

Also, it is quite easy to observe how there exist two global cultures; one which is a result of industrialization of food industry and the other is a consequence of simple poverty. The industrialization of food industry started back in 1970s where the main emphasis was on consumption of healthy food components only (of course, by those who could afford it). Markets were flooded with food having only carbohydrates and least fat. Time proved that this notion was wrong and leads the world to obesity. Resultant is the today's world of consuming processed food only, which is refined but lacks nutritional value (Pollan, 2008).

One cannot ignore the role of international monetary bodies in this food disparity all across the globe. It's the policies of organizations like IMF and World Bank, who have made the affluent countries more rich and the poor ones drained out of their resources. 1980s was the era when the African states decided to rely on their internal production and curtailing imports. As Africa is one of the most populated regions of the world, reduction in importance could have had a drastic impact on GNP of developed countries. But due to the policies of World Bank, this plan of sovereignty collapsed completely, burring African nations in debt, and causing their future mortgaged to the commodities with declining value (Patel, 2009).

Also, IMF is an equal culprit in this global inequality. We can take example of Malawi here, a country destroyed by IMF policies where hundreds starved to death. Due to erroneous data presented by IMF, Malawian government reduced its grain storage by 3/4th. The intention was to reduce the storage cost; however the result was hundreds of people dying of famine. Malawi government had to take loan from IMF which further indebted the country and worsened its state (Rowan, 2002). Although IMF claimed in its fact sheet that this disaster was the result of government policies (IMF, 2002). A 2009 report by the International Food Policy Research Institute estimated that, in the absence of resolute government action, daily food availability in sub-Saharan Africa will average 500 calories less per person in 2050 (Godoy, 2009).

Food disparity is an evil depriving millions of their basic right: food. Our eating habits reflect who we are and where we belong to. It also explains our social status and culture. There have been various studies conducted on this topic and they successfully managed to explain the difference between… [read more]

Whole Foods New Service Proposal Business Plan

… Many of these might have a cost advantage due to the locations that they operate in or their retail size which makes square footage more cost effective.

Barriers to entry also is inclusive of them having a more timely and… [read more]

Food Safety for America Research Paper

… However, others would counter that the food supply is growing safer, and the increase in recalls is a good thing, because it indicates that contagions are being caught before they can impact the lives of massive numbers of consumers. The… [read more]

Issue With Food Supply Term Paper

… ¶ … Food Supply

Technology, Industrialization, and the Problem of the Modern Food Industry

One of the interesting features of modernity is that human beings today are almost obsessed with efficiency, trying to achieve the maximum at the shortest time, get the most out of least effort, and earn as much profit as possible. There is certainly nothing wrong with efficiency -- it is essentially a good thing -- but the way efficiency is pursued today somehow blinds people to the extent that they no longer see hidden costs of many of their efforts. For example, because of too much focus on the directly quantifiable costs of production, industries, and to a lesser extent ordinary folks, cannot differentiate between the price of producing a good and the cost of it. This is most evident in the way the food industry operates today. Attempts to maximize the food production while spending less and working less have made us negligent to the hidden costs of this business -- costs such as irreparable damage done to the Earth's crust, atmosphere, and human health.

The nature without human intervention operates in a balanced and cyclic way, where every living organism and chemical contributes to overall stability. McDonough and Braungart (2002) explain that the system of nutrients and metabolism in nature make sure that there is no such thing as waste. For instance, extra blossoms on trees that fall are not useless. They decompose on the ground and feed a variety of organisms and microorganisms, while also enriching the soil. Another example is how carbon dioxide exhaled by humans and animals are taken in by plants for their own growth. Animal dung is the safest and most natural fertilizer humans have used for ages. In other words, the cycling and recycling of the Earth's nutrients in a natural way ensures that "waste equals food" (McDonough and Braungart, 2002, p. 92).

This natural equilibrium of the Earth's ecosystem, however, was disrupted by the Industrial Revolution when humans began to alter the equilibrium, taking away substances from the land and altering them substantially, making the return of these substances to the soil almost impossible (McDonough and Braungart, 2002, pp. 98, 101-2). With the technological development during Industrialization, which allowed better transportation and more efficient means of harvesting and gathering agricultural products, people began massively transfer nutrients from place to place, disrupting the natural balance that ensured ecological stability (ibid, p. 96). Efficiency of the industrial era led to the development of consumer societies, which further disrupted the Earth's natural equilibrium and damaged the ecosystem. For example, many people today prefer dumping recyclable products that contain toxic materials into landfills rather than reuse or repair them. And many businesses that produce goods operate in such a manner that recycling is not profitable; so they package products in such a way that they cannot be reused (ibid, p. 98). People buy more, allowing producers to earn more, but this seemingly profitable way of running businesses has hidden costs that… [read more]

Is Genetic Engineering a Solution to the Food Security Problem in Developing Countries? Term Paper

… Genetic Engineering of Food

"Protagonists argue that genetic engineering entails a more controlled transfer of genes because the transfer is limited to a single gene, or just a few selected genes, whereas traditional breeding risks transferring unwanted genes together with… [read more]

Importance of Agriculture in People's Lives Essay

… Agriculture in Daily Life

Though most of us are not faced on a daily basis with the realities of the agriculture industry, it still plays a huge part in our lives. With the rising price of oil likely to cause a continuing and sharper rise in food prices, the effects of the agriculture industry might son be felt even more sharply by the average American citizen (USDA). Agriculture provides us with our sustenance, whether or not we are always aware of this fact, and is therefore of immense importance not only to our happiness and well being, but even to the continued day-to-day operations of our society and civilization. Throughout much of 2008, food prices around the world fluctuated wildly as part of the early fall-out of the economic crisis, and government interventions into such pricing issues usually costs a significant amount of our hard-earned tax dollars (USDA). Not acknowledging the impact of agriculture in today's world is simply naive.

Agriculture does not just provide us with the fruits and vegetables with which it is most commonly associated, either. Almost everything we ingest, whether we ought to or not, comes from an agricultural product. Beer cannot be brewed without various grains, nor can bread be baked; and steak must ruminate on something before it ends up on the plate. For this reason, agricultural fluctuations tend to have a ripple effect on other aspects of the economy, especially food production. A rise in beef prices is being narrowly avoided right now; wheat fields in the southern plains that are used as grazing grounds for cattle have been dwindling, and usually when this occurs ranchers must purchase feed and establish their herds in feed lots -- all at great expense -- in order to retain their herd's value, and these costs are passed on to the consumer (Aldrich, 1). Luckily, however, an increase in grass growth is making up the difference, for now at least (Aldrich, 2). Other agricultural issues are not fixed so easily.

Farmland around the country has diminished by 16.9 million acres between 2002 and 2007 (House,…… [read more]

Agriculture in Italy Term Paper

… Agriculture in Italy

Agriculture Products and Sustainability of Agriculture in Italy

Agriculture is one of the oldest activities undergone by the humans in order to sustain life. And it was the primary source of food and income for the majority… [read more]

Importance of Convenience Food to Generation Y Students Term Paper

… ¶ … Convenience Food to Generation Y Students

Generation Y is the group of individuals who are presently between 10 and 28 years of age. This group is also referred to as the 'Echo Boomers' which comprise 24% of the… [read more]

Culture Food History of French Term Paper

… E. Seasonings run the gamut from French sea salt (some of the best in the world) to fresh ground pepper, saffron, and all the fresh herbs that are available in France, such as tarragon, sage, rosemary, thyme, and other seasonal herbs.

F. The styles of French cuisine can be very different. Some areas, like Brittany, Normandy, and Provence all include quite a bit of seafood in their cooking because they are located along coastlines. Some areas have created more rustic, rural type cooking, such as Alsace with its quiche and casseroles, and the Midi region near Spain with its cassoulet. Other areas have a more formal style of cooking, filled with rich sauces, creams, and presentation on the plate is very important (Vogel). Expert Vogel continues, "Vegetables, for example, are often cut with obsessive-compulsive perfection and uniformity. Dishes are typically not presented in a rustic fashion but rather in a sophisticated, aesthetic, and organized manner" (Vogel). Many people feel French cooking is quite formal, and that can be true, but it is also inventive and very important to world cuisine.

G. Cooking procedures in French kitchens go back to the first cooks like La Varenne, who developed new ways of working in the kitchen that were defined and well thought out. Historian Fromkin notes that the famous French chef Auguste Escoffier developed many modern aspects of the restaurant kitchen. He writes, "Escoffier brought a division of labor into the restaurant kitchen -- an assembly line of sorts -- in which each member of the cooking staff has an assigned function, so that each dish prepared is the product of many hands -- and can be produced swiftly" (Fromkin 72). This type of cooking is still used in restaurants today, and it is one reason that complicated French dishes can be completed in a shorter amount of time and served to diners quickly.

French cooking is an essential part of the world's cuisine, and it has a long and interesting history.


Fromkin, David. "Once upon a Time in France." New Criterion Mar. 2001: 72.

Hartman, Dr. Paul V. "Historical Origins of French Cuisine." Personal Web Page. 1996. 14 Oct. 2005.

< http://www.naciente.com/essay93.htm

Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York, Crown Publishers, 1988.

Vogel, Mark R. "French Food." RecipeLand.com. 2004.…… [read more]

Pennsylvania Dutch Term Paper

… ¶ … American culinary sub-region of the Pennsylvania Dutch. Specifically, it will cover some of the influences on the foods and cooking of the Pennsylvania Dutch, and discuss some of the regions' most popular dishes and specialties. The Pennsylvania Dutch… [read more]

Transition to Agriculture Term Paper

… The new way of life based in permanent settlements led to the emergence of human 'communities.' These permanent communities were responsible for numerous other developments and the growth of 'civilizations' as we know them today. For example, archeological findings indicate that construction of solid buildings coincided with the appearance of the first agricultural societies. Since mobility was no longer a requirement, the human 'tool kit' began to expand. Technology started to develop since 'specialization' now became possible with people adopting specialized activities at which they were skilled. Population began to expand exponentially since it was now desirable to have more children with agriculture requiring more 'hands' in the fields.

Not all changes necessitated by the transition from a nomadic to a sedentary way of life were positive. The dependence of a group of people on a limited piece of land for their food now meant that human beings were more vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather. Living closely together in towns and villages created problems of hygiene and diseases previously unknown to the hunting / gathering communities. Accumulation of goods and wealth gave rise to problems of security and the creation of hierarchies in societies. These new developments forced the human communities towards more complex organizations such as governments and the military.

Whether the changes brought about by the transition to an agricultural society were positive or negative, there is no doubt that few other events in human history have been as important as the Agricultural Revolution and it been rightly termed as the greatest event of pre-history by some historians.


Agricultural Revolution" (2003) Washington State University's Agricultural Revolution Student Module Retrieved on September 24, 2003 at http://www.wsu.edu/gened/learn-modules/top_agrev/agrev-index.html

Coffin, Judith G., et. al. (2002). "Western Civilizations, Volume 1," Fourteenth Edition. W.W. Norton & Company: New York.

Hunting and Gathering societies still exist in certain parts of the world and remain mainly unchanged in character

In the Nile Valley, in Anatolia (modern Turkey), in northern Syria, and along the Jordan River valley

Climatic change in these regions following the retreat of glaciers may have been one of the reasons.

History… [read more]

Kosher Foods Are Food Items Research Paper

… 6). Industrialization, intercontinental shipping, and mass production makes it difficult to keep kosher since food products are prepared, processed, and packaged commercially in industrial settings that are sometimes miles away from home.

Jewish Foods:

In addition to kosher foods, there are certain types of foods that have come to be known as Jewish foods because they are found in the Jewish cuisine. They are considered as Jewish foods because of the religious symbolism they contain in light of the Jewish beliefs, traditions, and culture. Notably, Jewish cuisine is a mixture of food from various cultures where Jews have traveled such as Portuguese, Middle Eastern, Europe, and Spanish cultures. Foods from these cultures are combined with Jewish contributions like matzah balls and bagels to make up Jewish cuisine, from which Jewish foods are derived.

This influence has also been visible in today's kosher foods where definitions of these foods have been expanded to accommodate this trend. Jewish foods are also considered as food items that have been adopted from various cultures and prepared based on the regulations of Jewish Dietary Laws. While these foods may not meet the requirements of kosher foods, they are largely considered as Jewish foods.

In conclusion, kosher foods are food items that are fit for consumption based on the regulations of Jewish Dietary Laws. Apart from being eaten, these foods can be used as ingredients for production of more food products. Kosher regulations that determine whether certain foods are fit for consumption or not originate from the Bible in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 17 and are interpreted and codified by Rabbinic scholars.

Works Cited:

Braun, David. "How-to Eat Kosher and Maintain a Healthy Diet." Student Affairs. Duke University, n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. .

"Jewish Dietary Laws (Kashrut): Overview of Laws & Regulations." Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. .

Shimoni, Giora. "What Is Kosher Food?" About.com Kosher Food. About.com, n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. [read more]

Food Response Article

… These two individuals are as close to representative of the opposite ends of the food spectrum as can be found in literature, albeit it is interesting that they both shared similar perspectives briefly before Sedaris transitioned in to a food connoisseur. In my opinion, I believe this is evident because of the subjective nature of food appreciation. It seems people develop an appreciation for food as something of an acquired skill, that there is an educational component to food appreciation, or for lack of a better phrase, an acquired taste develops for gourmet food. It seems that no one is born as a "live to eat" person; rather this is a behavior that must be learned.

Personally, I feel I fall somewhere between the two poles, with one provision. I do enjoy fine foods, but I do not enjoy anything too extreme nor do I ever find myself organizing my schedule around opportunities to eat. However, the one provision I experience personally that was not mentioned in either of the articles, I do find myself becoming increasingly concerned with the nutritional aspects of food as well as the manner in which it is prepared in regard to the nutritional content of the food itself (I like to watch my diet to some extent).

When I consider the way food is prepared, my focus is not on gourmet preparation methods in any way, shape, or form. Rather, I find myself concerned with facts such as if the food is organic, GMO laced, or was it the consequence of a factory farm that has thousands of chicken cages and could be the subject of a documentary about animal cruelty. I'm not a vegetarian, vegan, or any related labels that I do not quite understand, however I have been exposed to the "darker" side of food preparation through popular media and these considerations do manifest when a dish is considered.

Although these looming thoughts do not generally prohibit me from eating, they are there, looming in the back of my brain somewhere. Therefore, I also think that somewhere between the "eat to live" folks and the "live to eat" camp there should be more factor include which might complicate the 2D approach and require the use of advanced, next generation, 3D modeling food capabilities; now it's quantity, quality (gourmet-ness), and quality (non-carcinogen, non-genetic mutated, and the ethical treatment of animals) that will define the next generation of polar food opposites.

Works Cited

Bourdain, A. (N.d.). Food Is Good. Retrieved from The New Yorker.

Sedaris, D. (2007, September 3). Tasteless. Retrieved from The New Yorker: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/09/03/070903fa_fact_sedaris… [read more]

Food Nutrition and Culture Term Paper

… Food Nutrition and Culture

Food, Nutrition, and Culture- food safety problems

Radiation in Japan

Food safety is not an option but a compulsory condition to maintain life on earth. While the food is responsible to fuel human body to perform… [read more]

Food Journal Essay

… The food journal is a good way to learn a bit about my culture and habits. When I look at the journal I find things out about my own habits. The journal shows clearly that food is not just food, it is a social tool. This is probably one of the reasons I hated Paris so much my first year there, because even when Parisians eat good food, it does not have the same cultural connotation. Combine this with the way that certain foods can be powerful symbols -- even when intellectually we know they should not be -- and it is not hard to see how interesting the social element of food and how food defines culture can be.


Douglas, M. (1972). Deciphering a meal. Myth, Symbol and Culture. Vol. 101 (1) 61-81.

Fischler, C. (2011). Commensality, society and culture. Social Science Information. Vol. 50 (3-4) 528-548.

Hendry, J. (1999). Intro to sociological anthropology: gifts, exchange and reciprocity. In possession of the author.

Sobo, E. (no date). The sweetness of…… [read more]

Restaurant Bio Nick's Love Affair With Food Essay

… Restaurant Bio

Nick's love affair with food began at an early age in the warmth of his family's kitchen in Long Island. While pursuing his dream, Nick found himself living and working in Puerto Rico where he met Terese, a 20-year veteran of the service industry, who was on a short getaway from New York City with a friend. Unexpectedly, Nick and Terese fell in love, and after a two-month long distance relationship, with nothing more than a backpack in tow, Nick moved to New York City. As the relationship between Nick and Terese continued to blossom, so did Nick's culinary dreams.

In 200?, Nick was accepted to the Florida Culinary Institute, which prompted Nick and Terese to pack up their belongings and move to Palm Beach so that Nick could pursue a formal culinary education. Briefly returning to New York to be married on the Bow Bridge in Central Park, Nick and Terese returned to Florida where they had their first son, Nicholas. In 2007, Nick graduated from the Florida Culinary Institute while simultaneously working as a private chef and refining his culinary skills.

While Nick and Terese were forced to return to New…… [read more]

Outputs Diagnosis Essay

… ¶ … Diagnosis

Whole Foods has become a retailer that is known for the quality of products they are selling and the experience the customer has at their locations. This has resulted in the firm transforming these experiences into something which is copied among various competitors. To fully understand what is happening requires carefully examining the outputs of the corporation through the Nadler Tushman Congruence Model. This will be accomplished by analyzing what the company produces / sells, the goals, its performance, the different groups, individuals' and how these variables are measured. Together, these elements will highlight the way outputs are having an impact on the firm and the strategies they are utilizing. (Schmidt, 2012)

The Nadler Tushman Congruence Model

The Nadler Tushman Congruence Model is focused on evaluating and improving a firm's ability to respond to critical challenges through objectively analyzing different outputs. This is achieved by concentrating on a number of areas to include: the culture, work, structure and people. These factors will determine a company's ability to meet various performance standards and how quickly they can adjust with different challenges they are facing inside the marketplace. ("The Congruence Model," 2013)

The Organizational Level - Identify the Outputs

What does it produce and sell? What are its goals? How has it been performing?

On the organizational level, Whole Foods sells a number of different products to include: grocery, meat, poultry, seafood, bakery, prepared foods, coffee, tea, nutritional supplements, vitamins, beer, wine, cheese, body care merchandise, books, floral items, pet and household goods. It produces these services through working with whole sellers and distributors. That is focused on offering quality and embracing sustainable standards for safety / environmental practices. The company's goals are embracing these areas, to create a change in the way other firms are doing business and the impact it is having on society. ("Our Mission and Culture," 2013) ("Whole Foods," 2013)

Whole Foods Markets has been performing very well from embracing this kind of strategy. Evidence of this can be seen by comparing the earnings per share with the Wall Street estimate over the last year (which is illustrated in the below table). In three quarters, the firm has been surpassing these projects. This is because they are focused on offering customers and the community with something more. ("Our Mission and Culture," 2013) ("Whole Foods," 2013)

Whole Foods Earnings per Share vs. The Wall Street Consensus


Wall Street Estimate





Actual Earnings per Share





("Whole Foods," 2013)

These figures are illustrating how the firm is able to realize better than expected earnings. This is based upon the practices they are embracing and their commitment towards reaching different goals. ("Our Mission and Culture," 2013) ("Whole Foods," 2013)

The Group Level

What are some groups that Whole Foods Market identifies, and the goals / performance of these groups?

The groups that Whole Foods Markets identifies with are: individuals who want to live a healthy lifestyle, they are concerned about the… [read more]

Tyson Foods, Inc Case Study

… Tyson Foods Inc.

Tyson food inc

The first and most significant reason why people work is to sustain their lives. It is for this very reason that several investors have put their resources in the food world market today. There… [read more]

Food Sustainability Research Proposal

… The way foods are packaged being sustainable cannot fix other problems if the way the food is processed is unsustainable. It is important for the food system to become fully sustainable for maximum benefits to the health and environment.

The cost of going sustainable may be expensive, but with the rising costs of other areas, such as obesity issues in health care or higher utility costs because of climate change, are we not paying the same price, or more? The purpose of this study is to prove that the costs of sustainability in the way foods are processed, produced, and packaged would still be cheaper in the long-term. While the costs of productivity may increase in the food supply, the costs of other areas, such as health care and utilities, can stabilize or decrease and make up for the higher costs of sustainability of productivity. In the long-term, it would be cheaper to produce products in a sustainable manner instead of continuing with the processes they are produced now.

Thesis statement: Producing products in a sustainable manner now would reduce the costs of other areas causing the higher cost of sustainability to be cheaper in the long-term.


Author, U. (2012). Connecting family, community, and health from a food system perspective. Retrieved from Iowa State University: http://www.liopold.iastate.edu/sites/default/files/grants/M2010-30.pdf

Author, U. (n.d.). Soil Association. Retrieved from Feeding the Olympics.

Bowden, C. (2011, Aug 16). Woodbury University. Retrieved from The Sustainability Reading List: Sustainability_Reading_List_2_0-1/pdf.

Davis, A.S. (2012). Increasing cropping system diversity balances, productivity, profitability and environmental health. PloS ONE, 7(10), E47, 149.

McConnell, C.R. (2008). Economics, 17th Ed., p. 29. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Mintz, S.W. (2010). Food, sociality, and Sugar. In Everyone Eats Test Copy.

Pollan, M. (2002, Nov 10). An Animal's Place. Retrieved from The New York Times Magazine: http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/an-animals-place/

Pollan, M. (2011, Sept 11). How change is going to come in the food system. Retrieved from The Nation: http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/hot-change-is-going-to-come-in-the-food-system… [read more]

Borderless Society a History Essay

… That's according to research done by Christopher L. Weber and H. Scott Matthews of Carnegie Mellon University, who argued in a 2007 study (Food-Miles and the Climate Impacts of Freight Transportation in American Food Consumption) that if you're trying to… [read more]

Genetically Modified Food Research Paper

… Genetically Modified Food

There has been consistent controversy regarding the safety and labeling of genetically modified foods (GMF) over the past few years. But the corporations that are creating the GMF and growing the food continue with production and there… [read more]

Food Term Paper

… 179%, according to the CIA World Factbook. This is compared with 0.553% for the United Kingdom. There are 2.739 physicians per 1,000 people in the UK, and only 0.022 physicians per 1,000 in Ethiopia.

Obesity rates and other health indicators are also strikingly different. For example, in the UK, "an estimated 60.8 per cent of adults and 31.1 per cent of children are overweight," ("Obesity," 2012). According to the CIA World Factbook, the rate of obesity in the UK is 22.7%. Ethiopia's rate of obesity is the lowest in the world: at just .7% of the population ("Health Care and Obesity: A Global Dilemma," n.d.). Part of the reason for the difference in obesity rates is that Ethiopia and England have vastly different rates of poverty. According to the CIA World Factbook, Ethiopia has one of the world's lowest per capita incomes; whereas England the UK rank among the world's highest. The foods from these two countries also impact the difference in rates of obesity. For example, English food is heavy and portion sizes are large. There is a lot of fried food in the English diet, compared with Ethiopian food. Ethiopians also tend to eat a greater quantity of vegetables in their diet, with smaller portions of food overall vs. The English. The food also reflects the different cultures. Ethiopian food takes some time to eat. It is a slower dining experience overall than eating English food. Another difference is that Ethiopian food contains far more spices than British food does. Although one can find Ethiopian, Indian, and other ethnic foods in England, for the most part English food lacks heavy spicing. Ethiopian food reflects the historic role that spices have placed in the history of East Africa.


"Ethiopia." CIA World Factbook. Retrieved online: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/et.html

"Health Care and Obesity: A Global Dilemma," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.morssglobalfinance.com/health-care-and-obesity-a-global-dilemma/

"Obesity," (2012). BBC. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/obesity.shtml… [read more]

Food System Unintended Consequences Essay

… For examples, it is generally understood by independent scientists that brown flour is more nutritious and healthy than white flour. But in an experiment sponsored by Britain's Medical Research Council, two groups of children were fed with a rich diet for a certain period of time, but each of them being fed either brown flour or white flour only. Both groups of children grew well and equally because their diet consisted of a variety of vitamin-rich food. But the scientists used the experiment to report that the height and weight of both groups of children grew equally -- in essence, giving producers carte blanche to produce as much white flour as possible and market it as nutritious as brown flour. Patel explains: When industrial food companies engage in scientific debate, they do so in an attempt to change our tastes, even reversing what was previously considered good science" (260).

The dangers of pursuing cheap food go beyond its effect on our health. The process leads to horrific forms of animal cruelty as factory farming subjects them to harsh methods for the purpose of "efficiency." It makes excessive use of water and energy and contributes to global warming. But even the immediate effects on our health would cause an alarm if consumers were really aware of its effects. In the wake of anti-terrorist campaigns, manufacturers began to use anti-terrorism in their marketing strategies. Food companies were not an exception. Thus, the U.S. government began to warn against agroterrorism. But there was an irony in these campaigns because even if terrorists wanted to exploit the vulnerabilities in the food system by poisoning it, they would be hard pressed "to stand out against background levels of 76 million… [read more]

Growth Hormones in Our Food They Are Causing Society to Become Weight and Sick Term Paper

… Growth Hormones in our food. They are causing society to become weight and sick

Growth hormones is our food

The population of the modern day society is growing sicker with every year, and what is more dramatic is that the… [read more]

Organic Food Motivation Research Research Paper

… Respondents bought a variety of organic food, with the majority of respondents indicating they purchased predominantly vegetables, and a majority of respondents indicating that they purchased organic meat, poultry, or seafood. Approximately half of the respondents reported buying organic diary,… [read more]

Food Security Research Paper

… Food Security

Over the last several years, the issue of food security has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because there has been major declines in fish production. To balance out this shortfall, farmers have been increasing their crop yields to ensure that major population centers have more than enough supplies. However, despite this upsurge, the underlying demand is continuing to rise exponentially. This is putting pressure on food supplies in some of the fastest growing regions of the world. For Asian countries, this is challenging as they have to balance out population growth. While at the same time, it is ensuring that there are enough resources to prevent any kind of shortages. To fully understand how this is happening requires looking at steps that are being taken on the local level to address these issues. Once this occurs, it will offer specific insights about how developing countries are dealing with this issue and the viewpoints of residents surrounding the current situation. This is the point that we will be able to see how countries are dealing with food security from a globalized perspective. ("Addressing Food Security," 2011)

The biggest problem that Asia is dealing with is that the region is growing so fast. That they do not have enough natural resources, to keep up with the demands of a growing economy and ensure the sustainability of the food supply. This is because there is a conflict that is occurring between many countries and localized regions for water. The reason why, is this natural resource can be utilized for: producing electricity, farming, transportation, fishing and for drinking. The combination of these factors means that there is a conflict about how these resources are being used. This is the point that competition will increase between the different factions for who will have access to the water. ("Water and Food Security," 2011)

A good example of this can be seen in 2009 with the Save the Mekong petition. What happened was citizens groups throughout Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam collected…… [read more]

Fast Food Industry Essay

… Today, it would be fair to say that corporations like McDonalds' have significant influence over the nation's food supply in their push for standardized products.

Ethical Implications

The issue of fast food chains benefiting in terms of profits at the expense of the health of the general public has become a hot issue of discussion. Indeed, many do not consider it ethical at all for fast food firms to make profits while knowing too well of the adverse health effects their products have on consumers. In my opinion, the issue of ethics comes in largely in regard to the means players in the fast food industry adopt to drive up sales. For instance, in their quest for higher margins, some fast food companies opt to create elaborate marketing campaigns mainly targeting children. This in my view is not ethical. For adults, one would say that they are more informed on the impact the foods they consume have on their health. Further, they have a grater ability to make rational decisions. However, when it comes to children, this is not the case. Indeed, many regard advertising to children as lack of responsibility on the part of fast food chains.

In the past, the fast food industry has been accused of putting profits before the good of the general public. On their part, fast food retailers have aggressively countered such arguments claiming that the effects such advertising campaigns have on the buying decisions of youngsters are in most cases blown out of proportion. Another school of thought claims that just like any other business; fast food establishments have a responsibility to maximize shareholder wealth by enhancing profits. In my view, both arguments are fundamentally flawed. In regard to the first argument stating that the effects advertising campaigns have on the buying decisions of youngsters are overstated, it is common knowledge that cessation of such advertising campaigns would reduce the intake of fast foods amongst the younger generation. This would in turn bring down obesity rates. In this regard, it can be noted that in most parts of Europe, laws have been enacted to place restrictions on fast food advertisements targeted on children. In my opinion, it is unfortunate that fast food establishments have to be regulated in their quest for profits so as to safeguard the public good.

Next, the view that fast food establishments need to maximize returns to their shareholders just like any other business is not entirely reasonable. However, this in my opinion should be done within a certain framework. Firms like McDonald's rake in significant profits every year thanks to the meals they serve on a daily basis. However, a significant percentage of the meals on their menu do not promote healthy living. With this in mind, such firms should ensure that their servings at least reflect the principles of healthy living. Options in this case include reducing the amount of calories and fats in their products. As far as this is not being done, fast food establishments… [read more]

U.S. Agricultural Policy Agriculture Research Paper

… Despite of supporting prices to deal with excess labor at that time, I think it was more appropriate for the American government to smoothen their relocation out of the agricultural sector (Antle, 1988).

Farmers' incomes are dominated by the income not obtained from the farm. Price support programs are insufficient to get a solution for the farm problems. It is also not necessary that formulation of commodity price policies would help in the stabilization of farm incomes (Antle, 1988). The United States possesses an incredible natural endowment of soil and climate. However, the agricultural policy of the government has failed to take advantage of such an extraordinary natural gift. Instead, it has aided in the warping of production decisions (Antle, 1988).

I believe that United States needs to change its agricultural policy in order to progress. The agricultural policy should be supple and firm. It should be formulated for a certain time period. Also, it must be made sure that it does not disagree with ever-changing market conditions. Thus, it is necessary for protection of today's farmers that U.S. government deviates from its present agricultural policy (Antle, 1988).


Agricultural Adjustment Administration. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved August 28, 2011 from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117001817

Agricultural Subsidies. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved August 28, 2011 from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117001818

Antle, John M. (1988). World Agricultural Development and the Future of U.S. Agriculture. Retrieved August 27, 2011 from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97564194

Domhoff, G. William. (1996). State Autonomy or Class Dominance? Case Studies on Policy Making in America. Retrieved August 28, 2011 from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96869791

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved August 28, 2011 from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117042835

Ten Worst Government Programs. (2004, March 08).Human Events, 60(9), Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036444382

Trueman, Chris. (n.d.). Farmers and the New Deal. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/New_Deal_farmers.htm

Wilcox, Walter W., & Cochrane, Willard…… [read more]

Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser Essay

… Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser is a muckraking expose of the fast food industry in America. The first American purveyors of fast food like Ray Kroc may have been innovators, but McDonald's and other major fast food companies are now representatives of a powerful, corporate establishment. Fast food was designed to be eaten quickly, in a car, and cheaply. The cheapness of fast food comes at a high price. Schlosser wrote his book to raise awareness about the reality behind the All-American meal. Despite the fact that so many people eat fast food, "they rarely consider where this food came from, how it was made, what it is doing to the community around them" (Schlosser 10). Fast food is often used to represent the positive aspects of capitalism -- "in town after town statues of Lenin have come down, and statues of Ronald McDonald have gone up" but Schlosser says that the exploitation of workers, the cruelty shown to animals and the environment and the unhealthy final product make the fast food industry an example of capitalism at its very worst (Schlosser 249).

Throughout Fast Food Nation Schlosser uses anecdotes to illustrate his central points, such as the unhealthy nature of fast food. The typical fast food meal is mostly cheap starch, and sold on the basis of its quantity not quality. When it was first noticed that people were eating their small-size fries but feared going back for more, lest they look piggish, supersizing was born. Fast food is assembled, rather than cooked, and franchises are so mechanized there is no need for workers to be highly trained, enabling poorly-paid teenage, immigrant and part-time workers to staff the restaurants.

Conditions for workers may be bad, but workers are plentiful so they can be treated as disposable commodities. Schlosser speaks to workers at many such restaurants for the book, and all report similar conditions. Teens also report being pressured to work long hours…… [read more]

Food Choices Essay

… Food Choices

Food politics:

Would you like a side order of pesticides with that chicken parmesan?

Food politics:

Would you like a side order of pesticides with that chicken parmesan?

Protein: Chicken

Chicken is often thought of as 'the healthy alternative' to beef and pork, presumably because of its lower fat content, particularly its breast meat. However, the ways that chickens are raised in conventional factory farming is arguably even more inhumane than cows or pigs. The chickens have been bred "to grow so rapidly" that their "legs can collapse under the weight" of their "ballooning" breasts because of the demand for white meat by American consumers (Williams 2010). Birds are kept in such close quarters their beaks and claws must be clipped or amputated, to prevent self-harm or harming other birds. Chickens are forced to live in dim lighting, denied the ability to engage in normal resting or roosting behavior (Williams 2010). Birds are fed antibiotics to make them more easily digest the foods they are fed and given hormones to speed growth. When slaughtered, birds have high levels of stress hormones, due to rough handling and being unaccustomed to being handled by humans for most of their lives.

Organically-raised chickens, according to law, must not be fed with chicken feed grown with conventional chemical pesticides, antibiotics, or growth hormones, or bioengineered materials. Organic farms must be inspected to make sure that they meet USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) standards. But in terms of the way chickens are raised, ethically speaking, techniques may vary. Some small farms use traditional raising methods, giving chickens free access to peck, move, and do not tamper with their natural behaviors. But regarding official U.S. organic standards the only regulations for poultry raised for slaughter or eggs is that "the birds are uncaged inside barns or warehouses, and are required to have outdoor access" and having their beaks clipped is acceptable (Speier 2009). Some small farms advertise that their chickens are humanely as well as organically raised.

Produce: Tomatoes

Organic produce must be grown without conventional pesticides or fertilizers and must be certified as organic by the USDA. Conventionally grown tomatoes, even when washed, clearly have "remnants of pesticides" on the surface (Foreman 2008:1). However, while the long-term effects…… [read more]

Kudler Fine Foods Communications Plan Research Paper

… Kudler Fine Foods -- Communication Plan

Established in 1998, Kudler Fine Foods is the culmination of Kathy Kudler's vision to establish her own gourmet food store. She started the store in reaction the relatively limited choice of fine foods in her area. So successful was her venture, that Kathy was able to open a second and third store in her area. To increase the perceived expertise of her personnel, Kathy hired specialists to advise and assist clients with their culinary needs.

In addition, Kudler Fine Foods has been concerned with constructing an image that adheres to organic foods. This has created a customer base of health and food conscious people, all concerned with purchasing only the best that Kudler has to offer.

Because of the increasing success of the store, possibilities of international expansion have been investigated. Particularly, Canada and Italy were considered as good candidates for Kudler Fine Foods. When expanding, certain factors need to be taken into account, including specific national factors in the target country, politics, and the market demand for specialized foods and drinks.

Marketing Communications Plan


When constructing a marketing communications plan for Canada, one specific factor that must be taken into account is the country's strict standards concerning organic food and wine. One factor that is important in this regard is the fact that the concept of "organic" is, more often than not, flexible in the collective minds of territories, countries, and even individuals.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency put national standards for organic food in place on June 30, 2009. According to these standards, any food products certified as organic must have 95% organic content, even to the extent of having the variation of the word "organic" displayed anywhere on the product. In addition, natural fertilizers must be used to grow the product (Going organic, 2009, CBC). This is something that must be kept in mind before a U.S. food company can expand into Canada. In addition, these factors must also be incorporated into the communication plan for marketing the product in the country.

What Kudler can use in its market strategy, is the fact that there has been an increase in Canadian demand for organic wines. Kudler can therefore focus on its organic wine products when creating a communications strategy. This focus can then be used as a vehicle for the sale of its food products as well.

In Italy, an additional challenge is the fact of cultural resistance to the food product, as Italian food an wine merchants take particular pride in their products. Even more than Canada, this can therefore be a somewhat difficult market to enter. Indeed, the Italian grocery market has seen an emphasis in food and beverage sales over other products (Datamonitor 2010).

What is important here is to focus not so much on the collective food and/or wine market, but rather upon identifying niche markets. These can then be used…… [read more]

Ground Water Used for Agriculture in West Texas Research Paper

… Groundwater usage for Agriculture inTexas

Groundwater is found below the earth's surface in crevices of soil and rock Rubicon Real Estate

Services. The laws in Texas regarding groundwater use is based on the English common law of "absolute use" or… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Harmful or Helpful Research Paper

… Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?

Research proposal for finding out the usefulness and harmfulness of consumption of genetically modified foods

The usefulness and harmfulness of the consumption of genetically modified foods is a continuing debate. Genetically modified foods have… [read more]

Food System in Global Justice Term Paper

… Global Food

Global Justice and the Food System

In a world where obesity is the number one public health concern in many countries at the same time as the rest of the world is suffering from under-nutrition, it makes sense… [read more]

Culinary Scholarship Application Essay

… ¶ … Friends of the FCI 2010 Scholarship

My earliest childhood memories unfold in a wave of tastes and smells. My father, an experienced cook, always let me watch him as he prepared dinner or harvested vegetables from our small garden. It was from my father that I learned about the healing power of food: the healing power of a good meal to reinvigorate the soul, and the healing power of fresh and healthy plants and herbs to make a young body grow. It was from my father -- and the Mother Earth of our garden -- that I learned to respect the land. My father allowed me to cook and eventually to plant my own peppers, herbs, and tomatoes. As I grew bolder I began to seek out cooking books and experiment with new recipes. I also created a compost heap for my garden.

Sometimes life presents great obstacles that turn out to be blessings in disguise. Despite the golden memories of my childhood, when I was twenty, my family began to experience financial difficulties. I assumed the burden of paying for my own college, medical insurance and living expenses. I wanted to help my family financially. Because of my love of caring for people, I took a full-time job as a Residential Counselor at Silver Hill Hospital, running an acute transitional unit for mentally-ill patients. Once again, during this difficult time in my own life, I was reminded of the healing power of food. I was given the task of teaching the residents how to cook and grow crops during the spring and summer.

Watching the residents find confidence within themselves as their cooking skills improved was one of the proudest times of my life. Cooking and feeding yourself is a tremendous source of empowerment. Nurturing others with food can give the most depressed or distracted person hope. I…… [read more]

Sustainable Agriculture and Labor Conditions Research Paper

… Sustainable Agriculture

There are many aspects of sustainable farming. Not only does this include healthy foods grown, healthy farming practices and systems, but, furthermore, healthy working conditions on the farm. There are a number of solutions proposed on the international… [read more]

Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side Book Review

… ¶ … Fast food nation: The dark side of the all-American meal by Eric Schlosser. Specifically it will contain a book review of the book. Schlosser's book, made into a major motion picture, discusses America's obsession with fast food, and… [read more]

Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop Thesis

… Transgenic Foods (genetically Modified Crop)

The objective of this work is to write the ethical issue, history, whole process, application, advantage or risk in regards to transgenic food or GM crops in a historical, factual or argumentative paper.

Transgenic crops… [read more]

Fast Food Nation Research Proposal

… Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All American Meal: Changing the Land, Workforce, And Above All Culture

According to Eric Schlosser's Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All American Meal, the fast food industry has completely and irrevocably changed the American landscape, workforce, and culture. Many of the aspects of fast food culture Schlosser demonizes are also applicable to other forms of American capitalism -- for example, Wal-Mart also makes use of poorly paid workers who receive few benefits, and are used as disposable commodities, rather than participants in a company who can look forward to being promoted and share in its profits. The overconsumption of meat and high-fructose corn syrup is endemic to American processed food, as well as fast food. But the eradication of cooking, the idea that food is not food but entertainment, that food is a product for children rather than adults and that it is acceptable to have the family meal in a car are all aspects of modern life for which the fast food industry must accept sole blame.

It is perhaps the automobile that really changed the American landscape and made fast food possible: "The triumph of the automobile encouraged not only a geographic separation between buildings, but also a manmade landscape that was loud and bold" (Schlosser 17). Anonymous roadside 'pit stops' replaced lunch counters where everyone knew one another's name. The demand for cheap beef transformed the cattle industry, and made factory farming king. Sustainable agriculture, always a tenuous proposition in a land with a tendency to over-farm and over-graze the soil, became replaced with industrialized agriculture and factory farming. Today, Schlosser writes, poultry farmers are "trapped by debt," captives of large processors and the meat industry may be going the same way (Schlosser 139). The patterns of ownership and management on Americans farms today parallels that of 19th century rural England, not that of the independent homesteaders of previous eras (Schlosser 118). Today, America has more prison inmates than full-time farmers (Schlosser 8).

"In the potato fields and processing plants of Idaho, in the ranchlands east of Colorado Springs, in the feedlots and slaughterhouses of the High Plains, you can see the effects of fast food on the nation's rural life, its environment, its workers, and its health… the hardy, independent farmers whom Thomas Jefferson considered the bedrock of American democracy are a truly vanishing breed" (Schlosser 8). Strip malls, faceless and standardized, dot America's highways, not unique establishments. As persuasive as Schlosser is regarding the role fast food plays in this development, it should be added that industrialized agriculture and food processing is endemic to the agricultural industry as a whole, not just the fast food industry. Most animals today are raised in an inhumane manner, on an unnatural (corn-fed) diet. Of course, the fast food industry's appetite for cheaply produced animal carcasses is a component of the shift to industrialized agriculture, but it is important to keep in mind that merely by eschewing Quarter… [read more]

Industrialized Agriculture Sustainability Thesis

… Industrialized Agriculture


We are what we reap: Sustainable vs. industrialized agriculture in America

What is commonly referred to a 'conventional' agriculture, or the type of industrialized farming that is the norm in America is actually a fairly recent development.… [read more]

Culinary School Term Paper

… Culinary School

Over the past several years, cooking has become very popular. Television has more programming than ever about food and cuisine. There are cooking shows about all different types of nationalities, as well as the reality shows where a number of different people compete to have their own restaurant. They get screamed at and demeaned, but they keep on going and hoping to win. I understand exactly what they are going through. I also have the same passion. If I were on one of these shows, there would be nothing that would keep me from continuing on to the next show. Cooking is who I am. Cooking is who I always will be.

I'm very fortunate. Since I was young, I had this same passion for cooking. As soon as my parents, who were always very supportive, said that I could actually go into the kitchen and cook (instead of pretend on a toy stove), I went gladly. There was never a time from that point on that I did not continually try new types of menus and meals. When others were reading scary books and fantasies, I was also reading how to make French foods. When my friends were watching comedies or MTV on television, I was also turning to the cooking channels. Unfortunately, there are many kids who do not know what they want to do when they graduate from high school. That was never my problem.

When I was in high school, I formalized my interest by graduating from the culinary class in my senior year. When others were saying "Rah, Rah, Rah," or acting on stage, I was eating my latest creation. Some of my meals were not the best, but even Julia Child had her failures, correct? I am…… [read more]

Global Food Trade Term Paper

… Global Food Trade

In 2005 Florida accounted for a large portion of U.S. produce production, including (Overview of Florida agriculture):

percent of the total U.S. value of production for oranges ($843 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of production for grapefruit ($208 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of production for tangerines ($68.4 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of production for sugarcane for sugar and seed ($433 million as of 2004)

percent of the total U.S. value of sales for fresh market tomatoes ($805 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of sales for bell peppers ($213 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of sales for cucumbers for fresh market ($73.7 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of sales for watermelons ($127 million).

Four out of 5 of Florida's top agricultural exports are produce as show in Table 1 (State fact sheets: Florida).

agriculture exports, estimates, FY 2006

Rank among states

Value million $

1. Other

2. Fruits and preparations

3. Vegetables and preparations

4. Live animals and meat

5. Seeds

Trade between states is very important. Florida, a state rich in agricultural products, uses exports to help boost farm prices and income, while supporting about 20,100 jobs both on and off the farm in food processing, storage, and transportation. Exports remain vital to Florida's agricultural and statewide economy. The State's reliance on agricultural exports was 24% in 2006. (Trade and agriculture What's at stake for Florida). Other states with a climate not suited for agriculture take advantage of trade to increase access to agricultural products and to increase the price and income of their own products they are exporting.

Global food trade is important for the same reasons that trade between states is important, to expand affordable access to agricultural products.

On a worldwide basis,…… [read more]

GMO Genetically Modified Organisms Term Paper

… GMO - Genetically Modified Organisms

Genetically modified organisms are organisms of which the genome is altered through genetic engineering. In other words, the DNA from an organism is modified in a laboratory, and then inserted into another organism's genome for the purpose of producing traits or phenotypes that would be useful in the new organism. This technology has been used on life forms for decades, but the area in which it is still the most controversial is food. In addition to the ethics, conservation, and poverty reduction issues, concerns raised regarding this technology revolve around human and environmental safety.

Proponents of the technology hold that there is no danger for any age group in genetically modified foods. Indeed, the beneficial and longer-lasting properties created in these foods are seen as optimal for human food supply and safety. Opponents however hold that there is no way in which unforeseen consequences of genetically modified foods can be estimated. A strain of corn developed via…… [read more]

Food and Eating Behaviors Term Paper

… Food & Eating Behavior

Every country on planet earth has its unique culture and traditions. The people living in these countries have different lifestyles and so their food and eating behavior differs and sets it apart from others. Some countries… [read more]

Food Biotechnology Term Paper

… Food Biotechnology

The objective of this work is to critically review at least six sources of literature related to food biotechnology which contain arguments against the use of food biotechnology and to then summarize the key concerns and arguments and… [read more]

Food History of Central American Term Paper

… They are native to the area and add heat and interest to just about any dish. Food historian Tannahill writes of chilis, " "Some are dried to make chilli (sic) powder or the more refined cayenne paper (sic), some pickled in vinegar for Tabasco sauce, and others can be used in sauces and chutneys, or as direct flavourings in meat dishes" (Tannahill 207). These hot peppers are not the only peppers native to the area, the larger sweet (or "bell") peppers are also grown and used quite a lot in Central American cooking. Tannahill also notes there are at least ninety-two types of chilis used in Mexico today, and that several different types, both ground and fresh, may be used in the same dishes (Tannahill 208).

One of the most common "fast" foods in the area are El Salvadorian "pupusas," which are small, thick tortilla balls filled with meats, cheeses, or vegetables and grilled. They are served out of sidewalk booths called "pupusarias" and often come with a "salad" type side dish called "curtido," which "is a salad of cabbage, onion and carrot marinated in vinegar, and it's a perfect complement to pupusas" (Jones). The bottom line is that most ingredients are fresh, local, and spicy.

The food of Central America has many things in common with the food of Mexico, and it uses a lot of the same ingredients. However, it is unique, and travelers who go there expecting simply rice, beans, and tortillas may find many other items that will tempt them and keep them coming back for more.


Jones, Diana Nelson. "Latin Legends: Black Beans for Breakfast, Plantains for Lunch, Ceviche for Dinner. Post-Gazette.com. 23 June, 2002. 1 Nov. 2005.

< http://www.post-gazette.com/food/20020623dnjfood0623fnp2.asp

Keegan, Christopher W. "Latin Cuisine." Food Product Design. Oct. 2004. 1 Nov. 2005.

< http://www.foodproductdesign.com/archive/2004/1004CC.html

Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York, Crown Publishers, 1988.

Thompson, Wallace. Rainbow Countries of Central America. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, 1926.

Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne.…… [read more]

Fast Food Is a Phenomenon Term Paper

… As mentioned above, this tends to increase the sales and the consumption of fast foods with consequent detrimental health effects. Advertising also leads to false perception about the nutritional value of fast foods.

Heavy viewing has been shown to be… [read more]

British Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Organic Food Term Paper

… Organic Food

British consumer attitudes/organic food literature review

Five years ago, the New Statesman asked the question, "Are you an ethical consumer?" And elicited answers from some public figures. Broadcaster Zenab Bedawi said he bought Fairtrade coffee. He did not'… [read more]

Gene Tinkering in Agriculture Term Paper

… About 55% of last year's crop of soybeans was genetically engineered." ("Is your pizza poisoned?" 1995 The Electric Newt)

Even in 2005, GM products do not need to be labeled, and individuals who are sensitive to certain products could be at risk. Yet overall, despite such fears, the use of such products could actually reduce the number of pesticides in the production of agriculture. If a gene could be introduced into corn that would produce a protein toxic to corn-eating caterpillars, farmers could grow that kind of corn without using high quantities of pesticides. Also, despite fears of creating more antibiotic resistant bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract, "the antibiotic resistance genes used as markers in biotech do not [cause] resistance to antibiotics used to treat human disease, " and those resistance genes are already present in the human digestive tract." ("Should we worry over genetically altered foods?" 2000, The Boston Globe)

Works Cited

Allen, Scott. (13 Jul 1999) "Tinkering With The DNA On Your Dinner Plate." The Boston Globe. A1. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://www.rense.com/politics4/tinker.htm

Is your pizza poisoned?" (1995) The Electric Newt. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://botanical.com/site/column_christina/pizza.html

Should we worry over genetically altered foods?" (28 Mar 2000) The Boston Globe. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://www.global-reality.com/biotech/ARTICLES/news148.htm… [read more]

Fast Food Nation Effects Essay

… But when I opened my eyes, there was just a narrow strip of white paper and a smiling flavorist" (120). This discovery by Schlosser revealed that at the personal level, technology made it possible for fast food industries to 'fool' the consumer into thinking that what they were eating are delicious food with distinct taste associated only with the fast food establishment.

At the national level, fast food establishments, through the use of technology, had contributed to the issue of utilizing migrant workers who worked in farms and agricultural lands and meatpacking companies that helped produce the necessary ingredients and raw materials for the food sold in fast food establishments. These migrant workers were paid $5.50 per hour, an amount that was considered a pittance compared to other workers who have jobs that require less of an effort than the migrant workers' jobs and duties. The fast food industry was the major player responsible for the continued marginalization of migrant workers, and because of increased technology in agriculture and manufacturing, they were able to abuse more these workers by doubling their work through the help of these machineries while limiting their wages at below the minimum amount. In effect, technologies produced for the sake of mass production of food for the fast food industry made the poor poorer while doing hard labor: "Poor workers without health insurance drive up local medical costs. The nation's meatpacking firms ... have successfully pitted one economically depressed region against another ... " (152).

Lastly, at the global level, fast food industries and its technologies had also helped worsen the prices of food supplies and commodities generated from agriculture. In Schlosser's investigation of the lease and rent rates of ranches where livestock are grown, it became apparent that agricultural businesses control the prices and supply of agricultural and livestock food products. Schlosser disclosed, " ... agribusiness executives secretly talk on the phone with their competitors, set prices, and divide up the worldwide market for commodities -- a belief widely held among independent ranchers and farmers -- may seem like a paranoid fantasy. But that is precisely what executives at Archer Daniels Midland, "supermarket to the world," did for years" (142). Evidently, fast food industries had been a lucrative business that developments in technology had spurred production and made the people behind its industries aspire for more profit, disregarding the reality that they, through their technologies, marginalize specific sectors of the society and contribute to the worsening economic and social states of American society in effect.

Work cited

Schlosser, E.…… [read more]

Genetic Engineering and Agriculture Term Paper

… Genetic Engineering and Agriculture

What, exactly, is Genetic Engineering? What are the various processes that are involved in the carrying out of Genetic Engineering? Genetic Engineering is basically the selection and the willful or deliberate alteration or change of the genes or the genetic material that is present in any living being, by man. The process helps man to produce endogenous proteins with properties that are different from the original material, or produce entirely and completely different proteins from the original material. Genes can be, in essence, modified, and altered and changed within the DNA molecule so that the basic information that it contains would be altered. (Definition of Genetic Engineering)

One of the most important events that happened in the 20th century may be that of Genetic Engineering, and when the same was applied to agriculture, the result was 'transgenic crops' and also 'transgenic animals', which are nothing but products wherein the basic genetic structure was altered or modified in order to better the material within them. Some of the examples of successful alterations by the method of genetic engineering are that of rice. When it was discovered that rice did not contain Vitamin a, and that in several parts of Asia rice was the staple food, and most of the people of these regions appeared to be suffering from a Vitamin a deficiency, then it was decided to genetically modify the rice so that the various problems associated with such a deficiency could be effectively prevented. This experiment was initially carried out in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and rice was crossbred in order to produce rice that would be rich in Vitamin a (a Report on Genetically Engineered Crops)

Another example of the benefits of genetic engineering when applied to agriculture is that of producing an 'herbicide resistant transgenic corn', which would resist the deadly parasite 'Striga' or 'witchweed' that farmers in Africa had been struggling with for centuries. This modified corn would be genetically modified to be resistant to this parasite, and these would be able to resist the parasite and prevent damages and losses fro the farmers. This system could also be used for the genetic modification of other crops like millet and sorghum. Cheese, which was traditionally produced by adding rennet, which was extracted from the stomachs of calves, can now be produced with the help of the material called 'chymosin' that is extracted from yeast. (a Report on Genetically Engineered Crops)

Genetically modified foods and animals are now a common factor, and it is now an accepted fact that GE or genetically modified foods are better than normal foods and animals. However, there is still…… [read more]

Food Safety When Shopping Term Paper

… Eggs should not remain at room temperature for more than two hours and should be cooked thoroughly (Food pp). Wash hands thoroughly before handling raw foods and always wash hands and utensils after preparing raw meats, fish and poultry and never put cooked foods on a dish that has previously held raw meats (Food pp). Use separate cutting boards for vegetables and meats, and always wash the boards in hot soapy water (Food pp). Store leftovers in sealed containers, and either eat or freeze within three to five days, however, never freeze any dished that contain uncooked fruit or vegetables, hard-cooked eggs or mayonnaise and eat all frozen leftovers within two months (Food pp). When using the microwave oven, make certain to use only containers that are deemed microwave safe and be certain to follow the package directions for cooking (Food pp).

Any reliable book, article or web site that contains information regarding nutrition should be endorsed with medical or government recommendations, such as the American Medical Association, and the United States Department of Agriculture. Nutition.gov is an excellent web site that arose from the USDA's commitment to promote a healthy America and is supported through a USDA Interagency Agreement with Research, Education and Economics and Office of Analysis, Nutrition and Evaluation (Nutrition pp). "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy:The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating" by Walter C. Willett and P.J. Skerrett is an excellent book choice for reliable nutritional information (Willett, Skerrett pp).

Work Cited

Food Safety


Nutrition.gov. http://www.nutrition.gov

Willett, Walter C.; Skerrett, P.J. Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy: The Harvard Medical

School Guide to Healthy Eating. Free Press. 2002.… [read more]

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