"Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays

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Genetic Technology Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (886 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The article feels at first like a cogent explanation of some of the uses and benefits for genetic engineering, and highlights the different techniques. This part of the article is strong, and it can inform the casual reader about what some of this stuff is and how it is used. The latter part of the article loses steam in terms of being much less rhetorically robust, but at that point it is veering into the political dimension, something the textbook does not do. Overall, the earlier parts of the Ronald article relate well to the material on genetic engineering, and provide further examples of the techniques used and the practical uses, bridging lab and farm as the article's title states.


Research on this topic should be funded by the companies that will benefit from the research. Government should not act as a charitable provider for major corporations. The private sector has access to capital markets, in addition to the profits from their activities. These profits are all but assured through extensive patent protections. Thus, there is no shortage of money available for new development. The pharmaceutical industry has a similar development pathway -- government sets regulations governing development and then grants monopoly protections that ensure profits can be earned on a company's research investment.

I do not accept Ronald's argument that skepticism from consumers is why the regulations exist. The regulations exist because people eat this stuff. The regulations are not particularly stringent, for example they do not require longitudinal studies so the products go to market without any clear sense of long-term impacts other than what it predicted in models. The food supply needs regulation to keep people safe and alive, and given the history of violations on the part of food companies in the absence of regulation, it is no surprise that consumers demand some level of protection.

The patent protections on genetic technologies allow for monopoly profits, and this is a major source of funding for new technology development. If government funds this development, then the outputs (new technologies, etc.) should be in the public domain. But there is no logic in providing public funding to private enterprise, if private enterprise is going to be the financial beneficiary of those public investment funds. The system needs to be all public or all private, and this case I happen to favor an all-private model based on capitalist principles.


Ronald, P. (2014). Lab to farm: Applying research on plant genetics and genomics to crop improvement. PLOS Biology. Vol. 12 (6) 1-6.

Starr, C., Evers, C.A., & Starr, L. (2013). Biology today and tomorrow without physiology (4th…… [read more]

There Are Various Phases Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The quality of foods is higher than many of its competitors however the prices that Panera's offers are also substantially higher than traditional fast food establishments. Therefore Panera will typically draw a more professional crowd with higher disposable incomes. Furthermore, Panera's will likely appeal to the health conscious consumers over alternative establishments such as McDonalds because the quality of their foods is much higher and healthier. Thus Panera's will likely appeal to people that has a healthier lifestyle.

Figure 2 - Panera's Spinach Salad (Panera Bread, N.d.)

There are also many geographical considerations. For example, Panera's generally positions their locations in a place that has substantial foot traffic as well as local neighborhoods. The radius of traffic is most likely in the ten mile range. Panera's also offers a take-out service and many local businesses will drive to pick up lunches and catered trays for breakfast and lunch. Therefore, local businesses also represent a key target market for Panera.

Works Cited

Gorchel, L. (2010). The Product Manager's Handbook.

Panera Bread. (N.d.). Power Up. Retrieved from http://www.panerabread.com/?ref=pbhomeleft… [read more]

Creating a Marketing Plan Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  3 pages (1,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Marketing Plan for La Duree

What business are you in?

What will be the 'next cupcake?' For many years, cupcakes were the great pastry craze, resulting in the rise of the Magnolia Bakery and Crumbs in New York City. These enterprises eventually spread throughout the United States. The cute confectionary took hold of the public's imagination. Around the same time, food trucks that sold fare more interesting than the usual 'dirty water dogs' and soft pretzels also began to become more popular amongst New Yorkers. Falafel, gourmet ice cream, macaroni and cheese, samosas, and tacos are some of the diverse array of foods offered on these relatively small, inexpensive-to-operate vehicles.

Macaroons have also gained a smaller but equally loyal following amongst foodies as cupcakes. Americans who live in France and write cookbooks and blog about their experiences like David Lebovitz and Dorie Greenspan have championed the macaroon. There is already a loyal following for the macaroon in France, and one of the most beloved cafes offering the sweets, along with a tasty array of other baked goods, is the elegant bakery La Duree.

Why is it the right business for you to be in?

The proposed business is to open a La Duree in New York City. This will capitalize upon the love of French pastries amongst foodies, the enthusiasm for portion-controlled sweets, as well as the insatiable appetite for novelty in the food world. New York City loves delicate and exotic foods that allow residents to watch their weight yet still eat tasty treats. Offering macaroons and a limited array of other La Duree pastries from a food truck would capitalize upon two trends at once.

From a practical standpoint, a dessert food truck is ideal because it encourages consumers to make impulse purchases. They do not need to make a special trip to a bakery, which they might hesitate to do, given that a pastry, unlike a sandwich for lunch, is not strictly a necessity. Also, if consumers do not want to buy a large number of pastries at once, the food truck allows them to easily buy one or two. A food truck is also far less expensive to operate than a formal shop, and incurs less overhead expenses such as rent.

What would you like your business to be famous for?

The macaroon would be the signature item of the business. It is light, small, quirky, yet quintessentially French. Macaroons can be offered in a wide variety of flavors, and changing some of the seasonal and special flavors would attract customer attention.

What do you sell?

As well as macaroons, a rotating variety of other famous La Duree pastries can be offered, including but not limited to eclairs, tarts, and other confections. Chocolates can also be offered, depending upon the season.

Why will people buy from you?

The high quality of the macaroons and the ability to eat genuine French pastries, as opposed to an American 'spin' on the French treats will be the primary attractions.… [read more]

Beverage &amp Tobacco Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (412 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Another threat that is driven by consumer preference but represent an entirely different level of threat is that many health considerations are actually the subject of increasing regulations. For example, many cities have chosen to ban smoking from public spaces as well as prohibit unhealthy beverages being sold at places such as schools.


There are a countless number of manufactures and suppliers in this industry. Phillip Morris is one of the world's largest tobacco companies which name was officially rebranded in 2003 under a new name known as Atria. Atria also holds a significant stake in Kraft foods and also subsidiaries that operate in the wine industry. PepsiCo is one of the largest food and beverage companies and the largest U.S. based firm in the industry. InBev is one of the largest alcoholic manufactures and distributors in the world and operates in over one hundred thirty different countries. It recently purchased Anheuser-Busch in 2009 which significantly increased the size of the operations. To complete the deal, the United States required that InBev quit importing certain brands of beers to the U.S. market so that InBev would meet anti-trust regulations.… [read more]

Sourdough Production Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (925 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



History and Culture

Sourdough bread is produced with a dough that has been fermented, lending it a slightly sour (lactic) character. Historically, sourdough would have been a fairly natural and common form of bread, because people lacked refrigeration, and thus would have had difficulty controlling the yeasts and bacteria in bread. Wild yeasts and bacteria would have been used for leavening for much of human history, with purpose-bred bread yeast being a relatively new advancement. Bakers would have been skilled at their production of sourdough, so that they maintained some consistency in the product, and were able to balance the sourness with other elements.

Sourdough today is associated with many locations along the Pacific Coast of North America. Bakers, especially in new settlements and the informal communities that arose in the latter part of the 19th century during the various mining booms, would have had little access to refrigeration and may not have even had much access to bread yeast. Indeed, sourdough starter proved to be harder in the extreme climates than conventional bread yeast and remained common (Peters, 2013).

Production Method

There are different types of sourdough common today. One type features the bacteria lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, along with other flora and yeasts. This strain was found to be common in San Francisco sourdoughs and has become a signature element in this style. This type of sourdough is made with wheat, and consumes maltose. Enzymes convert the wheat into maltose and fructose, on which the lactobacillus sanfranciscensis feeds. When wheat is mixed with water, amylase breaks down some of the starches in the wheat into maltose, allowing it to become food. This part of the process occurs with the creation of the sourdough starter (Rosada, 1997). The starter culture must be 'refreshed', in that new water and wheat must be added, with proportions maintained, that there is always starch to break down. When a starter is ready, it is mixed with flour and water. The dough is shaped into loaves and left to rise and then baked. The baking part is relatively easy -- it is the maintenance of the starter, or the creation of a new one, that is the most complex part of the process.

Some producers will utilize beer yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a leavener, as this is simpler than the more traditional method of using a starter. The process of leavening still takes several days, but it exposes the dough to different strains of lactobacillus. There are other different methods of producing sourdough breads that are still in use in Europe and elsewhere, in breads that are traditional in nature.

Production Conditions

The benefit of sourdough starter is that it is robust, and withstands infection from other flora. It produces its own natural antimould compounds, specifically caproic…… [read more]

Gene and Enzyme Manipulation Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Enzyme Ethics

The author of this report has been asked to offer and extend an opinion and analysis about the use of enzymes when it comes to the production of food, the breeding of animals and the growing of other plants like trees and such. Of course, there is a fairly advanced movement that is against genetically modified organisms (GMO's) on any level. However, to dismiss the practice entirely would probably be a mistake. While there should be ethical and legal limits placed on the enzyme creation and manipulation industry, the safe and fruitful advantages that can be rendered should be embraced and fully realized.

In general, the author of this response would assert that genetic modifying in general as it relates to animals, food crops and other plants is not a bad thing. However, there are always consequences to actions and those need to be assessed both in advance of a science advance being pushed out for public consumption as well as after the fact to insure that there was not anything missed or any unintended consequences. An example that the author of this report is Monsanto. They have a pretty lucrative business venture in the form of producing and selling the non-selective herbicide Roundup as well as seeds that resist the same. To be clearer, Roundup is called a non-selected herbicide because it basically kills all grass and weeds that it comes in contact with. However, Monsanto also produces seeds that are bred and produced to resist reactions to Roundup thus making it easier for weeds around food crops to be killed without affecting the crop that is in that given field. Beyond that, Monsanto specifically forbids farmers from harvesting and using seeds that come from prior plants. As part of any of their purchasing agreements, they ban this practice and will sue anyone who violates that clause. Even if the practice Monsanto is engaging in is legal (it is), it is a little unseemly to allow seeds to go to waste. It is also perhaps questionable to willingly allow food crops to come in contact with Roundup given that the food produced will eventually be consumed by humans. Indeed, many pesticides are known or feared to be carcinogens (MIT, 2015).

However,…… [read more]

Foodborne Illness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Food Safety in Las Vegas, Nevada

Advanced Nursing Practice

The community in question is Las Vegas, Nevada. The topic that I would like to address is food safety. The state of Nevada has a higher than average incidence of food-borne illness per capita. It is believed that this is a function of the tourist trade, which skews the per capita number -- the population of Las Vegas included guests is much larger than the census population. The popularity of buffets, which are a high risk factor for food borne illness, is another factor. As an advanced practice nurse, I believe that I can do something about this issue.

There are 31 known pathogens in food. Some of the ones that are most common, such as clostridium perfringens, are not responsible for very many hospitalizations. The leading pathogens for hospitalization are salmonella, norovirus, campylobacter spp, toxoplasma gondii and e. coli. Of those, e. coli is replaced by listeria in the top five in terms of deaths (CDC, 2011). This is a health issue that kills and hospitalizes many in Las Vegas, but is entirely preventable with proper education and procedures. Major outbreaks can strike hundreds -- an outbreak of salmonella at a local tapas restaurant made 294 people sick in 2013 (Andrews, 2013).

There are three potential target markets for this campaign. The first is the food service industry. They already have a viable resource for this information. So the better target markets are the residents of Las Vegas and the tourists that visit Las Vegas. The demographic characteristics of Las Vegas are nearly 2 million people in the metro area, 600,000 within city limits. They are 47.9% non-Hispanic white, 31.5% Hispanic, 11.1% African-American, 6.1% Asian with small portions of others. The population is fairly diffuse, with no notable concentration in any age bracket. There are relatively few families below the poverty line.

There almost 40 million visitors each year to Las Vegas. Of these, 42% arrived by air, and 58% arrived in ground transportation, usually their own. The average visitor is married, earns $40k or…… [read more]

Corona Beer (Modelo) Corona Beer: From Local Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,241 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Corona Beer (Modelo)

Corona Beer: From Local Mexican Player to a Global Brand Case Analysis

Grupo Modelo's greatest strengths are beer and beverage production, and exceptional skills in managing distribution channels and networks location in foreign nations. Founded in 1922, with its first brewery in operation in 1925,

Grupo Modelo over its first six decades of operations became the best selling beer producer and distributor throughout Mexico and the United States. In 1979, Grupo Modelo successfully launched Corona, which quickly became one of the best-selling beers in Mexico. In 1988 the beer was launched into the United States and quickly rose to become the second best-selling imported beer. Grupo Modelo went public in 1994. Anheuser-Busch purchased 50.2% of Grupo Modelo shares that translated into 43.9% voting rights, which assured the Diez family of retaining control of the company. After going public the company invested heavily in creating distribution partnerships in throughout North America which have emerged as one of the company's greatest competitive strengths.

Global Expansion through Alliances, Partnerships and Successful Product Introductions

The investments in channel partnerships and alliances throughout North America paved the way for the Corona brand to be the best-selling import beer in the U.S. between the years of 1997 to 2004. What is noteworthy about this accomplishment is that the Corona brand beat out its closest competitor with 50% greater volume. In addition to its expertise in creating and strengthening channel alliances and partnerships, the company has developed an expertise in branding and product line extensions. The development of the Corona Light, Corona Extra, Pacifico Clara, Negra Modelo and Modelo Especial brands and their successes in key North American markets illustrates this point.

As a result of the company's intensive alliances and partnerships with North American beer distributors and their ability to launch brands successfully both in Mexico and the U.S., the company has experienced profitable growth in both countries. These partnerships have made it possible for Grupo Modelo to move quickly into new urban, suburban and metro areas quickly and profitably. Relying on their alliances and partnerships with distributors and dealers, Grupo Modelo has successfully managed international expansion throughout the nations in North America.

Trends Impacting the Global Beer Market

Branding and pricing are the two most common differentiator used by competitors globally in the beer market. There are also more alliances, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures being created to mitigate and spread the risk of the global economic downturn. In addition to these macroeconomic factors there is also the redefining of nonalcoholic beverages as being healthy and low in calories. This market trend is aimed at attracting women to beer, which has historically been a low-consumption product for them. The industry globally is in the decline stage of its product lifecycle, and has only seen moderate change to the technologies that brewery operations and channel strategies. As a result Grupo Modelo is competing on the strength of its alliances and channel partnerships and ability to launch new brands successfully throughout North America. Figure… [read more]

Ravioli Making Ravioli Is Not as Complicated Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Ravioli

Making ravioli is not as complicated as it seems. The only ingredients necessary for making ravioli include flour, eggs, salt, and cheese for the filling. By following these simple instructions, you can enjoy fresh pasta made with care and healthy ingredients. You no longer need to buy premade industrial ravioli. The following recipe produces up to 20 pieces of ravioli. If you need to make more, adjust accordingly. The ravioli may be frozen for future use.

First, buy all the ingredients including regular white flour, four eggs, salt, nonaromatic vegetable oil (such as canola, grape seed, or light olive oil), and fresh, firm ricotta cheese. The best ricotta cheese can be found from Italian grocers, gourmet stores, or specialist cheesemongers. A second type of cheese such as pecorino may be added in addition to the ricotta, but soft, creamy, rich ricotta makes the foundation of the ravioli filling.

Second, prepare the cooking utensils you will need including mixing bowls, a rolling pin, two pots, a glass, a fork, and a slotted spoon. Clear a working surface as large as possible because you will need space to roll out the dough.

Now, measure all the ingredients. For the dough you will need three cups of flour, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, two eggs, 1/4 cup oil, and 1/2 cup water. Set aside some more flour for later, as we will be using it to dust the work surface. You will also need to gather the ingredients for the filling, including about a pound (approximately 450-500 grams) of ricotta cheese, two eggs, and some salt.

Make the filling first. Mix together the eggs, cheese and salt. Cover the bowl and store in the refrigerator. Now work on the dough. Crack the eggs into the mixing bowl and lightly beat with a fork. Add the water and the oil and continue to mix. Gradually add the flour to the mix. Do not add all the flour at once because it will not absorb the liquid properly.

Once the dough is mixed, prepare the working surface by covering it with…… [read more]

Global Wine Wars Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (842 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Global Wine Wars

Since the mid to late 20th century a shift has been occurring in how various wines are produced and sold around the world. At the heart of the dispute, is the battle between traditional (old world) and new world producers / distributors. Simply put an old world producer / distributor, is a company that will focus on manufacturing and selling wine using established customs and practices. These kinds of growers are located mainly in Europe and are considered to be small farms that have embraced the same traditions for many generations. While new world growers, are those producers / distributors that will use the last techniques to manufacture and market their products. In general, the majority of these producers are located in: the U.S., Argentina, Chile, Australia and South Africa. (Bartlett) This is important, because it shows how the overall amount of competition between these different producers / distributors has become more intense. To understand what is taking place requires: examining two relevant factors affecting competition, conducting a strategic growth analysis and studying the new world / old world value chains. This will be accomplished by examining: the major problems facing old world wine growers, how their business model contributed to various challenges, how new world growers were able to pose a substantial threat, the way it relates to traditional producers, how old world growers have tried to solve the problem and the effects of government intervention. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how the industry is continuing to change.

The Major Problems Facing Old World Growers

The biggest problems facing old world growers are: there is sense of arrogance and the inability to quickly change. These two elements are important, because they would have an impact upon: the quality of wine that is being produced, in what form it was distributed and it would hurt the grower's ability to evolve with consumer demand. As their refusal to embrace new ideas caused them to lose market share to new world growers. This is because their products were considered to be superior in quality and they had lower prices. The PESTEL analysis reveals; that economic and social issues would have an impact upon the old world producers' ability to adapt to various changes. (Bartlett)

How the Old World Growers Business Model contributes to different Challenges?

The old world growers' business model contributed to various challenges, because it lured many producers into thinking that they can adjust. However, the reality is that the market conditions…… [read more]

Change in Attitude of American Playwright Eugene O'Neill Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Dreams and Man's Tragic Fate According to Eugene O'Neill

Playwright Eugene O'Neill built his reputation on creating works of stark realism at a time when theatre was largely melodrama and musical camp. This would produce a body of plays largely dedicated to exploring the human condition and the tragic fate of man. In a consideration of some of his earliest works, it is possible to view this exploration in a state of evolution. Between 1920's Beyond the Horizon and 1924's Desire Under the Elms, O'Neill channels a discussion on the human condition through a consideration of how man's dreams can ultimately lead to tragedy.

In this first work, O'Neill seems to be driven by the idea that we are nothing if we surrender our dreams. To an extent, the work as a whole centers on the two dreadful realities that either one might never attain one's dream or, perhaps the worse of possibilities, that one might attain one's dream and find it to be a grave disappointment. In Beyond the Horizon, each character is on his or her own separate journey either toward or away from a long-cherished dream. In a sense that becomes increasingly clear as the play moves toward its tragic denouement, either disposition reveals something damning about man's nature.

That is, the human condition as O'Neill sees it is a state of constant suffering and discontent. Perhaps, he seems to suggest in the subtext of his first notable play, we are destined to suffer this lot whether we follow or abandon those dreams which we allow to define us. In the character of Robert perhaps more than any other, we are confronted with the bitter realities of a dream unrealized. In Act 1, Scene I, Robert awaits the voyage overseas upon which he has longed dreamed of embarking when his brother Andy engages him in conversation. It is hear that we learn of those conditions which most drive Robert. Both sickly and sensitive, Robert's health and happiness seem to hinge on leaving the family farm even as he secretly harbors a love for Ruth. The daughter of the neighboring farm, she is also the object of Andy's affection. Within the confines of this love triangle, Robert tells his brother why he never returned to school after his most recent bout of sickness. He reveals, "You know why I didn't go back, Andy. Pa didn't like the idea, even if he didn't say so; and I know he wanted the money to use improving the farm. And besides, I had pretty much all I cared for in that one year. I'm not keen on being a student, just because you see me reading books all the time. What I want to do now is keep on moving so that I won't take root in any one place." (ln. 22)

This is, however, precisely what happens to Robert, who determines to remain on the family farm when Kate declares her love for him. Andrew, primarily because he also… [read more]

Trips to the Store. I Was Craving Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … trips to the store. I was craving pizza and nothing else was going to do. I thought Kroger would be better than Wal-Mart because it takes forever in Wal-Mart. It was late evening and the sky was dark. The lot was half full of cars and told myself it would only be a minute as I zipped up my jacket and skipped across the blacktop to the door. The store seemed too bright and smelled it of wet towels in a steamy bathroom.

I found myself behind a couple in their mid-30s in the frozen dinner section. I was making my way to the pizza section when I heard them arguing over prices. The woman stood facing the freezer isle flipping through a handful of coupons. She focused on finding a particular coupon while the man, almost a foot taller than her, mumbled something about the name brand being more economical than the store brand version.

"Mine's cheaper," she said.

"Give me the coupon," he said.

He moved closer to her and snatched the coupon from her hand.

"The store brand is cheaper," she started.

"Okay, show me how your brand is cheaper than this," he said, waving a box of Stouffer's lasagna in the air.

"Look, the store brand in 3.59 and yours is 4.18."

"Let's see," he said. "We have a coupon for 30 cents off and it's double coupon day. Mine with the coupon is 3.58. it's cheaper than yours, okay?" he snapped, tossing the box into the basket.

"You're wasting your time with those things because you don't know how to shop. You think because there is a coupon somewhere, it's got to be the better deal. it's not always that way." He said walking as she pushed the cart behind him.

His hair was shoulder-length and brown. He wore a pair of old blue jeans and a flannel shirt over a black t-shirt. She pushed the buggy behind him with her purse spilling open in the seat of the buggy. On top of her opened purse, lay a large accordion-style envelope stuffed with coupons. She was trying to walk, push the buggy and stick the unused coupon back into its respective place when she hit his heel.

He sucked air into his mouth quickly and turned with an angered look on hi s face.

"Can you watch where you're going? Jeeze, that hurt. Pay attention." He made a motion with his hand that was like a slap across her face but he never moved closer to her.

"Okay, sorry," she said putting both hands on the buggy.

Her hair was long and messy. She walked behind him with her head down…… [read more]

Marketing Plan of Export Brown Brother Red Wine to Canada Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  3 pages (910 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Marketing Plan of Export Brown Brother Red Wine to Canada

There are going to be two different Brown Brother red wines that will be exported to Canada to include: Cabernet Sauvignon and Patricia Cabernet Sauvignon. To determine the underlying profit margin from this kind of a venture requires: examining the budget and control for the project. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to the underlying profit margins of engaging in these kinds of transaction.


To determine the overall profit margin, means that we must examine the budget. This will be accomplished by using the basic formula list below.

Revenues = Selling Price x Units -- Cost Price x Units

When you apply this formula to the first wine that is going to be exported (Cabernet Sauvignon) the total revenues are $6,000.00. Below are the different calculations:

Revenues = $16.00 x 10,000 -- $10.00 x 10,000 = $6,000.00 ("Cabernet Sauvignon," 2011)

The overall revenues for the Patricia Cabernet Sauvignon are $38,000.00. Below are calculations for the profits on this product.

Revenues = $48.00 x 10,000 - $10.00 x 10,000 = $38,000.00 ("Patricia Cabernet Sauvignon," 2011)

The table highlights the revenues in comparison with the prices and costs for both wines.

Prices and Costs for Cabernet Sauvignon and Patricia Cabernet Sauvignon


Retail Price



C Sauvignon

$16.00 ($16,000.00)

$10.00 ($10,000.00)

$6.60 ($6,600.00)

P Cabernet Sauvignon

$48.00 (48,000.00)

$10.00 ($10,000.00)

$38.00 ($38,000.00)

When you analyze the table, the total profits of exporting the Cabernet Sauvignon to Canada would be: approximately $6,600.00. While the Patricia Cabernet Sauvignon, would produce revenues of: $38,000.00. The average retail price per unit was used, to determine what the product will sell for. While the costs for delivering the product was estimated. These different elements are important, because they can provide a conservative assessment of the overall costs associated with importing wine to Canada.


The sale of wine is dependent upon: weather conditions, fluctuating currencies and fuel costs. These three factors are important, because they will have a dramatic impact upon the underlying profit margins. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than a report that was published by FM Magazine, which found that the wholesale costs of wine have increase by 20% since 2003. This is because, these factors and a push from real estate developers, to purchase many wine farms (for their land value). Over the course of time, this has caused the price of wine to increase. As a result, we more than likely will see similar challenges, with any exports that are sent to Canada. (Stafford, 2010)

The use of intermediaries would play a major role in helping to lower cost of shipping the wine. This is because, they…… [read more]

Landscaping Proposal for Luxury Homeowner Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Landscaping Proposal

It is evident from the outward appearance and size of your home that style and making an impressive visual statement to visitors and passersby is a major consideration for you. To that end, I would suggest that you avail yourself of our services in landscaping and yard maintenance. Eyes are automatically drawn to the space leading up to the actual exterior of your home, and without creating a strong impression in your yard, any impression that your home itself makes is lost. In addition, you will also be able to more fully enjoy the enhanced view that our landscaping company can provide. Please take a few moments to read on and learn how our company can serve your needs.

Statement of Need

In addition to making your yard and home look better, effective landscaping can actually increase the value of your home and property (Mann 2008). Failing to address landscaping in higher-end homes and properties is essentially robbing yourself of equity, and spending a relatively small amount on quality, professional landscaping service gives you both a view that you and your neighbors can enjoy for years and an excellent return on your investment down the line.

Description of Project

What we do is simple: after consulting with you and determining the style and type of plant life that best suits your home and your tastes, we get to work. From simple pruning and ongoing maintenance to the installation of new plants and finely-crafted topiaries, we will do all the work needed to transform your yard into a vision of paradise however that might appear to you.

Materials and Personnel

All of our employees are highly skilled in various areas of landscaping, with years…… [read more]

Xeriscaped Garden Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Fallacies and Realities Concerning Xeriscaping


The region that I live in is not hospitable to xeriscaping.


Base Rate Fallacy

Persuasive Argument: In fact, most regions are suitable to xeriscaping. One of its great advantages is the adaptability of this model to all manner of climate.


It would require too much work to replace my existing garden.


Argument from Ignorance

Persuasive Argument:

Quite to the contrary, the investment of the initial efforts at replacing one's lawn with a xeriscaped garden would ultimately result in significantly less word demand for the gardener. A key to xeriscaped gardening is that the plants selected are often largely self-sustaining, requiring less care and attention.


My current gardening practices are not wasteful enough to justify the change.


Is-ought Problem

Persuasive Argument:

The assumption that gardening practices are not wasteful simply because they have been in practice for so long overlooks the opportunity to improve one's habits.


I do not know how to plant a garden using xeriscaping.


Fallacy of necessity

Persuasive Argument:

This suggests that one could not ultimately learn to use xeriscaping methods. Indeed, the development of this knowledge is within anybody's reach.


I don't believe that xeriscaping is an effective way to preserve water.


Suppressed correlative

Persuasive Argument:

Though there are other ways to save water, xeriscaping is a method which is proven effective as well.


I don't believe in conservation.


Negative Proof Fallacy

Persuasive Argument:

Conservation is a realistic need with economic, environmental and practical implications that are…… [read more]

Organizational Redesign -- Business Plan the Three-Step Business Plan

Business Plan  |  2 pages (514 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Organizational Redesign -- Business Plan

The Three-Step Process of Organizational Redesign

Generally, organizational change of the type required in this case study requires a three-step process consisting of workforce reduction, re-education and re-training, organizational redesign, and systemic redesign. Workforce reduction is required by virtue of the downsizing objective set forth by the strategic vision. For the retained employees, that aspect of organizational change will also involve employee re-education and retraining to effectuate the shift from specific operational responsibilities.

More specifically, that likely includes the change from processes related to pouring, molding, setting, and attaching hard candy to paper lollipop sticks to the operational responsibilities involved in storing, pouring, shaping, and setting chocolate, in addition to injecting liquor into the candy. However, in this particular situation, organizational redesign will be the most subtle component of the three-step process, primarily because the organizational structure and supervisory hierarchy that was in place during the lollipop-making phase of the organization will not necessarily have to change substantially to accommodate the shift to chocolate candy manufacturing.

Workforce Reduction, Re-education, and Retraining

Working with chocolate is significantly different from working with the liquid candy that is used to manufacture lollipops. The transition will probably require workforce re-education and retraining as necessary to learn how to preserve, manipulate, and actually form chocolate candies; that is significantly different from the specific tasks involved in working with liquid candy raw materials used to produce lollipops. To a substantial degree, workforce re-education and retraining is inseparable from systemic reorganization because of the interrelation between the systems and…… [read more]

Xeriscaping: A Great Way to Save Water Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,555 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Xeriscaping: A Great Way to Save Water and Money

While many Americans are more concerned about the increasing scarcity of oil supplies around the world, the harsh reality is that water is far more valuable than oil and it is becoming even scarcer as aquifers are depleted and the global human population continues to grow. Indeed, some indication of this… [read more]

New Fertilizer Product for Vegetables Identify Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … New Fertilizer Product for Vegetables

Identify the components

Fertilizer (New) (new fertilizer product)

Fertilizer (Std) (standard fertilizer product)

plots in community gardens across the city

Cucumber, green pepper, and broccoli plants

Gardening journal


What is the research question?

This research analyzes whether adding a new fertilizer product (Fertilizer (New)) to the soil will produce a higher total vegetable yield, in grams, when compared to: 1) vegetables grown in soil free of commercial fertilizers, or 2) vegetables grown in soil treated with the industry standard fertilizer product (Fertilizer (Std)).

What is your hypothesis?

Total vegetable yield will be significantly higher in soil treated with Fertilizer (New), compared to vegetable yields from soil treated with Fertilizer (Std) or from commercially untreated soil.

How would you select your subjects and assign them to a group?

Volunteers from 30 community gardens across the city will be recruited to plant vegetable gardens consisting of a fixed number of cucumber, green pepper, and broccoli plants. After recruitment of volunteers, each will be randomly assigned a soil treatment modality (Fertilizer (New), Fertilizer (Std), or no commercial fertilizer). Treatments will be equally assigned across groups (10 plots per treatment).

How would you conduct the experiment? Describe your procedures.

On day 1, each volunteer will receive an equal number of vegetable plants and the soil treatment assigned. Volunteers will then prepare their soil, plant the vegetables in their community plots, and be responsible for maintaining their gardens for a total of 20 weeks. Participants must keep a gardening journal outlining their observations and care schedule (watering, weeding, etc.), and submit weekly reports. When vegetables are ready to harvest, participants will weigh the vegetables right after…… [read more]

Cask of Amontillado Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Trust the Narrator -- Montresor and the Cask of Amontillado

The Cask of Amontillado, written by Edgar Alan Poe, first appeard in print in 1846. Like the Tell-Tale Heart, the story forces the reader to first ascribe to the narrator's point-of-view, giving hints here and there about the accuracy of such information. One of the most eerie aspects of the story, in fact, is the way that the vagueness of "setting" - of not knowing really where we are, but realizing the locations are central to the plot. In fact, much of the plotline remains vague (a nameless city, unspecified year, unspecified cause of anger). Soon, however, the reader comes to know that the narrator, Montresor, is in fact the murderer and that it is he who takes his revenge on Fortunato, over some unspecified insult.

Poe crafts the story carefully, almost like he is spinning a web to reel in the unsuspecting reader -- first through extemporaneous speech, almost as if he were giving a summation to the Court…. The "thousand injuries" that he Montresor suffered at the hands of Fortunato. Exaggerated prose, a tendency towards the dramatic, and the reader is already in the psychological grip of Montresor, which, in fact, is the point-of-view the narrator wishes us to undersand

THE thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could, but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge. You, who so well know the nature of my soul, will not suppose, however, that I gave utterance to a threat. At LENGTH I would be avenged; this was a point definitively settled -- but the very definitiveness with which it was resolved precluded the idea of risk. I must not only punish, but punish with impunity. A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser. It is equally unredressed when the avenger fails to make himself felt as such to him who has done the wrong (Poe, par. 1).

This cleverness, this premeditation, this silky slickness of finding Fortunato's weakness and exploiting it comes to the realization that Fortunato "prided himself on…… [read more]

Deportation at Breakfast by Larry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,092 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


I've worked in restaurants, and I know that there is simply no way that Javier could have run a diner, even a small one, with no other help. You simply cannot do it alone. It's not like a home kitchen. You have multiple orders (like the six diners who come in and shove tables together), you have dishes to do, you have prep work to do, and you have to cook and serve. Even a tiny diner with only a few tables requires at least a cook, server, and dishwasher, and most require many more staff people. The narrator says, "By eight-thirty, I had my hands full. With this kind of business, I couldn't understand why Javier hadn't hired a waitress. Maybe I'd take out a help-wanted ad in the paper tomorrow. I had never been in the restaurant business. There was no way I could run this place alone" (Fondation). If he'd never been in the restaurant business, he wouldn't just have his "hands full." He'd have no idea how to manage his time to get all the orders done at the same time, let alone serve them while trying to cook other orders. He was right, he couldn't run the place alone, and if it got really busy, he'd have a meltdown. I think it is clear that the author never worked in a restaurant. He portrays it as straightforward and even simple, but working in a restaurant is anything but simple. It is clear he doesn't really have a clue about what it entails, and he might be one of those distant customers that goes into a restaurant and really doesn't look at what's going on around him. He's removed from reality, and it shows in his story.

Finally, the narrator doesn't feel any remorse for Javier or his situation, and he doesn't even question whether he has the right to "take over" the business. He just plans to hire a waitress and continue on. That's not fair, and it's certainly not legal. He has a moment where he seems to have a conscience (I thought of telling them I didn't work there) (Fondation), but it doesn't last long. You just can't take over someone's business like that, it's not right, and the narrator just seems to take it in stride, which indicates he's not honest, he's not ethical, and he's not just.

In conclusion, this story is not based in reality, it is unreal and unethical. This is important because it sends an unreal and unethical message to the reader. The narrator makes it seem as if it is OK to walk into a business, watch the owner get carted away, and just step in and take over like it was your own. If you were Javier, how would you feel if you knew what happened? How would you feel about the narrator stepping in and keeping the money that was rightfully yours? What if you had a family that was depending on you for support?… [read more]

Bartender Observation Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (648 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Psychology -- Observations


This observational session took place on a Thursday evening at 7:30 PM in a local restaurant and bar and consisted of approximately one hour-long observation of a male customer approximately 30 years of age. The observer was seated at a table sufficiently close enough to provide an unobstructed view of the subject at all times. The subject was selected more or less randomly as he entered the establishment after the observer was already situated in a suitable vantage point. The weather was clear but relatively cold so it seemed slightly strange that the subject wore only a tight short-sleeved shirt; everybody else (including the observer) was dressed in warmer attire such as sweaters and sweatshirts. The subject appeared to be in good physical condition and it was relatively obvious that his choice of attire was purposely designed to display his muscular arms.


The subject entered the restaurant and stopped to look around before proceeding into the bar area. He seemed to look at every female seated at the bar briefly before taking a stool at the end of the bar. When the bartender approached him he ordered a drink and when the drink arrived he set up another napkin on the bar in front of the empty stool to his immediate left and he moved the barstool in front of that spot a little closer to him. He did not face the bar the way most of the other customers did; instead, he angled himself to his left so that his right foot was on the bar rail but his left foot rested on the footrest of the empty stool to his left.

The subject seemed to look at every person who entered the restaurant though the front door and also seemed to recheck the bar and the tables periodically as though he were expecting someone and was not entirely sure that the person he was expecting had not…… [read more]

Manual Picking of the 18th Century Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Manual Picking of the 18th Century

The Production and Picking of Hops in the 18th Century

The implementation of hops into the brewing process was a revolutionary step in modern beer making. Previous years had not included hops into recipes, and the result was a very different kind of ale that was much thicker and more like malt… [read more]

History of the World in Six Glasses Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,289 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


History Of the World in Six Glasses

For most of the people in countries where wine is a legal beverage today, wine means civilization and sophistication, along with the pleasure of celebrating, enjoying company of people or just of a good film or a book. Vineyards in wine producing countries are famous touristy places where the visitors are introduced to a few of the secrets of wine production, storage and most importantly, to its sophisticated numerous ways of consumption. In spite of the fact that wine is a mass produced beverage, it is definitely associated with sophistication and gourmet meals. It kept its status from ancient times, when beer was the one drink affordable to everyone, in Mesopotamia, for example, while wine was only available for a few chosen ones who could afford it.

Tom Standage continues the journey thorough the history of the human kind following the story of the wine making. As its more popular and older alcoholic counterpart, beer, wine was most probably discovered and not invented. The author first places the wine into a kingly setting in the company of the royal court of King Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria, I the year 870 BCE. In those times, wine was "at least ten times more expensive than beer" (a History of the World in Six Glasses, p. 45) because the wines necessary for its production could only be grown in certain parts of the kingdom, and the closest wine producing region was in the mountains of the Northeast Mesopotamia. Wine was thus an indication of wealth and the hosts that offered wine to their guests were showing their high praise for these. or, as in the case of the feast offered by kind Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria, it was an extreme display of wealth and power for thousands of guests coming form all corners of his kingdom.

The origins of wine, like those of beer, go as far back as the Paleolithic era. People stored wild grapes the same way must have probably stored the wild grains they in the planes. Once moisture got to the storage places and into the recipients, it was only a matter of who was the first to taste the liquid resulted this way. Historians and anthropologists usually agree that the origins of wine making are similar to those of beer making, in the dark layers of the stone age.

The conclusion of the historians and archeologists who have studied the origins of wine and wine making is that by the time reached the Neolithic age, "hundreds, if not thousands of years of experimentation in vine cultivation and winemaking technology were needed to achieve the level of sophistication displayed in the upland Neolithic settlements of the Ancient Near East" (Ancient Wine: the Search for the Origins of Viniculture, p. 16). Wine making, as beer making required the efforts of the wine producers at its earlier stages of development, compared to beer making that remained the same for thousands of years except for… [read more]

Coffee Mark Pendergast's Book "Uncommon Grounds Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,343 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



Mark Pendergast's book "Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How it Transformed Our World" is presenting a glorifying as well as a demonizing role coffee plaid ever since an Ethiopian goat herder discovered it, more than ten centuries ago. Ever since coffee entered the gate of human beverages, it slowly and irreversibly spread throughout the world. Its name was linked to revolutions, revolts and mostly everything related to human passions.

Pendergast sets the starting point of his history of the coffee, time 0, as the time when, according to the Ethiopian legend, the goats had eaten the leaves and fruits of the coffee plants for the first time. He travels in time back and forth and links this second most traded product in the world, after oil, coffee, to the main events in the history of mankind. It is both an easy and tremendously hard undertaking since coffee really accompanied revolutions, monarch's decisions to allow coffeehouses or to ban it for various political reasons, slavery, deforestation, depopulation, as well as globalization, the shrinkage of the rain forest and last but not least, a high level of inequity when comparing the hands that grow the coffee crops and harvest it with those that collect the money after having sold it and ultimately, those that bring it to the mouth every morning before going to work or during a coffee break in the developed countries.

Only those who love coffee and enjoy drinking the hot, aromatic and flavorful cup every day can completely understand this book. The addiction to a cup of good coffee adds an additional dimension to the book. The coffee flavor makes the book an enjoyable history and geography lesson, easier to digest than others.

Ever since it entered the diet of modern people, the coffee was equally blamed or raised at the rank of having beneficial effects on the health of those who drank it. Even nowadays, there are disputes regarding the balance between these effects and the quantity one should drink in order to experience only the positive sides of this dark brew. From time to time, newspapers are and magazines are presenting the public with the results of nre researches in the field of coffee mass consumption. Usually, scientists agree to some of the positive effects, while there is still a lot of debate over the rest of the effects coffee has on our nervous system as well as our heart, stomach and other essential organs in our body. Pendergast has seized a topic that is obviously dear to him. His travels and wide knowledge of the history of the world as well as the economic side that he introduced in tackling the subject made this book a complete and enjoyable reading for everyone.

I believe that coffee is only an instrument in our human quarrels, even when these are tending to extend to conflicts between men and women (as in England, when women were first excluded from the coffeehouses), monarchs and their people,… [read more]

Drug History of Coumadin Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (776 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Warfarin sodium, better known by its brand name Coumadin, is an anti-coagulant used to prevent heart attacks, blood clots, and strokes in patients (Drugs.com 2009). Though potential side effects and interactions with many other drugs constitute a definite risk to patients taking Coumadin, it is often the safest method of preventing these conditions from forming (Bristol-Myers Squibb Company 2008). Coumadin can also be used to treat certain other conditions related to the blood and heart, including atrial fibrillation and deep vein thrombosis, a severe and especially prevalent type of blood clot in many elderly patients (BMSC 2008). Coumadin stops the synthesis of several clotting factors, meaning that the substances simply don't exist in the body once the drugs have taken effect.

Origin and History

Warfarin was first isolated in nature after 1921 saw heavy cattle losses among some farmers and herders due to internal bleeding. Cattle normally suffer minor internal cuts and abrasions from the roughage they eat, but these typically heal quickly. This year, however, many farmers found that these cuts weren't healing and their cattle were bleeding to death. Karl Paul Link was sent with funding by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Fund (WARF) to look into the matter, and he discovered a compound -- which he named warfarin -- had formed on bundles of hay in the relatively high heat of the previous summer that acted as a powerful anti-coagulant (Newcomer 2003). The drugged gained popularity when used to treat President Dwight D. Eisenhower while he was in office.


Warfarin is a naturally occurring substance under certain conditions. Coumarin, the chemical compound that gives hay and certain other grasses their distinctive smell, form double molecules called dicoumarin or warfarin when exposed to high levels of heat and other agents (Newcomer 2003). Dicoumarin can be easily produced in a laboratory from natural coumarin, and this was used to make a cheap and effective rat poison in the 1940s (Newcomer 2003). The impurities that this process introduced made it unsafe as a medicine, however, and new techniques were developed to synthesize a crystalline form of warfarin sodium, which in proper doses is both very safe and highly effective (Newcomer 2003; BMSC 2008).

Physical and Chemical Properties

Warfarin forms crystals that are colorless and are essentially insoluble in water but ar soluble in alcohols and other organic…… [read more]

Love Women Like to Be Surprised Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (497 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Love

Women like to be surprised but surprises do not have to be expensive. One good surprise is to just drive away from everything appearing as if you do not have any plans. This spontaneous move is both adventurous and exciting. But essential to this is to have the entire getaway to be planned. It will assure that everything goes on smoothly as you would want it to be. At the same time, being spontaneous allows room for you to relax and not to worry if some things do not go on as planned.

The best way to enjoy your visit to Lake Havasu is by engaging in fun activities on the water. A good fun activity on water is cruising. Sight-seeing will provide a good opportunity for you to enjoy the picturesque beauty of the lake as well as the other sceneries. This will also provide a good opportunity for you to share each other's company, getting to know each other more while sharing the experience of enjoying the scenic beauty of nature. Many people have said that Lake Havasu has one of the most beautiful sunsets in Arizona. Sunset Charter & Tour Company (928) [HIDDEN] offers a tour during sunset which they call the Sunset Experience. It would fun to join this tour since they also keep each tour to a maximum of six people to ensure an intimate experience among tourists. Watching the sunset together is considered by many as a very romantic…… [read more]

Restaurant Smoking Policy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (889 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Smoking Bans in Restaurants

Second-hand tobacco smoke is a divisive social issue between those who maintain that the public has a right not be subjected to the harms of second-hand smoke in public areas and those who oppose any imposition on their right to smoke except on private property. The main thrust of the argument for smoking bans in this vocational environment is that smoking in the restaurant workplace subjects non-smokers to some of the medical and other physiological consequences of smoking without their consent. The counterargument is that non-smokers have the option of working or not working (and of patronizing or not patronizing) any business establishment they want to but they have no right to impose their sensibilities on other people.


There are several justifications for smoking bans in restaurants (and other public areas). Second-hand tobacco smoke presents some of the very same risks and consequences as first-hand tobacco smoke (Nizza, 2008). According to medical experts

(Repace, 2004), regular exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for respiratory, cardiac, and circulatory disorders in non-smokers, although not at the same rate as smokers themselves.

In their view, smoking at work endangers the lives of non-smokers without their consent. In fact, even beyond any issues of human health, smoking damages a wide range of organic and inorganic materials, such as in the home and in vehicles. As a result, smoking bans have been introduced by private realty companies and homeowners' associations (O'Neill & Lite, 2008).

Restaurants frequently maintain strict rules about both employee and customer attire, purely for their desired image or "ambience," yet there are no complaints from workers who oppose the business's right to impose rules of attire. Neither private restaurants nor public authorities have any desire to discriminate against smokers for being smokers any more than they discriminate against loud belchers or nudists. On the other hand they have at least as much justification for prohibiting smoking on premises as they do to require ties and to prohibit loud belching and nudism in their establishment.


There is no conclusive proof that second-hand smoke is a threat to non-smokers in the workplace. Even if it is, the rights of the public should not be determined by the sensibilities and fears of individuals. Everyone has a right to prohibit smoking on his or her private property and nobody is obligated to work or to eat anywhere that allows smoking.

At the very least, some restaurant owners who oppose anti-smoking legislation believe that the decision to allow or prohibit smoking in restaurants should be reserved to owners and managers of private businesses (Nizza, 2008). Just as workers and patrons have the choice to work…… [read more]

Agricultural Revolution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (590 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Agricultural Rev

Europe was still largely feudalistic society before the 18th century, and small-scale farm production remained the norm. Before the agricultural revolution that took place in the 18th century, Northern European farmers "produced just enough surplus to purchase manufactured goods from the local town, so that town and countryside were in a symbiotic relationship," (Rosner & Theibault 307). However, several social, political, and economic factors created a push toward greater farming surpluses. Urbanization was becoming a budding trend. Farmers were looking to increase land yields to provide for the shifting economy. A demand for "more exotic produce" in urban centers also changed the ways farmers were using their land by the end of the 17th century (Rosner & Theibault 307). The feudal system was also showing signs of wear, and the political revolutions of the 18th century motivated major changes in the concept of labor and especially farm labor. A population explosion, combined with increasing poverty among peasant farmers, was creating social unrest and the desire to emigrate to the New World as well (Whited 92). The 18th century agricultural revolution affected mainly Northern Europe, altering the quantity of crop growth, the methods used to produce crops, and the modes of distribution.

Whited notes that the agricultural revolution "was a slow and piecemeal fight against the odds," (91). Farmers did not already have at their disposal the knowledge of new farming practices that would increase yields. In England, changes in land use meant increasing numbers of farm enclosures increased productivity and increasing the size and scale of farms in general (Rosner & Theibault 308). As a result, many peasant farmers began abandoning their fields to seek work either in urban centers in Europe or in the New World (Whited 92).

Throughout northern Europe, crop…… [read more]

Excavation Methods Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,041 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Reporting

excavations at ferriter'S COVE (1983-1995)

The objective of this work is to summarize and critique the sampling strategies/excavation methods and finds analyses of the publication entitled: "Excavations at Ferriter's Cove, 1983-95" (Dublin, Wordwell)

"Excavations at Ferriter's Cove, 1983-95: last foragers, first farmers in the Dingle Peninsula" reports excavations of what is likely to be "the westernmost prehistoric settlement in Europe: the site of Ferriter's Cove, Cork, Ireland." (Marek, 2002)

The excavations took place between 1983 and 1995 under the skilled directorial control of Peter Woodman and his colleagues. The Ferriter's Cove location is termed to be a "…landmark in archaeological research in southwest Ireland, and, in its more synthetic chapters, it is a valuable contribution to two themes of general interest: the behavioral interpretation of human activities from archaeological residues, and the debate about the character of the Irish Mesolithic and its contribution to the Neolithic in Ireland." (Marek, 2002)

I. Archaeological Finds

According to Woodman and his colleagues in the notes section of the introduction reporting the excavations, knowledge had been gained that held there was jot a stone age settlement in the greatest part of Cork and Kerry…" however, the excavations at Ferriter's Cove had therefore extended evidence for human settlement in this part of Ireland." (Woodman and Anderson, in Marek, 2002)

Forming the matrix of the site were "dunes and shell-middens on a rocky platform extending over 40 m between the shore and cliff edge, probably a more extensive occupation of the coastal habitat." (Woodman and Anderson, Woodman and Anderson, in Marek, 2002) Found in the excavations were:

(1) Animal bones;

(2) Sorted shell fragments;

(3) Human remains;

(4) Chipped and polished stone tools; and (5) Burned hazelnuts. (Woodman and Anderson, in Marek, 2002)

All of these were stated to be found in close proximity to what apparently was the center of a "…wide range of features mainly associated with burning and tool reduction." (Woodman and Anderson, in Marek, 2002)

II. Activities Include Sorting

It is related that Ferriter's Cove "emerges as a palimpsest of discrete activities carried out during limited phases of occupation, during which inshore resources were utilized, mostly in late summer and autumn…" and that the features these activities produced at Ferriter's Cove include shell dumps (sorted by species according to:

(1) Mussels,

(2) Cockles,

(3) Limpets,

(4) dog-whelks, and (5) periwinkles) as well as deposits of animal bone, remains of fish and hazelnut shells, roasting pits and burnt platforms of fire-cracked rock along with hearth remains and less formal lenses of burning (firespots), shallow pits and post holes suggesting drying racks or similar structures, rather than dwelling remains." (Woodman and Anderson, in Marek, 2002)

Woodman and Anderson relate that the inhabitants of Ferriter's Cove by all appearances were individuals that were "…a tidy and domesticated folks, judged by the categorical sorting of things evidenced at the site." The question remains as to whether "these episodes together represent intentional, structured deposition, following some cognitive rules of behavior, reflecting perhaps beliefs about… [read more]

Timothy Egan the Worst Hard Time Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,528 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Worst Hard Times

Those who were not blow away by the Dust Bowl: The Worst Hard Times by Timothy Egan

Timothy Egan's book the Worst Hard Times is a chronicle of the American Dust Bowl, when drought combined over-farming and other poor agricultural practices lead to the complete depletion of the soil of the American West. The result… [read more]

Risk: Melathion I Have Been Approached Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (825 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Risk: Melathion

I have been approached by the City Council of Genericville to perform a risk assessment for the insecticide, Malathion. The reason for the assessment is the proposed use of the insecticide for the purpose of controlling the mosquito population on the banks of the river through the town. The reason for the proposal is that the mosquitoes tend to be carriers of the often deadly West Nile Virus (WNV), and that this could pose a danger to the town's tourist industry. There has been some controversy surrounding the decision, as opponents believe that the risks inherent in the implementation of an insecticide scheme for the river area. The insecticide would be administered by aerial spraying and ground application. Opponents believe that the potential risk to the environment is too high, and that funding should rather be applied towards a program for minimizing exposure to WNV.

The greatest concern associated with the insecticide is its long-term effect upon the environment. Proponents on the other hand cite that the pesticide holds no danger to either human beings or the environment, according to extensive studies conducted. The concerns involved are consolidated into a risk assessment, with four phases, to be discussed below. These phases include Hazard Identification, Dose-Response, Exposure, and Risk Characterization. These phases are considered in terms of both proposals: to implement the pesticide, or to implement an education program to mitigate and prevent the risk of WNV.

Specifically, each phase of the risk assessment will contain a section on implementing the pesticide, and one on not implementing it. The reason for this is that both options include hazards and implications both for the inhabitants of Genericville, and the tourists who choose it as a destination.

II. Risk Assessment

a. Hazard Identification

Malathion is toxic immediately after application. For this reason, human exposure to residues should be limited until at least a week after application. It should also be ensured that there is no human contact during application.

In terms of the education program, there is a high number of WNV cases for the area. This affects the tourism industry negatively. For this reason, it is unlikely that tourists would respond to a prevention program, especially as the mosquito population is so large and generally are not controlled.

An education program is also proposed for the implementation of the pesticide application. Proponents argue that control is much more easily exercised in chemical exposure than for mosquitoes.

b. Dose-Response.

When comparing…… [read more]

Roasting Coffee Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,285 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Roasting Coffee

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the entire world. Connoisseurs of coffee are constantly looking for ways to improve the taste of the coffee and enjoy coffee in as fresh a form as possible. To this end many have started to roast their own coffee beans in the comfort of their homes. The purpose of… [read more]

Market for Beef Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (530 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Market for Beef

This report analyzes what happens in the market for beef, chicken and leather when a new health report reveals that eating beef is just as healthy as eating chicken. It considers economic principles of short-term supply and demand dynamics which determine price and quantity sold in the market as well as how substitution and complement-in-production affect the supply and demand relationship.

If beef is just as healthy as eating chicken, consumers will demand more beef (assuming they had curtailed their demand because they had previously believed the product was bad for them). This will cause a shift in the demand curve for beef to the right along with a corresponding increase in price and quantity Q. sold of the product. The quantity supplied at each price is the same as before the demand shift because, unlike demand, supply is a factor of time.

In the short run, suppliers cannot always react to a change in demand or price. For instance, it might take cattle ranchers some time to adjust their inventory of cattle.

Beef is a substitute good for chicken, meaning beef can be consumed in place of chicken to meet dietary requirements for protein. This assumes that beef can be used to satisfy the same needs of consumers as chicken, i.e. that consumers will like to eat beef in place of chicken now that they believe it is safe to do so. This substitution of beef for chicken will cause a shift in the demand for chicken to the left along with a corresponding decrease in price and quantity Q. sold…… [read more]

Dust Bowl Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (691 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Dust Bowl

Compare and contrast the Dust Bowl of the 1930s in the U.S.A. with the similar events that took place in Palliser's Triangle, located near Alberta, Canada during the 1930s.

The causes of the 'Dust Bowl' phenomenon of the 1930s in America had roots that stretched far beyond the immediate period of extreme drought that predated this period of American history. People had settled the Great Plains over the course of the 19th century during an unusually wet stretch of weather for the area. This meant that the vast majority of the farmers did not truly understand the nature of climate on which their livelihood depended. The 19th century farmers often experienced immediate and unusual success with their crops. They did not grow accustomed to using farming techniques truly suited to the land or the climate. "Farmers had also switched from the lister to the one way disc plow. The one way disc plow was more efficient, but it also left the soil more susceptible to wind erosion," the most obvious and visually dramatic symptom of the drought, hence the appellation "dust bowl" ("Causes," The Dust Bowl Outline, 2003).

Capitalist greed along with ignorance and a false sense of confidence of how to farm the land contributed to the Dust Bowl, according to Donald Worster. There was a wheat boom during World War I but this was followed by a sharp drop in prices in the 1920s. Farmers developed a near "compulsion" to "plough and plant every available parcel of the ground," first to make a profit, and then to sustain the profits they had made during the boom (Worster 1975). The increasing expense of farming the plains drove residents to abandon any pretence of crop rotation, and to farm every bit of land in sight. The balance between human and nature, personified for Worster by the Native American tribal attitude to the land, (he says they had a "much greater sense of husbandry than either the modern American business farmer or his frontier predecessor") had been destroyed (Worster 199).

In contrast to the…… [read more]

Pricing Detail Each Step Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Detail each step of the pricing process along with any external pricing influences you feel are present.

Organizing the external pricing influences into a framework needs to begin with an analysis of the key factors that influence pricing decisions, the behavior of pricing over time for product lines, the elasticity of pricing including the definition of substitute products, and most critically, an analysis of fixed and variable costs for the proposed products. In the case of defining a price point for a decaffeinated beverage from Pepsi targeted at college-educated males and females age 25-40 in the Detroit metro area, who are professionally employed, and describe their lifestyles as busy or hectic, the following pricing process is used.

First, as the market is only 250,000 units (it is assumed this is yearly demand for the beverage) and the fixed costs are relatively high ($900K or 60% of the $1.5M total costs for the product), quickly translates into setting a pricing goal of a premium-oriented beverage. As a typical 20 oz container of Caffeine-Free Diet Coke is just $1.50, it is clear that for the proposed drink to be successful, it will need to have a significantly different and higher-end position in the market relative to Pepsi's foremost competitor's offering in the mainstream decaffeinated market. As a result of these preliminary figures, it's clear that the demographics and specifically the spending levels of the target market for the proposed beverage is OK with spending at least $3.85 per 20 oz. container, as this is the price that will bring break-even financial returns on a volume of 250,000 units given the fixed and variable costs associated with the proposed beverage. As college-educated professionals in this age group are more pressed for time (as self-described in the problem example)…… [read more]

Wood Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Wood Industry: Why Government Investment Is Required

Roy Thompson's essay "Timber" seems full of foresight -- although it is clearly written during a much earlier period of American environmental history. It is hard to imagine someone today speaking of America's "inexhaustible virgin forests" (156). Thompson highlights the problem of industry farming of a resource that is very difficult to replace. Furthermore, America, because of the myth of the American wilderness, is treating its woodlands as if they were infinitely renewable and has not practiced careful tree farming practices. Forestry research has long been extant in Europe because of the much narrower territorial sprawl of Continental nations. But if America does not act soon, improvements in forestry conservation might come too late. Even our plastics and other substitute goods are derived from wood. Thompson stresses that a strong American forestry industry is critical to the nation's national defense, to providing adequate and affordable products (particularly shelters) for all…… [read more]

Plant Genus Hosta Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,566 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … regional ornamental perennial plants. Specifically it will discuss the Hostas, a group of ornamental shade plants with interesting leaf color and patterns. Hostas are an extremely popular perennial plant in many areas of the country. They are easy to grow, many have spectacular leaf colors and patterns, and they will grow in shadier parts of the garden. These… [read more]

Global Brewery Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,275 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Global brewing industry has taken a significant hit over the last 20 years as a result of the entrance of new players in the field. Product diversification, with new specialty microbrews becoming exceedingly popular has taken some previously loyal buyers from the mass market that held a tight hold on sales for many years. (Goldberg, 2000, p.1) ("Sultan of Suds' Stock," 2005, p. D6)

The major story in American brewing from 1933 into the early 1980s was the ever-decreasing number of brewers, and the ever-increasing size of the giants who remained. In 1911, the three largest brewers produced 7 per cent of the country's beer; in 1914 this had increased to 14 per cent; in 1971 they held a 52.7 per cent market share. By 1978 the top eleven companies sold 91 per cent of the beer. By 1996 Anheuser-Busch had so surpassed all rivals that it looked uncatchable for the foreseeable future and destined to remain the world's largest brewer...In the mid-1980s a trend developed which is revolutionary and has dominated the consciousness of the public for a decade or more.... This is the trend to very small (micro) breweries and very small breweries that retail the beer on the premises (brew pubs). (Ronnenberg, 1998, p. 202-209)

(Ronnenberg, 1998, p. 202) the answer for many was to further invest in global markets, some held by traditional regional small firms or industry giants and some new to the beer production game. (Ali, 2004, p.40) Internationally, the leaders are now in a global competition to stay in the lead, with mergers and market share dominance the goal of all involved. (Ali, 2004, p.40) ("International Brewing Giants Prepare," 2006, p. 9)the industry will be analyzed utilizing Porter's five forces model to determine the present state of the market and to provide a view of the potential growth of the future, recognized industry leaders being InBev, Anheuser-Busch, SAB-Miller and Heineken.

Threat of New Entrants:

The global beer market is a numbers game with relatively high cost production, ease of only small market players to enter the market. In the domestic beer market the threat of small companies entering the game is greater as the investment in production is intense for large scale producers such as the four leaders mentioned above. For this reason the four leaders have been very active in seeking to partner with and acquire small international markets, (Ali, 2004, p.40) ("International Brewing Giants Prepare," 2006, p. 9) with a great deal of the activity taking place in the African countries, as well as Australia. ("International Brewing Giants Prepare," 2006, p. 9) Though propriety is of high value in the global brewing market, as individual beers have specified and long standing formulas with keeps newcomers out, as beer tastes become more refined and the market grows internationally smaller firms are in high demand, this has created a need for the giants to diversify and create signature formulas, that are guised to meet the micro-brew demand. ("Bank Shares Surge amid," 2006, p.… [read more]

Caesar Chavez Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,382 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … life of Cesar Chavez. The writer explores the life and accomplishments of Chavez and illuminates what he did for the Hispanic workers in America. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

The Story of Cesar Chavez

Cesar Chavez was one of the most important people in American history when it came to the Hispanic migrant farm worker (United Farm Workers). He spent his adult life organizing and teaching the masses how to force farm employers to provide the workers with fair pay and benefits (United Farm Workers). He began his life in 1927 when he was born just outside of Yuma, Arizona (United Farm Workers). His parents named him after his grandfather (United Farm Workers). When he was still a small boy he began to learn about racial injustice. He and his parents lived in a small adobe home and his father worked hard on the farm that it was attached to. His father made a deal with the landowner that would allow Chavez to own the land and the home they lived in (United Farm Workers). If Chavez cleared 80 acres of land that the house sat on, the landowner agreed to deed to him 40 of the acres and the house itself. After Chavez completed his part of the deal the landowner backed out and effectively swindled Chavez out of the house (United Farm Workers). Chavez panicked and took advice from someone to take out a loan to buy the house and land and when he could not pay the interest on the loan the attorney who lent him the money took the house back, sold it to the original owner and Chavez was once again swindled out of the house he had rightfully earned. Little Cesar never forgot the defeat and despair the double cross caused his parents and he kept the story with him throughout his life, vowing to make changes in the way migrant farm workers were treated in the United States (United Farm Workers).

As he was growing up Cesar traveled with his family to various farm areas. He did not enjoy attending school, in part because of the language barrier he encountered daily. During that time in history Spanish was forbidden to be spoken in school and his teachers spoke only English which created a situation for Cesar that made it almost impossible to keep up with studies (United Farm Workers).

He later told a story that a teacher hit him in the knuckles with a ruler for speaking Spanish at school one day (United Farm Workers).

He and his brother attended almost 40 schools during their educational years. Each school brought with it new racist comments and each school had a new set of "Whites only" signs above water fountains and restrooms (United Farm Workers).

He felt that education had nothing to do with his farm worker/migrant way of life. In 1942 he graduated from the eighth grade (United Farm Workers)."

His father was in an accident when… [read more]

Beer Wine and Fermentation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Wine and Fermentation

In pre-industrial cultures, dating back to very ancient times and before the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, the making of wine was far more practical than mere grape juice, simply because grape juice spoiled by itself if left in the open or unrefrigerated. Thus, it was easier to keep and store wine because after it was made, it did not spoil as much as compared to grape juice. According to the website "The History of Wine," grape fruit, "with its concentrated sugars and ample juice, has an inherent tendency to ferment" by itself. This process of fermentation which dates back to the ancient Babylonians in Mesopotamia some 4,000 years ago, creates alcohol when "the grapes are ripe and the juice released comes into contact with yeast" which can form from any number of foodstuffs. Thus, if grape juice itself is placed in some form of open container, "wine will make itself" ("History of Wine," Internet). This is why grape juice was not kept for consumption.

As it applies to wine, fermentation is the process which converts sugar to ethanol (i.e., ethanol alcohol) and carbon dioxide effected by the anaerobic, oxygen-free metabolism of yeast. One of the main reasons why grape juice was not kept or made before the Industrial Revolution was that it tended to spoil rather rapidly. But by the middle of the 19th century, the nature of fermentation began to be clearly understood, due in part to the experiments of French scientist Louis Pasteur who determined that ferments and their agents yeast and bacteria as primarily responsible for alcoholic fermentation. Chemically speaking, these agents act through their internal enzymes which functioning as catalysts, govern and control the series of reactions involved in the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

The process of fermentation is quite complex and can be broken down into several important steps. It should be pointed out that this process can only be accomplished by a trained fermentation/brewing specialist, at least if the resulting product is intended to be high-quality wine. First, the chemist must attach phosphate groups to the sugars. Next, a series of steps are done which the six-carbon sugar is split into three carbon pieces, one of which is then rearranged into the structure of the other. After some more rearrangements, this three carbon molecule loses its terminal carboxylic carbon atom in the form of carbon dioxide gas. The residual is the two carbon compound known as acetaldehyde which turns into alcohol if oxygen is lacking or into a multi-step series of chemical reactions that yield energy, water and more carbon dioxide, but only if generous amounts of oxygen are present.

Of course, the main organism in fermentation is yeast which can only do its chemical job if generous quantities of oxygen are available. However, it is important that…… [read more]

Global Wine Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,202 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Robert Mondavi and the Wine Industry

Since 1966, Robert Mondavi established itself as one of the leading wine producers of the Napa Valley. Founder Robert Mondavi recently relinquished his post as Chairman of the Baord, and was succeeded by his son Michael. Michael's brother Tim remains chief winemaker and Vice Chairman. The Mondavi family retains 50% of the company's shares and the majority voting rights (Roberto p. 6). Known for their innovation and quality as well as their business acumen, Robert Mondavi has been a consistent industry leader in the production of premium wines. The Mondavi firm has been publicly traded since 1993. Since FY1994, Mondavi's earnings per share have grown at a compound annual growth rate of 28% (Roberto p. 1). Mondavi's firm market value totals about $600 million.

However, Robert Mondavi faces still competition from three main sources. Direct rival firms in California who produce premium wines such as Kendall-Jackson and Southcorp pose an immediate threat. Similarly, large-volume producers that focus on low-end jugs like E&J Gallo have begun to tap the premium wine market, and global alcoholic beverage corporations like the Foster's Group are also getting in on the wine crazy by acquiring or consolidating with wineries around the world that make high-end products. CEO Greg Evans, a 20-year employee of Mondavi and the first non-family member to hold that position, helped the firm reassess its position in light of increased competition and market-related setbacks. As Mondavi has invested considerably over the years in expanding its product line and revamping its production facilities, the future plans of the firm do not include further acquisitions but rather an "organic growth of its premier brands," (Roberto p. 16).

Historically, founder Robert Mondavi dedicated himself to increasing wine awareness in the United States. Through concerted efforts at wine appreciation, Mondavi helped both deliver a message he personally believed in and stimulate sales of his products. Mondavi purchased his first vineyard in 1943 and would soon become one of the world's leading producers. The Woodbridge line, launched in the 1970s, would put Mondavi on the map. Its range of wines in the popular premium price category became fast best-sellers and helped Mondavi expand his product line of fine wines.

The global wine industry generally divides its products into five market segments. Jug or commodity wines are the cheapest and generally poorest quality, being produced from second and third pressings. Jug wine usually sells for less than $3 per bottle. Sales of commodity/jug wines have consistently declined at a rate of about 3% per year over the past decade, whereas overall sales of wine in the premium categories have grown between 8 and 10% per year (Roberto p. 2). In 2001, jug wines accounted for 38% of case sales but only 13% of total retail sales. Robert Mondavi ignores the commodity market segment, instead focusing on the range of premium wines. Wines in the popular premium segment sell for between $3 and $7 per bottle; super premiums sell for $7-$14 per bottle;… [read more]

Market Screening for Final Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,493 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Market Screening for Final

Exporting Chocolate to China

The company I own produces chocolate and chocolate derivatives. We currently operate in America, but we wish to extend our business to a global level. With the view of going global, we are thinking of exporting to the Chinese market. Throughout the report, we are going to depict each aspect related to… [read more]

Fertilizing the Vegetable Garden Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



It was hypothesized that a liquid fertilizer would make the Brassica rapa plant grow the tallest, the powder fertilizer would help create the second tallest plants, and the pellet fertilizer the shortest in all the experimental groups. This hypothesis is based on the different ways each type of fertilizer are applied and then absorbed by the plants and their soil. Liquid fertilizers were believed to be the most effective in causing rapid growth because "liquid fertilizers may also be applied to plant foliage where the nutrients are absorbed directly through the leaf surface. This foliar feeding provides nutrients to the plant very quickly," (Relf, McDaniel & Donohue, 2009).

To enhance the validity of the research, a control group of Brassica rapa receiving no fertilizer treatment was also included. It was hypothesized that the control group would be the shortest plants of all the groups because they did not receive any aid in the form of fertilizer. Fertilizers are made from various plant, animal, or mineral materials that are metabolized by the soil and plants and which promote growth ("Fertilizing Your Organic Garden," n.d.).

The hypothesis that the fertilizers would promote growth at all was proven false. In fact, the hypothesis that liquid fertilizer would promote the fastest growth, followed by powder and then pellet, was eliminated entirely. Of all the fertilizer conditions, the control group of plants demonstrated the most growth after the 64-hour time period. In fact, the control group plants grew about twice as much as the group receiving the pellet fertilizer or the powder fertilizer. Moreover, the plants receiving the liquid fertilizer exhibited zero growth: the only group to do so. This not only disproves the hypothesis, but completely reverses the expected results.

There are several possible reasons for the unexpected results. First, the fertilizers differed from each other not just in terms of their form as liquid, pellet, or powder. The fertilizers may…… [read more]

Integration of Organic and Inorganic Sources Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (461 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … integration of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients and their method of application," (Abraham & Theuna, 2010, p. 217).

The hypotheses were tested by conducting a field experiment during the rainy season at the Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad, U.P., India. Two levels of farmyard manure, four levels of fertilizers, and two methods of application were tested in a split-plot design. The experiment was carried out on specific species of groundnut: namely Chitra.

Data was analyzed by first recording growth attributes at various stages. Yield attributes and overall yield were recorded at time of harvest (Abraham & Theuna, 2010, p. 217). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and critical difference methods were used for the statistical analyses.

The major conclusions of the study were as follows. First, "the dry weight of plant, number of branches per plant and number of pegs per plant were significantly influenced by method of application," (Abraham & Theuna, 2010, p. 217). Second, root zone application of fertilizers was more effective than the "broadcasting" of nutrients (Abraham & Theuna, 2010, p. 217). Third, "75% RDF recoded significant increase in all the growth attributes as compared to 25% and 50% RDF and was at par with 100% RDF," (Abraham & Theuna, 2010, p. 217).

6. The original hypotheses were exploratory in nature and therefore neither proven nor disproven.

7. Abraham, T. & Theuna, O.V.S. (2010). Influence of…… [read more]

Comparison of Riesling Grape Varietal Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,294 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15



A Drink for All Ages

There are three kinds of wine, those that are most rewarding when drunk in their infancy and those are suitable to be drunk after they have aged, and those that can be drunk either young or old. Riesling is one of these latter: Usually drunk young, it does improve (and change) with age. While… [read more]

Rainbow by D. H. Lawrence Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Rainbow by DH Lawrence

Versus Tradition

One of the central themes found in DH Lawrence's novel The Rainbow is the focus upon agricultural life and its varying relationship with the many characters of the three generations of the Brangwen family which this book depicts. This theme is represented most frequently by the numerous references to the farm which… [read more]

MS Visio or Process Flow Table Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (588 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Murphy's Bagel Shops (MBS). First, we will break down the manufacturing process into its component steps. Then we will define which of the steps added value in the process, in particular, steps that encourage more customer purchases and promote efficiency and reduce product waste. All of these add value by increasing stock holder share through these increased profits.

The Process Work Flow

MBS stores are proved with support from a Central Bakery. Raw materials are then delivered to the MBS central bakery where they are physically inspected. They are then stored in the raw materials warehouse which is located on the central bakery second floor. Ingredients are then measured into batch quantities on the second floor before they are placed into the blender and mixed for one hour. Dough is then extruded and placed in the shipping racks where they are placed fifty yard away in the shipping area on the second floor. The shipping department then rearranges the number in each batch to make sure that it matches each shop's order. There is then segregation of the orders by the delivery department to make sure that the incoming trucks are accurately and quickly loaded within twenty minutes.

Then, the bagels are transported as the dough simultaneously rises. The MBS crew at each store then unloads each shipping racks where any necessary toppings are placed upon the bagels. These bagel are then placed into the ovens or in on site storage. Forty minutes later after the baking is done, the rays of bagels are then taken out of the ovens and placed in the bagel cooling areas. Once the bagels are cooled, they are then put into the retail areas for display on site at each of the MBS storefronts.

Where Value…… [read more]

Beer War Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (620 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Beer War

A series of conflicts have recently emerged as a consequence of the fact that many small breweries in the U.S. have trouble keeping their businesses as long as large beer makers devise competitive strategies in order to discourage entrepreneurs. Through watching Beer Wars, viewers are likely to understand what keeps large companies in the lead. Their aggressive tactics virtually make it impossible for small breweries to make profits while operating in accordance with sets of legislations imposed by influential bodies in the industry. Politicians are typically inclined to support large beer companies because they are often provided with large donations from these respective firms. Moreover, large breweries employ aggressive tactics when they come across small breweries that they consider to be a threat.

While people are traditionally accustomed to thinking about horse drawn beer carriages when they are presented with the logo of a notable beer producer in the U.S., conditions are shown in a whole new light in Beer Wars. The general purpose of this film is to present people with the beer environment in the U.S. And with the fact that large corporations are focused on preventing small breweries from achieving success. This happens in order to keep share-holders happy and in order to keep big names in the industry.

Being a good brewer is not enough to keep someone in this industry, considering that names like Anheuser Busch, Coors, and Miller control who sells what type of beer and as they are even in charge of the location where their beers are displayed in stores. The masses are accustomed to believing that they are actually in control of what they buy, but the truth is that many individuals have trouble distinguishing between their presumably favorite type of beer and another beer. This practically means that as long as they do not have access to a…… [read more]

Children's Literature Chris Van Allsburg Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (1,065 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Mary Lyn Ray's Basket Moon is a coming of age story set in the backwoods where a hillbilly boy learns that his life in the woods is a good one after all. It is narrated by the boy, who lives with his father and mother in the backwoods. His father is a basket-maker and once a month travels into town to sell baskets. After nagging his father for more than a year, the boy is allowed to accompany his father into town where the town folk ridicule them as "hillbillies." For the first time the boy realizes that his family is poor and is ashamed. After suffering a period of depression about his condition, the boy comes to realize that being a hillbilly, living in the woods, and being a basket maker is a fine thing to do with one's life. Being in nature, being part of something bigger that oneself, and living in harmony with nature is more important than the things that those in town feel are important. The main conflict is within the boy and his inability to accept his position in life; he feels that being a hillbilly is bad, and those in town are better. This conflict rages for some time until he has a long talk with another hillbilly basket maker and learns that their life is actually very good. The boy finally comes to accept his family's place in the world.

The Stranger

Tuff Fluff

Basket Moon


Mysterious stranger visits family farm, mystical things happen

Detective story about the case of a stuffed animal's missing brain/stuffing

Boy learns that his family is poor in money but wealthy in the things that matter


Events happen over the course of a week

Detective story, follows clues, step-by-step

Events happen over the course of a year and a half


Conflict is when stranger discovers that he is the cause of the stagnation of nature

Conflict in story is between stuffing filled and bean filled animals

Conflict is internal in boy, can he accept that his family is as good as the towns folks


What will stranger do, stay or leave

Where is the missing brain. Brain is accidentally destroyed

The tension begins when the boy and his father are ridiculed, but continues as the boy must resolve his internal issues

Climaxes / Resolutions

Stranger sacrifices own happiness for sake of family and the cycle of nature

First brain is found, but then when destroyed, brain is replaced

Long talk with family friend convinces boy he has a good life


Young see example of self sacrifice for sake of others.

Prejudice and preconceptions are dispelled through conflict between stuffing filled and bean filled animals

A good example of how financial wealth is not always as important as a good life


Nash, Scott. (2004). Tuff Fluff: The Case of Duckie's Missing Brain. Cambridge,

MA: Candlewick Press. Print.

Ray, Mary Lyn. (1999). Basket Moon. New York: Little, Brown, and Co. Print.

Van Allsburg,… [read more]

Exciting Times of Year Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  3 pages (1,042 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This is because of the real estate development occurring in the nearby towns and many farmers were driving them away from their properties.

Steve felt that he should be fine given the fact that the combine had large flood lights and it would be dawn in about an hour and a half. At sunrise, he had made several paths in the field and everything seemed to be fine. When all of the sudden, Steve heard a thud and auger (i.e. plow) seized up (causing the engine to start overheating). Frustrated, he turned off the engine and started to clean out the auger of the debris that was clogging it. As he was getting ready to climb back into the combine is when Steve looked up and seen movement in the front of him. He walked forward and realized it was a baby antelope, which had lost its mother. The antelope had nowhere to go and did not know what to do in the high wheat grass.

Steve picked up the antelope and let it ride in the combine with him for the rest of that day. Later that evening, he realized that the creature had no place to stay and took care of it. In the next two weeks, Steve continued to come across large amounts of antelope. This caused him to begin to realize that something needed to be done about this problem. The challenge was keeping some kind of balance between: protecting the animal and not abusing the rights of farmers. During the course of brining in the harvest, is when Steve decided that he must take action. This forced him to go even further, as he had the obligations to the farm itself and now to the antelope that he had become so fond of during the harvest.

As a result, Steve was successful in harvesting the entire wheat crop in early and received the highest prices on the market. However, instead of turning his entire farm into cattle and wheat production, he decided to go another route. The experiences that he had during the harvest had shaped his views about the antelope. This is from the special bond with the animal he was raising.

Once this occurred, is when Steve created a location where the animals will be safe from development. Over the next several months, he set aside over 50 acres of land for the antelope. At the same time, he had formed a local protection group that monitored the treatment of these and other wild animals that are known to live in rural areas. This is significant in showing how sometimes ordinary events can have an impact on everyone. In the case of Steve, the desire to realize large profit margins and expand his farm led to feelings of compassion for antelopes he encountered. This shaped the kind activities he was involved in and what he focused on.

Works Cited

Nance, Brandy. "Emporia-Based Custom Cutters." Emporia Gazette, 2007. Web. 27 Feb. 2012 [read more]

Cattle Drive Our Role Play Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The drive itself had its own style of organization. The recruiter at the meeting remarks that he needs twenty experienced cowboys who can handle 3000 cattle along the trail to Abilene, Kansas. One less experienced understudy can be hired to handle the extra horses. The horse seller at the meeting is tasked with providing three horses for every cowboy and enough oxen and replacements for the chuck wagon outfit. The cooks interviewed will be become highly respected and prestigious members of the crew as they will have to feed this large group of men and keep them healthy on the move to Abilene the recruits at the meeting are told what they already know: cattle drives strike a balance between weight of the cattle and the speed of movement of the herd. While cattle might be driven as far as 25 miles in one day, this was not good. They might lose so much weight that they would be impossible to sell when they finally reached the end of the trail at Abilene, KA. It would be better that they be taken shorter distances every day and to be allowed periods to graze and rest at midday and night time. The average herd could keep a healthy weight while moving about 15 miles a day. Such a pace meant that it would take as long as two months to travel from a home ranch to a railhead. ("Lesson plan 1:," 2006).


As we have seen, the classic drive of 1866-1886 was the continuation of already established practices, but on a bigger scale. Entrepreneurs such Phillip Armor and the demand for beef propelled this old practice on to new heights until the spread of the railroad largely wiped it out.


Lesson plan 1: cattle drives. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/ranchhouse/teachers_lp1b.html.

People & events: Philip danforth armour (1832-1901) . (2012). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/chicago/peopleevents/p_armour.html.… [read more]

Recipe in Clear Cut Words Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Once the pre-preparation is discussed the writer of the recipe gives step-by-step instructions as to how to put the dish together. This can include what to mix together, how to mix it and for how long to do so. It also includes what type of dish the preparation should use and then how long it should be cooked.

The final area of the recipe allows for discussion of any added things that can be done to dress it up or make it different. It is also a good area to include altitude difference directions if applicable and serving suggestions.

Once all of this is completed the recipe is recorded and can be used far into the future with confidence.


Interview with Jose Martinez

"MAISON BLANCHE" restaurant, Paris



Interview with Jose Martinez

"MAISON BLANCHE" restaurant, Paris

Mr Martinez, could you share two recipe-inventing memories with us? Perhaps one from the beginning of your career and a more recent one.

The first recipe and the last recipe amount to the same thing: you always try to create a new dish that people want to eat. I don't make the dishes that I created 8 years ago anymore and I suspect that what I make today I shall no longer be making in 8 years time!

New recipes result from a new style of cooking, new textures or new flavours and associations.

And the first recipe you created that was a big surprise to you?

It was "Tuna with marrow." I came up with the idea by accident. The sauce was made first and then you wonder "what can I serve this with?" This is how it happens at work! Two or three basic elements are always required and once these have been established the structure follows. Here tuna was one of the basic elements - which can be a bit dry, and I already had a recipe for "Cabbage with marrow," so it came from that. After this, the most difficult thing is to know if it will work: 100%, a bit or not at all. Once the dish is on the menu, it is important that most customers like it.

And a recipe that you invented at a time when you were far away from your normal work schedule?

A few years ago I was invited to a friend's place in Palma (Majorca) and to thank them I had brought them a jar of caviar. One day, I put on all the necessary gear to go diving for sea urchins and my friends had brought the jar of caviar with them. This is how I came up with the idea for caviar and sea urchin, which is now on the menu!… [read more]

Separation of Powders Lab Report

Lab Report  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Separation of Powders

The purpose of this experiment is to test the solubility of salt and sand in water, and determine whether or not salt is soluble, sand is soluble, or both sand and salt are soluble.

What is solubility?

"The solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. Solubility is a quantitative term. The terms soluble and insoluble are relative. A substance is said to be soluble if more than 0.1 g of that substance dissolves in 100 mL solvent. If less than 0.1 g dissolves in 100 mL solvent, the substance is said to be insoluble or, more exactly, sparingly soluble." (Rogers, 2000). In order for a substance to be considered soluble, it has to be able to be dissolved in a liquid. In this experiment, the substances that are being tested for solubility are sale and sand, and the solvent is water. To determine whether or not the substances are soluble, they will be put through a filtration process, and the insoluble material will be left behind. The filtration process in this experiment will be a coffee filter, which will be secured for stability, and the insoluble material will be collected here.


Rogers, E. (2000). Fundamentals in chemistry. Retrieved from http://www.chem.wisc.edu/deptfiles/genchem/sstutorial/Text11/Tx112/tx112.html

Experiment 7

Investigation of a Powder

Look up the following terms and write the definition.

Soluble: Able to be dissolved in, or as if in, liquid -- especially water.

Solute: a dissolved substance

Solvent: a (typically) liquid substance capable of dissolving or dispersing one more substances.

Reference: Merriam-webster dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary

List 5 substances that are soluble in water and 5 substances that are NOT soluble in water.

Soluble Substances

Not Soluble…… [read more]

Life of Migrant Laborers Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Migrant Workers in China

Migrant Workers

Migrant workers are a reality not only in America, but all over the countries to our Southern borders, as well as countries in the East, such as China. The truth is, migrant workers exist everywhere, for the countryside always offers less opportunity than the city, and thus the capitals often attract labor, usually cheaper, to do the lower, dirtier works for the inhabitants of a city and often, a country (Migrant Workers, ILO, 2012). This paper will discuss an article written by Daniel Wright on this topic, and will thus examine the situation of migrant workers in the Chinese province of Guizhou.

This article starts with a simple enough narrative; the visit of a man to a small village where he speaks to the villagers and receives various impressions of the countryside, and living within it, in China. Yet Mr. Wright is focusing on a more specific topic that simply receiving a tourist's impressions of the Chinese countryside. He is in China to discuss migrant labor, and see how these laborers live in a nearby provincial capital. Wright makes it perfectly clear that life is no picnic, neither in the countryside, nor in the city.

In fact, his account of the journey begins with the examination of his friend's relatives, all of who live in the countryside. The stern declaration "life is hard in Guizhou's countryside" is followed by a description of the conditions, which include "road less sheer mountains, shallow soil, no running water, backbreaking labor, stripped forests, too many mouths to feed..." -this is the reality of China's villages.

Because of the harshness that the farmers experience in their villages, and because of the constant need for cash, they…… [read more]

Double Booked, Double Trouble Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


What to do, when ostensibly the lifestyle of Bally's is so American, while the wine company's image is so manifestly Australian? What will happen when these healthy, clean-scrubbed American personal trainers, at the behest of Bally's descend in droves upon Berigner Blass' exclusive event?

Also, it might seem upon the surface that there is a contradiction between the healthy image of a fitness center and the dissolute pub-crawling atmosphere that pervades the alcoholic beverage industry. However, a canny PR player will see that there are many possibilities for cross over between the two markets. First of all, many of the young people being courted by the wine company are also likely candidates to become members of Bally's Total Fitness. After all, doesn't many a happy club-going raver attempt to work off his or her indulgences the morning after in the gym? Don't young people usually have more time and motivation to work out, as well as to party into the wee hours of the night?

Thus, one could create a kind of a joint venture between the two companies, that of Bally's and Beringer Blass. Instead of merely having a traditional (but legal) style 'rave' to promote the new wine, in the form of a party one could create a kind of fitness event that would rehabilitate the image of Blass in the youth market, and enable it to better corner some of the Red-Bull swilling audience. This would give an added marketing advantage to the new wine as well, stressing the healthy as well as the energetic and active lifestyle pursued by its drinkers. Wine's health benefits are not merely confined to its antioxidant properties, but choosing wine to fuel one's self during a rave thus pays off in healthy dividends in a more immediate fashion, even in terms of performance in the gym the day after. A drinker is less affected by the poor and performance qualities of wine, one could suggest, than other spirits, and even under the mild influence of a bit of tippling, a young partygoer can still 'spin' with the best of them, upon a stationary exercise bike.

Yes, this joint PR event between Bally's and Beringer Blass would thus cumulate in the ultimate event -- not a dance-a-thon or a drink-a-thon, but a spinning bike-a-thon, a kind of exercise class upon stationary bikes, sponsored by both the Beringer Blass Company and Bally's Total Fitness. The wine would be provided free, and the individual, who stayed on the longest, at the highest level of intensity, would win a prize for his or her stalwartness in the face of this feat of strength and endurance. One could even pair the different red, and white teams of tipplers and give awards to the team that stayed on the longest. Bally's could give out sports bottles with wine logos on the front, and the wine company could dispense wine glasses as promotional favors.

Humor, thus would be an additional and added 'key' to this event, and no… [read more]

Ginseng Business Plan Business Plan

Business Plan  |  5 pages (1,488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Business Plan for Ginseng Root Harvesting Enterprise in West Virginia

The business plan for a sole proprietorship describes the operations and provides a market analysis for a ginseng root cultivation and harvesting enterprise in West Virginia, a prime state for this agricultural product. The principal possesses the requisite experience and experience in ginseng cultivating and harvesting to pursue this enterprise… [read more]

Smoking Bans in Public Bars Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Proof the Bans Work

When smoking was banned indoors in Helena, Montana, the city saw a dramatic drop in heart attacks. A study found that "during the six-month period in 2002 when the ban was in effect, the number of heart attacks reported by Helena's heart hospital fell by 40% (Kaufman)." This effect quickly reversed to the pre-ban level when the law was repelled.

A Growing Trend

Many cities across the United States have enacted smoking bans in public bars and restaurants. There is currently political pressure on other cities, such as Atlanta and Seattle, to enact their own bans. While Atlanta officials are concerned with possible economic setbacks from smokers who choose to vacation elsewhere, healthcare issues override these concerns, and are a major incentive to become smoke-free (Tagami).

In Seattle, "some business owners have worries about the financial costs of such a ban. But smoke-free regulations have no negative impact on bars and restaurants, according to an article in the Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly (Buchanan)."


There have been several states and many cities across the nation which have enacted smoking bans in public bars and restaurants. While some businesses are concerned about losing revenues, the overall concern is about the health risks from secondhand smoke. Statistics have proven secondhand smoke can result in cancer and heart attacks in non-smokers, thus providing compelling evidence that smoking should not be allowed in any public bar or restaurant.

Works Cited

Buchanan, Wyatt. "Coalition Begins Effort to Extinguish Smoking in Public Places." Seattle

Post-Intelligencer. (2003): 16 December.

Kaufman, Marc. "Secondhand Smoke Poses Heart Attack Risk, CDC Warns." The Washington

Post. (2004): 23 April.

Tagami, Ty. "Atlanta eyes ban…… [read more]

Formal Justification Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,392 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Justification

Wal-Mart is currently the largest retailer within the United States of America and it still has an increased potential for further growth and development. The company's main strengths include its scale economy advantages and efficiencies, whereas its shortages include the limited attention to details, such as employee treatment, customer satisfaction, product quality, impact on the environment and so on. In other words, Wal-Mart is a reputable epitome of corporate success, yet it lacks in its community sustainability and responsibility initiatives.

The company's focus has traditionally fallen on the provision of low retail prices and this strategy has ensured long-term success among the price sensitive consumers; this trend was even further maintained throughout the past recent years, when the crisis has made consumers more selective and more price aware. In such a setting, while the past years have witnessed economic agents going bankrupt, Wal-Mart's sales have continued to increase. The chart below reveals the company's revenues throughout the past six decades.

Source: Wal-Mart 2012 Annual Report

2. The problem

As mentioned in the introductory section, in spite of its success, the retailer is also faced with several challenges. It has for instance been accused of exploiting its staff members or compromising on the quality of its products in an effort to cut costs; its emphasis on the safety and well-being of its customers has also been addressed at the level of safety in the meaning that the store has been accused on not guarding its parking lots, and allowing them to become home to numerous crimes, including murders; all this while the stores are packed with guards and security cameras to prevent any theft (Greenwald, 2005).

Aside from all these, the company has also been accused of destroying the local communities. This complaint is not however characteristic to Wal-Mart itself, but more so a trait of all super stores penetrating local communities. Specifically, the company is blamed for the fact that its low prices render the local products uncompetitive and lead to the demise of the mom and pop stores, which represent part of the American culture and also an integrant part of the American economy.

"We all understand that Wal-Mart destroys local economies, a relentless impoverishing of the communities across the U.S. that is now almost complete. It also depends on near-slave conditions for workers in China to produce the mountains of cheap [products] that Wal-Mart sells. And ultimately, the endless growth model of capitalism is destroying the world" (McBay, Jensen and Keith, 2011).

While this problem of the means in which Wal-Mart is perceived within the local communities is wide and complex, the current proposal focuses on the retailer's decision to import fruit and vegetable from more cost effective locations and sell them within the stores across the United States. This decision has numerous disadvantages, some of the more notable of them being reveled below:

The quality of the fresh produce is decreased as these are plucked when insufficiently ripe, so that they resist throughout the… [read more]

Effects of Pesticides Like DDT on Birds Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Pesticides on Birds

Birds are seriously affected by the uncontrolled use of pesticides as they can both kill and injure the bird population. These effects on birds can result from direct or indirect exposure to pesticides including the most dangerous insecticide, DDT. DDT it was found can damage the nervous system of birds which results in death. Apart from killing them, DDT could also prove detrimental to reproductive health of birds. DDT is now banned in the United States but during the three decades that it was allowed and was carelessly used, this insecticide was proved to be the "the most widespread and pernicious of global pollutants," (Cox) because of its seriously negative effects on bird population. Even after it was banned, other pesticides have continued to affect birds both directly and indirectly.

Since 1972, some very toxic varieties of pesticides continue to harm birds. While DDT is not used in the U.S., it is still being used in other countries and thus bird population is not entirely save from damaging effects of DDT. "Stories of birds killed by DDT not directly, but indirectly by consuming prey that contained high residues of the insecticide were common when DDT was in frequent use. However, similar situations also exist with other insecticides. Some of the best information about this kind of poisoning comes from studies of pour-on organophosphate insecticides (famphur, for example) used to kill warbles, flies that live just under the skin of cattle. Famphur poured onto cattle was shown to cause subsequent poisoning of magpies, birds that feed on cattle hair for part of their diet. In addition, researchers found three red-tailed hawks (two dead) that had been poisoned by the famphur after eating poisoned magpies." (Cox)

In most countries, some very popular and properly registered pesticides can kill birds…… [read more]

Rhythms of Colonial Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


3 and 7.6" (57) and it is the conclusion of the author the population grew rapidly between 1660 and 1700 because children survived the city environment.

Volitional Factors

One distinct volitional factor that formed the basis of each area's unique characteristics was the way in which land was procured. In Virginia, the "population was dispersed, living on landholdings and thus breaking the English pattern of village life and discouraging the growth of large towns and cities" (53). Southerners went out and staked their claim. They were not afraid to travel into unchartered areas. In contrast, Northerners were a bit more reserved when a town was established "men applied to the colonial government for a land grant for the entire town ....leaders of the new town were selected and the single church was organized" (54). There is also a difference in religion. Northerners had adopted reforms in the Church of England to purify the "lingering traces of Roman Catholicism and embrace many ideas of the Protestant denominations founded in Europe" (53) while Southerners mostly remained Catholic as founders there strived to make "Maryland a haven for Catholics" (53).

Still as quickly as life was established, things changed. Northerners were looking else where for employment and started moving to other cities such as Philadelphia as the population exploded and farming declined. This created a shift in demographics and economy. Meanwhile in the South, the plantation system was taking root as "owners were beginning to practice crop diversification" (72) instead of relying solely on tobacco. Still this system created a new way of life for the Southerner American. Where labor in the North was mainly focused on seaports or the textile industry, the plantation owner relied on slave labor to produce the crop. The need for more crops would mean future expansion into the wilderness and a larger population of slaves. Chesapeake was also losing popularity as a settlement as new possibilities became available.


This paper discussed the environmental and volitional factors that contributed to these differences. Environmental factors included geography, climate and soil. Volitional factors included goals of the founders, decisions concerning land ownership, labor systems, and religious practices. These factors contributed to important demographic and economic changes, which lead to two separate cultural perspectives.


Author. (year). Rhythms of Colonial…… [read more]

Fixed Costs Are the Rent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The situation would present itself as follows:




New York

Los Angeles






Production capacity




Fixed Costs


Variable Costs/unit


Variable Costs


Total Costs


Costs per unit








In the first case, the Fixed Costs remain unchanged, the Variable Costs rise to 14,000, the Total Costs reach 19,000, while the Costs per unit drop by 4 cents, indicating $0.95.

II 0,6



New York

Los Angeles






Production capacity










Fixed Costs





Variable Costs/unit





Variable Costs





Total Costs





Costs per unit



















The second case (the production capacity equals demand at a level of 21,000 units) shows that the Variable Costs reach $12,600, while the Total Costs amount to $21,600. The Costs per unit indicate a $1 and 3 cents, which is more than the value obtained by applying the first alternative. The choice is obvious. Dem and Greg should still go with the first option since, lacking other information, the Cost per unit is smaller than the one implied by the second option.

4. If the Variable Costs per Unit are increased by 10 cents, then there is no advantage in picking the second alternative. The Total Variable Costs are equal for both options (for an equal production, obviously), while The Fixed Costs are almost double in the second case, compared to the first ($9,000 compared to $5,000). Therefore, the first alternative is definitely preferable.

II 0,7



New York

Los Angeles






Production capacity










Fixed Costs





Variable Costs/unit





Variable Costs





Total Costs





Costs per unit





Price…… [read more]

How to Mow the Grass Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (569 words)
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Mowing Grass

How to Mow Your Lawn

Proper home maintenance includes steady and consistent attention not just to the interior of one's home but also to its outdoor areas. First and foremost in accomplishing this is ensuring that one's front lawn is groomed, manicured and properly treated. Having a beautiful and verdant from lawn can be accomplished with the fulfillment of just a few simple responsibilities, the first of which is lawn-mowing. Here, we offer a few basic instructions on how to accomplish this important household chore.

The first step is to ensure that you are wearing the proper safety equipment. As Figure a shows, the lawnmower is a piece of heavy machinery with many moving parts and rapidly spinning blades. The operator must be wearing protective goggles, long pants, reliable shoes and, in some instances, protective ear-wear as well.

The second step is to ensure that the lawnmower itself is properly fueled and fully operational. In most instances, the modern and up-to-date mower will only requiring filling roughly once a year.

3. Once the operator has confirmed that the mower is in full working order, he or she should ensure that the lawn itself is safely prepared for mowing. This will involve scanning the lawn and removing sticks, rocks, pet or children's toys or any other foreign objects that might damage the mower or injure the mower's operator.

4. This preparation should also include steps taken to improve the aesthetic appearance of the law. Therefore, the operator should conduct a thorough weeding of the lawn and its surrounding areas before beginning the actual mowing process. Likewise, the user should use any edging tools at this juncture, trimming any lawn overgrowth that might encroach…… [read more]

Wines of Hungry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hungarian Wine

Wines of Hungary

The Arabian writer, Ibn-Rostech, mentions Hungarian vine growing in his 10th century chronicle (Hungarian pp). After the Original Settlement of the Magyars, vine growing and wine production was based on three things, the Greek-Celtic tradition, the Roman tradition, and the knowledge of the Hungarians brought along from the East (Hungarian pp). There are seventeen Hungarian wine regions, Tokaj, Plains (Alfold), Tapolca, Badacsony, Csopak, Balatonfured, Balatonboglar, Barsonyos-Csaszari, Eger, Matralja, Mecsek, Mor, Sopron, Szekszard, Villany-Siklo, Nyirseg (Word pp).

The best known region is the Tokaj where the Tokaji Aszu and the Tokaji Furmint are produced (Word pp). Tokaji Aszu is referred to as Wine of the Kings and King of the Wines (Vinum Regum, Rex Vinorum), however, it is more an aperitif-desert wine (Word pp). The Tokaj-Hegyalja region produces wines with the highest alcohol-sugar-acid-content (Hungarian1 pp). It is the long, hazy, sunny autumn climate that is favorable for the shriveling of the ripe grape berries and for the development of noble rot (Hungarian1 pp). The famous Szamorodni and Aszu wines are made by adding these berries with noble rot, and "the more aszu grapes the wine contains the more precious it is" (Hungarian1 pp).

Vine varieties, wines: Furmint - developing noble rot best, acidic, fine fragrance. Harslevelu - more robust, full-bodied. Yellow Muscat - developing noble rot under favorable conditions, hard acid, extraordinarily fine, elegant fragrance" (Hungarian1 pp).

After nearly a century, the Balatonmelleke became a wine region again in 1998 (Hungarian1 pp). The climate is mild, consolidated and wet, producing vine varieties that include Olasz rizling, Rizlingszilvani, Zold veltelini, Red Tramini, Chardonnay, Kekfrankos, Zweigelt, Oport (Hungarian1 pp). The Balatonfured-Csopak region is divided into two wine producing regions, the wines of Balatonfured, made with mineral water, are more full-bodied, warming and higher in alcohol content, while the wines of Csopak are more modest, lighter, and richer in fragrance and bouquet (Hungarian1 pp). The climate provides a lot of sunshine, weather serving vine production, with varieties including: Italian Riesling, Furmint, and Rieslingszilvani (Hungarian1 pp). The Balatonfelvidek climate is varied, with Mediterranean character and a lot of sunshine, producing varieties which include Szurkebarat, Italian Riesling, and Chardonnay that are full-bodied, rich in bouquet and lively acidic (Hungarian1 pp). Balatonboglar, on the south shore of Lake Balaton, produces mainly white wine, but there is some red wine production as well (Hungarian1 pp). The climate is consolidated and produces Italian Riesling, Yellow Muscat, Chardonnay, Cabernet, Merlot, and Kekfrankos wines (Hungarian1 pp). The…… [read more]

Trouble Finding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (800 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


I learned everything from human resources/hiring practices to menu changes to marketing. Because of this, I will channel what I know into this business to help you grow and thrive.

6. As I mentioned earlier, I really miss the restaurant industry. My college major is business administration with a minor in hospitality. As you can see, I am already focused on the service industry as a career and professional path. I love working with the public and have a good feel for the restaurant industry in particular because we all like to eat out.

7. I offer you a uniquely intuitive sense of what works and what doesn't in the restaurant industry. I don't know why but I have an uncanny sense for what customers look for.

8. From my last job as an assistant manager in a restaurant, I bring experience and ability to deal with stressful situations. Nothing will shock me. From my current research assistance job, I bring high levels of concentration and decision-making skills.

9. In my old restaurant I once handled a difficult customer with care. She was irate because she was accidentally overcharged. She accused the server of purposely padding the bill. I had to calm down both the server, who was insulted and prepared to hurl insults at the customer, and calm down the customer and ensure that she would not remain angry. I offered her a free entree the next time she came in.

10. I have eaten here many times and often come here for a casual drink with friends on the weekends. I have always felt comfortable here, the staff is great, and I already feel that you have done a good job with the management of the place. I would love to be a part of such a well-run, well-organized, and friendly business, and one that I also feel will enjoy continued financial success.

11. Many things motivate me, but most of all I am motivated by happy faces, by the sheer sense of enjoyment not only by customers who leave satisfied with their experience but also enjoyment on the part of staff. When staff genuinely love what they do, it really rubs off on everyone…… [read more]

Creating ATV Show Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (792 words)
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Creating TV Show

The soggy croissants


Scene 1:

Jerry and Elaine are sitting in the restaurant talking about the soggy croissants they'd had for breakfast that morning.

Elaine: I am telling you Jerry, the guy at the coffee shop must have dropped them on something before he gave us those soggy croissants. (makes a face indicating her disappointment)

Jerry: you mean instead of getting us some fresh new croissants, he would just pick up those croissants from wherever he dropped them and bring them to us.

Elaine: Yeah

Jerry: and where do you suppose he had dropped them.

Elaine: could be the kitchen sink, the floor, anywhere (shrugs)

Jerry: It's impossible. They can't just bring us croissants that have been licked by the sink or the floor. We pay for fresh dry croissants.

Elaine: We pay for croissants Jerry. We never mention fresh or dry.

Jerry: But that's understood. Or should we sign a bond, an affidavit, or some kind of agreement before placing an order specifying exactly what we need, in what shape, size or level of dryness. (an expression of disbelief on his face)

Elaine: that's a good idea. A very good idea. (nods in approval)

Scene 2:

Kramer is sleeping on Jerry's couch in his living room. Jerry walks in and stops when he sees Kramer loudly snoring in his living room. He checks his watch. Its 11:30 AM. He wonders why Kramer is still asleep.

Jerry: Kramer. (tries to wake him up by tapping his arm)

Kramer: waa waaa what happened (wakes up jerkily and wonders where he is)

Jerry: why were you still sleeping. Its 11:30 AM. (watches Kramer as he sits up)

Kramer: Coz I don't sleep all night long like you people do. I need to make up for my lost sleep.

Jerry: Fine. But why on earth don't you sleep at night. (goes towards the refrigerator and gets a can of coke)

Kramer: Who says you have to sleep at night?

Jerry: what do you mean? Everyone sleeps at night? It's the normal thing. (takes a sip of coke)

Kramer: Yeah but is it written somewhere. Is it some kind of law. You don't sleep at night and boom the next thing you know you are in jail. (Kramer gets up from the couch and picks up an apple from the kitchen table)

Jerry: I said it…… [read more]

Trade Restrictions in Honduras Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When one creates a situation in which there is no or little competition, opportunity is more abundant if you are the only provider of that product.

The entities that loose out on these restrictions include countries like the U.S. especially if the restricted products are a substantial percentage of their exported products. A prim example of this is information that determined if there was not a restriction on the import of poultry to Honduras that the U.S. could have made an additional 10 million dollars in profit. This fact provides evidence of the significant lose for the U.S. In poultry trades with Honduras (Carbaugh, 2004, p.198).The primary function of such restrictions is to protect the countries economy.


Aphis (2005, Aug. 2005). BSE Trade Ban Status as of 08/05. APHIS, 2005, pp. 1-11. Retrieved 08/07/05, from http://www.aphis.usda.gov

Carbaugh, R.J. (2004). International Economics (9th ed.). Mason, Ohio: Thomas/South Western.

Trade Compliance Center (2000, 1999). National Trade Estimate - 2000. Retrieved 08/07/05, from http://www.mac.doc.gov/tcc/data/commerce_html

Word Web Online (2005). Definition of Ruminant. Retrieved August 7,2005, from http://www.wordwebonline.com/en/RUMINANT… [read more]

Beer and Civilization Beer Production Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,210 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Enkidu enjoyed a week with her, during which she taught him of civilization. Enkidu knew not what bread was nor how one ate it. He had also not learned to drink beer. The (prostitute) opened her mouth and spoke to Enkidu: 'Eat the bread now, O Enkidu, as it belongs to life. Drink also beer, as it is the custom of the land.' Enkidu drank seven cups of beer and his heart soared. In this condition he washed himself and became a human being.

The immediate transformation of Enkidu after drinking the seven cups of beer represented the historical development of humanity through the years. Through the symbolic drinking of the beer, humans became more cultured, no longer members of a nomadic tribe that thrived on temporary sources of survival ("A History of Beer"). Egyptians, similarly, extolled the importance of beer in their religious lives by assigning names that appropriately corresponds to virtues they considered important: "beer of truth" and "beer of eternity," among others.

Apart from being a religious artifact and foodstuff, beer was also used for conducting trade transactions among Egyptians during the ancient times. In early societies, beer was the unit of exchange, showing once more the value that early societies put on beer and beer-making (Bamforth, 2003:25). Beer was also known to have medicinal effects. Among the Greeks, beer was the preferred prescription to induce sleep, and given the "proper quantities" to an individual, it serves as an effective "sleep potion" (Nelson, 2005:12).

These arguments for the beer theory of civilization highlighted how civilization flourished with the economic, religious, medical, and gastronomical benefits of beer and beer production. However, it can also be argued that in the same way as beer was considered vital for the development of civilization, bread and bread-making too, was an important, perhaps more important, catalyst in building up human civilization. This argument against beer as the origin of civilization was attested by Helfferich (1991), who discussed how most researchers considered bread, rather than beer, as the signal of human civilization. One of the arguments presented for the bread theory of civilization is that beer was a by-product of bread-making: "spoiled" barley, which is actually undergoing fermentation, was just as delicious and edible as bread. Thus, beer was produced from spoiled barley, which was cultivated for the sole purpose of producing bread. Long before beer was produced, bread was already marked as the symbol of a gradually flourishing human civilization.

The discussion on whether beer or bread marked the beginnings of early human civilization illustrates that these foodstuff produced from barley became symbols of civilization. It seems plausible that bread-making preceded beer-making, but this does not mean that it was through bread (or beer) alone that civilization originated. Both bread and beer served as important catalysts for civilization, simply because its main source, barley, was the symbol through which humans were able to live a sedentary life, thriving from raising livestock and cultivating crops. Thus, it can be said that indeed, civilization… [read more]

Charlie and the Chocolate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (368 words)
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Charlie Bucket, a sweet but poor child, finds a dollar on the street. He buys a chocolate bar with it, and wins a golden ticket. The other winners include Mike Teavee, Veruca Salt, Violet Beauregarde, and Augustus Gloop. All the children bring along a family member to the Chocolate Factory tour. Charlie brings his grandfather.

Most of the story takes place mostly in the magical chocolate factory. The factory is run by the eccentric Willie Wonka. The chocolate factory is huge. It is run by the Oompa-Loompas. The Oompa Loompas are tiny creatures who sing songs and help Willie Wonka prepare his treats. Through the factory, Willie Wonka shows the children all his candy delights. The factory boasts everything from a river of chocolate to special bubble gum. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory shows how each of the children has a weakness. However, Charlie is just a nice boy who deserves the best. The other children are snobby, greedy, gluttonous, or selfish. Roald Dahl's book offers inspiration that kind, good natured people usually come out ahead.… [read more]

Fob (Free on Board) Contract Terms Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (347 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


FOB (Free on Board) Contract Terms

The terms of the contract specifying "Free on Board" mean that the seller (Organic Farms) pays for transportation of the goods to the place of shipment, plus loading costs at the original point of departure. The buyer (Grocery, Inc.) pays for freight, insurance, unloading costs and transportation afterwards, once the goods reach the place of destination. This is why Organic Farms paid for the costs of independent trucking company, which used the faulty transportation equipment that broke down and resulted in the delay and the spoilage of the peaches that were being shipped to Grocery, Inc.'s place of business. ("F.O.B.," 2006, Wikipedia)

According to the terms of F.O.B (Free on Board), which is an International Term of Sale, the seller (Organic Farms) fulfills his or her obligation to deliver when the goods have passed to the area where they are supposed to arrive, in this case, to the premises of Grocery, Inc. ("F.O.B., 2006, Glossary of Shipping Terms) This means that the buyer has to bear all…… [read more]

Dodgers by Stephen G. Haw Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (571 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



With the water need in mind, he writer goes ahead to give the reader a large sample of plants and flowers that can be used and alongside these plants, he gives the origins whenever appropriate in order for the reader to have a better understanding of what they may buy. The most interesting part of the entire article is the vivid description that the writer uses to try and give the reader a picture of what the plant he is talking about looks like. This is with the full knowledge that most readers may not be in the know of these plant names hence may feel lost or have little use of the article with the mere mention of the scientific names. The writer further makes it easier for the reader to understand hi script by giving both the scientific and the local name of each of the plants since there are bound to be readers who can only understand the local names, he further gives the months or duration across which these flowers blossom. This will make work of choice easier for the potential growers since they will pick the ones that will blossom at their correct timing, say when they are at home most of the time for instance during breaks. One thing that makes the article peculiar is the vivid description used and the numeracy of the choices that the writer gives, having in mind that there is a possibility that one may not have an exposure to a wide variety of these plants at the same place or area within the country.


Stephen G.H., (2013). The Draught Dodgers: Plant Recommendations from a Truly Mediterranean Garden.…… [read more]

Mealy Bugs and Systemic Insecticides Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The fourth figure is a similar chart while the fifth shows the same insecticides and their efficacy over time. The final chart shoes the differences between efficacy rates for thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, dinotefuran and simple water. There was no statistical difference between any of those treatments and this is clearly visible in the chart iself and is also stated clearly in the verbiage under the chart (Willmott, and Cloyd).


In short, the article talks about how to deal with mealy bugs but with a fair warning that getting treatment done completely and effectively can a little more elusive than is probably desired by people that are battling the mealy bugs. The article seeks out to mitigate or even eliminate the inadequacies of these treatment so as to limit the amount of pesticide that is needed while at the same time making any needed treatments as effective as possible. The article is certainly not for amateurs to the horticulture industry but that is perfectly fine because the subject and the publication in question are catered to people that are involved and educated in the industry and that have a direct interest in the same (Willmott, and Cloyd). While the article is technical in nature, it is also written in such a way that a more casual reader could read the article and easily get the crux of what is being discussed. Given that the article is well-done.

Works Cited

Willmott, Amy, and Raymond Cloyd. "Mealybugs & Systemic Insecticides." Kansas

State University Research. N.p., 1 Aug. 2013. Web. 9 Sept. 2013.

L.pdf>.… [read more]

Neuroscience of Smell Human Beings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The direct connection between the amygdala, or the region of the limbic system where emotional responses are processed, and the olfactory cortex allowed for the sensory input from my nose, the smell of the freshly baked bread, to elicit a sensorimotor response. This response took the form of an emotional change in my body, my heart rate began to decrease, I was no longer agitated or angry, and my facial expressions changed from stern to happy. I was smiling and didn't even realize I was doing it. It was the sensory input from the baked bread that somehow instigated a number of physical changes in my body which resulted in a change in my emotional state.

As a result of my exposure to the smell of baked bread, my day, which had been miserable, no longer seemed so bad and, in fact, became better. Throughout the day I had been short-tempered, agitated, and in a generally bad mood and the commute home did little to temper my mood. But, since the 1980's aromachology has been demonstrated to have a measurable effect on people's moods, cognition, and behavior. (Goldstein 63) While there are many hypotheses as to why this may be so, it is generally believed that certain odors can influence the activity of cAMP which in turn influence the generator potential of olfactory receptor cells. Increases and decreases in cAMP have, in scientific studies, been linked to changes in the emotional state of subjects and I believe that my experience may be an example of this.

What started out as a bad day, where I was angry, agitated and in a generally foul emotional state was changed by what may have been a simple odor; the smell of baked bread. As soon as I smelled the delicious odor, my body's physical state began to change which I believe led to a change in my emotional state. It was the olfactory sensory system, otherwise known as my nose, which acted as a receptor for odor molecules from the bread. This in turn then caused specific motor responses, such as lowered heart rate and changes in my facial expressions, which created an altered emotional state. When I entered the grocery store I was unhappy, when I left, I was happy and smiling.

Works Cited

"Aromachology: Neuroscience of Smell." Open-Senses Sensory Innovation. 2012.

Web. 21 Sept. 2013. http://www.open-


Goldstein, E. Bruce. Encyclopedia of Perception, Vol. 1. Los Angeles: SAGE,

2010. Print.

Longstaff, Alan. Neuroscience. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2005. Print.… [read more]

Zebra in the Room Wore Poem

Poem  |  1 pages (402 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The layered cake was vanilla and chocolate with icing in between and the zebra cake was delicious, all sweet and no savory. It would be better warm with a bit of ice cream dolloped on top, maybe vanilla but chocolate would work to. The zebra stares at me and he says, "How can you eat that stuff?"

He says, "It will make you fat," and he exits the room and I am left with my zebra cake and a room full of baboons who wait for their eggs which, when they arrive, look like little drops of sunshine on a pure white sky. The bread baking in the oven fills the room and I wonder if I should go after the zebra because obviously

I hurt his feelings. Perhaps he does not like black and white cakes. So I licked the plate and while the baboons stared at me I rushed out of doors

(I paid the bill first) and trotted over to the zebra who was taking to the meter maid outside and arguing and asking if he could please just leave without getting a ticket and there was a tear in…… [read more]

Parkville Maryland Parkville Is Located Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The main objective here is to estimate the demand for pizza and soda by the population of Parkville in Maryland. Here the demand Indicator is quantity of pizza and the drivers (factors which affect demand) are price of pizza; median household income; price of soda and population.

A close examination of the above summary output, it can be deduced that there is a positive coefficient in the first independent variable, which is the price of Pizza. This shows that there is a direct relationship between the Price of Pizza and Pizza demand variables. This is true across all the independent variables including Price of soda, Median Household Income as well as the population. This is an indication that the people of Parkville are more likely to respond positively to a Domino's pizza establishment.

The standard error in all the four variables is below 1.0, which is an indication that there was a small variation in the estimates given different data samples. This is a revelation of the measure of how much each of the variables estimated coefficient would vary in regressions based on their association with the demand of Pizza.

In any demand analysis, above 95% and below 95% values indicate the upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval for each estimated coefficients (Wood, 2012). Therefore, the ideal estimates of the coefficients are found within the confidence interval. In regard to the T test, the greater the value of t, specifically more than 2, the more the analyst can conclude that the estimated coefficient is significant at the 0.05 level. It can be therefore deduced from the analysis that the results obtained from the sample are consistent with the representation of the population. The P. value is the pointer towards the possibility of chance that the true coefficient is actually zero. In the above analysis, there is a greater P. value of the first variable and low on the other independent variables. It is upheld that the lesser the P-value for an estimated coefficient, the larger the confident the study is in estimates. Therefore, P-value of 0.05 or lower is considered adequate for a researcher to have confidence that the estimated coefficient is statistically significant. In this regard, the estimated coefficient of Median Household Income, price of soda and population, are considered statistically significant. It can be concluded that Domino's Pizza is most likely to grow if established in Parkville area of Baltimore, Maryland.

Question 2

(a) Compound Annual Growth Rate is the ratio of Fred's Hard ware and hobby house ending value to beginning value ($100,000 / $60,000 = 1.95) raised to the power of 1/4 (since 1/# of years = 1/4), then subtracting 1 from the resulting number:

1.67 raised to 1/4 power = 1.1362

1.1362-1 = 0.1362

Therefore the Compound Annual actual Growth Rate is 13.62%.

(b) The disadvantage of employing a constant rate…… [read more]

Coffee Crisis Is a Case Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,024 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Much of this was related to the increase in the consumption of soft drinks which increased from twenty three gallons to fifty three gallons over the same time period. Despite an increase in premium coffees that helped to stabilize coffee demand, the overall trend in the market is that coffee demand has not kept up with population growth.

There are two different types of coffees that serve as the chief export for many coffee producing nations. The two types consist of Robusta which is much easier to grow and Arabica which has a milder flavor but has lower yield rates. Another key driver of the market price was spurred by technology. Many of the major coffee producers found new ways to blend flavors and coffee bean types to retain most of the flavor through a lower cost blend. The producers have used every opportunity possible to lower their raw material costs by these means while also decreasing quality standards.

Furthermore, until 1989 coffee prices were somewhat controlled by an international agreement known as the ICA. However, this agreement collapsed but the world prices were buffered, at least temporarily, to market forces. In the mid-1990s there were a series of droughts in Africa that had substantial implications for the coffee markets since the world supply was lowered by these droughts. These prices also attracted many new growers to the coffee industry. Vietnam for example, went from virtually no coffee produced in the country to becoming of the world's largest exporters in just a couple of years.

The same trend was evident in other parts of the world as well as many producers were attracted by the high market prices at the time. However, the flood of new coffee producers did not have immediate effects on the market price because it takes roughly two years for the first coffee crops to produce beans once the farmers begin planting crops. Therefore, while the prices might change rather quickly, the delay in the producers trying to meet demand is not felt immediately. This seemingly caused many suppliers to enter simultaneously and as a result the supply of coffee increased substantially but after a few years' time since the high prices were produced that followed the drought.


The coffee commodity industry seems to need more stability and some kind of coordination. The delay in the time it takes for new crops to be added and the crops to reach the market have produced a volatile arrangement in which the producers are somewhat blind to the future market prices and global supplies. While the Fair Trade organization does show promise in providing some amount of coordination, it is unlikely to stabilize the commodity effectively. It is suggested that a new version of the ICA be created to help pool collective data about supply and demand to all of the participating members so that they can disseminate this information to local growers. Just having better visibility in the industry could also act to advert many of… [read more]

Ginseng Business Plan Ginseng Growers Business Plan

Business Plan  |  4 pages (992 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The farm will mimic the plant's natural habitat or that of a thick forest canopy through use of a screen that provides 70% of more shade along with straw mulch to replace the natural littering of leaves in the plant's natural forest habitat. The average yield per acre is approximately 3,000 pounds or 1,364 kilograms of dried ginseng root. With a 20 acre ginseng crop the yield should total 60,000 pounds of dried ginseng for a total of $180,000.00. The following chart lists a comparison of three methods of ginseng growing and the net profit per 1/2 acre in each growing method.

Figure 1 -- Three Methods of Growing Ginseng and Estimation of Profits Per 1/2 Acre


Artificial Shade

Woods Cultivated

Wild Simulated

Time till first harvest

3 to 4 years

6 to 8 years

6 to 12 years

Seeds planted per ? acre

50 lbs

24 lbs

10 lbs

Total Labor per 1/2 acre

1,500 Hours

1,950 Hours

825 Hours

Total Costs per 1/2 Acre




Root yield per 1/2 acre

1,125 lbs

300 lbs

80 lbs

Root price per pound




Gross Income per 1/2 acre




Net Profit per 1/2 acre




Source: Ohio State University Fact Sheet (2004)

Comparative Advantages in Production

Land located in the Appalachia foothills of Tennessee is conducive to growing ginseng. The land on which the company intends to grow ginseng has been determined as optimal ginseng growing land.

Business Start-up Expenses

Purchase of 20 acres of land at $1,500.00 per acre $30,000.00

Ginseng Seed (110 pounds per acre X 20 acres @ $40.00 per pound) $88,000.00

Equipment and facilities $30,000.00

Total $148,000.00

The land has been carefully chosen as land that is too dry will kill the roots and land that is too wet will result in rotting of the ginseng roots.

Industry Overview

Ginseng has been used as an herbal remedy for more than 5,000 years in Asia and more than 400 years in North America. Western culture is beginning to acknowledge the medicinal properties of ginseng and this has resulted in an increase in research of the health benefits of ginseng. Domestic output in Asian countries has been unable to meet the current demand for ginseng products making imports of North American ginseng more profitable and they have increased steadily since 1986 and report state that these imports of North American ginseng into Asia will continue to increase. The average price of ginseng is $30.00 per pound wholesale, which has fallen from the 1992 price of $50.00 per pound.

Marketing Strategy

The primary target markets are those of Hong Kong and Asia since these countries are the largest consistent consumers of ginseng. Secondary markets include other South Asian countries such as Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. A secondary market will be that of Japan.

Projected Annual Cash Flow Statement

For the Years Ending Dec

2016 2017 2018

Cash Inflows

Cash Receipts 180,000 180,000 180,000

Operating…… [read more]

Butterfly Farming Among Tanzanian Villagers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,530 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In this way butterfly farming becomes a sustainable resource for low-income communities throughout poor and underdeveloped countries and villages like those in Tanzania as this case study suggests. Butterfly farming when enabled and utilized properly can be an incredibly valuable resource. Hopefully in the future it will continue to grow and prosper communities in a beneficent manner.


Marcus, R. 2001. Seeing the forest for the trees: Integrated conservation and development projects and local perceptions of conservation in Madagascar. Human Ecology 29:381-97.

Mayaka, T.B., T. Hendricks, J. Wesseler, and H.H.T. Prins. 2005, Improving the benefits of wildlife harvesting in Northern Cameroon: A co-management perspective. Ecological Economics 54:67-80.

Millinga, A. 2003. Report on review of financial systems for the Amani Butterfly Project, training on conducting baseline survey and training project beneficiaries. Center for Microfinance and Enterprise Development/Tanzania Forest Conservation Group.

Morgan-Brown, T. And A. Saidi. 2005. Baseline survey of cash income. Conducted for the Amani Butterfly Project, Amani, Tanzania. Tanzania Forest Conservation Group, Dar es Salaam.

New, T.R. 1997. Butterfly conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Scurrah-Ehrhard, C. & Blomley, T. 2006. Amani Butterfly Forest-based enterprise, Tanga.

Amani Butterfly Project. Retrieved:


Wily, L.A. 2000. 'Forest law in Eastern and Southern Africa. Moving…… [read more]

Letter to the President Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (601 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, it is our priority to stop using this pesticide, for, again, although the tadpole issue does not seem very catastrophic, it can and will, if not controlled, affect the environment at large in a negative way. This letter will thus continue by offering recommendations as to how to solve this problem.

My first recommendation would be to control the use of this pesticide, and thus diminish amphibian deaths. One could do this by only allowing a certain amount of Chlorothalonil to be bought at a time, which can, hopefully, eventually deter those from buying it to buy it at all. This should then leads to a substitution of Chlorothalonil with another, more environmentally safe ingredient, just as effective, that could then better address this issue and help alleviate these concerns.

As one can never be sure as to how humans will react to this substitute, which may very well be more expensive, Chlorothalonil should be outlawed, so that those who utilize it still can be prosecuted. It is only in this way that we can actually have a positive impact on this small segment of the earth's population, and affect our environment in a positive way.

Mr. President, I hope these recommendations will be taken into account. They are, I know, quite vague at this moment, for this is only a preliminary presentation of the problem to you. However, should you choose to address this issue, which I believe will be a very important issue to address, please do not hesitate to contact me for further information about the study and its results, and to confer about possible specific solutions to this problem that my better meet Presidential standards.

Thank you very much for your attention, Mr. President.… [read more]

Change: For Question 4e Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


c. Effect on total revenue = total revenue should increase, because changing the price by 16% created a 20% change in quantity sold.

5) Chapter 4, Answer the following question which is based on Page 107, Number 17 but has some changes:

The demand curve for product X is given as Q = 2000-20P.

a. How many units will be sold at $10?


b. At what price would 2,000 units be sold? 0 units? 1,500 units?

2000=2000-20P -- at no price -- to sell 2000 units, price must be $0.



To sell 0 units, price must be 100.




c. Write the equation for total revenue (in terms of P, that is, the equation will include the variable P. But will not include the variable Q).

Total revenue formula

Revenue=price x quantity

R = p (2000-20P)

R= 2000P -20P^2

d. What will be the total revenue at a price of $70?


e. What is the elasticity between $65 and $75?

% change in quantity demanded/% change in price



-.4/0.15= -2 2/3

f. If price…… [read more]

Rainfall Simulation Studies to Estimate Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 200


Rainfall Simulation Studies to Estimate Soil Erosion as Influenced by Rainfall Intensity and Slope in Four Distinct Soils

Figure Number Page No.

Introduction to the Findings

This document reports the findings in a series of rainfall simulation studies that have served to estimate the soil erosion levels are they are influenced by rainfall intensity and slope in four distinct soils and in terms of the loss of nutrients occurring during the course of the testing phases of this study. The following provides a results key that may be used for referencing the different abbreviations used in the report of the findings of this present study.

Results Key


LL (las lomas series),

T (talparo series),

M (maracas series) and S (st. augustine series).


H (high intensity),

M (medium intensity) and L (low intensity)


(5% slope),

(10% slope) and

(30% slope)


NO2 & NO3-> nitrate and nitrate

NH4 -> ammonium

P-> phosphorous

TSS ->sediment

For soil and crop only experiments and field simulation sediment and runoff:

T0-> before planting

T1-> just after transplanting

T2-> middle stage or growth

T3-> just before harvest or mature.


LL (las lomas series),

T (talparo series),

M (maracas series) and S (st. augustine series).

Rainfall Simulation Studies To Estimate Soil Erosion As Influenced By Rainfall Intensity and Slope in Four Distinct Soils

Findings of the Study

The findings in the soil only experiment per hectare base when testing the runoff levels of No3&No2 (g/ha), Nh4 (g/ha), and P (g/ha) show that the runoff of the first two components were significantly higher at all levels of intensity and on all slopes than were the runoff levels of P (g/ha) in the experiment. Phosphorus levels remained steady and do not appear to react differently to varied levels of rainfall amount or intensity.

Figure 1 - Soil only experiment -- per hectare base

In the Soil and Crop Experiment - Water Quality Cumulative by Time and in the category of Just after Transplanting (5 T1) the sediment loss due to runoff was found to be significantly higher for the St. Augustine series and Las Lomas series than for the Maracas series and Talapro series. For example in the Soil and Crop Experiment - Water Cumulative by Time when the rainfall intensity was low the following readings were noted:

Figure 2 - Soil and Crop Experiment - Water Cumulative by Time -- T1 -- Low Intensity

Soil Intensity Slope Time Runoff (L) No.3&No.2(ppm) Nh4(ppm) P (ppm) Tss (ppm)

ML 5 T1 1.0-0.9-1.0-0.1 333.3

TL 5 T1 0.7-1.3-1.2-0.2 888.9

SL 5 T1 1.0-1.6-0.7-0.2 1888.9

LL L. 5 T1 1.4-0.7-1.8-0.1 3222.2

However, when the rainfall intensity was of medium intensity this changed and the Maracas series and St. Augustine series soils experienced less runoff significantly lower than the Talparo series and Las Lomas series soils in the category of Just after Transplant (5 T1).

Figure 3 - Soil and Crop Experiment - Water Cumulative by Time -- T1 - Medium Intensity

Soil Intensity Slope Time Runoff (L) No.3&No.2(ppm)… [read more]

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