Study "Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays 56-110

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Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop Thesis

… Transgenic Foods (genetically Modified Crop)

The objective of this work is to write the ethical issue, history, whole process, application, advantage or risk in regards to transgenic food or GM crops in a historical, factual or argumentative paper.

Transgenic crops… [read more]


Fast Food Nation Research Proposal

… Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All American Meal: Changing the Land, Workforce, And Above All Culture

According to Eric Schlosser's Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All American Meal, the fast food industry has completely and irrevocably changed the American landscape, workforce, and culture. Many of the aspects of fast food culture Schlosser demonizes are also applicable to other forms of American capitalism -- for example, Wal-Mart also makes use of poorly paid workers who receive few benefits, and are used as disposable commodities, rather than participants in a company who can look forward to being promoted and share in its profits. The overconsumption of meat and high-fructose corn syrup is endemic to American processed food, as well as fast food. But the eradication of cooking, the idea that food is not food but entertainment, that food is a product for children rather than adults and that it is acceptable to have the family meal in a car are all aspects of modern life for which the fast food industry must accept sole blame.

It is perhaps the automobile that really changed the American landscape and made fast food possible: "The triumph of the automobile encouraged not only a geographic separation between buildings, but also a manmade landscape that was loud and bold" (Schlosser 17). Anonymous roadside 'pit stops' replaced lunch counters where everyone knew one another's name. The demand for cheap beef transformed the cattle industry, and made factory farming king. Sustainable agriculture, always a tenuous proposition in a land with a tendency to over-farm and over-graze the soil, became replaced with industrialized agriculture and factory farming. Today, Schlosser writes, poultry farmers are "trapped by debt," captives of large processors and the meat industry may be going the same way (Schlosser 139). The patterns of ownership and management on Americans farms today parallels that of 19th century rural England, not that of the independent homesteaders of previous eras (Schlosser 118). Today, America has more prison inmates than full-time farmers (Schlosser 8).

"In the potato fields and processing plants of Idaho, in the ranchlands east of Colorado Springs, in the feedlots and slaughterhouses of the High Plains, you can see the effects of fast food on the nation's rural life, its environment, its workers, and its health… the hardy, independent farmers whom Thomas Jefferson considered the bedrock of American democracy are a truly vanishing breed" (Schlosser 8). Strip malls, faceless and standardized, dot America's highways, not unique establishments. As persuasive as Schlosser is regarding the role fast food plays in this development, it should be added that industrialized agriculture and food processing is endemic to the agricultural industry as a whole, not just the fast food industry. Most animals today are raised in an inhumane manner, on an unnatural (corn-fed) diet. Of course, the fast food industry's appetite for cheaply produced animal carcasses is a component of the shift to industrialized agriculture, but it is important to keep in mind that merely by eschewing Quarter… [read more]


Industrialized Agriculture Sustainability Thesis

… Industrialized Agriculture

Sustainability

We are what we reap: Sustainable vs. industrialized agriculture in America

What is commonly referred to a 'conventional' agriculture, or the type of industrialized farming that is the norm in America is actually a fairly recent development.… [read more]


Culinary School Term Paper

… Culinary School

Over the past several years, cooking has become very popular. Television has more programming than ever about food and cuisine. There are cooking shows about all different types of nationalities, as well as the reality shows where a number of different people compete to have their own restaurant. They get screamed at and demeaned, but they keep on going and hoping to win. I understand exactly what they are going through. I also have the same passion. If I were on one of these shows, there would be nothing that would keep me from continuing on to the next show. Cooking is who I am. Cooking is who I always will be.

I'm very fortunate. Since I was young, I had this same passion for cooking. As soon as my parents, who were always very supportive, said that I could actually go into the kitchen and cook (instead of pretend on a toy stove), I went gladly. There was never a time from that point on that I did not continually try new types of menus and meals. When others were reading scary books and fantasies, I was also reading how to make French foods. When my friends were watching comedies or MTV on television, I was also turning to the cooking channels. Unfortunately, there are many kids who do not know what they want to do when they graduate from high school. That was never my problem.

When I was in high school, I formalized my interest by graduating from the culinary class in my senior year. When others were saying "Rah, Rah, Rah," or acting on stage, I was eating my latest creation. Some of my meals were not the best, but even Julia Child had her failures, correct? I am…… [read more]


Global Food Trade Term Paper

… Global Food Trade

In 2005 Florida accounted for a large portion of U.S. produce production, including (Overview of Florida agriculture):

percent of the total U.S. value of production for oranges ($843 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of production for grapefruit ($208 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of production for tangerines ($68.4 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of production for sugarcane for sugar and seed ($433 million as of 2004)

percent of the total U.S. value of sales for fresh market tomatoes ($805 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of sales for bell peppers ($213 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of sales for cucumbers for fresh market ($73.7 million)

percent of the total U.S. value of sales for watermelons ($127 million).

Four out of 5 of Florida's top agricultural exports are produce as show in Table 1 (State fact sheets: Florida).

agriculture exports, estimates, FY 2006

Rank among states

Value million $

1. Other

2. Fruits and preparations

3. Vegetables and preparations

4. Live animals and meat

5. Seeds

Trade between states is very important. Florida, a state rich in agricultural products, uses exports to help boost farm prices and income, while supporting about 20,100 jobs both on and off the farm in food processing, storage, and transportation. Exports remain vital to Florida's agricultural and statewide economy. The State's reliance on agricultural exports was 24% in 2006. (Trade and agriculture What's at stake for Florida). Other states with a climate not suited for agriculture take advantage of trade to increase access to agricultural products and to increase the price and income of their own products they are exporting.

Global food trade is important for the same reasons that trade between states is important, to expand affordable access to agricultural products.

On a worldwide basis,…… [read more]


GMO Genetically Modified Organisms Term Paper

… GMO - Genetically Modified Organisms

Genetically modified organisms are organisms of which the genome is altered through genetic engineering. In other words, the DNA from an organism is modified in a laboratory, and then inserted into another organism's genome for the purpose of producing traits or phenotypes that would be useful in the new organism. This technology has been used on life forms for decades, but the area in which it is still the most controversial is food. In addition to the ethics, conservation, and poverty reduction issues, concerns raised regarding this technology revolve around human and environmental safety.

Proponents of the technology hold that there is no danger for any age group in genetically modified foods. Indeed, the beneficial and longer-lasting properties created in these foods are seen as optimal for human food supply and safety. Opponents however hold that there is no way in which unforeseen consequences of genetically modified foods can be estimated. A strain of corn developed via…… [read more]


Food and Eating Behaviors Term Paper

… Food & Eating Behavior

Every country on planet earth has its unique culture and traditions. The people living in these countries have different lifestyles and so their food and eating behavior differs and sets it apart from others. Some countries… [read more]


Food Biotechnology Term Paper

… Food Biotechnology

The objective of this work is to critically review at least six sources of literature related to food biotechnology which contain arguments against the use of food biotechnology and to then summarize the key concerns and arguments and… [read more]


Food History of Central American Term Paper

… They are native to the area and add heat and interest to just about any dish. Food historian Tannahill writes of chilis, " "Some are dried to make chilli (sic) powder or the more refined cayenne paper (sic), some pickled in vinegar for Tabasco sauce, and others can be used in sauces and chutneys, or as direct flavourings in meat dishes" (Tannahill 207). These hot peppers are not the only peppers native to the area, the larger sweet (or "bell") peppers are also grown and used quite a lot in Central American cooking. Tannahill also notes there are at least ninety-two types of chilis used in Mexico today, and that several different types, both ground and fresh, may be used in the same dishes (Tannahill 208).

One of the most common "fast" foods in the area are El Salvadorian "pupusas," which are small, thick tortilla balls filled with meats, cheeses, or vegetables and grilled. They are served out of sidewalk booths called "pupusarias" and often come with a "salad" type side dish called "curtido," which "is a salad of cabbage, onion and carrot marinated in vinegar, and it's a perfect complement to pupusas" (Jones). The bottom line is that most ingredients are fresh, local, and spicy.

The food of Central America has many things in common with the food of Mexico, and it uses a lot of the same ingredients. However, it is unique, and travelers who go there expecting simply rice, beans, and tortillas may find many other items that will tempt them and keep them coming back for more.

References

Jones, Diana Nelson. "Latin Legends: Black Beans for Breakfast, Plantains for Lunch, Ceviche for Dinner. Post-Gazette.com. 23 June, 2002. 1 Nov. 2005.

< http://www.post-gazette.com/food/20020623dnjfood0623fnp2.asp

Keegan, Christopher W. "Latin Cuisine." Food Product Design. Oct. 2004. 1 Nov. 2005.

< http://www.foodproductdesign.com/archive/2004/1004CC.html

Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York, Crown Publishers, 1988.

Thompson, Wallace. Rainbow Countries of Central America. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, 1926.

Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne.…… [read more]


Fast Food Is a Phenomenon Term Paper

… As mentioned above, this tends to increase the sales and the consumption of fast foods with consequent detrimental health effects. Advertising also leads to false perception about the nutritional value of fast foods.

Heavy viewing has been shown to be… [read more]


British Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Organic Food Term Paper

… Organic Food

British consumer attitudes/organic food literature review

Five years ago, the New Statesman asked the question, "Are you an ethical consumer?" And elicited answers from some public figures. Broadcaster Zenab Bedawi said he bought Fairtrade coffee. He did not'… [read more]


Gene Tinkering in Agriculture Term Paper

… About 55% of last year's crop of soybeans was genetically engineered." ("Is your pizza poisoned?" 1995 The Electric Newt)

Even in 2005, GM products do not need to be labeled, and individuals who are sensitive to certain products could be at risk. Yet overall, despite such fears, the use of such products could actually reduce the number of pesticides in the production of agriculture. If a gene could be introduced into corn that would produce a protein toxic to corn-eating caterpillars, farmers could grow that kind of corn without using high quantities of pesticides. Also, despite fears of creating more antibiotic resistant bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract, "the antibiotic resistance genes used as markers in biotech do not [cause] resistance to antibiotics used to treat human disease, " and those resistance genes are already present in the human digestive tract." ("Should we worry over genetically altered foods?" 2000, The Boston Globe)

Works Cited

Allen, Scott. (13 Jul 1999) "Tinkering With The DNA On Your Dinner Plate." The Boston Globe. A1. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://www.rense.com/politics4/tinker.htm

Is your pizza poisoned?" (1995) The Electric Newt. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://botanical.com/site/column_christina/pizza.html

Should we worry over genetically altered foods?" (28 Mar 2000) The Boston Globe. Retrieved 22 Jun 2005 at http://www.global-reality.com/biotech/ARTICLES/news148.htm… [read more]


Fast Food Nation Effects Essay

… But when I opened my eyes, there was just a narrow strip of white paper and a smiling flavorist" (120). This discovery by Schlosser revealed that at the personal level, technology made it possible for fast food industries to 'fool' the consumer into thinking that what they were eating are delicious food with distinct taste associated only with the fast food establishment.

At the national level, fast food establishments, through the use of technology, had contributed to the issue of utilizing migrant workers who worked in farms and agricultural lands and meatpacking companies that helped produce the necessary ingredients and raw materials for the food sold in fast food establishments. These migrant workers were paid $5.50 per hour, an amount that was considered a pittance compared to other workers who have jobs that require less of an effort than the migrant workers' jobs and duties. The fast food industry was the major player responsible for the continued marginalization of migrant workers, and because of increased technology in agriculture and manufacturing, they were able to abuse more these workers by doubling their work through the help of these machineries while limiting their wages at below the minimum amount. In effect, technologies produced for the sake of mass production of food for the fast food industry made the poor poorer while doing hard labor: "Poor workers without health insurance drive up local medical costs. The nation's meatpacking firms ... have successfully pitted one economically depressed region against another ... " (152).

Lastly, at the global level, fast food industries and its technologies had also helped worsen the prices of food supplies and commodities generated from agriculture. In Schlosser's investigation of the lease and rent rates of ranches where livestock are grown, it became apparent that agricultural businesses control the prices and supply of agricultural and livestock food products. Schlosser disclosed, " ... agribusiness executives secretly talk on the phone with their competitors, set prices, and divide up the worldwide market for commodities -- a belief widely held among independent ranchers and farmers -- may seem like a paranoid fantasy. But that is precisely what executives at Archer Daniels Midland, "supermarket to the world," did for years" (142). Evidently, fast food industries had been a lucrative business that developments in technology had spurred production and made the people behind its industries aspire for more profit, disregarding the reality that they, through their technologies, marginalize specific sectors of the society and contribute to the worsening economic and social states of American society in effect.

Work cited

Schlosser, E.…… [read more]


Genetic Engineering and Agriculture Term Paper

… Genetic Engineering and Agriculture

What, exactly, is Genetic Engineering? What are the various processes that are involved in the carrying out of Genetic Engineering? Genetic Engineering is basically the selection and the willful or deliberate alteration or change of the genes or the genetic material that is present in any living being, by man. The process helps man to produce endogenous proteins with properties that are different from the original material, or produce entirely and completely different proteins from the original material. Genes can be, in essence, modified, and altered and changed within the DNA molecule so that the basic information that it contains would be altered. (Definition of Genetic Engineering)

One of the most important events that happened in the 20th century may be that of Genetic Engineering, and when the same was applied to agriculture, the result was 'transgenic crops' and also 'transgenic animals', which are nothing but products wherein the basic genetic structure was altered or modified in order to better the material within them. Some of the examples of successful alterations by the method of genetic engineering are that of rice. When it was discovered that rice did not contain Vitamin a, and that in several parts of Asia rice was the staple food, and most of the people of these regions appeared to be suffering from a Vitamin a deficiency, then it was decided to genetically modify the rice so that the various problems associated with such a deficiency could be effectively prevented. This experiment was initially carried out in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and rice was crossbred in order to produce rice that would be rich in Vitamin a (a Report on Genetically Engineered Crops)

Another example of the benefits of genetic engineering when applied to agriculture is that of producing an 'herbicide resistant transgenic corn', which would resist the deadly parasite 'Striga' or 'witchweed' that farmers in Africa had been struggling with for centuries. This modified corn would be genetically modified to be resistant to this parasite, and these would be able to resist the parasite and prevent damages and losses fro the farmers. This system could also be used for the genetic modification of other crops like millet and sorghum. Cheese, which was traditionally produced by adding rennet, which was extracted from the stomachs of calves, can now be produced with the help of the material called 'chymosin' that is extracted from yeast. (a Report on Genetically Engineered Crops)

Genetically modified foods and animals are now a common factor, and it is now an accepted fact that GE or genetically modified foods are better than normal foods and animals. However, there is still…… [read more]


Food Safety When Shopping Term Paper

… Eggs should not remain at room temperature for more than two hours and should be cooked thoroughly (Food pp). Wash hands thoroughly before handling raw foods and always wash hands and utensils after preparing raw meats, fish and poultry and never put cooked foods on a dish that has previously held raw meats (Food pp). Use separate cutting boards for vegetables and meats, and always wash the boards in hot soapy water (Food pp). Store leftovers in sealed containers, and either eat or freeze within three to five days, however, never freeze any dished that contain uncooked fruit or vegetables, hard-cooked eggs or mayonnaise and eat all frozen leftovers within two months (Food pp). When using the microwave oven, make certain to use only containers that are deemed microwave safe and be certain to follow the package directions for cooking (Food pp).

Any reliable book, article or web site that contains information regarding nutrition should be endorsed with medical or government recommendations, such as the American Medical Association, and the United States Department of Agriculture. Nutition.gov is an excellent web site that arose from the USDA's commitment to promote a healthy America and is supported through a USDA Interagency Agreement with Research, Education and Economics and Office of Analysis, Nutrition and Evaluation (Nutrition pp). "Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy:The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating" by Walter C. Willett and P.J. Skerrett is an excellent book choice for reliable nutritional information (Willett, Skerrett pp).

Work Cited

Food Safety

http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/nutrition/food_safety.html

Nutrition.gov. http://www.nutrition.gov

Willett, Walter C.; Skerrett, P.J. Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy: The Harvard Medical

School Guide to Healthy Eating. Free Press. 2002.… [read more]


World Trade Organization (WTO) Term Paper

… Furthermore, it discourages industrialization in developing countries. Exporting raw materials to richer countries for processing is cheaper than developing their own manufacturing. They are thus reduced to a very small share of production. These poor countries also rely on only… [read more]


Food History Term Paper

… Like garlic, olives were found in Egyptian tombs from around the second millennium BCE. Olive cultivation thrived in the entire Mediterranean basin between 5000-1400 BCE, but reached a pinnacle in ancient Greece. Indeed, olives became the financial and culinary staple… [read more]


Food Supply Safe and Adequate? Term Paper

… This raises another concern regarding disease control. Some ranchers give their cattle and chickens antibiotics to prevent disease. It is believed by some that small amounts of these antibiotics may carry over to the people who eat the meat. If that happens, they argue, disease-causing microbes might develop the ability to resist those antibiotics.

Two other concerns have emerged particularly about the beef industry. We have had several instances of people who ate incompletely cooked ground beef becoming extremely ill. Several small children have died from these infections, with the result that the public has been cautioned to cook beef, especially ground beef, thoroughly. However, many people find hamburgers cooked until they're well done unpalatable, and most people do not like steaks cooked in this way. It has been proposed that beef be irradiated to kill the e. coli causing this disease, but some people worry that this will have some ill-effect.

Finally, Great Britain has had a serious problem with Mad Cow Disease. The epidemic has devastated their herds, and some people who ate meat from infected cows caught the disease themselves. The United States has put a ban on importing any kind of beef from Great Britain. It's not known how long this ban will be necessary.

It does not seem reasonable to think that the United States government can stop all problems with our food supply from ever occurring, but the USDA works hard to maintain high standards. Issues such as E. coli contamination and Mad Cow Disease have been met with both extra effort to inspect and efforts to educate the public. It is this writer's assumption, therefore, that innovation and cautious supervision will both continue to grow and develop, ensuring a food supply that is both ample…… [read more]


Junk Food Really Cheaper? Mark Bittman Argues Essay

… ¶ … Junk Food Really Cheaper?" Mark Bittman argues no, junk food is costlier than freshly prepared food at home. To make the argument, Bittman relies on several different rhetorical strategies. One strategy is to rely on a diverse array… [read more]


African Restaurants in NYC Article

… Around 4 pm, he goes to Ponty where things are being set up for the dinner shift. During dinner, Elhadji bounds through the restaurant, helping to expedite orders and making sure to greet customers. He completes his day at Manhattan… [read more]


Thomas Foods: Hedging Strategies Research Paper

… While there is no basis risk, there is the risk of default as the agreement is private and not overseen by the government (Contracts, 2014, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada).

Other strategies

Keeping supplies low during times of volatility is another… [read more]


Food Safety Essay

… The ammonia process is generally simple and effective, which is why cases like Smith's are rare, but there is always the possibility of a problem with the ammonia wash rendering the system ineffective -- when the system only has one… [read more]


Applied Theories Ethics Case Study

… Profit in this case creates a perverse incentive. Yes you can profit from the creation of useful product, but you do not need a good or useful product in order to make a profit. Where McDonough and Kelman agree, and where I agree as well, is that a better system, one conceived with an entirely different set of objectives in mind, would not approve of this banana. It is not because they wish to see Ugandans starve, or worse be forced to eat tubers for their starch, it is because they want to see Ugandans thrive. There is a threat posed by Black Sigatoka, but humanity cannot out-innovate all of the problem that nature will throw its way. Only nature can the demonstrated capability to out-innovate its own threats. Intransigence -- not wanting to risk giving up bananas -- is a needless constraint. GMO crops are not the solution to any genuine problem, at least they are not a solution that exists without cost. There are other solutions to these problems that, if conceived properly are integrative, in line with the natural world, and solve problems at a deeper level. A GMO banana is a Band-Aid, good for healing small cuts, but useless for solving the major problems we face in this world with respect to hunger, health and environmental degradation.

References

Kelman, S. (no date). Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Ethical Critique, from Contemporary Business Themes, Chapter 14.

McDonough, W. (no date). A Boat for Thoreau, from Contemporary Business…… [read more]


Food, Inc Term Paper

… Food, Inc. Documentary

Critical Evaluation: Food, Inc. Documentary

The conclusion of the documentary film Food, Inc. is that the large number of factory farms in the United States that produce food for the masses are doing so in an way that is unhealthy for the environment, the animals, and the employees. The concern is not that animals are being killed for food, but the way in which they are killed and the way in which they are required to live in terrible, cruel conditions before their deaths. There are facts, opinions, and reasoned judgments in the film. Facts are provable statements that can be backed up with statistics or other information that is not refutable. One of the facts presented in the documentary is that organic food is becoming more popular with the current health food movement. This is something verifiable, and not just one person's opinion. There are studies and other statistical documents showing the increased production and consumption of organic foods by the American public in recent years.

There are, however, also many opinions in the documentary, including the belief that unhealthy food consumptions habits are being promoted in America. That would seem to conflict with the fact that more organic food is being sold, so if unhealthy habits are being promoted that promotion is failing. There is no real proof of this promotion, so it is opinion only. Another type of information provided in the documentary is reasoned judgment, and this would include the statement that the current methods of meat, grain, and vegetable production are not environmentally sustainable. While this is somewhat of an opinion, it is also reasonable based on the way farmland is being used up and how the environment is changing both because of factory farming and because of other factors (such as climate change). Eventually, it is quite possible that the type of farming done now will no longer be available, so the judgment is a reasonable one to make.

The thing that surprised me most in the documentary was how balanced it was. Of course, it was trying to make a point that factory…… [read more]


Steps to Reduce Food Insecurity and Poor Nutrition Term Paper

… To enhance nutritious choices by EBT users, rather than taking away choices, offering more choices such as allowing recipients to use their benefits at farmer's markets has been useful. A number of states such as New York have farmer's markets in which EBT recipients can use their allotment to buy fresh products, thus allowing them to 'elect' to eat better rather than to be forced to do so by limiting the types of foods that can be purchased. Legislation to 'shape' the environment to encourage healthy choices can also include providing incentives for supermarkets to open up in low-income areas to compete with bodegas that stock junk food and limiting the number of fast food restaurants that can have a presence in low-income areas. For example, one study of Los Angeles restaurants found that "in 2008 that fast-food restaurants, which often offer less-expensive fare than sit-down establishments, represented 45% of the eating establishments in South Los Angeles -- far more than in other parts of town" (Bernstein 2010).

Making it easier and cheaper to make healthy choices rather than restricting food is likely to be a more palatable solution (no pun intended) for food insecure communities. Creating ready access to food is important, since food scarcity itself can create binge eating cycles and making healthier food affordable and less effortful to obtain (while making unhealthy food, if not restricted, then more difficult to purchase in mass quantities) is a more ethical solution to the problem of improving health and nutrition for poorer communities.

References

Bernstein, S. (2010). Restaurant group plans to fight fast food restrictions in Los Angeles.

LA Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.latimes.com/2010/nov/11/business/la-fi-fast-food-fight-20101112

Martin, C. (2013). Improving school lunches by design. The New York Times. Retrieved from:

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/16/rethinking-school-lunch/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0… [read more]


Fast Food Restaurant: Mcdonalds Essay

… However, we overlooked what appeared to be the most significant coordination mechanism: the presence of two floating workers on the floor, who stepped in to keep traffic flowing. These workers engaged in various tasks, such as taking orders out to waiting cars if there was a delay in the drive-thru, cleaning up a spill in the restaurant area, and opening an additional register when the line became too long.

Not surprisingly, the restaurant utilized a significant amount of technology. We were correct that the cash register seemed to have buttons that allowed for complete customization of orders. One exception to this was that if someone wanted a regular sized cup of water with their value meal order instead of a soda, the cashiers did not seem to have an option for that. Instead, the default appeared to be a smaller cup. The register was linked to an overhead coordinated order board, which put the order up on a screen for those in prep. Finally, we were correct that the tools used for cooking were somewhat automated. The fry machine had a set time and beeped when fries were finished. Different buttons seemed to indicate the appropriate times for different foods.

Finally, our hypotheses about the stakeholders seemed founded. We hypothesized that the stakeholders with the lowest stakes (customers) will bring the highest demands to the business, and that did appear to be true. We considered the customers to have the lowest stakes because, in almost all circumstances, the results of getting a fast food order incorrect or having to wait an additional 3 or 4 minutes for an order are not life-changing. In comparison, the people working at a fast food restaurant during the week tended to be older people and college-age students. Although we did not interview them, they seemed as if they were working because they needed the money. The manager did, as well. Honestly, we were surprised at the level of rude behavior exhibited by many customers. Many of them spoke on their phones while placing orders and failed to use basic courtesy, such as saying "please" and "thank you" with the workers. We also witnessed one woman, who had been speaking on her phone when she placed her order; berate the cashier because she gave her the wrong order. However, the cashier had given the woman exactly what she ordered. We probably wouldn't have noticed that if we had not been intentionally observing the exchange, but it made us wonder how many "incorrect" fast food orders are due to customer error.

Discussion

Our observation revealed that fast food restaurants are very highly-structured organizations, which are only able to provide such fast service because they operate in a highly-efficient, highly-structured manner. However, we also saw the importance of human beings in the job; while the jobs may be automated, it seemed clear that the floating employees made the automated systems function much more smoothly than they would have without these additional employees. It made us remember that… [read more]


Genetically Modified Foods - Economics Literature Review Chapter

… They are designed to be an option as the original food supplies on the planet run low and more people are born (Murnaghan, 2012a). There are many people who reject genetically modified foods, though, and will likely continue to do so well into the future, which cuts into corporate profit and power (Murnaghan, 2012b). As genetically modified foods are further developed, it will be easier to determine whether they will be safe for people to eat in the long-term, or whether they may be putting large numbers of people at risk because of the way they are engineered (Murnaghan, 2012b). Until such determinations can be made, genetically modified foods will continue to be embraced by some and shunned by others. Both arguments and how they affect corporate power and economics should be considered.

For Schneider and Schneider (2013), the focus was on the food itself, and how it was changing the way people eat. Those who embrace genetically modified foods and/or do not see any risk to them realize only the benefits. They focus on how people are being helped because there is more food to eat, and how farmers are being helped because they have drought and disease resistant crops to grow (Schneider & Schneider, 2013). Both of those are benefits, but there are risks and economic considerations that also have to be addressed. Studies such as these are vital in order to show that there is much more to the GM argument than just how much money it can make for growers or what it will cost for those purchasing the products.

Resources

Anderson, A. (ed). (1998). Living in a genetically modified world. New Scientist (special edition). Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/232267451_Genetically_modified_foods

Border, P. & Norton, M. (1998). Genetically modified foods - benefits and risks, regulation and public acceptance. London: Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1115027/

Murnaghan, I. (2012a). Economic impact of genetically modified foods. Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved from http://www.geneticallymodifiedfoods.co.uk/economic-impact-gm-foods.html

Murnaghan, I. (2012b). genetically modified foods and corporate power. Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved from http://www.geneticallymodifiedfoods.co.uk/gm-foods-corporate-pow.html

Schneider, K.R. & Schneider, R.G. (2013). Genetically modified food. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs084… [read more]


Pizza vs. Burritos Food Is a Wonderful Essay

… Pizza vs. Burritos

Food is a wonderful part of the human experience. Eating, and the preparation of food, is viewed as entertainment, an art form, a business and a cultural symbol. Two foods worth considering are burritos and pizza. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast these two foods. This essay will explore some of the differences and similarities between the two foods and state their advantages and disadvantages from a persuasive point-of-view. Ultimately this essay will conclude that pizza is a more attractive food and its overall utility exceeds that of a burrito's worth.

Pizza, is an American food creation that contains three basic ingredients; bread, tomato sauce and cheese. Pizza is usually baked in an oven and is formed in the shape of a circle. Adding more toppings on to a pizza has also enriched this food's tradition. Usually smoked meats such as sausage and pepperoni are added to pizza for flavor. Also, vegetables of all sorts can also be added to a pizza to make it better. Pizza comes in many different sizes, shapes and styles. It is often delivered to people's homes or can be enjoyed in a pizza restaurant.

A burrito is a food that originates in Latin America and has been refined to today's standard from Mexico. A burrito consists of a tortilla, made of either corn or flour, wrapped around various ingredients. Common ingredients in most burritos include meat, cheese, lettuce, sour cream and beans. A salsa is often offered with the burrito as a condiment. Burritos are wrapped…… [read more]


Peter Andree Entitled "Gm Food Essay

… IN addition, Health Canada responded to the limitations of testing of allergenicity to a focus on surveillance of the GMOs post-market for identification of the impacts of biotechnologically derived products that were not desired.

Environmental assessment has also been at focus in Canada with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Environment Canada, the primary agencies holding responsibility for environmental assessment of GMOs agreeing with recommendations that prior to GM crop release that they undergo an ecological risk assessment of a thorough nature. Peer review is one of the primary measures set out for the GMO assessment. Also stated is a requirement for a long-term monitoring of the development of insect resistance when GMOs that contain insecticidal properties are used. A study conducted in Canada reports that farmers are not being provided enough information concerning insecticide use.

While Canada has taken some necessary actions to be more cautious there has not been much progress that is of a meaningful nature in the areas of food safety, environmental assessment, peer review; transparency, and monitoring and surveillance. It is stated that regulators fulfilling the recommendations as they are stated will result in the elimination of the possibility of the human food supply being contaminated with animal feed crops that are not safe for consumption by humans. However, the evidence stated in the work of Andree (2006) is reported to indicate that the Government of Canada "is not prepared to accept the degree of precautionary scrutiny of GMOs called for…" (p.386)

References

Andree, P. (2006) GM Food Regulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food Regulation in Canada. Science and Public Policy, volume 33, number 5, June 2006, pages 377…… [read more]


Food Trucks Have Brought a Revolution Essay

… Food trucks have brought a revolution when it comes to the food scene in D.C. They have been struggling to exist as there are no regulations that govern their existence. The existence of these food trucks has a great impact on cebrick -- and-mortara restaurants .they impact these restaurants in many ways. The paper will look at how the food trucks impact cebrick -- and mortara when it comes to prices and market share.it will also look at why the article indicates that cebick and mortara restaurants attempt to ban the trucks from the understanding of market structure.

The food trucks have a great impact when it comes to how these restaurants price their foods. The food trucks offer the same foods that these restaurants offer. This means that there is a struggle between the restaurants and the food trucks on the prices of the food. This is due to the fact that both the restaurants and food trucks want to get as many customers as they can .this the price setting will be determined by both the food trucks and restaurants.in most cases the food trucks offer their food at lower prices compared to this restaurants. This is because the operation costs of the food trucks are lower compared to those in the restaurants. This means that the food trucks will price their food lower compared to the restaurants. This will push the restaurants to bring down their prices such a way that they are same as those offered by food trucks or lower (Needleman, 2012). It is a clear indication that there are price wars due to the existence of food trucks near these œbrick-and-mortara restaurants.

The food trucks also greatly impact the market share of the food industry around D.C. This is because these food trucks often have similar foods as those provided in these restaurants at lower prices and at the same time they are convenient. This means that many customers will opt to buy food from the food trucks compared to buying the same food from thee restaurants. Therefore the food trucks will have a great…… [read more]


Factory Farming, Morality, and Vegetarianism Research Paper

… " In fact more than at any time in human history, Henning continues, millions of humans are deficient in minerals and vitamins and are overfed; this, in turn, accounts for "…more than half of the global burden of disease" (66).

In addition to the above-mentioned depressing particulars, author Evelyn Pluhar points out that factory farming contributes a "…full 20% of the total" emissions that the U.S. contributes to greenhouse gases and hence to global climate change (457).

Problem II

Because there are apparently very few high-priority educational programs (in schools and communities) pointing to the benefits of eschewing meat and turning to healthful vegetarian meals, a new approach must evolve out of the ruins of the evil, immoral legacy of CAFOs in the United States. Indeed there are signs of that approach in that vegetarianism is becoming a bigger part of the American culture; journalist Juliana Devries reports that 43% of vegetarians in the U.S. are between the ages of 18 to 34 and up to 18% of college students are vegetarians (Devries, 2012, 40), which bodes well for the future of vegetarianism. Moreover, Devries asserts that those who turn to vegetables are helping reduce climate change; that is because the global demand for meat "…causes deforestation to make way for [cattle] grazing" (40). Also, since enormous amounts of methane gas and nitrous oxide (produced by factory farms) won't be pumped into the atmosphere when millions exchange a meat diet for non-meaty, nutritious vegetarian foods, vegetarianism may be seen (particularly by the young) as an environmental solution.

Evidence that future generations of Americans are becoming aware of the ethical dilemma produced by CAFOs -- and the moral benefits of vegetarianism -- is found in a study conducted by Harvard professors Hussar and Harris. Perhaps younger people becoming committed vegetarians can pass along their values in a kind of people-to-people cultural stratagem. Hussar researched the eating habits of 48 middle class children (ages 6-10) from the northeast U.S.; of the 20 vegetarians whose parents were not vegetarians, 16 indicated they avoided meat because of "animal welfare" (Hussar, et al., 2009, 631). Of the 16 vegetarian children whose parents are also vegetarians, 7 cited animal welfare, 3 sited religion and 5 cited family traditions as reasons for eschewing meat. And of the 16 meat-eaters, 13 liked the taste of meat and 5 eat meat for the protein (health).

Works Cited

Devries, Juliana. (2012). Making Choices: Ethics and Vegetarianism. Dissent, 59(2), 39-41.

Henning, Brian G. (2011). Standing in Livestock's 'Long Shadow': The Ethics of Eating Meat

on a Small Planet. Ethics & The Environment, 16(2), 63-77.

Hussar, Karen M., and Harris, Paul L. (2009). Children Who Choose Not to Eat Meat: A Study

Of Early Moral Decision-Making.…… [read more]


Food, Inc Film Review

… Food Inc. summary and critique

Food, Inc. (2008) aims to bring attention to how food processing in the United States has changed during the last 50 years and the pressure farmers are put under by the major food producing companies that they work for. The documentary focuses on three different aspects of food production: the meat industry including beef, chicken, and pork; the corn industry; and the soybean industry.

Food, Inc. (2008) begins by explaining how the food production industry has transitioned from independent farming that supplied a limited amount of food to an industry of mass production that will do anything and everything possible in order to produce the most food in the shortest amount of time including genetically modifying food. The film begins by looking into the mass production of chicken for human consumption. Food, Inc. (2008) explains how farmers are forced to conform to industry standards or lose their contracts with whatever major company employs them. The film then shifts its focus to the beef industry and the unhygienic conditions that are prevalent in the industry. Food, Inc. (2008) also briefly touches upon the pork industry, but it does not go into as much detail as it does with the chicken and beef industry.

Food, Inc. (2008) also touches upon the corn industry and explains how corn products are found in a great majority of products including soft drinks and processed cheese. Furthermore, corn is also used to provide feed for chicken, beef, and pork, which further emphasizes the interconnectivity of the food industry.

Additionally, Food, Inc. (2008) provides insight into the legal issues that are prevalent in the food industry, from a lack of food quality control to being sued for libel or patent infringement. As such, the few food companies that control the mass production of food, also want to control their image, and protect it from any negative criticisms, even if said criticism is true.

Food, Inc. (2008) provided great insight into the food industry and allowed me to better understand…… [read more]


Food Service Food Waste Essay

… Indeed, "a pub/restaurant in Tipperary decreased portion sizes and managed to decrease the amount of food waste created by over a third" (FOODWaste.ie., n.d.).

Borrowing from an initiative facilitated by employees of two dinning facilities belonging to Intel, some of the best management practices to reduce waste include but they are not limited to re-working of fruit (unused) into sauce and/or chutney, proper and reasonable utilization of leftovers such as chili and potato products, efficient trimming practices, etc. (City of Hillsboro, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, 2010). As a foodservice manager, I could seek to make use of these management practices to address the food wastage problem.

It should however be noted that even with an effective food waste minimization and management system, there will always be some leftover food. Instead of directing the same to the dustbin, the edible leftover food could be donated to any of the food banks operating in the city, i.e. Food Bank for New York City.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is important to note that in seeking to reduce food wastage, there is a need to seek the involvement of each and every individual in the workplace. As the foodservice manager of a foodservice outlet, I would ensure that both the supervisors/managers and lower cadre employees work in tandem in an attempt to reduce food wastage. All employees also need to be informed of not only the goals but also the relevance of such an undertaking.

References

City of Hillsboro, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. (2010, August). Food Waste Prevention Case Study: Intel Corporation's Cafes. Retrieved from http://www.ci.hillsboro.or.us/Sustainability/SustainabilityWeb_Upload/download/FoodWasteCaseStudy.pdf

FOODWaste.ie. (n.d). Case Studies of Organizations Managing Food Waste Properly. Retrieved from http://www.envirocentre.ie/includes/images/Case-Studies-of-Organisations-Managing-Food-Waste-Properly.pdf

Kirk, D. (2012). Environmental Management for Hotels: A Student's Handbook. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.… [read more]


Genetically Modified Foods: Rational Research Paper

… Some of the currently available genetically modified crops are designed to be higher in nutritional content than their natural counterparts. More adventurous genetic engineers are considering fusing genes "that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B; fish that mature more quickly; cows that are resistant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)," with potential net benefits to the consumer and the global community (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013).

2c. Personal Viewpoint

Arguments in favor of the use of genetically modified organisms reveal potential benefits that are difficult to ignore. It is tempting to believe that genetic modification of foods will reduce poverty and malnutrition around the world, or reduce dependence on chemical fertilizers and pesticides. However, there are currently more reasons to use caution with GMOs than there are reasons to embrace the technology wholeheartedly. For one, companies that produce genetically modified foods patent their products. This in itself can cause major problems in the future related to food availability and food security. Lawsuits against companies like Monstanto have proven that there are major legal and ethical concerns with patenting seeds. The fact that for-profit organizations could have greater control over food production is a frightening proposition, and could outweigh the potential benefits of theoretically improving crop yields worldwide. Moreover, the potential improvements in crop yields are as of yet still theoretical as the technology has not been used long enough to determine whether the results will be fruitful.

There are also no long-term studies proving that genetically modified foods are safe for consumption, or safe in terms of ecological sustainability. Currently, there are more ethical reasons to limit the use of genetically modified organisms until more is known about their long-term impacts on individual people, public health in general, and also on the global ecosystems. Genetically modified crops seem like a short-term solution to problems that would best be solved in other ways, such as eliminating the government corruption that causes poverty in the first place. The labeling controversy is another major ethical issue. Consumers absolutely have the right to know whether the food they purchase has been genetically modified.

References

Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml

World Health Organization (WHO 2013). Food, genetically modified. Retrieved online: http://www.who.int/topics/food_genetically_modified/en/… [read more]


Nile River in Egypt Research Paper

… Nile River in Egypt

The River Nile is the longest river around the world that covers 954,187 miles from the source of Burundi Mountains (Chapin, 1990). The Blue Nile, the White Nile, and the Atbara are the three tributaries that form the river Nile. All the three tributaries are significant to the River Nile in one way or the other. The source of the White Nile is found in Burundi that passes via Lake Victoria, and then flows back into southern Sudan. The Blue Nile on the other hand, has its source in the highlands of Ethiopia and meets with White Nile, near Lake Tana. Both the Blue Nile and White Nile flow together to the north of Khartoum joined by waters of Atbara that has its source in Ethiopians highlands (Lewis, 2013). This paper will summarize the Nile River in Egypt in regards to the characteristics of the River, Agriculture, Technology and Beliefs and values.

Characteristics of River Nile

The River Nile has various characteristics which includes;

It is the longest River in the world. The River stretches 954,187 miles in the mountains of Burundi that happens to be its source. The Nile River is significant to the people living in Egypt because it improves farming and Agriculture in the area. Because of the wider coverage of the River Nile in Egypt, Many people have moved to the area to start practicing Agriculture that will cause an increase in population from 280 million at present to about 500 million in the coming future.

The Nile River is the only river in Egypt that serves as the constant source of water. The River is formed by three tributaries namely; the White Nile, the Blue Nile, and the Atbara. The Atbara and the Blue Nile have their sources in Ethiopians highlands while the White Nile gets its source from Burundi. All these three tributaries join forming the Nile River that serves the whole population in Egypt. The constant source of water enabled farming that were practiced along the river Niles' banks even though there was a high temperature (Baines, 2011).

In the Ancient Egypt, the River Nile was being worshipped as gods known as Hapi. The god came in a shape that looks like the frog which was representing the Nile delta.

Agriculture

In Egypt, farming and Agriculture were the main source of income. Many people practiced both farming and Agriculture to improve their standards of living. The River Nile made the soil productive since it brought rich deposits of silt that were swept away from Monsoon tablelands in Ethiopia. The constant source of water was the most vital factor that improved agriculture in Egypt. The Nile River was significant in providing the silt each time there was a flood in Egypt. Despite the fact that few cases of floods of 45 feet were noted in some parts of Egypt, most crops were harvested during the spring. After floods, nearly all Egyptians would grow vegetables and fruits because at this time… [read more]


Pet Food and Pet Sensitivities Essay

… d.). Notably, the major cause of food allergies in pets are the most common ingredients in pet foods. While many proteins are similar in form, some of them are slightly more antigenic than others. Therefore, the possibility of allergic reactions is usually associated with the amount of exposure to these proteins. Food allergens are nearly completely between medium-size and large proteins that are partially resistant to digestion and heat and are not broken the gastrointestinal tract.

While the extent with which food allergies occur is largely unknown because of the lack of knowledge about the number of pets with food allergies, veterinary literature has often cited several numbers. According to veterinary dermatologists, severe food reactions account for approximately 6% of all skin diseases whereas food is the cause of nearly 20% of allergic reactions in pets.

Unlike popular opinion, pet allergies are more common since an estimated 10% of pets such as dogs have allergies. The main reason for the increase in pet allergies is attributed to the fact that allergies cannot cure and are only kept under control for the animal to have a good quality of life (Almasy, 2009). The other reasons for the increase in pet allergies include the constant heat and dry weather, the seasonal nature of the allergies, and tendency to overlook symptoms of the allergies. Since they are necessary fats produced by the body to support the immune system, essential fatty acids play a crucial role in controlling sensitivities. This is mainly through their ability to control auto-immune conditions, allergies, and inflammation. They also control sensitivities through playing crucial roles in the maintenance of normal tissue and important organ function.

References:

Almasy, S. (2009, March 26). Pets, Owners Challenged by Increasing Allergies. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from http://articles.cnn.com/2009-03-26/health/pet.allergies_1_food-allergies-flea-pollen?_s=PM:HEALTH

"Food Allergies and Food Intolerance." (n.d.). Doctors Foster and Smith. Retrieved October 8,

2012, from http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2082&aid=143

"Pet Food Intolerance and Allergy." (2008). Pet Food Review. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from http://www.pet-food-choice.co.uk/pet_food_intolerance.htm… [read more]


Whole Foods: Current Market Conditions Term Paper

… When customer demand for higher-end consumer goods such as organics begins to contract, Whole Foods is hurt. It is also limited to how much it can slash prices if there are difficulties in obtaining its products, such as a drought or an interruption in the supply chain. Its commitment to local growers further makes it dependent upon suppliers. There is a limit to how much it can lower prices, even when faced with a downturn in demand, if suppliers' items are scarce and the company must make up for higher input costs. Whole Foods cannot operate on an economy of scale like Wal-Mart, and because its range of offerings is limited to food, it cannot engage in 'risk management' like a big box store, by emphasizing more profitable aspects of its product lines. Costs of transportation of imported goods can also affect overall prices 'across the board.'

Effect of government regulations

Despite Whole Foods' desire to stock GMO (genetically modified organisms)-free items, this has grown increasingly difficult. "A representative for the corporation acknowledged in May of 2011 that the realities of the marketplace have forced a shift in the company's previous no-GMOs policy... Whole Foods does take steps to avoid GMO ingredients, but due to the massive use of genetically engineered ingredients in the food supply, it is currently impossible to avoid GMOs in conventional or 'natural' products" (Green 2011).

Standards of 'organic' foods are mandated by law, however. "The term, 'organic,' may only be used on labels and in labeling of raw or processed agricultural products, including ingredients, that have been produced and handled in accordance with the regulations" (Green 2012). This helps Whole Foods, given that products that are not truly organic are limited to the degree in which they can promote themselves as healthy, although they may try to fool customers by stressing that they contain 'healthy whole grains' or are 'all natural.'

References

Green, Tara. (2012). Despite its efforts, even Whole Foods cannot keep GMOs out of the products it sells. Natural News. Retrieved:

http://www.naturalnews.com/032628_Whole_Foods_GMOs.html#ixzz24bQ4TLq3

Beyers, Tim. (2009). The secret to Whole Foods' success. Motley Fool. Retrieved:

http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2011/02/28/the-secret-to-whole-foods-success.aspx

Cavallaro, Matt (2009). Whole Foods Battles Thin Wallets. Forbes. Retrieved:

http://www.forbes.com/2009/07/13/wal-mart-grocery-personal-finance-investing-ideas-whole-foods.html

Longley, Robert. (2012). Organic must now mean organic. About.com. Retrieved:

http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa122100b.htm

Le Tellier, Alexandra. (2012). Move over, Trader Joe's and Whole Foods, here comes

BrightFarms. LA Times. Retrieved: http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/opinion-la/la-ol-trader-joes-innovative-grocery-store-20120808,0,1513786.story

Patton, Leslie & Bryan Gruley. (2009).Walter Robb on Whole Foods' recession lessons.

Businessweek. Retrieved: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-08-09/walter-robb-on-whole-foods-recession-lessons#p1… [read more]


Fast Food Nation Chapter Essay

… Jobs that pay a decent wage that will form the new backbone of the American economy, such as jobs in medicine to care for a rapidly-aging population, would seem to be more valuable occupations in which to train workers.

The high turnover in the fast food industry belies the claims that it is helping employees. Employees are more likely to remain within organizations that make an investment in their skills and development as people. Workers know that they are disposable. When faced with poor treatment, they act accordingly. The high turnover also suggests that the discipline the company claims to teach to employees hardly has taken hold. Furthermore, the attitudes of employees to their jobs are contemptuous and filled with barely-concealed rage, given their low pay and lack of advancement. Workers routinely act in an unsanitary manner on the job, despite what they are taught, because of sublimated rage they feel for the company and customers. This hardly exemplifies the success of training programs.

The real attitude of the companies towards labor is revealed in policies such as Taco Bell where "the bonuses of the mangers were tied to their success at cutting labor costs" (Schlosser 61) This points to both the instability of fast food workers' long-time employment prospects at the company and the real attitude with which their managers regard them. Although it is true that the 'real world' often expresses contempt for worker loyalty, regards workers as disposable, and does not honor the commitment made by workers with a strong work ethic, this hardly supports the decision of the government to channel valuable dollars to subsidize employee training programs that ultimately disempower workers in the labor market.

Work Cited

Schlosser, Eric. Fast…… [read more]


Exporia's Plea Concerning Ban Term Paper

… Imporia tested and assessed the risk of Exporia's corn beer contamination by relying on inaccurate data. Imporia recognizes that studies relating to presumed beer contamination by the NAQB represent a minority view. Exporia believes that a risk assessment must come from a unified conclusion from the mainstream scientific opinion representing various scientists taking different views. Divergence therefore is advantageous and is an indication of equal balance of scientific opinion. The failure of Imporia to institute a process that would incorporate divergent scientific opinion is considered by Exporia as an act in bad faith. Besides, it is an indicator of lack of a reasonable relationship between SPS measure and Imporia's risk assessment. The reliance of result from the NAQB, as opposed to FAO and WHO without any extension research makes Imporia arguments against Exporia's beer inconsistent with the requirements of SPS Agreement. The interpretation of the scientific results in the risk assessment of (Tetranychus urticae) related causality and disease risks seem to require a quantitative dimension. In such cases, relying on mere minority view and insufficient data may bring inaccurate risk assessment. Moreover, the risk is perceived to be life threatening and presents threat to public health and safety. The approach of minority opinion imposed by Imporia is subject to legitimate criticism as their argument is not reliable and does not show the effects of the beer. The SPS Agreement recommends the issuance of specific and quantitative data in risk assessment to be met as opposed to minority opinions with limited scientific evidence.[footnoteRef:6] If Imporia was responsible and considerate, it would have based their legislative and administrative measures on majority scientific opinion. It is therefore justifiable to recommend that final determination of Imporia's claim should await future decision involving other scientific opinion. Overreliance on the scientific minority view leads to procedural challenges in implementing the risk assessment based upon the allegations. [6: ibid]

The results of the minority scientific organizations such as the NAQB, hinder Exporia from making necessary steps that would help them establish a level of protection they deem appropriate for their products. According to Exporia, disproportion between the risk identified by the scientific evidence and the SPS measure implies that there is no rational or objective relationship.

Works Cited

Appellate Body. EC Measures Concerning Meat and Meat products. Geneva, 1998 .

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures.…… [read more]


Food Is an Expression Essay

… Clearly, the experience of Besito represents a fusion of American and Mexican cultural cues.

In Tibetan Kitchen, the same classmate enjoyed a meal of momos, thukpa, and other Tibetan delights. Encounters with the Tibetan culture through the food revealed the lifestyle of the people on the Tibetan plateau and nearby regions of the Himalayas. Although unavailable at the Tibetan Kitchen restaurant, yak butter tea is a staple of the Tibetan diet. Such cultural symbols are communicated in the act of sharing foods between individuals from different backgrounds. As the classmate points out, the owners of the restaurant were Tibetan but from India. The food they cooked represented a modern "fusion" interpretation of traditional Tibetan offerings. The history and plight of the Tibetan people can therefore be communicated via the food: as the food reflects the migration of the people from Tibet to India due to the Chinese incursion onto the Tibetan plateau.

A different classmate visited Obao, a Thai restaurant, and Panna II, an Indian restaurant. The cultural experiences at each restaurant were remarkably different, as were the different foods. At the Indian restaurant, the servers were "obnoxious" and "pushy" about ordering certain items. The aggressiveness of the servers might be a cultural expression; the ways Indians communicate might indeed be more assertive than North Americans are used to -- or Thai people, for that matter. Because of intercultural communication differences, enthusiasm for the food might be interpreted as "obnoxiousness." Alternatively, the "pushy" servers might be individual differences, rather than reflective of the culture as a whole. One must be very careful not to make generalizations about a culture, its communication style, or any other element for risk of stereotyping.

As the Food and Culture Resources (2012) website indicates, the types of food eaten in specific cultures reflects what is available geographically. "Sheep's brain and eyeballs, frog's legs, hot tea with fermented yak butter, or animal blood are not considered to be universal foods - nor are insects, but they are relished by some people," (Food and Culture Resources, 2012). Partaking of the foods from different regions allows for exposure to the ways of life in other regions of the globe, thereby revealing our own prejudices about what is normative to eat. Similarly, eating habits and customs reflect different cultural norms. In an Indian and Ethiopian restaurant, for example, it would be acceptable to eat with one's hands. In a Chinese or a French restaurant, eating with the hands would not be acceptable. Eating and food offer some of the richest, most interesting methods of experiencing intercultural communication.

References

Food and Culture Resources (2012). Welcome to food, culture, and tradition. Retrieved online: http://www.food-links.com/

O'Neil, D. (2006). What is culture? Retrieved online: http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_1.htm… [read more]


Food Essay

… Whereas many American customers find the service too slow and want to complain, other people understand that part of the Ethiopian culture is to be relaxed and at ease. This corresponds to the method of eating Ethiopian food, which is with the hands and done slowly. American food is sometimes eaten fast, in the car or at the desk.

One of my classmates wrote about an experience at a Japanese izikaya in Toronto. This restaurant might be one I am familiar with, which is called Guu. This restaurant also has the servers enthusiastic and shouting "hello!" And "goodbye!" To all the customers. Japanese culture is engaging, and the restaurants are busy and lively like this one. Therefore the ambiance of this restaurant reflects the culture. The food is varied, as there is something for everyone. I appreciated reading the dining style, which is for many people to share dishes rather than to have each person eat from his or her own plate. The service is fast but friendly, and there is a loud and fun atmosphere to the restaurant. This Japanese experience is different from the Italian restaurant that another classmate writes about. More akin to American dining, the Italian restaurant does not necessarily reflect the eating culture of Italy (the parent country) so much as it is a product of Italian-Americans. I know this because I have visited Italy. The food in Italy and the dining experience is much different from the food and dining experiences in American Italian restaurants. That is not to say the food is not good or fresh. It might be good, but it is not truly reflective of Italian food. Italian food in Italy is not as much focused on pasta and pizza as it is in the United States. In Italy, pasta is an appetizer or a side dish. Pizza is something that is small with a thin crust, usually as a quick lunch or an appetizer for two. In spite of these differences, one can appreciate the flavors and ingredients that reflect the geography of the specific region.… [read more]


Globalization Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Globalization has changed the face of the planet -- both in terms of how we communicate, what types of political and social issues we face, and even the choices we make in basic human needs like food. After… [read more]


Start and Run a Successful Fast Food Research Paper

… ¶ … start and run a successful fast food pasta restaurant with a drive through?

Nature of problem to address

Specific research questions

Key definitions of terms

Stream one: Opening a business

Stream two: The fast food pasta industry

Stream… [read more]


Food Reserve Non-Profit Organization Feasibility Research Paper

… Some of the programs under consideration for collecting food are:

Basic Food Collections (FC)

Participates will be retailing, wholesale, and food processing companies that donate food items. They will be monthly contributors of donations from their surplus and overstock items.… [read more]


American Food Uses and Abuses Essay

… The makers of this fake honey do this to minimize the amount of real honey they have to use so they can make greater profits (Philpott, 2011). This introduces unhealthy elements into our diets that could be just as bad as processed fast foods. Unfortunately, we may not be able to judge this when we look at the popular food items we buy in our local stores thinking that we are buying better ingredients. Even when consumers turn to buying raw, unfiltered honey from local harvesters they may be at risk of contaminates, which is why they need to learn more about honey and its benefits (Honey, 2011).

This latter concern is also tied to another popular use of foods, those that are thought to be organic and U.S. made. It turns out that many of the products that are packaged as being from the U.S. have their origins elsewhere, and there have been a number of concerns recently about illnesses associated with these products (CDC, 2011). Many are more expensive than other choices, which mean financially struggling families may not be able to turn to these opportunities. More importantly, there have also been a series of outbreaks regarding illnesses such as listeria and salmonella in foods such as cantaloupes that are threatening families because organic foods are not properly handled and packaged (CDC, 2011).

American's are very interested in learning more about the foods we eat and buy. But so far we have just begun to see how complicated it can be to identify healthy alternatives, particularly if we want to keep costs low and our options new and appealing. Fast food outlets have been a good reflection of American consumer interests in the past but we are now starting to look elsewhere, only to learn that there are other concerns we have to be aware too.

REFERENCES

CDC (2011). Listeriosis. Timeline of Events: Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colorado. Viewable at http://www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/cantaloupes-jensen-farms/120811/timeline.html.

Corporate Accountability International (2011). Health Effects of Fast Food. Viewable at http://www.stopcorporateabuse.org/health-effects-fast-food.

Honey (2011). Honey.com. National Honey Board. Viewable at http://www.honey.com/nhb/technical/.

Let's Move (2011). America's Move to Raise a Healthier Generation of Kids. Viewable at http://www.letsmove.gov/eat-healthy.

Philpott, T. (2011). Honey Laundering. Mother Jones. Viewable at http://motherjones.com/tom-philpott/2011/11/supermarkets-sell-fake-honey.… [read more]


Third Party Food Inspection Agency Outside Country Could Help Term Paper

… Canadian Food Safety: A Wider Look

Food Safety

Canadian Food Safety: A Wider Economic Look

Say there are only two grocery stores, your family is getting hungry and will eventually starve. In one store, everyone knows there is one product… [read more]


Wholes Food Market Research Paper

… Whole Foods is, needless to say, an innovative, committed and overall fantastic company with clear goals in mind. This section will describe how the organization has come to be where it is at the moment, a successful enterprise with happy employees. In order to answer this question the paper will talk about various tools and strategies, all described below.

Perhaps one of the most important places to start is by looking at the procurement strategies that the company utilizes for its development. This is important because these are the most vital part of the Whole Foods chain, and these employees must be kept happy in order to keep serving the company. Unlike many grocery stores, Whole Foods only deals with pesticide-free, organic companies. There are a few dozen companies that supply to Whole Foods, and they are all detailed briefly below:

Whole Food Company -- a grocery store with wholesome food (not a health food store)

Wellspring Grocery -- a grocery store with home-grown, energetic workers who changed the way people shopped for food (i.e. encourage great nutrition)

3. Bread & Circus -- a store that sold both natural food and wooden toys

4. Mrs. Gooch's -- a store whose owner opened it because she was interested in natural foods after trying to alleviate her allergies

5. Fresh Fields -- a second generation natural supermarket store

6. Bread of Life -- an organic store that housed natural food products and a juice bar

7. Amrion -- a small store founded in Colorado that sold various health-related products

8. Merchant of Vino -- a wine retail store that also picked up gourmet and natural foods

9. Allegro Coffee -- a coffee company that was also promoting natural and wholesome production

10. WholePeople.com -- an e-commerce subsidiary

11. Nature's Heartland -- a store that opened with the goal of providing cost effective but natural and good foods to customers

12. Food For Thought -- a community business in California that also focused on the natural foods industry

13. Harry's Farmers Market -- a market that was known for natural, fresh, delicious foods, that began in Atlanta and soon proved the superiority of these products over traditional foods

14. Select Fish -- a processor and distributor from Alaska who provided fish from fisheries that had both high quality but that also utilized techniques to ensure ecological health of marine life.

15. Fresh & Wild -- a UK company that also promoted natural foods and that won numerous awards in Europe

16. Wild Oats© Markets -- a vegetarian natural foods store

The reason this list was given was to demonstrate the various aspects that the company has utilized to achieve its success. This is, thus not attributed solely to the fact that it has fantastic products, but also to its partnership, that has spurred development with many other similar companies, that now all work for or are somehow incorporated in…… [read more]


Required Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods Term Paper

… Genetically Modified Foods Should Be Labeled

Genetically modified foods are making up an increasing portion of the world's food supply. Generally, foods are genetically modified in order to either for efficiency or enhancement. That is, foods are modified either to… [read more]


Labeling GMO Essay

… Labeling GMOs

The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in the food supply is one of the most controversial aspects of modern agriculture. The European Union has banned the sale of products with GMOs. However, in America, GMOs are incorporated into a wide variety of products. Unless a product is specifically labeled as lacking GMOs, American consumers may buy foods and other items that contain these ingredients without being made aware of this fact. Proponents of the products tout their benefits to consumers, and view labeling as a kind of fear-mongering. It is unfair, they say, to lump GMOs along with other labeled products such as cigarettes and fast food, implying that GMOs will have a negative impact upon human health. Positive labeling, or labeling all products with GMOs "implies risk while inaccurately reflecting health consequences of consuming GMO products" (Runge & Jackson 2009). The products have been approved as safe by the necessary regulatory bodies. Proponents add that GMOs can help feed the world by making more disease-resistant crops, expand the available food supply to feed a burgeoning world population, and that labeling of the products will make consumers needlessly suspicious.

Opponents of the lack of labeling cite the benefits of consumer choice and the fact that GMOs are often relatively untested, suggesting that the pace of agricultural reform is getting ahead of the ability to regulate these products. They argue that just as consumers have the right to know the calorie counts of the products they buy packaged in the supermarkets, they should have the right NOT to consume GMOs. However, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is moving in the direction of not labeling GMOs. Recently, it approved three new kinds GMOs: alfalfa hay used to produce ethanol, sugar beets, and a fast-growing genetically modified breed of salmon. These products will not even have to be labeled as containing GMOs. The salmon is advertised as an "environmentally sustainable alternative to current farmed salmon," which is grown in a more sterile environment than wild fish (AquaAdvantage Fish, 2011, Aqua Bounty). GMO opponents state that if these genetically-modified fish escape and breed with wild salmon, that the entire population of the fish could become tainted. As seen in the documentary The future of food, it is virtually impossible to prevent species from cross-contaminating one another. Mexico has already lost the integrity of its indigenous corn varietals because of cross-pollination from GMO plants nearby.

The American public, however, may consume products with GMOs (very few consumers can claim to even try to eat only non-GMO products) but is profoundly uncomfortable with this fact. The "majority of Americans believe that GMOs are hazardous to their health" and in one recent CBS/NYT poll 87% stated that they wanted the products to be labeled (Bittman 2011). Advocates of choice stress that consumers should at least have the ability to choose what foods enter their bodies. However, the FDA counters with its response that because GMOs are considered to be the same as conventional products… [read more]


Hong Kong Food Culture Term Paper

… "Soyfoods have been part of Asian food systems for millennia," and the domestication and processing of soy beans represents one of the earliest instances of a complex food culture arising around a single ingredient (Mintz & Tan, 2001, p. 113). Despite their long history in Chinese cuisine, however, "developments during the last century have done more to transform the meaning of soybeans for world consumption than practically anything since their domestication," and the emergence of a variety of previously unheard-of uses of soybean curd in Hong Kong demonstrate this (Mintz & Tan, 2001, p. 114). Thus, "entrepreneurs in Hong Kong have been introducing and perfecting new bean-curd products, aiming to cater to changing popular tastes" in a kind of local mimicry of international phenomena (Mintz & Tan, 2001, p. 126). For example, whereas previously bean-curd custard came only in one flavor, Hong Kong has seen the emergence of a variety of different flavors, thus transforming the custard from a singular, traditional food into something more similar to and with the variety of Western desserts such as ice cream or American pudding.

The emergence of new forms of soybean foods represents the "modernization" of traditional tastes as a result of globalization, and there is one other related but distinct process occurring in Hong Kong food culture as a result of globalization. In addition to the transformation of traditional foods and the blunt insertion of Western foods in the form of American fast food restaurants, Hong Kong has also seen a more comfortable blending of Western foods and traditional culture in the relatively high consumption of cognac. "The successful integration of cognac as the liquor of choice at wedding banquets since the 1970s," and its use as "a common item in gift exchange at important calendar and social occasions" represents "the resilience of cultural diversity within an increasingly integrated global economy," because in contrast to the somewhat blatant attempts at using local culture to sell fast food, the conspicuous popularity of cognac in Hong Kong represents a more natural convergence of international food and traditional Chinese culture (Smart, 2004, p. 219). Thus, while the most obvious and pervasive effect of globalization is the undermining of traditional Chinese culture through the changes seen in Hong Kong food culture, the fact remains that in certain instances globalization has served to reinforce and support local traditions and customs.

Hong Kong has seen rapid changes over the course of the last three decades, and the changes in its food culture are some of the most conspicuous. By examining these changes one is able to see how globalization has greatly undermined traditional Chinese culture by inserting Western products and commodifying local traditions in order to sell them on the international market, but it has also resulted in more natural evolutions of local customs which ultimately serve to reinforce traditional Hong Kong food culture, albeit in modified forms. Chinese and Honk Kong has shown itself to be surprisingly resilient in the face of unfettered global capitalism, which seeks… [read more]


Importance of Food Cost Labor and Sales in a Food and Beverage Operation Research Paper

… ¶ … Food Costs, Labor and Sales

One of the biggest challenges that all restaurants are facing is: high food costs and labor issues. These factors can eat into the underlying profit margins of a company. At the same time, declining sales are an indication that something is wrong in the products mix and the services they are providing. In the case of the restaurant that we are examining, all three of these different elements are having an impact on the establishment. The most notable include: food costs have increased by 50%, there are not enough skilled employees and sales have declined by nearly 25%. As a result, we need to evaluate and provide solutions for addressing these issues. Once this takes place, we can offer specific insights about what the restaurant can do to deal with these challenges. This is the point that their underlying profit margins will begin to increase.

The Effects of: High Food Costs, the Lack of Skilled Labor Positions and Declining Sales on the Establishment

The impact of high food costs and the lack of skilled labor can act like a cancer on a restaurant. The reason why, is because the high food costs will eat away at the underlying profit margins of the business. While, the lack of skilled labor will mean that the quality of food and the kind of services will begin to decline. This will have an adverse effect on the restaurant that we are examining. As, it will cause customers to: go elsewhere and the profit margins of the establishment will dramatically decease. This problematic, because once this occurs it will lead to unfavorable views of the restaurant. At which point, it becomes difficult to for any kind of establishment to win back the trust of the community. (Beriss, 2007, pp. 65 -- 78)

In the case of restaurant that we are examining this is what is happening with food costs increasing by: 50% and the there is a lack of skilled labor. This has been having an impact on the products that being provided and the kinds of services that customers are receiving. As a result, this has led to a decline in sales of 25%. Over the course of time, these factors will have an impact on the economic viability of the establishment. This is when there is the realistic possibility that the business may not be able to stay open. To prevent this from happening, management needs to engage in some kind of drastic actions that will allow the establishment to regain market share. If this can occurs, it will allow the business to rebuild its image with customers and improve the quality of the products that it is delivering. (Beriss, 2007, pp. 65 -- 78)

Solutions for Addressing the Problems that are Impacting Our Restaurant

To fully provide extensive solutions, we first need to discuss the specific reasons surrounding what the establishment is facing from the above mentioned issues. As far as food costs are concerned,… [read more]


Soil, the Threats Term Paper

… ¶ … soil, the threats that the soil faces in today's world, the consequences that are likely to result if care is not taken to preserve it and why it is important that action is taken rapidly to conserve soil and how the measures can be implemented. The following is my speech on the status of soil resources, climate change and the fate of human cultures that I deliver on behalf of The United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO)

"Soil is a threatened natural resource today in the world and in the past few decades there has been lack of appreciation of why we need to preserve the soils. It is at the risk from degradation by erosion, salinity, contamination, and other results of mismanagement. Besides that over exploitation, overgrazing, inappropriate clearing techniques, and unsuitable land use practices as well as water and wind erosion, and salinization are leading to severe soil nutrient decline. Current research shows that 17% of the land surface has already been strongly degraded and the problem is still spreading. Soil Climate plays a very important role in soil formation and the poor climate change is worrying because it will definitely affect soil formation.

The current human cultures are putting more pressure to an already scaling and unresolved problem. The population explosion is putting more strain to the soils with human activities over using the soil due to prolonged cultivation without giving the soils the opportunity to recuperate. The resultant as we all can see is a decrease in productivity. The problem is not because we do not have the wealth of know- how related to land management, improvement of soil fertility, and protection of soil resources and the repercussions arising but it is because we are not taking actions towards preserving the soils especially for future generations. We need to take action and we need to take it now! We are

We at The United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO) are calling upon everyone to do all that it takes to preserve this important resource. We are calling on all world organizations and National Governments to ensure that they have adequate measures in place to give a much needed emphasis on soils and their future protections.

There is great need to keep the soil productive, by replenishing its nutrients level on a regular basis. The fact that the world's population is estimated to rise from 5.8 billion to 8 billion by 2025 is a great concern on why soils need to be preserved. The problem of soil is a real challenge and unless this challenge is accepted the use of soil could become a dead end with catastrophic results for many communities."

'Healthy, fertile soil is a mixture of water, air, minerals, and organic mater' (Hudson 1995). In soils organic matter consists of plants and animal material that is in the process of decomposing. One can increase the organic matter of the garden by adding compost or applying mulch. Organic matter is important… [read more]


Effect of a Manager's Actions on a Food and Beverage Operation Term Paper

… ¶ … Manager's Actions On A Food And Beverage Operation

Create a list of seven situations in which a manager's actions indirectly or directly affect a guest's dining experience.

Selecting entrees

Selecting the rotation of such entrees

Hiring and firing wait staff, depending upon the staff member's level of training or comportment towards customers.

Setting policy for how waiters will greet and treat diners (including a scripting formulaic greeting, or allowing creativity in terms of customer interaction)

Setting policy for how tables should be cleaned and maintaining the standards of dining room operations

Setting reservation and cancelation policies

Deciding when a customer's special requests should be honored (such as requesting an off-menu item).

Describe the effect of these actions on a food and beverage operation's profitability

Managers must balance what consumers demand with the overhead costs of preparing, storing, and using specific commodities. Many people may like salmon, but the cost may be too high, and the fish may not have enough of a high-quality freezer life and application in other dishes to justify purchasing fresh salmon (versus canned tuna) at a diner. For a higher-end restaurant, however, finding purveyors of fresh salmon may be essential in retaining the restaurant's core clientele.

Regardless of whether the restaurant is high or low-end, the restaurant must also rotate entrees in a sustainable fashion. A steakhouse might balance an upsurge in the cost of beef by offering a wider array of dishes featuring cheaper cuts; another restaurant may have a 'pasta day' to balance out likely losses on a unexpectedly costly 'seafood buffet' day. Offering discounts on traditionally expensive foods may draw consumers, but they must be counterbalanced with savings on other entrees.

Good service is a…… [read more]


Borderless Society on Food Essay

… (p. 34) suggest it is even nonexistent when they claim that "the distance from which [North Americans'] food comes represents their separation from the knowledge of how and by whom what they consume is produced, processed, and transported," but in… [read more]


Gastronomy Food and Drink Tourism in Hospitality Industries Essay

… ¶ … tourism of a country is an important contributor to the national economy in addition to triggering the process of continuous evolution and modernity. A lot of time, effort and resources have been dedicated to the cause of predicting… [read more]

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