Study "Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays 606-660

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Popular American Culture I Encounter the Emblems Term Paper

… Popular American Culture

I encounter the emblems and elements of American popular culture every day, whether I like it or not. Walking down the street, I see the golden arches that mean a McDonald's is nearby. I shudder to think of the garbage that people are putting into their mouths. Then I see a KFC, a Burger King, a Wendy's, and practically every other American fast food chain restaurants. There is no way to avoid fast food signs, logos, and advertisements on billboards, bus benches, and store windows; they are ubiquitous. Nearby, are all the retail stores selling clothes made in China but bearing American labels such as the Gap, Banana Republic, and even larger stores like Macy's. Likewise, there are also all the hideous corporate conglomerate culprits such as Wal-Mart and Target, also seducing consumers to buy low-priced junk they do not need.

The popular culture of America is shopping and rampant consumerism (Cohen, 2003). Even the arts have been packaged as the lowest common denominator: they no longer emphasize creative expressions, but merely play a role in propelling the mass consumption engine. American popular music has also become mainly about image and the cult of celebrity instead of music. Movies have retained some of their entertainment value although much of what comes out of Hollywood also seems designed to promote actors rather than art. Finally, American popular culture is little more than a mix of nonsense driven by advertising disseminated and propagated by various American media outlets. The more familiar I become with American popular culture, the more aware I become of the difference between what I truly want and what marketing departments tell me I should want. In fact, telling people they should want what advertisers promote…… [read more]

Bread Mold Occurs Faster in Room Temp vs. Refrigeration Lab Report

… Lab Report/Bread Mold/REVISED

The purpose of this experiment was to look at two ways bread is stored in the home kitchen, in a cupboard and in the refrigerator. It was hypothesized that bread would stay fresher and be slower to… [read more]

Confections Industry Structured? Term Paper

… ¶ … confections industry structured? What are the three to five most important structural characteristics of this industry?

The confectionery industry is structured into three major categories, as follows:

Chocolate products

Non-chocolate products, and Gum products.

By far, the largest generator of sales -- and as such the largest manufactured quantity -- is constituted by chocolate products. This simple division of the industry into three sectors is given by the creation of industry categories based on the main ingredients used in the manufacturing of the analyzed products. Another structural characteristic is represented by the seasonality of the confectionary products. This specifically refers to the existence of several moments throughout the year when the demand for the confections products increases -- such as Valentine's Day or Christmas. This seasonality generates increased sales rates for the companies specialized in products specific for those times of year. Finally, a third structural characteristic is constituted by the origin of the cocoa beans from regions such as the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Indonesia or Nigeria.

2. What is competition like in the confections industry? Is this industry highly competitive? Why or why not?

The competition in the industry is extremely intense and this is due to a series of reasons. At a first level, the high levels of competition are generated by the fact that the demand for gourmet products within the modern day societies increases as a result of both efficient marketing, as well as the health benefits of chocolate. As the demand for these products increases, so does the offer.

At a secondary level however, it has to be noted that the offer increases at higher rates and in a quicker rhythm than the demand. This situation occurs as more economic agents recognize the potential for financial gain in the industry and enter it. The result is that of a wide array of providers from which the customers to choose those that best serve their needs. Ultimately then, competition intensifies.

3. What are forces or trends are driving change in the industry? Which ones are the most important? Explain.

Similar to any other modern day industry, the confectionary industry undergoes a series of modifications, due to a series of challenges, such as changing consumer demands, changing demands from the public which requires economic agents to operate in a more socio-environmentally responsible manner, changing economic climate which influences customer purchasing powers and so on.

Competition is also an important driver of change as it forces economic agents to develop and implement strategies for improvement, or otherwise face the risks of losses as they become uncompetitive. Also, seasonability -- discussed throughout the first section -- impacts the industry. The following are also noteworthy as drivers of change:

The increase in obesity and diabetes and the more attention placed on heath

The increasing demands and pressures from consumers,…… [read more]

Commodity Chain Analysis Water Term Paper

… Commodity Chain Analysis: Water

Commodity Chain Analysis Paper: Water

Aquafina Bottled Water (Pepsico)

The increased popularity of bottled water over the last ten or so years has led to many questions about its position in the market, as well as… [read more]

Sushi Restaurant Essay

… Sushi Restaurant

Unagi will be dedicated to being the best sushi restaurant in town. When the customer enters the room, a hostess will greet him. The hostess will not be wearing a kimono as this is a modern restaurant. The… [read more]

Victorian Floods in 2010 Essay

… Floods in Victoria

The State of Victoria in Australia suffered serious flooding in the month of September, 2010, causing "hundreds of millions of dollars in lost crops," according to the Age newspaper report. There was a great deal of other damage as well from the torrent of water that poured down, including the loss of about 100 sheep and 22 homes at Campbell's Creek and Chalton. The Deputy Premier Peter Ryan of Victoria said the state is facing "…tens of thousands of acres of cropping country being under water, the destruction of the crops for practical purposes and…hundreds of millions of dollars of loss, no doubt" (

The rain didn't stop in September -- it continued raining (not nonstop but a lot of rain) into November, according to the Australian newspaper. After fourteen years of drought, the communities were certainly not ready for all the rain, Karl Braganza reported. In the last week of November, the Victorian community of Kilmore, north of Melbourne, reported receiving 160mm over a 4-day period. Valuable cheery crops have been damaged according to the secretary of the Victorian Cherry Association, John Wilson; some farmers lost "their entire crops" because the heavy rainwater caused the berries to split (

The flood damage was due in part to the long drought; the land was parched and bone dry, and a sudden influx of millions of gallons of water had no where to go but over the banks of the once-dry river beds and into homes and fields.

An article in quotes Victorian Premier John Brumby saying the "there will be roads, there will be bridges" and "community infrastructure" that will be damaged due to the downpour. But he said, because of the drought that lasted 14 years, the benefits from the rains in the "predominantly farming regions" (that have borne the brunt of the drought) "far outweighs the damage that's occurred" ( The reason that Brumby was able to find something positive in the midst of an environmental disaster is that "The Lower Lakes of the Murray River will be full of water in just over a month," according to Peter Ker, writing in the Age (Ker, 2010, p. 1).

Ker mentions that the benefit is that the rivers that flooded northern Victoria will flow into the Murray and send "…at lease 900 billion litres of water across the border into South Australia" (p.…… [read more]

Why Tim Horton's Is Always Fresh Research Paper

… Tim Hortons Always Fresh

Operations Management

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Natalie LeBlanc

Stan Chen

Gavin Bryant

Abdul Alhamdan

Why Tim Horton's is always fresh - Operations Report


Maidstone Bakeries, located in Ontario, supplies Tim Hortons with Timbits and a variety of other baked products.

Tim Hortons company Fondant and Fills Manufacturing Facilities supply stores with creams and fillings, which are applied to the par-baked donuts after they receive their final baking in the restaurant's Always Fresh oven.

Tim Hortons company warehouses supply stores with paper and dry goods.

Tim Hortons company coffee roasting plants in Rochester, New York and Hamilton, Ontario.

The Maidstone Coffee facility located in Rochester, New York roasts coffee for approximately 47% of our total coffee requirements.

Baking Process

Par-Baked in Ontario Factory - Tim Hortons Donuts are "par-baked," meaning they are partially baked at the factory in Ontario, flash frozen, and delivered to one of five distribution centers across Canada and the U.S. From the distribution center, they are delivered to individual restaurants.

Always Fresh Oven Baking -- Most Tim Hortons restaurants now have an Always Fresh oven with the company's proprietary technology, which is designed to bake the frozen par-baked goods quickly.

Final Finishings - the restaurant completes the baking process with this oven and adds final finishings such as glazing and fondant, allowing the product to be served warm to the customer within a few minutes of baking.

Service Process

Restaurant - Restaurants bake ready-made donuts and pastry items in advance and place them in a glass display case for customers to select, after which employees will grab the donuts for the customer. Donuts that have been on the shelf too long are thrown away so as to maintain the company's reputation for freshness.

Drive-Thru - Customers can order donuts from the drive-thru, which the customer will grab from the display case in the restaurant.

Self-Service - Self-Service kiosks with one-cup-at-a-time coffee and baked goods.

Employee training

Tim Hortons has standardized Providing annual training in order to review and reaffirm employee commitment to follow our business practices and ethical standards.

Tim Hortons has special food safety training programs for employees.

Improving Restaurant Operations


Restaurants throw away donuts that have been on the shelf too long. Thus, there is a huge potential for waste if the restaurant misjudges demand or if patronage is demand is volatile.

Reduce Production - to reduce potential for waste,…… [read more]

Letter of Inquiry Nonprofit Research Proposal

… Letter of Inquiry

Nonprofit Letter of Inquiry

Jenny Shilling Stein

Executive Director

Draper Richards Foundation

California Street, Suite 2925

Dear Ms. Stein,

Thank you for considering the Community of Hope DC as a possible recipient of a Draper Richards Foundation Fellowship. The Draper Richards Foundation is well-known to us for its careful selection of high quality and high impact projects, and we are honored to be among those considered for sponsorship.

Community of Hope DC was founded by Dr. Tom Nees in 1975 with the aim of improving the health and quality of life for low-income or homeless families and individuals. We are a faith-based organization with ties to the Church of the Nazarene, but we consider it our imperative to offer our services to all who need them regardless of their faith.

In the last 35 years, Community of Hope DC has made a significant difference in the lives of the poor and homeless in Washington, DC. We currently have programs operating in three areas: Health Services, Housing and Supportive Services, and Educational and Spiritual Services. Our Health Services program operates a clinic in the Adams Morgan community that provides free medical, dental, and mental healthcare to over 4,000 patients a year. Our Housing and Supportive Services program is able to provide housing for over 100 homeless families, including over 400 children who would otherwise be on the streets. Our Educational program offers low-income and homeless individuals a broad range of opportunities to learn, from life skills classes and diabetes management seminars to math tutoring and group spiritual therapy.

One area into which Community of Hope DC would like to expand is the area of food provision. Through our the shelters operating as part of our housing program, we are able to offer regular hot meals to those who…… [read more]

Effect of Temperature Stress on Membranes Research Paper

… ¶ … Temp

Effects of Temperature Stress on the Cell Membranes of the Common Beet

In this experiment, the effects of different temperatures on the integrity of cell membranes in the common beet will be assessed. It is hypothesized that both extremely high and extremely low temperatures will lead to a breakdown of the cell membranes of this plant, due to the breakdown of plant material at higher temperatures and the rupture of cells and cell membranes due to the expansion of freezing water at temperatures below the freezing point.

Cell membranes are vital to life, keeping the constituent elements of a cell contained and thus functioning in tandem with each other as they are supposed to, allowing individual cells to contribute to the overall success of a given organ and thus of an organism as a whole (Lund et al. 2000). Research has shown that temperature can have major effects on the integrity of cell membranes, both due to forces within the cell and in intracellular material, especially when exposure to sub-freezing temperatures is accompanied by exposure to external ice (Toner et al. 2009). Other types of stress can increase the deformability of cell membranes, leading to a host of potential problems in the development of a living organism and again demonstrating the supreme importance to life that something as small and as seemingly simple as a cell membrane presents (Bochu et al. 2000). The additional knowledge that this experiment will provide will assist in the understanding of how cell membranes respond to temperature stress, suggesting methods for the care of cell membranes and the prevention of cell membrane harm or destruction during exposures to extreme temperatures.

Materials and Methods

Necessary equipment for this experiment included a beaker, six identical test tubes that had been carefully cleaned and dried, and a pair of forceps. Also required were a refrigerator and a freezer, both with accurate temperature controls and internal thermometers, as well as hot and cold running water and a thermometer for the creation of water baths at varying temperatures well above the freezing point. A single large beet and a corer were also utilized for the experiment. Six identical cylinders were taken from the beet, rinsed in the beaker for a period of two minutes, and then placed individually in each of the test tubes using the forceps. Test tubes were labeled 1 through 6; tube 5 was placed in the refrigerator at a temperature of 5 degrees Celsius and tube 6 was placed…… [read more]

Intermediate Microeconomics Term Paper

… Adverse Selection

Intermediate Microeconomics

Got adverse selection?

The poorer you are, the more you pay for milk (and healthy food in general)

Got adverse selection?

The poorer you are, the more you pay for milk (and healthy food in general)

In economics, adverse selection is a "situation where sellers have information that buyers don't (or vice versa) about some aspect of product quality" (Adverse selection definition, 2001, Investopedia). Another way of defining adverse selection is a situation of asymmetric information, whereby one party (sellers or buyers) has information that the opposing party does not. This can be seen in the pricing of groceries in low-income or inner city neighborhoods. Despite the frequent complaints about high pricing at boutique grocery stores like Whole Foods, very often the prices in lower-income areas tend to be much higher. While it may be true that organic milk may be more costly at Whole Foods, a comparison of regular milk in more affluent and less affluent neighborhoods in New York City revealed that the same sizes and types of milk often cost more where people were relatively poorer (Lehrer 2007).

This might seem counterintuitive. After all, if people have less money, does this not mean they have a reduced level of income with which to purchase goods and services? Should this not drive prices down, especially given the many stores that sell milk? However, lower-income consumers have less money to travel around to shop around for the lowest prices of milk. Shopping around costs gas money or money in subway and bus fare that the low-income consumer can ill-afford. "According to data from the latest census (2000), about 23.5 million people, or 8.4% of the U.S. population, live in low-income neighborhoods that are more than a mile from a supermarket. Low-income neighborhoods are areas where more than 40% of the population has income less than or equal to 200% of the Federal poverty threshold ($44,000 per year for a family of four in 2008)" according to the census (Ploeg 2010). A lack of access to a car also means that a low-income consumer will need to carry his or her purchases, which eliminates the ability to buy in bulk to feed a large family or to buy needed items on sale.

Furthermore, many low-income workers are working two (or more) jobs and do not have the time or, frankly, the energy, to engage in price-shopping. Sellers near low-income areas can thus price their goods much higher, because they know their target population will have to accept the prices…… [read more]

Marketing Buying Farmland Abroad: Outsourcing's Third Wave Essay

… Marketing

Buying Farmland Abroad: Outsourcing's Third Wave

Buying farmland abroad is not an appropriate FDI because it appears to be nothing more than land grabs that are not truly making anything better for anyone involved. The preponderance of these deals are surrounded by ambiguity, particularly in nations that have high incidences of dishonesty. One official in Cambodia has complained that an agreement to rent thousands of acres of rice includes a smaller amount of particulars than one would find in a contract to buy a house. Mystery leads it to be impractical to recognize if farms are truly becoming more competent or whether the agreements are put into place just to benefit the politicians who support them (Massive sale of Ethiopian farms lands to Chinese and Arabs, 2009).

The majority of these agreements are between governments. This leads to uncomfortable inquiries being asked. Foreign assets aid nations not only by using new know-how but also by restructuring the way citizens labor and by watching expenses. There are very few governments that can do this well, and a corrupt one not usually at all. One of the principal issues of major profitable farming in deprived nations is the fact that farmers find it more advantageous to search for particular favors than to grow things. These agreements often worsen this issue. Additionally, the motive for those who want to turn around faulty farms has not been to make a profit. To a certain extent, it has been to raise food cost and implement bans on exportation. It appears that protectionism and not competence, has been the motivating power (Massive sale of Ethiopian farms lands to Chinese and Arabs, 2009).

There have been grave uncertainties about whether or not the nations that are obtaining land are paying the true price for it. The selling administrations typically maintain the farmland they present is unoccupied, government owned land. This in fact is often untrue. It often sustains smallholders whom have grown on the land for years. They don't…… [read more]

Smithfield Ham Term Paper

… ¶ … history of Smithfield Ham

In recent years, the demand for premium meat products has increased nation-wide. Concerns about the safety and ethics of factory farming, generated by works such as Michael Pollan's the Omnivore's Dilemma and Food Rules have stimulated interest in older ways of farming and raising livestock. Heritage pork raised on free-range farms has become the preferred choice of 'foodies,' people who care about the taste and quality of their food to a near-obsessive degree, as well as meat-eaters who wish to eat in a healthier and more sustainable fashion. Critics of conventional pork raising and meat processing would condemn many of the characteristic raising and curing methods currently used by the Smithfield organization. But producers of commercial meats such as Smithfield Ham are still popular amongst large sections of the public. Although it is a national brand that makes use of commercial manufacturing methods, Smithfield Ham has been able to retain customer loyalty.

Ironically, the Smithfield Ham company is founded upon a long, proud tradition of natural pork raising in Smithfield, Virginia. Smithfield has been called the Ham Capital of the World. Smithfield ham, although it is associated with a specific company, is also the status of a protected agricultural product in Smithfield. "Smithfield ham, in order to be the genuine product had to be produced in Smithfield from hogs that were raised in Smithfield. Smithfield hams were defined by a 1926 statute of Virginia which stated that genuine Smithfield hams are hams cut from the 'carcasses of peanut-fed hogs, raised in the peanut-belt of the Commonwealth of Virginia or the State of North Carolina'…Virginia's General Assembly revised the meaning of the term Smithfield ham in 1966 by deleting references to peanut-fed hogs. In addition, the revision stipulated that genuine Smithfield hams must be 'processed, treated, smoked, aged, and cured by the long-cure, dry method of cure and aged for a minimum period of six months' and that all the salting, processing, curing, and aging had to be performed within the corporate limits of the town of Smithfield, Virginia"(Ruegsegger 2010). This detail reflects the fact that ham in Smithfield is viewed as a kind of regional treasure, as well as a food product. This tradition has made a substantial contribution to the positive marketing and associations with the Smithfield Ham company.

The company Smithfield Ham began on a family run farm in Smithfield, in the heart of this 'ham country.' Modern meat packing technology enabled the Luter family of Smithfield, Virginia to found its business. The family "has been curing and selling hams since the turn of the century" like many residents, but the Luters were able make their local meats into a national enterprise (About us, Smithfield Hams, 2010). Meat packing, more so than original raising or curing founded the Smithfield Ham empire. "Joseph W. Luter, Sr.'s first job was at a local meat packing plant. His young son, Joseph W. Luter, Jr., followed in his father's footsteps, learning every phase of the meat… [read more]

Diet and Heart Disease Article Review

… ¶ … meat intake and the development of acute coronary syndromes: the CARDIO2000 case -- control study by Kontogianni, Panagiotakos, Pitsavos, Chrysohoou and Stefanadis (2008) explores the relationship between the consumption of meat and the development of non-fatal acute cardio syndrome. This study controlled for confounding risk factors and found that meat consumption was directly correlated to an increased risk for experiencing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In particular, the consumption of one serving of meat per month increased the likelihood of the development of ACS by 60% with the odds growing as intake increases (Kontogianni et al., 2008). This study adds to the significant body of research that supports the conclusion that diet and food consumption is directly related to overall health, particularly heart health.

Due to the potential negative impacts of consumption of meat, particularly red meats and those that are processed such as increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndromes, the researchers hypothesized that there was a correlation between meat intake and the occurrence of a first, non-fatal ACS (Kontogianni et al., 2008). This was supported by various studies that found a connection between dietary intake, particularly processed meats and those high in saturated fats, and the development of heart conditions such as myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. The present study seeks to add to the body of research that exists regarding diet and heart disease with a particular emphasis on meat consumption.

The researchers utilized a randomized, case control study to explore the association between socio-demographic, nutritional, lifestyle, and clinical factors and the occurrence of non-fatal ACS. Participants were randomly selected from in accordance to the population statistics from the major hospitals in Greece. While 956 participants were selected through power analysis a total of 848 participated in the research study. The inclusion criteria for these 848 patients included experiencing a first event myocardial infarction and/or unstable angina (Kontogianni et al., 2008). These cardiac patients were matched with a randomized control group that had visited the outpatient departments of the same hospitals. The control group was matched demographically with the experimental group in order to ensure the most accurate medical information could be obtained as well as reducing the potential impact of unknown confounding factors.

Participant data was collected in many forms including from medical records, a lifestyle characteristics questionnaire, as well as a semi-quantitative food questionnaire that utilized national food guidelines (Kontogianni et al., 2008). Consumption of meat products, alcohol, cigarette smoking, and physical activity were all measured. Variables were identified as exposure variables and confounding variables, those variables that should have been controlled for but were not and as a result may lead to false conclusions (Creswell, 2009). The variables were operationalized first through the…… [read more]

Mcdonalds Lifting Prices in Working-Class Areas Research Paper

… ¶ … McDonalds lifting prices in working-class areas in demand-based pricing scheme impacted on its revenue in Australia, particularly total revenue, marginal revenue and average revenue

A change in the pricing strategy in any organization is based on considerations such… [read more]

DQ -1. My Job in the Army Essay

… DQ -1. My job in the Army has a high level of skill variety, ranging from combat to communications to a variety of technical tasks. The task identity is also high. Not only do I contribute significant work to the task but as a team I work directly on projects to tremendous importance. I feel that my job is meaningful because it has a high impact on others. As a soldier in the Army, I support the needs of all Americans, which has powerful meaning for me. I also receive strong feedback, both from my superiors and fellow soldiers, but from the general public as well and this is a strong positive force for me in my position. One thing my job lacks is autonomy. As a general rule, the job has only limited freedom and very little discretion with regards to scheduling. For all but the simplest tasks, my schedule is set by my superiors. However, given the other strong benefits there is little that I would do to make the job more motivating. One change I may potentially make is that I would find more creative and interesting tasks with which to fill down time. Because time is regimented, sometimes that time is spent on relatively tedious tasks. Ideally, this would be avoided.

DQ -2. My chosen organization is Starbucks. At the strategic level, the company has chosen to move aggressively into international markets as a means to achieve growth in the future. At the functional level, the company chooses from which suppliers to acquire their beans. The strategic level plan requires an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars, spread out over the course of several years. The decision is made at the highest levels of the organization. There is a high level of risk associated with this strategy and if it fails the company could be compromised; conversely the profit potential is high enough to fuel strong profits for the entire company. The functional level decision is made…… [read more]

White Collar and Political Crimes Term Paper

… Farmworkers and White Collar Crime

The United Nation's World Health Organization estimates that on an annual basis, over 3 million agricultural workers experience severe and sometimes fatal exposure to poisoning from pesticides used in the production of various farming activities.… [read more]

Justification for an Internal Control System Essay

… Justification for an Internal Control System

To the CEO of the Crafty Foods Company:

Re: internal vs. external controls

A recent spate of recalls in the food industry has caused many corporations to be on edge regarding the potential financial losses that could incur if a product is found to be contaminated. Our company is well-known for its sound external controls regarding risk mitigation. For example, we are insured against potential losses of shipments due to unforeseen weather circumstances, including the events transpiring in the gulf. We also adopt a so-called 'portfolio' based strategy of risk management. Regarding our popular Kids Chicken Nuggets, we use multiple suppliers of poultry to ensure that if one source is deemed unsafe, dramatically increases in price, or becomes unavailable, we will still have access to the needed input materials of white chicken meat.

However, the problem with any external approach of risk management is that it assumes that things will go wrong, and merely provides a way of mitigating the risk, rather than avoiding risks altogether. Regarding insurance, quite often even a strong insurance policy such as ours will not provide enough money to pay for the losses after a disaster. And not all potential hazards are covered by insurance policies. For example, a house insured for fire and flood damage might be hit by golf ball-sized hail during a freak storm. Using salmonella-tainted peanut butter by accident could result in a costly lawsuit and if our workers are found to have deviated from standard operating procedures, insurance many not cover the damages we have to pay. Or a worker might be injured in one of our processing plants in a manner also not covered by our standard insurance policies. Moreover, even if insurance does cover some of the losses, there are other, intangible losses that cannot be easily quantified. The loss of public trust and goodwill can impact sales in a devastating manner, and have repercussions for decades. Better for such events not to happen at all, than to take comfort in insurance coverage.

An instructive example of the loss -- and regaining -- of positive PR can be seen in such examples as the Mars Corporation, which immediately embarked upon a risk avoidance strategy by doing away with its red-colored chocolate M&Ms in the 1970s, until an acceptable and safe alternative could be derived. The hassle of proving that the dye might be safe was simply too costly and too much of…… [read more]

Eat That Do You? Research Paper

… ¶ … eat that do you? It was brought by

Society perceives the concept of food differently and while certain communities find particular food to be enjoyable, others can be disgusted at the mere thought of consuming it. A number… [read more]

Suspensions From Hollandaise to Forcemeats Term Paper

… ¶ … suspensions used in cooking, along with additional information. Suspensions are a type of sauce or thickened substance used in cooking. They are often familiar types of food that people eat every day, and do not think of them as anything special. However, suspensions help thicken and give body to traditional sauces with texture and flavor, and they are an important aspect of many recipes.

Essentially, suspensions add a plant or animal material to water and bind the water molecules together to form a thick sauce or puree. One Web site states, "If the particles are too large, instead of a stable colloid, we get a suspension. A suspension is when particles are temporarily suspended in a fluid, but will eventually settle out if left undisturbed" (Editors). One of the most well respected books on cookery and science continues, "Such a mixture of a fluid and solid particles is called a suspension: the particles are suspended in the fluid. Sauces made from pureed foods are suspensions" (McGee 593). Suspensions make food more interesting, add texture, color, and flavor to foods, and they are relatively simple to make.

Suspensions are related to solutions and colloid solutions. Solutions are mixtures of liquid and another item that mix to form a homogenous mixture. Colloid solutions appear to be homogenous, and suspensions usually have particles larger than 1 micrometer. Suspensions can be separated or filtered, as well (Lowe). Emulsions are extremely special types of suspensions, where the liquid cannot mix evenly with the other liquid. (an oil and vinegar salad dressing is a good example of an emulsion). Another Web site notes, "Emulsions are mixtures of special kinds of suspensions where the two materials cannot mix evenly. This can be seen in such things as mayonnaise and salad dressing" (Editors 64). Emulsions serve a vital purpose in cooking, because they create sauces like hollandaise, and help bind two ingredients into one food.

Suspensions create consistency and texture in dishes. If you look at typical suspensions, they range in the size of the particles. Larger particles give more texture, while smaller particles make the texture smoother, and thicker, as well. Suspensions are also always opaque. Author McGee continues, "Suspensions are always opaque, because the solid particles are large enough to block the passage of light rays and either absorb them or bounce them back toward their source" (McGee 593). Suspensions also create new foods by mixing ingredients. For example, author McGee notes, "Nut butters and chocolate are suspensions of solid seed particles not in water, but in oils and fats" (McGee 594). When you view suspensions that way, you can see that they are one of the backbones of cooking, even if they are not always that well-known or recognized. Suspensions also thicken sauces, drinks, and other items by using their particles to act as a thickening agent. If you think of a smoothie, you can see this in action. The fruit purees with the liquid to make a smooth, drinkable mixture that is… [read more]

Agricultural Development System in United States Research Paper

… ¶ … agricultural development system in America: The Dust Bowl and the Grapes of Wrath

John Steinbeck's novel the Grapes of Wrath is a fictional account of a very real period of American history -- when the soil literally blew… [read more]

Sustainability Practices Relating to Individuals and Families Research Paper

… Sustainability

Sustainable living involves more deliberate choices in the face of three aspects of our lives, including time crunches, too much "stuff," and a disconnection from the land base and spirituality. Using our time in sustainable ways can be the foundation of a more happy and sustainable lifestyle. Everyday we are implored by advertisements to purchase more stuff, be it to appease family members or fulfill ourselves. Instead, a better way to know the way to sustainability is a connection with others and nature. One of the main reasons why we have grown so disconnected from nature is because so few of us play a role in our own sustenance. Most persons have little to know role in growing their own food, protecting our air, our water, and our natural resources. Sustainable lives can be achieved by having balanced social, environmental and economic values.

In 1987, one of the first international definitions of "sustainable development" was outlined. Proposed by the Brundtland Comission, with the approval of the United Nations, sustainability was thereafter to become a big global issue. An update to the private sectors mentality is also important, however, to helping usher in a new era of sustainability. Business has enveloped all aspects of culture. Not for a moment are we able to escape from a sea of messages with two common denominators: stimulation of a spiritual sort of disposable consumption and misinforming the public. Currently, wages are falling and food and energy prices are soaring. It is time for a new way of exchanging goods and services by evaluating economic performance against such indicators as healthy children, families, communities, relationships and healthy ecosystems flourishing with biodiversity. At the cultural level, too, diversity promotes the propagation and carrying forth of culture in the form of intimate relationships and strong community. (Lichtfouse)

There are many means of a sustainable lifestyle in families. Not only does this include healthy foods, gotten from local, organic and sustainable farms that stay away from monoculture, but, furthermore, healthy working conditions among persons in our communities. The principle of sustainability implies meeting the needs of present without compromising future generations from meeting their needs. We live in interesting times, with huge wealth disparities, rising food prices, fuel and transportation costs, instability in the global market, pesticide pollution, loss of soil fertility and organic carbon, soil erosion, decreasing biodiversity, and desertification. It is important for families to vote with their purchasing power. Instead of buying chemical-based cleaners and materials, keeping an eye on the more natural solutions can help reduce their carbon footprint and personal pollution. By making fewer trips to the grocery store by, say, growing ones own food, could seriously help to improve their environmental impact.

By turning off lights and television when leaving a room, or turning off the water when not using it, a family could help lessen their environmental impact. This, of course, helps nurture a more conscious mentality in the children in such families, allowing them to imagine even more sustainable… [read more]

Fermentation of Wine Research Paper

… Fermentation of Wine

Winemaking is a labor-intensive process by which grapes are stemmed, crushed, fermented and bottled. The basic process is ancient, changed little from the earliest wine-making cultures. Modern technology has resulted in refinements to the process such as… [read more]

Relationship Between Diet and Growth Weight of Tobacco Hornworm Research Paper

… Tobacco Hornworm

An Analysis of Growth Rates of the Tobacco Hornworm and Various Food Supplies: A Controlled Experiment

This paper provides the details of an experiment conducted with tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) larvae and various food sources found both in… [read more]

Persuasive Messages Term Paper

… ¶ … Messages

Sample persuasive message: An online cooking school

One of the uniquely persuasive aspects of the web is its ability to encourage consumers to become participants in the advertising and marketing process. When consumers feel as if they have a personal investment in the product, they are more apt to become loyal, return consumers. E-tailing can make using a product an experience and a part of the consumer's identity, rather than simply a choice in the supermarket, which can be easily affected by price. Using e-tailing has enabled many brand name products and services to expand their market base through the use of interactive online communities, which offer message boards, games, and review sites. Whether a product, such as a type of cereal, or a service, such as Weight Watchers diet services, having a website can be an important part of a persuasive strategy, either providing a venue to purchase products online with a 'click,' to provide the convenience of online shopping or simply to reinforce and enhance brick and mortar sales.

For example, this can be seen on the Betty Crocker website, where the company offers a selection of frequently updated recipes using its products. The products are often showcased in a seasonally appropriate fashion, to encourage consumers to bake using Betty Crocker items for the holiday. Individuals looking for recipes for holidays and family meals may search the web, find the site for a specific recipe, and become drawn into the company's community and share recipes and tips. There are standard product promotions, such as printable coupons for mixes and ready-made company products, but also more subtle encouragements to buy Betty Crocker items through promoting recipes that use Betty Crocker products to create unusual and elaborate dishes. The persuasive message of the website reaches both types of target consumers: busy parents who make from mixes, as well as more ambitious bakers. Consumers can also buy Betty Crocker cookbooks on the website. Thus, on the site, a number of potential transactions can occur, including standard 'click' transactions, where consumers access recipes and promotions solely available online, as well as 'click and brick' transactions that enable web-surfers to buy magazines and cookbooks which are available online and in brick-and-mortar bookstores. Certain products are only available in standard brick and mortar stores, like the mixes themselves, but to use them in 'out of the box' ways that show a cook's true dedication to their family, the cook must use the Betty Crocker website.

Although the Betty Crocker site is largely promotional and offers free content, some companies such as Cook's Illustrated have created for-pay recipe websites, based upon brand loyalty. One possible persuasive message that could monetize the use of providing recipes and skill-based cooking online might be to have a paid 'cooking school' where users could pay for a short how-to courses in…… [read more]

In-N-Out Burger Case Study

… in-N-Out Burger is a fast food burger chain that operates in a handful of states in the Western U.S.. They are privately owned, not franchised. The company is relatively small, doing a little more than $200 million in sales in 2007.

The fast food burger industry is subject to a number of trends in the macroenvironment. Among them are trends relating to the economy, to social values, and to the political/legal environment, to the technological environment. While some elements of the macroenvironment have changed little in recent years, others are in a state of constant flux, placing the onus on the company to respond to these changes.

The economic environment in the past couple of years has been relatively poor. The economic slowdown has reduced turnover at most businesses, fast food chains included. However, while consumers overall are less willing to go out, those who do sometimes scale down their purchases, which can be beneficial to a chain such as in-N-Out Burger, which benefits from a good reputation in its field.

The social environment also has an impact on in-N-Out Burger's success. Two competing trends exist among the American public with respect to diet. A trend towards healthy foods is increasing, which would negatively impact a burger chain. This trend focuses on reducing meat consumption and avoiding fast foods. However, while this trend is high profile, there is evidence to suggest that the broader trend in American eating is towards fast food. in-N-Out Burger, for example, has been able to sustain steady growth in its markets.

Additionally, the social response to burger chains helps to guide the menu at in-N-Out. Some chains have adopted healthier menu items in order to attract the health market; other chains such as Burger King have taken the opposite approach and designed menus specifically to appeal to the core fast food audience. in-N-Out Burger must choose how it wishes to respond to this new trend towards healthier lifestyles, and what role it wants to play for consumers pursuing healthy lifestyles.

Because in-N-Out is a regional chain, they are subject to demographic trends. Throughout the company's history, it has benefited from an increase in the population in its region of California and the Southwest. Population increases due to migration from other parts of the U.S. bring new consumers and open up new markets. The risk,…… [read more]

Jamer Hunt Offers a Critique of Consumerism-Driven Book Report

… Jamer Hunt offers a critique of consumerism-driven design in "Just Re-Do it: Tactical Formlessness and Everyday Consumption." Using the World Trade Center as a symbol of the extraordinary, Hunt reveals the "abyss," or the "rupture between the monumental and the mundane," (57). The World Trade Center twin towers were essentially everything that Wal-Mart is not. Even on a purely visual level, the two structures are on principle different as the twin towers were astonishingly vertical vs. The unrelenting horizontality of a Wal-Mart store (Hunt 57). Building on this imagery, Hunt provides a sound explanation for how design can either conform to the "corrosive" power of the everyday or literally rise above it (71).

The first few paragraphs of the essay provide the foundation for Hunt's argument. Referring to fast food restaurants and chain hotels as everyday design elements, Hunt states, "They may not represent the apotheosis of Western Civilization and yet they are -- through their numbing ubiquity -- the essence of our consumer society," (57). Designers straddle a fine line between form and function. All design must in the end be functional, lest it transform itself into art. Yet when design descends into the mundane mess of consumerism, it becomes as ugly as a McDonalds.

Interestingly, McDonalds and other fast food chains must have caught on to what Hunt and other design theorists are saying. McDonalds has undergone…… [read more]

Craftsman in "The Troubled Craftsman," Richard Sennett Book Report

… Craftsman

In "The Troubled Craftsman," Richard Sennett describes the term "craftsman," evaluating its historical and current contexts. The author notes, "At different moments in Western history practical activity has been demeaned, divorced from supposedly higher pursuits," (p. 21). Sennett makes an interesting point of describing the changing role of the craftsman/artisan. In ancient Greece, the distinction between an "architect" and an "artisan" was first articulated by Aristotle (Sennett p. 23). This distinction meant that architects were considered of a higher social class than artisans/craftsmen. A similar distinction exists today, as an architect will indeed make more money than a draftsman. These hierarchical distinctions can be seen in almost every profession. Anything that is done with the hands is considered less important than activities that are done with the mind alone.

Craftsmanship is also defined by an impersonality, as the job is about the finished product and not the personality that produced it. An architect in Aristotle's view of the term can be more personality-driven. Sennett then attempts to revive the term craftsman by applying it to modern professions that rely on digital technology such as computer programming. The term craftsman has evolved once again to embrace the high level of skills required to complete a task.

In one passage of the essay, Sennett describes the way craftsmen are challenged both to produce something that is technically perfect but which is also highly practical. The section called "Conflicting Standards: Correct vs. Practical" refers to the difference between "correctness and functionality" in the craftsman's work (p. 45). Sennett goes on to say, "To the absolutist in every craftsman, each imperfection is a failure; to…… [read more]

Randomization Statistic -- Research Methodology the Importance Essay

… Randomization

Statistic -- Research methodology

The importance of randomization in experimental designs

The importance of randomization in experimental designs

When conducting an experiment, it is essential to minimize the influence of extraneous and irrelevant variables upon the experiment's outcome. For example, when studying the effects of a new drug, if all of the subjects were male, of a similar age, and similar socioeconomic status, variables that pertained to their demographic group might appear as side effects or positive results of the drug, even though these effects were not directly caused by the treatment. It is impossible to anticipate every single external influence upon the participants of a study. However, through the use of randomized samplings, the tendency for one group's characteristics to influence the results can be minimized.

When an experiment uses a control group as well as an experimental group, the two populations should ideally be demographically balanced. If one population was much more affluent than the other population, it might appear as if the treatment or variable being studied had a powerful effect, even though the real source was due to external influences, such as the benefit of their higher income levels. Depending on the resources of the experiment or the size of the population in question, randomization may be achieved either through a genuine, completely random, computer-generated allocation of subjects, or through more careful dispersing of subjects into different groups to ensure a demographic balance. Complete randomization is most effective for very large sample sizes.

If an experiment's test subjects are small, or manifest significant characteristics amongst certain subset populations that could influence test results, the experimenter may use a randomized block design. "In a block design, experimental subjects are first divided into homogeneous blocks before they are randomly assigned to a treatment group. if, for instance, an experimenter had reason to believe that age might be a significant factor in the effect of a given medication, he might choose to first divide the experimental subjects into age groups, such as under 30 years old, 30-60 years old and over 60 years old. Then, within…… [read more]

Empanadas: Encapsulating the History Research Paper

… Empanadas: Encapsulating the History Of the Original Hot Pocket

From jelly doughnuts to Pop Tarts, calzones to hot dogs, seemingly every culture has its 'filled' savory or sweet pastry of choice. The empanada has been described as a kind of small turnover or the Latin American version of the Eastern European pierogi. Comparisons have also been made with Indian samosas or British Cornish Pasties. The most common name used for the pastry is empanada but other names are empadas, empadaos, empadinhas, and pastels (Van Aken 2010). The empanada centers can be filled with seafood, meat, cheese, vegetables or fruit. The empanada likely has its origins in Spain and was exported to the New World by conquistadors, colonizers, and traders ("The empanada: A brief history," Mr. Empanada, 2010). To this day, the Empanada Festival is part of Galician culture. The pastry's name comes from the Spanish verb empanar, to coat with bread (La Empanada Gourmet, 2010).

Empanadas are often crescent-shaped. Their rounded sides are crimped, and the pastry is usually designed to be eaten in a bite or two. Bocaditos or empanaditas are appetizer-size empanadas, about the size of a single ravioli, and can be eaten in-hand in one bite. Occasionally, larger empanadas are created, as in the case of the Empanada Gallega, a large, traditional pork and pepper Spanish pie designed to feed several people. "They vary in size from Colombia's two inches long caucana, a favorite cocktail party tidbit stuffed with pipian paste of crushed peanuts and hot peppers, to Bolivia's six inches long saltena, stuffed with cubed beef and potatoes and stinging peppers, a meal in itself" (Van Aken 2010).

While fillings such as ground beef, fish, or cheese and chilies, are most common, other stuffing such as corn, spinach, boiled eggs and raisins are occasionally used. Dessert empanadas have grown in popularity, which are filled with fruit and mild cheeses -- even with chocolate. "Whatever filling is used, though, it needs to be highly flavorful, as only a little bit is used in each empanada" ("Empanadas,"…… [read more]

World in 25 Years Essay

… ¶ … pessimists believe that nothing will be the same in 25 years, there are others who believe that we are not in the darkest days but prepared well for the future. This essay will reflect the personal view of what the writer believes the situation of the world will be in 25 years. This work will answer questions such as what challenges will be faced and what changes will have occurred and the consequences of those changes. This reflection will be a visionary reflection and a personal essay on what the writer's life will be like in 25 years including what this writer may offer to their children and what the ecosystem and environmental factors will be like 25 years from now.

The world is at a precarious place in its history at this point in time however, while there are those who have a dark and gloomy outlook for the future it is the belief of this writer that the future is as of yet unknown and not yet determined and that the determination of what the future will be like in reality is yet to be seen and greatly dependent upon the goals and aspirations of those who will make a substantial difference in the potential and the ultimate outcome 25 years from now.

I. Technology

Technology is the source of blame for many of the world's ills however; in reality technology has brought about advances in science and medicine as well as in the speed of knowledge transfer and dissemination. The weather can be more closely monitored as well as mankind having the knowledge to monitor outer space. Such advances as these certainly are likely to assist mankind in prolonging the life of the individual and the human race at large. Technology has offered treatment for what were once incurable and hopeless diseases and illnesses.

II. Food Supply

Certainly the food supply factor will be a challenge in the future world with a growing population however, problems relating to the world's food supply are being addressed and in many venues. Sustainable growth is becoming very important to today's communities and this includes those who farm and grow agricultural products. More individuals are growing their own food to supplement the food that they purchase in supermarkets than in many decades. Furthermore, science is applying a great deal of time into research of production of sources of food. With a positive outlook and dedication to work hard at finding solutions there is little doubt that the strong will of mankind will be easily dissuaded from finding new solutions to food supply problems and will ultimately overcome these challenges.

III. Energy Supply

The present problem with securing a steady supply of clean and affordable energy sources is finally looking back toward the invention of Tesla who used the negative and positive poles of magnets to create perpetual motion and thereby production of a clean and affordable source of energy. Furthermore, with the race on for new clean and affordable… [read more]

Farm Subsidies Thesis

… Farm subsidies were introduced in the U.S. In 1933 after years declining agricultural production.

Subsidies were seen as a way of helping out the farmers due to highly unpredictable nature of agricultural output. When output was low, farmers would usually suffer immensely and government decided to step in with various payments made to farmers to support the poor population. Various forms of subsidies were introduced such as "price supports, which guaranteed farmers a certain price for their crops, and government purchases of excess crops. Farmers were also paid to stop farming some land to limit overproduction."

While the purpose of farm subsidies was undeniably honorable as it aimed to help poor farmers, over the years though, the subject has become rather controversial and contentious. Many have started questioning the need and long-term effects of farmer subsidies and some even question the very premise on which they were first introduced. There are however still a sizeable section that believes in farm subsidies and chooses to support them each year.

Proponents of farm subsidies have a basic argument to use for continuation of farm subsidies. They believe that with farm subsidies, farmers can be protected against high fluctuations in yearly income that arises from being in an unpredictable occupation like farming. "Despite the bad press they've garnered recently, [farm] subsidies serve two critical purposes - protecting farmers from drastic fluctuations in commodity prices often caused by weather or market setbacks and consumers from the price spikes associated with steep drops in crop inventories. Throughout history, crop failures were facts of life driven home with horrifying frequency until the 20th century when farm price supports became common."

Other reasons include security, higher production, and a more stable agricultural structure. Farmer subsidies have continued to increase since their inception despite strong opposition. "The 2002 Farm Bill introduced direct payments, which are payments for certain crops independent of price. Over the years, subsidies have increased…In 1933 farmers received $1.5 billion in government payments, and more recently from 1998 to 2007, farmers received an annual average of $16.4 billion (both totals are in constant 2000 dollars)."

Opponents have their own reasons and arguments to support their position. They believe that farm subsidies generally weaken the farming population as it provides the incentive to over produce some crops which tends to lead to lower market prices for these crops and hence farmers lose income. But they are not concerned since they continue to receive subsidies. It is also believed that since goverbment would look out for farmers who are not doing well, it automatically affects the incentive to work hard. Thus poverty continues to exist in the agricultural sector. Tax burden is being seen as another very valid reason for opposing farm subsidies. The amount paid out to the farmers is actually taxpayers' money. And…… [read more]

Commercial Makes Several Claims. It Blatantly Essay

… ¶ … commercial makes several claims. It blatantly claims to be made with some of the best grapes Italy has to offer; "you can tell this was made from the finest Italian grapes." It also presents that just because it is Italian it is better than other wine choices. According to the dialogue, "Nothing beats Italian wines." More implicitly through its setting being placed in a trendy New York Restaurant, it makes the claim that sophisticated people enjoy it. Therefore, it would be sophisticated to choose it.

The commercial presents a demonstration of both people drinking the wine within a restaurant capacity, but also a close examination of the wine. A class is held in the air and swirled, showing the color quality to the members of the audience. They perform this demonstration as a way to prove the quality of the grapes. Since the whole image of the wine is geared to a more sophisticated palette, they are appealing to wine coinsurers and those who may think of themselves as so. Thus, the ritual spinning of the class aims to prove how classy it must be. This…… [read more]

Health Benefits of Wine Although Human Beings Thesis

… ¶ … Health Benefits of Wine

Although human beings have been consuming wine for thousands of years, dating back long before the ancient Greeks and Romans, only recently has the health benefits of wine been clearly demonstrated through a number of scientific studies conducted by independent laboratories and the Food and Drug Administration. As James LaMar points out, doctors and physicians have long recognized "the healthful and nutritive properties of wine," such as recognizing certain ingredients which act as mild tranquilizers to help reduce anxiety and tension, "to provide the body with energy and with substances that aids digestion" and to help stimulate the appetite ("Wine and Health," Internet).

However, during Prohibition in the 1920's, the facts related to the health benefits of consuming small amounts of wine was suppressed by the American medical community, resulting in widespread ignorance among most Americans concerning wine and its beneficial qualities for more than eighty years. For example, in the early 1970's, the National Institute of Health "excluded and suppressed evidence from the Framingham Heart Study that showed moderate wine drinkers" experienced 50% fewer deaths from coronary heart disease than non-wine drinkers (LaMar, Internet).

According to the most recent scientific evidence available, it appears that wine, especially red wine, such as Bordeaux and Merlot, contains a rather high concentration of antioxidants, "a chemical or other agent that inhibits or retards oxidation, two examples being BHA and BHT"

which prevents oxygen from combining with fatty molecules, thereby causing them to become rancid or acidic (Glanze, 80). Overall, antioxidants have been shown to help prevent heart disease by "increasing the levels of "good" cholesterol (i.e., HDL) and protecting against artery damage" ("Red Wine," Internet). One particular type of antioxidant found in red wine is called resveratrol, a non-flavinoid which appears to aid in the prevention of arteries becoming clogged with "bad" cholesterol (i.e., LDL). As revealed by researchers for the prestigious Mayo Clinic, resveratrol might just be "the key ingredient in red wine that prevents damage to blood vessels" and has been linked to "a reduced risk of inflammation and blood clotting" which can lead to coronary disease ("Red Wine," Internet).

Another health benefit related to drinking red wine in moderation is that it may help to prevent some forms of cancer. In this case, a second flavinoid compound known as catechin also functions as an antioxidant by "preventing molecules or free radicals from doing cellular damage," thus preventing the formation of cancerous tumors. In addition, this particular flavinoid has been demonstrated in laboratory studies to boost the immune system, protect against heart disease and even prolong life. In 2004, a study conducted by the…… [read more]

Decision Erickson Should Recommend Term Paper

… Collective Research organizes a group of firms to collaborate together. In General Mills case, a strategic alliance would probably be the most successful type of alliance, because both are well-known and respected brands, and sharing the credit could bring them support not only from those loyal to the Progresso brand, but those loyal to Weight Watchers, as well.

Innovation has been a big part of General Mills' history, and they have developed from a flour mill to a food giant during their years in business. In fact, Progresso, the soup to be developed, was the first canned, ready-to-eat soup in history, so it already shows a history of innovation, (even though it was acquired through Pillsbury). That the company wanted to continue that tradition of innovation is clear. However, GM CEO Kendall Powell created a "G-WIN" team that identified external sources of innovation and technology, so he clearly saw a need for outside assistance inside the company. In addition, this would be the first light ready-to-eat soup, so success meant developing flavors and tastes that consumers would enjoy, while lightening up the fat, calories, and salt. Weight Watchers has been doing this for years with their products, so it seems as if it would be a good fit for them to work together. In addition, it would reduce costs for both companies if they collaborated out the work and development, and they could reach two focus groups at the same time, doubling their input and giving them more data to analyze before they bring their products to the public.

Collaborating is a good idea from a quality standpoint, too. Weight Watchers, with a different demographic, may have access to purveyors and ingredients that General Mills might not have, so they could add more variety to the new soups in ways that General Mills might not be aware of or use themselves. Powell himself created the G-WIN group that urged external collaboration for many of these same reasons, so it seems that it would make sense for Erickson to recommend collaboration on that basis, as well. Collaboration is up around the world because it works and it makes sense in many areas. The most important part in choosing to collaborate is choosing the right partner, and then managing the collaboration effectively. It seems that this collaboration would work because both the companies are food-based, they are both large, they both have experience, and they are both innovators.

In conclusion, it simply makes sense for General Mills to collaborate with Weight Watchers on these products. It would shorten development time, reduce costs, bring together two experienced teams, and develop a new line of foods that contain input from respected experts in the industry. It seems like a win-win situation for…… [read more]

Business Plans My Industry Is the Fast Thesis

… Business Plans

My industry is the fast food industry, located in South Florida. Our company is a hamburger restaurant, but we have dabbled in the past with broadening our reach by extending our product line beyond the core products consumers expect from a hamburger stand. We do this to try and differentiate ourselves from the many other hamburger chains in the U.S.

The upside down pyramid is a tool used to assess the market, with the objective of determining opportunities within that market. The levels of the pyramid are the environmental and demographic trends; the industry trends; the local trends in our industry; the local competition analysis and finally the firm analysis (Hisrich et al., 2005)

The first level of the upside down pyramid is the great environmental and demographic trends. We have noticed that within the U.S. population, the percentage of Hispanic people is increasing (Cisneros, 2009). The Hispanic community is also increasing its economic clout as more members join the mainstream U.S. population. The spread of Hispanics is also increasing, such that they are no longer concentrated strictly in a handful of regions, but now are dispersed throughout the country.

The second level of the pyramid is the set of industry trends. The industry is entering the maturity phase. Although firms within the industry are still growing, much of this growth comes from international markets. The domestic market is largely saturated at this point. Firms compete largely on price but are increasingly seeking to differentiate themselves based on product line as well.

Locally, we have noticed that food culture is expanding. More consumers from the mainstream are becoming conscious of what they eat. For some, this manifests itself in organic products, for others it merely signals an increased exploration of the broader world of food. International restaurants are becoming not only commonplace, but popular with citizens from all ethnic groups.

The penultimate layer of the inverted pyramid is taken up by the local competition's strengths and weaknesses. We have noticed that many of our local competitors do not expressly cater to ethic markets. While many of these markets are increasing in size and buying power, they are reliant on their own communities to supply them with familiar tastes. Few local chain outlets have tailored their menus to meet the needs of the changing demographics.

Lastly, we have our own market positioning and objectives. We believe that we offer a superior value to our competitors. Although we have low prices, we also feel that we deliver superior food, with greater variety. For…… [read more]

Overpopulation Is One of the Factors Causing Essay

… ¶ … overpopulation is one of the factors causing global food crises (Sample 2007). Two potentially conflicting solutions are being proposed to address the problem of population growth. One solution is to increase global food production using agricultural technologies including the genetic modification of plants. Another solution is to curb population growth by encouraging the education of women worldwide and increasing child survival rates. While the former solution may seem attractive as well as profitable, it is not a panacea. In fact, increasing food production using technologies could potentially have devastating effects on people and the environment, which would worsen and not solve humanitarian crises. Reducing population growth is the only valid long-term solution because overpopulation is a symptom of other social, political, and economic issues too.

Worldviews that support the use of technology to increase food production may be rooted in religious beliefs such as "be fruitful and multiply." More likely, the worldview that supports agricultural technologies to intervene in the global food crisis is capitalism. Agro-business and biotechnology stand a lot to gain from patenting seeds and controlling the chemicals farmers put on their crops. While educating…… [read more]

Taste Sense Essay

… Taste

The sense of taste: An overview

Physiologically speaking, taste is simply the ability to respond to dissolved molecules and ions called "tastants" through the use of taste receptor cells clustered in taste buds. "Each taste bud has a pore that opens out to the surface of the tongue enabling molecules and ions taken into the mouth to reach the receptor cells inside" (Kimball 2009).Every taste bud can contains upwards of 50 -- 100 taste cells. The cells have transmembrane protein receptors on their apical surfaces "which admit the ions that give rise to the sensations of salty and sour" and "bind to the molecules that give rise to the sensations of salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami" (Kimball 2009).

Contrary to the popular image in many old textbooks, each taste bud contains all five indentified taste sensations. However, it is true that every single taste cell does seem restricted to expressing only a single type of receptor, with the exception of bitter receptors. "The majority of taste buds on the tongue are located within papillae, the tiny projections that give the tongue its velvety appearance… During chewing, chemicals from food called tastants enter the taste pores of the taste buds, where they interact with molecules on fingerlike processes called microvilli on the surfaces of specialized taste cells. The interactions trigger electrochemical changes in the taste cells that cause them to transmit signals that ultimately reach the brain. The impulses are interpreted, together with smell and other sensory input, as flavors" (Smith & Margolskee 2001, pp.1-2). The sensory experience of eating is not derived solely from what is strictly the sense of taste and the sensation of taste -- like all sensations -- ultimately resides in the brain.

One experiment that proved that taste is located in the brain involved mice that had been genetically altered to express sweet responses in the taste cells that normally were sensitive to bitter flavors. The mice responded bitter substances as though they were sweet (Kimball 2009). "Unlike normal mice, the altered mice did not prefer sweet foods or avoid bitter substances: they did not avidly drink highly sweetened water and instead drank solutions of very bitter compounds as readily as they did plain water. The researchers also showed that key nerves…had a reduced electrical response to sweet and bitter tastants but could still respond to salts and acidic compounds" (Smith & Margolskee 2001, p.2). Neurons,…… [read more]

Job I Ever Had: Pizza Vendor Essay

… ¶ … Job I Ever Had: Pizza Vendor Near a State University

Lots of people might not agree with me if I say that being a pizza vendor is a great job because of the low income. But I realized that being a pizza vendor near a university is the best job I ever had! First, I get to meet new and interesting people. Then, I don't have to walk around to sell my pizzas. and, lastly, I get to have fun while earning money.

You see, most, if not all, of my customers are from the University. Professors, students, university police officers, doctors from the infirmary and even janitors come to my stall to buy pizza. What's amusing is that they all come from different walks of life that I couldn't imagine seeing them together in a single room! It is hard to imagine how they co-exist with each other. it's crazy to imagine the immaculately clean school nurse eat her favorite vegetable pizza with the mud-showered football players in their sweat-drenched varsity uniforms every afternoon, wouldn't it? But despite all their differences it is not very hard to see that they have one thing in common: they all love pizza!

At first I was hesitant to work as a pizza vendor. I have to wear a funny hat, smile wide and greet every passerby. But after a while, I realized that it was actually fun having a job where I get to interact with a lot of people. I learn a lot just talking to my customers like discussing Einstein with the Physics professor or even just watching drama students practice. There are also no rules against bringing my laptop with me in the pizza stall to surf the web or play games while waiting for customers. My friends even visit sometimes and hang out with me a bit to share a laugh or two. Happy employees are more loyal and productive (Rau-Foster, 2000).

Now,…… [read more]

Life in the Big City Essay

… ¶ … life in the big city and life in the suburbs based on the cost of living, environment, and career opportunities.

Generally, cost of living in suburban areas is less costly than in the big city especially in terms of the most basic human necessities.


In the city, you have to buy your food from the market or grocery which makes it more expensive due to the additional margins applied to it by these establishments. However, you get access to a wider variety of food products to choose from in the big city.

In the suburbs, you live closer to the sources of the food that we eat such as farms, poultry houses and the like. Thus, the food products you buy are not only cheaper but also more fresh and organic.


The high demand for realty in big cities boosts its prices to the roof, thus, more often than not; it becomes unaffordable to a person earning average income. Having a house in the big city holds a certain prestige to it but you have to spend good money to get it.

ii. In suburban areas, average people get the chance to own adequately sized houses and lots with cheaper costs. Nevertheless, if one or more family members are working in the big city, living in the suburbs might shoot up your transportation costs.…… [read more]

History of the World in Six Glasses Essay

… History Of the World in Six Glasses

Beer is one of the most widely spread alcoholic beverage in the history of the human kind. It appears that bear, more than any alcoholic drink known to man has accompanied the evolution of human societies even from the Neolithic era. Tom Standage dedicates the first two chapters of his book a History of the World in Six Glasses to the origins of beer.

Standage points out that due of its ancient history the origins of beer are deeply concealed in the beginnings of the human history, probably as far as the Stone Age. Pictograms from around 4000 BCE show people sharing a drinking, probably beer, through straws from a hug jar made of clay (the History of the World in Six Glasses, p.11). The author emphasizes that beer is a beverage that was discovered, not invented. The fermentation of wild grains of wheat and barley must have occurred through the water that must have infiltrated accidentally in the recipients people used to store them in. The production and consumption of beer is thus closely linked to the first usage of grains by the human societies of hunter-gatherers. Beer followed humanity through its natural evolution from hunter-gatherers into settled communities of farmers. As Tom Standage observed, the main source of nourishment for the first people to settle was the cereal grain people consumed both in solid and liquid forms. Thus, beer, as a beverage that was easier to prepare and keep from spoiling, kept humanity company longer before wine came into consumption on larger scales. It survived though tens of thousands of years and through technological advances in its production and the improvement of its composition, it became the beverage known world wide today and consumed everywhere in the world.

In Bavaria, beer is still considered "nourishment" and it is not unusual that at ten in the morning, during their break, workers in a factory get beer as well as something to eat.

The first written records testifying the making and consumption of beer are coming from the Mesopotamians, closely followed by the Egyptians. The evolution of human societies from hunter-gatherers into farmers and the fertile lands the Sumerians as well as the Egyptians were able to settle on and exploit in their farming activities had led to the surplus in the production of gains and thus to the birth of new social classes: the artisans, the tax collectors, who were usually the temple priests etc. The natural sequence in the development of their societies consisted in the written records they needed to keep in order for the tax payers to be able to prove that they have paid their taxes. The first tax receipts are therefore the first written testimonies for the development of human society and also for the existence and use of the alcoholic beverage that is beer.

The Mesopotamians and the Egyptians considered beer as essential as food in their diet and used it on large scales. Because of… [read more]

Growth and Development World Inequality in Jared Essay

… Growth and Development

World Inequality in Jared Diamond's

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

Introduction to Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

Under the aegis of W.W. Norton, Jared Diamond published his Guns, Germs,… [read more]

Community Observation This Is a Template Thesis

… Community Observation

This is a template and guideline only. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

A local food bank distributes much needed food in my local area. It is a not-for-profit organization which works with a national network of food banks. Through a very sophisticated food transportation and sharing system, this local food bank acts as a food bank for food donated both locally and throughout the U.S.

During the past year, the food bank distributed over ten million pounds of food through several hundred human service organizations including: other food banks, emergency food pantries, soup kitchens, homeless shelters, child long-term care facilities, homes for foster children, shelters for homeless and for victims of domestic abuse, and day care centers for both young and old.


My experience was incredibly educational. I helped out with several facets of the food bank as a volunteer, including packaging food in boxes for delivery to food pantries around the community, and running a forklift to move big pallets of inventory and to unload semi-trailer trucks that delivered to the food bank. I also even supervised groups who volunteer to come in for a few hours to package bulk food and box it for delivery.

One of the more interesting things was to help with pick-ups of food from local groceries, bakery outlets, and other organizations who wanted to donate food to the needy.

The food bank has several trucks that they use to pick up food on several routes around the city.

Every morning they leave around 6:30 A.M. To start a pre-planned route and arrive back at the food bank by late morning loaded with everything imaginable in the way of consumable food, from milk to all kinds of bakery and breads to canned goods. It was all very organized.

How it Affected Me

It made me appreciate how hard a relatively small group of people work,…… [read more]

Imitation of E.B. White Value Just Essay

… Imitation of E.B. White


Just a few days ago, I was cleaning out my refrigerator to make room for a gigantic sheet cake when I felt around in my vegetable drawer to see what I could procure for lunch… [read more]

Coffee Shop Industry Thesis

… Coffee Shop Industry Overview

A coffee shop is an establishment which primarily serves prepared coffee or other hot beverages (Coffeehouse, Wikipedia). This source summarizes the history of coffee shops. In the United States, coffee shops first appeared in the Italian-American immigrant communities in large cities such as New York, Boston and San Francisco. However, coffee shops caught the attention of the youth culture in the 1960s, especially in Seattle and other parts of the Pacific Northwest. Then, the Starbucks chain standardized and mainstreamed coffee shops in the 1990s. Coffee shops now commonly serve as centers of social interaction, offering visitors a place to congregate, talk, write, read, entertain one another, or pass the time.

According to Hoover's Industry overview: Coffee shops, the U.S. coffee shop industry includes about 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major competitors include Starbucks, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean's). The top 50 companies generate more than 70% of industry sales. Starbucks is the only national chain. There are various regional chains, franchises, licensed stores, and independent stores. While large companies have competitive advantages in purchasing, finance and marketing, small companies can still compete by offering specialized products for local markets and by providing better customer service.

Also, according to Hoover's, major coffee shop products include beverages as well as food. Beverages include brewed coffee and tea; espresso drinks (cappuccinos, cafe lattes); cold blended beverages; bottled water; soft drinks; and juices. Most coffee shops serve high-quality, premium coffee known as specialty coffee. Food includes pastries, bakery items, desserts, sandwiches, and candy. Many coffee shops sell whole or ground coffee beans and some coffee shops sell coffee or espresso-making equipment, grinders, mugs, and other accessories.

Dunkin' Donuts (

In 1950, Dunkin' Donuts' founder Bill Rosenberg opened the first shop in Quincy, Massachusetts. Dunkin' Donuts licensed the first of many franchises in 1955. Today, the company in headquartered in Canton, Massachusetts and claim to be the world's largest coffee and baked goods chain, serving more than 3 million customers per day. Dunkin' Donuts reveals that it sells 52 kinds of donuts, more than a dozen coffee beverages, bagels, breakfast sandwiches and other baked goods.

Will Kussell was appointed President & Chief Brand Officer of Dunkin' Donuts in 2008. He oversees all domestic and international operations, marketing, franchising and new store growth for the Dunkin' Donuts brand. He was promoted internally after serving as a Senior Vice President of Marketing and Purchasing for Dunkin' Donuts, President of Dunkin Donuts and Chief Operating Office for Dunkin' Brands. Kussell had previous retail management experience at Reebok International and Polaroid.

Dunkin' Donuts is a subsidiary of Dunkin' Brands, Inc. And this Web site ( contains information about mission and vision, "At Dunkin' Brands, Inc., we like to say that our "soul" purpose is to lead and build great brands." As such. It claims leadership in the "Quick Quality" segment of the food and beverage industry which the company defines as quick service along with… [read more]

Childhood Memory Essay

… Childhood Memory

Eating memory: My first taste of Chinese food

My sense of taste has provided me with some of my most provocative and potent early memories. I can distinctly recall the first time I ever ate Chinese (well, really, Chinese-American food) with my family as a young child. I don't remember if my parents regularly ordered Chinese take-out before. But eventually, the night came when I was finally deemed old enough to endure the cuisine's heat and power. There was a vague sense of anticipation and joy in the air as I rode with my father in the car to pick up the dinner. Although my mother was a good cook, the words "let's eat out" or "let's order in" always made my little heart leap with joy. I loved the plastic playground at McDonald's, the shiny toys of a Happy Meal -- often I was too excited to eat, but I adored unwrapping the food from the paper packaging, happy food that seemed uniquely designed for my clumsy, happy childish hands.

The Chinese take-out place was different than the sanitized environment of McDonald's. It was a mere strip mall, with only a counter, a serious, sweating man giving out bags to customers and brightly-lit pictures of strange lumps of food on shiny clusters of rice adorning the walls. The whole place glistened and gleamed and smelled with something delicious, something I had never smelled before. I wasn't sure if it would be good, but I knew that my father seemed happy and excited as he took a large, brown paper package, oozing with oil -- our order was ready. The man turned away, without a thank-you to us, intent upon answering the phone to usher the next order through to the kitchen. I felt proud and important holding the brown sack, a gigantic lunch bag in my eyes, slightly above my lap as I rode home. I knew I was doing something useful, protecting the seat of the car. (My mother was very fussy about the car when I was growing up, and I remember having to take about a million napkins whenever I got an ice cream cone).

Then at home -- the anticipation grew. From the stapled sack my father drew a seemingly infinite variety of little containers, some as small as a doll's handbag, others almost as large as a bowl. From their compressed, symmetrical contents huge hunks of smell and color burst forward -- this one was sweet and sour pork, I was told. Another container was alive with writhing noodles -- Lo mein still bent in the shape of the white paper. Another was General Tso's chicken. I felt as if spilling…… [read more]

Organic Chocolate Candy Bars Thesis

… Organic Chocolate Candy Bars

Application to Product/Service

Everyday is a new product with a goal to make the organic chocolate candy bar a ubiquitous consumer product. It will mimic the flavors of popular non-organic chocolate candy bars, but at a much lower price point than organic options and will rely on channels where most candy is purchased rather than niche naturals' stores.

Target Market

Fortunately for Everyday, just about everyone consumes chocolate. Its household penetration in America is 97.3%, and 96.7% of households repeatedly buy chocolate during the year (Chocolate candy sales start to melt, 2009). According to this same source, Americans buy candy about 19 times a year. There is an exceptionally strong seasonal component to when consumers buy chocolate with Halloween, Easter and Valentine's Day driving the bulk of customer purchases. For instance, chocolate and non-chocolate miniature candy generate more than a third of their annual dollar sales during the Halloween season, and, the total chocolate candy category makes 22% of its annual dollar sales in the same period (Nielsen takes the mask off candy sales, 2007). Therefore, Everyday needs to pay close attention to packaging of its product, promotions and sales during holidays to capture peak consumer demand.

There are a few recent trends in consumer needs that are worthy of note. Increasingly, consumers are turning to chocolate for health reasons after medical research revealed that the flavanols and antioxidants in chocolate have the potential to reduce rates of stroke, heart failure, cancer, and diabetes (Moran, 2008(This maps well to Everyday's mission to ensure that all foods, including widely consumed candy bars, are healthy, nutritious, desirable and affordable. In addition, "Tastings and sampling of chocolate is becoming more popular as the field becomes more crowded and consumers become less confident in their ability to choose a product they will like." (Moran, 2008) This supports the need for samples in Everyday's promotional strategy which will also help convince consumers that Everyday has the same taste as their current favorites.

Competitive…… [read more]

Dust Bowl Essay

… Dust Bowl refers to an environmental catastrophe that took place in the Plains states during the 1930s. A long drought was made worse by short-sighted agricultural practices and an entire part of the country was turned into dust. The Dust Bowl became a major factor in the Great Depression, too ("The Dust Bowl"). What I found most interesting about this subject is that the Dust Bowl proves the need for changes to farming practices around the world. In the 1930s and before, farmers did not realize they were depleting the soil by planting only one crop. Their lack of foresight can be forgiven and was corrected relatively quickly.

However, farmers today have access to a wealth of information from science and agricultural technologies. That information shows what farmers can do to prevent situations like the Dust Bowl. Unfortunately, the agro-business sector ignores many of the warning signs that their practices are harming not just the environment but people, too. Chemical pesticides and fertilizers as well as genetically modified foods have unknown consequences on human…… [read more]

Historical Detection Research Proposal

… ¶ … Detection

Historical methods: After the Fact

One of the most perplexing questions that still divide historians and social theorists alike is why the community of Salem, Massachusetts had an epidemic of mass hysteria, and condemned many individuals to death or imprisoned them as witches. Often, the allegations were made on the basis of children's testimony. In After the Fact, authors Davidson and Lytle present a case study of this period to highlight how the approach of historians Boyer and Nissenbaum provides some possible answers to this question. Boyer and Nissenbaum's demographic analysis revealed definite geographic patterns in the pattern of witchcraft accusations. These trends seemed to suggest that there was a bias against the newly emerging merchant classes of the community. The accusers tended to be drawn from the more established agrarian families of Salem and the accused from Salem Town. This community analysis of the crisis of town vs. village helps explain why the allegations of the girls were so persuasive. The aim of such historicism is not to be reductive; it does not suggest that the girls were 'forced' to tell tales, but it helps explain why there was such a fertile and suggestible environment and a desire to believe the girls' allegations.

Social history and documentary evidence through data, not grand theorizing, provide some of the most illuminating methodologies in After the Fact. The authors also show some of the darker, rapacious roots of the American colonies in the chapter entitled "Serving time in Virginia." They show how many of the early colonies were founded to make money, not settle or create new and lasting societies in the South. This chapter also illustrates how while first-hand accounts like John Smith's might be valuable for historians, other sources must be consulted to bring to light the biases and the self-presentation of the author. Every author who writes, including Cotton Mather in Salem and Smith in Jamestown has an agenda and possess a desire to paint a particular picture of himself to…… [read more]

Restaurant Downtown on Main Street Called Joe Research Proposal

… ¶ … restaurant downtown on Main Street called Joe's Grub. The place is small and old and because it's downtown, it does not stay busy all the time. It's what they call a hole in the wall and unless you know it's there, you might miss it because it blends with the stores located on either sides of it. The only sign is what they have painted on their window that faces the street. It's one of those places that have food that you might find in any little restaurant in most downtown areas. Items like burgers, fries, meatloaf, mashed potatoes, fluffy rolls with tons of butter, and sweet corn on the cob in the summer. Joe's is open for lunch and early dinner. In other words, they close at 7 p.m. Their location and their hours bring in a host of interesting customers, including me. I go there often because I have an apartment just a few blocks from there. I can walk to Joe's in any kind of weather and I can sit for hours on end, as they don't seem to mind me being there.

My favorite table in Joe's is fixed between an old bookcase and the front window. The bookcase is situated far enough from the window that only one table will fit between the bookcase and the window. The table only sits two and I can go there, sit with my back against the bookcase and look out the window. The table is perfect for taking my laptop in and writing or surfing the net. The table is a bit uneven and every two weeks or so, I have to place a folded napkin under one leg to fix it. The chairs are wooden and that is the only really bad thing about sitting at the table for an extended amount of time. At this table, I can hardly hear the small radio that plays in the kitchen. I know that on the other side of the bookcase the cashiers check people out, so I hear the register open and close all the time. The cashier is one of three people -- the owner's wife, or two younger girls. One of the girls is working on her creative career; she is a painter and prefers to have her evenings open for art shows. She has a whiney voice that can break my concentration when she laughs. She is pretty for a girl that has pink and blue streaks in her shoulder-length, over-processed hair. Her name is Elizabeth but the regulars call her Liza. The other younger cashier is a single mom that lives close to Joe's. Her name is Melanie and she always looks tired and worried. She is quieter than Liza and rarely laughs. The owner's wife is a tall woman with fiery red hair. She is covered with freckles and she is extremely serious. Her name is Lynn and the funniest things happen when she and her husband are trying to communicate… [read more]

Colony Collapse Disorder in Honeybee Populations Research Proposal

… Colony Collapse Disorder in Honeybee Populations

The honeybee population in the United States is currently undergoing a collapse of devastating proportions. Reports state that honeybees leave their colonies in search of nectar and pollen and never return resulting in a decline of approximately fifty-percent in the honeybee population over the last five decades. This phenomenon is not yet understood. This is critically important for scientists to understand because the food supply is dependent upon bee pollination and in fact Cornell University reports that "honeybees annually pollinate more than $14 billion worth of seeds and crops in the United States." (Evans, 2007) This work explores the possible causes of this decline in the honeybee population and surprisingly finds that research conducted nearly six decades ago has revealed the likely cause of this problem.



The honeybee population in the United States is currently undergoing a collapse of devastating proportions. Reports state that honeybees leave their colonies in search of nectar and pollen and never return resulting in a decline of approximately fifty-percent in the honeybee population over the last five decades. This phenomenon is not yet understood. This is critically important for scientists to understand because the food supply is dependent upon bee pollination and in fact Cornell University reports that "honeybees annually pollinate more than $14 billion worth of seeds and crops in the United States." (Evans, 2007)


Until recently the honeybee decline has been attributed primarily to diseases such as mites and other parasites and also to pesticides which are sprayed on crops. One report states that pesticides, specifically neonicotinioid pesticides, including imidacloprid, clothianiden and thiamethoxam, poison the bee while it is in the process of collecting nectar and pollen. The poisoning may occur when the material is ingested, or it may be transported to the hive where it poisons other bees in the colony." (Evans, 2007)

It is reported in Wired Magazine that bees "have a highly developed sense of smell -- at least 40 times more sensitive than humans. Within 30 seconds of exposure to a chemical agent, a colony of bees will change the sound it produces. And it's not simply that they get louder, all the frequencies shift and change producing a unique sonic signature that can be used to identify the agent." (Lorge, 2007) This report states that researchers are using tiny microphones set up at the entrance of the hive that is threatened and that a technology that the U.S. Army uses to detect airborne toxins allows them to quickly assess hive health.


Little acknowledged by the scientific community thus far is a report that has come out of Germany entitled: "Varroa Mite or Electromagnetic Fields? New Research into the Death of Bees: Letter to Beeskeepers and Beekeeper Associations" published March 16th 2008 which states that following ten years of study it has been determined that electromagnetic frequencies are negatively affecting bee colonies. The report states specifically as… [read more]

Benihana of Tokyo Research Proposal

… Benihana

There are several differences between the Benihana production process and that of a typical restaurant. The location is different, which also means that the work of cooking is not shared. Each chef is responsible for a table, rather than a specific set of dishes. The process is simple as well -- there is little variation in the menu and the production process is essentially the same for each dish. There is a minimal amount of equipment used in the Benihana process -- basically just the grill. This contrasts with a typical restaurant which has more varied processes in terms of inputs.

Perhaps most significantly, when Benihana brings the production process to the front of the house they make it part of the service offering. A typical restaurant's chefs only produce food, they do not also produce entertainment. Thus, the role of the chef at Benihana is different from that of a typical restaurant. That the production is simplified facilitates the entertainment portion of the cooking program, in addition to de-mystifying it.

In order to facilitate this, Benihana also undertakes training in-house and sources staff from Japan. A typical restaurant staffs its kitchen with staff off the street or on recommendations from existing staff members. The training process is not as intense and the turnover is considerably higher. Expertise and experience differentiate the production process at Benihana from that of other restaurants.

2) Benihana's operating structure allows for efficiencies in several areas. First, the menu is very limited. This allows for efficiencies in purchasing, since only a handful of products need to be acquired. This allows Benihana to receive preferential treatment and/or discounts from suppliers. With a limited menu, preparation is made more efficient. This reduces the size of the kitchen area and the work of the prep cooks.

The cooking process itself is very streamlined. There is only one means of cooking the food -- on the grill. This allows Benihana to streamline its purchasing of supplies, since the need for pots, ovens, and other equipment is limited. Moreover, it allows the chefs' training process to focus on the show aspect of the food preparation. For each table, the preparation process is going to be basically the same. This makes for a very simple training process in terms of the actual cooking, leaving more opportunity to emphasis the show.

Moreover, because cooking via this method is quick, a Benihana chef can cover several tables in the course of an hour. The rapid production process also allows for the company to turn its tables…… [read more]

Chef's Interview the Creators of Delicacy Essay

… Chef's Interview

The Creators of Delicacy -- the Chefs

I interviewed Five Chefs from "India 4 You," an Indian contemporary restaurant that my family loves. Usually, we have our Saturday or Sunday lunch there so interviewing their Chefs and seeing their restaurant closer was a great opportunity for me.

All five Chefs of "India 4 You" were males. This is surprising because in India, it is traditionally the women who became cooks. When asked about this, one of them said that times were different and men are trying this aspect of work more. Clearly, traditions can be broken depending on the person's willingness to break boundaries and explore unchartered courses.

In addition, although the restaurant is managed and manned by men, it is elegantly decorated and offers a relaxing ambiance. Maybe some will be surprised to know that a restaurant painted in red and gold is being maintained by men.

All of five Chefs got into the restaurant business based on necessity. Junior Singh, owner and head chef, started working in a restaurant at twelve years old while…… [read more]

Mcdonald's in Germany in the Context of the Americanization Essay

… McDonald's In Germany In The Context Of The Americanization

McDonald's in Germany in the Context of Americanization

Prior to World War II, the American economy has generically been an enclosed one and its international trade relations were rather limited. After… [read more]

Union Square Cafe Research Proposal

… Union Square Cafe is a 5,600 square-foot restaurant that is located on East Sixteenth Street in Manhattan. It first opened in 1985 and serves a full menu in an everlasting environment that has grown over time. The owner of the restaurant, Danny Meyer, had a concept in the beginning of opening a restaurant that would be compatible with the kind of guest that he would be comfortable serving. This concept included the ideas of being a good value, having the feeling that the restaurant is on the customer's side, and having a staff that knows more about the wine and food than the customer does. This was a new breed of American eatery that paired imaginative food and wine with caring hospitality, comfortable surroundings and exceptional value. It served American cuisine with an Italian soul (Union Square Cafe, n.d.).

The site on Sixteenth Street was chosen because the rent was considerably cheaper than anywhere else. This site had previously been leased by a well know health food store and in the beginning it had been assumed that much of the equipment, existing plumbing, electrical wiring, and ductwork could be used. It was later found out that almost none of it was reusable and had to be scrapped. This added to the total cost of the project, but because the rent was so far below the market it still was a good economic investment.

The total cost of the project was $750,000. $450,000 of this was spent on general construction. This included money for the walls, floors, ceilings, finishes and furniture. $200,000 was spent on the kitchen equipment and installation, which was about 27% of the total budget. This ended up being below the standard average of 30%. The total construction budget ended up exceeding the original bid by 15% due to the fact that this was a renovation project.

Danny Meyer had spent a lot of time in Italy eating in and experiencing many restaurants, along with dining and working in many in the United States. He knew that he wanted a restaurant in which his customers would feel comfortable in. He wanted customers to feel welcome and have the sense that it was an extension of their home. Natural materials were selected in order to create a warm, timeless atmosphere. He chose high wood-beamed ceilings for stability and warmth. They chose to use a collection of art and murals for decoration in order to reflect Danny's attitude towards personalized service and hospitality. The lighting that was picked was contemporary without being flashy. The lighting that was placed around the artwork was chosen in order to highlight the artwork. This lighting created a warm glow that reflected off of the walls that ended up being very flattering to skin tones and made people look very good in the space. Danny Meyer believes that this is one of the keys to the success that the Union Square Cafe has afforded. Although there is no carpet in the restaurant the guests are… [read more]

Human History in North America Eurasia Asia and Europe Essay

… North America

How did human history in North America during the period described in the Prologue differ from the events of Asia, Eurasia, and Europe? Be specific. How were these differences important to the international state of affairs in 1450?

One of the most unique features of North American development during the end of the Ice Age was the early absence of large game animals like the wooly mammoth that has once provided easy sources of available protein to the tribes that populated the area. Scarcity was the primary characterization of virtually all of the food hunting and gathering patterns of the land's residents, which resulted in a slow population growth in comparison to Asia, Eurasia, and Europe. The scarcity of game was the reason for the nomadic quality of most of early tribal life, but also motivated the domestication of hardy plants. Fish made some of the northern tribes relatively more food-secure -- but still, life was a constant struggle. Most technological developments were focused on the cultivation, storing, or hunting of foods, unlike the Europeans who had the luxury of time and more leisure to devote to less immediately necessary arts and sciences such as the invention of the printing press and the cannon.

The lack of attachment to specific plots of land that characterized many Indians' lives is not a surprise given these conditions -- but to European settlers in 1450, viewing this different method of life, they automatically assumed the tribes were more primitive then themselves, and saw their land as ripe for the taking, given that Indians did not regard the land as something people owned and passed down from generation to generation. For Europeans, the security of food from enclosed livestock and the greater bounty of the soil encouraged a greater attachment to private property in Europe. It also created greater class differences between land-owning and landless people, in contrast to the more equitable tribal structure of the North…… [read more]

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