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Acquisition Strategies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,220 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Whole Foods

Acquisition Strategies

SuperValu vs. Whole Foods: Industry analysis

SuperValu vs. Whole Foods: Industry analysis

The supermarket industry is one of the most competitive in America: it is wildly responsive to shifts in consumer demand. Fuel cost increases, natural events that affect the availability of crops, and other aspects of commerce can quickly wipe away profits or challenge what would otherwise seem a sensible marketing and distribution strategy. With this in mind, the Minnesota-based chain SuperValu has focused on a traditional, low-price, high volume strategy in the rapidly growing discount supermarket market to generate revenue. SuperValu has attempted to expand into as many areas of the nation as possible and profit by offering low prices and selling at high volume to consumers. In direct contrast, the organic supermarket Whole Foods is only slowly expanding its outreach across the nation and world, taking advantage of the expanding interest in holistic cooking and organic foods. It has acquired several of its competitors to create a slightly higher-volume niche strategy and reduce competition, but it knows will never be able to price its products as low as SuperValu and instead focuses on a specific consumer demographic.

Whole Foods' cautious strategy has paid off thus far. Interest in organic food is exploding across the nation. Even Wal-Mart, the nation's largest retailer, has become a critical market player in organics. Of course, this could hamper Whole Food's success, given that Wal-Mart is able to price even organic foods at lower cost compared with specialty retailers. As the economy continues to remain on shaky ground, consumers are often more apt to reduce their food costs. Eating cheaper foods is easier than cutting down less flexible aspects of a regular, weekly budget. Furthermore, the public's questioning of the industrialization of organic agriculture has caused many of Whole Foods' most loyal consumers to seek out local farmer's markets rather than resort to commercial superstores. "If I shop at Whole Foods, I'm choosing Chain," wrote one food blogger (Levin 2011). The more labor-intensive technology of producing organic agriculture on a mass scale has grown more efficient, but caused some consumers to question if it really provides additional health value or value to the environment.

SuperValu is also challenged by rivals such as Wal-Mart, but because of cost rather than a specific market niche. Wal-Mart Supercenters, Sam's Club, Costco, and Dollar Stores have all been eating into traditional supermarkets' market share. "In 2001, Wal-Mart became the largest seller in food" (Imlay 2006). Because of Wal-Mart's ambitions to even offer organic produce even Whole Foods has been forced to reconsider its traditional model of differentiation. On one hand, increased demand for organics has driven many individuals to seek out Whole Foods. On the other hand, demand has also spurred superstore-size rivals to enter the market. Whole Foods has enabled itself to lower costs in comparison to totally independent stores. Its acquisition of its smaller competitor Wild Oats, which had significant penetration in the West, enabled it to expand its stores… [read more]

Genetically Modified Food Genetically Modified (GM) Foods Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (778 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Genetically Modified Food

Genetically modified (GM) foods have been a hot topic of conversation over the last decade. Environmental groups, public interest groups and governmental agencies have all voiced their opinions over the increasing development and use of genetically modified foods. Genetic engineering involves transferring genes from one species of living organism to another, to provide some sort of benefit. Although the genetic modifications are typically performed on crops, such as corn and soybeans, there has also been experimentation with livestock as well. Some see genetically modified foods as simply a technological advancement that will benefit society. Others see genetically modified foods as posing significant concerns to human health and the environment.

There are several benefits genetically modified foods offer society. Crops can be produced more effectively and efficiently, with reduced maturation time and an improved resistance to pests and disease. This results in a lessened need for pesticides. Genetic modification also can increase the nutrients in a crop. Genetically modified golden rice, for instance, produces approximately 20 times more beta-carotene, which the body then turns into vitamin a This can help reduce the incidence of "vitamin a deficiency and childhood blindness in developing countries" (Black). genetically modified foods can also result in soil and water conservation as well as "increased food security for growing populations" ("Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms").

Despite these benefits, there are significant concerns that must be addressed with genetically modified foods. One of the most significant concerns is that foods that are familiar to consumers may become allergenic. As an example, for some consumers nuts pose a serious and potentially fatal allergic reaction, and a GM soybean that was crossed with a Brazil nut produced an allergic reaction. genetically modified foods can indirectly affect antibiotic resistance as well, as resistant genes enter the food chain. For the environment, pesticide resistant crops can be harmful, such as a 1999 Cornell study that expressed concern regarding the toxicity of these crops pollen to monarch butterflies (Hanten).

In the end, genetically modified foods do offer some societal benefits. However, these crops cannot be allowed to be developed and grown unchecked. The public health concerns that arise with genetically modified foods are too great to simply allow them to enter the food chain. In addition, the concerns for the environment outweigh many of the benefits. Instead, scientists should…… [read more]

Movie Food, Inc Movie Review

Movie Review  |  3 pages (950 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Food Inc.

Agrobusiness is dirty, not just because farming involves long hours cleaning up animal waste and piling manure but because the food industry has been operating with questionable ethics for decades. The government is also to blame, as Michael Pollan points out in his 2009 documentary Food, Inc. The documentary provides stunning insight into how agrobusiness started, how it operates, and its effects on American consumer rights, eating habits, and health.

Nothing in the film seriously startled me because I had already known about issues like the inhumanity of meat farming; the proliferation of genetically-modified crops; and the pushing of mono-crops like corn and soil. I know about the dangers of processed foods and the insidious collusion between corporate food and government. Still, Pollan's perspective is refreshing because the filmmaker has the potential to reach a wide audience and therefore raise awareness about these issues in ways that might stimulate change.

One of the issues that kept coming up for me as I watched the film was the intended audience. How many Americans that watch Food, Inc. already know the information and are just reinforcing their belief -- based on fact -- that agrobusiness is dirty? Preaching to the choir is one of the risks of films like Food, Inc. In the same way that a Michael Moore movie might not actually change that many minds. I can't help but feel that the people who truly need to know about the dark side of food in America are the ones who will not know about the film or not want to watch it. Many Americans are content to shop at their local grocery store blinded to the truth about what is behind the stuff they put in their cart.

Many consumers do not care, for whatever reason. Others simply do not believe that the American government -- or the business owners -- could be so evil as to perpetuate unhealthy food production. Yet others do not recognize that an ethical issue exists at all. It is this latter perspective that I usually find bewildering: that some Americans do not see agrobusiness as a problem at all.

Watching Food, Inc. I also wish that Pollan proposed concrete ideas for the future of farming and food production. The problems with the current system are painfully clear. The food we eat is literarily or figuratively tainted. However, Pollan does not necessarily suggest what should be done about it. Other than suggest that consumers simply be more aware of what goes into food production in America, the filmmaker does not indicate any concrete policy or legislative change that might transform the ways businesses and consumers approach the food issue. One important issue that I would like to see addressed in any potential sequel to the film would also be the strong link between income and eating habits. Wealthier…… [read more]

Genetically Modified Organisms Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,150 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The United States is the world's largest producer of genetically modified crops, and as many as 70% of processed foods on American grocery store shelves already contain genetically modified organisms (WebMD n.d.). In some ways, the debate over genetically modified foods is moot given that the organisms are already a part of the food chain. In the WebMD (n.d.) article, the authors assume a generally neutral stance on genetically modified organisms. Moreover, the author distinguishes between the argument against GMOs because of safety concerns and the argument over GMOs because of consumer rights. Generally, the article presents the case that pro-GMO companies like Monstanto are advocating.

The author points out, for instance, "Monsanto states that genetically modified foods are 'more thoroughly tested than any other food on the grocer's shelves to date' and 'there have been no adverse effects documented from food produced from biotech crops,'" (cited on p. 2). Furthermore, the WebMD (n.d.) author notes that "among industry supporters of this technology are heavy hitters such as the American Medical Association," (p. 2).

Current genetically modified crops are "one-gene additions," according to industry experts (cited by WebMD n.d. p. 2). These one-gene additions have been deemed "safe," by the same sources (cited by WebMD n.d. p. 2). Therefore, the most critical issue in the debate over whether or not GMOs are safe is the quality of empirical evidence. If the studies on genetically modified organisms suffer from gross internal validity issues, which they do, then any article in favor of GMOs is essentially flawed. When companies hire their own internal researchers to conduct research only with the intention of proving a hypothesis (ie. genetically modified foods are safe), then the research has no internal or external validity.

Another spurious argument used by the biotech industry includes a core logical fallacy: "He says no food is 100% safe -- genetically modified or not -- and the odds of having an adverse reaction to a genetically modified food are slim," (cited by WebMD n.d.). Such a stance ignores degrees of safety and downplays the importance of the argument itself.

Industry experts in the United States also defend the government's stance against labeling genetically-modified foods as a matter of consumer protection. "Labeling isn't an issue as far as that is concerned," claims one insider. In fact, labeling is a major concern for industry insiders. The only reason why biotechnology lobbyists advocate against labeling of GMOs is because they understand the potential for a consumer backlash. The American government understands how enormous the biotechnology industry is and would not want to thwart its prosperity. The author notes, "Public opposition has had some effect, as seen in Europe, where the EU has banned genetically modified foods despite the U.S.' wishes," (WebMD, n.d. p. 4).

In an article by the World Health Organization (WHO 2010), the issue of genetically modified foods is also treated with a high degree of objectivity. Reasons cited in favor of genetically modified crops include improving crop protection against pests… [read more]

Kudler Fine Foods Product Offering Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Kudler Fine Foods

California has long been well-known for being on the cutting edge of the food industry. Since 1998 Kudler Fine Foods has had a reputation as an establishment where consumers can purchase high-quality, sustainable products. Kudler's outreach has expanded into a wide diversity of product offerings, and it is considering embarking upon the venture of exporting organic wines to Canada.

Product offering

Although the definition of organic varies wildly in the U.S., and from nation to nation, Canada has very strict standards of what constitutes organic wine. Any producer entering Canada must be mindful of the fact that Canada has very strict standards as to what constitutes organic food. "National standards were put in place by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency on June 30, 2009, stating that only food products comprised of 95 per cent organic content can be certified as organic or have the variation of the word 'organic' anywhere on the product or its packaging. This rule applies to fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meat and processed food. The product must also have been grown using natural fertilizers (Going organic, 2009, CBC). However, there has been a trend towards greater congruence of the two national standards which has resulted in greater acceptance of U.S. wines. For example, in Canada, "ever since the U.S. implemented its Organic Law in 2002 to accredit these products, organic wine consumption has also grown by 20% per year" (Worldwide organic wine consumption on increase, 2010, Wines from Spain).

Market needs

Interest in organic produce and foods has increased dramatically, as fears over pesticides and concerns about sustainability have driven consumers who might otherwise have little interest in doing so to 'go organic.' Even more so than in the U.S., demand for organic food is booming in Canada. "Organic food is a booming business in Canada, with sales reportedly rising by 20 per cent a year for most of this decade. The market has grown so quickly that major supermarket chains are having difficulty keeping up with demand" (Going organic, 2009, CBC). Market growth

Canada has native wine producers. However, Canada is rare in that its native wineries fulfill only a fraction of the growing demand for the beverage. The focus upon Canadian wine imports and exports has centered on marketing the region's ice wines, according to a report issued by a Canadian winemaking association (O'Dell 2009:8-9). Marketing California-based wines with a different flavor profile that boast a fully certified organic seal would seem to be an ideal way to satisfy Canadian consumer organic wine demand, without encroaching upon what Canadian producers themselves 'do well.'


Strengths: Kudler Fine Food's reputation for producing high-quality products in the United States; increased demand for organic products in general in Canada at a level even higher than that of the U.S.; a strong commitment to environmentalism in Canada, a lack of native competitors with the typical California wine 'flavor' profile of richness and robustness; higher demand in Canada in general for wine

Weaknesses: Possible discrepancies between… [read more]

Bloomington Food Object Report Community Development Objectives Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Bloomington Food object Report (Community Development Objectives)

Food delivery systems: Bloomington, Indiana

The objective of the project is to increase the consumption of locally-grown fruits and vegetables by Bloomington residents by opening a more affordable farmer's market, promoting healthy eating in the schools, making local produce more affordable in supermarkets, and expanding the ability of individuals to farm community gardens. This is important because 1.Eating more fresh fruits and vegetables has been linked to better health outcomes regarding a number of epidemic public health problems, including heart disease, type II diabetes, and certain cancers. 2. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption often results in decreased consumption of animal proteins. By making these products the center of more residents' main meals, there is less of need to consume livestock that releases methane into the atmosphere, one of the primary gases implicated in global warming. Additionally, processed foods containing animal products for fast food restaurants and other unhealthy sources of sustenance often travels long distances, further contributing to the problem of global warming because of the burning of fossil fuels during transportation. 3. Fruits and vegetables are less calorie-dense and higher in filling fiber than most animal-based foods, thus consuming fruits and vegetables is filling yet healthier for community residents to eat if they must lose weight. 4. Fruits and vegetables can be more costly than other sources of easy nutrition (like fast food) so making these products more available and affordable is a challenge that must be met by the community.

2. To achieve this objective, the first step would be to create a low-cost farmer's market for the community. Talking with the mayor of the city, and individuals in the public health and transportation systems would be required to aid in the creation of an open-air market where vendors could sell produce to the community without the…… [read more]

Food Supply Chain Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Food Supply Chain

Supply chain management: Ms. Nok

Two potential types of sourcing are offered to Ms. Nok, that of a single-source strategy in which all products are provided by the same supplier vs. A multi-source approach in which products are provided by several suppliers. For a restaurant business, the latter seems superior in terms of a holistic strategy. The cheapest provider of dry bulk coffee may not be the cheapest provider of sugar, for example. A provider of perishable foodstuffs may not provide the same value for shelf-stable goods. Sometimes, in the case of franchise operations, the main headquarters will provide the franchisee with pre-packaged items, such as frozen hamburger meat and bagged greens. But an independent restaurant owner will likely wish to 'shop around' for the best items, and the cheapest items, within various product groupings. Establishing a strong relationship with a network of high-quality suppliers ensures a more diverse product range for customers, and enables the restaurant to construct more interesting and varied menus for consumers. With the exception of 'specialty' restaurants such as pizza parlors, flexibility of items translates into growing one's customer base. While the supply chain between purchaser and supplier may be more complex, and require more careful research of information on the part of the buyer because of a lower expectation of trust, much can still be gained.

A variety of customer preferences and demand profiles must be satisfied in the proposed restaurant model of Ms. Nok's in an airport. Ms. Nok must do market research about her customers so she can tailor her ever-changing menus to the demand profile of the various travelers likely to make their way through the location. Given that she is operating both a high-end and a low-end restaurant within her retail space, she clearly needs to offer a variety of items at a wide range of prices. As the restaurant is located in an airport, demand levels and customer preferences are going to be extremely volatile, depending on the season and other (possibly unpredictable) travel circumstances, such as political conditions and the weather. Offering a wide variety of products and menu items is in Ms. Nok's interest, as if she simply offered, for example, the best hamburgers in her 'fast food' section, then customers who did not like hamburgers would avoid her store. Variety is also essential in her higher-end section, given the need to please government officials who may dine there and wish to eat high-end goods as well as the more discerning palates of first class and business class travelers. Trust in the quality of product is also necessary in the B2C (business-to-consumer) spoke of the supply chain, just as much as Nok's B2B dealings.

But although multiple sourcing will give Ms. Nok wider access to a variety of goods, the question remains if she should find single or multiple sources for each item she sells. Having multiple sources for fresh foods will enable her to bargain with suppliers for frequently pricy meat and fish.… [read more]

Specialty Food Industry Worldwide Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,718 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Market for Fresh and Specialty Mushrooms

Humankind has enjoyed mushrooms for millennia for good reason. Besides their delicate flavors, researchers have confirmed that edible mushrooms typically possess a number of valuable nutritional qualities as well and global demand and consumption have steadily increased in recent years. Moreover, in an era when food shortages are becoming chronic in many… [read more]

Reptiles and Amphibians as Sources of Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Reptiles and amphibians as sources of food: The solution to sustainability?

Concerns about the sustainability of the Western diet, which heavily emphasizes methane-producing beef, chicken, pork, and endangered seafood, have motivated both ordinary consumers and chefs alike to seek out other sources of protein, including bison, wild game such as venison, insects -- and even reptiles and amphibians. While many may curl their nose at the prospect of eating herptiles for food, these creatures are routinely consumed in many areas of the world. Frogs and turtles are already farmed for food. However, from the point-of-view of an investor who is responsive to current concerns about sustainability in the market place, the animal that is most amenable to the current palate, is the most easy to cultivate without damage to the environment and to raise without illness, and which also yields the greatest final marketable weight is the alligator. Alligators are said to 'taste like chicken' and can be used in similar applications, yet they require less land and financial and environmental resources to sustain.

True, in France, frog's legs are a delicacy. "Consumption of frogs' legs in France totals 3000 to 4000 tons per year (60 to 80 million frogs)" (About typical French food, 2010, French Food and Cook). However, the consumption of frogs raises questions about the impact eating such animals has upon the environment. Frogs are a protected species in France, so most of the frogs' legs consumed in France are imported from Indonesia. Because of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis, a large proportion of the world's amphibian population is deemed to be under threat, and while treatable in captivity, the susceptibility of frogs to the condition make them questionable as a source of high-quality protein (Pessier 2010). Also, most frogs are quite small: even in France, frogs are consumed mainly as appetizers. The fact that they are very low in calories, only 70 calorie per 3.5 oz, makes them fairly unsatisfying as food (About typical French food, 2010, French Food and Cook). And eating frogs as food may have contributed to the spread of pathogens: "In countries such as Indonesia, which exports about 45% of all frog legs, the majority of animals are thought to be wild-caught and there is little to no effort to monitor this food source for disease pathogens. Any trade in live frogs or fresh, un-skinned frog legs presents a substantial risk of the spread of amphibian chytrid" (Frog legs, 2009, ScienceDaily). Although these reptiles are not as immediately deleterious to the environment as farm-raised mammals, there are sustainability concerns.

It is also important to remember many reptiles and amphibians are endangered. While, eating reptiles and amphibians has…… [read more]

Whole Foods Michael Porter Five Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,214 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Whole Foods Case Study

Michael Porter Five Forces analysis

Supplier Power:

Once upon a time, the organic supermarket Whole Foods had a high level of power as a supplier. It was difficult for consumers to find the type of organic foods and foreign and luxury goods Whole Foods provided in many areas of the country. Whole Foods stocks gluten-free, vegetarian, and other specialty goods and services once impossible to find at the local Piggly Wiggly.

However, 'once' is the operative word. Now such products are becoming more and more common in everyday supermarkets. Even Wal-Mart has begun to stock organic produce. Also, as the consumption of organic produce and other products, such as international cheeses and peanut-free nut butters, becomes more accepted, natural food stores and other natural foods chains may open up branches in underserved areas of the country.

Organic farmland has become more accessible and more common for other suppliers. While this is good for the sustainability movement as a whole, it could make it easier for competitors to supply these items at lower cost than does Whole Foods. Additionally, the expansion of farmer's markets nationwide can make local produce far cheaper and just as ethically uncompromised as commercially-grown organic foods.

Buyer Power:

Whole Foods consumers have been stunningly ineffective, up to this point, at driving prices down. Even dedicated Whole Foods shoppers often call their favorite venue to buy organic cleansers and baby food 'Whole Paycheck' because of its expense. Whole Foods almost never deploys sales or products at a low price point, but by clinging to its image that consumers 'feel good' shopping there, it has thus been able to remain successful. It has begun to sell some of its own market-branded products, but while lower in cost than its high-end items, these goods are still far more expensive than what can be found at the local Wal-Mart.

A point against Whole Foods' favor in terms of having a captive audience of buyers is that in the end, Whole Foods is still selling -- food. Buyers can competitively drive prices down by switching to other venues. When the economy sours, eschewing going out to eat is one of the first moves of any frugal customer. Even if Whole Foods consumers are more affluent than their Kroger's counterparts, no one is immune from losing his or her job. Consumers cut back on eating prepared foods (a key driver in Whole Foods' business) and eating out at expensive places. Switching supermarkets is relatively easy in the food industry, and even if food is a necessity, eating at Whole Foods is not. The personal costs of switching to eating somewhere else are likely to be low.

Competitive Rivalry:

Competition is heated in any facet of the food business, because of the fluidity of buyers. Whole Foods' uniqueness was once its strength, but no more. Now other competitors that are cheaper but model themselves upon a similar healthy, organic model have made incursions into the market. These include companies such… [read more]

Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,103 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology: Questions

Would the enactment of the DSHEA have changed the outcome in Nutrilab Inc. v. Schweiker, 713 F.2d 335 (1983)? Assume the manufacturer promoted the product as helping to maintain a healthy weight.

In the 1983 case of Nutrilab Inc. v. Schweiker, 713 F.2d 335 (1983), the case involved so-called 'starch blockers' that were supposed to inhibit the body's digestion of starch and thus facilitate weigh loss. The manufactures of the product called the item a foodstuff, given that its ingredients, some of which were natural (such as fibrous beans) were consumed as food in some contexts. Nutrilab's case failed upon appeal. The "FDA had received seventy-five reports of adverse effects on people who had taken starch blockers, including complaints of gastro-intestinal distress such as bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Because plaintiffs consider starch blockers to be food, no testing was required to obtain FDA approval as a new drug has taken place" (Nutrilab, 1983, Altlaw).

Thus, the issue at hand was the classification of the substance as a food or a drug, not product claims about weight maintenance. Had the drug met FDA approval after a scientific study was conducted and showed that the pill did produce weight loss and was safe, such a claim would be allowed. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) involved products labeled as 'supplements' and the starch blocker was not labeled as a supplement.

Q1b. Assume the manufacturer promoted the product as a treatment for obesity.

Once again, the issue is not just the validity of the claim, but the claim of the FDA that the starch blocker was a drug, versus the manufacturer's claim that it was a food: for a drug to be prescribed as a treatment, even an over-the-counter drug, the drug must be approved for such use by the FDA. Even if the company had claimed that the starch blocker was a supplement, and neither a drug or a food, "under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), the dietary supplement manufacturer was responsible for ensuring that a dietary supplement is safe before it is marketed" (Dietary supplements, 2010, DSHEA). Supplement manufacturers must ensure the product is safe (which Nutrilab did not) and also that the advertisement for the product is truthful (which it was, tenuously, but only because the product caused such severe dietary distress, weight loss was the result).

Q2. What is a predicate device? Discuss its role in the FDA device approval process.

A legally marketed 'predicative' device is one "to which equivalence is drawn" between a new product and a product already on the market (How to find a predicative device, 2009, FDA). A claim of substantial equivalence "does not mean the device(s) must be identical. Substantial equivalence is established with respect to: intended use, design, energy used or delivered, materials, performance, safety, effectiveness, labeling, biocompatibility, standards, and other applicable characteristics" (How to find a predicative device, 2009, FDA). A premarketing… [read more]

Whole Food Market Assessment

Assessment  |  4 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Whole Foods: Case Study

Trends in organic foods

Whole Foods' expansion as a company seemed to crest with a unique degree of prescience, relative to the upsurge of interest in organic foods in America. Once upon a time, organic foods in America were only offered at niche health food stores and farmer's markets. However, concerns about childhood obesity and the safety of staple products such as meat, milk, and vegetables have cause the demand for such products to sharply escalate. 65% of consumers in 2005 had tried organic food, up from 57% in 2004 and 2003. Organic farmland has also rapidly expanded, meaning that stores such as Whole Foods have greater access to more localized suppliers (a critical point, given that buying local is another important food trend linked with an interest in organic farming). Today, Whole Foods is the biggest seller of organic produce in the world. It has also acquired 'Wild Oats,' another organic store, and has made that chain conform to its high standards of quality and overall approach and layout.

The establishment of USDA standards for what constituted an organic food product was also helpful for Whole Foods. This ensured that companies that were simply vaguely 'healthy' in their marketing could not make unsubstantiated health claims upon their labels. Whole Foods could justify its philosophy (and higher prices) with documented evidence that its products were prepared differently -- and better -- than products grown and/or manufactured through conventional food processing.



Whole Foods has successfully branded itself nationally and internationally as the leading purveyor of organic foods. Since it became a publically-traded company in 1991, it has been able to finance a wide-ranging expansion, despite the typical 'small scale' nature of companies with a commitment to whole, unprocessed foods.

Whole Foods stocks a wide variety of foods of interest to consumers who are focused on nutrition: not only does it supply organically-produced vegetables and meats; consumers can be confident that even the prepared foods they purchase have wholesome ingredients. Unlike a consumer at Kroger's, when shopping at Whole Foods for cereal, there is no tedious label-reading for a consumer who wishes to eliminate foods with high fructose corn syrup or artificial colorings and dyes from his or her diet.

Whole Foods stores are attractively laid out and have an ambiance that ordinary supermarkets lack. Even competitor Trader Joes does not have a place where people can eat lunch and relax, like many Whole Foods. Educational demonstrations, a wide variety of cooking supplies, health and beauty sections, wine -- all of this makes going to Whole Foods a shopping experience, rather than a chore.


In a word, cost. Whole Foods has earned its nickname of Whole Paycheck, and because of the national focus on cost-cutting even its core market of more affluent shoppers may balk at its typical prices when many consumers fear for their jobs. Whole Foods also does not offer consumers much choice, to pick and choose what expensive food items they wish… [read more]

Food Security in Less Developed Countries Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (713 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Food Security in Less Developed Countries

What factors determine whether an area will be food secure or food insecure?

Food is considered one of the most basic human needs and as a central indicator of absolute poverty and physical well being. Food security refers no only to an adequate aggregate supply of food, but also means that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food. There are two indicators that are used: 1) food supply is measured as the mean daily per capita supply of calories and protein and 2) the child hunger rate is measure by the percentage of children under age 5 who are undernourished. There are six factors that are used to explain whether food is secure or insecure. These include: modernization, economic dependency, urban bias, neo-Malthusian population pressure, ecological evolutionary processes and militarism (Jenkins and Scanlan, 2001).

Have more people become food secure in recent years? Is the observed trend likely to continue? Be sure to cite evidence from the article to support your position.

According to Jenkins and Scanlan (2001) more people have become food secure in recent years. The daily calories per capita were 2,227.47 in 1970 and increased to 2,397.43 by 1990. The daily protein grams per capita were 57.62 in 1970 and increase to 60.91 by the year 1990. The percentage of hungry children under the age of 5 decreased from 28.88 in 1970 to 23.42 in 1990. All three of these factors indicate that the people have become more food secure over the last 20 years. It is likely that this trend will continue because of the following things: an increase in domestic investment in physical and human capital and political democratization. These are both things that have a positive effect on the food security in less developed countries. They not only do these increase the food supply or the daily calories and daily protein grams per capital but they also help to decrease the number of children under the age of 5 that are hungry.

3. Stepping back from Scanlan and Jenkins's analysis, how might we apply the demographic…… [read more]

Evolution in Agriculture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (673 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Evolution in agriculture: Genetically modified organism (GMO)

The domestication of plants and animals unintentionally, and later intentionally, resulted in the promotion and sustenance of certain traits over other traits within domesticated species. It also affected the development of the living creatures of the world as a whole, given that certain species were favored over other species and new plants were imported and exported all over the world by humans, far faster than would have naturally occurred. Plants we take for granted as part of native cuisines such as the tomato in Southern Italy, the potato in Ireland, and corn in America are all imports: "every crop in North America other than the blueberry, Jerusalem artichoke, sunflower, and squash are borrowed from elsewhere" (Prakash 2001). Originally, there was suspicion of these new crops but then these plants became integrated into the culture and national cuisine.

However, genetic engineering of plants, such as the insertion of one vector of another species through a virus, plasmid, Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) or other means to effectively reprogram the organism's DNA has proven far more controversial than plant cross-breeding or hybridization: or, at least humans view such modifications with the same kind of suspicion they felt when they worried that potatoes were poisonous when the plant was brought from the New World to the Old! In genetic modification, in most cases, only one or two additional proteins are added to the plant's DNA, which are then broken down either during processing or digestion (Prakash 2001).

Scientists see this as a natural extension of selective breeding, such as breeding chickens for larger breasts or pigs with leaner flesh, to suit consumer tastes (Hall & Hallgrimsson 2008, p.649). "Through a process of gradual selection, our ancestors chose a very tiny section of the wild plant community and transformed it into cultivated crops. Some profound alterations in the plant phenotype occurred during such selection, and these include determinate growth habit; elimination of grain shattering; synchronous ripening; shorter maturity; reduction of bitterness and harmful toxins;…… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,143 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


History Of Genetically Modified Foods

Genetic Processes Used in Making Genetically Modified Foods

Scientific Studies to Date

Positive and Negative Arguments

Genetically Modified Foods

Today, the Earth is home to almost seven billion hungry humans, and the so-called "green revolution" of the mid-20th century has virtually reached its maximum production limits using the agricultural technologies introduced at the time. Moreover,… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Thesis

Thesis  |  11 pages (2,981 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8



The report of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states that GM crops are "commercially available and planted on more than 40 million hectares across six continents. These plants represent the largest-scale experience in the introduction of GMOs into ecosystems, and they have become… [read more]

Excellence in the Culinary Arts Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,589 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Achieving Excellence in the Culinary Arts

Two cooks working side by side in a kitchen, even doing the exact same tasks, might have very different perspectives on their work. One, perhaps, is focused on the necessities of continuing to work: there is a family to support, bills to pay, a future to plan for, etc. These concerns are, of… [read more]

Organic Food Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,257 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16


Organic Farming Methods: An Annotated Review Synthesis
The concept of organic food immediately conjures images of
responsible agricultural practice, non-chemical growing procedures and a
dedication to environmentally sound farming operations. However, the
literature review would reveal a multitude of perspectives that demonstrate
organic foods to be a debatable and nuanced subject. As many advocates as
exist in research and in practice, there are equally as many critics and
opponents to organic farming practices.
The text by Wellson (2006) is a suitable starting point as it
provides a general overview of the subject. Identifying organic food
industries as a growing consumer interest, Wellson takes an essentially
positive perspective on the subject, describing organic foods as offering
consumers a way of controlling the content of that which they consume.
This overview also demonstrates that organic farming is a substantial
business today, even to the extent that it undermines some of the
preconceptions which consumers hold of organic farming.
Namely, many disassociate organic farming from large corporate
agricultural operations, but an article by Pollan (2006) reveals that
organic farming is not the independent business context it once was.
Indeed, he denotes that "large-scale organic businesses, which have bought
up successful small organic producers, follow the logic of industry, 'the
tremendous gains in efficiency to be had when the irregularity of nature
can conform to the precision and control of a machine.'" (Pollan, 123) The
Pollan article reveals that organic farming is big-business and that many
of its farming practices, though not chemically or mechanically intervened,
may not constitute ethical treatment of animals by the perspective of many
This is reinforced in the article by Raynolds (2004), which also
describes organic farming from the perspective that it is an important
economic enterprise with attachments to many of the same entities that
drive conventional agriculture. Particularly, Raynolds identifies global
trade practices as having been impacted by the cultural sway in many
countries toward organic practices. As a result, Raynolds indicates,
"organic certification proves central to network governance, shaping
product specifications, production parameters, and enterprise
participation." (Raynolds, 725)
The enormity of this business is further supported by the global
economic report provided by Willer et al (2008), which describes the
business as robust. This report placed international sales at $38.6
billion in 2006, a rate doubled since that reported in 2000. (16) A report
by Dmitri & Greene (2002) indicates that demand for organic goods in the
United States consumer market drives much of this growth. Perhaps one of
the primary reasons for this is the evidence which suggests that U.S.
regulations on agricultural operations and imports both do not provide
sufficient protection to the health of consumers. So denotes an article by
Raeburn, which indicates that a pesticide called Dichlorvos has been
demonstrated to negatively impact the human nervous system but is still
used heavily in growing operations.
By contrast, an article by Goldberg (2000) takes a distinctly
negative perspective on this rising prominence, citing organic operations
as both fundamentally inefficient and designed to… [read more]

Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Fast Food Nation

The Assessment and Analysis of an Image and Passage from Eric Schlosser's Fast Food Nation

At first glance it appears to be an almost normal scene. A family is seated together, Dad to one side, Mom on the other, with a toddler in her footie pajamas between them. But the actual content and even the presentation of this photo immediately preceding Chapter Eight in Eric Schlosser's Fast Food Nation reveal much more difficult and pressing truths. First, it must be noted that the family in the picture is Hispanic. Then, one might take notice of the fact that the man is carefully holding his left hand as high above his heart as he can, and is squeezing onf the fingers on that hand with his right. There is a wide swath of drying blood running down his arm, and his eyes are half closed. It is a family picture, yes -- it is even a picture of an almost typical American family. But it is not your traditional happy picture of two parents with their child, but rather is evidence of the human side of an ongoing national problem, the insidiousness and camouflage of which Schlosser makes clear in the following chapter.

During his visit to one of the nation's largest cattle slaughterhouse and meat processing plants as described in the opening passages of Chapter Eight, Schlosser notes that his first glance around what is known as the fabrication room reveals that "there's nothing unsettling about this part of the plant. You see meat like this all the time in the back of your local supermarket." One of the major problems with the fast food industry as detailed in Schlosser's book is the apparent normalcy of things on the surface, when a slightly more penetrating gaze very quickly reveals problems that might be endemic and therefore standard, but which…… [read more]

Difference Between an Issue and a Problem Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (577 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Kudler Fine Foods

In everyday language, we often use the terms of issue and problem as synonymous concepts. Whereas they do in fact present elements of commonality, the two nouns are fairly different. In nature, an issue is a matter that has the power to influence several parties and which is often discussed and assessed. On the other hand, a problem is a situation which could generate negative impacts and it has to be resolved. In terms of connotations then, the problem is more negative and severe, whereas an issue is more neutral. In conversations, it is generally advisable to use the "issue," rather than the "problem," for the first noun has the ability to maintain a more positive atmosphere and as such lead to more fruitful outcomes, without generating panic (a Simple Jew, 2008).

Kudler Fine Foods is an important player within the foods and beverages industry, with their stated aim being that of satisfying the growing needs of the customer base, through the offering of a vast selection of high quality foods and wines. Throughout its existence, the organization has faced several challenges, but has managed to successfully emerge from them and safeguard its favorable reputation. Today, the organization continues to be presented with numerous issues, some of the most important ones being succinctly revealed below:

The company strives to serve gourmet products -- this represents a challenge due to the internationalized economic crisis, which may reduce the demand for the Kudler Fine Foods' products

The organic components used in the manufacturing of the foods and wines represent an issue as they are obtained at higher costs, which are then included in the retail price -- a high retail price often reduces customer demand…… [read more]

Manner About Food Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (345 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Food

Persian Food

AB Doogh Khiar (Cold Yogurt Soup)

A popular food on a hot summer day in an Iranian home would be this refreshing healthy cold soup. it's a popular Persian dish in America too because of the ease of the preparation and the availability to purchase all the ingredients.

Throughout history, the art of Persian cooking expanded to all the Middle Eastern countries such as Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and Syria. Today, when dishes are made, culinary history of Persian cooking is noted (About Persian Food).

One thing that all people from different cultures have in common is food. it's the way the food is prepared that makes us all different. Maybe by learning and understanding other cultures food habits we will be able to understand how other cultures live.

Persians refined the taste and flavor of food and how it is presented. Persian foods represent the best of what is in season so the food is as fresh and of the best quality as it can be. Fragrances…… [read more]

Hindering Society Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (660 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Hindering Society

Is our industrial system of agriculture and food (product) production and distribution (the same system that designs fast food, forces slaughterhouse quotas up, and produces jobs that are industrial opposed to post-industrial) hindering society? In other words our current industrial food system moves us (society and its members) backwards. Prove your point in your argument.

For Michael Pollan in the omnivore's dilemma, the fast food 'extra value' meal embodies all that is wrong with America's consumption patterns regarding food. Such a meal is entirely standardized, according to corporate specifications. It looks perfect on the outside, and is familiar and comforting in its chemically orchestrated, aggressive tastes of sugar and salt. However, only the first bite tastes really good. Instead of coming from the land, and instead of teaching the next generation how food is produced from dirt, the fast food meal comes from a plastic box, and even comes with a plastic toy. It can be eaten on the run, and encourages families to make food a low priority. It subverts family togetherness at the dinner table in favor of false efficiency.

However, although it may look sanitary and sanitized, health code issues abound regarding how factory-raised meat is produced. Cows are fed unnaturally, fattened on corn and grain, and given antibiotics so their young and delicate systems will not reject this diet. The farm subsidy system encourages farmers' and cattlemen's dependence upon corn, and the system of agricultural subsidies, once began to help small farmers who had overproduced during the Great Depression, now supports industrialized agriculture. The small farm where cows roamed free, where chicken ate bugs and roamed amongst the cow manure, where various types of vegetables were grown, is a thing of the past. Now, we have a corn monoculture, and fields feed ethanol-guzzling vehicles and cows that live a brief and unhappy life before they are killed for McDonald's hamburgers.

Our new method of eating, in a car, from processed boxes of foods has…… [read more]

Fresh Foods and Canned Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,018 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Fresh V. Canned Food

According to Apovian, "Vegetables fresh from the farm or just picked are more nutritious than their frozen or canned counterparts, but frozen and canned vegetables are an acceptable nutritional alternative." Fresh foods have several distinct advantages vs. their canned versions. For one, fresh foods usually but not always look better and have a better texture than canned foods. However, canned foods also have important advantages over their fresh counterparts including yearlong availability. Some canned foods actually have a higher nutritional content than fresh foods (Davies & Barrett). However, many canned foods also contain additives. The main differences between fresh and canned foods include nutritional content; taste and texture; and convenience.

In terms of nutritional content, fresh foods are "nutritionally ideal," and "more nutritious" than their canned counterparts (Davies & Barrett; Apovian). Vegetables that are fully fresh, such as those plucked right from a garden or purchased at a farmer's market, contain the most nutrients possible. Unfortunately, many large supermarket chains and produce stores receive vegetables after they have been shipped over long distances and often overseas. By the time those fruits and vegetables reach the consumer they have lost a considerable amount of their nutritional content. On the other hand, most canned produce is "packaged immediately after harvesting, when nutrient levels are at their highest," (Davies & Barrett). Grocery stores often do not have the freshest fish, either. A fish fresh caught that day will have the highest possible nutrient content, but once it reaches a grocery store and has been washed, cut, fillet, and packaged, its nutrient content is diminished. In fact, canning "may actually increase calcium levels" for some fish (Davies & Barrett). Canned food does have many nutritional drawbacks vs. fresh foods, though. Most canned foods contain preservatives, salt, sugar, and other additives. A fresh version of the same food is simply the raw ingredient with no additives. With added salt, preservatives, or sugar in canned food, the nutritional value of that food is diminished considerably and it is no longer such a healthy choice for individuals on strict diets such as those with diabetes.

Another main difference between canned and fresh foods is their taste and texture. A canned green bean is soft, waxy, and almost mushy. A fresh green bean is crunchy and pops in the mouth. The fresh green bean tastes different from the canned one. Even if taste preference is subjective, the difference between the canned and fresh versions of any food is palpable. Not all fresh foods taste better than their canned counterparts. The canning process enhances some foods because they are cooked first, allowing natural sugars and starches to emerge such as with canted tomatoes, beans, legumes, and starchy vegetables like pumpkin or corn. The fresh version of those foods still has a different taste and texture from the fresh version. Cooked fresh tomatoes taste different from canned tomatoes and are crisper and more acidic. The differences in taste and texture between cooked and canned foods sometimes… [read more]

Culinary Trends Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,324 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Such advanced cooking systems will also decrease the amount of time that customers spend in each session. This may lead to the ability of the company to have more sessions throughout the day. This in turn will make the company more profitable.

In addition, Customers may start to demand food that is completely organic and may be resistant to foods that are genetically modified in any way. The trend toward food that is grown organically actually began a few years ago..

However, in recent years there has been a substantial increase in the amount of organic food available to consumers. In addition, the price of such items has decreased a great deal and consumers that may not have been able to afford these products years ago can do so today.

The internship may adjust to this by ensuring that the freshest organic products are made available to customers. The organic supply must also come from reliable sources. It will be necessary to ensure that the Secret Chef can meet the demands of customers as it pertains to such products. It is also important that the Secret Chef be reasonable in the manner in which these items are priced. The company has to be sure not to overprice the items, so that the price per meal can remain relatively low.

The article also points out that the availability of culinary items on the internet will continue to be a trend well into the future. At the current time there are many different types of culinary items available over the internet. This includes everything from programs like secret chef to other culinary trends that allow customers to place orders over the internet and food is delivered directly to their homes.

The internet will definitely continue to be a trend that impacts the culinary world for years to come. The internet provides consumers with many different options as it pertains to their culinary experiences. In addition it provides consumers with the conveniences that they often need and seek. Products can be delivered directly to the home and the quality of the products received is often quite impressive.

The Secret Chef already has a website that makes some aspects of the program more convenient for customers. For instance, customers can plan menus and setup pickup services over the internet.

In the future in might be advantageous of the company to establish a broader range of services that are available online. For instance, the company may want to consider the addition of a delivery service. Such a service would make the company more competitive with other culinary businesses that operate of the internet and/or have delivery service. Such services are important for certain segments of the population such as the elderly or those suffering from physical illnesses. This is a way in which the company can use the internet to further the growth of the company.


The purpose of this discussion was to describe current trends in the culinary field and the ways in… [read more]

Fast Food Nation: Beefing Up the World Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (970 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Fast Food Nation: Beefing Up the World

In Michael Schlosser's book Fast Food Nation he quite candidly points out that "obesity is now second only to smoking as a cause of mortality in the United States" (241). The remainder of the first part of this chapter does not get much more positive than this initial overview, offering various different explanations as to how fast food chains have changed eating habits and contributed to this phenomenon. Although it does not form one of the central themes of the book as such, it is nevertheless an important argument which is made by Schlosser within these few pages. This essay will examine other evidence which has since been published in relation to this topic, in an attempt to assess whether the prevalence of fast food restaurants in America may indeed be blamed for this obesity epidemic.

The first study included is that by Jeffery et al., which examined whether fast food restaurants could be considered an environmental risk factor for obesity. Their study specifically examined whether those living or working near to fast food establishments in Minnesota were at greater risk of obesity. The study collected information from over 1000 participants and found that eating at fast food restaurants was positively associated with BMI. This therefore supports the claim made by Schlosser that fast food is one of the "vectors" (242) of the ever increasing global obesity epidemic. Notably, the authors stated that "eating at "fast food" restaurants is associated with higher weight and less healthy eating habits" (5). The study also showed that the proximity of either home or work to fast food restaurants was not associated with either frequency of eating at those restaurants or BMI. The study did however find conversely that proximity to non-fast food restaurants was associated with frequency of eating at these 'healthier' establishments. This study therefore would indicate that fast food is associated with obesity, but that access to fast food is not necessarily associated with increased consumption, and therefore not with increased obesity.

A different type of study which was conducted by Maddock did however suggest that there was a link between access to fast food and obesity levels. The study used state-level data taken from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance Survey and the 2000 U.S. Census. This information was analyzed in terms of the spatial segregation of fast food restaurants and the population which was served by each of these restaurants. The research indicated that there was a "correlational relationship both between the number of residents per fast food restaurant and the square miles per fast food restaurants with state-level obesity prevalence" (137). This therefore supports the argument which is made by Schlosser, that the density of fast food restaurants is directly related to obesity levels. The information in the study is however slightly more scientifically justified than the evidence offered by Schlosser which is that "the…… [read more]

Free Trade Agriculture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Free Trade Agriculture

The issue of agriculture and its free trade attempts has generated a series of divergent opinions around the subject. Some experts consider that free trade in agriculture is a desirable opportunity that would help economies, while other experts state that this would only harm small farmers.

A series of free trade agreements have already been implemented between certain countries. For example, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) began in 1994 and was designed in order to remove trade tariff barriers among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The agreement includes agricultural provisions (USDA, 2008).

The benefits of NAFTA include: it accounted for 55% of the U.S. agricultural export growth, 258,000 U.S. jobs were created, the average annual growth reached $847 million, Canada became the no. 1 U.S. export market, Mexico became the no. 2 U.S. export market, U.S. became the no. 1 export market for Canada and Mexico, exports of food and agricultural products reached record values, producers in these countries benefit from a series of opportunities, agricultural markets in these countries have increased (USDA, 2006).

The effects of agricultural trade liberalization are numerous and diverse. Certain categories of individuals like consumers might receive a series of benefits, while other categories, like small producers, will have to face a series of threats.

Free trade in agriculture would most likely lead to raising economic growth, raise that is estimated at 0.43-0.46% (Fabiosa, 2008). Economic growth will be influenced only in developing and industrialized countries.

Another immediate result of trade liberalization consists in the fact that commodity prices across the world would have to increase by 3-34%. This means that domestic prices would be lower. As a consequence, in low income countries food consumption is likely to increase.

Free trade in agriculture is supported by a number of countries, like Australia, Canada, and the United States…… [read more]

Food Prices Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  17 pages (5,030 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … food prices over the past few years has been the result of several factors. Supply tightness increases volatility, so the high prices of the past few years indicate significant supply tightness in key variables. One of those variables is the supply of food itself. The supply of food has been adversely affected by demand for other agricultural cash… [read more]

Organic Versus Inorganic Foods Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,062 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Organic vs. non-Organic

Organic vs. Inorganic Foods: Why Eat organic?"

The rapid development of the organic market over the past twenty years has spread both opportunity and awareness of both organic foods and the kinds of tactics that are used to grow in-organic foods. The growth of the organic market has also helped draw the prices of such goods down to a level that makes it possible for many more consumers to buy and eat them. Yet, many consumers would still like to see more evidence that paying the marginal difference in price for seemingly the same product is logical and absorbable for their family finances. This work will argue that: there is a marked difference in the nutritional quality of organic foods as compared to non-organic foods and this difference is measurable and demonstrated not just by organic marketers, farmers or converted organic consumers but by agricultural and medical industry leaders who have taken up the cause of resolving this question for consumers, once and for all.

It seems that within the last few years many organizations and individuals have taken up the cause of advocating for consumer utilization of organic foods. Many of these organizations and individuals seem to have a vested interest or at the very least a near religion like commitment to buying and eating organic foods. The mainstream medical, agricultural and biochemistry academic communities on the other hand seemed to be reluctant to conclude that organic foods were any better than non-organic foods. Current trend have somewhat reversed this stand as more and more research has come out to bolster the claims of the organic community that the potential reduced impact on the environment seen from organic farming and most importantly the nutritional content of organic foods is indeed worthy of consumer utilization of such products even if they have to stomach a marginal cost difference. Additionally, today's consumers are also finding this cost difference to be even smaller than it was a few years ago, as availability of organic products increases, distribution streamlines and more organic products compete for shelf space, even in mainstream non-specialty markets.


Works Cited

Byrum, Allison. "Report Confirms More Health Benefits of Organic Food." Organic Consumers Association. 2003. http://www.organicconsumers.org/organic/polyphenolics031203.cfm.

Byrum's article is a review of a study conducted by Alyson Mitchell, Ph.D., a food scientist at the University of California, Davis, where Mitchell found that organic and sustainably grown foods (foods grown with a combination of organic and modern agricultural practices, mostly reflecting the elimination of conventional herbicides and pesticides but with the use of some non-organic fertilizers) were much higher in antioxidants. Antioxidants are proven to reduce the incidence of cancer and other age increased diseases as they protect the plant from attack they also protect the body from oxidization, a leading cause of cell deterioration.

Lipson, Elaine Marie. The Organic Foods Sourcebook. Chicago:

Contemporary Books, 2001.

Lipson demonstrates an comprehensive knowledge of organic food sourcing. This is an especially helpful work if one lives in a community… [read more]

Cuisine Knowledge of Romans' Diet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,761 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Knowledge of Romans' diet comes from literary references, archeological evidence, and paintings. The only true literary source ever devoted to Roman food was a cookbook attributed to Apicus (Davis 1961, 102). However, it was established that Roman cuisine and diet was largely influenced by the Greek, therefore in order to paint a complete picture of Ancient Roman cuisine, it… [read more]

Lords of the Harvest Biotech Big Money and the Future of Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,376 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Lords of the Harvest: Big Money, And the Future of Food

ONE (Summary): The book by Daniel Charles brings attention to an issue that is vitally important to consumers, scientists, and political leaders, genetically engineered foods. Are these products safe to eat? Do they in any way harm the environment? These are the questions Charles poses and attempts to answer, although he says in his Prologue, "This book is not an argument. it's the product of a personal search for understanding." In that context, it is clear that Charles is not attempting to preach to his readers, or necessarily attack Monsanto and the other companies dabbling or diving into biotechnology.

But the information he provides, while not as provocative as a juicy novel, is valuable and worthwhile, albeit the book was published 7 years ago and in that amount of time a wealth of new information can become available on the topic. It is clear that Charles enjoys creating narrative that traces the steps of the people who were involved in manipulating the genes of seeds. He also enjoys describing the characters as though they were in a short story to be turned in for a grade. It is as if he wants to assure readers that this isn't just a story about good guys vs. bad guys. In fact some of the characters in his book that actually helped launch agricultural biotech were idealists who gained their optimism about feeding the world's hungry from their experiences in the Sixties. Examples included Harry Klee, Roger Beachy, among others; and in this way Charles shows the human side of a very controversial subject.

Among the most disheveled, unpolished faces" was Harry Klee (p. 32), who worked at Monsanto, where "the genetic transformation of plants rapidly became routine." And there was Roger Beachy, a young assistant professor at Washington University in St. Louis; he was "and remains, a gregarious, athletic man brimming with enthusiasm." He had been "intrigued by the ways that plants develop resistance to certain viruses" for a long time. Along with being intrigued he was obviously very bright and eager to use biotechnology "in bettering the diet and lives of the world's poor" (37). It turns out that even though Klee made some great discoveries at Monsanto, the powers in charge of Monsanto at the time didn't see his work as productive to the bottom line. This is not unique to Monsanto (wanting research to lead to profits) but the author uses that example to set the stage for Monsanto's ability to make good money later.

TWO (Commercialization): In order to promote their product Roundup Monsanto needed a commercial strategy that would get their items not just on the shelves of stores but into the consciousness of consumers. The company had a merchandizing wizard in their agricultural division named Robert Shapiro. He ("...slightly built, intense, but soft-spoken") (114) is the man who convinced Coca-Cola to allow the logo for NutraSweet to be printed on every bottle and every can… [read more]

Food Service Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,373 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … International Food Trends Influencing the Australian Restaurant Industry in 2008

The food service industry is traditionally defined as the sale of drinks and food for immediate consumption by the consumer. These can either be consumed on the premises that they were purchased from, or in eating areas that are designated and shared with other food service operators. This industry also includes takeaways transactions that are freshly prepared for immediate consumer consumption.

The Australian food service industry is growing. By 2011, it's predicted to have a value of $11 billion, a 19% increase over 2006 figures of $9.3 billion.

Volume in 2011 is forecasted to be approximately 3,712.2 million transactions, a 7.3% increase over the 3,467.9 million transactions reached in 2006. The market is typically broken into four segments: cafes & restaurants, fast food, cost, and other. The cafe and restaurant segment includes cafes, pubs and bars, full service restaurants, hotels, and retail locations. The fast food segment includes quick service restaurants, takeaways, street vendors, and leisure locations that serve food and drink, such as cinemas and theaters ("Australia food service," 2007). These are the two segments, in combination, that his paper will focus on in the exploration of major international food trends that are influencing the Australian restaurant industry in 2008.

One way to look at the food trends in Australian restaurants is to investigate which restaurants are winning awards and what their hot food items are. The Australian Gourmet Traveler 2008 Restaurant Guide Awards point out a couple of hot international trends that are affecting Australian restaurants this year, including more choices in beef and Spanish influence in menus.

Beef has always been an Australian mainstay, yet 2008 will see a more complicated piece of beef an increasing trend. Fresh from the finest steakhouses from Asia to Europe to America, choices beyond simple cuts are all the rage. "Forget rare or medium, do prefer grain- or grass-fed, or a combination of both? How marbled do you like your wagyu?" (Nourse, 2008) These are choices Australians will see more and more frequently on their menus. Wagyu, also known as Kobe beef, a breed known for its extensive marbling especially will see an increase in 2008. Recently, Australia Company Trade Lines Malaysian was given permission to purchase two large farms south of Auckland to expressly farm wagyu beef. The company will spend approximately $14.6 million to develop 1460 hectares to establish a wagyu cross-breeding herd. Once established, this herd will be a large part of the company's operations, that will fortify breeding programs in Western Australia, and increase availability of this pricey beef ("New wagyu," 2007).

Spain, in particular, will also have a strong influence on Australian restaurants in 2008.

It used to be that Australian chefs traveled to France to learn the latest trends in fine dining, but more recently, it's the influence of Spanish chefs that are changing the food service world in Australia. Instead of Paris, leading chefs are visiting places like San Sebastian and Barcelona.… [read more]

Factors Affecting Customer Choice of Fast Food in Different Countries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  30 pages (8,131 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Fast Food Among Individuals of Different Countries and Differentiations in Health Perspectives Related to Consumption of Fast Food

The objective of this research is to identify the impact that culture has on the consumption of fast food and to compare the difference in buying behavior in different countries. Finally, this work will investigate the major factors that affect… [read more]

Fast Food Channels Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fast Food Channels

The foundations of fast food marketing is in a sense the poster child for mass marketing in the United States. Fast food and franchising chains are in fact one of the clearest and most linear examples of mass marketing in the world, expanding rapidly as fads and needs of the population change. For this reason there has been a historical sense in the industry of solid ground, in marketing, as long as the industry is timely in its market response to fad and change. Some fast food companies have been more or less effective at this goal, and usually exponential expansion and profit growth demonstrate this strength. ("Health Claims Are Junk," 24) Changes in the current market, such as the current popularity of certain food or beverage, such as specialty coffee drinks and/or other, products and/or as is the most recent trend, healthier eating and/or corporate civic responsibility. To respond to these market changes the industry has had to utilize market channels, previously not familiar to them, and especially in the case of modern environmental concerns and healthy eating.

One chain even held a healthy market campaign that stressed the number of new salads offered and partnered them with pedometers as a sort of adult happy meal toy for several weeks at the launch of the program. Another chain has recently announced the removal of trans fat from their chicken product, marketing the product as off the taboo list, even though the actual health of the product could still be seen as marginal. To those who do not utilize fast food, these tactics seem like propaganda, but to most consumers the market channels receive favorable response with continued utilization and increased sales.

Market channels that respond to healthier eating and corporate civic responsibility have in a sense seemed to be a necessity that responds to deliberate smearing of a given organization. ("Fast Food for THOUGHT;" NA) the market channels include both popular and niche print and electronic markets, and in fact inclusion in print and electronic materials that is similar to the ever expanding natural and organic foods markets. One fantastic example is the…… [read more]

Food Ritual Observance - A Prescribed Formal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,321 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Food Ritual Observance - a Prescribed Formal Behavior

Food ritual observance took place June 7, 2007 during a snack break with friends on campus, following an intense study session. There were four participants total, two males and two females. The foods consumed included a croissant, biscotti, an apple and a bag of trail mix. The time the study… [read more]

Whole Foods Market Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (999 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Whole Foods Case Study

How would you describe the merchandising and operational decisions made by Whole Foods Market in terms of the rational, bounded rationality, and garbage can models of decision-making?

Given the current public upsurge of interest in where food comes from and how food is prepared, Whole Food's merchandising and operational decisions can be explained by the rational model of decision-making. Increased publicity surrounding food-born ailments like mad cow disease, e.coli poisoning, antibiotics in cow feed, and high levels of added sweeteners make Whole Food's extensive organic and locally grown lines of food a comfort to worried consumers and a viable alternative to traditional supermarkets. "Catering to the growing interest in organic and gourmet foods," Whole Foods merchandise offers customers peace of mind at a price, but customers appear willing to pay higher prices for such goods (Brady, 2005).

More and more customers are willing to pay high prices for food in general, given the corresponding success of stores like Starbucks that likewise cater to what might be called mass affluence, or the willingness of middle-class consumers to pay more for certain premium foodstuffs like coffee. Even the presence of the Food Network on television indicates a heightened interest new and innovative ways to put food on the family dinner table. However, an advocate of theories of bounded rationality might caution that Whole Foods' founders in the 1970s could not have predicted all of these 21st century food marketing trends. Rather, the company designed a unique and effective approach to management through early regionalization and niche marketing of its foodstuffs. It has been able to make pricy produce profitable, despite its nickname "whole paycheck" because of a semi-orchestrated convergence between product, pricing, and consumer trends (Brady, 2005). Its limits on high executive salaries allowed the company to become profitable quickly and coincided as well with the heightened public and shareholder distaste for paying CEOs high salaries and pricy perks. Today, Whole Foods is actually more profitable than traditional supermarkets, with gross margins of 35% over the past year, vs. 24% for Kroger Co. And 29% for Safeway Inc., according to market research firm Capital IQ (Brady, 2005). It carved out a niche quite expertly, and at this time and place in history, there was demand for that niche. Also, these merchandise and leadership decisions is not simply rational, they also correspond to the company's overall ethos. Of course, a garbage can model would place even more emphasis on the accidental coherence between the ideological agenda of people who have promoted greener, cleaner living, some recent food scares, and the heightened concern about nutrition in light of the nation's obesity crisis. Finally, there seems to be something unique about the atmosphere at Whole Foods -- other chains like Trader Joe's are doing what Whole Foods is doing, and doing it for less, but only Whole Foods inspires such devotion: "I'm addicted to the onion focaccia bread!" (Brady, 2005)


What role does participation play in the decision-making process…… [read more]

Agriculture Industry the Agricultural Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Agriculture Industry

The agricultural industry is one of the most important sectors of any country. It helps enhance the economy of a country by producing goods that can be sold in and out of the country and by creating thousands of job opportunities for the people. Not only that; the agricultural industry is also sharing significant contribution to the health sector of the country because of the industry's main products. Because of these, all other sectors of a country, particularly the educational sector, has also seen opportunities where the two sectors education and agriculture - can be interconnected and would mutually benefit from each other.

If the schools and universities would advocate the consumption of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables, more and more students will benefit academically, mentally and physically. In the same manner, if more students will be encouraged to eat and use agricultural products in their daily life, the overall agricultural sector will continue to boom. As it is evident that both the schools and the agricultural sector would benefit if consumption of fruits and vegetables will be highlighted and promoted in schools, both sectors should then realize some approaches on how to initiate such action.

It would then be a very good starting point if there will be activities in schools which will focus on the benefits of continuous consumption of agricultural products. To do so, the agricultural industry must establish series of information dissemination through instigating a number of student group activities and student-teacher forums in schools.

Group activities can be tree planting or vegetable planting of the students. This can be made more exciting by making it seem like a contest - it may be on a year level or by-section contest - with which the winning group will be earning a special price.…… [read more]

Fast Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,021 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



In his famous book Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser, directed the attention of American public to the ill effects of consuming fast food. The author explained that fast food is not only resulting in alarming rise in rate of obesity in the country, it is also causing serious social ill effects which are putting the entire nation in danger. Fast food refers to meals, which are quickly prepared, and quickly consumed however 'quick' is not always better. In fact quick may actually never be good. The nutritional value of fast food is a highly contentious issue. In families where both parents work, it is not easy to prepare meals at home and thus the entire family would opt for fast food at various jaunts. This has been putting the health of families at risk while increasing obesity rate in children and adults with equal rapidity.

The massive increase in number of fast food restaurants between 1970s and 1990s has resulted in dramatic rise in consumption of food of minimal nutritional value. It has been observed that children who consumed more fast food were at a greater risk of obesity than those who opted for home cooked meals. One report indicates: "Children who ate fast food obtained from 29% to 38% of their total energy intake from that source and ate more total fat, more saturated fat, more total carbohydrate, more added sugars, more sweetened beverages, less fluid milk, and fewer fruits and non-starchy vegetables than those who did not." ("Fast food and obesity")

Fast food has now become the staple diet of America. In fact fast food is synonymous with being American and this has had a bad effect on health of the general public. Since no fast food restaurant offers indicates nutritional value on the boxes, it is impossible to ascertain just how much saturated fat is being consumed. People were thus oblivious to the bad effects of fast food for the longest time till there was some awareness created by interest groups regarding greasy nutritional-less meals of McDonalds. Since then there has been growing concern among parents regarding the food their children consume in school canteens. In a recent attempt to attack fast food, senators and congressmen argued against consumption of fast food at cafes in schools and it was said that such food would be banned so protect youth's health.

It is also sad that the section of society hardest hit by fast food epidemic is the lower income group. Since they do not have enough money for meals, they usually depend on $2 meals from fast food jaunts and this has led to health risks. Unfortunately these people fall in the category that doesn't even qualify for Medicaid and the families that do may not always find adequate coverage for all health problems. These are the social ill effects of fast food. Apart from it being a massively contested dietary option for American public, it is also the cause of… [read more]

Issues of Global Overpopulation and Food Supply Can We Feed the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,059 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Overpopulation [...] overpopulation and the food supply, two global issues facing the world's population today and in the future. The Earth's population is expanding faster than it has ever grown before, and with this overpopulation comes the need for more food and food sources. The poor in overpopulated countries often go hungry, and as populations increase, the implications for global hunger grow along with them. Can we feed the world, or can the world develop enough food sources to feed itself? These are compelling questions that must be answered to end world hunger in the 21st century, even if overpopulation continues to plague the planet.

The United States is one of the world's largest food producers (Cook 5). As such, we have a responsibility to other countries and peoples of the world. Many other countries suffer from overpopulation and the inability to feed all their population effectively. The United States produces an abundance of food, and is a forerunner in the technology necessary to manage food supplies in the future, as well. Thus, it is America's responsibility to help the world feed itself and escape global hunger.

One of the ways the United States can help other countries grow more of their own food is by researching Genetically Modified foods (GM). These new food types include plants genetically engineered to resist pests and disease, and grow in areas that were previously considered non-productive or infertile (Cook 10). However, these genetically modified foods are extremely controversial, and have been banned in many areas of the world until they receive further study. It is interesting to note that many people in the countries most affected by overpopulation and a dwindling food supply are not as concerned about the effects of genetically modified foods and their modifications. They are willing to try them to help their countries grow more food to feed their growing populations (14). It is mostly the well-fed nations, such as many in Europe, who are afraid of genetically modified foods and the effect they might have if they are consumed. So far, research shows genetically modified foods are perfectly safe to eat, but many people still believe they may be harmful in some way. The United States can make a difference by educating the wary about genetically modified foods and GM crop growth, and helping set up GM farming in overpopulated areas, such as India and areas of Africa.

One of the countries most affected by overpopulation is China. They implemented a one child only policy for families in the 1970s to help limit population growth, and have faced great famines throughout their history. The last ended as recently as 1961, as author Vaclav Smil notes, "The world's greatest famine,' this was an overwhelmingly man-made (Mao-made, to be exact) famine, and by the time it ended in 1961 it left behind about 30 million dead" (Smil 72). Today, China has modernized its food production and farming techniques to a point that they can supply adequate amounts of… [read more]

Shifting Trends in the Food Sector: Organic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Shifting Trends in the Food Sector: Organic Food Versus Fast Food
Trends in the food industry are continually in flux. Changing
tastes, dietary guidelines, cultural phenomenon, and more are all forces
that are constantly changing the food industry. One of the more prominent
changes in today's industry is the increasing popularity of the organic
food sector, with the decreasing… [read more]

Urban Encroachment on Agriculture in Northern California Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,812 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Urban Encroachment on Agriculture in Northern California

In the past few years, the continued loss of rich agricultural lands in Northern California to urban encroachment has emerged as an issue of significant concern to land use specialists, regional planners, government officials and historical researchers alike. The population in California is expected to increase by about one third over the next… [read more]

Gastronomy Food and Drink Tourism in Hospitality Industries Essay

Essay  |  11 pages (2,869 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


¶ … tourism of a country is an important contributor to the national economy in addition to triggering the process of continuous evolution and modernity. A lot of time, effort and resources have been dedicated to the cause of predicting the future of the tourism industry. In this context, researchers have managed to find a strong link between the hospitality… [read more]

Borderless Society on Food Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,405 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


(p. 34) suggest it is even nonexistent when they claim that "the distance from which [North Americans'] food comes represents their separation from the knowledge of how and by whom what they consume is produced, processed, and transported," but in reality food is possibly the easiest way for people from different cultures to relate to each other.

The benefits of… [read more]

Effect of a Manager's Actions on a Food and Beverage Operation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Manager's Actions On A Food And Beverage Operation

Create a list of seven situations in which a manager's actions indirectly or directly affect a guest's dining experience.

Selecting entrees

Selecting the rotation of such entrees

Hiring and firing wait staff, depending upon the staff member's level of training or comportment towards customers.

Setting policy for how waiters will greet and treat diners (including a scripting formulaic greeting, or allowing creativity in terms of customer interaction)

Setting policy for how tables should be cleaned and maintaining the standards of dining room operations

Setting reservation and cancelation policies

Deciding when a customer's special requests should be honored (such as requesting an off-menu item).

Describe the effect of these actions on a food and beverage operation's profitability

Managers must balance what consumers demand with the overhead costs of preparing, storing, and using specific commodities. Many people may like salmon, but the cost may be too high, and the fish may not have enough of a high-quality freezer life and application in other dishes to justify purchasing fresh salmon (versus canned tuna) at a diner. For a higher-end restaurant, however, finding purveyors of fresh salmon may be essential in retaining the restaurant's core clientele.

Regardless of whether the restaurant is high or low-end, the restaurant must also rotate entrees in a sustainable fashion. A steakhouse might balance an upsurge in the cost of beef by offering a wider array of dishes featuring cheaper cuts; another restaurant may have a 'pasta day' to balance out likely losses on a unexpectedly costly 'seafood buffet' day. Offering discounts on traditionally expensive foods may draw consumers, but they must be counterbalanced with savings on other entrees.

Good service is a…… [read more]

Soil, the Threats Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … soil, the threats that the soil faces in today's world, the consequences that are likely to result if care is not taken to preserve it and why it is important that action is taken rapidly to conserve soil and how the measures can be implemented. The following is my speech on the status of soil resources, climate change and the fate of human cultures that I deliver on behalf of The United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO)

"Soil is a threatened natural resource today in the world and in the past few decades there has been lack of appreciation of why we need to preserve the soils. It is at the risk from degradation by erosion, salinity, contamination, and other results of mismanagement. Besides that over exploitation, overgrazing, inappropriate clearing techniques, and unsuitable land use practices as well as water and wind erosion, and salinization are leading to severe soil nutrient decline. Current research shows that 17% of the land surface has already been strongly degraded and the problem is still spreading. Soil Climate plays a very important role in soil formation and the poor climate change is worrying because it will definitely affect soil formation.

The current human cultures are putting more pressure to an already scaling and unresolved problem. The population explosion is putting more strain to the soils with human activities over using the soil due to prolonged cultivation without giving the soils the opportunity to recuperate. The resultant as we all can see is a decrease in productivity. The problem is not because we do not have the wealth of know- how related to land management, improvement of soil fertility, and protection of soil resources and the repercussions arising but it is because we are not taking actions towards preserving the soils especially for future generations. We need to take action and we need to take it now! We are

We at The United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO) are calling upon everyone to do all that it takes to preserve this important resource. We are calling on all world organizations and National Governments to ensure that they have adequate measures in place to give a much needed emphasis on soils and their future protections.

There is great need to keep the soil productive, by replenishing its nutrients level on a regular basis. The fact that the world's population is estimated to rise from 5.8 billion to 8 billion by 2025 is a great concern on why soils need to be preserved. The problem of soil is a real challenge and unless this challenge is accepted the use of soil could become a dead end with catastrophic results for many communities."

'Healthy, fertile soil is a mixture of water, air, minerals, and organic mater' (Hudson 1995). In soils organic matter consists of plants and animal material that is in the process of decomposing. One can increase the organic matter of the garden by adding compost or applying mulch. Organic matter is important… [read more]

Importance of Food Cost Labor and Sales in a Food and Beverage Operation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,048 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Food Costs, Labor and Sales

One of the biggest challenges that all restaurants are facing is: high food costs and labor issues. These factors can eat into the underlying profit margins of a company. At the same time, declining sales are an indication that something is wrong in the products mix and the services they are providing. In the case of the restaurant that we are examining, all three of these different elements are having an impact on the establishment. The most notable include: food costs have increased by 50%, there are not enough skilled employees and sales have declined by nearly 25%. As a result, we need to evaluate and provide solutions for addressing these issues. Once this takes place, we can offer specific insights about what the restaurant can do to deal with these challenges. This is the point that their underlying profit margins will begin to increase.

The Effects of: High Food Costs, the Lack of Skilled Labor Positions and Declining Sales on the Establishment

The impact of high food costs and the lack of skilled labor can act like a cancer on a restaurant. The reason why, is because the high food costs will eat away at the underlying profit margins of the business. While, the lack of skilled labor will mean that the quality of food and the kind of services will begin to decline. This will have an adverse effect on the restaurant that we are examining. As, it will cause customers to: go elsewhere and the profit margins of the establishment will dramatically decease. This problematic, because once this occurs it will lead to unfavorable views of the restaurant. At which point, it becomes difficult to for any kind of establishment to win back the trust of the community. (Beriss, 2007, pp. 65 -- 78)

In the case of restaurant that we are examining this is what is happening with food costs increasing by: 50% and the there is a lack of skilled labor. This has been having an impact on the products that being provided and the kinds of services that customers are receiving. As a result, this has led to a decline in sales of 25%. Over the course of time, these factors will have an impact on the economic viability of the establishment. This is when there is the realistic possibility that the business may not be able to stay open. To prevent this from happening, management needs to engage in some kind of drastic actions that will allow the establishment to regain market share. If this can occurs, it will allow the business to rebuild its image with customers and improve the quality of the products that it is delivering. (Beriss, 2007, pp. 65 -- 78)

Solutions for Addressing the Problems that are Impacting Our Restaurant

To fully provide extensive solutions, we first need to discuss the specific reasons surrounding what the establishment is facing from the above mentioned issues. As far as food costs are concerned,… [read more]

Fast Food Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,009 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Fast Food

As a kid my mother was very health conscious. We were not allowed to eat chips, sugary cereals or soda with sugar. To go to McDonald's was a huge deal in my family and it was something that happened very rarely, but when it did happen, it was a completely different experience from how things are today in the fast food world. For example, as a kid I remember the proportions being much smaller. I remember a regular hamburger and fries were what is now the size of a kid's meal -- perhaps smaller. It was enough food to fill you up and not wreak havoc on one's waistline. When my parents divorced my dad pretty much became a bachelor again with full bachelor mentality. When we stayed with him he would give me and my sister money and we would go to McDonald's or Burger King to get food and we would literally pig out on Big Macs and Large Fries. My mom said that we were visibly fatter when we would come home from a long stay with my father. Fast food somehow became something u-special, something that was more for gluttons than for people who wanted a quick and healthy (and convenient meal).

Pollan has a very intelligent and informed opinion about fast food in this country. He notes that there are now better practices when it comes to slaughtering animals for fast food and McDonald's has stopped using genetically modified potatoes, but there are still major problems in their industry. The fact that a hamburger can have the number of calories that one should eat in an entire day is ridiculous. They tout healthy options such as salads, however, many of their salads have more calories than a regular burger.

I had a friend who worked for McDonald's in high school and (this is a true story) she stole a bag of lettuce from work (for what reason I have no idea, either I have just forgotten or chosen consciously to forget). She put it in the trunk of her car (this was in summer) and forgot about it essentially. She opened her trunk about 10 days later and the lettuce was still there in its plastic bag -- not even wilted, not even brown. It was essentially the exact same color and texture as when she put it in there. I am not a farmer or a lettuce specialist, but it seems that lettuce should start to rot in a stuffy trunk in the dead of summer.

Pollen brings up so many important issues when it comes to fast food and he essentially combines school food into that category of fast food because it is, for the most part, not the best meat or vegetables, and it is cheap moreover. School lunches have come to represent not healthy and balanced meals for growing children but fattening and unsellable food that nobody else would buy. This is what we are feeding our children who… [read more]

Restaurant and Hospitality Concept and Interest Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Restaurant and Hospitality Concept and Interest in Culinary Arts

My interest in culinary arts started in my earliest childhood. My father was an experienced and talented self-taught chef whose dishes I remember as my fondest memories of tastes and smells that I associate with my family history. He always let me watch him as he prepared dinner, often from the vegetables he cultivated and harvested from our small garden. My father also introduced me to the healing power of fresh and healthy plants, herbs, and other good food for growth and health. My father taught me to respect the environment that provides our nourishment and he taught me how to cook and, eventually, to plant my own peppers, herbs, and tomatoes. I built a compost heap for my garden as part of that overall concept of working in symbiotic harmony with the environment.

The more I learned the more I began to seek out cooking books and to experiment with new recipes and types of cuisines. My long-term goal is to own my own restaurant whose menu is based on the ingredients grown and raised on the premises. Ideally, that would also provide an opportunity to employ members of the community along with professional hospitality staff to serve in the restaurant and tend the garden. Generally, my concept of restaurant design and my long-term interests and aspirations are derived philosophically from the accomplishments of Dan Barber. Specifically, I hope to emulate his successfully uniting his passion for food with his desire to improve the planet. On a practical level, his success in that regard illustrates that it is possible create a successful restaurant without sacrificing higher principles about human health and the welfare of the environment. In the short-term, I hope to intern for Mr. Barber after completing my education.

My ultimate career goals include working to change laws that impede access to healthy food and becoming involved in workshops and courses to promote healthful and natural cooking and agricultural development for both children and adults. At FCI, I hope to acquire a formal education and the technical knowledge and networking skills necessary to create my vision of a sustainable restaurant. I hope that my experience of living in rural and urban areas and my exposure to various different cuisines and cooking techniques from Europe and from the Caribbean might allow me to fuse different elements of traditional cuisines to create new flavors that still respect their ancient origins. I hope that this will be my signature as a chef, together with environmentally friendly and healthful nutrition.

1. (b) Favorite Restaurants

My three favorite restaurants are: (1) Blue Hill, (2) WD50, and (3) Jean-Georges, all three of which are in New York City. Blue Hill appeals to me because of the manner in which it has cultivated distinctive fine dining within the…… [read more]

Hong Kong Food Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


"Soyfoods have been part of Asian food systems for millennia," and the domestication and processing of soy beans represents one of the earliest instances of a complex food culture arising around a single ingredient (Mintz & Tan, 2001, p. 113). Despite their long history in Chinese cuisine, however, "developments during the last century have done more to transform the meaning of soybeans for world consumption than practically anything since their domestication," and the emergence of a variety of previously unheard-of uses of soybean curd in Hong Kong demonstrate this (Mintz & Tan, 2001, p. 114). Thus, "entrepreneurs in Hong Kong have been introducing and perfecting new bean-curd products, aiming to cater to changing popular tastes" in a kind of local mimicry of international phenomena (Mintz & Tan, 2001, p. 126). For example, whereas previously bean-curd custard came only in one flavor, Hong Kong has seen the emergence of a variety of different flavors, thus transforming the custard from a singular, traditional food into something more similar to and with the variety of Western desserts such as ice cream or American pudding.

The emergence of new forms of soybean foods represents the "modernization" of traditional tastes as a result of globalization, and there is one other related but distinct process occurring in Hong Kong food culture as a result of globalization. In addition to the transformation of traditional foods and the blunt insertion of Western foods in the form of American fast food restaurants, Hong Kong has also seen a more comfortable blending of Western foods and traditional culture in the relatively high consumption of cognac. "The successful integration of cognac as the liquor of choice at wedding banquets since the 1970s," and its use as "a common item in gift exchange at important calendar and social occasions" represents "the resilience of cultural diversity within an increasingly integrated global economy," because in contrast to the somewhat blatant attempts at using local culture to sell fast food, the conspicuous popularity of cognac in Hong Kong represents a more natural convergence of international food and traditional Chinese culture (Smart, 2004, p. 219). Thus, while the most obvious and pervasive effect of globalization is the undermining of traditional Chinese culture through the changes seen in Hong Kong food culture, the fact remains that in certain instances globalization has served to reinforce and support local traditions and customs.

Hong Kong has seen rapid changes over the course of the last three decades, and the changes in its food culture are some of the most conspicuous. By examining these changes one is able to see how globalization has greatly undermined traditional Chinese culture by inserting Western products and commodifying local traditions in order to sell them on the international market, but it has also resulted in more natural evolutions of local customs which ultimately serve to reinforce traditional Hong Kong food culture, albeit in modified forms. Chinese and Honk Kong has shown itself to be surprisingly resilient in the face of unfettered global capitalism, which seeks… [read more]

Labeling GMO Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,119 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Labeling GMOs

The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in the food supply is one of the most controversial aspects of modern agriculture. The European Union has banned the sale of products with GMOs. However, in America, GMOs are incorporated into a wide variety of products. Unless a product is specifically labeled as lacking GMOs, American consumers may buy foods and other items that contain these ingredients without being made aware of this fact. Proponents of the products tout their benefits to consumers, and view labeling as a kind of fear-mongering. It is unfair, they say, to lump GMOs along with other labeled products such as cigarettes and fast food, implying that GMOs will have a negative impact upon human health. Positive labeling, or labeling all products with GMOs "implies risk while inaccurately reflecting health consequences of consuming GMO products" (Runge & Jackson 2009). The products have been approved as safe by the necessary regulatory bodies. Proponents add that GMOs can help feed the world by making more disease-resistant crops, expand the available food supply to feed a burgeoning world population, and that labeling of the products will make consumers needlessly suspicious.

Opponents of the lack of labeling cite the benefits of consumer choice and the fact that GMOs are often relatively untested, suggesting that the pace of agricultural reform is getting ahead of the ability to regulate these products. They argue that just as consumers have the right to know the calorie counts of the products they buy packaged in the supermarkets, they should have the right NOT to consume GMOs. However, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is moving in the direction of not labeling GMOs. Recently, it approved three new kinds GMOs: alfalfa hay used to produce ethanol, sugar beets, and a fast-growing genetically modified breed of salmon. These products will not even have to be labeled as containing GMOs. The salmon is advertised as an "environmentally sustainable alternative to current farmed salmon," which is grown in a more sterile environment than wild fish (AquaAdvantage Fish, 2011, Aqua Bounty). GMO opponents state that if these genetically-modified fish escape and breed with wild salmon, that the entire population of the fish could become tainted. As seen in the documentary The future of food, it is virtually impossible to prevent species from cross-contaminating one another. Mexico has already lost the integrity of its indigenous corn varietals because of cross-pollination from GMO plants nearby.

The American public, however, may consume products with GMOs (very few consumers can claim to even try to eat only non-GMO products) but is profoundly uncomfortable with this fact. The "majority of Americans believe that GMOs are hazardous to their health" and in one recent CBS/NYT poll 87% stated that they wanted the products to be labeled (Bittman 2011). Advocates of choice stress that consumers should at least have the ability to choose what foods enter their bodies. However, the FDA counters with its response that because GMOs are considered to be the same as conventional products… [read more]

Required Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Genetically Modified Foods Should Be Labeled

Genetically modified foods are making up an increasing portion of the world's food supply. Generally, foods are genetically modified in order to either for efficiency or enhancement. That is, foods are modified either to increase the quantity/cost ratio or to enhance the crop's taste or durability. Generally, genetically modified foods are attractive to food… [read more]

Wholes Food Market Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Whole Foods is, needless to say, an innovative, committed and overall fantastic company with clear goals in mind. This section will describe how the organization has come to be where it is at the moment, a successful enterprise with happy employees. In order to answer this question the paper will talk about various tools and strategies, all described below.

Perhaps one of the most important places to start is by looking at the procurement strategies that the company utilizes for its development. This is important because these are the most vital part of the Whole Foods chain, and these employees must be kept happy in order to keep serving the company. Unlike many grocery stores, Whole Foods only deals with pesticide-free, organic companies. There are a few dozen companies that supply to Whole Foods, and they are all detailed briefly below:

Whole Food Company -- a grocery store with wholesome food (not a health food store)

Wellspring Grocery -- a grocery store with home-grown, energetic workers who changed the way people shopped for food (i.e. encourage great nutrition)

3. Bread & Circus -- a store that sold both natural food and wooden toys

4. Mrs. Gooch's -- a store whose owner opened it because she was interested in natural foods after trying to alleviate her allergies

5. Fresh Fields -- a second generation natural supermarket store

6. Bread of Life -- an organic store that housed natural food products and a juice bar

7. Amrion -- a small store founded in Colorado that sold various health-related products

8. Merchant of Vino -- a wine retail store that also picked up gourmet and natural foods

9. Allegro Coffee -- a coffee company that was also promoting natural and wholesome production

10. WholePeople.com -- an e-commerce subsidiary

11. Nature's Heartland -- a store that opened with the goal of providing cost effective but natural and good foods to customers

12. Food For Thought -- a community business in California that also focused on the natural foods industry

13. Harry's Farmers Market -- a market that was known for natural, fresh, delicious foods, that began in Atlanta and soon proved the superiority of these products over traditional foods

14. Select Fish -- a processor and distributor from Alaska who provided fish from fisheries that had both high quality but that also utilized techniques to ensure ecological health of marine life.

15. Fresh & Wild -- a UK company that also promoted natural foods and that won numerous awards in Europe

16. Wild Oats© Markets -- a vegetarian natural foods store

The reason this list was given was to demonstrate the various aspects that the company has utilized to achieve its success. This is, thus not attributed solely to the fact that it has fantastic products, but also to its partnership, that has spurred development with many other similar companies, that now all work for or are somehow incorporated in…… [read more]

Third Party Food Inspection Agency Outside Country Could Help Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,763 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Canadian Food Safety: A Wider Look

Food Safety

Canadian Food Safety: A Wider Economic Look

Say there are only two grocery stores, your family is getting hungry and will eventually starve. In one store, everyone knows there is one product on the shelves that secretly is deadly poison and if all the food is purchased and consumed, whoever gets the… [read more]

Food Reserve Non-Profit Organization Feasibility Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,476 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Some of the programs under consideration for collecting food are:

Basic Food Collections (FC)

Participates will be retailing, wholesale, and food processing companies that donate food items. They will be monthly contributors of donations from their surplus and overstock items.

Fill the Reserve (FtheR)

During the Fall, this fundraiser will is directed to banks and credit unions. Food Bins with… [read more]

Start and Run a Successful Fast Food Research Paper

Research Paper  |  30 pages (8,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 35


¶ … start and run a successful fast food pasta restaurant with a drive through?

Nature of problem to address

Specific research questions

Key definitions of terms

Stream one: Opening a business

Stream two: The fast food pasta industry

Stream three: key success factors in the fast food business

The steps to opening a fast food pasta restaurant

The characteristics… [read more]

Fast Food Nation -- Chapter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,191 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


One can't imagine the French or Italians caring more about the packaging of their food than the taste, because these countries have long-standing food cultures. It is the consistency and order that Americans craved, and it became a part of the food culture in the absence of any other existing tradition. Kroc, Schlosser writes, used to say he was really more in show business than the restaurant business, a statement that is a reflection of how Americans think about food.

In the section devoted to the ways in which McDonald's caters to kids, Schlosser points out that a quarter of a century ago, not many American companies catered to kids -- McDonald's and Disney were innovators in this area. Kroc knew that attracting the kids would draw in the parents, who have money to spend and a desire to keep their children quiet and happy, especially now that so many families have two parents working and spend less time together. By placing ads on television, McDonald's took advantage of the huge influence television commercials have on the desires and kids and the spending habits of their parents, and this was instrumental in making McDonald's one of the most well-recognized brands in history.

Another way in which McDonald's has made itself a part of American culture is by linking with manufacturers of toys and giving away prizes in Happy Meals. Again, Kroc's idea that fast food is not just about the food is demonstrated with the success of the Happy Meal; Schlosser writes that when McDonald's gave away Beenie Babies in its Happy Meals, they sold about 10 million Happy Meals in a typical week. In 1996, McDonald's finally connected with its inspiration, Disney, and signed a ten-year marketing agreement with the Walt Disney Company. This connection between Disney and McDonald's seemed to ensure that both would remain significant parts of American culture, food and otherwise, and as Schlosser says, the work of Walt Disney and Ray Kroc "had come full circle."

Schlosser ends his chapter by pointing out how McDonald's role in American food culture is creating problems, particularly for children. By convincing families that McDonald's is a "trusted friend," a partner in life, they implied that McDonald's cared about the health and well-being of its customers. In fact, the phrase, found in confidential marketing materials never meant for public consumption, implied that McDonald's was primarily about food, which Schlosser contends it is not. He goes on to point out that McDonald's uses corporate sponsorship to gets its products in schools and influence students to eat its products, and this has a detrimental effect on the health of Americans, especially children.

Schlosser does not deny the impressive level of influence that companies like McDonald's and Disney have had on Americans, but he seems to be cautioning that America's lack of a true food culture has led us down a road toward poor health and obesity. It's important to understand just how deeply McDonald's is ingrained in our everyday lives; this… [read more]

Globalization Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  5 pages (1,912 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Globalization has changed the face of the planet -- both in terms of how we communicate, what types of political and social issues we face, and even the choices we make in basic human needs like food. After viewing the movie Urban Roots, I was struck with the issues of sustainability, organic foods, mega-farming, and the issues of… [read more]

Food: Crawfish Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Food: Crawfish

Crawfish have always been one of my favorite foods, but I honestly don't remember the very first time that I tasted crawfish, because my mother has always included it, in various forms, in several of her traditional Cajun recipes.

On the other hand, I do remember, very vividly, the day that hunting for them with my father became one of our most cherished family rituals, especially for me.

My father has set his crawfish traps out in the river behind our house since before I was born, and many of my mother's dishes, such as her jambalaya and gumbo depended on the success of his morning harvest. It was ever something that

I participated in, or even gave all that much thought to, frankly, until the last day of school at the end of third grade.

That spring, my father's birthday, May 22nd, happened to be my last day of school, before my summer vacation. At my mother's suggestion, we bought him two brand new crawfish traps, complete with bait trays. Lately, he'd been complaining about his poor luck in the river, and my mother had suggested that he should get himself some of the new, fancy looking traps from the bait shop, but he said that his father and grandfather had always built their own, and that if that was good enough for them, it was good enough for him.

We decided to get him some of those new traps for his birthday, and the man at the bait store gave us two new bait boxes at no extra charge. According to him, one of the reasons my father's traps were coming up empty is that he still used glass jars for bait. He said that glass jars worked fine if you happened to drop your traps in the perfect spot, but otherwise, bait boxes work much better, because they're designed with little holes to let the scent of the bait carry through the river, which helps the crawfish locate the traps much better than the old-timers'

bait jars. So, we brought home two brand new traps for my dad's birthday present, each with a new bait box inside. The next morning, my dad was thrilled when he saw them in the kitchen, together with the birthday card from my mom and me.

Still, he seemed saddened by the prospect of giving up his old traps, several of which had been passed down from two generations of crawfishing in his family.

I suggested that he could still use his old ones too, and even, that he could make a scientific "experiment" out of it, by using one of his old traps with a new bait box, a new trap with his old bait jar, and the other new trap and bait bow together, to see if the man at the bait store was right, after all.

My dad was already happy with his birthday present, but he seemed even more thrilled that I was taking… [read more]

Fast Food Sara Had Worked Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,475 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


, dad worked and they all came home for dinner at the same time each night. Today,. However, mom and dad have different work schedules, the children have soccer, band, cheerleading and other activities at all different times of the day and a family sit down meal is almost impossible. Fast food creates the ability to feed everyone at the… [read more]

1992, the U.S. Department Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Additionally, levels of low -- density lipoprotein, commonly known as "bad cholesterol" increase as well when switching to carbohydrates. An increase in glucose and sugar levels, as well as the risk of obesity should be mentioned as well.

The solution we propose is somewhat similar to the one referring to meat and implements, first of all, a differentiated view on the carbohydrates category. We suggest that additional categories of food, including nuts and beans, should be used to provide part of the proteins needed (1 to 3 servings) and that entire components of the carbohydrate category, including white rice, white bread, pasta and sweets, should be used sparingly. Whole grain foods, notorious for their numerous qualities in disease prevention, should be consumed at most meals.

The third issue that comes up when referring to the old pyramid and a serious concern in this case is the promotion of an "overconsumption of dairy products," up to 2 or 3 servings per day. If we look at the calcium content, this proposal should prove useful, however, experimental studies have shown that high dairy consumption is also associated with increased risks of prostate cancer or ovarian cancer. At this point, even if conclusions cannot be drawn, the risk is there and there is no point in recommending something we know may be risky.

As such, we recommend a decrease of dairy consumption or calcium supplements, perhaps around one serving a day only. This should prove enough to provide the calcium quantity needed by the body and to avoid additional risks of disease that may occur. Additionally, where needed, the daily use of multiple vitamins can supplement the nutritive elements.

If we look at the elements provide here above, we may consider three main objections to the old USDA pyramid. These refer to the position occupied by meat and the general perception that "meat is bad," to the use of carbohydrates, as the main substitutes of protein providers and the position occupied by dairy products in the respective pyramid.

As a change, we thus recommend a differentiation in the meat category, with a higher consumption of white meat and red meat sparingly used, a decrease in the uses of dairy products and a lower use of carbohydrates, with white bread and pasta used sparingly.


1. Rebuilding the Food Pyramid. Scientific American. January 2003

2. The Food Pyramid. Release from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. August 1992, revised octover 1996. On the Internet at http://www.usda.gov/cnpp/pyrabklt.pdf

The Food Pyramid. Release from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. August 1992, revised octover 1996. On the Internet at http://www.usda.gov/cnpp/pyrabklt.pdf


Rebuilding the Food…… [read more]

Organics Trip to the Local Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, the USDA recently instituted the National Organic Rule, which requires foods labeled as organic to be "produced without hormones, antibiotics, herbicides, insecticides, chemical fertilizers, genetic modification, or germ-killing radiation," (Cowley). The National Organic Rule applies to labeling only and is not a statement of health.

As Geoffrey Cowley notes in his Newsweek article "Certified Organic," many consumers note that organic crops, or produce, tastes better than non-organic produce. Reasons to buy organic extend beyond taste, however. While much organic produce does indeed look and taste better, reasons to buy organic include environmental sustainability, support for smaller farms and farming businesses, and health. In spite of unequivocal scientific proof that organics are healthier, no one can deny that ingesting toxic chemicals at any dose is creepy and potentially harmful. Buying organic need not dent the pocketbook, and therefore buying organic products makes perfect sense; the only disadvantage to buying organic is that organic products are not as widely available and therefore it can be inconvenient to seek them out. However, in major urban centers finding organic products should be a snap. I choose to buy organic produce and other organic products whenever possible for all the reasons mentioned above: appearance, taste, the environment, health, and social reasons. If I have to pay fifty cents more for an apple, I don't mind.

Works Cited

Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm.

Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.

Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.

Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214.… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (836 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Data were collected from a random sample of 318 adults from two major Midwestern cities. These individuals provided social-demographic information and answers on prior beliefs about technologies and participated in a set of experiments. They then completed a short questionnaire on: "If a source of information were to give you verifiable information on genetically modified foods, who would you trust most?" This information was coded into the categories of third-party, government, environmental or consumer group, private industry or organization, none or nobody, and "other" (including no response).

An econometric model was used to establish linkages of trust to provide verifiable information on genetically modified foods. Five regressors were included in this multinomial logit model: a participant's household income, education, age, a dummy variable for prior beliefs, and a dummy for conservative religious affiliation. Results showed that well educated individuals more likely trust an "independent third-party." Also, increasing a participant's schooling significantly lowers the odds of trust of government, private industry, or no "body," and "other" relative to a third-party source. As people age, the odds they trust an environmental or consumer group or "nobody" falls significantly relative to trusting a third-party source. Participants with a strict religious upbringing have significantly lower odds of trusting private industry and higher odds of trusting "nobody" relative to a third-party source.

Any individuals involved with product development and marketing, especially controversial ones, must keep in mind the trust factor. In this case, contrary information is disseminated by the NGOs, agricultural biotech industry and U.S. government. The federal government is not a valid third-party source; for example, some groups are not in favor of the FDA's policies on voluntary GM food labels. However, state the authors, "a quasi-governmental entity funded by the government and staffed with informed but financially disinterested scientists not answering to the government may be the best possible source to provide information on foods labeled as genetically modified."

References Cited

Becker, G.S. (1996) Accounting for Tastes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Glaeser, E.L., et. al (2000). "Measuring Trust." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115:811-846.

Hausman, J. 1996. "Valuation of New Goods under Perfect and Imperfect Competition," in Bresnahan, T. And R.J. Gordon, Eds., The Economics of New Goods, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Huffman, W. (2004) et. al., "Who do consumers trust for information: the case of genetically modified foods." American Journal of Economics 86(5): 1222-1230.

Schultz, T.W. (1975) "The value of the ability to deal…… [read more]

Fast Food Industry Changes: 1950s to the Present Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,451 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Fast Food Industry from the 1950s to the Present

The past 55 years have witnessed a number of history-changing events, but one of the most enduring to have emerged from the political and social turbulence has been the propensity of people around the world to eat fast food. While the critics of "McDonaldization" point to the low wages… [read more]

Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Emerging Nations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,089 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Emerging Nations in General and China in Particular

Let trees sprout on the mountains; stop growing grain on hilly terrain; and keep livestock in their pens. - Chinese Edict for 21st Century Agricultural Practices, Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji, Spring 2000

In recent years, the rapid development of industrial and urban areas, and changes in… [read more]

Nutrition Food and Dietary Habits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,035 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


At the same time, income levels went up and there was a marked improvement in transport that made it possible to transfer goods from one location to another.

These changes led to a dramatic change in food choices in Europe till 1950s. Total calorie intake increased by 50%. Initially European countries increased their intake of starch in the form of bread and potatoes. Once their initial hunger was satisfied, they started adding variety to their food choices and thus included sugar, oils and fats, fruit and vegetables, and also meat and dairy goods. With this expansion in food choices, nutritional history took a huge turn as Europe started relying less on starchy staples. (Grigg, 1996)

By 1960s, it was seen that there existed some wide differences between dietary habits of various regions. The world was still however more depended on plant foods for energy than on meat or animal food. Total calorie intake was higher in western and developed countries- almost 55% more than developing countries. Protein intake was also 83% more as developing countries depended heavily on starchy staples. With increase in income, reliance on starchy foods is reduced as livestock products become more accessible.

Since 1962, however, there have been significant steady increases in income levels of the developing countries which have led to a change in dietary habits (World Bank, 1990). The changes thus witnessed are similar to the ones Western countries experienced during the 19th century. Except in Africa, where income level did not increase, every developing country has witnessed positive change in its nutritional habits. Consumption of all types of food including dairy and meat products has increased and Asia has shown greatest improvement. In Latin America, however, it appears food consumption and nutritional patterns have remained more or less static since 1980s. Sugar intake has remained unchanged and consumption of starchy staples has decreased. Japan and Korea have been the slowest to accept change or change their dietary habits. Even though these two are highly prosperous nations, still they food choices are still markedly different from the rest of the world. Rice is still very important part of their diet and consumption of animal foods is relatively low. (FAO, 1996b)

Western countries have also shown changes in nutritional preferences since 1960s. Calorie intake is higher in five prosperous regions of the world and has continued to rise. Intake of vegetable oils and fats has also risen along with consumption of meat which has increased everywhere except in the region of Australasia. Cereals are more popular in North America and some European countries now than they were before 1960s and consumption of sugar has declined in parts of Western Europe and Australasia. Consumption of alcohol and related beverages has declined in developed countries since 1970s along with dairy products that showed decline in North America, Eastern Europe, the U.S.S.R. (FAO, 1996b).


1. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996a The sixth world food survey. Rome: FAO.

2. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996b. Food balance sheets 1961-1994.… [read more]

Vegetable Oil and Fried Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050502190054.htm)." When linoleic acid oxides, the compound HNE develops. The compound has been linked to a number of diseases such as "atherosclerosis, stroke, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Huntington's and liver diseases (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050502190054.htm)."

Other research has shown that the concentration amount of unsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oil may be at a level that "can react with oxygen and the water in raw foods to produce a toxic compound such as malondialdehyde, and repeated frying with the same oil can aggravate the situation (www.theexoticblends.com/research/research.html)."


Science is discovering that foods originally considered healthy may now pose a number of health risks. Researchers have found this is true of foods fried with vegetable oil, as a toxic compound forms when the oil is heated.

Works Cited

The Exotic Blends Co.: R & D. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.theexoticblends.com/research/research.html).

Unknown. "Food Fried in Vegetable Oil May Contain Toxic Compound."

Science Daily. 02 May, 2005. University of Minnesota. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050502190054.htm).… [read more]

Catering in the Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is a simple fact that offering a catering business that is both competitive and profitable creates a sense of independence and also raises ones level of prestige in the eyes of consumers and customers.

The benefits come from owning ones own business and having the ability to manage it in the way the person wants. And the expertise gained from each successive event helps to build the experience needed to improve with time. Catering businesses entail planning memorable events, and then preparing and serving outstanding foods and hiring a good staff that serve well. Caterers actually benefit because they know internally that they are doing something they love.

The Downfalls of Catering Services

There are many downfalls in the catering business. Consider that a massive meal was just prepared and the event is cancelled. If there is no insurance to cover the cost of the food, the caterer may have to, excuse the pun, 'eat the' difference or loss. And, food-based businesses requires some skill in purchasing, preparation and these skills do not translate into new customers. In other words, another downfall is the need for some basic marketing and customer service skills. Couple that with the fact that hiring and employee's maintenance such as training and payroll also falls on the caterers' plates. Basically, some of the downfalls are directly associated with the fact that these businesses required a mix of typical business skills and restaurateur and food prep skills.

Types of Catering Offered in General

Catering seems pretty straightforward because it means to cook food and serve it. That is the basic idea, but there's much more to it. Consider just choosing where to serve. There are many areas to focus on such as dinner parties, large or small events like weddings or corporate functions. Catering in general implies creating an atmosphere that appeals to all of the senses in a way that can leave the memory of the event in the mind of the customer special and memorable. Catering usually provides customers some well prepared food that appeals to the senses of taste, smell and sight and often the sense of touch.

Liability Problems

The problems that can occur in a catering business are many such as showing up at a catering event with any silverware or something as simple as a cork screws. These types of problems are very common as preparation sometimes leaves out basics. Catering events are often completely ruined because of the caterer not being fully aware of how many tables or commercial ovens are available. Thus, the liabilities in a catering operation encompass a comprehensive list of things that could go wrong.

References… [read more]

Fast Food Nation the Ramifications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


" Technology had evidently been detrimental to the welfare of animals raised as livestock for food production purposes. This was apparent in the knocking process described by Schlosser as follows: "Cattle walk down a narrow chute and pause in front of him ... And then he shoots them in the head with a captive bolt stunner- and compressed-air gun ... he misses a few times and shoots the same animal twice. As soon as the steer falls, a workers grabs one of its hind legs, shackles it to a chain, and the chain lifts the huge animal into the air" (169). This description put into focus how the meat production industry had created a system in which the reality that prevailed was that cattle are raised and cultivated only to be slaughtered in an inhumane manner.

Globally, fast food industries and its related technologies such as advancement in meat generation, processing, and preservation had also resulted to the thriving of harmful organisms that develop within the human system to produce illnesses, such as the one caused E. coli bacteria, or the animal affliction foot-and-mouth disease. The E. coli bacteria was one of the organisms that had learned to thrive in favorable meatpacking conditions, wherein its effect may range between a simple metabolism problem such as diarrhea to acceleration of the illness that can cause eventual death (200). Despite increased progress in the production of more meat products for the fast food industries, there had been considerable detrimental consequences that led to worldwide spread of illnesses that would otherwise have not been developed had the meatpacking industry not been greedy enough to sacrifice quality and environmental packing conditions for the sake of profit and increased production.

Work cited

Schlosser, E. (2002). Fast Food Nation: the…… [read more]

Schlosser: Fast Food Nation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,025 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is to be traced out whether the advertisers be allowed to aim the children who are deprived of the sophistication to make informed conclusions and are necessarily allured to consume fat, high calorie food through toys and cute corporate mascots. It is to be investigated whether the fast food companies like tobacco companies are engaging younger consumers so as to assure a persistent consumer base while their older consumers die of heart diseases, diabetes and other obesity-related disorders. (Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal by Eric Schlosser)

The Jungle of Upton Sinclair is considered to be the first ever book to protest against the appalling abuses inherent in mass-produced beef. In the decades ever since its publication, the state of meat packing has attracted rare attention. The Fast Food Nation of Schlosser accounts the same unsafe conditions and experiences that Sinclair brought out a century before. Fast food chains, irrespective of the innumerable difficulties reported by Schlosser, have an unquestionable advantage of being convenient and provide cheap and tasty diet. Irrespective of the disturbances caused by the corporations it is quite impossible to abandon the fast food in consideration to its common adaptability among the mainstream.

Since the fast food is presently seldom confused as the fast food with health food, those bears the greater liability for the warning rate of fatness in children in the United States, the fast food chains that sell the 'supersize' meals to children, warns the parents to make the children about the advantages of the balanced diet. It increases the responsibility of the parents to exercise extensive regulation over the dieting practices of their children in an age when the school districts are constricting to introduce the fast food into the school cafeteria. (Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal by Eric Schlosser) In addition to the impacts of fast food brought out by Schlosser there are some other facts which still questions about the harmful impacts. First one is to think of the impacts of the disposable containers. The environmental impact of the use and throw plates, forks, spoons, napkins, condiment packs, straws, lids, cups etc. are to be worth considering. (Stosberg, Fast Food Nation)


Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser: A Book Club Reading Guide. Retrieved from http://www.bookbrowse.com/reading_guides/detail/index.cfm?book_number=769 Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal by Eric Schlosser. Retrieved from http://www.readinggroupguides.com/guides3/fast_food_nation1.asp Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Introduction: Fast Food Nation - The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/s/schlosser-fast.html Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Rosenberg, Matt. T. Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser. February 2, 2001. Retrieved from http://geography.about.com/library/misc/blffn.htm Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Stosberg, Mark. Fast Food Nation. Retrieved from http://mark.stosberg.com/Ideas/Book_Reviews/fast-food-nation.html Accessed on 25 May, 2005

You are what you eat. But do you really know what you're eating? Retrieved from http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/books/schlosser.html Accessed on 25 May, 2005… [read more]

Food History-Swiss Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,239 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Lunch may be as simple as a sandwich or a birchermuesli (granola) or it could be a complete meal. Dinner can be a full main course or just some bread, cheese with a fondue. Local products can include a great variety of beers and wines. Non-alcoholic drinks include many different flavors of tea and coffee and hot chocolate. ("About: Switzerland Food," 2005) A great variety of Swiss wines are available throughout the country and there are also spirits made from fruit, the most popular being Kirsch, Marc, Pflumli and Williams. Swiss beer of a lager type is also popular, and bottled mineral water is an accepted beverage at most eateries, with local brands including Henniez and Passuger numbering among the favorites. ("Swiss Food & Dining," 2005, iExplore)

Overall, despite the quality of the dairy-based products and sweets, "Swiss food is not the first reason to come to Switzerland," given the presence of hearty, peasant dishes in its local cuisine that "come from the country agricultural background," and stress fairly simple flavors. "Swiss food has no pretension to beat Italian or French standards." ("Swiss Food," 2005, switzerlandisyours.com)

What are the ingredients, seasoning, styles, and cooking procedures attributable to the Switzerland cuisine?

Ingredients include cheeses and chocolates of course, most notably. The French-originated fondue is probably the most famous Swiss menu item. Fondue is made out of molten cheese and is eaten, while the cheese is kept warm over an open fire, as the diners dip small pieces of bread in the bowl of hot cheese. Different regions have different mixtures of different flavors of cheese. "Typically, fondue is served on cold winter days, but many restaurants serve it all-year 'round," because of its popularity amongst tourists ("About: Switzerland Food," 2005)

However, spicy seasonings or rich meats are not favored. The meat pies and dried meats that reflect the need to preserve foods for long periods of time are often heavily seasoned, but not spicy. Even in the summer in German regions, salads will include cold sausages. Veal predominates as well, made from calves rather than full-grown cattle that take a long time and a large amount of grazing area to rear for slaughter. To soften and flavor tough meat, meat is often cooked in a pot with vegetables, or served as a pie. The most popular dish of Swiss German-speaking Switzerland is the rosti "pronounced rush-T," that of hearty roasted potatoes with cheese or bacon on top. German foods and the German language dominate Western Switzerland, in contrast to the regions that neighbor the French borders. ("Swiss Food," 2005, switzerlandisyours.com) Pasta tri colori (pasta of three colors) in the colors of the Italian flag red, white and green with vegetables can be seen as an effort to show national pride for Italian-speaking Swiss. ("About: Switzerland Food," 2005)

Swiss pastries are also famous, of course made from Swiss chocolates -- but non-chocolate dishes often show the German influence of the nation. Cakes and pastries, besides brownies (brunsili) and chocolates, as noted in… [read more]

Culture Food History of North Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These cook-offs and competions can range from chili to candy and chicken, and they are becoming more and more popular, and even a source of some people's full time income and employment (Sutherland 7-8).

4. What are the ingredients, seasoning, styles, and cooking procedures attributable to the North America region?

The cooking styles, procedures, seasonings, and ingredients are as varied as the many cultures that make up North American cooking. You can travel from Alaska to Florida and not sample the same dish twice. Eskimos in the far North still rely on age-old hunting techniques for their food, while suburban moms shop in trendy organic grocery stores and use a fusion of Asian, Hispanic, European, and very American ingredients. The North American continent has always been a magnet for people looking for a better life, and they have all brought food traditions with them. Trying to nail down the seasonings and styles of this large area is like trying to travel from one coast to another in a single day. It can be done, but you'll miss a lot along the way!


Jones, Oakah L. "5 / Hacia El Norte! The Spanish Entrada into North America, 1513-1549." North American Exploration: A New World Disclosed. Ed. John Logan Allen. Vol. 1. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. 241-291.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. "7 / A Continent Revealed: Assimilation of the Shape and Possibilities of North America's East Coast, 1524-1610." North American Exploration: A New World Disclosed. Ed. John Logan Allen. Vol. 1. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. 344-399.

Sutherland, Amy. Cookoff: Recipe Fever in America. New York: Penguin Books, 2003.

Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York,…… [read more]

Mediterranean Food History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


What are the practical and social rituals associated with the Mediterranean cuisine?

Because of the high levels of mid-day heat of many regions in the Mediterranean, it is often traditional to have a light, carbohydrate-based breakfast, to take a nap during the heat of the day, and to consume the main meal after the sun has set. There is an intense communal aspect and centrality to food in the culture. Especially in Greek and Italian cuisine, extended family and friends is the focus of the family. It is characteristic of the Greek and Italian people "to celebrate their joys, to sweeten their sorrows, and to assuage their struggles by eating and drinking in the company of family and friends." (Alexiadou, 2005) In desert cultures, hospitality to strangers as a way of surviving the harsh desert, often involving lavish entertaining is an important part of the culture.

Fasts and feasting, associated with religion, are commonly practiced, such as fasting during the holy month of Ramadan for Turkish and Algerian Muslims, or for Orthodox Greeks who eat specific foods on fasting days during the year depending on the season, such as Lent. Roman Catholics obey Lent as well, at a different period of the year, usually, since the Roman and Orthodox Easters do not always correspond, and have different favored foods, such as the red eggs in Greece that mark the festival, and the sugar cookies and cakes of Italy. (Alexiadou, 2005)

What are the ingredients, seasoning, styles, and cooking procedures attributable to the Mediterranean region?

Heavily spiced foods are common as preservatives in warmer regions, and as a way of making bland or tough meats more interesting to the palate. For example, Kavurma is still a favorite in Turkey. This is a dish of small cubes of meat cooked in its own fat, salted, stored in large earthenware containers, and eaten in the winter months. Pastirma, a preserved meat, was salted and spiced and dried in the sun in Turkey. In the region as a whole, olive oil predominates over butter, and honey over sugar in desserts, although in Northern Italy, butter and creme sauces, and more meats such as veal come to the foreground of the cuisine. Cumin, coriander, cinnamon, mustard, pepper, and saffron are the foremost spices used in the hottest regions of Turkey, Greece, and the Arab Mediterranean world, along with parsley, mint leaves, onions, and garlic. In Greece, when meat lamb is eaten, it is often prepared roasted over an open wood or charcoal fire whole, or in Turkey, as kebabs. Slow-roasting pots of meats and vegetables, so there is always food prepared for a potential visitor is another common feature of desert, nomadic, and Arab preparation that has been incorporated into the cuisine of many nations. (Illium & Kaufman, 2005)

In Italy, of course, the varieties of preparations of pastas and breads dominate the famed Italian cuisine are most familiar to Americans, although it is worthy of note that often regionally and within the nation, there… [read more]

Geographical Location of Italy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,137 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the past, during the Roman occupation, it was a tradition that guests lean on the dinner table with his left elbow while his right hand is free and is usually used for eating.

In terms of cooking, there is a tradition in most Italian cuisines to use tomato as an ingredient. In the process of cooking, it has been a social ritual for the chefs to perform and demonstrate different tricks while cooking an Italian cuisine. For instance, when preparing pizza, chefs usually entertain the audience by tossing upward the pizza crust that he is preparing, then catch it as it falls and then toss it again.

In terms of eating the Italian cuisines, on the other hand, it has been a tradition to use different spices that can add to the taste of their food. This includes cheese, tomato sauce, pepper, and other rare spices that the Italians themselves prepare.

Ingredients, Seasoning, Styles, and Cooking Procedures Attributable to the Italian Cuisine

When one thinks of an Italian cuisine, the first thing that can pop to one's mind is the pastas and the delicious sauces that come with them. Or, one may also immediately think of a red or white sauce. Moreover, tomato sauce, cheese, and different spices may immediately come to mind once an Italian cuisine is mentioned. As mentioned earlier, Italy is divided into different regions that similarly have different ways and styles of cooking. Hence, it is said that there is no similar food that is prepared in the same way in 2 places in Italy. However, there can be similarity in the ingredients and seasonings that are used in cooking an Italian cuisine.

According to Diner's Digest online, Italian cuisines are prepared in a style that is characterized by innovation and art where different themes and a variety of cooking models are established. As for the ingredients, spices and vegetables usually make up an Italian food. This includes mushrooms, tomatoes, beans, grains, olive oil, cheese, and many others. These are usually blended together which brings out the richness in taste of the Italian cuisine. In Tuscany, however, seasonings such as garlic, onion, and basil, are modestly used to bring out the natural flavor of the main ingredients such as the vegetables (Hawkins). Seafood and meat also play an important ingredient in Italian cuisines.

Because of the differences in the cooking style and procedures between the different places in Italy, the preparation of the ingredients is similarly different. As indicated by Anna Maria Volpi,

Every town has a distinctive way of making sausage, special kinds of cheese and wine, and a local type of bread. If you ask people, even in the same area, how to make pasta sauce, they will all have different answers

This variation in the style of preparation and cooking by the Italians is perhaps the attributable characteristic of the Italian cuisine. Hence, if one is to go to Italy and taste the country's food, he perhaps may not find the right… [read more]

Food and Water Supply: Rwanda Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


above might provide the quickest results, the U.S. And its allies have publicly denounced this tactic and those in power in similar situation are rarely willing to give up that power unless compelled to do so. Therefore, an analysis of Alternatives A and C. is in order. Providing the hungry and thirsty people of Rwanda with improved access to clean water sources is an urgent priority, and better healthcare has been directly related to helping the body use what nutrition is available in better ways. Unfortunately, the results of this alternative may take years to realize in any substantive way. Consequently, it is the recommendation of this study that Alternative C, providing the Rwandan people with soy food supplements and the tools and education they will require to acquire safe water in the near-term appears to represent the most viable approach.


Chen, L.C., Kleinman, A., & Ware, N.C. (1992). Advancing health in developing countries:

The role of social research. New York: Auburn House.

Enhancing support of African development. (1996). UN Chronicle, 33(2), 6.

Goldstein, J. (1990) Demanding clean food and water: The fight for a basic human right. New York: Plenum Press.

Goldstein, M., & Goldstein, M.C. (2002). Controversies in food and nutrition. Westport, CT:

Greenwood Press.

Henkel, J. (2000, May). Soy: Health claims for soy protein, questions about other components.

FDA Consumer, 34(3), 13.

Lemarchand, R. (2005). Rwanda. In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].

Rwanda. (2005). CIA World Factbook. [Online]. Available: http://www.cia.gov/cia / publications/factbook/geos/rw.html.

Scharf,…… [read more]

World of Food American Cuisine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American Cuisine

America has long been heralded as the world's melting pot because of the diverse mix of nationalities that affect nearly every aspect of American culture. The effect of several nationalities and cultures is readily apparent when one considers the uniqueness of American cuisine.

Without a doubt, American cuisine has been affected by a variety of cultures, such as German, Italian, Asian, French and Creole. However, another interesting aspect of American cuisine is that it is clearly affected by geography, as the nation is geographically diverse, ranging from the cattle country of the Midwest to the seacoast lifestyles of the Northeast. The combination of culture and geography both have a strong influence on the shaping of American cuisine, allowing it to develop into an eclectic mixture of food styles as diverse as America itself.

The impacts of culture and geography

There are a variety of factors that influence the development of national cuisine. Lynne Olver defines the main factors as food availability; technology; climate; religion; socio-economic class; and politics (culture, immigration rates, etc.) (Olver, 2000). Really, we can condense these influences and note that they all indicate that a nation's cuisine is determined by cultural influences and what is available (either because of climate, geography or social status).

Sam Gugino points out that defining American cuisine requires a regional approach. Northeastern cuisine is often defined by seafoods (think Maine and Massachusetts lobster), and regional cuisines, such as Italian, German and Asian food (Gugino, 2006). The Midwest and West, America's bread and livestock basket, tends to feature food heavy in meat and vegetables, while the South offers cuisine full of spice and flavor, largely due to the influence of Creole and Cajun cultures (Gugino, 2006).

Naturally, it is possible to drill down into even smaller subsections of America's culture and to analyze the distinctive cuisines that have developed. Groups like the Pennsylvania Dutch, for example, may argue that their cuisine is distinctive. but, at any rate, the factors of culture and availability hold up in just about every situation.

In the Northeast, for example, there are several coastal states where people have spent generations making their livings from fishing. The fact that fish are abundantly available has a strong influence on the region's cuisine. Similarly, many immigrants in America's early days settled in clusters in various…… [read more]

Corporate Research: Fast Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Corporate Research: Fast Food

The fast food industry has changed a great deal in recent years, largely because of lawsuits and complaints regarding people that have gained too much weight or have gotten some type of disease from eating fast food, and how those people were not 'warned' that the food could be bad for them. Most people find this to be somewhat laughable, because it is obvious to most individuals that fast food choices overall are not 'good' for people. However, the changing society has created a changing fast food environment, regardless of whether this change is for the better or not. Through looking at www.hoovers.comand examining information for Taco Bell, McDonalds, Wendy's, Steak and Shake, and Burger King, it is easy to get a picture of the fast food industry based on the financial health, concerns, legal issues, and health issues that the industry is experiencing at this time. All of these issues will be addressed here.

The financial health of the fast food industry could not be better overall. People are eating fast food at very high rates as society continues to move faster and people become busier. As this takes place, more people are eating fast food for all three meals, and because of this the fast food industry is making more money than it did in the past. Therefore, financially, the fast food industry really does not have that much that it needs to be worried about. There will always be competition between the fast food restaurants, and there will always be some people that will choose one restaurant over the other ones, but this is only to be expected, and is generally the same, regardless of the industry.

Financial issues are not the only concerns that the fast food industry has, however, as there are legal and health issues that also must be addressed where this particular industry is concerned. The legal issues involve obvious concerns such as copyrights and patents on particular kinds of food, certain sauces, specific names, and other issues that have to be addressed. Legal issues also involve the lawsuits that are often seen…… [read more]

Pet Food and Pet Sensitivities Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


d.). Notably, the major cause of food allergies in pets are the most common ingredients in pet foods. While many proteins are similar in form, some of them are slightly more antigenic than others. Therefore, the possibility of allergic reactions is usually associated with the amount of exposure to these proteins. Food allergens are nearly completely between medium-size and large proteins that are partially resistant to digestion and heat and are not broken the gastrointestinal tract.

While the extent with which food allergies occur is largely unknown because of the lack of knowledge about the number of pets with food allergies, veterinary literature has often cited several numbers. According to veterinary dermatologists, severe food reactions account for approximately 6% of all skin diseases whereas food is the cause of nearly 20% of allergic reactions in pets.

Unlike popular opinion, pet allergies are more common since an estimated 10% of pets such as dogs have allergies. The main reason for the increase in pet allergies is attributed to the fact that allergies cannot cure and are only kept under control for the animal to have a good quality of life (Almasy, 2009). The other reasons for the increase in pet allergies include the constant heat and dry weather, the seasonal nature of the allergies, and tendency to overlook symptoms of the allergies. Since they are necessary fats produced by the body to support the immune system, essential fatty acids play a crucial role in controlling sensitivities. This is mainly through their ability to control auto-immune conditions, allergies, and inflammation. They also control sensitivities through playing crucial roles in the maintenance of normal tissue and important organ function.


Almasy, S. (2009, March 26). Pets, Owners Challenged by Increasing Allergies. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from http://articles.cnn.com/2009-03-26/health/pet.allergies_1_food-allergies-flea-pollen?_s=PM:HEALTH

"Food Allergies and Food Intolerance." (n.d.). Doctors Foster and Smith. Retrieved October 8,

2012, from http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2082&aid=143

"Pet Food Intolerance and Allergy." (2008). Pet Food Review. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from http://www.pet-food-choice.co.uk/pet_food_intolerance.htm… [read more]

American Food Uses and Abuses Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (867 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The makers of this fake honey do this to minimize the amount of real honey they have to use so they can make greater profits (Philpott, 2011). This introduces unhealthy elements into our diets that could be just as bad as processed fast foods. Unfortunately, we may not be able to judge this when we look at the popular food items we buy in our local stores thinking that we are buying better ingredients. Even when consumers turn to buying raw, unfiltered honey from local harvesters they may be at risk of contaminates, which is why they need to learn more about honey and its benefits (Honey, 2011).

This latter concern is also tied to another popular use of foods, those that are thought to be organic and U.S. made. It turns out that many of the products that are packaged as being from the U.S. have their origins elsewhere, and there have been a number of concerns recently about illnesses associated with these products (CDC, 2011). Many are more expensive than other choices, which mean financially struggling families may not be able to turn to these opportunities. More importantly, there have also been a series of outbreaks regarding illnesses such as listeria and salmonella in foods such as cantaloupes that are threatening families because organic foods are not properly handled and packaged (CDC, 2011).

American's are very interested in learning more about the foods we eat and buy. But so far we have just begun to see how complicated it can be to identify healthy alternatives, particularly if we want to keep costs low and our options new and appealing. Fast food outlets have been a good reflection of American consumer interests in the past but we are now starting to look elsewhere, only to learn that there are other concerns we have to be aware too.


CDC (2011). Listeriosis. Timeline of Events: Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colorado. Viewable at http://www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/cantaloupes-jensen-farms/120811/timeline.html.

Corporate Accountability International (2011). Health Effects of Fast Food. Viewable at http://www.stopcorporateabuse.org/health-effects-fast-food.

Honey (2011). Honey.com. National Honey Board. Viewable at http://www.honey.com/nhb/technical/.

Let's Move (2011). America's Move to Raise a Healthier Generation of Kids. Viewable at http://www.letsmove.gov/eat-healthy.

Philpott, T. (2011). Honey Laundering. Mother Jones. Viewable at http://motherjones.com/tom-philpott/2011/11/supermarkets-sell-fake-honey.… [read more]

Nile River in Egypt Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,140 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Nile River in Egypt

The River Nile is the longest river around the world that covers 954,187 miles from the source of Burundi Mountains (Chapin, 1990). The Blue Nile, the White Nile, and the Atbara are the three tributaries that form the river Nile. All the three tributaries are significant to the River Nile in one way or the other. The source of the White Nile is found in Burundi that passes via Lake Victoria, and then flows back into southern Sudan. The Blue Nile on the other hand, has its source in the highlands of Ethiopia and meets with White Nile, near Lake Tana. Both the Blue Nile and White Nile flow together to the north of Khartoum joined by waters of Atbara that has its source in Ethiopians highlands (Lewis, 2013). This paper will summarize the Nile River in Egypt in regards to the characteristics of the River, Agriculture, Technology and Beliefs and values.

Characteristics of River Nile

The River Nile has various characteristics which includes;

It is the longest River in the world. The River stretches 954,187 miles in the mountains of Burundi that happens to be its source. The Nile River is significant to the people living in Egypt because it improves farming and Agriculture in the area. Because of the wider coverage of the River Nile in Egypt, Many people have moved to the area to start practicing Agriculture that will cause an increase in population from 280 million at present to about 500 million in the coming future.

The Nile River is the only river in Egypt that serves as the constant source of water. The River is formed by three tributaries namely; the White Nile, the Blue Nile, and the Atbara. The Atbara and the Blue Nile have their sources in Ethiopians highlands while the White Nile gets its source from Burundi. All these three tributaries join forming the Nile River that serves the whole population in Egypt. The constant source of water enabled farming that were practiced along the river Niles' banks even though there was a high temperature (Baines, 2011).

In the Ancient Egypt, the River Nile was being worshipped as gods known as Hapi. The god came in a shape that looks like the frog which was representing the Nile delta.


In Egypt, farming and Agriculture were the main source of income. Many people practiced both farming and Agriculture to improve their standards of living. The River Nile made the soil productive since it brought rich deposits of silt that were swept away from Monsoon tablelands in Ethiopia. The constant source of water was the most vital factor that improved agriculture in Egypt. The Nile River was significant in providing the silt each time there was a flood in Egypt. Despite the fact that few cases of floods of 45 feet were noted in some parts of Egypt, most crops were harvested during the spring. After floods, nearly all Egyptians would grow vegetables and fruits because at this time… [read more]

Food Service Food Waste Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Indeed, "a pub/restaurant in Tipperary decreased portion sizes and managed to decrease the amount of food waste created by over a third" (FOODWaste.ie., n.d.).

Borrowing from an initiative facilitated by employees of two dinning facilities belonging to Intel, some of the best management practices to reduce waste include but they are not limited to re-working of fruit (unused) into sauce and/or chutney, proper and reasonable utilization of leftovers such as chili and potato products, efficient trimming practices, etc. (City of Hillsboro, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, 2010). As a foodservice manager, I could seek to make use of these management practices to address the food wastage problem.

It should however be noted that even with an effective food waste minimization and management system, there will always be some leftover food. Instead of directing the same to the dustbin, the edible leftover food could be donated to any of the food banks operating in the city, i.e. Food Bank for New York City.


In conclusion, it is important to note that in seeking to reduce food wastage, there is a need to seek the involvement of each and every individual in the workplace. As the foodservice manager of a foodservice outlet, I would ensure that both the supervisors/managers and lower cadre employees work in tandem in an attempt to reduce food wastage. All employees also need to be informed of not only the goals but also the relevance of such an undertaking.


City of Hillsboro, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. (2010, August). Food Waste Prevention Case Study: Intel Corporation's Cafes. Retrieved from http://www.ci.hillsboro.or.us/Sustainability/SustainabilityWeb_Upload/download/FoodWasteCaseStudy.pdf

FOODWaste.ie. (n.d). Case Studies of Organizations Managing Food Waste Properly. Retrieved from http://www.envirocentre.ie/includes/images/Case-Studies-of-Organisations-Managing-Food-Waste-Properly.pdf

Kirk, D. (2012). Environmental Management for Hotels: A Student's Handbook. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.… [read more]

Food Trucks Have Brought a Revolution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Food trucks have brought a revolution when it comes to the food scene in D.C. They have been struggling to exist as there are no regulations that govern their existence. The existence of these food trucks has a great impact on cebrick -- and-mortara restaurants .they impact these restaurants in many ways. The paper will look at how the food trucks impact cebrick -- and mortara when it comes to prices and market share.it will also look at why the article indicates that cebick and mortara restaurants attempt to ban the trucks from the understanding of market structure.

The food trucks have a great impact when it comes to how these restaurants price their foods. The food trucks offer the same foods that these restaurants offer. This means that there is a struggle between the restaurants and the food trucks on the prices of the food. This is due to the fact that both the restaurants and food trucks want to get as many customers as they can .this the price setting will be determined by both the food trucks and restaurants.in most cases the food trucks offer their food at lower prices compared to this restaurants. This is because the operation costs of the food trucks are lower compared to those in the restaurants. This means that the food trucks will price their food lower compared to the restaurants. This will push the restaurants to bring down their prices such a way that they are same as those offered by food trucks or lower (Needleman, 2012). It is a clear indication that there are price wars due to the existence of food trucks near these œbrick-and-mortara restaurants.

The food trucks also greatly impact the market share of the food industry around D.C. This is because these food trucks often have similar foods as those provided in these restaurants at lower prices and at the same time they are convenient. This means that many customers will opt to buy food from the food trucks compared to buying the same food from thee restaurants. Therefore the food trucks will have a great…… [read more]

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