Study "Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays 111-165

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GMO Food Labeling Genetically Modified Research Paper

… Policies around the world differ on the labeling and use of genetically modified foods. In Europe, consumers are protesting against GMOs. However, in the United States, they are distributed freely with no labeling or other requirements. Their use has grown exponentially over the past decade (Fernandez, Cornejo).

What many people do not realize is that genetically modified foods are already labeled, but not conspicuously. That little sticker on fruits is the PLU code, or price look up number. This code tells you how the food was grown. For conventionally grown crops the PLU code has four numbers. For instance, a conventionally grown banana has a PLU code of 4011. An organic banana has a nine in front of the PLU code, so its number would be 94011. GM crops have an 8 in front of the PLU code. So the PLU code for a GM banana would be 84011 (Owen, 1998). A labeling system for GMOs already exists, but yet, some continue to push for more conspicuous labeling (Gertsberg). In a recent study, the exact effects of labeling of GMOs could not be determined, as current labeling requirements are not sufficient to conduct such a study (Guillaume and Rao, p. 66).

In conclusion, at present, not enough evidence exists to support the need for additional labeling of genetically modified foods for safety concerns. Many of the fears of labeling proponents are already being addressed by the scientific community. Sufficient technology exists to track and monitor the introduction of genes from genetically modified foods in the food supply. A system already exists that labels genetically modified foods differently from conventional and organic foods. This research supports the thesis that additional labeling is not necessary for genetically modified foods, as a system already exists.

Perhaps, rather than reinventing the wheel in terms of labeling for genetically modified foods, what people need is to learn to read the labeling that already exists.

Works Cited

Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge. Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S. USDA

Economic Research Service. Web. Accessed

1 June 2011.

Gertsberg, Denice. Lawmakers Propose Labeling in Response to Supreme Court's Monsanto

Decision. GMO Journal. 14 July 2010.

Web. Accessed 1 June 2011.

Gruere, Guillaume and Rao, S.R. "A Review Of International Labeling Policies Of Genetically

Modified Food to Evaluate India's Proposed Rule." AgBioForum. 2007. Vol. 19. No. 1.

51-67.

Owen, Marion. Talking Fruit. PlanTea, Inc. Web. Accessed 1 June 2011.

Schneider, Keith and Schneider, Renee. Genetically Modified…… [read more]


Food Allergies What Are Research Paper

… Probiotics introduces a good bacteria into the individual's system (usually via the stomach). The good bacteria helps to improve the balance of good vs. bad bacteria that can sometimes cause intolerances. Rifaximin is an antibiotic that when given does not get absorbed into the bloodstream, instead it stays in the digestive system where it fights off bad bacteria.

Research

A number of steps were taken to provide the data necessary for this paper. First a general search was undertaken on the internet and at the local library. Key words were entered on the Google search engine.

The key words includes; food allergies, food intolerances, treatments, preventions, and diagnosis; this led to various websites that provided the general information and the general knowledge on the afflictions. Additionally a number of books were read that assisted the author in understanding the prevalence of the problem, what is being done to address the problem and the numbers involved, especially in the United States. The next research step taken was to enter the EBSCO website and find academic research that would provide the necessary foundation and documentation needed for an academic paper.

This step was quite conducive to accomplishing the academics needed as there is currently a large amount of research on food allergies and intolerances that is available through EBSCO. The direct citations and quotations were (for the most part) garnered from the EBSCO access.

Reactions

The author discovered some very interesting information concerning food allergies and intolerances. This information helped the author understand the prevalence and importance that research on this particular subject could provide. Additionally, the author was somewhat surprised to discover that the problem was as big as what it seems to be; especially surprising was the fact that nearly 60% of all undiagnosed health problems in America are directly related to food allergies and intolerances and that 50 -- 90% of the people who believe that they have food allergies (and many of these have been confirmed by doctors) do not in reality have food allergies, but food intolerances.

The research allowed the author to grow in knowledge and understanding concerning this subject, and with that understanding the author was able to discern particular areas of interest that might need further studies. The NIAID has stated that there is no cure for food allergies and that it affects a significant amount of people around the globe, which leads the author to wonder why a cure has not been discovered as of yet, or at least more effective treatments that would contain the affliction so that those who suffer from it do not need to be on a constant guard against ingesting the different allergens. It would seem likely that additional research would help in addressing that specific question.

Overall, the author was pleasantly surprised at both the depth of the problem as well as the depth of the available research on the problem.

References

Food Allergy (2011) Preventing and treating food allergy, accessed on May 14, 2011 at: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/foodAllergy/understanding/Pages/treatment.aspx… [read more]


Restaurant and Hospitality Concept and Interest Essay

… ¶ … Restaurant and Hospitality Concept and Interest in Culinary Arts

My interest in culinary arts started in my earliest childhood. My father was an experienced and talented self-taught chef whose dishes I remember as my fondest memories of tastes and smells that I associate with my family history. He always let me watch him as he prepared dinner, often from the vegetables he cultivated and harvested from our small garden. My father also introduced me to the healing power of fresh and healthy plants, herbs, and other good food for growth and health. My father taught me to respect the environment that provides our nourishment and he taught me how to cook and, eventually, to plant my own peppers, herbs, and tomatoes. I built a compost heap for my garden as part of that overall concept of working in symbiotic harmony with the environment.

The more I learned the more I began to seek out cooking books and to experiment with new recipes and types of cuisines. My long-term goal is to own my own restaurant whose menu is based on the ingredients grown and raised on the premises. Ideally, that would also provide an opportunity to employ members of the community along with professional hospitality staff to serve in the restaurant and tend the garden. Generally, my concept of restaurant design and my long-term interests and aspirations are derived philosophically from the accomplishments of Dan Barber. Specifically, I hope to emulate his successfully uniting his passion for food with his desire to improve the planet. On a practical level, his success in that regard illustrates that it is possible create a successful restaurant without sacrificing higher principles about human health and the welfare of the environment. In the short-term, I hope to intern for Mr. Barber after completing my education.

My ultimate career goals include working to change laws that impede access to healthy food and becoming involved in workshops and courses to promote healthful and natural cooking and agricultural development for both children and adults. At FCI, I hope to acquire a formal education and the technical knowledge and networking skills necessary to create my vision of a sustainable restaurant. I hope that my experience of living in rural and urban areas and my exposure to various different cuisines and cooking techniques from Europe and from the Caribbean might allow me to fuse different elements of traditional cuisines to create new flavors that still respect their ancient origins. I hope that this will be my signature as a chef, together with environmentally friendly and healthful nutrition.

1. (b) Favorite Restaurants

My three favorite restaurants are: (1) Blue Hill, (2) WD50, and (3) Jean-Georges, all three of which are in New York City. Blue Hill appeals to me because of the manner in which it has cultivated distinctive fine dining within the…… [read more]


Fast Food Essay

… Fast Food

As a kid my mother was very health conscious. We were not allowed to eat chips, sugary cereals or soda with sugar. To go to McDonald's was a huge deal in my family and it was something that happened very rarely, but when it did happen, it was a completely different experience from how things are today in the fast food world. For example, as a kid I remember the proportions being much smaller. I remember a regular hamburger and fries were what is now the size of a kid's meal -- perhaps smaller. It was enough food to fill you up and not wreak havoc on one's waistline. When my parents divorced my dad pretty much became a bachelor again with full bachelor mentality. When we stayed with him he would give me and my sister money and we would go to McDonald's or Burger King to get food and we would literally pig out on Big Macs and Large Fries. My mom said that we were visibly fatter when we would come home from a long stay with my father. Fast food somehow became something u-special, something that was more for gluttons than for people who wanted a quick and healthy (and convenient meal).

Pollan has a very intelligent and informed opinion about fast food in this country. He notes that there are now better practices when it comes to slaughtering animals for fast food and McDonald's has stopped using genetically modified potatoes, but there are still major problems in their industry. The fact that a hamburger can have the number of calories that one should eat in an entire day is ridiculous. They tout healthy options such as salads, however, many of their salads have more calories than a regular burger.

I had a friend who worked for McDonald's in high school and (this is a true story) she stole a bag of lettuce from work (for what reason I have no idea, either I have just forgotten or chosen consciously to forget). She put it in the trunk of her car (this was in summer) and forgot about it essentially. She opened her trunk about 10 days later and the lettuce was still there in its plastic bag -- not even wilted, not even brown. It was essentially the exact same color and texture as when she put it in there. I am not a farmer or a lettuce specialist, but it seems that lettuce should start to rot in a stuffy trunk in the dead of summer.

Pollen brings up so many important issues when it comes to fast food and he essentially combines school food into that category of fast food because it is, for the most part, not the best meat or vegetables, and it is cheap moreover. School lunches have come to represent not healthy and balanced meals for growing children but fattening and unsellable food that nobody else would buy. This is what we are feeding our children who… [read more]


Whole Foods Versus Trader Joe Essay

… Trader Joe's versus Whole Foods. Compare and contrast the self-service environment. Which is more individualistic and promotes self-service? Why? Which provides fuller service? Why? Which is more experiential? Why?

A friend of mine once tartly described Trader Joe's as 'Whole Foods on a budget.' Both stores have earthy-friendly, environmentally conscious images. They offer organic produce and foods that were once considered marginal and counter-culture twenty years ago, like almond butter, agave syrup, and hummus. However, the two stores offer the customer distinctly different environments in which to shop. Whole Foods is subdivided into many small sections. Customers can select what foods they wish to purchase from the bulk foods section, such as nuts, dried fruits, and candies. There is also a section where consumers can select a variety of rolls from open bins, each of which has information about the bread product's origin on the front. There are counters for cheese, sushi, and specialty meats at Whole Foods, where the customers can special-order different products. There is a wide array of fruit and produce.

In contrast, Trader Joe's has shrink-wrapped breads, nuts, and trail mixes that are pre-packaged for the consumer. Although some loose fruits and vegetables are laid out for the customer's personal choice (and are marked at a far less expensive price than Whole Foods), most of the fruits and vegetables are pre-bagged). Consumers cannot inspect produce for bruises or imperfections, in exchange for lower prices and relatively less selection. Trader Joe's has inexpensive organic peanut butter and other nut butters while Whole Foods has a grind-your-own peanut butter section, as well as more exotic nut butters such as walnut butter. Whole Foods has an extensive array of imported goods; Trader Joe's has almost none. Trader Joe's foods are prepackaged, while Whole Foods…… [read more]


Social Significance of Food Essay

… In vegetarian societies, for example, these are usually meats. In Europe these may be imports, such as sugar and spices. However, only in Europe, and this is especially the case for the time period of early modern Europe, were rare, or dominant socio-historical group foods so closely associated with social status or social strata. Whereas in Asia, the same foods given to the higher caste are also given to illustrious people, such as religious people, this was never the case in Europe where social rank took the lead over anything else most of the time (van der Veen 2003, 411).

Concluding Remarks

Early Modern Europe established, by the end of the 1700's, a clear food culture based on different societal norms, and changes in the social significance of different foods throughout this period led to different areas of society eating different kinds of food. While this notion persists, in some way today, the delineations of social constructs based on food are not as rigid, and one can eat better or worse without being judged and relegated to a certain class. Though luxury still exists in food, it is easier to attain it, even if only to see for a second, today. In this way, one could say, society has changed for the better, for it is more equal.

Bibilography

1. John C. Super, Food and History (Virginia: George Mason University Press, 2002), 165-178.

2. Ken Albala, Food and Class: Eating Right in the Renaissance (Berkeley…… [read more]


Acquisition Strategies Research Paper

… Whole Foods

Acquisition Strategies

SuperValu vs. Whole Foods: Industry analysis

SuperValu vs. Whole Foods: Industry analysis

The supermarket industry is one of the most competitive in America: it is wildly responsive to shifts in consumer demand. Fuel cost increases, natural events that affect the availability of crops, and other aspects of commerce can quickly wipe away profits or challenge what would otherwise seem a sensible marketing and distribution strategy. With this in mind, the Minnesota-based chain SuperValu has focused on a traditional, low-price, high volume strategy in the rapidly growing discount supermarket market to generate revenue. SuperValu has attempted to expand into as many areas of the nation as possible and profit by offering low prices and selling at high volume to consumers. In direct contrast, the organic supermarket Whole Foods is only slowly expanding its outreach across the nation and world, taking advantage of the expanding interest in holistic cooking and organic foods. It has acquired several of its competitors to create a slightly higher-volume niche strategy and reduce competition, but it knows will never be able to price its products as low as SuperValu and instead focuses on a specific consumer demographic.

Whole Foods' cautious strategy has paid off thus far. Interest in organic food is exploding across the nation. Even Wal-Mart, the nation's largest retailer, has become a critical market player in organics. Of course, this could hamper Whole Food's success, given that Wal-Mart is able to price even organic foods at lower cost compared with specialty retailers. As the economy continues to remain on shaky ground, consumers are often more apt to reduce their food costs. Eating cheaper foods is easier than cutting down less flexible aspects of a regular, weekly budget. Furthermore, the public's questioning of the industrialization of organic agriculture has caused many of Whole Foods' most loyal consumers to seek out local farmer's markets rather than resort to commercial superstores. "If I shop at Whole Foods, I'm choosing Chain," wrote one food blogger (Levin 2011). The more labor-intensive technology of producing organic agriculture on a mass scale has grown more efficient, but caused some consumers to question if it really provides additional health value or value to the environment.

SuperValu is also challenged by rivals such as Wal-Mart, but because of cost rather than a specific market niche. Wal-Mart Supercenters, Sam's Club, Costco, and Dollar Stores have all been eating into traditional supermarkets' market share. "In 2001, Wal-Mart became the largest seller in food" (Imlay 2006). Because of Wal-Mart's ambitions to even offer organic produce even Whole Foods has been forced to reconsider its traditional model of differentiation. On one hand, increased demand for organics has driven many individuals to seek out Whole Foods. On the other hand, demand has also spurred superstore-size rivals to enter the market. Whole Foods has enabled itself to lower costs in comparison to totally independent stores. Its acquisition of its smaller competitor Wild Oats, which had significant penetration in the West, enabled it to expand its stores… [read more]


Organic Food Stores vs. Groceries Research Paper

… Organic vs. Grocery Stores

Organic Stores vs. Grocery Stores:

Discussing Advantages and Disadvantages of Going Organic

The scientific and technological development of the modern era brought many advantages to humanity. From flying planes to television sets, from factory productions to… [read more]


Andrejczak, M. (February 9, 2011) Marketing Plan

… newyorker.com/reporting/2010/01/04/100104fa_fact_paumgarten

United States Department of Agriculture. (N.D.). Food Price Outlook, 2011. USDA.

Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/cpifoodandexpenditures/consumerpriceindex.htm

United States Department of Environmental Protection. (N.D.). Green Power Partnerships.

United States Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/

(WFMI) Whole Foods Market Analyst Rates Shares Outperform. (February 17, 2011). Stock

Blog Hub. Retrieved February 24, 2011 from http://www.stockbloghub.com/2011/02/17/wfmi-whole-foods-market-analyst-rates-shares-outperform/67098

Whole Foods. (N.D.). 2010 Annual Report. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/pdfs/ar10.pdf

Whole Foods. (N.D.). Customer Service. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/service.php

Whole Foods. (N.D.). Premium Body Care Products. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011

from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/products/premium-body-care-products.php

Whole Foods. (N.D.). Whole Foods Market Brands. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011

from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/products/private-label.php

Whole Foods. (N.D.). Whole Foods Market Press Room. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011

from http://wholefoodsmarket.com/pressroom/blog/2010/10/20/whole-foods-market%C2%AE-celebrated-as-epa-green-power-partner-of-the-year/

Whole Foods CEO Blog. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www2.wholefoodsmarket.com/blogs/jmackey/

Whole Foods Corporate Site. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/

Whole Foods Magazine. (N.D.). Subscriptions. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmagazineonline.com/subscribe

WikiInvest. (N.D.). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/Whole_Foods_Market_(WFMI)… [read more]


Genetically Modified Food Genetically Modified (GM) Foods Essay

… Genetically Modified Food

Genetically modified (GM) foods have been a hot topic of conversation over the last decade. Environmental groups, public interest groups and governmental agencies have all voiced their opinions over the increasing development and use of genetically modified foods. Genetic engineering involves transferring genes from one species of living organism to another, to provide some sort of benefit. Although the genetic modifications are typically performed on crops, such as corn and soybeans, there has also been experimentation with livestock as well. Some see genetically modified foods as simply a technological advancement that will benefit society. Others see genetically modified foods as posing significant concerns to human health and the environment.

There are several benefits genetically modified foods offer society. Crops can be produced more effectively and efficiently, with reduced maturation time and an improved resistance to pests and disease. This results in a lessened need for pesticides. Genetic modification also can increase the nutrients in a crop. Genetically modified golden rice, for instance, produces approximately 20 times more beta-carotene, which the body then turns into vitamin a This can help reduce the incidence of "vitamin a deficiency and childhood blindness in developing countries" (Black). genetically modified foods can also result in soil and water conservation as well as "increased food security for growing populations" ("Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms").

Despite these benefits, there are significant concerns that must be addressed with genetically modified foods. One of the most significant concerns is that foods that are familiar to consumers may become allergenic. As an example, for some consumers nuts pose a serious and potentially fatal allergic reaction, and a GM soybean that was crossed with a Brazil nut produced an allergic reaction. genetically modified foods can indirectly affect antibiotic resistance as well, as resistant genes enter the food chain. For the environment, pesticide resistant crops can be harmful, such as a 1999 Cornell study that expressed concern regarding the toxicity of these crops pollen to monarch butterflies (Hanten).

In the end, genetically modified foods do offer some societal benefits. However, these crops cannot be allowed to be developed and grown unchecked. The public health concerns that arise with genetically modified foods are too great to simply allow them to enter the food chain. In addition, the concerns for the environment outweigh many of the benefits. Instead, scientists should…… [read more]


Dean Foods Company Case Study

… Dean Foods Company

Dean Foods is in a challenging industry. The company is focused on the sale of milk and dairy products, soy milk and tofu. The five forces analysis will help to explain why the industry environment is so challenging.

The power of suppliers is high. Soy is traded globally on commodities markets, so Dean has very little pricing power for that product. The company has some pricing power with respect to milk because they are one of the nation's leading dairy companies, but the price of milk is also subject to support from the federal government so Dean does not have total pricing power over that key input. Owing to the company's size, however, Dean does have pricing power over labor, equipment and non-food supplies such as packaging. The power of buyers is moderate. While end consumers have little pricing power in Dean's product lines, Dean typically sells either to wholesalers or direct to grocery store chains. Some of these firms are very large and will typically not really on Dean for their volume. Dean can also spread its volume around different customers, but ultimately Dean needs to bring major retailers and wholesalers on board in order to fill its capacity.

There is only moderate threat of new entrants. Dairy and to a lesser extent soy are not hugely profitable industries due to relative lack of pricing power. As dairy in particular is subject to consolidation, the risk of new entrants is relatively low. With the entry into the soy business, Dean has actually addressed one of the major threats of substitutions. Milk and dairy, however, are firmly entrenched in American food culture so there is little risk that…… [read more]


Movie Food, Inc Movie Review

… Food Inc.

Agrobusiness is dirty, not just because farming involves long hours cleaning up animal waste and piling manure but because the food industry has been operating with questionable ethics for decades. The government is also to blame, as Michael Pollan points out in his 2009 documentary Food, Inc. The documentary provides stunning insight into how agrobusiness started, how it operates, and its effects on American consumer rights, eating habits, and health.

Nothing in the film seriously startled me because I had already known about issues like the inhumanity of meat farming; the proliferation of genetically-modified crops; and the pushing of mono-crops like corn and soil. I know about the dangers of processed foods and the insidious collusion between corporate food and government. Still, Pollan's perspective is refreshing because the filmmaker has the potential to reach a wide audience and therefore raise awareness about these issues in ways that might stimulate change.

One of the issues that kept coming up for me as I watched the film was the intended audience. How many Americans that watch Food, Inc. already know the information and are just reinforcing their belief -- based on fact -- that agrobusiness is dirty? Preaching to the choir is one of the risks of films like Food, Inc. In the same way that a Michael Moore movie might not actually change that many minds. I can't help but feel that the people who truly need to know about the dark side of food in America are the ones who will not know about the film or not want to watch it. Many Americans are content to shop at their local grocery store blinded to the truth about what is behind the stuff they put in their cart.

Many consumers do not care, for whatever reason. Others simply do not believe that the American government -- or the business owners -- could be so evil as to perpetuate unhealthy food production. Yet others do not recognize that an ethical issue exists at all. It is this latter perspective that I usually find bewildering: that some Americans do not see agrobusiness as a problem at all.

Watching Food, Inc. I also wish that Pollan proposed concrete ideas for the future of farming and food production. The problems with the current system are painfully clear. The food we eat is literarily or figuratively tainted. However, Pollan does not necessarily suggest what should be done about it. Other than suggest that consumers simply be more aware of what goes into food production in America, the filmmaker does not indicate any concrete policy or legislative change that might transform the ways businesses and consumers approach the food issue. One important issue that I would like to see addressed in any potential sequel to the film would also be the strong link between income and eating habits. Wealthier…… [read more]


Robert Kenner, Food, Inc Movie Review

… It's saddening and sobering that a judge would so cavalierly side with the deep pockets of major corporations, not to mention act out of a clear personal bias, as well as totally dismiss the needs of the working man that provides food to feed the country.

Food, Inc. shows us the helplessness of a farmer who tries to fight the Goliath figure of these companies, after being slapped with a lawsuit for cleaning his seeds and saving them. However, one of the films strongest assets is that it doesn't leave the viewer with a sense of hopelessness. It constantly reminds the viewer that each of us has the power to implement change by demanding change. It gives clear examples; it shows how organic food is a hot trend in production simply from the fact the customers have made it popular and companies are racing to supply this current demand. The film urges spectators to hold these companies to greater accountability, visibility and higher standards, saying that the consumer has the power to get these companies to alter their business practices, as they will, after all, go where the money is.

On a personal note, what affected me the most about the film was the cruelty towards life that it portrayed. The shots of mistreated animals, pumped full of chemical cocktails, as well as helpless, struggling farmers and underpaid, overworked factory workers really made me feel as if I, as an uninformed consumer, was helping to enable these big corporations to commit such evils. I've vowed to do my best to give up soda. I don't eat a lot of meat, but I'm trying to abstain from it all together.

The film has enhanced my sense of global awareness and has made me more skeptical of advertising in general. As the film tells us in the beginning, the bucolic, agrarian images that big businesses use to sell their products couldn't be further from the stark reality that is the truth. I think I've realized, or rather, finally admitted to myself, that similar deceptions abound in our society towards the citizen, and that food production…… [read more]


Genetically Modified Organisms Article Review

… GMO

The United States is the world's largest producer of genetically modified crops, and as many as 70% of processed foods on American grocery store shelves already contain genetically modified organisms (WebMD n.d.). In some ways, the debate over genetically modified foods is moot given that the organisms are already a part of the food chain. In the WebMD (n.d.) article, the authors assume a generally neutral stance on genetically modified organisms. Moreover, the author distinguishes between the argument against GMOs because of safety concerns and the argument over GMOs because of consumer rights. Generally, the article presents the case that pro-GMO companies like Monstanto are advocating.

The author points out, for instance, "Monsanto states that genetically modified foods are 'more thoroughly tested than any other food on the grocer's shelves to date' and 'there have been no adverse effects documented from food produced from biotech crops,'" (cited on p. 2). Furthermore, the WebMD (n.d.) author notes that "among industry supporters of this technology are heavy hitters such as the American Medical Association," (p. 2).

Current genetically modified crops are "one-gene additions," according to industry experts (cited by WebMD n.d. p. 2). These one-gene additions have been deemed "safe," by the same sources (cited by WebMD n.d. p. 2). Therefore, the most critical issue in the debate over whether or not GMOs are safe is the quality of empirical evidence. If the studies on genetically modified organisms suffer from gross internal validity issues, which they do, then any article in favor of GMOs is essentially flawed. When companies hire their own internal researchers to conduct research only with the intention of proving a hypothesis (ie. genetically modified foods are safe), then the research has no internal or external validity.

Another spurious argument used by the biotech industry includes a core logical fallacy: "He says no food is 100% safe -- genetically modified or not -- and the odds of having an adverse reaction to a genetically modified food are slim," (cited by WebMD n.d.). Such a stance ignores degrees of safety and downplays the importance of the argument itself.

Industry experts in the United States also defend the government's stance against labeling genetically-modified foods as a matter of consumer protection. "Labeling isn't an issue as far as that is concerned," claims one insider. In fact, labeling is a major concern for industry insiders. The only reason why biotechnology lobbyists advocate against labeling of GMOs is because they understand the potential for a consumer backlash. The American government understands how enormous the biotechnology industry is and would not want to thwart its prosperity. The author notes, "Public opposition has had some effect, as seen in Europe, where the EU has banned genetically modified foods despite the U.S.' wishes," (WebMD, n.d. p. 4).

In an article by the World Health Organization (WHO 2010), the issue of genetically modified foods is also treated with a high degree of objectivity. Reasons cited in favor of genetically modified crops include improving crop protection against pests… [read more]


Kudler Fine Foods Product Offering Research Paper

… Kudler Fine Foods

California has long been well-known for being on the cutting edge of the food industry. Since 1998 Kudler Fine Foods has had a reputation as an establishment where consumers can purchase high-quality, sustainable products. Kudler's outreach has expanded into a wide diversity of product offerings, and it is considering embarking upon the venture of exporting organic wines to Canada.

Product offering

Although the definition of organic varies wildly in the U.S., and from nation to nation, Canada has very strict standards of what constitutes organic wine. Any producer entering Canada must be mindful of the fact that Canada has very strict standards as to what constitutes organic food. "National standards were put in place by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency on June 30, 2009, stating that only food products comprised of 95 per cent organic content can be certified as organic or have the variation of the word 'organic' anywhere on the product or its packaging. This rule applies to fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meat and processed food. The product must also have been grown using natural fertilizers (Going organic, 2009, CBC). However, there has been a trend towards greater congruence of the two national standards which has resulted in greater acceptance of U.S. wines. For example, in Canada, "ever since the U.S. implemented its Organic Law in 2002 to accredit these products, organic wine consumption has also grown by 20% per year" (Worldwide organic wine consumption on increase, 2010, Wines from Spain).

Market needs

Interest in organic produce and foods has increased dramatically, as fears over pesticides and concerns about sustainability have driven consumers who might otherwise have little interest in doing so to 'go organic.' Even more so than in the U.S., demand for organic food is booming in Canada. "Organic food is a booming business in Canada, with sales reportedly rising by 20 per cent a year for most of this decade. The market has grown so quickly that major supermarket chains are having difficulty keeping up with demand" (Going organic, 2009, CBC). Market growth

Canada has native wine producers. However, Canada is rare in that its native wineries fulfill only a fraction of the growing demand for the beverage. The focus upon Canadian wine imports and exports has centered on marketing the region's ice wines, according to a report issued by a Canadian winemaking association (O'Dell 2009:8-9). Marketing California-based wines with a different flavor profile that boast a fully certified organic seal would seem to be an ideal way to satisfy Canadian consumer organic wine demand, without encroaching upon what Canadian producers themselves 'do well.'

SWOT

Strengths: Kudler Fine Food's reputation for producing high-quality products in the United States; increased demand for organic products in general in Canada at a level even higher than that of the U.S.; a strong commitment to environmentalism in Canada, a lack of native competitors with the typical California wine 'flavor' profile of richness and robustness; higher demand in Canada in general for wine

Weaknesses: Possible discrepancies between… [read more]


Bloomington Food Object Report Community Development Objectives Essay

… Bloomington Food object Report (Community Development Objectives)

Food delivery systems: Bloomington, Indiana

The objective of the project is to increase the consumption of locally-grown fruits and vegetables by Bloomington residents by opening a more affordable farmer's market, promoting healthy eating in the schools, making local produce more affordable in supermarkets, and expanding the ability of individuals to farm community gardens. This is important because 1.Eating more fresh fruits and vegetables has been linked to better health outcomes regarding a number of epidemic public health problems, including heart disease, type II diabetes, and certain cancers. 2. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption often results in decreased consumption of animal proteins. By making these products the center of more residents' main meals, there is less of need to consume livestock that releases methane into the atmosphere, one of the primary gases implicated in global warming. Additionally, processed foods containing animal products for fast food restaurants and other unhealthy sources of sustenance often travels long distances, further contributing to the problem of global warming because of the burning of fossil fuels during transportation. 3. Fruits and vegetables are less calorie-dense and higher in filling fiber than most animal-based foods, thus consuming fruits and vegetables is filling yet healthier for community residents to eat if they must lose weight. 4. Fruits and vegetables can be more costly than other sources of easy nutrition (like fast food) so making these products more available and affordable is a challenge that must be met by the community.

2. To achieve this objective, the first step would be to create a low-cost farmer's market for the community. Talking with the mayor of the city, and individuals in the public health and transportation systems would be required to aid in the creation of an open-air market where vendors could sell produce to the community without the…… [read more]


Food Supply Chain Essay

… Food Supply Chain

Supply chain management: Ms. Nok

Two potential types of sourcing are offered to Ms. Nok, that of a single-source strategy in which all products are provided by the same supplier vs. A multi-source approach in which products are provided by several suppliers. For a restaurant business, the latter seems superior in terms of a holistic strategy. The cheapest provider of dry bulk coffee may not be the cheapest provider of sugar, for example. A provider of perishable foodstuffs may not provide the same value for shelf-stable goods. Sometimes, in the case of franchise operations, the main headquarters will provide the franchisee with pre-packaged items, such as frozen hamburger meat and bagged greens. But an independent restaurant owner will likely wish to 'shop around' for the best items, and the cheapest items, within various product groupings. Establishing a strong relationship with a network of high-quality suppliers ensures a more diverse product range for customers, and enables the restaurant to construct more interesting and varied menus for consumers. With the exception of 'specialty' restaurants such as pizza parlors, flexibility of items translates into growing one's customer base. While the supply chain between purchaser and supplier may be more complex, and require more careful research of information on the part of the buyer because of a lower expectation of trust, much can still be gained.

A variety of customer preferences and demand profiles must be satisfied in the proposed restaurant model of Ms. Nok's in an airport. Ms. Nok must do market research about her customers so she can tailor her ever-changing menus to the demand profile of the various travelers likely to make their way through the location. Given that she is operating both a high-end and a low-end restaurant within her retail space, she clearly needs to offer a variety of items at a wide range of prices. As the restaurant is located in an airport, demand levels and customer preferences are going to be extremely volatile, depending on the season and other (possibly unpredictable) travel circumstances, such as political conditions and the weather. Offering a wide variety of products and menu items is in Ms. Nok's interest, as if she simply offered, for example, the best hamburgers in her 'fast food' section, then customers who did not like hamburgers would avoid her store. Variety is also essential in her higher-end section, given the need to please government officials who may dine there and wish to eat high-end goods as well as the more discerning palates of first class and business class travelers. Trust in the quality of product is also necessary in the B2C (business-to-consumer) spoke of the supply chain, just as much as Nok's B2B dealings.

But although multiple sourcing will give Ms. Nok wider access to a variety of goods, the question remains if she should find single or multiple sources for each item she sells. Having multiple sources for fresh foods will enable her to bargain with suppliers for frequently pricy meat and fish.… [read more]


Cultural Change Essay

… Cultural Change: Industrialization of Agriculture

In the contemporary world, the industrialization of agriculture is both a boon and a detriment. It is often explained as a necessary response to an increasingly larger global population, a way to distribute product more efficiently, and a way to manage the discrepancies between yields, weather conditions, and labor. But one example of this is the way that corn has changed in the United States from being a family run operation to a mega-giant corporate structure that now works to "find" new technologies and markets that can use the product and its derivatives. Essentially, like the invention of the automobile caused the death of an entire industry from the horse era, modern corporate farming has caused the death of an agricultural process that, even with technological changes, has been family run and managed for centuries (Robins, 2006, 41).

What has happened in the agricultural industry is the change from a resource based "supply and demand" industry, to a clear oligopoly of power. A standard definition of an ologopoly power is when four firms together control more than 40% of the market share in any given industry. In the U.S. agricultural market, this ratio varies between 60 and 80% depending on whether it is beef, pork, poultry, flour and corn, or soybeans. Concentrated market share monopologies continue to be on the rise, appearing to believe that a 60-80% share is just not enough. Instead, these corporate behemoths, most who are managed by individuals who have likely never planted a seek or run a combine in…… [read more]


Specialty Food Industry Worldwide Term Paper

… ¶ … Market for Fresh and Specialty Mushrooms

Humankind has enjoyed mushrooms for millennia for good reason. Besides their delicate flavors, researchers have confirmed that edible mushrooms typically possess a number of valuable nutritional qualities as well and global demand… [read more]


Genetically Modified Food Essay

… Genetically Modified Food

I chose to write about genetically modified food because I personally believe that our food and our environment should not be treated as an experiment. The biodiversity and environmental integrity of the world's food supply is too important to endanger. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) allow scientists to create plants and animals as well as microorganisms by manipulating genes in ways that do not happen naturally.

I came across Shannon Brennan's article, "Speaker tackles genetically modified food," when I was looking for research. In the article, Brennan states that Karin Warren, an assistant professor of environmental studies at Randolph-Macon Women's College, asked this question to an auditorium full of freshmen: "If you've eaten today, chances are good you've consumed genetically modified food. Should you be worried about it?" She said that many countries in Europe will not import it, saying that in the UK they call it "Frankenfood." The fact that labeling is required in the U.S. like in a lot of other countries is very troubling. Little is known about the long-term (or even short-term) consequences of genetically modified food, which is one of the main concerns. Warren asks, "Could we be sure the genes are going to stay put?" The bottom line is that we can't. Pollen blows from one field to another field, is carried by insects, and it could very likely transfer the gene to other species. The worst part of it all, perhaps, is that there are people endangering our world's food supply simply to make a profit -- a huge profit.

After viewing a documentary about Monsanto's GMO-corn, I wanted to research more. I found an article by Dr. Alberta Velimirov who shares that "mice fed GM insecticide-producing maize over four generations showed a buildup of abnormal structural changes in various organs (liver,…… [read more]


Politics of Food Research Paper

… Political Science

Politics of Food

Food politics refers to the political aspects that are related to the manufacture, control, regulation, inspection and delivery of food. These politics are often influenced by the ethical, cultural, medical and environmental factors that concern… [read more]


Reptiles and Amphibians as Sources of Food Term Paper

… ¶ … Reptiles and amphibians as sources of food: The solution to sustainability?

Concerns about the sustainability of the Western diet, which heavily emphasizes methane-producing beef, chicken, pork, and endangered seafood, have motivated both ordinary consumers and chefs alike to seek out other sources of protein, including bison, wild game such as venison, insects -- and even reptiles and amphibians. While many may curl their nose at the prospect of eating herptiles for food, these creatures are routinely consumed in many areas of the world. Frogs and turtles are already farmed for food. However, from the point-of-view of an investor who is responsive to current concerns about sustainability in the market place, the animal that is most amenable to the current palate, is the most easy to cultivate without damage to the environment and to raise without illness, and which also yields the greatest final marketable weight is the alligator. Alligators are said to 'taste like chicken' and can be used in similar applications, yet they require less land and financial and environmental resources to sustain.

True, in France, frog's legs are a delicacy. "Consumption of frogs' legs in France totals 3000 to 4000 tons per year (60 to 80 million frogs)" (About typical French food, 2010, French Food and Cook). However, the consumption of frogs raises questions about the impact eating such animals has upon the environment. Frogs are a protected species in France, so most of the frogs' legs consumed in France are imported from Indonesia. Because of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis, a large proportion of the world's amphibian population is deemed to be under threat, and while treatable in captivity, the susceptibility of frogs to the condition make them questionable as a source of high-quality protein (Pessier 2010). Also, most frogs are quite small: even in France, frogs are consumed mainly as appetizers. The fact that they are very low in calories, only 70 calorie per 3.5 oz, makes them fairly unsatisfying as food (About typical French food, 2010, French Food and Cook). And eating frogs as food may have contributed to the spread of pathogens: "In countries such as Indonesia, which exports about 45% of all frog legs, the majority of animals are thought to be wild-caught and there is little to no effort to monitor this food source for disease pathogens. Any trade in live frogs or fresh, un-skinned frog legs presents a substantial risk of the spread of amphibian chytrid" (Frog legs, 2009, ScienceDaily). Although these reptiles are not as immediately deleterious to the environment as farm-raised mammals, there are sustainability concerns.

It is also important to remember many reptiles and amphibians are endangered. While, eating reptiles and amphibians has…… [read more]


Whole Foods Michael Porter Five Case Study

… Whole Foods Case Study

Michael Porter Five Forces analysis

Supplier Power:

Once upon a time, the organic supermarket Whole Foods had a high level of power as a supplier. It was difficult for consumers to find the type of organic foods and foreign and luxury goods Whole Foods provided in many areas of the country. Whole Foods stocks gluten-free, vegetarian, and other specialty goods and services once impossible to find at the local Piggly Wiggly.

However, 'once' is the operative word. Now such products are becoming more and more common in everyday supermarkets. Even Wal-Mart has begun to stock organic produce. Also, as the consumption of organic produce and other products, such as international cheeses and peanut-free nut butters, becomes more accepted, natural food stores and other natural foods chains may open up branches in underserved areas of the country.

Organic farmland has become more accessible and more common for other suppliers. While this is good for the sustainability movement as a whole, it could make it easier for competitors to supply these items at lower cost than does Whole Foods. Additionally, the expansion of farmer's markets nationwide can make local produce far cheaper and just as ethically uncompromised as commercially-grown organic foods.

Buyer Power:

Whole Foods consumers have been stunningly ineffective, up to this point, at driving prices down. Even dedicated Whole Foods shoppers often call their favorite venue to buy organic cleansers and baby food 'Whole Paycheck' because of its expense. Whole Foods almost never deploys sales or products at a low price point, but by clinging to its image that consumers 'feel good' shopping there, it has thus been able to remain successful. It has begun to sell some of its own market-branded products, but while lower in cost than its high-end items, these goods are still far more expensive than what can be found at the local Wal-Mart.

A point against Whole Foods' favor in terms of having a captive audience of buyers is that in the end, Whole Foods is still selling -- food. Buyers can competitively drive prices down by switching to other venues. When the economy sours, eschewing going out to eat is one of the first moves of any frugal customer. Even if Whole Foods consumers are more affluent than their Kroger's counterparts, no one is immune from losing his or her job. Consumers cut back on eating prepared foods (a key driver in Whole Foods' business) and eating out at expensive places. Switching supermarkets is relatively easy in the food industry, and even if food is a necessity, eating at Whole Foods is not. The personal costs of switching to eating somewhere else are likely to be low.

Competitive Rivalry:

Competition is heated in any facet of the food business, because of the fluidity of buyers. Whole Foods' uniqueness was once its strength, but no more. Now other competitors that are cheaper but model themselves upon a similar healthy, organic model have made incursions into the market. These include companies such… [read more]


Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology Research Paper

… Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology: Questions

Would the enactment of the DSHEA have changed the outcome in Nutrilab Inc. v. Schweiker, 713 F.2d 335 (1983)? Assume the manufacturer promoted the product as helping to maintain a healthy weight.

In the 1983 case of Nutrilab Inc. v. Schweiker, 713 F.2d 335 (1983), the case involved so-called 'starch blockers' that were supposed to inhibit the body's digestion of starch and thus facilitate weigh loss. The manufactures of the product called the item a foodstuff, given that its ingredients, some of which were natural (such as fibrous beans) were consumed as food in some contexts. Nutrilab's case failed upon appeal. The "FDA had received seventy-five reports of adverse effects on people who had taken starch blockers, including complaints of gastro-intestinal distress such as bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Because plaintiffs consider starch blockers to be food, no testing was required to obtain FDA approval as a new drug has taken place" (Nutrilab, 1983, Altlaw).

Thus, the issue at hand was the classification of the substance as a food or a drug, not product claims about weight maintenance. Had the drug met FDA approval after a scientific study was conducted and showed that the pill did produce weight loss and was safe, such a claim would be allowed. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) involved products labeled as 'supplements' and the starch blocker was not labeled as a supplement.

Q1b. Assume the manufacturer promoted the product as a treatment for obesity.

Once again, the issue is not just the validity of the claim, but the claim of the FDA that the starch blocker was a drug, versus the manufacturer's claim that it was a food: for a drug to be prescribed as a treatment, even an over-the-counter drug, the drug must be approved for such use by the FDA. Even if the company had claimed that the starch blocker was a supplement, and neither a drug or a food, "under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), the dietary supplement manufacturer was responsible for ensuring that a dietary supplement is safe before it is marketed" (Dietary supplements, 2010, DSHEA). Supplement manufacturers must ensure the product is safe (which Nutrilab did not) and also that the advertisement for the product is truthful (which it was, tenuously, but only because the product caused such severe dietary distress, weight loss was the result).

Q2. What is a predicate device? Discuss its role in the FDA device approval process.

A legally marketed 'predicative' device is one "to which equivalence is drawn" between a new product and a product already on the market (How to find a predicative device, 2009, FDA). A claim of substantial equivalence "does not mean the device(s) must be identical. Substantial equivalence is established with respect to: intended use, design, energy used or delivered, materials, performance, safety, effectiveness, labeling, biocompatibility, standards, and other applicable characteristics" (How to find a predicative device, 2009, FDA). A premarketing… [read more]


Consumption of Foods Treated With Pesticides Cause an Increase in Childhood Diseases Thesis

… Pesticides

The consumption of Foods treated with pesticides cause an increase in childhood diseases

Pesticides and food

The consumption of Foods treated with pesticides cause an increase in childhood diseases

The evidence that exposure to pesticides leads to increases in… [read more]


Whole Food Market Assessment

… Whole Foods: Case Study

Trends in organic foods

Whole Foods' expansion as a company seemed to crest with a unique degree of prescience, relative to the upsurge of interest in organic foods in America. Once upon a time, organic foods in America were only offered at niche health food stores and farmer's markets. However, concerns about childhood obesity and the safety of staple products such as meat, milk, and vegetables have cause the demand for such products to sharply escalate. 65% of consumers in 2005 had tried organic food, up from 57% in 2004 and 2003. Organic farmland has also rapidly expanded, meaning that stores such as Whole Foods have greater access to more localized suppliers (a critical point, given that buying local is another important food trend linked with an interest in organic farming). Today, Whole Foods is the biggest seller of organic produce in the world. It has also acquired 'Wild Oats,' another organic store, and has made that chain conform to its high standards of quality and overall approach and layout.

The establishment of USDA standards for what constituted an organic food product was also helpful for Whole Foods. This ensured that companies that were simply vaguely 'healthy' in their marketing could not make unsubstantiated health claims upon their labels. Whole Foods could justify its philosophy (and higher prices) with documented evidence that its products were prepared differently -- and better -- than products grown and/or manufactured through conventional food processing.

SWOT

Strengths

Whole Foods has successfully branded itself nationally and internationally as the leading purveyor of organic foods. Since it became a publically-traded company in 1991, it has been able to finance a wide-ranging expansion, despite the typical 'small scale' nature of companies with a commitment to whole, unprocessed foods.

Whole Foods stocks a wide variety of foods of interest to consumers who are focused on nutrition: not only does it supply organically-produced vegetables and meats; consumers can be confident that even the prepared foods they purchase have wholesome ingredients. Unlike a consumer at Kroger's, when shopping at Whole Foods for cereal, there is no tedious label-reading for a consumer who wishes to eliminate foods with high fructose corn syrup or artificial colorings and dyes from his or her diet.

Whole Foods stores are attractively laid out and have an ambiance that ordinary supermarkets lack. Even competitor Trader Joes does not have a place where people can eat lunch and relax, like many Whole Foods. Educational demonstrations, a wide variety of cooking supplies, health and beauty sections, wine -- all of this makes going to Whole Foods a shopping experience, rather than a chore.

Weaknesses

In a word, cost. Whole Foods has earned its nickname of Whole Paycheck, and because of the national focus on cost-cutting even its core market of more affluent shoppers may balk at its typical prices when many consumers fear for their jobs. Whole Foods also does not offer consumers much choice, to pick and choose what expensive food items they wish… [read more]


Earth Friendly Foods Ethics Case Research Paper

… Earth Friendly Foods Ethics Case

Earth Friendly Foods packages and distributes organic foods to grocery stores, restaurants and hotels. Absence of an established corporate ethics program has led to practices which undermine the food manufacturing industrial safety. There is hence a need to institute a corporate ethics program that will establish the operations standards and grant Earth Friendly a competitive advantage while still being low cost, easy to implement and evaluate. Lack of accessibility of relevant information to the outbreak investigators exacerbates the situation further by making it difficult to assess the situation (Fusaro). This free flow of information should also be incorporated in the ethics program. Earth Friendly Foods is presumed to be dealing with poultry and its related products because the predominant source of cases related with salmonella Enterica is the shell eggs.

The consumer's particular attention to the food safety issues has been heightened by the recent outbreaks of E. coli and salmonella. Therefore to gain consumer trust and hence the competitive advantage, implementing an ethical program will be useful. This trust is natured by the existence of greater consistency in quality and standards of the products. Organization which pays attention to ethics issue regularly are perceived as pegging more value on people than profit while aiming to operate with the highest honor and integrity.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Proper training of employees in personal hygiene and prevention of microbial contamination of produce

When the employees of Earth Friendly Foods have proper knowledge and skills to handle food without causing contamination, then the infection spread can be controlled. This will also impact positively to the consumers trust when Earth Friendly Foods employees' are perceived as being well trained in the matters of personal hygiene (McNamara).

Poor sanitation consequences should be well understood by the workers for the health of the workers and the capability to spread food related illness to other people. The sanitation policies should be clearly outlined by Earth Friendly foods and will be applicable to everyone within the producing contact not excluding the pest control operators, equipment operators and potential buyers. To ensure sustainability of the employment of the personnel and the protection of the company's reputation, implementation of these policies is essential and therefore the employee must understand that there is a reason for the existence of these policies (Good Agricultural Practices). When training the personnel, a helpful philosophy is the assumption that all procedures must be demonstrated by the trainer. Earth Friendly foods has operations in different countries, the personnel indeed do have different cultural orientation. The assumption by the trainer of the worker familiarity with a particular procedure or how a procedure can be carried out effectively can be as a result of differences in cultures. Everything from outer garments sanitation to hand washing correctly should be demonstrated by the trainer. Training in a manner that the information is understood by all employees should be sought. This consists of provision of bilingual instructions, use of straightforward terms to give instructions and visual tools when… [read more]


Food Security in Less Developed Countries Essay

… Sociology

Food Security in Less Developed Countries

What factors determine whether an area will be food secure or food insecure?

Food is considered one of the most basic human needs and as a central indicator of absolute poverty and physical well being. Food security refers no only to an adequate aggregate supply of food, but also means that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food. There are two indicators that are used: 1) food supply is measured as the mean daily per capita supply of calories and protein and 2) the child hunger rate is measure by the percentage of children under age 5 who are undernourished. There are six factors that are used to explain whether food is secure or insecure. These include: modernization, economic dependency, urban bias, neo-Malthusian population pressure, ecological evolutionary processes and militarism (Jenkins and Scanlan, 2001).

Have more people become food secure in recent years? Is the observed trend likely to continue? Be sure to cite evidence from the article to support your position.

According to Jenkins and Scanlan (2001) more people have become food secure in recent years. The daily calories per capita were 2,227.47 in 1970 and increased to 2,397.43 by 1990. The daily protein grams per capita were 57.62 in 1970 and increase to 60.91 by the year 1990. The percentage of hungry children under the age of 5 decreased from 28.88 in 1970 to 23.42 in 1990. All three of these factors indicate that the people have become more food secure over the last 20 years. It is likely that this trend will continue because of the following things: an increase in domestic investment in physical and human capital and political democratization. These are both things that have a positive effect on the food security in less developed countries. They not only do these increase the food supply or the daily calories and daily protein grams per capital but they also help to decrease the number of children under the age of 5 that are hungry.

3. Stepping back from Scanlan and Jenkins's analysis, how might we apply the demographic…… [read more]


Evolution in Agriculture Essay

… Evolution in agriculture: Genetically modified organism (GMO)

The domestication of plants and animals unintentionally, and later intentionally, resulted in the promotion and sustenance of certain traits over other traits within domesticated species. It also affected the development of the living creatures of the world as a whole, given that certain species were favored over other species and new plants were imported and exported all over the world by humans, far faster than would have naturally occurred. Plants we take for granted as part of native cuisines such as the tomato in Southern Italy, the potato in Ireland, and corn in America are all imports: "every crop in North America other than the blueberry, Jerusalem artichoke, sunflower, and squash are borrowed from elsewhere" (Prakash 2001). Originally, there was suspicion of these new crops but then these plants became integrated into the culture and national cuisine.

However, genetic engineering of plants, such as the insertion of one vector of another species through a virus, plasmid, Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) or other means to effectively reprogram the organism's DNA has proven far more controversial than plant cross-breeding or hybridization: or, at least humans view such modifications with the same kind of suspicion they felt when they worried that potatoes were poisonous when the plant was brought from the New World to the Old! In genetic modification, in most cases, only one or two additional proteins are added to the plant's DNA, which are then broken down either during processing or digestion (Prakash 2001).

Scientists see this as a natural extension of selective breeding, such as breeding chickens for larger breasts or pigs with leaner flesh, to suit consumer tastes (Hall & Hallgrimsson 2008, p.649). "Through a process of gradual selection, our ancestors chose a very tiny section of the wild plant community and transformed it into cultivated crops. Some profound alterations in the plant phenotype occurred during such selection, and these include determinate growth habit; elimination of grain shattering; synchronous ripening; shorter maturity; reduction of bitterness and harmful toxins;…… [read more]


Genetically Modified Foods Thesis

… History Of Genetically Modified Foods

Genetic Processes Used in Making Genetically Modified Foods

Scientific Studies to Date

Positive and Negative Arguments

Genetically Modified Foods

Today, the Earth is home to almost seven billion hungry humans, and the so-called "green revolution"… [read more]


Genetically Modified Foods Thesis

… FAILURE of TODAY'S GENERATION in CRITICAL EXAMINATION of FOOD PRODUCTS PRIOR to CONSUMPTION

The report of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states that GM crops are "commercially available and planted on more than 40 million hectares… [read more]


Excellence in the Culinary Arts Research Proposal

… Excellence

Achieving Excellence in the Culinary Arts

Two cooks working side by side in a kitchen, even doing the exact same tasks, might have very different perspectives on their work. One, perhaps, is focused on the necessities of continuing to… [read more]


Organic Food Thesis

… Organic Farming Methods: An Annotated Review Synthesis
The concept of organic food immediately conjures images of
responsible agricultural practice, non-chemical growing procedures and a
dedication to environmentally sound farming operations. However, the
literature review would reveal a multitude of perspectives that demonstrate
organic foods to be a debatable and nuanced subject. As many advocates as
exist in research and in practice, there are equally as many critics and
opponents to organic farming practices.
The text by Wellson (2006) is a suitable starting point as it
provides a general overview of the subject. Identifying organic food
industries as a growing consumer interest, Wellson takes an essentially
positive perspective on the subject, describing organic foods as offering
consumers a way of controlling the content of that which they consume.
This overview also demonstrates that organic farming is a substantial
business today, even to the extent that it undermines some of the
preconceptions which consumers hold of organic farming.
Namely, many disassociate organic farming from large corporate
agricultural operations, but an article by Pollan (2006) reveals that
organic farming is not the independent business context it once was.
Indeed, he denotes that "large-scale organic businesses, which have bought
up successful small organic producers, follow the logic of industry, 'the
tremendous gains in efficiency to be had when the irregularity of nature
can conform to the precision and control of a machine.'" (Pollan, 123) The
Pollan article reveals that organic farming is big-business and that many
of its farming practices, though not chemically or mechanically intervened,
may not constitute ethical treatment of animals by the perspective of many
consumers.
This is reinforced in the article by Raynolds (2004), which also
describes organic farming from the perspective that it is an important
economic enterprise with attachments to many of the same entities that
drive conventional agriculture. Particularly, Raynolds identifies global
trade practices as having been impacted by the cultural sway in many
countries toward organic practices. As a result, Raynolds indicates,
"organic certification proves central to network governance, shaping
product specifications, production parameters, and enterprise
participation." (Raynolds, 725)
The enormity of this business is further supported by the global
economic report provided by Willer et al (2008), which describes the
business as robust. This report placed international sales at $38.6
billion in 2006, a rate doubled since that reported in 2000. (16) A report
by Dmitri & Greene (2002) indicates that demand for organic goods in the
United States consumer market drives much of this growth. Perhaps one of
the primary reasons for this is the evidence which suggests that U.S.
regulations on agricultural operations and imports both do not provide
sufficient protection to the health of consumers. So denotes an article by
Raeburn, which indicates that a pesticide called Dichlorvos has been
demonstrated to negatively impact the human nervous system but is still
used heavily in growing operations.
By contrast, an article by Goldberg (2000) takes a distinctly
negative perspective on this rising prominence, citing organic operations
as both fundamentally inefficient and designed to… [read more]


Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser Thesis

… Fast Food Nation

The Assessment and Analysis of an Image and Passage from Eric Schlosser's Fast Food Nation

At first glance it appears to be an almost normal scene. A family is seated together, Dad to one side, Mom on the other, with a toddler in her footie pajamas between them. But the actual content and even the presentation of this photo immediately preceding Chapter Eight in Eric Schlosser's Fast Food Nation reveal much more difficult and pressing truths. First, it must be noted that the family in the picture is Hispanic. Then, one might take notice of the fact that the man is carefully holding his left hand as high above his heart as he can, and is squeezing onf the fingers on that hand with his right. There is a wide swath of drying blood running down his arm, and his eyes are half closed. It is a family picture, yes -- it is even a picture of an almost typical American family. But it is not your traditional happy picture of two parents with their child, but rather is evidence of the human side of an ongoing national problem, the insidiousness and camouflage of which Schlosser makes clear in the following chapter.

During his visit to one of the nation's largest cattle slaughterhouse and meat processing plants as described in the opening passages of Chapter Eight, Schlosser notes that his first glance around what is known as the fabrication room reveals that "there's nothing unsettling about this part of the plant. You see meat like this all the time in the back of your local supermarket." One of the major problems with the fast food industry as detailed in Schlosser's book is the apparent normalcy of things on the surface, when a slightly more penetrating gaze very quickly reveals problems that might be endemic and therefore standard, but which…… [read more]


Difference Between an Issue and a Problem Thesis

… ¶ … Kudler Fine Foods

In everyday language, we often use the terms of issue and problem as synonymous concepts. Whereas they do in fact present elements of commonality, the two nouns are fairly different. In nature, an issue is a matter that has the power to influence several parties and which is often discussed and assessed. On the other hand, a problem is a situation which could generate negative impacts and it has to be resolved. In terms of connotations then, the problem is more negative and severe, whereas an issue is more neutral. In conversations, it is generally advisable to use the "issue," rather than the "problem," for the first noun has the ability to maintain a more positive atmosphere and as such lead to more fruitful outcomes, without generating panic (a Simple Jew, 2008).

Kudler Fine Foods is an important player within the foods and beverages industry, with their stated aim being that of satisfying the growing needs of the customer base, through the offering of a vast selection of high quality foods and wines. Throughout its existence, the organization has faced several challenges, but has managed to successfully emerge from them and safeguard its favorable reputation. Today, the organization continues to be presented with numerous issues, some of the most important ones being succinctly revealed below:

The company strives to serve gourmet products -- this represents a challenge due to the internationalized economic crisis, which may reduce the demand for the Kudler Fine Foods' products

The organic components used in the manufacturing of the foods and wines represent an issue as they are obtained at higher costs, which are then included in the retail price -- a high retail price often reduces customer demand…… [read more]


Manner About Food Essay

… ¶ … Food

Persian Food

AB Doogh Khiar (Cold Yogurt Soup)

A popular food on a hot summer day in an Iranian home would be this refreshing healthy cold soup. it's a popular Persian dish in America too because of the ease of the preparation and the availability to purchase all the ingredients.

Throughout history, the art of Persian cooking expanded to all the Middle Eastern countries such as Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and Syria. Today, when dishes are made, culinary history of Persian cooking is noted (About Persian Food).

One thing that all people from different cultures have in common is food. it's the way the food is prepared that makes us all different. Maybe by learning and understanding other cultures food habits we will be able to understand how other cultures live.

Persians refined the taste and flavor of food and how it is presented. Persian foods represent the best of what is in season so the food is as fresh and of the best quality as it can be. Fragrances…… [read more]


Hindering Society Essay

… Hindering Society

Is our industrial system of agriculture and food (product) production and distribution (the same system that designs fast food, forces slaughterhouse quotas up, and produces jobs that are industrial opposed to post-industrial) hindering society? In other words our current industrial food system moves us (society and its members) backwards. Prove your point in your argument.

For Michael Pollan in the omnivore's dilemma, the fast food 'extra value' meal embodies all that is wrong with America's consumption patterns regarding food. Such a meal is entirely standardized, according to corporate specifications. It looks perfect on the outside, and is familiar and comforting in its chemically orchestrated, aggressive tastes of sugar and salt. However, only the first bite tastes really good. Instead of coming from the land, and instead of teaching the next generation how food is produced from dirt, the fast food meal comes from a plastic box, and even comes with a plastic toy. It can be eaten on the run, and encourages families to make food a low priority. It subverts family togetherness at the dinner table in favor of false efficiency.

However, although it may look sanitary and sanitized, health code issues abound regarding how factory-raised meat is produced. Cows are fed unnaturally, fattened on corn and grain, and given antibiotics so their young and delicate systems will not reject this diet. The farm subsidy system encourages farmers' and cattlemen's dependence upon corn, and the system of agricultural subsidies, once began to help small farmers who had overproduced during the Great Depression, now supports industrialized agriculture. The small farm where cows roamed free, where chicken ate bugs and roamed amongst the cow manure, where various types of vegetables were grown, is a thing of the past. Now, we have a corn monoculture, and fields feed ethanol-guzzling vehicles and cows that live a brief and unhappy life before they are killed for McDonald's hamburgers.

Our new method of eating, in a car, from processed boxes of foods has…… [read more]


Fresh Foods and Canned Essay

… Fresh V. Canned Food

According to Apovian, "Vegetables fresh from the farm or just picked are more nutritious than their frozen or canned counterparts, but frozen and canned vegetables are an acceptable nutritional alternative." Fresh foods have several distinct advantages vs. their canned versions. For one, fresh foods usually but not always look better and have a better texture than canned foods. However, canned foods also have important advantages over their fresh counterparts including yearlong availability. Some canned foods actually have a higher nutritional content than fresh foods (Davies & Barrett). However, many canned foods also contain additives. The main differences between fresh and canned foods include nutritional content; taste and texture; and convenience.

In terms of nutritional content, fresh foods are "nutritionally ideal," and "more nutritious" than their canned counterparts (Davies & Barrett; Apovian). Vegetables that are fully fresh, such as those plucked right from a garden or purchased at a farmer's market, contain the most nutrients possible. Unfortunately, many large supermarket chains and produce stores receive vegetables after they have been shipped over long distances and often overseas. By the time those fruits and vegetables reach the consumer they have lost a considerable amount of their nutritional content. On the other hand, most canned produce is "packaged immediately after harvesting, when nutrient levels are at their highest," (Davies & Barrett). Grocery stores often do not have the freshest fish, either. A fish fresh caught that day will have the highest possible nutrient content, but once it reaches a grocery store and has been washed, cut, fillet, and packaged, its nutrient content is diminished. In fact, canning "may actually increase calcium levels" for some fish (Davies & Barrett). Canned food does have many nutritional drawbacks vs. fresh foods, though. Most canned foods contain preservatives, salt, sugar, and other additives. A fresh version of the same food is simply the raw ingredient with no additives. With added salt, preservatives, or sugar in canned food, the nutritional value of that food is diminished considerably and it is no longer such a healthy choice for individuals on strict diets such as those with diabetes.

Another main difference between canned and fresh foods is their taste and texture. A canned green bean is soft, waxy, and almost mushy. A fresh green bean is crunchy and pops in the mouth. The fresh green bean tastes different from the canned one. Even if taste preference is subjective, the difference between the canned and fresh versions of any food is palpable. Not all fresh foods taste better than their canned counterparts. The canning process enhances some foods because they are cooked first, allowing natural sugars and starches to emerge such as with canted tomatoes, beans, legumes, and starchy vegetables like pumpkin or corn. The fresh version of those foods still has a different taste and texture from the fresh version. Cooked fresh tomatoes taste different from canned tomatoes and are crisper and more acidic. The differences in taste and texture between cooked and canned foods sometimes… [read more]


Culinary Trends Term Paper

… Such advanced cooking systems will also decrease the amount of time that customers spend in each session. This may lead to the ability of the company to have more sessions throughout the day. This in turn will make the company more profitable.

In addition, Customers may start to demand food that is completely organic and may be resistant to foods that are genetically modified in any way. The trend toward food that is grown organically actually began a few years ago..

However, in recent years there has been a substantial increase in the amount of organic food available to consumers. In addition, the price of such items has decreased a great deal and consumers that may not have been able to afford these products years ago can do so today.

The internship may adjust to this by ensuring that the freshest organic products are made available to customers. The organic supply must also come from reliable sources. It will be necessary to ensure that the Secret Chef can meet the demands of customers as it pertains to such products. It is also important that the Secret Chef be reasonable in the manner in which these items are priced. The company has to be sure not to overprice the items, so that the price per meal can remain relatively low.

The article also points out that the availability of culinary items on the internet will continue to be a trend well into the future. At the current time there are many different types of culinary items available over the internet. This includes everything from programs like secret chef to other culinary trends that allow customers to place orders over the internet and food is delivered directly to their homes.

The internet will definitely continue to be a trend that impacts the culinary world for years to come. The internet provides consumers with many different options as it pertains to their culinary experiences. In addition it provides consumers with the conveniences that they often need and seek. Products can be delivered directly to the home and the quality of the products received is often quite impressive.

The Secret Chef already has a website that makes some aspects of the program more convenient for customers. For instance, customers can plan menus and setup pickup services over the internet.

In the future in might be advantageous of the company to establish a broader range of services that are available online. For instance, the company may want to consider the addition of a delivery service. Such a service would make the company more competitive with other culinary businesses that operate of the internet and/or have delivery service. Such services are important for certain segments of the population such as the elderly or those suffering from physical illnesses. This is a way in which the company can use the internet to further the growth of the company.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to describe current trends in the culinary field and the ways in… [read more]


Fast Food Nation: Beefing Up the World Thesis

… Fast Food Nation: Beefing Up the World

In Michael Schlosser's book Fast Food Nation he quite candidly points out that "obesity is now second only to smoking as a cause of mortality in the United States" (241). The remainder of the first part of this chapter does not get much more positive than this initial overview, offering various different explanations as to how fast food chains have changed eating habits and contributed to this phenomenon. Although it does not form one of the central themes of the book as such, it is nevertheless an important argument which is made by Schlosser within these few pages. This essay will examine other evidence which has since been published in relation to this topic, in an attempt to assess whether the prevalence of fast food restaurants in America may indeed be blamed for this obesity epidemic.

The first study included is that by Jeffery et al., which examined whether fast food restaurants could be considered an environmental risk factor for obesity. Their study specifically examined whether those living or working near to fast food establishments in Minnesota were at greater risk of obesity. The study collected information from over 1000 participants and found that eating at fast food restaurants was positively associated with BMI. This therefore supports the claim made by Schlosser that fast food is one of the "vectors" (242) of the ever increasing global obesity epidemic. Notably, the authors stated that "eating at "fast food" restaurants is associated with higher weight and less healthy eating habits" (5). The study also showed that the proximity of either home or work to fast food restaurants was not associated with either frequency of eating at those restaurants or BMI. The study did however find conversely that proximity to non-fast food restaurants was associated with frequency of eating at these 'healthier' establishments. This study therefore would indicate that fast food is associated with obesity, but that access to fast food is not necessarily associated with increased consumption, and therefore not with increased obesity.

A different type of study which was conducted by Maddock did however suggest that there was a link between access to fast food and obesity levels. The study used state-level data taken from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance Survey and the 2000 U.S. Census. This information was analyzed in terms of the spatial segregation of fast food restaurants and the population which was served by each of these restaurants. The research indicated that there was a "correlational relationship both between the number of residents per fast food restaurant and the square miles per fast food restaurants with state-level obesity prevalence" (137). This therefore supports the argument which is made by Schlosser, that the density of fast food restaurants is directly related to obesity levels. The information in the study is however slightly more scientifically justified than the evidence offered by Schlosser which is that "the…… [read more]


Free Trade Agriculture Essay

… Free Trade Agriculture

The issue of agriculture and its free trade attempts has generated a series of divergent opinions around the subject. Some experts consider that free trade in agriculture is a desirable opportunity that would help economies, while other experts state that this would only harm small farmers.

A series of free trade agreements have already been implemented between certain countries. For example, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) began in 1994 and was designed in order to remove trade tariff barriers among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The agreement includes agricultural provisions (USDA, 2008).

The benefits of NAFTA include: it accounted for 55% of the U.S. agricultural export growth, 258,000 U.S. jobs were created, the average annual growth reached $847 million, Canada became the no. 1 U.S. export market, Mexico became the no. 2 U.S. export market, U.S. became the no. 1 export market for Canada and Mexico, exports of food and agricultural products reached record values, producers in these countries benefit from a series of opportunities, agricultural markets in these countries have increased (USDA, 2006).

The effects of agricultural trade liberalization are numerous and diverse. Certain categories of individuals like consumers might receive a series of benefits, while other categories, like small producers, will have to face a series of threats.

Free trade in agriculture would most likely lead to raising economic growth, raise that is estimated at 0.43-0.46% (Fabiosa, 2008). Economic growth will be influenced only in developing and industrialized countries.

Another immediate result of trade liberalization consists in the fact that commodity prices across the world would have to increase by 3-34%. This means that domestic prices would be lower. As a consequence, in low income countries food consumption is likely to increase.

Free trade in agriculture is supported by a number of countries, like Australia, Canada, and the United States…… [read more]


Food Prices Research Proposal

… ¶ … food prices over the past few years has been the result of several factors. Supply tightness increases volatility, so the high prices of the past few years indicate significant supply tightness in key variables. One of those variables… [read more]


Organic Versus Inorganic Foods Research Proposal

… Organic vs. non-Organic

Organic vs. Inorganic Foods: Why Eat organic?"

The rapid development of the organic market over the past twenty years has spread both opportunity and awareness of both organic foods and the kinds of tactics that are used to grow in-organic foods. The growth of the organic market has also helped draw the prices of such goods down to a level that makes it possible for many more consumers to buy and eat them. Yet, many consumers would still like to see more evidence that paying the marginal difference in price for seemingly the same product is logical and absorbable for their family finances. This work will argue that: there is a marked difference in the nutritional quality of organic foods as compared to non-organic foods and this difference is measurable and demonstrated not just by organic marketers, farmers or converted organic consumers but by agricultural and medical industry leaders who have taken up the cause of resolving this question for consumers, once and for all.

It seems that within the last few years many organizations and individuals have taken up the cause of advocating for consumer utilization of organic foods. Many of these organizations and individuals seem to have a vested interest or at the very least a near religion like commitment to buying and eating organic foods. The mainstream medical, agricultural and biochemistry academic communities on the other hand seemed to be reluctant to conclude that organic foods were any better than non-organic foods. Current trend have somewhat reversed this stand as more and more research has come out to bolster the claims of the organic community that the potential reduced impact on the environment seen from organic farming and most importantly the nutritional content of organic foods is indeed worthy of consumer utilization of such products even if they have to stomach a marginal cost difference. Additionally, today's consumers are also finding this cost difference to be even smaller than it was a few years ago, as availability of organic products increases, distribution streamlines and more organic products compete for shelf space, even in mainstream non-specialty markets.

Annotated

Works Cited

Byrum, Allison. "Report Confirms More Health Benefits of Organic Food." Organic Consumers Association. 2003. http://www.organicconsumers.org/organic/polyphenolics031203.cfm.

Byrum's article is a review of a study conducted by Alyson Mitchell, Ph.D., a food scientist at the University of California, Davis, where Mitchell found that organic and sustainably grown foods (foods grown with a combination of organic and modern agricultural practices, mostly reflecting the elimination of conventional herbicides and pesticides but with the use of some non-organic fertilizers) were much higher in antioxidants. Antioxidants are proven to reduce the incidence of cancer and other age increased diseases as they protect the plant from attack they also protect the body from oxidization, a leading cause of cell deterioration.

Lipson, Elaine Marie. The Organic Foods Sourcebook. Chicago:

Contemporary Books, 2001.

Lipson demonstrates an comprehensive knowledge of organic food sourcing. This is an especially helpful work if one lives in a community… [read more]


Cuisine Knowledge of Romans' Diet Term Paper

… Cuisine

Knowledge of Romans' diet comes from literary references, archeological evidence, and paintings. The only true literary source ever devoted to Roman food was a cookbook attributed to Apicus (Davis 1961, 102). However, it was established that Roman cuisine and… [read more]


Lords of the Harvest Biotech Big Money and the Future of Food Term Paper

… Lords of the Harvest: Big Money, And the Future of Food

ONE (Summary): The book by Daniel Charles brings attention to an issue that is vitally important to consumers, scientists, and political leaders, genetically engineered foods. Are these products safe to eat? Do they in any way harm the environment? These are the questions Charles poses and attempts to answer, although he says in his Prologue, "This book is not an argument. it's the product of a personal search for understanding." In that context, it is clear that Charles is not attempting to preach to his readers, or necessarily attack Monsanto and the other companies dabbling or diving into biotechnology.

But the information he provides, while not as provocative as a juicy novel, is valuable and worthwhile, albeit the book was published 7 years ago and in that amount of time a wealth of new information can become available on the topic. It is clear that Charles enjoys creating narrative that traces the steps of the people who were involved in manipulating the genes of seeds. He also enjoys describing the characters as though they were in a short story to be turned in for a grade. It is as if he wants to assure readers that this isn't just a story about good guys vs. bad guys. In fact some of the characters in his book that actually helped launch agricultural biotech were idealists who gained their optimism about feeding the world's hungry from their experiences in the Sixties. Examples included Harry Klee, Roger Beachy, among others; and in this way Charles shows the human side of a very controversial subject.

Among the most disheveled, unpolished faces" was Harry Klee (p. 32), who worked at Monsanto, where "the genetic transformation of plants rapidly became routine." And there was Roger Beachy, a young assistant professor at Washington University in St. Louis; he was "and remains, a gregarious, athletic man brimming with enthusiasm." He had been "intrigued by the ways that plants develop resistance to certain viruses" for a long time. Along with being intrigued he was obviously very bright and eager to use biotechnology "in bettering the diet and lives of the world's poor" (37). It turns out that even though Klee made some great discoveries at Monsanto, the powers in charge of Monsanto at the time didn't see his work as productive to the bottom line. This is not unique to Monsanto (wanting research to lead to profits) but the author uses that example to set the stage for Monsanto's ability to make good money later.

TWO (Commercialization): In order to promote their product Roundup Monsanto needed a commercial strategy that would get their items not just on the shelves of stores but into the consciousness of consumers. The company had a merchandizing wizard in their agricultural division named Robert Shapiro. He ("...slightly built, intense, but soft-spoken") (114) is the man who convinced Coca-Cola to allow the logo for NutraSweet to be printed on every bottle and every can… [read more]


Food Service Term Paper

… ¶ … International Food Trends Influencing the Australian Restaurant Industry in 2008

The food service industry is traditionally defined as the sale of drinks and food for immediate consumption by the consumer. These can either be consumed on the premises that they were purchased from, or in eating areas that are designated and shared with other food service operators. This industry also includes takeaways transactions that are freshly prepared for immediate consumer consumption.

The Australian food service industry is growing. By 2011, it's predicted to have a value of $11 billion, a 19% increase over 2006 figures of $9.3 billion.

Volume in 2011 is forecasted to be approximately 3,712.2 million transactions, a 7.3% increase over the 3,467.9 million transactions reached in 2006. The market is typically broken into four segments: cafes & restaurants, fast food, cost, and other. The cafe and restaurant segment includes cafes, pubs and bars, full service restaurants, hotels, and retail locations. The fast food segment includes quick service restaurants, takeaways, street vendors, and leisure locations that serve food and drink, such as cinemas and theaters ("Australia food service," 2007). These are the two segments, in combination, that his paper will focus on in the exploration of major international food trends that are influencing the Australian restaurant industry in 2008.

One way to look at the food trends in Australian restaurants is to investigate which restaurants are winning awards and what their hot food items are. The Australian Gourmet Traveler 2008 Restaurant Guide Awards point out a couple of hot international trends that are affecting Australian restaurants this year, including more choices in beef and Spanish influence in menus.

Beef has always been an Australian mainstay, yet 2008 will see a more complicated piece of beef an increasing trend. Fresh from the finest steakhouses from Asia to Europe to America, choices beyond simple cuts are all the rage. "Forget rare or medium, do prefer grain- or grass-fed, or a combination of both? How marbled do you like your wagyu?" (Nourse, 2008) These are choices Australians will see more and more frequently on their menus. Wagyu, also known as Kobe beef, a breed known for its extensive marbling especially will see an increase in 2008. Recently, Australia Company Trade Lines Malaysian was given permission to purchase two large farms south of Auckland to expressly farm wagyu beef. The company will spend approximately $14.6 million to develop 1460 hectares to establish a wagyu cross-breeding herd. Once established, this herd will be a large part of the company's operations, that will fortify breeding programs in Western Australia, and increase availability of this pricey beef ("New wagyu," 2007).

Spain, in particular, will also have a strong influence on Australian restaurants in 2008.

It used to be that Australian chefs traveled to France to learn the latest trends in fine dining, but more recently, it's the influence of Spanish chefs that are changing the food service world in Australia. Instead of Paris, leading chefs are visiting places like San Sebastian and Barcelona.… [read more]


Factors Affecting Customer Choice of Fast Food in Different Countries Term Paper

… ¶ … Fast Food Among Individuals of Different Countries and Differentiations in Health Perspectives Related to Consumption of Fast Food

The objective of this research is to identify the impact that culture has on the consumption of fast food and… [read more]


Fast Food Channels Term Paper

… Fast Food Channels

The foundations of fast food marketing is in a sense the poster child for mass marketing in the United States. Fast food and franchising chains are in fact one of the clearest and most linear examples of mass marketing in the world, expanding rapidly as fads and needs of the population change. For this reason there has been a historical sense in the industry of solid ground, in marketing, as long as the industry is timely in its market response to fad and change. Some fast food companies have been more or less effective at this goal, and usually exponential expansion and profit growth demonstrate this strength. ("Health Claims Are Junk," 24) Changes in the current market, such as the current popularity of certain food or beverage, such as specialty coffee drinks and/or other, products and/or as is the most recent trend, healthier eating and/or corporate civic responsibility. To respond to these market changes the industry has had to utilize market channels, previously not familiar to them, and especially in the case of modern environmental concerns and healthy eating.

One chain even held a healthy market campaign that stressed the number of new salads offered and partnered them with pedometers as a sort of adult happy meal toy for several weeks at the launch of the program. Another chain has recently announced the removal of trans fat from their chicken product, marketing the product as off the taboo list, even though the actual health of the product could still be seen as marginal. To those who do not utilize fast food, these tactics seem like propaganda, but to most consumers the market channels receive favorable response with continued utilization and increased sales.

Market channels that respond to healthier eating and corporate civic responsibility have in a sense seemed to be a necessity that responds to deliberate smearing of a given organization. ("Fast Food for THOUGHT;" NA) the market channels include both popular and niche print and electronic markets, and in fact inclusion in print and electronic materials that is similar to the ever expanding natural and organic foods markets. One fantastic example is the…… [read more]


Food Ritual Observance - A Prescribed Formal Term Paper

… ¶ … Food Ritual Observance - a Prescribed Formal Behavior

Food ritual observance took place June 7, 2007 during a snack break with friends on campus, following an intense study session. There were four participants total, two males and two… [read more]


Whole Foods Market Term Paper

… Whole Foods Case Study

How would you describe the merchandising and operational decisions made by Whole Foods Market in terms of the rational, bounded rationality, and garbage can models of decision-making?

Given the current public upsurge of interest in where food comes from and how food is prepared, Whole Food's merchandising and operational decisions can be explained by the rational model of decision-making. Increased publicity surrounding food-born ailments like mad cow disease, e.coli poisoning, antibiotics in cow feed, and high levels of added sweeteners make Whole Food's extensive organic and locally grown lines of food a comfort to worried consumers and a viable alternative to traditional supermarkets. "Catering to the growing interest in organic and gourmet foods," Whole Foods merchandise offers customers peace of mind at a price, but customers appear willing to pay higher prices for such goods (Brady, 2005).

More and more customers are willing to pay high prices for food in general, given the corresponding success of stores like Starbucks that likewise cater to what might be called mass affluence, or the willingness of middle-class consumers to pay more for certain premium foodstuffs like coffee. Even the presence of the Food Network on television indicates a heightened interest new and innovative ways to put food on the family dinner table. However, an advocate of theories of bounded rationality might caution that Whole Foods' founders in the 1970s could not have predicted all of these 21st century food marketing trends. Rather, the company designed a unique and effective approach to management through early regionalization and niche marketing of its foodstuffs. It has been able to make pricy produce profitable, despite its nickname "whole paycheck" because of a semi-orchestrated convergence between product, pricing, and consumer trends (Brady, 2005). Its limits on high executive salaries allowed the company to become profitable quickly and coincided as well with the heightened public and shareholder distaste for paying CEOs high salaries and pricy perks. Today, Whole Foods is actually more profitable than traditional supermarkets, with gross margins of 35% over the past year, vs. 24% for Kroger Co. And 29% for Safeway Inc., according to market research firm Capital IQ (Brady, 2005). It carved out a niche quite expertly, and at this time and place in history, there was demand for that niche. Also, these merchandise and leadership decisions is not simply rational, they also correspond to the company's overall ethos. Of course, a garbage can model would place even more emphasis on the accidental coherence between the ideological agenda of people who have promoted greener, cleaner living, some recent food scares, and the heightened concern about nutrition in light of the nation's obesity crisis. Finally, there seems to be something unique about the atmosphere at Whole Foods -- other chains like Trader Joe's are doing what Whole Foods is doing, and doing it for less, but only Whole Foods inspires such devotion: "I'm addicted to the onion focaccia bread!" (Brady, 2005)

Question

What role does participation play in the decision-making process…… [read more]


Agriculture Industry the Agricultural Term Paper

… Agriculture Industry

The agricultural industry is one of the most important sectors of any country. It helps enhance the economy of a country by producing goods that can be sold in and out of the country and by creating thousands of job opportunities for the people. Not only that; the agricultural industry is also sharing significant contribution to the health sector of the country because of the industry's main products. Because of these, all other sectors of a country, particularly the educational sector, has also seen opportunities where the two sectors education and agriculture - can be interconnected and would mutually benefit from each other.

If the schools and universities would advocate the consumption of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables, more and more students will benefit academically, mentally and physically. In the same manner, if more students will be encouraged to eat and use agricultural products in their daily life, the overall agricultural sector will continue to boom. As it is evident that both the schools and the agricultural sector would benefit if consumption of fruits and vegetables will be highlighted and promoted in schools, both sectors should then realize some approaches on how to initiate such action.

It would then be a very good starting point if there will be activities in schools which will focus on the benefits of continuous consumption of agricultural products. To do so, the agricultural industry must establish series of information dissemination through instigating a number of student group activities and student-teacher forums in schools.

Group activities can be tree planting or vegetable planting of the students. This can be made more exciting by making it seem like a contest - it may be on a year level or by-section contest - with which the winning group will be earning a special price.…… [read more]


Fast Food Term Paper

… fast food- EFFECTS on GENERAL PUBLIC

In his famous book Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser, directed the attention of American public to the ill effects of consuming fast food. The author explained that fast food is not only resulting in alarming rise in rate of obesity in the country, it is also causing serious social ill effects which are putting the entire nation in danger. Fast food refers to meals, which are quickly prepared, and quickly consumed however 'quick' is not always better. In fact quick may actually never be good. The nutritional value of fast food is a highly contentious issue. In families where both parents work, it is not easy to prepare meals at home and thus the entire family would opt for fast food at various jaunts. This has been putting the health of families at risk while increasing obesity rate in children and adults with equal rapidity.

The massive increase in number of fast food restaurants between 1970s and 1990s has resulted in dramatic rise in consumption of food of minimal nutritional value. It has been observed that children who consumed more fast food were at a greater risk of obesity than those who opted for home cooked meals. One report indicates: "Children who ate fast food obtained from 29% to 38% of their total energy intake from that source and ate more total fat, more saturated fat, more total carbohydrate, more added sugars, more sweetened beverages, less fluid milk, and fewer fruits and non-starchy vegetables than those who did not." ("Fast food and obesity")

Fast food has now become the staple diet of America. In fact fast food is synonymous with being American and this has had a bad effect on health of the general public. Since no fast food restaurant offers indicates nutritional value on the boxes, it is impossible to ascertain just how much saturated fat is being consumed. People were thus oblivious to the bad effects of fast food for the longest time till there was some awareness created by interest groups regarding greasy nutritional-less meals of McDonalds. Since then there has been growing concern among parents regarding the food their children consume in school canteens. In a recent attempt to attack fast food, senators and congressmen argued against consumption of fast food at cafes in schools and it was said that such food would be banned so protect youth's health.

It is also sad that the section of society hardest hit by fast food epidemic is the lower income group. Since they do not have enough money for meals, they usually depend on $2 meals from fast food jaunts and this has led to health risks. Unfortunately these people fall in the category that doesn't even qualify for Medicaid and the families that do may not always find adequate coverage for all health problems. These are the social ill effects of fast food. Apart from it being a massively contested dietary option for American public, it is also the cause of… [read more]


Issues of Global Overpopulation and Food Supply Can We Feed the World Term Paper

… ¶ … Overpopulation [...] overpopulation and the food supply, two global issues facing the world's population today and in the future. The Earth's population is expanding faster than it has ever grown before, and with this overpopulation comes the need for more food and food sources. The poor in overpopulated countries often go hungry, and as populations increase, the implications for global hunger grow along with them. Can we feed the world, or can the world develop enough food sources to feed itself? These are compelling questions that must be answered to end world hunger in the 21st century, even if overpopulation continues to plague the planet.

The United States is one of the world's largest food producers (Cook 5). As such, we have a responsibility to other countries and peoples of the world. Many other countries suffer from overpopulation and the inability to feed all their population effectively. The United States produces an abundance of food, and is a forerunner in the technology necessary to manage food supplies in the future, as well. Thus, it is America's responsibility to help the world feed itself and escape global hunger.

One of the ways the United States can help other countries grow more of their own food is by researching Genetically Modified foods (GM). These new food types include plants genetically engineered to resist pests and disease, and grow in areas that were previously considered non-productive or infertile (Cook 10). However, these genetically modified foods are extremely controversial, and have been banned in many areas of the world until they receive further study. It is interesting to note that many people in the countries most affected by overpopulation and a dwindling food supply are not as concerned about the effects of genetically modified foods and their modifications. They are willing to try them to help their countries grow more food to feed their growing populations (14). It is mostly the well-fed nations, such as many in Europe, who are afraid of genetically modified foods and the effect they might have if they are consumed. So far, research shows genetically modified foods are perfectly safe to eat, but many people still believe they may be harmful in some way. The United States can make a difference by educating the wary about genetically modified foods and GM crop growth, and helping set up GM farming in overpopulated areas, such as India and areas of Africa.

One of the countries most affected by overpopulation is China. They implemented a one child only policy for families in the 1970s to help limit population growth, and have faced great famines throughout their history. The last ended as recently as 1961, as author Vaclav Smil notes, "The world's greatest famine,' this was an overwhelmingly man-made (Mao-made, to be exact) famine, and by the time it ended in 1961 it left behind about 30 million dead" (Smil 72). Today, China has modernized its food production and farming techniques to a point that they can supply adequate amounts of… [read more]


Shifting Trends in the Food Sector: Organic Term Paper

… Shifting Trends in the Food Sector: Organic Food Versus Fast Food
Introduction:
Trends in the food industry are continually in flux. Changing
tastes, dietary guidelines, cultural phenomenon, and more are all forces
that are constantly changing the food industry. One… [read more]


Urban Encroachment on Agriculture in Northern California Term Paper

… Urban Encroachment on Agriculture in Northern California

In the past few years, the continued loss of rich agricultural lands in Northern California to urban encroachment has emerged as an issue of significant concern to land use specialists, regional planners, government… [read more]

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