"Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays

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Agriculture Industry the Agricultural Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Agriculture Industry

The agricultural industry is one of the most important sectors of any country. It helps enhance the economy of a country by producing goods that can be sold in and out of the country and by creating thousands of job opportunities for the people. Not only that; the agricultural industry is also sharing significant contribution to the health sector of the country because of the industry's main products. Because of these, all other sectors of a country, particularly the educational sector, has also seen opportunities where the two sectors education and agriculture - can be interconnected and would mutually benefit from each other.

If the schools and universities would advocate the consumption of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables, more and more students will benefit academically, mentally and physically. In the same manner, if more students will be encouraged to eat and use agricultural products in their daily life, the overall agricultural sector will continue to boom. As it is evident that both the schools and the agricultural sector would benefit if consumption of fruits and vegetables will be highlighted and promoted in schools, both sectors should then realize some approaches on how to initiate such action.

It would then be a very good starting point if there will be activities in schools which will focus on the benefits of continuous consumption of agricultural products. To do so, the agricultural industry must establish series of information dissemination through instigating a number of student group activities and student-teacher forums in schools.

Group activities can be tree planting or vegetable planting of the students. This can be made more exciting by making it seem like a contest - it may be on a year level or by-section contest - with which the winning group will be earning a special price.…… [read more]

Fast Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,021 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



In his famous book Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser, directed the attention of American public to the ill effects of consuming fast food. The author explained that fast food is not only resulting in alarming rise in rate of obesity in the country, it is also causing serious social ill effects which are putting the entire nation in danger. Fast food refers to meals, which are quickly prepared, and quickly consumed however 'quick' is not always better. In fact quick may actually never be good. The nutritional value of fast food is a highly contentious issue. In families where both parents work, it is not easy to prepare meals at home and thus the entire family would opt for fast food at various jaunts. This has been putting the health of families at risk while increasing obesity rate in children and adults with equal rapidity.

The massive increase in number of fast food restaurants between 1970s and 1990s has resulted in dramatic rise in consumption of food of minimal nutritional value. It has been observed that children who consumed more fast food were at a greater risk of obesity than those who opted for home cooked meals. One report indicates: "Children who ate fast food obtained from 29% to 38% of their total energy intake from that source and ate more total fat, more saturated fat, more total carbohydrate, more added sugars, more sweetened beverages, less fluid milk, and fewer fruits and non-starchy vegetables than those who did not." ("Fast food and obesity")

Fast food has now become the staple diet of America. In fact fast food is synonymous with being American and this has had a bad effect on health of the general public. Since no fast food restaurant offers indicates nutritional value on the boxes, it is impossible to ascertain just how much saturated fat is being consumed. People were thus oblivious to the bad effects of fast food for the longest time till there was some awareness created by interest groups regarding greasy nutritional-less meals of McDonalds. Since then there has been growing concern among parents regarding the food their children consume in school canteens. In a recent attempt to attack fast food, senators and congressmen argued against consumption of fast food at cafes in schools and it was said that such food would be banned so protect youth's health.

It is also sad that the section of society hardest hit by fast food epidemic is the lower income group. Since they do not have enough money for meals, they usually depend on $2 meals from fast food jaunts and this has led to health risks. Unfortunately these people fall in the category that doesn't even qualify for Medicaid and the families that do may not always find adequate coverage for all health problems. These are the social ill effects of fast food. Apart from it being a massively contested dietary option for American public, it is also the cause of… [read more]

Issues of Global Overpopulation and Food Supply Can We Feed the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,059 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Overpopulation [...] overpopulation and the food supply, two global issues facing the world's population today and in the future. The Earth's population is expanding faster than it has ever grown before, and with this overpopulation comes the need for more food and food sources. The poor in overpopulated countries often go hungry, and as populations increase, the implications for global hunger grow along with them. Can we feed the world, or can the world develop enough food sources to feed itself? These are compelling questions that must be answered to end world hunger in the 21st century, even if overpopulation continues to plague the planet.

The United States is one of the world's largest food producers (Cook 5). As such, we have a responsibility to other countries and peoples of the world. Many other countries suffer from overpopulation and the inability to feed all their population effectively. The United States produces an abundance of food, and is a forerunner in the technology necessary to manage food supplies in the future, as well. Thus, it is America's responsibility to help the world feed itself and escape global hunger.

One of the ways the United States can help other countries grow more of their own food is by researching Genetically Modified foods (GM). These new food types include plants genetically engineered to resist pests and disease, and grow in areas that were previously considered non-productive or infertile (Cook 10). However, these genetically modified foods are extremely controversial, and have been banned in many areas of the world until they receive further study. It is interesting to note that many people in the countries most affected by overpopulation and a dwindling food supply are not as concerned about the effects of genetically modified foods and their modifications. They are willing to try them to help their countries grow more food to feed their growing populations (14). It is mostly the well-fed nations, such as many in Europe, who are afraid of genetically modified foods and the effect they might have if they are consumed. So far, research shows genetically modified foods are perfectly safe to eat, but many people still believe they may be harmful in some way. The United States can make a difference by educating the wary about genetically modified foods and GM crop growth, and helping set up GM farming in overpopulated areas, such as India and areas of Africa.

One of the countries most affected by overpopulation is China. They implemented a one child only policy for families in the 1970s to help limit population growth, and have faced great famines throughout their history. The last ended as recently as 1961, as author Vaclav Smil notes, "The world's greatest famine,' this was an overwhelmingly man-made (Mao-made, to be exact) famine, and by the time it ended in 1961 it left behind about 30 million dead" (Smil 72). Today, China has modernized its food production and farming techniques to a point that they can supply adequate amounts of… [read more]

Shifting Trends in the Food Sector: Organic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,541 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Shifting Trends in the Food Sector: Organic Food Versus Fast Food
Trends in the food industry are continually in flux. Changing
tastes, dietary guidelines, cultural phenomenon, and more are all forces
that are constantly changing the food industry. One of the more prominent
changes in today's industry is the increasing popularity of the organic
food sector, with the decreasing… [read more]

Urban Encroachment on Agriculture in Northern California Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (3,812 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Urban Encroachment on Agriculture in Northern California

In the past few years, the continued loss of rich agricultural lands in Northern California to urban encroachment has emerged as an issue of significant concern to land use specialists, regional planners, government officials and historical researchers alike. The population in California is expected to increase by about one third over the next… [read more]

Corporate Research: Fast Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Corporate Research: Fast Food

The fast food industry has changed a great deal in recent years, largely because of lawsuits and complaints regarding people that have gained too much weight or have gotten some type of disease from eating fast food, and how those people were not 'warned' that the food could be bad for them. Most people find this to be somewhat laughable, because it is obvious to most individuals that fast food choices overall are not 'good' for people. However, the changing society has created a changing fast food environment, regardless of whether this change is for the better or not. Through looking at www.hoovers.comand examining information for Taco Bell, McDonalds, Wendy's, Steak and Shake, and Burger King, it is easy to get a picture of the fast food industry based on the financial health, concerns, legal issues, and health issues that the industry is experiencing at this time. All of these issues will be addressed here.

The financial health of the fast food industry could not be better overall. People are eating fast food at very high rates as society continues to move faster and people become busier. As this takes place, more people are eating fast food for all three meals, and because of this the fast food industry is making more money than it did in the past. Therefore, financially, the fast food industry really does not have that much that it needs to be worried about. There will always be competition between the fast food restaurants, and there will always be some people that will choose one restaurant over the other ones, but this is only to be expected, and is generally the same, regardless of the industry.

Financial issues are not the only concerns that the fast food industry has, however, as there are legal and health issues that also must be addressed where this particular industry is concerned. The legal issues involve obvious concerns such as copyrights and patents on particular kinds of food, certain sauces, specific names, and other issues that have to be addressed. Legal issues also involve the lawsuits that are often seen…… [read more]

World of Food American Cuisine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (773 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American Cuisine

America has long been heralded as the world's melting pot because of the diverse mix of nationalities that affect nearly every aspect of American culture. The effect of several nationalities and cultures is readily apparent when one considers the uniqueness of American cuisine.

Without a doubt, American cuisine has been affected by a variety of cultures, such as German, Italian, Asian, French and Creole. However, another interesting aspect of American cuisine is that it is clearly affected by geography, as the nation is geographically diverse, ranging from the cattle country of the Midwest to the seacoast lifestyles of the Northeast. The combination of culture and geography both have a strong influence on the shaping of American cuisine, allowing it to develop into an eclectic mixture of food styles as diverse as America itself.

The impacts of culture and geography

There are a variety of factors that influence the development of national cuisine. Lynne Olver defines the main factors as food availability; technology; climate; religion; socio-economic class; and politics (culture, immigration rates, etc.) (Olver, 2000). Really, we can condense these influences and note that they all indicate that a nation's cuisine is determined by cultural influences and what is available (either because of climate, geography or social status).

Sam Gugino points out that defining American cuisine requires a regional approach. Northeastern cuisine is often defined by seafoods (think Maine and Massachusetts lobster), and regional cuisines, such as Italian, German and Asian food (Gugino, 2006). The Midwest and West, America's bread and livestock basket, tends to feature food heavy in meat and vegetables, while the South offers cuisine full of spice and flavor, largely due to the influence of Creole and Cajun cultures (Gugino, 2006).

Naturally, it is possible to drill down into even smaller subsections of America's culture and to analyze the distinctive cuisines that have developed. Groups like the Pennsylvania Dutch, for example, may argue that their cuisine is distinctive. but, at any rate, the factors of culture and availability hold up in just about every situation.

In the Northeast, for example, there are several coastal states where people have spent generations making their livings from fishing. The fact that fish are abundantly available has a strong influence on the region's cuisine. Similarly, many immigrants in America's early days settled in clusters in various…… [read more]

Culture Food History of North Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These cook-offs and competions can range from chili to candy and chicken, and they are becoming more and more popular, and even a source of some people's full time income and employment (Sutherland 7-8).

4. What are the ingredients, seasoning, styles, and cooking procedures attributable to the North America region?

The cooking styles, procedures, seasonings, and ingredients are as varied as the many cultures that make up North American cooking. You can travel from Alaska to Florida and not sample the same dish twice. Eskimos in the far North still rely on age-old hunting techniques for their food, while suburban moms shop in trendy organic grocery stores and use a fusion of Asian, Hispanic, European, and very American ingredients. The North American continent has always been a magnet for people looking for a better life, and they have all brought food traditions with them. Trying to nail down the seasonings and styles of this large area is like trying to travel from one coast to another in a single day. It can be done, but you'll miss a lot along the way!


Jones, Oakah L. "5 / Hacia El Norte! The Spanish Entrada into North America, 1513-1549." North American Exploration: A New World Disclosed. Ed. John Logan Allen. Vol. 1. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. 241-291.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. "7 / A Continent Revealed: Assimilation of the Shape and Possibilities of North America's East Coast, 1524-1610." North American Exploration: A New World Disclosed. Ed. John Logan Allen. Vol. 1. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. 344-399.

Sutherland, Amy. Cookoff: Recipe Fever in America. New York: Penguin Books, 2003.

Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York,…… [read more]

Food and Water Supply: Rwanda Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


above might provide the quickest results, the U.S. And its allies have publicly denounced this tactic and those in power in similar situation are rarely willing to give up that power unless compelled to do so. Therefore, an analysis of Alternatives A and C. is in order. Providing the hungry and thirsty people of Rwanda with improved access to clean water sources is an urgent priority, and better healthcare has been directly related to helping the body use what nutrition is available in better ways. Unfortunately, the results of this alternative may take years to realize in any substantive way. Consequently, it is the recommendation of this study that Alternative C, providing the Rwandan people with soy food supplements and the tools and education they will require to acquire safe water in the near-term appears to represent the most viable approach.


Chen, L.C., Kleinman, A., & Ware, N.C. (1992). Advancing health in developing countries:

The role of social research. New York: Auburn House.

Enhancing support of African development. (1996). UN Chronicle, 33(2), 6.

Goldstein, J. (1990) Demanding clean food and water: The fight for a basic human right. New York: Plenum Press.

Goldstein, M., & Goldstein, M.C. (2002). Controversies in food and nutrition. Westport, CT:

Greenwood Press.

Henkel, J. (2000, May). Soy: Health claims for soy protein, questions about other components.

FDA Consumer, 34(3), 13.

Lemarchand, R. (2005). Rwanda. In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].

Rwanda. (2005). CIA World Factbook. [Online]. Available: http://www.cia.gov/cia / publications/factbook/geos/rw.html.

Scharf,…… [read more]

Geographical Location of Italy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,137 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the past, during the Roman occupation, it was a tradition that guests lean on the dinner table with his left elbow while his right hand is free and is usually used for eating.

In terms of cooking, there is a tradition in most Italian cuisines to use tomato as an ingredient. In the process of cooking, it has been a social ritual for the chefs to perform and demonstrate different tricks while cooking an Italian cuisine. For instance, when preparing pizza, chefs usually entertain the audience by tossing upward the pizza crust that he is preparing, then catch it as it falls and then toss it again.

In terms of eating the Italian cuisines, on the other hand, it has been a tradition to use different spices that can add to the taste of their food. This includes cheese, tomato sauce, pepper, and other rare spices that the Italians themselves prepare.

Ingredients, Seasoning, Styles, and Cooking Procedures Attributable to the Italian Cuisine

When one thinks of an Italian cuisine, the first thing that can pop to one's mind is the pastas and the delicious sauces that come with them. Or, one may also immediately think of a red or white sauce. Moreover, tomato sauce, cheese, and different spices may immediately come to mind once an Italian cuisine is mentioned. As mentioned earlier, Italy is divided into different regions that similarly have different ways and styles of cooking. Hence, it is said that there is no similar food that is prepared in the same way in 2 places in Italy. However, there can be similarity in the ingredients and seasonings that are used in cooking an Italian cuisine.

According to Diner's Digest online, Italian cuisines are prepared in a style that is characterized by innovation and art where different themes and a variety of cooking models are established. As for the ingredients, spices and vegetables usually make up an Italian food. This includes mushrooms, tomatoes, beans, grains, olive oil, cheese, and many others. These are usually blended together which brings out the richness in taste of the Italian cuisine. In Tuscany, however, seasonings such as garlic, onion, and basil, are modestly used to bring out the natural flavor of the main ingredients such as the vegetables (Hawkins). Seafood and meat also play an important ingredient in Italian cuisines.

Because of the differences in the cooking style and procedures between the different places in Italy, the preparation of the ingredients is similarly different. As indicated by Anna Maria Volpi,

Every town has a distinctive way of making sausage, special kinds of cheese and wine, and a local type of bread. If you ask people, even in the same area, how to make pasta sauce, they will all have different answers

This variation in the style of preparation and cooking by the Italians is perhaps the attributable characteristic of the Italian cuisine. Hence, if one is to go to Italy and taste the country's food, he perhaps may not find the right… [read more]

Mediterranean Food History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


What are the practical and social rituals associated with the Mediterranean cuisine?

Because of the high levels of mid-day heat of many regions in the Mediterranean, it is often traditional to have a light, carbohydrate-based breakfast, to take a nap during the heat of the day, and to consume the main meal after the sun has set. There is an intense communal aspect and centrality to food in the culture. Especially in Greek and Italian cuisine, extended family and friends is the focus of the family. It is characteristic of the Greek and Italian people "to celebrate their joys, to sweeten their sorrows, and to assuage their struggles by eating and drinking in the company of family and friends." (Alexiadou, 2005) In desert cultures, hospitality to strangers as a way of surviving the harsh desert, often involving lavish entertaining is an important part of the culture.

Fasts and feasting, associated with religion, are commonly practiced, such as fasting during the holy month of Ramadan for Turkish and Algerian Muslims, or for Orthodox Greeks who eat specific foods on fasting days during the year depending on the season, such as Lent. Roman Catholics obey Lent as well, at a different period of the year, usually, since the Roman and Orthodox Easters do not always correspond, and have different favored foods, such as the red eggs in Greece that mark the festival, and the sugar cookies and cakes of Italy. (Alexiadou, 2005)

What are the ingredients, seasoning, styles, and cooking procedures attributable to the Mediterranean region?

Heavily spiced foods are common as preservatives in warmer regions, and as a way of making bland or tough meats more interesting to the palate. For example, Kavurma is still a favorite in Turkey. This is a dish of small cubes of meat cooked in its own fat, salted, stored in large earthenware containers, and eaten in the winter months. Pastirma, a preserved meat, was salted and spiced and dried in the sun in Turkey. In the region as a whole, olive oil predominates over butter, and honey over sugar in desserts, although in Northern Italy, butter and creme sauces, and more meats such as veal come to the foreground of the cuisine. Cumin, coriander, cinnamon, mustard, pepper, and saffron are the foremost spices used in the hottest regions of Turkey, Greece, and the Arab Mediterranean world, along with parsley, mint leaves, onions, and garlic. In Greece, when meat lamb is eaten, it is often prepared roasted over an open wood or charcoal fire whole, or in Turkey, as kebabs. Slow-roasting pots of meats and vegetables, so there is always food prepared for a potential visitor is another common feature of desert, nomadic, and Arab preparation that has been incorporated into the cuisine of many nations. (Illium & Kaufman, 2005)

In Italy, of course, the varieties of preparations of pastas and breads dominate the famed Italian cuisine are most familiar to Americans, although it is worthy of note that often regionally and within the nation, there… [read more]

Food History-Swiss Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,239 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Lunch may be as simple as a sandwich or a birchermuesli (granola) or it could be a complete meal. Dinner can be a full main course or just some bread, cheese with a fondue. Local products can include a great variety of beers and wines. Non-alcoholic drinks include many different flavors of tea and coffee and hot chocolate. ("About: Switzerland Food," 2005) A great variety of Swiss wines are available throughout the country and there are also spirits made from fruit, the most popular being Kirsch, Marc, Pflumli and Williams. Swiss beer of a lager type is also popular, and bottled mineral water is an accepted beverage at most eateries, with local brands including Henniez and Passuger numbering among the favorites. ("Swiss Food & Dining," 2005, iExplore)

Overall, despite the quality of the dairy-based products and sweets, "Swiss food is not the first reason to come to Switzerland," given the presence of hearty, peasant dishes in its local cuisine that "come from the country agricultural background," and stress fairly simple flavors. "Swiss food has no pretension to beat Italian or French standards." ("Swiss Food," 2005, switzerlandisyours.com)

What are the ingredients, seasoning, styles, and cooking procedures attributable to the Switzerland cuisine?

Ingredients include cheeses and chocolates of course, most notably. The French-originated fondue is probably the most famous Swiss menu item. Fondue is made out of molten cheese and is eaten, while the cheese is kept warm over an open fire, as the diners dip small pieces of bread in the bowl of hot cheese. Different regions have different mixtures of different flavors of cheese. "Typically, fondue is served on cold winter days, but many restaurants serve it all-year 'round," because of its popularity amongst tourists ("About: Switzerland Food," 2005)

However, spicy seasonings or rich meats are not favored. The meat pies and dried meats that reflect the need to preserve foods for long periods of time are often heavily seasoned, but not spicy. Even in the summer in German regions, salads will include cold sausages. Veal predominates as well, made from calves rather than full-grown cattle that take a long time and a large amount of grazing area to rear for slaughter. To soften and flavor tough meat, meat is often cooked in a pot with vegetables, or served as a pie. The most popular dish of Swiss German-speaking Switzerland is the rosti "pronounced rush-T," that of hearty roasted potatoes with cheese or bacon on top. German foods and the German language dominate Western Switzerland, in contrast to the regions that neighbor the French borders. ("Swiss Food," 2005, switzerlandisyours.com) Pasta tri colori (pasta of three colors) in the colors of the Italian flag red, white and green with vegetables can be seen as an effort to show national pride for Italian-speaking Swiss. ("About: Switzerland Food," 2005)

Swiss pastries are also famous, of course made from Swiss chocolates -- but non-chocolate dishes often show the German influence of the nation. Cakes and pastries, besides brownies (brunsili) and chocolates, as noted in… [read more]

Schlosser: Fast Food Nation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,025 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is to be traced out whether the advertisers be allowed to aim the children who are deprived of the sophistication to make informed conclusions and are necessarily allured to consume fat, high calorie food through toys and cute corporate mascots. It is to be investigated whether the fast food companies like tobacco companies are engaging younger consumers so as to assure a persistent consumer base while their older consumers die of heart diseases, diabetes and other obesity-related disorders. (Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal by Eric Schlosser)

The Jungle of Upton Sinclair is considered to be the first ever book to protest against the appalling abuses inherent in mass-produced beef. In the decades ever since its publication, the state of meat packing has attracted rare attention. The Fast Food Nation of Schlosser accounts the same unsafe conditions and experiences that Sinclair brought out a century before. Fast food chains, irrespective of the innumerable difficulties reported by Schlosser, have an unquestionable advantage of being convenient and provide cheap and tasty diet. Irrespective of the disturbances caused by the corporations it is quite impossible to abandon the fast food in consideration to its common adaptability among the mainstream.

Since the fast food is presently seldom confused as the fast food with health food, those bears the greater liability for the warning rate of fatness in children in the United States, the fast food chains that sell the 'supersize' meals to children, warns the parents to make the children about the advantages of the balanced diet. It increases the responsibility of the parents to exercise extensive regulation over the dieting practices of their children in an age when the school districts are constricting to introduce the fast food into the school cafeteria. (Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal by Eric Schlosser) In addition to the impacts of fast food brought out by Schlosser there are some other facts which still questions about the harmful impacts. First one is to think of the impacts of the disposable containers. The environmental impact of the use and throw plates, forks, spoons, napkins, condiment packs, straws, lids, cups etc. are to be worth considering. (Stosberg, Fast Food Nation)


Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser: A Book Club Reading Guide. Retrieved from http://www.bookbrowse.com/reading_guides/detail/index.cfm?book_number=769 Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal by Eric Schlosser. Retrieved from http://www.readinggroupguides.com/guides3/fast_food_nation1.asp Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Introduction: Fast Food Nation - The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/s/schlosser-fast.html Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Rosenberg, Matt. T. Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser. February 2, 2001. Retrieved from http://geography.about.com/library/misc/blffn.htm Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Stosberg, Mark. Fast Food Nation. Retrieved from http://mark.stosberg.com/Ideas/Book_Reviews/fast-food-nation.html Accessed on 25 May, 2005

You are what you eat. But do you really know what you're eating? Retrieved from http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/books/schlosser.html Accessed on 25 May, 2005… [read more]

Catering in the Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It is a simple fact that offering a catering business that is both competitive and profitable creates a sense of independence and also raises ones level of prestige in the eyes of consumers and customers.

The benefits come from owning ones own business and having the ability to manage it in the way the person wants. And the expertise gained from each successive event helps to build the experience needed to improve with time. Catering businesses entail planning memorable events, and then preparing and serving outstanding foods and hiring a good staff that serve well. Caterers actually benefit because they know internally that they are doing something they love.

The Downfalls of Catering Services

There are many downfalls in the catering business. Consider that a massive meal was just prepared and the event is cancelled. If there is no insurance to cover the cost of the food, the caterer may have to, excuse the pun, 'eat the' difference or loss. And, food-based businesses requires some skill in purchasing, preparation and these skills do not translate into new customers. In other words, another downfall is the need for some basic marketing and customer service skills. Couple that with the fact that hiring and employee's maintenance such as training and payroll also falls on the caterers' plates. Basically, some of the downfalls are directly associated with the fact that these businesses required a mix of typical business skills and restaurateur and food prep skills.

Types of Catering Offered in General

Catering seems pretty straightforward because it means to cook food and serve it. That is the basic idea, but there's much more to it. Consider just choosing where to serve. There are many areas to focus on such as dinner parties, large or small events like weddings or corporate functions. Catering in general implies creating an atmosphere that appeals to all of the senses in a way that can leave the memory of the event in the mind of the customer special and memorable. Catering usually provides customers some well prepared food that appeals to the senses of taste, smell and sight and often the sense of touch.

Liability Problems

The problems that can occur in a catering business are many such as showing up at a catering event with any silverware or something as simple as a cork screws. These types of problems are very common as preparation sometimes leaves out basics. Catering events are often completely ruined because of the caterer not being fully aware of how many tables or commercial ovens are available. Thus, the liabilities in a catering operation encompass a comprehensive list of things that could go wrong.

References… [read more]

Nutrition Food and Dietary Habits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,035 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


At the same time, income levels went up and there was a marked improvement in transport that made it possible to transfer goods from one location to another.

These changes led to a dramatic change in food choices in Europe till 1950s. Total calorie intake increased by 50%. Initially European countries increased their intake of starch in the form of bread and potatoes. Once their initial hunger was satisfied, they started adding variety to their food choices and thus included sugar, oils and fats, fruit and vegetables, and also meat and dairy goods. With this expansion in food choices, nutritional history took a huge turn as Europe started relying less on starchy staples. (Grigg, 1996)

By 1960s, it was seen that there existed some wide differences between dietary habits of various regions. The world was still however more depended on plant foods for energy than on meat or animal food. Total calorie intake was higher in western and developed countries- almost 55% more than developing countries. Protein intake was also 83% more as developing countries depended heavily on starchy staples. With increase in income, reliance on starchy foods is reduced as livestock products become more accessible.

Since 1962, however, there have been significant steady increases in income levels of the developing countries which have led to a change in dietary habits (World Bank, 1990). The changes thus witnessed are similar to the ones Western countries experienced during the 19th century. Except in Africa, where income level did not increase, every developing country has witnessed positive change in its nutritional habits. Consumption of all types of food including dairy and meat products has increased and Asia has shown greatest improvement. In Latin America, however, it appears food consumption and nutritional patterns have remained more or less static since 1980s. Sugar intake has remained unchanged and consumption of starchy staples has decreased. Japan and Korea have been the slowest to accept change or change their dietary habits. Even though these two are highly prosperous nations, still they food choices are still markedly different from the rest of the world. Rice is still very important part of their diet and consumption of animal foods is relatively low. (FAO, 1996b)

Western countries have also shown changes in nutritional preferences since 1960s. Calorie intake is higher in five prosperous regions of the world and has continued to rise. Intake of vegetable oils and fats has also risen along with consumption of meat which has increased everywhere except in the region of Australasia. Cereals are more popular in North America and some European countries now than they were before 1960s and consumption of sugar has declined in parts of Western Europe and Australasia. Consumption of alcohol and related beverages has declined in developed countries since 1970s along with dairy products that showed decline in North America, Eastern Europe, the U.S.S.R. (FAO, 1996b).


1. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996a The sixth world food survey. Rome: FAO.

2. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996b. Food balance sheets 1961-1994.… [read more]

Vegetable Oil and Fried Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050502190054.htm)." When linoleic acid oxides, the compound HNE develops. The compound has been linked to a number of diseases such as "atherosclerosis, stroke, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Huntington's and liver diseases (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050502190054.htm)."

Other research has shown that the concentration amount of unsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oil may be at a level that "can react with oxygen and the water in raw foods to produce a toxic compound such as malondialdehyde, and repeated frying with the same oil can aggravate the situation (www.theexoticblends.com/research/research.html)."


Science is discovering that foods originally considered healthy may now pose a number of health risks. Researchers have found this is true of foods fried with vegetable oil, as a toxic compound forms when the oil is heated.

Works Cited

The Exotic Blends Co.: R & D. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.theexoticblends.com/research/research.html).

Unknown. "Food Fried in Vegetable Oil May Contain Toxic Compound."

Science Daily. 02 May, 2005. University of Minnesota. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050502190054.htm).… [read more]

Fast Food Nation the Ramifications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


" Technology had evidently been detrimental to the welfare of animals raised as livestock for food production purposes. This was apparent in the knocking process described by Schlosser as follows: "Cattle walk down a narrow chute and pause in front of him ... And then he shoots them in the head with a captive bolt stunner- and compressed-air gun ... he misses a few times and shoots the same animal twice. As soon as the steer falls, a workers grabs one of its hind legs, shackles it to a chain, and the chain lifts the huge animal into the air" (169). This description put into focus how the meat production industry had created a system in which the reality that prevailed was that cattle are raised and cultivated only to be slaughtered in an inhumane manner.

Globally, fast food industries and its related technologies such as advancement in meat generation, processing, and preservation had also resulted to the thriving of harmful organisms that develop within the human system to produce illnesses, such as the one caused E. coli bacteria, or the animal affliction foot-and-mouth disease. The E. coli bacteria was one of the organisms that had learned to thrive in favorable meatpacking conditions, wherein its effect may range between a simple metabolism problem such as diarrhea to acceleration of the illness that can cause eventual death (200). Despite increased progress in the production of more meat products for the fast food industries, there had been considerable detrimental consequences that led to worldwide spread of illnesses that would otherwise have not been developed had the meatpacking industry not been greedy enough to sacrifice quality and environmental packing conditions for the sake of profit and increased production.

Work cited

Schlosser, E. (2002). Fast Food Nation: the…… [read more]

Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Emerging Nations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,089 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Emerging Nations in General and China in Particular

Let trees sprout on the mountains; stop growing grain on hilly terrain; and keep livestock in their pens. - Chinese Edict for 21st Century Agricultural Practices, Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji, Spring 2000

In recent years, the rapid development of industrial and urban areas, and changes in… [read more]

Fast Food Industry Changes: 1950s to the Present Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,451 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Fast Food Industry from the 1950s to the Present

The past 55 years have witnessed a number of history-changing events, but one of the most enduring to have emerged from the political and social turbulence has been the propensity of people around the world to eat fast food. While the critics of "McDonaldization" point to the low wages… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (836 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Data were collected from a random sample of 318 adults from two major Midwestern cities. These individuals provided social-demographic information and answers on prior beliefs about technologies and participated in a set of experiments. They then completed a short questionnaire on: "If a source of information were to give you verifiable information on genetically modified foods, who would you trust most?" This information was coded into the categories of third-party, government, environmental or consumer group, private industry or organization, none or nobody, and "other" (including no response).

An econometric model was used to establish linkages of trust to provide verifiable information on genetically modified foods. Five regressors were included in this multinomial logit model: a participant's household income, education, age, a dummy variable for prior beliefs, and a dummy for conservative religious affiliation. Results showed that well educated individuals more likely trust an "independent third-party." Also, increasing a participant's schooling significantly lowers the odds of trust of government, private industry, or no "body," and "other" relative to a third-party source. As people age, the odds they trust an environmental or consumer group or "nobody" falls significantly relative to trusting a third-party source. Participants with a strict religious upbringing have significantly lower odds of trusting private industry and higher odds of trusting "nobody" relative to a third-party source.

Any individuals involved with product development and marketing, especially controversial ones, must keep in mind the trust factor. In this case, contrary information is disseminated by the NGOs, agricultural biotech industry and U.S. government. The federal government is not a valid third-party source; for example, some groups are not in favor of the FDA's policies on voluntary GM food labels. However, state the authors, "a quasi-governmental entity funded by the government and staffed with informed but financially disinterested scientists not answering to the government may be the best possible source to provide information on foods labeled as genetically modified."

References Cited

Becker, G.S. (1996) Accounting for Tastes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Glaeser, E.L., et. al (2000). "Measuring Trust." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115:811-846.

Hausman, J. 1996. "Valuation of New Goods under Perfect and Imperfect Competition," in Bresnahan, T. And R.J. Gordon, Eds., The Economics of New Goods, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Huffman, W. (2004) et. al., "Who do consumers trust for information: the case of genetically modified foods." American Journal of Economics 86(5): 1222-1230.

Schultz, T.W. (1975) "The value of the ability to deal…… [read more]

Organics Trip to the Local Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, the USDA recently instituted the National Organic Rule, which requires foods labeled as organic to be "produced without hormones, antibiotics, herbicides, insecticides, chemical fertilizers, genetic modification, or germ-killing radiation," (Cowley). The National Organic Rule applies to labeling only and is not a statement of health.

As Geoffrey Cowley notes in his Newsweek article "Certified Organic," many consumers note that organic crops, or produce, tastes better than non-organic produce. Reasons to buy organic extend beyond taste, however. While much organic produce does indeed look and taste better, reasons to buy organic include environmental sustainability, support for smaller farms and farming businesses, and health. In spite of unequivocal scientific proof that organics are healthier, no one can deny that ingesting toxic chemicals at any dose is creepy and potentially harmful. Buying organic need not dent the pocketbook, and therefore buying organic products makes perfect sense; the only disadvantage to buying organic is that organic products are not as widely available and therefore it can be inconvenient to seek them out. However, in major urban centers finding organic products should be a snap. I choose to buy organic produce and other organic products whenever possible for all the reasons mentioned above: appearance, taste, the environment, health, and social reasons. If I have to pay fifty cents more for an apple, I don't mind.

Works Cited

Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm.

Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.

Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.

Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214.… [read more]

1992, the U.S. Department Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Additionally, levels of low -- density lipoprotein, commonly known as "bad cholesterol" increase as well when switching to carbohydrates. An increase in glucose and sugar levels, as well as the risk of obesity should be mentioned as well.

The solution we propose is somewhat similar to the one referring to meat and implements, first of all, a differentiated view on the carbohydrates category. We suggest that additional categories of food, including nuts and beans, should be used to provide part of the proteins needed (1 to 3 servings) and that entire components of the carbohydrate category, including white rice, white bread, pasta and sweets, should be used sparingly. Whole grain foods, notorious for their numerous qualities in disease prevention, should be consumed at most meals.

The third issue that comes up when referring to the old pyramid and a serious concern in this case is the promotion of an "overconsumption of dairy products," up to 2 or 3 servings per day. If we look at the calcium content, this proposal should prove useful, however, experimental studies have shown that high dairy consumption is also associated with increased risks of prostate cancer or ovarian cancer. At this point, even if conclusions cannot be drawn, the risk is there and there is no point in recommending something we know may be risky.

As such, we recommend a decrease of dairy consumption or calcium supplements, perhaps around one serving a day only. This should prove enough to provide the calcium quantity needed by the body and to avoid additional risks of disease that may occur. Additionally, where needed, the daily use of multiple vitamins can supplement the nutritive elements.

If we look at the elements provide here above, we may consider three main objections to the old USDA pyramid. These refer to the position occupied by meat and the general perception that "meat is bad," to the use of carbohydrates, as the main substitutes of protein providers and the position occupied by dairy products in the respective pyramid.

As a change, we thus recommend a differentiation in the meat category, with a higher consumption of white meat and red meat sparingly used, a decrease in the uses of dairy products and a lower use of carbohydrates, with white bread and pasta used sparingly.


1. Rebuilding the Food Pyramid. Scientific American. January 2003

2. The Food Pyramid. Release from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. August 1992, revised octover 1996. On the Internet at http://www.usda.gov/cnpp/pyrabklt.pdf

The Food Pyramid. Release from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. August 1992, revised octover 1996. On the Internet at http://www.usda.gov/cnpp/pyrabklt.pdf


Rebuilding the Food…… [read more]

Fast Food Sara Had Worked Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,475 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


, dad worked and they all came home for dinner at the same time each night. Today,. However, mom and dad have different work schedules, the children have soccer, band, cheerleading and other activities at all different times of the day and a family sit down meal is almost impossible. Fast food creates the ability to feed everyone at the… [read more]

Food: Crawfish Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,215 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Food: Crawfish

Crawfish have always been one of my favorite foods, but I honestly don't remember the very first time that I tasted crawfish, because my mother has always included it, in various forms, in several of her traditional Cajun recipes.

On the other hand, I do remember, very vividly, the day that hunting for them with my father became one of our most cherished family rituals, especially for me.

My father has set his crawfish traps out in the river behind our house since before I was born, and many of my mother's dishes, such as her jambalaya and gumbo depended on the success of his morning harvest. It was ever something that

I participated in, or even gave all that much thought to, frankly, until the last day of school at the end of third grade.

That spring, my father's birthday, May 22nd, happened to be my last day of school, before my summer vacation. At my mother's suggestion, we bought him two brand new crawfish traps, complete with bait trays. Lately, he'd been complaining about his poor luck in the river, and my mother had suggested that he should get himself some of the new, fancy looking traps from the bait shop, but he said that his father and grandfather had always built their own, and that if that was good enough for them, it was good enough for him.

We decided to get him some of those new traps for his birthday, and the man at the bait store gave us two new bait boxes at no extra charge. According to him, one of the reasons my father's traps were coming up empty is that he still used glass jars for bait. He said that glass jars worked fine if you happened to drop your traps in the perfect spot, but otherwise, bait boxes work much better, because they're designed with little holes to let the scent of the bait carry through the river, which helps the crawfish locate the traps much better than the old-timers'

bait jars. So, we brought home two brand new traps for my dad's birthday present, each with a new bait box inside. The next morning, my dad was thrilled when he saw them in the kitchen, together with the birthday card from my mom and me.

Still, he seemed saddened by the prospect of giving up his old traps, several of which had been passed down from two generations of crawfishing in his family.

I suggested that he could still use his old ones too, and even, that he could make a scientific "experiment" out of it, by using one of his old traps with a new bait box, a new trap with his old bait jar, and the other new trap and bait bow together, to see if the man at the bait store was right, after all.

My dad was already happy with his birthday present, but he seemed even more thrilled that I was taking… [read more]

Fast Food Nation -- Chapter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,191 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


One can't imagine the French or Italians caring more about the packaging of their food than the taste, because these countries have long-standing food cultures. It is the consistency and order that Americans craved, and it became a part of the food culture in the absence of any other existing tradition. Kroc, Schlosser writes, used to say he was really more in show business than the restaurant business, a statement that is a reflection of how Americans think about food.

In the section devoted to the ways in which McDonald's caters to kids, Schlosser points out that a quarter of a century ago, not many American companies catered to kids -- McDonald's and Disney were innovators in this area. Kroc knew that attracting the kids would draw in the parents, who have money to spend and a desire to keep their children quiet and happy, especially now that so many families have two parents working and spend less time together. By placing ads on television, McDonald's took advantage of the huge influence television commercials have on the desires and kids and the spending habits of their parents, and this was instrumental in making McDonald's one of the most well-recognized brands in history.

Another way in which McDonald's has made itself a part of American culture is by linking with manufacturers of toys and giving away prizes in Happy Meals. Again, Kroc's idea that fast food is not just about the food is demonstrated with the success of the Happy Meal; Schlosser writes that when McDonald's gave away Beenie Babies in its Happy Meals, they sold about 10 million Happy Meals in a typical week. In 1996, McDonald's finally connected with its inspiration, Disney, and signed a ten-year marketing agreement with the Walt Disney Company. This connection between Disney and McDonald's seemed to ensure that both would remain significant parts of American culture, food and otherwise, and as Schlosser says, the work of Walt Disney and Ray Kroc "had come full circle."

Schlosser ends his chapter by pointing out how McDonald's role in American food culture is creating problems, particularly for children. By convincing families that McDonald's is a "trusted friend," a partner in life, they implied that McDonald's cared about the health and well-being of its customers. In fact, the phrase, found in confidential marketing materials never meant for public consumption, implied that McDonald's was primarily about food, which Schlosser contends it is not. He goes on to point out that McDonald's uses corporate sponsorship to gets its products in schools and influence students to eat its products, and this has a detrimental effect on the health of Americans, especially children.

Schlosser does not deny the impressive level of influence that companies like McDonald's and Disney have had on Americans, but he seems to be cautioning that America's lack of a true food culture has led us down a road toward poor health and obesity. It's important to understand just how deeply McDonald's is ingrained in our everyday lives; this… [read more]

Food Genetically Modified Crops Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The treating of genetically modified foods as different creates a public relations disaster on a global level. If American and European consumers fear these foods, and Americans must be 'tricked' into buying genetically modified foods without labeling them, while the EU rejects these foods entirely, surely, the Sudanese rationalized, something must be amiss with these apparently harmless and well-intentioned products the United States was 'giving' away?

The answer, one might say, to the threatened right to choose upon the part of the consumer is to label GM products and plants that are cultivated but to still allow them -- but this creates, critics allege, the appearance of a lack of safety, even when there is none, and will threaten GM farmers as well as frighten worldwide consumers of American products. Also, those who are anti-GM crops find this unsatisfactory on a large scale for they say, because of convenience, even with such precautionary measures, food and feed grown in the European Union sooner or later will become more or less Gm in nature, thus causing GM crops to infiltrate the food supply through the back door. By making more people unwitting subject of the great GM international experiment in the first and third worlds alike, the ecosystem as a whole could become imbalanced for immediate consumer benefits in the short-term -- and what if consumers ignore or are confused about such warning labels?

The GM food controversy will not go away -- the immediate benefits of crops resistant to disease are obvious, but no scientist is certain of the long-term impact upon the human body or environment that supports human livestock and the human body. Until then, it will be half-hearted experiment, as some accept and others reject these products.

Works Cited

Conference on Coexistence -- COC. (2004) Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.foeeurope.org/GMOs/conference/home.htm

U.S. bullying impoverished Sudan." (March 19, 2004) Organic Consumers Organization (OCO). Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/sudan031904.cfm… [read more]

Agriculture Technologies in the Middle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Heavy Plow

This plow was often mounted on wheels, which allowed the plowshare to be matched to the furrow being plowed. Several oxen harnessed in tandem, which became another innovation during this time period, pulled the plow. Later, horses in tandem frequently replaced oxen.

The heavy plow was essential in the efficient use of the rich, heavy, often wet soils of Northern Europe. Its use allowed the area's forests and swamps to be brought under cultivation (Gies & Gies 1995). Though even plowing with a heavy plow was unable to completely destroy the root systems of weeds in arable land long in production, it did expose much of those root systems to the open air, which inhibited the growth of the weed (Jordan 1996). Further, open fields plowed in long furrows were able to absorb great amounts of water, and because of the shape of the furrow, drainage caused little erosion. This tended to protect the rich, heavy croplands of northern Europe from heavy rains (Jordan 1996).

The Whippletree

The whippletree (also known as whiffletrees, swingletrees, splinter bars, or swing bars) is a simple piece of wood attached to the drawpole of a plow or cart at its center. The horses' harness then attaches to the whippletree at convenient places (Langdon 1986). The whippletree allows for flexibility in harnessing arrangements, makes harnessing in file much easier, and increases maneuverability (Langdon 1986; Mokyr 1990). The whippletree was used for three horses, two to be hitched on the left, one on the right. The length of the bar "A-C" is adjusted on each side of the drawpole "B" to equalize the effort of the three horses. The whippletree first appears in the eleventh century (Mokyr 1990).

Social Adjustments

New agricultural techniques brought about certain social adjustments. Since it took six to eight small oxen to pull a moldboard plow, the pooling of resources became necessity. This led to cooperative cultivation of the soil. By the 10th century most of Europe was divided into farming units known as manors (Mokyr 1990).

So new agricultural techniques and the rise of a military and aristocratic class creates a society of basically two social groupings: knights and serfs. The knights were the lords of the manor or manors. This established a uniformity in the regions where the moldboard (heavy) plow was used.

One of the most important developments in the Middle Ages was the experimentation and developments in iron production. In Europe by 900, there were significant changes in the production of iron. The above ground reduction furnace had been developed; this furnace allowed for the easier creation of iron. This iron could then be forged by local smiths into "parts for plows, spades, pitchforks, and shoes for horses beginning to pull with the aid of the new horse collar" (Gies & Gies 80-1).

Works Cited

Comet, G. "Technology and Agricultural Expansion in the Middle Ages: The Example of France north of the Loire." Medieval Farming and Technology. Brill, 1997

Gies & Gies. Cathedral, Forge,… [read more]

Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Busch, cited in Bigman, 174) DeGregori's disdain of the criticism of such products seems to be ideologically rooted in his espousing of capitalism at all costs. If it were not for government intervention, such safety standards would never have been implemented. This does not mean that all fears are equally justified as the fear of botulism. However, will the absence of quality control and health standards and the presence of capitalist competition be such a panacea that the best shall always triumph, given the currently unbalanced state of the world economy, which DeGregori himself grants?

Moreover, DeGregori's stress upon the first world's mania for health seems to primarily give a snapshot of a particular economic class in the United States, as poorer individuals may be more apt to sacrifice not only quality, but nutrition and safety to save money when they make their daily decisions regarding nutrition, on a subsistence level -- a phenomenon true not only of the developing world, but also of impoverished areas of the United States where inferior goods may be present that damage health but temporarily satiate hunger. Misguided as it may have been, the African nation's banning of GM seeds was an attempt to set local, national standards for the creation of a form of modern agriculture that was 'right for Africa.'

Lastly, Busch's statement that "standards may be used as company strategies" is also a phenomenon addressed by DeGregori with distain, but is a real capitalist phenomenon, in that many companies use the naturalness of products to encourage individuals to partake of their products and produce. (Busch, cited in Bigman, 175). Although DeGregori's satire of greenness may be humorous, he does not see that this is an inevitable by-product of capitalism, just like economic development itself. (DeGregori, 2002, 10). Individuals in all nations wish to be fed, and to be fed cheaply and well, and individual governments wish to create in the developing world, sustainable agricultural economies. The technology of the developed world can be an aid to this, but it must not be a crutch, nor can the developed world rejected GM in a piecemeal fashion -- some in America accepting it, and others in Europe rejecting it -- while thrusting it upon the developed world unquestioningly. An international rather than a national research study must be undertaken to determine the safety and value of this questionable but possibly beneficial agricultural innovation.

Works Cited

Bigman, David. Editor. (2002). Globalization and the Developing Countries. Oxford University Press.

DeGregori, Thomas R. (2002). The…… [read more]

Agriculture and Less Developed Nations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Attitudes Towards Change

Undeveloped countries are many times resistant to change for a number of reasons. There is "cultural resistance; many of the cultivators are poor and extremely risk adverse, feeling the risks outweigh the gains; and many of the peasants are unable to afford new production technology (Cypher, 331-365)."

Hidden Potential and High-Yield Seeds

Many economists debate the argument that there is "hidden potential in the agricultural sector, due to the assumptions concerning the ineffectiveness of peasant cultivation (Cypher, 331-365)."

Many landowners hoped that using high-yield variety of seeds would reduce poverty in underdeveloped countries, however "peasants are being driven out of rural areas due to a drop in prices as crop supplies increase (Cypher, 331-365)." Another downside to these crops is they are more prone to pests and disease, resulting in the destruction of most or all of the crop once infected. Peasants in these areas can not afford the risks, "which widens the rural income divide (Cypher, 331-365)."


The land in underdeveloped nations used to be considered a social status, but is now a capital asset and economists feel "the rate of return on the land must be maximized (Cypher, 331-365)." Capitalist may create additional dilemmas by "substituting capital for labor, and expelling peasants from small plots and their status as intermittent farm laborers. An increase in crops can result in displacement of peasants from their regions (Cypher, 331-365)."


There has been a link between "corporations of advanced industrialized nations and the agrarian sectors of less developed countries (Cypher, 331-365)" for over 40 years. Corporations are controlling cattle ranchers in some sectors, thus allowing the restaurant business in highly developed nations to impact good agricultural land, and lead to a "land intensive form of production. This industrialization contributes to deforestation, land degradation and environmental pollution- ranging from soil erosion to global warming (Cypher, 331-365)."

When there is an ill-defined policy concerning use of land in underdeveloped countries, "either at the governmental or national level, environmental problems from the overuse of resources are likely to arise, creating vicious cycles of desertification, famine and increasing poverty. This problem is known as tragedy of the commons (Cypher, 331-365)."


Although many citizens of underdeveloped nations live in rural areas and have a low income, they are able to earn a living. Industrialization of these areas has been shown to create a number of problems such as deforestation, erosion and global warming. The peasant's jobs are often replaced by new technology, increasing unemployment and poverty levels. The suggestions for change are generally the result of good intentions for these underdeveloped countries, however the outcome may actually create worse conditions for these people.

Works Cited

Cypher, James M., James L. Dietz. Agriculture and…… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is not fair, not ethical, and most of all, not safe, in this day and age to do so.


Bhattacharya, S. (2003). 'GM crops boost yields more in poor countries'. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993364Accessed 5th November 2003.

Concar, D. (2003). 'Key GM crop experiment lacks statistical power' http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993547Accessed 5th November 2003.

Dauenhauer, K. (2003). Health: Africans Challenge Bush Claim That GM Food Good For Them. Global Information Network June 20, 2003: 1.

Financial Times (2000). Why you can't tell genetically modified foods from the label. March 11th 2000: 5.

Goodyear-Smith, F. (2001). Health and safety issues pertaining to genetically modified foods. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 25(4): 371-375.

Martineau, B. (2001). Food fight. Sciences 41(2): 24-29.

McKenna. P. (2001). Industry can't be left to regulate genetically modified foods. Toronto Star Newspaper. August 20, 2001: 17.

Murphy, J. (2002). In Africa, suspicion of genetically altered corn. Nations refuse U.S. grain despite growing hunger. Telegraph. August 6th, 2002: 1a.

Plaut, M. (2002). Zambia 'furious' over GM food'. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/2412603.stm. Accessed 5th November 2003.

Vidal, J. (2002). U.S. 'dumping unsold GM food on Africa'. http://www.guardian.co.uk/gmdebate/Story/0,2763,805825,00.html. Accessed 5th November 2003.… [read more]

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Certainly, these new caveats bring more credence to the arguments of the critics of GM food aid to Africa.

Ultimately, the debate over whether genetically modified foods are harmful to human health or the environment will continue until there is convincing evidence on either side. To date, that evidence is unavailable, and the debate continues (New Scientist Editorial: End this… [read more]

Organic Food Today's World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


...The primary goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people.

Thus, the research and the studies prove that organic foods clearly have a benefit over processed foods or those produced using artificial chemicals or pesticides. Nor are organic gardening, farming, and consumption something practiced by hippies living in communes. Organic gardening is here and it is huge. Even the United States government has recognized the benefits to be had in organic foods by forming an organization to help regulate how such food is produced and what the term "organic" shall mean.

In a world in which life can be so fast-paced, our health and well-being often pay the price. Yes, organic food might cost a little more, or there might be some "hassle" in growing one's one food. The satisfaction and the health benefits, however, are tremendous. And, after all, one's health and well-being, not to mention the health and well-being of our planet, is certainly worth the effort.


Are You Poisoning Your Kid?" Natural Health. July 2003, Vol. 33 Issue 5, p26.

Byrum, Allison. "Report Confirms More Health Benefits of Organic Food." Organic Consumers Association. 2003. http://www.organicconsumers.org/organic/polyphenolics031203.cfm.

Maxted-Frost, Tanyia. "The Benefits of Organic Food." Positive Health Publications, Ltd. 1994-2002. http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/Articles/Organic%20and%20Vegetarian/frost47.htm.

McGraw, Phillip C. The Ultimate Weight Solution. New York. Simon and Schuster, 2003.

National Organic Program. 2003. http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/indexIE.htm.

Organic Connection. "Some Nutritional Benefits of Organic Foods." 2003. http://www.organicconnection.net/nutritional.html.

Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.

Organic Food Production. The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. October 24, 2002. http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/ofp/.

Organic Pesticides?" Better Nutrition. October 2003, Vol. 65, Issue 10, p24.

Press Release. Soil Association. March 13, 2002. http://www.soilassociation.org/web/sa/saweb.nsf/0/80256ad80055454980256b7b00478902?OpenDocument.

Sexton, Megan. "Organic Gardeners Feed Themselves while Replenishing the Earth." The State. Columbia, SC. October 16, 2003.

Uhland, Vicky. "Up Close & Personal." Better Nutrition. October 2003, Vol. 65 Issue 10, p 52.… [read more]

Hormones in Our Agricultural Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The company that manufactures the product insists that the IGF-1 levels are not in any way elevated through its use in bovine (History of Monsanto (http://www.sierraclub.ca/national/genetic/bghback.htm).However this claim is in direct opposition to the company's own study. "In a published letter, the British researcher T.B. Mepham reminded Monsanto that in its 1993 application to the British government for permission to… [read more]

Fast Food Advertising Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,291 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"It's time America stops calling a burger and fries dinner." (http://www.kfc.com/news/pr/072701.htm,1).

KFC has grown to be the most sought-after chicken globally ever since Colonel Sanders mastered his Original Recipe Chicken®, cooked with 11 secret herbs and spices almost fifty years ago. "We use real chicken, hand-breaded fresh from scratch in our restaurants every day, and slow cooked to tender, juicy… [read more]

SWOT Analysis of the Fast Food Business SWOT

SWOT  |  10 pages (3,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


SWOT Analysis: Fast Food Industry

While the global economy has been tumultuous for various industries, the fast food industry has not been hugely affected. Even with the society becoming more aware of the health risks that come with eating unhealthy food, their market share has continued to rise in the past 5 years. This could be due to the steps… [read more]

Catering Manager and Self-Proclaimed 'Foodie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The adulation on the face of my neighbor and her parents is something that I will never forget.

As much as I am able to enjoy professional experiences related to food and my experience in the catering industry, I think I probably like my own as a foodie even more. I have kept a travel blog of sorts for the past couple of years; virtually everywhere I go I make a substantial attempt to sample the local cuisine. My blog is actually fairly involved; I take pictures of various dishes, have a fairly stern criteria for evaluating dishes, and frequently ask to speak to chef's to try to pilfer a few secrets regarding the creation of their concoctions.

One of the best dishes that I have ever experienced was an ice cream cake that an Italian restaurant just outside of Santa Barbra served up. The cake was sumptuously chocolate, with a caramel type of frosting that hardened on the outside and still retained a smooth, creamy texture on the inside. Yet it was had scoops of rich vanilla bean ice cream in the center. The dichotomy between these two things -- the hardness and softness of the cake, as well as the hardness and softness of the ice cream as it oozed away over time, was exceedingly sumptuous. I always like to fancy that if I can put away a few dollars to buy a restaurant, this one will probably be it.

Ironically, after all I've seen and experienced and created when it comes to food, some of my favorite pleasures still involve going home and waking up on Saturdays and Sundays to my mother's hotcakes and blueberry…… [read more]

Food Security and Feeling Secure in the World Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


And in Baltimore, 46% of lower-income neighborhoods have limited access to healthy food (based on a healthy food availability survey) compared to 13% of higher-income neighborhoods" (Treuhaft & Karpyn 2014:8). The reason such profound health disparities exist between poor and rich can be traced to food access. Without remedying this situation America will quickly become divided into a community of the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' -- those that have food and those who do not. And having access to food means having access to health. Additionally, the consequences of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions associated with poor access to food can also impede the individuals' efforts to seek social mobility.

Some initiatives to address this problem include distributing unused, still-good but unsellable foods such as imperfect fruits and vegetables or discarded menu items from restaurants to food banks and via 'meals on wheels' programs. Providing economic incentives to open supermarkets in low income communities is also essential as is allowing EBT (or 'food stamps') to be used at farmers' markets and other places that sell fresh produce. Employment can also be stimulated by opening up supermarkets in under-served areas. And ultimately, cooking at home often results in cost savings in the long-term, versus relying upon fast food establishments. Improving the health of all Americans by improving food access is a 'win-win' situation. Although providing assistance to communities and individuals to gain better access to affordable, healthy food has been controversial in the past, ultimately a hungry or sick person cannot strive to improve his or her life situation.


Access to healthy affordable food. (2014). Public Health Law Center.

Retrieved from:


Food security in the U.S. (2014). USDA. Retrieved from:


Treuhaft, S. & Karpyn, A. (2014). The grocery gap. The Food Trust. Retrieved:


Williamson, E. (2006). Some Americans lack food but U.S. won't call them hungry.

The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/15/AR2006111501621.html

UN warns world must produce 60% more food by 2050 to avoid mass unrest. (2014). FT.

Retrieved from: http://rt.com/news/world-food-security-2050-846/… [read more]

Biotechnology Exploring the Pros Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (917 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The alterations to the DNA of these organisms have not been studied enough in large contexts in order to truly understand what negatives could come along with them. Additionally, there is research suggesting that the process of altering these organisms's DNA does have the side effect of producing dangerous and unhealthy toxins. Essentially, it involves the "unexpected production of toxic substances ... In genetically engineered bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals with the problem remaining undetected until a major health hazard has arisen" (Cummins). The issue here is that these products are automatically being marketed as safe, without the traditional testing process that goes along with new food on the market. This ultimately places the consumer at risk, especially in regards to individuals with certain allergies or sensitivities to foods and substances that may be a bi product of the GMO engineering process. Even worse, the major companies that are working to produce GMO foods "intend to use GE to dominate and monopolize the global market for seeds, foods, fiber, and medical products" (Cummins). Many opponents of GMO believe that the big companies are trying to create a monopoly and push out smaller, organic farmers with their mass produced and cheaper GMO products.

Clearly, there are some major issues here. Many of these GMO products have not been studied enough to deem safe for massive consumption. It is from this perspective that I personally do not support GMO foods and initiatives. It is almost like the companies producing them do not care what happens to the consumer or the other economies that are dependent on agriculture and food production. This complete disregard for safety and fair practices is unfair. Even worse, the "U.S. does not yet require labeling of GE foods" (Center for Food Safety). This means that many consumers could be buying products that are GMO without even knowing it. If it is going to be legal to produce GMO foods, consumers should be aware of what they are buying.

Overall, the issue is quite a controversial one. There are arguments for both sides. However, the consumer needs to be more informed so that they can make their own decisions about their safety and well being.


Cummins, Ronnie. Chapter 13. Hazards of Genetically Engineered Foods and Crops: Why We Need a Global Moratorium. In: Ethical Issues in Biotechnology, eds Richard Sherlock, John D. Morrey, pp 203-211, Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Non-GMO Food Shopper's guide, Center for Food Safety

http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/fact-sheets/1974/true-food-shoppers-guide-to-avoiding-gmos accessed 3-27-14.

United States Department of Agriculture. (2014). Agricultural biotechnology. Topics. Web. http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=BIOTECH… [read more]

Dining Analysis When Deciding Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


I did not look at all of the beer selections, but recognized one beer brand, Shiner Bock, which I know is a local beer, though not a craft beer, from a relatively small sized brewery in Central Texas. I also recognized Jax beer, which I know is a local New Orleans beer.

The food at the restaurant was incredible. The… [read more]

Factory Farming Is the Norm Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Factory farming is the norm in agriculture today, but its focus on profit is ultimately destructive, especially in terms of animal suffering.

Many studies have shown that animals have emotions, that they feel pain, and that they crave interaction in their natural environments. This contrasts with the conditions under which they are kept in factory farms. Many factory animals have no access to the outdoors at all. They never experience natural light or fresh air. Instead they live inside, in cramped conditions that are breeding grounds for disease. Even animals that do spend some time outside, like cows, eat in feedlots rather than pastures, and suffer the same cramped, diseased conditions. Sometimes they are even force fed through a feed tube. These extreme conditions that would otherwise kill them. To prevent this, they are pumped full of antibiotics -- nearly half of all antibiotic use is in the meat industry.

These conditions arose mainly after World War Two, so what we are experiencing is a real-time experiment on a new approach to food production never seen before. The war had been preceded by the Great Depression, and the combination of the two drove many people into the cities in search of good, well-paying jobs. In the booming post-war economy, they found them. This movement caused higher prices for farmland. The baby boom and post-war immigration meant there were a lot more people to feed. As a result of these societal changes, there were fewer people involved in agriculture. They were gradually replaced by machines and technology, which quickly evolved into the factory farms of today.

Aldridge (2011) notes that the objective of a factory farm is quite different from a traditional farm. The goal is strictly to produce as much food as possible. This has resulted in the horrific conditions we have seen today in factory farms. An example of these conditions is with eggs farms, where hens are confined 5-6 birds into a space 12" x 18," around the size of an iPad. Animals of all types are often force fed, and their food is not always their natural diet. Cows are vegetarians, but there is often meat in the food they are given. The conditions are so horrific that even the people who work in these farms need to wear respirators (Rollin, 2004).

Many people argue that animals do not feel pain, which is simply not the case. For some of these people, it is probably a case of…… [read more]

Viability of Trade Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Viability of Trade Within the Philippines

The author is a native of Butawanan, Camarines Norte, a province in the Philippines and currently pursuing a Master's Degree in International Business in China. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility and viability of producing high-value vegetable, coconut, rice, and pineapple and fish farming. She inherited a 20-hectare property from… [read more]

GMO Speaking Notes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Brazil is the second largest nation, with around 30 million hectares of maize, soybean, and cotton being grown as genetically modified. Argentina, another Latin American country sees the rate of around 23.7 hectares.

Canada and India are also major producers of genetically modified crops. Canada grew around 10.4 million hectares, with India growing around 10.6 million hectares.

Many European countries have opted out of the trend. In fact, most European countries have seen relatively little growth of genetically modified crops, especially in comparison to North and South American countries.

Slide 5

Increasing use of genetically modified crops around the world has continued to grow. The trend is highest in North and South America, yet this graph clearly shows that it is still a major force in the modern agricultural market. The amount of acreage devoted to genetically modified foods has increased ten fold over the past two decades. In 1996, less than 10 million acres grew genetically modified crops. By 1999, this number had exploded to near 100 million acres growing genetically modified crops around the world. Undoubtedly, this trend has continued to increase in recent years as well.

Slide 6

As suggested previously, North and South American nations have tapped into the genetically modified crops trends more so than anywhere else, with the exception of India.

This graph illustrates how the United States has been the leader in genetically modified crops for the longest period of time. Canada and Argentina have also been using this method for long periods as well, with strong numbers as far back as 1997. Brazil and India, two other leaders in growing genetically modified foods, jumped on to the band wagon much later. In fact, it wasn't until around…… [read more]

Whole Foods Managerial Economics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,415 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The idea is for customers to feel that while there may be certain product prices that are going up, they are finding plenty of good deals to make up for that, said executives, who call the strategy 'price perception'" (Gasparro 2012).

Depending upon the area, although consumers may be willing to pay more for certain goods such as vegan, vegetarian… [read more]

Geneticly-Modified Crop Economics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It also has to be ascertained whether the crop is safe for human consumptions and whether it has a clear advantage, overall, compared to regular crops that are not genetically modified and/or have been in the market for a while with established success (Klein, 2013).

What economic trends are to be observed? Who will make money from the technology?

In the case of subsidies, it is actually a loss to the taxpayers to protect the farmers. It begs the question why farms are making, or are being paid not to make, crops that are not needed and/or have no market value, but it's obviously deemed a good thing for farms that are the beneficiary. As for more effective crop types, there is obviously a lot of money to be made for the farms, the government (in terms of tax revenue), the retailers, restaurants and so forth that use the advantages of the modified crops to sell more goods and present them in a more appealing way than is possible with non-modified crops that are smaller and not as high-quality (perception or not) as other goods (Klein, 2013).

Who is funding the research and development? Who controls the purse strings, and why?

For the most part, the funders of research and development related to genetically modified crops would be the United States taxpayer (government-funded research), the mid-size to larger seed and agriculture companies and the universities that are agriculturally-based in whole or in part. Just one example of such a university would be Kansas State University (K-State, 2013). As noted above, the government agency research as well as the public university research both come from government grants and other sources funded by taxpayer dollars and those grants can come from the federal and state governments of the United States (Klein, 2013).

Look at foundations and charitable organizations, the outcomes and the nature of consumers.

In terms of genetically-modified crops, the foundations, charitable organization and non-profits in general are usually going to be advocacy groups, either for or against crops that are genetically modified and/or in favor of crops that are organic and not involved in any sort of insect or disease control that has not clearly been sanctioned and approved by the United States government Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency and other relevant agencies (Klein, 2013).

Appendix I

Source: http://www.thedailygreen.com/environmental-news/blogs/shapley/clones-food-47121711

Appendix II

Source: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/graphic/2012/feb/09/gm-crops-world-2011-map

Appendix III

Source: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/sec006group5/gm_food

Appendix IV

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/05/01/the-rise-of-genetically-modified-crops-in-two-charts/… [read more]

Feeding the World Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Community Food System Elements

It is reported that there are elements of the community food system that are well acknowledged including those stated as follows:

(1) Provision of the farmer's market of the chance to meet and talk with producers;

(2) School and community gardens, which are a rich sources of fresh produce;

(3) Agriculture that is community supported;

(4) U-Pick operations and roadside farm stands make provision of access to fresh produce;

(5) Community kitchens serve as locations where food that is produced locally or gleaned or recovered foods can be processed and preserved for the community;

(6) Finally, it is reported that "Small Scale food processing and decentralized root cellars provide infrastructure and technical expertise necessary to launch new food-based businesses." (USDA, 2013, p.1)

V. External Benefits

External benefits exist as well to the community-based food system in that there are benefits to lowering pollution levels since food is not transported by a trucking company. As well, the food will not bear the additional costs associated with the cost of fuels when foods are transported over long distances. The USDA states specifically that community food systems, "by narrowing the distance between producers, processors and consumers, have a greater chance of "internalizing" any externalities in the food system and actually reducing many." (2013, p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

The community food system presents a method that can be used to increase food security, increase access to nutritional food, and lower the costs of food since transportation costs are minimized. The community food system from all reports is a viable system for food production for community areas, regions, or bioregions.

Works Cited

Brown, L. (2011) The New Geopolitics of Food. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/04.24/the_new_geo...

Discovering the Food System A Primer on Community Food Systems: Linking Food, Nutrition and Agriculture (2013) USDA. Cornell University, Retrieved from: http://www.discoverfoodsys.cornell.edu/primer.html

Jensen, J. (2010) Local and Regional…… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma Advanced English Composition Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (972 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The majority of America is not pastoral any more, and only a very small, often privileged section of the population can drive far and wide to purchase ethically-produced meat.

A final problem is with simple, human desire, free will, and the finitude of time. Even with the great personal incentive to simply lose weight, many Americans are unable to make dietary changes to realize this goal. In contrast to the more abstract idea of improving the environment, most Americans have a very real and pressing need to normalize their weight and want to do so for social as well as health-related reasons. However, they are still unable to do so. Why does Pollan think that ethical pressures will result in changed consumption habits, such as a shying away from fast food, when doctors and other healthcare professionals have been so ineffective in encouraging people to change? Eating is a habit and old habits die hard. Particularly for the poor who do not have an extensive food budget to 'experiment' with new foods that they may not like, Pollan's model is unsuitable.

Pollan has attempted to counter his critics by protesting that eating in season should be cheaper than fast, processed foods. "A salad of grated root vegetables, for example, is a refreshing change from lettuce, and far more nutritious" (Worthen 2010). But once again, this presumes that the eater has the time to learn how to prepare tough root vegetables, when he or she may simply be grateful that his child eats cheap canned peas, even if peas are not technically in season. Also, the concept of seasonality does not apply to meat, eggs, and dairy, which are particularly costly and labor-intense to rear in an ethically acceptable manner. Also, even if all-natural ingredients are cheaper, people who are poor and working multiple jobs often do not have the time or money to prepare them.

Pollan's passions are clearly in the right place and it is difficult to argue with his contention that eating plain food that is virtuously raised is the best possible choice one can make, if money is no object. But that is not the case for most consumers, and the production and distribution of such foods make their production prohibitively high. Until Pollan can come up with a solution to this 'economist's dilemma' to feed a modern world with ancient, traditional practices, his counsel for the upper-middle class individual may be wise (buy local, buy ethically) but not feasible as a way of feeding a hungry planet.


Pollan, Michael. (2006). The Omnivore's Dilemma. New York: Penguin.

Worthen, B. (2010). A dozen eggs for $8? Michael Pollan explains the math of buying local.

The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved:…… [read more]

System Feedback Loops Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


System Feedback Loops

Over the last several years, Whole Foods has built its reputation based upon quality and the overall products they are offering to consumers. This has helped the company to create a unique image which enables them to standout against competitors. To fully understand how they were able to achieve these larger objectives requires focusing on: balancing and reinforcing loops inside the organization. At which point, there will be an examination of how this has helped the company to generate organizational learning and the way they can improve in these areas. Together, these elements will highlight the strengths, weaknesses and the way the company is able to continually reach out to a variety of stakeholders.

Identify One Reinforcing Loop and One Balancing Loop.

A reinforcing loop is designed to objectively determine if the strategy a firm is using contributes to growth or hurts their underlying profit margins. This is based upon the approach managers are utilizing, in order to allow the firm to standout against competitors and create a larger following among customers. In the case of Whole Foods, these changes are occurring through the rapid expansion of demand for naturally grown products. This means that consumers are focused on the growing practices of farmers. At the same time, they want meats which are not utilizing steroids or feed with corn-based derivatives. These factors have helped the company to standout and offer everyone with something more. ("Feedback Loops," 2012) ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)

The way company has been achieving these objectives is through mergers and acquisitions. Utilizing this approach, managers are able to purchase firms which can help to improve their ability to meet the demands of consumers. Evidence of this can be seen with the kinds of organizations they have acquired since 1980. The most notable include: Wellspring Grocery, Bread & Circus, Fresh Fields, Bread of Life, Merchant of Vino, Allegro Coffee, Nature's Heartland, Harry's Farmers Market, Select Fish, Fresh & Wild and Wild Oats Markets. These divisions have helped Whole Foods to reach out to a larger segment of consumers. That wants products which are more natural and healthier for them. ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)

The balancing loop is seeking out stability on a given level. This means that companies will examine the response of consumers and how this is impacting the kinds of products / services they are delivering. As far as Whole Foods is concerned, they are concentrating on the way clients perceive the firm, the practices they are utilizing and their image inside the community. To support these objectives, the company will add to the overall products they are providing. ("Feedback Loops," 2012) ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)

At the same time, they are utilizing procedures that will benefit the entire community. This is achieved through focusing…… [read more]

Movie Sicko Super Size Me an Inconvenient Truth Waiting for Superman Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Food Inc.

The 2008 documentary Food, Inc. highlights the evolution of food processing in the United States during the last 50 years. Food, Inc. also brings attention to the tremendous amount of pressure exerted on farmers as they are forced to comply with the demands of the major food production companies they work for or risk being put out of business. Food, Inc. focuses on various aspects of food production, which includes the meat, corn, and the soybean industries. Food, Inc. is a relatable documentary that aims to enlighten viewers and the general public about not only food production, but also how their purchasing practices influence production practices.

Food, Inc. begins by explaining how the food production industry has evolved and transitioned from independent farmer supplying limited quantities of food to an industry of mass production that utilizes any and all means necessary to produce mass quantities of food in the shortest time frame possible. One of the reasons the film is relatable is because it focuses on all aspects of food production thus, is inclusive of all food consumers.

Film, Inc. uses easily recognizable brands such as Perdue, Tyson, and Smithfield not only to demonstrate how widespread the control of the chicken/poultry industry is, but also to emphasize how it is controlled by a few select firms that dictate how farmers must either conform to the demands of these few firms or be put out of business. Food, Inc. also spotlights the conditions of the meat industry and demonstrates how unhygienic and barbaric practices are within this specific industry, and while the film touches upon the pork industry, it does not go into as much detail as the chicken/poultry and beef industries.

For those individuals that do not consume meat, such as vegetarians and vegans, Food, Inc. investigates the corn and soybean industries. One of the most shocking revelations about the corn industry is not how intertwined it is with the meat industry as it provides feed for…… [read more]

Fast Food 4I's Analysis the Nonmarket Environment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Fast Food 4I's Analysis

The nonmarket environment affects the fast food industry with issues, interests, institutions, and information that raises public awareness of health concerns, the safety of consumer products, as well as ethical concerns about how the products are raised, cared for and produced. The way the fast food does its advertisements can send negative messages in caring about public health and what they say to children where nutrition is concerned as well as raise ethical issues as to how the business is run and what they value. How a supplier raises livestock for food plays a role in how the public views the fast food industry in purchasing the products customers consume. Chemicals used to produce food products can become concerns for the fast food industry where the food products are used in fast food establishments.

Obesity becoming a bigger public health issue effects the fast food industry because lot of the fast foods have high fat content. Advertising that targets children often gets viewed in negative ways because of the nutritional value of the products advertised. Workplace practices, such as not allowing an employee to work until a uniforms is received that fits because the employee is overweight, sends a negative message to the public in the ethical considerations of the business. When acrylamide was found in foods cooked at high temperatures, McDonald's French Fries were targeted as containing the acrylamide at unsafe levels. Mad cow disease, the use of antibiotics and growth hormones in animals, and the treatment of animals raised for food consumption became ethical issues for McDonald's because of purchasing the products from suppliers for use in food products sold. Vegetarianism is an issue in targeting the vegetarian population in strategic strategies. Brand name attractions become an issue where McDonald's was targeted in firebombing and labeled as a 'Meat Murderer."

Institutions include government agencies, such as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention who…… [read more]

Wegmans Store Brand Food Items Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


General Mills Golden Grahams

Review placement on shelf: Wegmans cereals are located on one side of the aisle while the brand name cereals are located on the other side

Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans $1.99; Golden Grahams $3.29 (both prices for 12 ounce box)

Ingredients same or different?: Golden Grahams lists wheat whole grain as the first ingredient; Wegmans lists corn meal, although the other ingredients are virtually identical

Is private label made by brand manufacturer?: Yes

Category 5: Condiments

Wegmans pancake syrup vs. Mrs. Butterworth pancake syrup

Review placement on shelf: Wegmans is at eye-level; Mrs. Butterworth was on the second-lowest shelf

Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans $2.49; Mrs. Butterworth $2.99

Ingredients same or different?: Virtually identical.

Is private label made by brand manufacturer?: Yes

Category 6: Canned goods

Wegmans chunk light tuna vs. Bumble Bee

Review placement on shelf: Side-by-side in the middle of the canned goods aisles

Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans $1.29 for 6 ounces; Bumble Bee $1.29 for 5 ounces

Ingredients same or…… [read more]

Thumps Up for Genetically Modified Food Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Thumps Up for Genetically Modified Food

The last two decades have herald unprecedented developments in both science and technology. As the physicists and engineers celebrate the inventions and innovations in information and technology, the biologists equally celebrate the advancements in the science of genetics. The latter group of scientists has successfully managed to engineer production of plants and animals using… [read more]

Consumer Lifestyle and Behavior Eating Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (778 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


McDonald's now boast that eighty percent of their menu consists of items that have fewer than 400 calories. Furthermore they have added a variety of salads and different wraps to their menu to improve their product mix in regards to health. There is also a fruit and yogurt snack that would appeal to health conscious consumers. However, despite the menu alterations, McDonalds still has most of their classic lineup with items such as the double quarter pounder which has over forty grams of fat. Yet it is now possible for the health conscious to eat at McDonalds without sacrificing their dietary requirements.

Figure 1 - McDonald's Favorites Under 400 (McDonald's, N.d.)

Panera Bread

Panera Bread represents a fairly new development in the restaurant industry. A Panera's location does not have a drive through and does not fit the traditional fast food model. However, consumers can order food through a traditional counter such as food in fast food establishments but the rest of the dining experience is self-service. Panera's will likely appeal to the health conscious consumers more than traditional fast food establishments such as McDonalds because the quality of their foods is much higher.

Panera bakes their own breads each morning and offers a variety of fresh salads, soups, and sandwiches. The quality of foods is higher however the prices that Panera's offers are also substantially higher than traditional fast food establishments. Furthermore they do not offer quite the convenience of fast food and consumers must go into to the restaurant to get their orders. Yet in regards to healthier foods, Panera's is well positioned to cater to the health conscious consumers. Panera has been able to develop a new business model that is likely to be primed for substantial growth as the industry continues to evolve in the socio-cultural health direction.

Figure 2 - Panera's Spinach Salad (Panera Bread, N.d.)

Works Cited

Bite Club, 2011. National Restaurant Chains Most Likely to Go Bankrupt in 2011. [Online]

Available at: http://www.biteclubeats.com/national-restaurant-chains-most-likely-to-go-bankrupt-in-2011/

[Accessed 13 January 2013].

McDonald's, N.d.. Favorites Under 400. [Online]

Available at: http://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en/food/meal_bundles/favoritesunder400.html

[Accessed 13 January 2013].

National Restaurant Association, 2012. Trends and Forecasts. [Online]

Available at: http://restaurant.org/research/forecast / [Accessed 13 January 2013].

Panera Bread, N.d.. Power Up. [Online]

Available at: http://www.panerabread.com/?ref=pbhomeleft [Accessed 13 January 2013].… [read more]

Global and National Hunger Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


If people are to copy the eating habit of the American, then the food that is supplied currently will be able to accommodate just only 2.5 billion people or approximately half of the world population. But if we are to eat subsistence diet, getting the needed calories, then the recent annual food production will be able to feed 6 billion people. For example, consuming 5,000 daily calories while my neighbor do not have any, will make me lower my intake to about 2,500 daily calories which go with the normal needed 2,000 so that those who are not able to get can as well find the opportunity of getting. This is from the fact that America is a heavy consumer economy coupled with very poor food conservation habit leading to high food demand and high food wastage across the country.

When we are to follow this above criteria and eat less, then we will be able to substantially reduce global hunger, and this will be on top of improving the health of American people who have continued to fight obesity and its medical consequences as a national epidemic. Daniel Chiras through his book title "Environment Science" takes the same view that if U.S. beef consumption can be reduced by 10% only, then will be able to release enough grain that can feed 60 million people in the less-developed nations, (Miguel De La Torre, 2012). In the same line, those who have chosen to waste our natural resources can still make a turn and listen to the cry of the hungry by stopping food wastage. In other word eat all that you can procure.

Using the report recently produced by the Natural Resource Defense Council, it indicated that 40% of the entire U.S. food is wasted, which is approximately $165 billion a year, and they usually end up in landfills, that have impact in degradation of our water resources hence result in greenhouse gas emissions. About 40% the food wastage totals to approximately 20 pounds of food per citizen of America per month, which is about $1,350 to $2,275 annually that a family of four wastes through food mishandling. Based on the reports, if we reduce 15% only, then a population of 25 million Americans will be fed every year, (World Hunger Education Service, 2011).

We are still able to change this wastage of food and resources and stop wasting whatever is needed by others for their survival. Therefore it will not be morally and ethically right for some to be overweight because they have abundant to eat while others become underweight because of lack. On considering these factors, hunger is a common enemy since it ravages Africa on an annual basis and it kills thousands across the continent, particularly in the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions. The 40% wasted food, if conserved can help alleviate this global challenge. References Anup Shah, ( 2010). Solving World Hunger Means Solving World Poverty" Retrieved November 4, 2012 from http://www.globalissues.org/article/8/solving-world-hunger-means-solving-world-poverty

Miguel De La Torre, (2012).… [read more]

Proposition 37 From the Standpoint Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The advocates of prop. 37 indicate that these types of measures have been used in Europe for more than a decade and they have not cause the food producers any more money than they would have incurred otherwise (Huff, 2012). The fact is that no one knows how much it will cost except for one thing. The manufacturers of GMO crops are not able to make money unless they find farmers willing to plant their seed. Since people are more concerned about this type of product now, it has become less profitable to grow crops that use GMOs. This means that the food producers may actually gain from this type of legislation because it will force them to use different methods to produce greater yields which will bring customers to them. Proposition 37 could actually have the effect of benefitting food producers because people who are against the use of GMOs will be more likely to purchase products that are not using them.

2. Explain the effects of specific California regulations as they impact the banking industry.

The state of California has tried to be forward thinking as far as regulations are concerned in all areas of commerce. This is supposedly a means by which the state legislators can protect the people of the state against corporations and others who wish to make money at the expense of the citizenry. Recently, with the financial crisis of 2008/2009, this has led to regulations concerning the banking industry.

In California, this industry is controlled by the California Code of Regulations (Dodrill, 2011). This set of regulations controls "industrial development, issuance of traveler's checks, money order processing, credit union account management and the fair lending policies enacted by the Housing Financial Discrimination Act of 1977" (Dodrill, 2011). The fair lending policies is a special concern for banks as it governs how people can acquire money and what they must divulge to obtain loans. The banks want to make sure that they have enough information on a prospective customer that they can make an informed decision about whether to lend money or not. However, the lending act makes sure that the bank is not too invasive. The Act allows banks to ask enough information to make a fair determination, but does not allow invasive information, such as health questions, to be a determinant.

One law that has been passed since the financial crisis happened is the California Foreclosure Prevention Act. Primarily, this provides a waiting period before a notice of sale can be issued (Dodrill, 2011). The reason for this is to make sure that the previous owner can have enough time to find alternative financing so that they can avoid a sale. The banking industry was seen as too willing to foreclose on individuals at the beginning of the crisis which meant that thousands of people could possibly be out on the street. The legislature determined that banks needed to be curtailed so that they would give owners every potential avenue for a… [read more]

Relationship Between Sustainability and Food Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … evidence you draw from one or more of the articles we have read and (if applicable) "real world" experience; a logically sound line of reasoning; properly integrated evidence in APA format; a counterargument; clear evidence of critical thinking and reading. Each prompt poses a number of questions. Your essay does not have to answer all or exclusively these… [read more]

United States Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As highlighted by Bereano (2011, pg. 286) the loophole which exist in the FDA rules. The FDA rules does not require the food stuff to labeled whether GEF or natural. However, I believe this rules and regulation can be changed through the Congress or president veto.

Secondly, I agree with Bereano on the point that if the GEF cannot be labeled then it is prudent to indicate on the food stuff whether certain contains ingredient which can cause an allergy or has allergy, so that consumers can be easily guarded. Again, it would be safe to indicate whether particular food has certain ingredients which mainly seen by certain culture or religion as unsuitable for consumption. For example if certain food has pork as an ingredient it should be clearly indicated.

Since consumers need to know what they eat and the general public at large, carrying out public relations or publicity on the GEF is needed in our society. This will definitely help the public or consumers to make an informed decision when purchasing food stuff. However, the government should take more initiative to advice consumers on the GEF so that the country does not face any calamities that might arise because of GEF.

Effects of Genetically Engineered Food on the U.S. banking sector

The genetically engineered food would affect the U, S banking sector in many ways. For instance, since the technology for the genetically modified crops is patented and would require heavy investment on the side of the farmers, there would be a need for these farmers to require increased credit funding from the U.S. banking sector. This means that the lending rates would have to be altered by the governments in order to ensure that enough incentives are provided by the government so as to encourage farming and hence improve national food security.

The banking industry would therefore require some form of a reform in order to accommodate the newly formed market segment (genetically modified food farmers) with special needs. The genetically modified food would also lead to an increase in the level of food production and hence an increase in the average amount of agricultural-based fund deposits into the banking system (due to increased liquidity from the export and domestic sale of farm products). It could therefore lead to some of a mini inflation would further affect the banking industry's interest rates.


Newton, Lisa, Elaine Englehardt, and Michael Pritchard, Taking Side; Clashing Views on Business Ethics and Society, 12th Ed.,…… [read more]

Cheap: Chapter 8 Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


When food growth in food production fell behind growth in food consumption this also contributed to food scarcity and drove market prices higher. Unfortunately many developing countries did not have, or had lost, the capacity to produce food within their borders.

Cheap food requires cheap labor. Shell uses the shrimp industry in Thailand as an example of human rights abuse brought on by the quest for lower food prices. Not enough Thais are willing to work cheaply enough to satisfy the demand for cheap shrimp. As a consequence the industry is mostly served by migrant workers from Burma, Cambodia, and Vietnam. There are well documented incidents of these migrants, many of whom do not speak the native language, being subjugated to abuses ranging from unpaid overtime, child labor, torture, and even rape.

The increase in factory farming is also leading to an increase in food related illness. Shell warns that food farmed, harvested, and processed in enormous quantities and sold at low prices is more susceptible to being handled with a lack of care. This often leads to contamination, infestation, and infection. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted by food through viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and other means. It is estimated that 76 million cases of food borne disease occur each year in the United States alone resulting in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths.

There are also potential health related issues with imported food products. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), responsible for inspecting imported meats and poultry, inspects only 16% of imports while the FDA, responsible for inspecting imported fruits, vegetables and most other foods inspects only 1% of these imports. Given this, one may easily conclude that it is highly likely that cheap tainted food imports are a growing threat to American health.

To further exacerbate the problem many see the abundance of cheap food as the root cause of the obesity epidemic currently plaguing developed countries. The price of food over the last couple of decades has become so cheap as to be irresistible and dangerous. Overweight has overtaken malnutrition as a health hazard in the developed world. This phenomenon has caused scientists to predict that the next generation of Americans will be the first to die younger than their parents.

Shell believes that issues of land use, labor and subsidies all need to be addressed and the global food distribution system need to be reconsidered in order to mitigate this problem. Rather than flooding developing nations with cheap food, thereby weakening incentives to grow and process food locally, local governments and world development organizations must invest in sustainable growth for local agriculture. Only this will provide food security in developing nation. Shell reminds us that cheap food was meant to makes us happier and healthier, however recently the opposite seems to be true.…… [read more]

New Jersey Farming the State Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Only approximately 15% of New Jersey farm land is owned by groups other than individuals or families. Of these other 85%, most are linked to some other large company who they sell to or a larger distributor which functions as a buffer between the farmer and the seller. [9: This number is equal to approximately 2% of the population, as opposed to a century ago when nearly half of the nation was employed in farming. ]

Despite these figures, there has been a backlash of sorts against the farming community in recent years due to the increased rate of obesity in this country. Media reports have erroneously claimed that agriculture has become another industry, controlled by mass corporations.[footnoteRef:10] Other claims include that farmers are injecting their foods with additives which preserve the fruits and vegetables but also make them less healthy. It seems that in the coming years, agriculture around the country and New Jersey is no exception will have to deal with these claims and some will have to completely modify their current farms. [10: In the book Omnivore's Dilemma, author Michael Pollan explains the many deficits that he perceives in the ways in which food is distributed in the United States of America. Pollan's harshest criticisms are aimed at the food production companies and farms, and the ways in which they have bastardized the natural system of food production and turned it into a system which is dependent on fossil fuels; specifically the way that processed corn has become a staple of food products including how it is used as a substitute for grass in the feeding of cattle and as corn syrup and similar derivatives to be used to unnaturally preserve packaged food products. ]

Works Cited:

Adam, Pegi. "Fast Facts." New Jersey Farm Bureau. 2002. Print.

Barna, John, "New Jersey's Agriculture History Detailed Through Online Exhibit." Gloucester

County Times. 2011. Print.

Dimitri, Carolyn. The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agricultural and Farm Policy. U.S.

Dept. Of Agriculture. 3. 2005.

Green, Howard L Words that Make New Jersey History. New Jersey Historical Commission.

1995. Print.

Harrison, Charles Hampton. Tending the Garden State: Preserving New Jersey's Farming

Legacy. Piscatawny, NJ: Rutgers. 2007. Print.

"Historical Overview -- Where's…… [read more]

Political Ecology of the World Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In some cases, this could involve an individual, planting their own food on empty land. While those who live in urban areas will be able to: reclaim land that is not being used and can work in conjunction with local community organizations. (Berry 148-152) (Allen 140-150)

At the same time, there is also a focus on using greenhouses as a way to produce fruits and vegetables year round. In many locations (such as: Holland and China) these practices are being utilized for effectively achieving this objective. As this is allowing someone to grow what they want in a cost effective manner. This is illustrating how more people will become involved in these activities. The main reasons are from: economic challenges and the need to improve the quality of foods they are consuming. (Robin 41-48) (Bonheim 265-268) (Bomford 119-127)

Clearly, the food system is transforming itself by encouraging more individuals to begin growing their own fruits and vegetables. This is because the costs of consuming these products (under the commercialized approach) are increasing and it is yielding lower quality. At the same time, the tremendous rates of population growth are placing strains on available supplies. This causing whole sale and retails prices for food to increase exponentially (which is affecting the psychology of consumers)

To deal with these challenges, more people are using open spaces to grow their own food. This is transforming the food system by encouraging them to take an active part in understanding where the food they consume is coming from. As a result, an increasing number of individuals will begin taking this kind approach in order to control costs and what products they are consuming.

Works Cited

Allen, Ericka. Growing Community Food System. N.d, Print.

Berry, Wendell. What are People For? New York: Northpoint Press, 1990. Print.

Bomford, Michael. Getting Fossil Fuels off the Plate. N.d, Print.

Bonheim, Jalaja. Hope Beneath Our Feet. N.d., Print.

Robin, Vicki. Letter from Home. N.d., Print… [read more]

Applying Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (875 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


I hold a Patisserie and Baking certificate from the Le Cordon Bleu College of Culinary Art, in addition to being a certified California Food Handler. I recently earned the Certificate in Japanese Culinary from the Sushi Institute of America, a meaningful complement to my hands-on sushi experience. This practical experience includes the overall running of a sushi bar, from filleting fresh fish to making sauces to cooking sushi rice to constructing hand rolls, all tasks requiring close attention to detail and process. While experiences such as these may, at first glance, appear unrelated to the focus and goals of the Making + Meaning program, I strongly believe that this is not the case.

Just as does architecture and design, culinary creations require a keen sense of form, balance, and structure. A successful dish or plate must first be visually appealing to the diner. This requires consideration of color, shape, and texture, to name but a few characteristics. Second, a dish must withstand its own consumption; for instance, a well-composed sushi roll does not fall apart at the first bite. The food must maintain its form and structure throughout the dining experience. Food that immediately loses its form also loses some of its appeal, and devolves into an unstructured mess of food. Thus care must be taken to ensure some means of structure throughout the consumption of the meal or dish. A successful culinary creation must exhibit an adherence to form as well as function. The creation of a culinary experience must take into consideration all aspects of the meal, from visual appeal, including color, texture, and shape, to taste, to smell, to the ways in which the food is presented at the meal or sushi bar. Consumption of my culinary creations is but just one part of the overall experience, just as the outward appearance of a home or other building is but one consideration, and manifestation, of its overall design and function.

Thus while my pursuit of this program may, at first glance, appear to signify a marked departure from my prior professional and experiential endeavors, it is in fact a continuation of my prior experiences. I will bring an understanding of composition and aesthetics to the program; whereas some students will bring a sense of spatial organization and design derived from experience in fine arts or industrial design, my understanding of visual appeal and structural stability has been refined in the culinary world. I will bring this perspective to the class, contributing to the collaborative and innovative spirit of the program and, hopefully, helping to broaden perspectives on what…… [read more]

Campesino Do We Ever Wonder Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  5 pages (1,742 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Do we ever wonder where our food comes from? Do we ever wonder just what it takes to ensure that ripe strawberries are available during most of the year, or how we have lemons and limes in the bitter cold months? In fact, the entire process of the food regime is tied up with capitalism, globalism, and international relations.… [read more]

Political Ecology of the World Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


With that in mind, each and every person who is born taken more resources away from those who are already here. As long as the population does not continue to grow at such a rapid rate, there is hope for the planet and hope for the environment. People are already starving in many different countries, and the people who hold the strings of the government in those countries are not interested in the masses and how much food they need.

Politics has gotten so far entrenched into everything that there seems to be little help for those who need it most. The damage to the environment is upsetting, but it is required to feed the people. Not feeding the people is not an option, because it is wrong to just allow them to starve. No matter what is done, there will be a winner and a loser. Most politicians today - and what seems to be the majority of other people, as well - assume that the environment can just "take one more for the team." Eventually, however, that will no longer be the case. This understanding is behind alternative fuels and the growth and development of specific crops, but nothing seems to be moving quickly enough to stem the tide of starvation that is seen in several countries. With that comes disease and decay, both of which are difficult to stop once they have become established and started to spread. If there were no political agendas being considered when it came to crops and fuels, things would be much different for a large number of people all over the world. Despite being aware of the problem, big government appears to have no interest in making any changes. That is true in the United States, and also seems to be true in other countries, where there have not been any political moves toward making things better.


Holt-Gimenetz, E. (2007). The great biofuel hoax. Indypendent. Global Policy Forum.

Little, A. (2005). Cooking Oil. Power Trip, Chapter Five, p. 147-177.

Vidal, J. (2010). How food and water are driving a 21st…… [read more]

Raj Patel's Staffed and Starved Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


For instance, the U.S. believes that Brazilians are slave drivers and corrupt while Brazilians perceive U.S. farmers as opportunists reaping off the taxpayers.

In addition, the author notes that the Brazil soy industry has also resulted in stagnated growth of other sectors. First, the laborers have totally been neglected by the current developments. Moreover, many farmers have also neglected production of other food crops and concentrated on the soya. The rapid development of soya, a moneymaker has been made possible due to lack government supervision, corruption and social economic conditions. The author mentions the unequal structure of land holdings, where some hold large tracks of land while others are congestion in tenement areas where houses are so small, limited water and poor quality of shelter. This has led to the rise of "Movimento dos Trabalhadores" a movement that seeks to improve people's lives by empowering them. The movement has been received well by the people and celebrates achievements in many areas such as education and uplifting lives of the poor.

This chapter of Stuffed and Starved is loaded with much information about the soya business. It investigates the uses of soya, growth in the U.S. And eventually in Brazil. The chapter is not easy to comprehend as every paragraph presents new information on soya. The book cover a variety of subjects including chemical, historical, geographical, social, political economical aspects of soya production. The reading is so detailed yet appears general. This could make it difficult for the reader to absorb in equal capacity al the sections covered. Each bit of information builds on another and one has to understand it for consistent learning from one paragraph to the next, one section to the next.

In addition, the Chapter sounds like a campaign against what many have come to accept as the American culture. A campaign against chocolate, McDonald and McNuggets is literally a campaign against market icons that represents America and this is may be a tough sell. The chapter points to the tough realities of the American life. The chapter seems to portray negativity not only towards soya, but also towards the industry, the effects on health, environment and as well as negative social and economic effects on the Brazilian people and the nation .

On the contrary, this chapter is a mine of key information about the ongoing in the soya industry of the United States and the southern neighbor. The author has packed all the information necessary for any serious reader with the need to understand the realities of the soya industry. The chapter is an encyclopedia of soya focusing on the American production and market.


Patel, R. (2008…… [read more]

Political Ecology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Jackson, n.d., pg. 137)

If this can happen, it will help to create a stable environment for food production that keeps up with increases in population and changes from the weather conditions. Moreover, it will ensure that all available land and water is utilized to effectively increase food production. The combination of these factors will create a sustainable strategy that is addressing these challenges in the future. This is in line with some of the more popular ecology theories that are discussing production.

A good example of this can be seen by looking at Gaian thinking. Under this basic approach, there is an emphasis on maintaining some kind of balance within the ecosystem (in order to address the needs of stakeholders). Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Litfin (2009) who said, "International environmental law, which consists of a myriad of separate regimes for hundreds of issues ranging from toxic waste exports to fisheries management, is itself rooted in an atomistic demarcation of the planet into sovereign nation-states. By highlighting the embeddedness of human systems in the living Earth system, Gaian thinking fosters a kind of meta-position from which a systemic perspective on global environmental governance might emerge. In broad terms, global environmental problems represent a collision of human systems with the larger Gaian system. In contrast to the mechanical billiard-ball metaphors that inform much of modern political discourse, the Gaian image of a living Earth may be more amenable to the problems at hand. Moreover, as a scientific alternative to modern reductionism, Gaian provides important concepts and metaphors that can help move us toward a viable future." This is illustrating how new concepts need to be used in addressing the agricultural needs of a growing planet. Therefore, alternative polices must be implemented that will take these different viewpoints into account. (Litfin, 2009, pg. 197)


Jackson, W. (n.d.). Tackling the Oldest Environmental Problem.

Litfin, K. (2009).…… [read more]

People Feed Themselves? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Taxes were only remitted if they agreed to devote a specific portion of their land to cash crops. Or their land was simply seized by the ruling government and they were divested of their property, forcing them into homelessness as well as poverty and hunger.

To reduce the amount of leveraging power the farmers could have in setting a price for their crops, national governments created organizations like the West African Coca Control Board to set the price of coca in a uniform fashion. This was supposed to give farmers a more fair price than could be obtained solely from negotiating with more powerful private businesses, but ultimately the result was the same -- the colonial powers profited far more off of the crops of the farmers, despite the fact that the farmers were doing the lion's share of the work to harvest these valuable products. However, the farmers who were merely economically exploited by the colonial government could count themselves lucky compared with farmers whose land was simply taken away from them in the name of the crown. The land was designated public territory or given over to private businesses. In almost all of these instances, the cash crops that the farmers were forced to grow were coffee, tobacco, and sugar -- products with no nutritional value.

The effect of plantation economies was to make the populace dependent upon the ruling government for everything. Without land, the peasants were helpless and the government provided them water, roads, and access to seeds, access to credit, and all of the basic tools peasants needed to survive. Peasants were often herded into areas where they were needed, away from their original homelands. Their agricultural labor was taxed, even while imported goods from the colonies was cheap. Peasants were also prevented from constructing competitive cash crop enterprises of their own, to compete with…… [read more]

Southern and Midwestern States Comparison Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The agricultural products grown in both regions are highly important to the United States, and much of the cotton and tobacco grown in the South along with some of the meat and grain grown in the Midwest, are also shipped to overseas markets. That makes the farming and cultivating of crops in those regions a global endeavor. Agriculture is changing to some degree, however, as farmers are always looking for ways in which crops and livestock can be grown more efficiently and in new places where they were not grown or cultivated successfully in the past.

Urbanization is taking place in both regions, too. Cities are growing, and major hubs like Atlanta, Georgia are becoming more popular and more populous, as they begin to offer new opportunities for education and employment. Social, economic, and political changes are affecting both the Midwestern and Southern states, as the entire society of the United States is evolving and changing. Transportation is still lacking in these regions, however, as the bus and train and taxi services that are seen in places like the Northeast and California are not common in the Southern and Midwestern states.

Key industries in the Midwest mostly revolve around agriculture and mining, whereas key industries in the Southern states are more "industrial" in some senses. Steel and paper mills, as well as other factors, are also seen in both regions, but the Southern states have the advantage when it comes to tourism. With Florida's popularity as a tourist destination, that state and the rest of the Southern states make money from the travel of others. It is easy to see that the two regions are quite different, but yet they are also very similar in many ways. The people who live and work in those regions are both dedicated to what they do, and do making the regions better for everyone…… [read more]

John Mackey: Whole Foods Leader Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Whole Foods, after anti-trust regulations were resolved, eventually acquired rival Wild Oats to expand across the Midwest. When Whole Foods was starting out, Mackey was told: "You know, I really think you're just selling hippie food to hippies. I gotta tell ya that I don't think it's gonna work. But if it does work, Safeway's gonna just steal it from… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma in Recent Years Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,218 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, the paradox becomes our obsession with health and healthy foods combined with our consumption of even more unhealthy foods, less fresh or organic products, and our declining levels of health. For example, in looking at the idea of American food production, we see:

Tremendous overcrowding of animals (chickens, turkeys, etc.) in less than sanitary conditions and production techniques that have a tendency to allow the greater possibility of bacteria into the processed food.

Processing of food, vegetables, etc. To the point in which vitamins must be "added" in order to even meet basic RDA standards. All designed for shelf life and ease of transportation.

Numerous "empty" caloric foods that briefly satisfy hunger or thirst (soda, candy, etc.), but provide little nutritive value and only serve as a quick fix for those on the go.

The lopsided use of resources to produce our insane desire for meat -- if the amount of meat America eats was cut, there would be far more room for the production of fruits and vegetables at a far greater efficiency and lower cost.

The capitalistic and monetary use of corn -- ruining fields of other crops to feed the maw of syrups, sweeteners, oils, and other derivatives without really providing nutrient value.

So, what is the solution, or does Pollan offer a way to feed the burgeoning population, the increased urban demand, or even the greater needs within the developing world? There is clearly no easy solution to this "dilemma." Realistically, several changes would need to be made to reduce the dependence on agribusiness and corn, and those changes would need to come primarily from the urban population. It takes a family with an income that can sustain shopping for better products and not just "filling" foods to change the pattern of behavior in American food consumption. Greater emphasis on utilizing fresh fruits and vegetables, salads, and other green products would need to occur at an early age; and a lessening of dependence on highly sugared cereal products for children. The key, then, may be Aristotelian balance -- yes, eat meat, but not 3 times per day; yes, occasionally eat sugar, but not at every meal; try to shop locally, try to shop in season, think about what you are eating as part of the grander picture of the sustainability of both one's own health, and the global environment as a whole. The goal is every reaching and changing - the perfect meal: "… the perfect meal is one that's been fully paid for, that leaves no debt outstanding. This is almost impossible ever to do… It's impossible to prepare and eat a meal that is so physically, intellectually, and emotionally costly without thinking about the incalculably larger debts we incur when we eat industrially -- which is to say, when we eat without a thought of what we're doing" (pp. 409-10).

Instead of the perfect meal, perhaps a start is that we begin to think about where that bread is made, where those vegetables… [read more]

Imagining Myself as a Person in a Historical Setting Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … person in an historical setting.

Question No.

As a hunter-gatherer, there are a number of advantages to the adoption of farming techniques and to the transition of an agricultural way of life. One of the primary reasons that a farm-based economy and means of substance is preferable to that of a hunter-gatherer is due to the fact that agriculture is a more regular, regulated process with distinct seasons and largely predictable methods and outcomes, for the most part. Furthermore, the life of a farmer is significantly less dangerous than that of a hunter, which yields another example in the fact that an agricultural-based economy involves more of a population group than that of a hunter. Both women and even children can play significant roles in the farming and maintenance of crops, while societies that base their economy and means of sustenance upon hunting primarily rely on men -- and the fittest of men at that -- whose departure to hunt may leave the society unprotected and vulnerable to attacks from wildlife or from enemies. Additionally, it should be added that the food gained from livestock and farming is typically more than that gained from hunting, which allows for a surplus and food for times in which it may be disadvantageous to hunt -- such as in winter when game is scarce.

One of the things that many societies that transitioned from a hunting-gathering lifestyle to an agriculturally-based lifestyle did to improve crops and livestock over time was to design systems of irrigation to keep their crops watered. Such irrigation systems, such as those employed by Egyptian cultures who utilized the Nile River for such purposes, not only keep crops well-watered and tended to, but also tend to provide a source of water for livestock, as well. The systems of irrigation used by agriculturally-based societies increased in sophistication and efficacy over time, and helped to…… [read more]

Parents and Fast Food Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,734 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


A quantitative study may be better coupled with a qualitative study that fuses together data that gives a wider picture of the problem behind why adults consume fast food with their children.

In conclusion, this study appears to show that what drives adults to consume fast food with their children is 1) it saves time, 2) it is easy, and 3) it is advertised. These three factors are revealed from this quantitative study, but a qualitative analysis may provide more details about what drives adults to value time over money and ease over good health.

From this study I learned how to formulate a questionnaire and provide data for quantitative analysis. I also learned how to prepare a proper methodology after proposing a rationale for study. Gathering the data showed me how much work and preparation actually goes into empirical studies -- and the information I learned revealed some interesting points about human behavior and beliefs and what people find most important in life.

Reference List

Campbell, K. (2006). Australian parents' views on their 5-6-year-old children's food choices. Health Promotion International. doi:10.1093/heapro/dal035

Halford, Jason et al.…… [read more]

Animals &amp Their Place Inside Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


For example, one cannot have such cases as the head of the FDA being a former business man in favor of big companies. This is simply un-American, un-democratic and unfair towards the system which this nation has set up. If companies were to be better regulated, they should not be compromised from the inside. According to the film Food, Inc.,… [read more]

Marketing Segmentation at Food Lion Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


If Food Lion used demographic segmentation variables such as: age, gender, family size and income, background and social classes they will determine what are the main types of customers that come in to the grocery store. Once Food Lion has determined their target customers, they can decide if they are meeting the needs of that particular customer by the types of milk they stock. In this particular store, the number one consumer is middle to upper class men and women who shop for their families and Food Lion can determine which kinds of milk products are required to keep these consumers coming back. The grocery stores will need to consider the prices of their products and other competitive stores in the region so they can get the most out of each gallon or other types of milk they supply. It is very important for Food Lion to look at the minority shoppers that do business with them and what their needs are and if they supply a variety of milk products they like and can afford such as a generic brands and variety. The minority groups that shop to keep Food Lion in business are important because these consumers keep sales viable in other areas and levels of marketing.

By Food Lion getting to know their customers from a demographic and psychographic stand point, they can meet the needs of every individual who comes in to shop and how to keep them coming back in the future because it is important in the success of the store. When Food Lion sees what milk is demanded by consumers they can order less and discontinue products that do not increase profits and learn ways to promote and advertise the milk that does increase revenue. Milk is a necessity product that consumers need, and by providing a competitive variety in required food groups, consumers will stay satisfied and continue shopping in their local grocery stores and not go elsewhere to do business.… [read more]

Food Create a Chart Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,114 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Create a chart that lists all the ingredients most commonly used in flour mixtures, and indicate the function/s of each ingredient.







Main ingredient; structure; gluten

Structure; texture

Tenderizing; mouthfeel; flavor


Hydration of protein, starch, leavening

Production of gas to cause expansion and rising



Explain how over-mixing and under-mixing impact the texture of a muffin. Be specific.

Overmixing causes too much gluten development, leading to muffins that are tough and too dry. Undermixing causes muffins that fall apart and crumble because the gluten has not had sufficient time to develop. Undermixing also causes clumps of baking powder.

Describe the (yeast) bread-making process step-by-step and indicate the importance of each step with respect to the quality of the final product.

The stages of bread making include mixing, kneading, fermentation, punch down/second rising, shaping, proofing, and baking. Mixing is the first step in the bread making process and involves the initial combining of the ingredients, which will vary according to the bread type affecting flavor and texture. Kneading is the act of physically handling, playing and working with the dough to develop the gluten and achieve optimal dough and bread consistency. Fermentation refers to the rising of the dough, especially the first rising of the dough in a multi-stage fermentation process. Covering the bowl ensures proper fermentation, the stage at which the dough doubles in size and achieves an optimal lightness or airiness. Fermentation also affects flavor, size, and texture of the finished product. The punch down involves literally punching the beer to encourage a second fermentation. This changes the texture of the bread and generally encourages the production of bread that is more finely textured. Punching down the dough allows gas to escape, while redistributing the dough ingredients. Next, the dough is shaped according to aesthetics and functionality of the end product. Proofing is the penultimate stage in the baking process, during which a final rising occurs. Glazes and other textural and aesthetic elements can be added. This prepares the dough for its final step: baking. Baking brings all the ingredients together with heat, making the dough into an edible and tasty finished product. The temperature level and amount of exposure to the heat all affect the quality, texture and taste.

04. What are the general guidelines for the handling and preparation of vegetables?

Vegetables must be thoroughly washed, occasionally scrubbed, and rarely if ever soaked. Preparing vegetables depends on the intent, as some vegetables simply need to be cut and served raw. Those that need cooking can be cooked for brief periods of time in small amounts of water, or for long periods of time in no water such as baking potatoes. Cooking dramatically changes the taste, texture, and nutritional content of vegetables.

05. What are the two most important principles to keep in mind when preparing foods that contain cheese? Explain what will happen to the product if you violate one or both of the principles. Be specific.

The two… [read more]

Business Model Analysis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Meal -- a Culinary Destination

Reading the description of this imagined restaurant is quite enough to make the mouth start watering. But more than that, it is enough to make the mind start spinning because of the promise of an experience that encompasses not only food and drink but a sense of history and culture. Eating is a highly evocative experience, and being able to eat as Cleopatra might have, or Anne of Cleaves, or the first female America president carries with it a promise of an unforgettable event. Given that the restaurant promises all of this for a relatively modest price, the restaurant (should it be able to keep the promises that it makes in this description) should be a wild success.

So who might be attracted to such a restaurant?

A relatively well-to-do clientele. The cost, as noted above, is not immodest, but neither is it modest. For regular diners, professional status is probably a given to be able to afford the experience.

There will no doubt be other clients who will visit the restaurant for special occasions. These are likely to include students who are especially interested in the time period, others with similar historical interests, and "foodies" -- those who are dedicated to the careful preparation and presentation of food and who therefore spend more than the usual percentage of their income on food.

At least during the first year, a number of the restaurant's patrons will no doubt be those who are simply interested in being seen at the latest chic eatery. Whether they will continue to patronize the restaurant after the initial season depends on the restaurant's popular culture profile.

Because the architects of the building are as famous as the chef, there will be a number of people who eat at the restaurant at least once simply to see the inside of the building. They are probably the least likely to return on a regular basis.

The restaurant will not target those interested in fast food for the cheapest price possible…… [read more]

Animal Production: Biotechnology Has Achieved Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Maurer, Stephen M., and Markus Fischer. "How to control dual-use technologies in the age of global commerce." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 66.1 (2010): 41-47. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Siontorou, Christina G., and Fragiskos A. Batzias. "Innovation in biotechnology: moving from academic research to product development -- the case of biosensors." Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 30.2 (2010): 79-98. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Wenxin, Shi. "Biotechnology: healing, fueling, and feeding the world." Reviews in Environmental Science & Biotechnology 9.4 (2010): 311-314. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Whetten, Ross W., and Robert Kellison. "Research Gap Analysis for Application of Biotechnology to Sustaining U.S. Forests." Journal of Forestry 108.4 (2010): 193-201. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Zwart, Hub. "Biotechnology…… [read more]

Kudler Fine Foods Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Kudler Fine Foods: Justification of International Market

Kudler fine Foods is planning to expand into other growing markets of the world and this time, it is seriously considering Italy as its next potential market. Kudler is known for its world class wine and its gourmet meats and other grocery items. It is for now only focusing on introducing its class of wine into Italian market and thus seeks to understand the growth potential and the size of the new market.

We must not forget that European Union countries are known for their role in wine production and Italy had once been producing more than 30% of wine coming from EU. However lately the number of vineyards has gone down but Italy still contributes 25% to total EU wine production. What makes Italy a very attractive market for Kudler is the fact that Italy has seen a consistent rise in its wine exports while local consumption has decreased. This means that if Kudler enters the market, it may be able to capture some of that export share as well while also getting significant share from local consumption.

With greater exports, Italy is more than welcoming to anyone who will help them increase their local wine production and become bigger exporters. Kudler can focus on this area of wine market as well while trying to capture the local market. This is because if a country is considered one of the hubs of wine production, it always makes sense to make an entry into that market with your own product.

Before we study this any further, let us see how Italy has been doing in the wine export area. According to research conducted by Association of enologists (Assoenologi), Italian export growth is majorly concentrated in two key areas i.e. two major types of table wines. One is Vini da Tavola…… [read more]

Protein the Lakeview Pantry Is a Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Lakeview Pantry is a food pantry on the north side of Chicago. Their website is: (http://www.lakeviewpantry.org/). The pantry was established in 1970 and provides food to those residents living below the poverty level. This food pantry receives some of its food from donations and also from the Greater Chicago Food Depository (http://www.chicagosfoodbank.org/site/PageServer). The Lakeview Pantry has several programs to help feed the city's hungry. One of the programs the pantry sponsors is their Home Delivery Program which began in 1989 and now serves over 190 people per month. This is the program that will be evaluated for the purposes of this paper. Since the recipients of this program are home bound and generally elderly or sick, it is important that they do not suffer from hunger or improper nutrition because of their immobility.

Since the pantry's website does not list the types of food delivered to the recipients of this program, a call needed to be made to get this type of information. The person listed on their website is Jenny Dwyer and she was available and kind enough to answer questions regarding the types of food distributed by their home delivery service. In speaking with her, she said that many people assume that food pantries only stock and distribute non-perishable foods. This is not the case with food pantries today as they are equipped with industrial sized freezers that can easily store meat for distribution also. Since deliveries are made to each household once a month, it is important that the meat is frozen in order to keep it from spoiling.

Ms. Dwyer was asked what other sources of proteins the pantry provides in addition to meat. We know that lean mean is a good source of protein, but it is not the only source of protein and for those recipients of the program on restricted diets or those who are vegetarians, meat will not be an option. So, the other major sources of proteins that the pantry distributes for this program are: peanut butter, whole grain cereals and breads, canned and…… [read more]

News Related to Food and Policy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Rabin, Roni Caryn. (2009, March 29). Proximity to fast food a factor in student obesity. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/26/health/nutrition/26obese.html

News article review

According to a study summarized in The New York Times, children whose schools are in closer proximity to fast food restaurants are more likely to be obese. This has caused many politicians within the U.S. And elsewhere to demand more stringent zoning laws regarding fast food chains near schools, much as the sale of alcohol and pornography is also prohibited. The author of the article, Roni Caryn Rabin, details how economists from Columbia University and the University of California tracked the BMI of ninth grade. Even adjusted "for a wide range of variables, including income, education and race, the researchers found that obesity rates were 5% higher among the ninth graders whose schools were within one-tenth of a mile of a pizza, burger or other popular fast-food outlet, compared with students attending schools farther away from fast-food stores" (Rabin 2009, p.1). There have also been calls within the UK for such a geographic ban.

The implications of Columbia-UC study suggest that the rapid increase in BMI of schoolchildren nation and world-wise is not merely due to genetics or a failure of willpower -- or even economics, as economic factors were controlled for in the study. Even when parents had enough income to provide children with healthier alternatives, the nearby presence of fast food notably increased children's consumption. The researchers were uncertain why this was the case. "It could be that students don't like to wander too far…Maybe they don't have a long lunch period. Maybe it's just the effect of having temptation right in front of your eyes" surmised the authors (Rabin 2010, p.1). Peer pressure -- seeing all of one's friends eat fast food, and having an environment that normalized fast food consumption, and reinforced pro-fast food messages seen…… [read more]

Globalization of World Food Markets Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,439 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Globalization of world food markets has had a number of unintended consequences. Nations find themselves limited in their ability to avoid food shortages in the face of increased consumption elsewhere on earth. The poor all over the world are adversely affected by food price increases. The risks inherent in the globalization of food production have not yet been adequately addressed… [read more]

Omnivores Dilemma Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Omnivore's Dilemma

Being an omnivore can be a blessing and a curse at the same time. It is an advantage because omnivores can mostly eat any kind of food, thus having an increased ability to adapt to environments which are hostile for either carnivores or herbivores. It is a disadvantage because it brings forth the omnivore's dilemma, meaning that it confuses people to the point where they are uncertain which food is good and which is bad.

Even though there were a series of individuals referring to the concept across time, a research psychologist named Paul Rozin was the first to use the "omnivore's dilemma" expression. In contrast to carnivores and herbivores that have no trouble selecting their foods, omnivores need to carefully analyze what they want to eat before actually doing so.

The French paradox involves the misunderstanding relating to how French people are capable of eating several foods perceived to be toxic in the U.S. And in spite of this they are perfectly healthy. It is strange how Americans are determined to eat healthy food and even with this they are unable to keep the obesity rates down.

Corn (or Zea Mays as it is referred to in Latin) is one of the most important foods for omnivores, herbivores, and carnivores alike. While the latter are not directly involved in consuming corn, most owe their existence to the fact that the meat they eat has fed on corn. A series of foods humans eat, ranging from eggs to beef, exists because of corn, as a large number of animals humans feed on were raised on corn.

It is not surprising that corn has come to be one of the essential aliments society is based on. Its numerous properties make…… [read more]

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