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Genetically Modified Foods - Economics Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  2 pages (800 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They are designed to be an option as the original food supplies on the planet run low and more people are born (Murnaghan, 2012a). There are many people who reject genetically modified foods, though, and will likely continue to do so well into the future, which cuts into corporate profit and power (Murnaghan, 2012b). As genetically modified foods are further developed, it will be easier to determine whether they will be safe for people to eat in the long-term, or whether they may be putting large numbers of people at risk because of the way they are engineered (Murnaghan, 2012b). Until such determinations can be made, genetically modified foods will continue to be embraced by some and shunned by others. Both arguments and how they affect corporate power and economics should be considered.

For Schneider and Schneider (2013), the focus was on the food itself, and how it was changing the way people eat. Those who embrace genetically modified foods and/or do not see any risk to them realize only the benefits. They focus on how people are being helped because there is more food to eat, and how farmers are being helped because they have drought and disease resistant crops to grow (Schneider & Schneider, 2013). Both of those are benefits, but there are risks and economic considerations that also have to be addressed. Studies such as these are vital in order to show that there is much more to the GM argument than just how much money it can make for growers or what it will cost for those purchasing the products.


Anderson, A. (ed). (1998). Living in a genetically modified world. New Scientist (special edition). Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/232267451_Genetically_modified_foods

Border, P. & Norton, M. (1998). Genetically modified foods - benefits and risks, regulation and public acceptance. London: Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1115027/

Murnaghan, I. (2012a). Economic impact of genetically modified foods. Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved from http://www.geneticallymodifiedfoods.co.uk/economic-impact-gm-foods.html

Murnaghan, I. (2012b). genetically modified foods and corporate power. Genetically Modified Foods. Retrieved from http://www.geneticallymodifiedfoods.co.uk/gm-foods-corporate-pow.html

Schneider, K.R. & Schneider, R.G. (2013). Genetically modified food. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs084… [read more]

Pizza vs. Burritos Food Is a Wonderful Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (519 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Pizza vs. Burritos

Food is a wonderful part of the human experience. Eating, and the preparation of food, is viewed as entertainment, an art form, a business and a cultural symbol. Two foods worth considering are burritos and pizza. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast these two foods. This essay will explore some of the differences and similarities between the two foods and state their advantages and disadvantages from a persuasive point-of-view. Ultimately this essay will conclude that pizza is a more attractive food and its overall utility exceeds that of a burrito's worth.

Pizza, is an American food creation that contains three basic ingredients; bread, tomato sauce and cheese. Pizza is usually baked in an oven and is formed in the shape of a circle. Adding more toppings on to a pizza has also enriched this food's tradition. Usually smoked meats such as sausage and pepperoni are added to pizza for flavor. Also, vegetables of all sorts can also be added to a pizza to make it better. Pizza comes in many different sizes, shapes and styles. It is often delivered to people's homes or can be enjoyed in a pizza restaurant.

A burrito is a food that originates in Latin America and has been refined to today's standard from Mexico. A burrito consists of a tortilla, made of either corn or flour, wrapped around various ingredients. Common ingredients in most burritos include meat, cheese, lettuce, sour cream and beans. A salsa is often offered with the burrito as a condiment. Burritos are wrapped…… [read more]

Peter Andree Entitled "Gm Food Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (569 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


IN addition, Health Canada responded to the limitations of testing of allergenicity to a focus on surveillance of the GMOs post-market for identification of the impacts of biotechnologically derived products that were not desired.

Environmental assessment has also been at focus in Canada with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Environment Canada, the primary agencies holding responsibility for environmental assessment of GMOs agreeing with recommendations that prior to GM crop release that they undergo an ecological risk assessment of a thorough nature. Peer review is one of the primary measures set out for the GMO assessment. Also stated is a requirement for a long-term monitoring of the development of insect resistance when GMOs that contain insecticidal properties are used. A study conducted in Canada reports that farmers are not being provided enough information concerning insecticide use.

While Canada has taken some necessary actions to be more cautious there has not been much progress that is of a meaningful nature in the areas of food safety, environmental assessment, peer review; transparency, and monitoring and surveillance. It is stated that regulators fulfilling the recommendations as they are stated will result in the elimination of the possibility of the human food supply being contaminated with animal feed crops that are not safe for consumption by humans. However, the evidence stated in the work of Andree (2006) is reported to indicate that the Government of Canada "is not prepared to accept the degree of precautionary scrutiny of GMOs called for…" (p.386)


Andree, P. (2006) GM Food Regulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food Regulation in Canada. Science and Public Policy, volume 33, number 5, June 2006, pages 377…… [read more]

Factory Farming, Morality, and Vegetarianism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (957 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" In fact more than at any time in human history, Henning continues, millions of humans are deficient in minerals and vitamins and are overfed; this, in turn, accounts for "…more than half of the global burden of disease" (66).

In addition to the above-mentioned depressing particulars, author Evelyn Pluhar points out that factory farming contributes a "…full 20% of the total" emissions that the U.S. contributes to greenhouse gases and hence to global climate change (457).

Problem II

Because there are apparently very few high-priority educational programs (in schools and communities) pointing to the benefits of eschewing meat and turning to healthful vegetarian meals, a new approach must evolve out of the ruins of the evil, immoral legacy of CAFOs in the United States. Indeed there are signs of that approach in that vegetarianism is becoming a bigger part of the American culture; journalist Juliana Devries reports that 43% of vegetarians in the U.S. are between the ages of 18 to 34 and up to 18% of college students are vegetarians (Devries, 2012, 40), which bodes well for the future of vegetarianism. Moreover, Devries asserts that those who turn to vegetables are helping reduce climate change; that is because the global demand for meat "…causes deforestation to make way for [cattle] grazing" (40). Also, since enormous amounts of methane gas and nitrous oxide (produced by factory farms) won't be pumped into the atmosphere when millions exchange a meat diet for non-meaty, nutritious vegetarian foods, vegetarianism may be seen (particularly by the young) as an environmental solution.

Evidence that future generations of Americans are becoming aware of the ethical dilemma produced by CAFOs -- and the moral benefits of vegetarianism -- is found in a study conducted by Harvard professors Hussar and Harris. Perhaps younger people becoming committed vegetarians can pass along their values in a kind of people-to-people cultural stratagem. Hussar researched the eating habits of 48 middle class children (ages 6-10) from the northeast U.S.; of the 20 vegetarians whose parents were not vegetarians, 16 indicated they avoided meat because of "animal welfare" (Hussar, et al., 2009, 631). Of the 16 vegetarian children whose parents are also vegetarians, 7 cited animal welfare, 3 sited religion and 5 cited family traditions as reasons for eschewing meat. And of the 16 meat-eaters, 13 liked the taste of meat and 5 eat meat for the protein (health).

Works Cited

Devries, Juliana. (2012). Making Choices: Ethics and Vegetarianism. Dissent, 59(2), 39-41.

Henning, Brian G. (2011). Standing in Livestock's 'Long Shadow': The Ethics of Eating Meat

on a Small Planet. Ethics & The Environment, 16(2), 63-77.

Hussar, Karen M., and Harris, Paul L. (2009). Children Who Choose Not to Eat Meat: A Study

Of Early Moral Decision-Making.…… [read more]

Food, Inc Film Review

Film Review  |  2 pages (674 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Food Inc. summary and critique

Food, Inc. (2008) aims to bring attention to how food processing in the United States has changed during the last 50 years and the pressure farmers are put under by the major food producing companies that they work for. The documentary focuses on three different aspects of food production: the meat industry including beef, chicken, and pork; the corn industry; and the soybean industry.

Food, Inc. (2008) begins by explaining how the food production industry has transitioned from independent farming that supplied a limited amount of food to an industry of mass production that will do anything and everything possible in order to produce the most food in the shortest amount of time including genetically modifying food. The film begins by looking into the mass production of chicken for human consumption. Food, Inc. (2008) explains how farmers are forced to conform to industry standards or lose their contracts with whatever major company employs them. The film then shifts its focus to the beef industry and the unhygienic conditions that are prevalent in the industry. Food, Inc. (2008) also briefly touches upon the pork industry, but it does not go into as much detail as it does with the chicken and beef industry.

Food, Inc. (2008) also touches upon the corn industry and explains how corn products are found in a great majority of products including soft drinks and processed cheese. Furthermore, corn is also used to provide feed for chicken, beef, and pork, which further emphasizes the interconnectivity of the food industry.

Additionally, Food, Inc. (2008) provides insight into the legal issues that are prevalent in the food industry, from a lack of food quality control to being sued for libel or patent infringement. As such, the few food companies that control the mass production of food, also want to control their image, and protect it from any negative criticisms, even if said criticism is true.

Food, Inc. (2008) provided great insight into the food industry and allowed me to better understand…… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods: Rational Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Some of the currently available genetically modified crops are designed to be higher in nutritional content than their natural counterparts. More adventurous genetic engineers are considering fusing genes "that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B; fish that mature more quickly; cows that are resistant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)," with potential net benefits to the consumer and the global community (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013).

2c. Personal Viewpoint

Arguments in favor of the use of genetically modified organisms reveal potential benefits that are difficult to ignore. It is tempting to believe that genetic modification of foods will reduce poverty and malnutrition around the world, or reduce dependence on chemical fertilizers and pesticides. However, there are currently more reasons to use caution with GMOs than there are reasons to embrace the technology wholeheartedly. For one, companies that produce genetically modified foods patent their products. This in itself can cause major problems in the future related to food availability and food security. Lawsuits against companies like Monstanto have proven that there are major legal and ethical concerns with patenting seeds. The fact that for-profit organizations could have greater control over food production is a frightening proposition, and could outweigh the potential benefits of theoretically improving crop yields worldwide. Moreover, the potential improvements in crop yields are as of yet still theoretical as the technology has not been used long enough to determine whether the results will be fruitful.

There are also no long-term studies proving that genetically modified foods are safe for consumption, or safe in terms of ecological sustainability. Currently, there are more ethical reasons to limit the use of genetically modified organisms until more is known about their long-term impacts on individual people, public health in general, and also on the global ecosystems. Genetically modified crops seem like a short-term solution to problems that would best be solved in other ways, such as eliminating the government corruption that causes poverty in the first place. The labeling controversy is another major ethical issue. Consumers absolutely have the right to know whether the food they purchase has been genetically modified.


Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml

World Health Organization (WHO 2013). Food, genetically modified. Retrieved online: http://www.who.int/topics/food_genetically_modified/en/… [read more]

Whole Foods: Current Market Conditions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


When customer demand for higher-end consumer goods such as organics begins to contract, Whole Foods is hurt. It is also limited to how much it can slash prices if there are difficulties in obtaining its products, such as a drought or an interruption in the supply chain. Its commitment to local growers further makes it dependent upon suppliers. There is a limit to how much it can lower prices, even when faced with a downturn in demand, if suppliers' items are scarce and the company must make up for higher input costs. Whole Foods cannot operate on an economy of scale like Wal-Mart, and because its range of offerings is limited to food, it cannot engage in 'risk management' like a big box store, by emphasizing more profitable aspects of its product lines. Costs of transportation of imported goods can also affect overall prices 'across the board.'

Effect of government regulations

Despite Whole Foods' desire to stock GMO (genetically modified organisms)-free items, this has grown increasingly difficult. "A representative for the corporation acknowledged in May of 2011 that the realities of the marketplace have forced a shift in the company's previous no-GMOs policy... Whole Foods does take steps to avoid GMO ingredients, but due to the massive use of genetically engineered ingredients in the food supply, it is currently impossible to avoid GMOs in conventional or 'natural' products" (Green 2011).

Standards of 'organic' foods are mandated by law, however. "The term, 'organic,' may only be used on labels and in labeling of raw or processed agricultural products, including ingredients, that have been produced and handled in accordance with the regulations" (Green 2012). This helps Whole Foods, given that products that are not truly organic are limited to the degree in which they can promote themselves as healthy, although they may try to fool customers by stressing that they contain 'healthy whole grains' or are 'all natural.'


Green, Tara. (2012). Despite its efforts, even Whole Foods cannot keep GMOs out of the products it sells. Natural News. Retrieved:


Beyers, Tim. (2009). The secret to Whole Foods' success. Motley Fool. Retrieved:


Cavallaro, Matt (2009). Whole Foods Battles Thin Wallets. Forbes. Retrieved:


Longley, Robert. (2012). Organic must now mean organic. About.com. Retrieved:


Le Tellier, Alexandra. (2012). Move over, Trader Joe's and Whole Foods, here comes

BrightFarms. LA Times. Retrieved: http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/opinion-la/la-ol-trader-joes-innovative-grocery-store-20120808,0,1513786.story

Patton, Leslie & Bryan Gruley. (2009).Walter Robb on Whole Foods' recession lessons.

Businessweek. Retrieved: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-08-09/walter-robb-on-whole-foods-recession-lessons#p1… [read more]

Fast Food Nation Chapter Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Jobs that pay a decent wage that will form the new backbone of the American economy, such as jobs in medicine to care for a rapidly-aging population, would seem to be more valuable occupations in which to train workers.

The high turnover in the fast food industry belies the claims that it is helping employees. Employees are more likely to remain within organizations that make an investment in their skills and development as people. Workers know that they are disposable. When faced with poor treatment, they act accordingly. The high turnover also suggests that the discipline the company claims to teach to employees hardly has taken hold. Furthermore, the attitudes of employees to their jobs are contemptuous and filled with barely-concealed rage, given their low pay and lack of advancement. Workers routinely act in an unsanitary manner on the job, despite what they are taught, because of sublimated rage they feel for the company and customers. This hardly exemplifies the success of training programs.

The real attitude of the companies towards labor is revealed in policies such as Taco Bell where "the bonuses of the mangers were tied to their success at cutting labor costs" (Schlosser 61) This points to both the instability of fast food workers' long-time employment prospects at the company and the real attitude with which their managers regard them. Although it is true that the 'real world' often expresses contempt for worker loyalty, regards workers as disposable, and does not honor the commitment made by workers with a strong work ethic, this hardly supports the decision of the government to channel valuable dollars to subsidize employee training programs that ultimately disempower workers in the labor market.

Work Cited

Schlosser, Eric. Fast…… [read more]

Exporia's Plea Concerning Ban Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,906 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Imporia tested and assessed the risk of Exporia's corn beer contamination by relying on inaccurate data. Imporia recognizes that studies relating to presumed beer contamination by the NAQB represent a minority view. Exporia believes that a risk assessment must come from a unified conclusion from the mainstream scientific opinion representing various scientists taking different views. Divergence therefore is advantageous and is an indication of equal balance of scientific opinion. The failure of Imporia to institute a process that would incorporate divergent scientific opinion is considered by Exporia as an act in bad faith. Besides, it is an indicator of lack of a reasonable relationship between SPS measure and Imporia's risk assessment. The reliance of result from the NAQB, as opposed to FAO and WHO without any extension research makes Imporia arguments against Exporia's beer inconsistent with the requirements of SPS Agreement. The interpretation of the scientific results in the risk assessment of (Tetranychus urticae) related causality and disease risks seem to require a quantitative dimension. In such cases, relying on mere minority view and insufficient data may bring inaccurate risk assessment. Moreover, the risk is perceived to be life threatening and presents threat to public health and safety. The approach of minority opinion imposed by Imporia is subject to legitimate criticism as their argument is not reliable and does not show the effects of the beer. The SPS Agreement recommends the issuance of specific and quantitative data in risk assessment to be met as opposed to minority opinions with limited scientific evidence.[footnoteRef:6] If Imporia was responsible and considerate, it would have based their legislative and administrative measures on majority scientific opinion. It is therefore justifiable to recommend that final determination of Imporia's claim should await future decision involving other scientific opinion. Overreliance on the scientific minority view leads to procedural challenges in implementing the risk assessment based upon the allegations. [6: ibid]

The results of the minority scientific organizations such as the NAQB, hinder Exporia from making necessary steps that would help them establish a level of protection they deem appropriate for their products. According to Exporia, disproportion between the risk identified by the scientific evidence and the SPS measure implies that there is no rational or objective relationship.

Works Cited

Appellate Body. EC Measures Concerning Meat and Meat products. Geneva, 1998 .

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures.…… [read more]

Food Is an Expression Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Clearly, the experience of Besito represents a fusion of American and Mexican cultural cues.

In Tibetan Kitchen, the same classmate enjoyed a meal of momos, thukpa, and other Tibetan delights. Encounters with the Tibetan culture through the food revealed the lifestyle of the people on the Tibetan plateau and nearby regions of the Himalayas. Although unavailable at the Tibetan Kitchen restaurant, yak butter tea is a staple of the Tibetan diet. Such cultural symbols are communicated in the act of sharing foods between individuals from different backgrounds. As the classmate points out, the owners of the restaurant were Tibetan but from India. The food they cooked represented a modern "fusion" interpretation of traditional Tibetan offerings. The history and plight of the Tibetan people can therefore be communicated via the food: as the food reflects the migration of the people from Tibet to India due to the Chinese incursion onto the Tibetan plateau.

A different classmate visited Obao, a Thai restaurant, and Panna II, an Indian restaurant. The cultural experiences at each restaurant were remarkably different, as were the different foods. At the Indian restaurant, the servers were "obnoxious" and "pushy" about ordering certain items. The aggressiveness of the servers might be a cultural expression; the ways Indians communicate might indeed be more assertive than North Americans are used to -- or Thai people, for that matter. Because of intercultural communication differences, enthusiasm for the food might be interpreted as "obnoxiousness." Alternatively, the "pushy" servers might be individual differences, rather than reflective of the culture as a whole. One must be very careful not to make generalizations about a culture, its communication style, or any other element for risk of stereotyping.

As the Food and Culture Resources (2012) website indicates, the types of food eaten in specific cultures reflects what is available geographically. "Sheep's brain and eyeballs, frog's legs, hot tea with fermented yak butter, or animal blood are not considered to be universal foods - nor are insects, but they are relished by some people," (Food and Culture Resources, 2012). Partaking of the foods from different regions allows for exposure to the ways of life in other regions of the globe, thereby revealing our own prejudices about what is normative to eat. Similarly, eating habits and customs reflect different cultural norms. In an Indian and Ethiopian restaurant, for example, it would be acceptable to eat with one's hands. In a Chinese or a French restaurant, eating with the hands would not be acceptable. Eating and food offer some of the richest, most interesting methods of experiencing intercultural communication.


Food and Culture Resources (2012). Welcome to food, culture, and tradition. Retrieved online: http://www.food-links.com/

O'Neil, D. (2006). What is culture? Retrieved online: http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_1.htm… [read more]

Food Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (718 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Whereas many American customers find the service too slow and want to complain, other people understand that part of the Ethiopian culture is to be relaxed and at ease. This corresponds to the method of eating Ethiopian food, which is with the hands and done slowly. American food is sometimes eaten fast, in the car or at the desk.

One of my classmates wrote about an experience at a Japanese izikaya in Toronto. This restaurant might be one I am familiar with, which is called Guu. This restaurant also has the servers enthusiastic and shouting "hello!" And "goodbye!" To all the customers. Japanese culture is engaging, and the restaurants are busy and lively like this one. Therefore the ambiance of this restaurant reflects the culture. The food is varied, as there is something for everyone. I appreciated reading the dining style, which is for many people to share dishes rather than to have each person eat from his or her own plate. The service is fast but friendly, and there is a loud and fun atmosphere to the restaurant. This Japanese experience is different from the Italian restaurant that another classmate writes about. More akin to American dining, the Italian restaurant does not necessarily reflect the eating culture of Italy (the parent country) so much as it is a product of Italian-Americans. I know this because I have visited Italy. The food in Italy and the dining experience is much different from the food and dining experiences in American Italian restaurants. That is not to say the food is not good or fresh. It might be good, but it is not truly reflective of Italian food. Italian food in Italy is not as much focused on pasta and pizza as it is in the United States. In Italy, pasta is an appetizer or a side dish. Pizza is something that is small with a thin crust, usually as a quick lunch or an appetizer for two. In spite of these differences, one can appreciate the flavors and ingredients that reflect the geography of the specific region.… [read more]

GMO Food Labeling Genetically Modified Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Policies around the world differ on the labeling and use of genetically modified foods. In Europe, consumers are protesting against GMOs. However, in the United States, they are distributed freely with no labeling or other requirements. Their use has grown exponentially over the past decade (Fernandez, Cornejo).

What many people do not realize is that genetically modified foods are already labeled, but not conspicuously. That little sticker on fruits is the PLU code, or price look up number. This code tells you how the food was grown. For conventionally grown crops the PLU code has four numbers. For instance, a conventionally grown banana has a PLU code of 4011. An organic banana has a nine in front of the PLU code, so its number would be 94011. GM crops have an 8 in front of the PLU code. So the PLU code for a GM banana would be 84011 (Owen, 1998). A labeling system for GMOs already exists, but yet, some continue to push for more conspicuous labeling (Gertsberg). In a recent study, the exact effects of labeling of GMOs could not be determined, as current labeling requirements are not sufficient to conduct such a study (Guillaume and Rao, p. 66).

In conclusion, at present, not enough evidence exists to support the need for additional labeling of genetically modified foods for safety concerns. Many of the fears of labeling proponents are already being addressed by the scientific community. Sufficient technology exists to track and monitor the introduction of genes from genetically modified foods in the food supply. A system already exists that labels genetically modified foods differently from conventional and organic foods. This research supports the thesis that additional labeling is not necessary for genetically modified foods, as a system already exists.

Perhaps, rather than reinventing the wheel in terms of labeling for genetically modified foods, what people need is to learn to read the labeling that already exists.

Works Cited

Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge. Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S. USDA

Economic Research Service. Web. Accessed

1 June 2011.

Gertsberg, Denice. Lawmakers Propose Labeling in Response to Supreme Court's Monsanto

Decision. GMO Journal. 14 July 2010.

Web. Accessed 1 June 2011.

Gruere, Guillaume and Rao, S.R. "A Review Of International Labeling Policies Of Genetically

Modified Food to Evaluate India's Proposed Rule." AgBioForum. 2007. Vol. 19. No. 1.


Owen, Marion. Talking Fruit. PlanTea, Inc. Web. Accessed 1 June 2011.

Schneider, Keith and Schneider, Renee. Genetically Modified…… [read more]

Food Allergies What Are Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Probiotics introduces a good bacteria into the individual's system (usually via the stomach). The good bacteria helps to improve the balance of good vs. bad bacteria that can sometimes cause intolerances. Rifaximin is an antibiotic that when given does not get absorbed into the bloodstream, instead it stays in the digestive system where it fights off bad bacteria.


A number of steps were taken to provide the data necessary for this paper. First a general search was undertaken on the internet and at the local library. Key words were entered on the Google search engine.

The key words includes; food allergies, food intolerances, treatments, preventions, and diagnosis; this led to various websites that provided the general information and the general knowledge on the afflictions. Additionally a number of books were read that assisted the author in understanding the prevalence of the problem, what is being done to address the problem and the numbers involved, especially in the United States. The next research step taken was to enter the EBSCO website and find academic research that would provide the necessary foundation and documentation needed for an academic paper.

This step was quite conducive to accomplishing the academics needed as there is currently a large amount of research on food allergies and intolerances that is available through EBSCO. The direct citations and quotations were (for the most part) garnered from the EBSCO access.


The author discovered some very interesting information concerning food allergies and intolerances. This information helped the author understand the prevalence and importance that research on this particular subject could provide. Additionally, the author was somewhat surprised to discover that the problem was as big as what it seems to be; especially surprising was the fact that nearly 60% of all undiagnosed health problems in America are directly related to food allergies and intolerances and that 50 -- 90% of the people who believe that they have food allergies (and many of these have been confirmed by doctors) do not in reality have food allergies, but food intolerances.

The research allowed the author to grow in knowledge and understanding concerning this subject, and with that understanding the author was able to discern particular areas of interest that might need further studies. The NIAID has stated that there is no cure for food allergies and that it affects a significant amount of people around the globe, which leads the author to wonder why a cure has not been discovered as of yet, or at least more effective treatments that would contain the affliction so that those who suffer from it do not need to be on a constant guard against ingesting the different allergens. It would seem likely that additional research would help in addressing that specific question.

Overall, the author was pleasantly surprised at both the depth of the problem as well as the depth of the available research on the problem.


Food Allergy (2011) Preventing and treating food allergy, accessed on May 14, 2011 at: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/foodAllergy/understanding/Pages/treatment.aspx… [read more]

Social Significance of Food Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In vegetarian societies, for example, these are usually meats. In Europe these may be imports, such as sugar and spices. However, only in Europe, and this is especially the case for the time period of early modern Europe, were rare, or dominant socio-historical group foods so closely associated with social status or social strata. Whereas in Asia, the same foods given to the higher caste are also given to illustrious people, such as religious people, this was never the case in Europe where social rank took the lead over anything else most of the time (van der Veen 2003, 411).

Concluding Remarks

Early Modern Europe established, by the end of the 1700's, a clear food culture based on different societal norms, and changes in the social significance of different foods throughout this period led to different areas of society eating different kinds of food. While this notion persists, in some way today, the delineations of social constructs based on food are not as rigid, and one can eat better or worse without being judged and relegated to a certain class. Though luxury still exists in food, it is easier to attain it, even if only to see for a second, today. In this way, one could say, society has changed for the better, for it is more equal.


1. John C. Super, Food and History (Virginia: George Mason University Press, 2002), 165-178.

2. Ken Albala, Food and Class: Eating Right in the Renaissance (Berkeley…… [read more]

Andrejczak, M. (February 9, 2011) Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  2 pages (585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



United States Department of Agriculture. (N.D.). Food Price Outlook, 2011. USDA.

Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/cpifoodandexpenditures/consumerpriceindex.htm

United States Department of Environmental Protection. (N.D.). Green Power Partnerships.

United States Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/

(WFMI) Whole Foods Market Analyst Rates Shares Outperform. (February 17, 2011). Stock

Blog Hub. Retrieved February 24, 2011 from http://www.stockbloghub.com/2011/02/17/wfmi-whole-foods-market-analyst-rates-shares-outperform/67098

Whole Foods. (N.D.). 2010 Annual Report. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/pdfs/ar10.pdf

Whole Foods. (N.D.). Customer Service. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/service.php

Whole Foods. (N.D.). Premium Body Care Products. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011

from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/products/premium-body-care-products.php

Whole Foods. (N.D.). Whole Foods Market Brands. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011

from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/products/private-label.php

Whole Foods. (N.D.). Whole Foods Market Press Room. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011

from http://wholefoodsmarket.com/pressroom/blog/2010/10/20/whole-foods-market%C2%AE-celebrated-as-epa-green-power-partner-of-the-year/

Whole Foods CEO Blog. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www2.wholefoodsmarket.com/blogs/jmackey/

Whole Foods Corporate Site. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/

Whole Foods Magazine. (N.D.). Subscriptions. Whole Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.wholefoodsmagazineonline.com/subscribe

WikiInvest. (N.D.). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/Whole_Foods_Market_(WFMI)… [read more]

Robert Kenner, Food, Inc Movie Review

Movie Review  |  2 pages (785 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It's saddening and sobering that a judge would so cavalierly side with the deep pockets of major corporations, not to mention act out of a clear personal bias, as well as totally dismiss the needs of the working man that provides food to feed the country.

Food, Inc. shows us the helplessness of a farmer who tries to fight the Goliath figure of these companies, after being slapped with a lawsuit for cleaning his seeds and saving them. However, one of the films strongest assets is that it doesn't leave the viewer with a sense of hopelessness. It constantly reminds the viewer that each of us has the power to implement change by demanding change. It gives clear examples; it shows how organic food is a hot trend in production simply from the fact the customers have made it popular and companies are racing to supply this current demand. The film urges spectators to hold these companies to greater accountability, visibility and higher standards, saying that the consumer has the power to get these companies to alter their business practices, as they will, after all, go where the money is.

On a personal note, what affected me the most about the film was the cruelty towards life that it portrayed. The shots of mistreated animals, pumped full of chemical cocktails, as well as helpless, struggling farmers and underpaid, overworked factory workers really made me feel as if I, as an uninformed consumer, was helping to enable these big corporations to commit such evils. I've vowed to do my best to give up soda. I don't eat a lot of meat, but I'm trying to abstain from it all together.

The film has enhanced my sense of global awareness and has made me more skeptical of advertising in general. As the film tells us in the beginning, the bucolic, agrarian images that big businesses use to sell their products couldn't be further from the stark reality that is the truth. I think I've realized, or rather, finally admitted to myself, that similar deceptions abound in our society towards the citizen, and that food production…… [read more]

Fast Food Restaurant: Mcdonalds Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,280 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


However, we overlooked what appeared to be the most significant coordination mechanism: the presence of two floating workers on the floor, who stepped in to keep traffic flowing. These workers engaged in various tasks, such as taking orders out to waiting cars if there was a delay in the drive-thru, cleaning up a spill in the restaurant area, and opening an additional register when the line became too long.

Not surprisingly, the restaurant utilized a significant amount of technology. We were correct that the cash register seemed to have buttons that allowed for complete customization of orders. One exception to this was that if someone wanted a regular sized cup of water with their value meal order instead of a soda, the cashiers did not seem to have an option for that. Instead, the default appeared to be a smaller cup. The register was linked to an overhead coordinated order board, which put the order up on a screen for those in prep. Finally, we were correct that the tools used for cooking were somewhat automated. The fry machine had a set time and beeped when fries were finished. Different buttons seemed to indicate the appropriate times for different foods.

Finally, our hypotheses about the stakeholders seemed founded. We hypothesized that the stakeholders with the lowest stakes (customers) will bring the highest demands to the business, and that did appear to be true. We considered the customers to have the lowest stakes because, in almost all circumstances, the results of getting a fast food order incorrect or having to wait an additional 3 or 4 minutes for an order are not life-changing. In comparison, the people working at a fast food restaurant during the week tended to be older people and college-age students. Although we did not interview them, they seemed as if they were working because they needed the money. The manager did, as well. Honestly, we were surprised at the level of rude behavior exhibited by many customers. Many of them spoke on their phones while placing orders and failed to use basic courtesy, such as saying "please" and "thank you" with the workers. We also witnessed one woman, who had been speaking on her phone when she placed her order; berate the cashier because she gave her the wrong order. However, the cashier had given the woman exactly what she ordered. We probably wouldn't have noticed that if we had not been intentionally observing the exchange, but it made us wonder how many "incorrect" fast food orders are due to customer error.


Our observation revealed that fast food restaurants are very highly-structured organizations, which are only able to provide such fast service because they operate in a highly-efficient, highly-structured manner. However, we also saw the importance of human beings in the job; while the jobs may be automated, it seemed clear that the floating employees made the automated systems function much more smoothly than they would have without these additional employees. It made us remember that… [read more]

Fast Food Advertising Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,291 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"It's time America stops calling a burger and fries dinner." (http://www.kfc.com/news/pr/072701.htm,1).

KFC has grown to be the most sought-after chicken globally ever since Colonel Sanders mastered his Original Recipe Chicken®, cooked with 11 secret herbs and spices almost fifty years ago. "We use real chicken, hand-breaded fresh from scratch in our restaurants every day, and slow cooked to tender, juicy… [read more]

Hormones in Our Agricultural Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The company that manufactures the product insists that the IGF-1 levels are not in any way elevated through its use in bovine (History of Monsanto (http://www.sierraclub.ca/national/genetic/bghback.htm).However this claim is in direct opposition to the company's own study. "In a published letter, the British researcher T.B. Mepham reminded Monsanto that in its 1993 application to the British government for permission to… [read more]

Organic Food Today's World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,661 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


...The primary goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people.

Thus, the research and the studies prove that organic foods clearly have a benefit over processed foods or those produced using artificial chemicals or pesticides. Nor are organic gardening, farming, and consumption something practiced by hippies living in communes. Organic gardening is here and it is huge. Even the United States government has recognized the benefits to be had in organic foods by forming an organization to help regulate how such food is produced and what the term "organic" shall mean.

In a world in which life can be so fast-paced, our health and well-being often pay the price. Yes, organic food might cost a little more, or there might be some "hassle" in growing one's one food. The satisfaction and the health benefits, however, are tremendous. And, after all, one's health and well-being, not to mention the health and well-being of our planet, is certainly worth the effort.


Are You Poisoning Your Kid?" Natural Health. July 2003, Vol. 33 Issue 5, p26.

Byrum, Allison. "Report Confirms More Health Benefits of Organic Food." Organic Consumers Association. 2003. http://www.organicconsumers.org/organic/polyphenolics031203.cfm.

Maxted-Frost, Tanyia. "The Benefits of Organic Food." Positive Health Publications, Ltd. 1994-2002. http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/Articles/Organic%20and%20Vegetarian/frost47.htm.

McGraw, Phillip C. The Ultimate Weight Solution. New York. Simon and Schuster, 2003.

National Organic Program. 2003. http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/indexIE.htm.

Organic Connection. "Some Nutritional Benefits of Organic Foods." 2003. http://www.organicconnection.net/nutritional.html.

Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.

Organic Food Production. The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. October 24, 2002. http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/ofp/.

Organic Pesticides?" Better Nutrition. October 2003, Vol. 65, Issue 10, p24.

Press Release. Soil Association. March 13, 2002. http://www.soilassociation.org/web/sa/saweb.nsf/0/80256ad80055454980256b7b00478902?OpenDocument.

Sexton, Megan. "Organic Gardeners Feed Themselves while Replenishing the Earth." The State. Columbia, SC. October 16, 2003.

Uhland, Vicky. "Up Close & Personal." Better Nutrition. October 2003, Vol. 65 Issue 10, p 52.… [read more]

Genetically Modified (GM) Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Certainly, these new caveats bring more credence to the arguments of the critics of GM food aid to Africa.

Ultimately, the debate over whether genetically modified foods are harmful to human health or the environment will continue until there is convincing evidence on either side. To date, that evidence is unavailable, and the debate continues (New Scientist Editorial: End this… [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is not fair, not ethical, and most of all, not safe, in this day and age to do so.


Bhattacharya, S. (2003). 'GM crops boost yields more in poor countries'. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993364Accessed 5th November 2003.

Concar, D. (2003). 'Key GM crop experiment lacks statistical power' http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99993547Accessed 5th November 2003.

Dauenhauer, K. (2003). Health: Africans Challenge Bush Claim That GM Food Good For Them. Global Information Network June 20, 2003: 1.

Financial Times (2000). Why you can't tell genetically modified foods from the label. March 11th 2000: 5.

Goodyear-Smith, F. (2001). Health and safety issues pertaining to genetically modified foods. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 25(4): 371-375.

Martineau, B. (2001). Food fight. Sciences 41(2): 24-29.

McKenna. P. (2001). Industry can't be left to regulate genetically modified foods. Toronto Star Newspaper. August 20, 2001: 17.

Murphy, J. (2002). In Africa, suspicion of genetically altered corn. Nations refuse U.S. grain despite growing hunger. Telegraph. August 6th, 2002: 1a.

Plaut, M. (2002). Zambia 'furious' over GM food'. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/2412603.stm. Accessed 5th November 2003.

Vidal, J. (2002). U.S. 'dumping unsold GM food on Africa'. http://www.guardian.co.uk/gmdebate/Story/0,2763,805825,00.html. Accessed 5th November 2003.… [read more]

Agriculture and Less Developed Nations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Attitudes Towards Change

Undeveloped countries are many times resistant to change for a number of reasons. There is "cultural resistance; many of the cultivators are poor and extremely risk adverse, feeling the risks outweigh the gains; and many of the peasants are unable to afford new production technology (Cypher, 331-365)."

Hidden Potential and High-Yield Seeds

Many economists debate the argument that there is "hidden potential in the agricultural sector, due to the assumptions concerning the ineffectiveness of peasant cultivation (Cypher, 331-365)."

Many landowners hoped that using high-yield variety of seeds would reduce poverty in underdeveloped countries, however "peasants are being driven out of rural areas due to a drop in prices as crop supplies increase (Cypher, 331-365)." Another downside to these crops is they are more prone to pests and disease, resulting in the destruction of most or all of the crop once infected. Peasants in these areas can not afford the risks, "which widens the rural income divide (Cypher, 331-365)."


The land in underdeveloped nations used to be considered a social status, but is now a capital asset and economists feel "the rate of return on the land must be maximized (Cypher, 331-365)." Capitalist may create additional dilemmas by "substituting capital for labor, and expelling peasants from small plots and their status as intermittent farm laborers. An increase in crops can result in displacement of peasants from their regions (Cypher, 331-365)."


There has been a link between "corporations of advanced industrialized nations and the agrarian sectors of less developed countries (Cypher, 331-365)" for over 40 years. Corporations are controlling cattle ranchers in some sectors, thus allowing the restaurant business in highly developed nations to impact good agricultural land, and lead to a "land intensive form of production. This industrialization contributes to deforestation, land degradation and environmental pollution- ranging from soil erosion to global warming (Cypher, 331-365)."

When there is an ill-defined policy concerning use of land in underdeveloped countries, "either at the governmental or national level, environmental problems from the overuse of resources are likely to arise, creating vicious cycles of desertification, famine and increasing poverty. This problem is known as tragedy of the commons (Cypher, 331-365)."


Although many citizens of underdeveloped nations live in rural areas and have a low income, they are able to earn a living. Industrialization of these areas has been shown to create a number of problems such as deforestation, erosion and global warming. The peasant's jobs are often replaced by new technology, increasing unemployment and poverty levels. The suggestions for change are generally the result of good intentions for these underdeveloped countries, however the outcome may actually create worse conditions for these people.

Works Cited

Cypher, James M., James L. Dietz. Agriculture and…… [read more]

Globalization, Genetic Modification of Crops Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,937 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Busch, cited in Bigman, 174) DeGregori's disdain of the criticism of such products seems to be ideologically rooted in his espousing of capitalism at all costs. If it were not for government intervention, such safety standards would never have been implemented. This does not mean that all fears are equally justified as the fear of botulism. However, will the absence of quality control and health standards and the presence of capitalist competition be such a panacea that the best shall always triumph, given the currently unbalanced state of the world economy, which DeGregori himself grants?

Moreover, DeGregori's stress upon the first world's mania for health seems to primarily give a snapshot of a particular economic class in the United States, as poorer individuals may be more apt to sacrifice not only quality, but nutrition and safety to save money when they make their daily decisions regarding nutrition, on a subsistence level -- a phenomenon true not only of the developing world, but also of impoverished areas of the United States where inferior goods may be present that damage health but temporarily satiate hunger. Misguided as it may have been, the African nation's banning of GM seeds was an attempt to set local, national standards for the creation of a form of modern agriculture that was 'right for Africa.'

Lastly, Busch's statement that "standards may be used as company strategies" is also a phenomenon addressed by DeGregori with distain, but is a real capitalist phenomenon, in that many companies use the naturalness of products to encourage individuals to partake of their products and produce. (Busch, cited in Bigman, 175). Although DeGregori's satire of greenness may be humorous, he does not see that this is an inevitable by-product of capitalism, just like economic development itself. (DeGregori, 2002, 10). Individuals in all nations wish to be fed, and to be fed cheaply and well, and individual governments wish to create in the developing world, sustainable agricultural economies. The technology of the developed world can be an aid to this, but it must not be a crutch, nor can the developed world rejected GM in a piecemeal fashion -- some in America accepting it, and others in Europe rejecting it -- while thrusting it upon the developed world unquestioningly. An international rather than a national research study must be undertaken to determine the safety and value of this questionable but possibly beneficial agricultural innovation.

Works Cited

Bigman, David. Editor. (2002). Globalization and the Developing Countries. Oxford University Press.

DeGregori, Thomas R. (2002). The…… [read more]

Agriculture Technologies in the Middle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,106 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Heavy Plow

This plow was often mounted on wheels, which allowed the plowshare to be matched to the furrow being plowed. Several oxen harnessed in tandem, which became another innovation during this time period, pulled the plow. Later, horses in tandem frequently replaced oxen.

The heavy plow was essential in the efficient use of the rich, heavy, often wet soils of Northern Europe. Its use allowed the area's forests and swamps to be brought under cultivation (Gies & Gies 1995). Though even plowing with a heavy plow was unable to completely destroy the root systems of weeds in arable land long in production, it did expose much of those root systems to the open air, which inhibited the growth of the weed (Jordan 1996). Further, open fields plowed in long furrows were able to absorb great amounts of water, and because of the shape of the furrow, drainage caused little erosion. This tended to protect the rich, heavy croplands of northern Europe from heavy rains (Jordan 1996).

The Whippletree

The whippletree (also known as whiffletrees, swingletrees, splinter bars, or swing bars) is a simple piece of wood attached to the drawpole of a plow or cart at its center. The horses' harness then attaches to the whippletree at convenient places (Langdon 1986). The whippletree allows for flexibility in harnessing arrangements, makes harnessing in file much easier, and increases maneuverability (Langdon 1986; Mokyr 1990). The whippletree was used for three horses, two to be hitched on the left, one on the right. The length of the bar "A-C" is adjusted on each side of the drawpole "B" to equalize the effort of the three horses. The whippletree first appears in the eleventh century (Mokyr 1990).

Social Adjustments

New agricultural techniques brought about certain social adjustments. Since it took six to eight small oxen to pull a moldboard plow, the pooling of resources became necessity. This led to cooperative cultivation of the soil. By the 10th century most of Europe was divided into farming units known as manors (Mokyr 1990).

So new agricultural techniques and the rise of a military and aristocratic class creates a society of basically two social groupings: knights and serfs. The knights were the lords of the manor or manors. This established a uniformity in the regions where the moldboard (heavy) plow was used.

One of the most important developments in the Middle Ages was the experimentation and developments in iron production. In Europe by 900, there were significant changes in the production of iron. The above ground reduction furnace had been developed; this furnace allowed for the easier creation of iron. This iron could then be forged by local smiths into "parts for plows, spades, pitchforks, and shoes for horses beginning to pull with the aid of the new horse collar" (Gies & Gies 80-1).

Works Cited

Comet, G. "Technology and Agricultural Expansion in the Middle Ages: The Example of France north of the Loire." Medieval Farming and Technology. Brill, 1997

Gies & Gies. Cathedral, Forge,… [read more]

Food Genetically Modified Crops Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (732 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The treating of genetically modified foods as different creates a public relations disaster on a global level. If American and European consumers fear these foods, and Americans must be 'tricked' into buying genetically modified foods without labeling them, while the EU rejects these foods entirely, surely, the Sudanese rationalized, something must be amiss with these apparently harmless and well-intentioned products the United States was 'giving' away?

The answer, one might say, to the threatened right to choose upon the part of the consumer is to label GM products and plants that are cultivated but to still allow them -- but this creates, critics allege, the appearance of a lack of safety, even when there is none, and will threaten GM farmers as well as frighten worldwide consumers of American products. Also, those who are anti-GM crops find this unsatisfactory on a large scale for they say, because of convenience, even with such precautionary measures, food and feed grown in the European Union sooner or later will become more or less Gm in nature, thus causing GM crops to infiltrate the food supply through the back door. By making more people unwitting subject of the great GM international experiment in the first and third worlds alike, the ecosystem as a whole could become imbalanced for immediate consumer benefits in the short-term -- and what if consumers ignore or are confused about such warning labels?

The GM food controversy will not go away -- the immediate benefits of crops resistant to disease are obvious, but no scientist is certain of the long-term impact upon the human body or environment that supports human livestock and the human body. Until then, it will be half-hearted experiment, as some accept and others reject these products.

Works Cited

Conference on Coexistence -- COC. (2004) Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.foeeurope.org/GMOs/conference/home.htm

U.S. bullying impoverished Sudan." (March 19, 2004) Organic Consumers Organization (OCO). Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/sudan031904.cfm… [read more]

Steps to Reduce Food Insecurity and Poor Nutrition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


To enhance nutritious choices by EBT users, rather than taking away choices, offering more choices such as allowing recipients to use their benefits at farmer's markets has been useful. A number of states such as New York have farmer's markets in which EBT recipients can use their allotment to buy fresh products, thus allowing them to 'elect' to eat better rather than to be forced to do so by limiting the types of foods that can be purchased. Legislation to 'shape' the environment to encourage healthy choices can also include providing incentives for supermarkets to open up in low-income areas to compete with bodegas that stock junk food and limiting the number of fast food restaurants that can have a presence in low-income areas. For example, one study of Los Angeles restaurants found that "in 2008 that fast-food restaurants, which often offer less-expensive fare than sit-down establishments, represented 45% of the eating establishments in South Los Angeles -- far more than in other parts of town" (Bernstein 2010).

Making it easier and cheaper to make healthy choices rather than restricting food is likely to be a more palatable solution (no pun intended) for food insecure communities. Creating ready access to food is important, since food scarcity itself can create binge eating cycles and making healthier food affordable and less effortful to obtain (while making unhealthy food, if not restricted, then more difficult to purchase in mass quantities) is a more ethical solution to the problem of improving health and nutrition for poorer communities.


Bernstein, S. (2010). Restaurant group plans to fight fast food restrictions in Los Angeles.

LA Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.latimes.com/2010/nov/11/business/la-fi-fast-food-fight-20101112

Martin, C. (2013). Improving school lunches by design. The New York Times. Retrieved from:

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/16/rethinking-school-lunch/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0… [read more]

Food, Inc Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (706 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Food, Inc. Documentary

Critical Evaluation: Food, Inc. Documentary

The conclusion of the documentary film Food, Inc. is that the large number of factory farms in the United States that produce food for the masses are doing so in an way that is unhealthy for the environment, the animals, and the employees. The concern is not that animals are being killed for food, but the way in which they are killed and the way in which they are required to live in terrible, cruel conditions before their deaths. There are facts, opinions, and reasoned judgments in the film. Facts are provable statements that can be backed up with statistics or other information that is not refutable. One of the facts presented in the documentary is that organic food is becoming more popular with the current health food movement. This is something verifiable, and not just one person's opinion. There are studies and other statistical documents showing the increased production and consumption of organic foods by the American public in recent years.

There are, however, also many opinions in the documentary, including the belief that unhealthy food consumptions habits are being promoted in America. That would seem to conflict with the fact that more organic food is being sold, so if unhealthy habits are being promoted that promotion is failing. There is no real proof of this promotion, so it is opinion only. Another type of information provided in the documentary is reasoned judgment, and this would include the statement that the current methods of meat, grain, and vegetable production are not environmentally sustainable. While this is somewhat of an opinion, it is also reasonable based on the way farmland is being used up and how the environment is changing both because of factory farming and because of other factors (such as climate change). Eventually, it is quite possible that the type of farming done now will no longer be available, so the judgment is a reasonable one to make.

The thing that surprised me most in the documentary was how balanced it was. Of course, it was trying to make a point that factory…… [read more]

Applied Theories Ethics Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,757 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Profit in this case creates a perverse incentive. Yes you can profit from the creation of useful product, but you do not need a good or useful product in order to make a profit. Where McDonough and Kelman agree, and where I agree as well, is that a better system, one conceived with an entirely different set of objectives in mind, would not approve of this banana. It is not because they wish to see Ugandans starve, or worse be forced to eat tubers for their starch, it is because they want to see Ugandans thrive. There is a threat posed by Black Sigatoka, but humanity cannot out-innovate all of the problem that nature will throw its way. Only nature can the demonstrated capability to out-innovate its own threats. Intransigence -- not wanting to risk giving up bananas -- is a needless constraint. GMO crops are not the solution to any genuine problem, at least they are not a solution that exists without cost. There are other solutions to these problems that, if conceived properly are integrative, in line with the natural world, and solve problems at a deeper level. A GMO banana is a Band-Aid, good for healing small cuts, but useless for solving the major problems we face in this world with respect to hunger, health and environmental degradation.


Kelman, S. (no date). Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Ethical Critique, from Contemporary Business Themes, Chapter 14.

McDonough, W. (no date). A Boat for Thoreau, from Contemporary Business…… [read more]

Food Safety Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,443 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The ammonia process is generally simple and effective, which is why cases like Smith's are rare, but there is always the possibility of a problem with the ammonia wash rendering the system ineffective -- when the system only has one meaningful safeguard and that fails, this puts the risk on the consumer.

For me, I think it is unacceptable to… [read more]

Thomas Foods: Hedging Strategies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


While there is no basis risk, there is the risk of default as the agreement is private and not overseen by the government (Contracts, 2014, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada).

Other strategies

Keeping supplies low during times of volatility is another strategy such as stockpiling "feed grains, keeping only a week's worth in its mills at a time" when values are… [read more]

African Restaurants in NYC Article

Article  |  17 pages (4,930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Around 4 pm, he goes to Ponty where things are being set up for the dinner shift. During dinner, Elhadji bounds through the restaurant, helping to expedite orders and making sure to greet customers. He completes his day at Manhattan home with a two-hour session on his computer to check email, stay in touch with vendors and distributors.

A variety… [read more]

Whole Foods Versus Trader Joe Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (590 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Trader Joe's versus Whole Foods. Compare and contrast the self-service environment. Which is more individualistic and promotes self-service? Why? Which provides fuller service? Why? Which is more experiential? Why?

A friend of mine once tartly described Trader Joe's as 'Whole Foods on a budget.' Both stores have earthy-friendly, environmentally conscious images. They offer organic produce and foods that were once considered marginal and counter-culture twenty years ago, like almond butter, agave syrup, and hummus. However, the two stores offer the customer distinctly different environments in which to shop. Whole Foods is subdivided into many small sections. Customers can select what foods they wish to purchase from the bulk foods section, such as nuts, dried fruits, and candies. There is also a section where consumers can select a variety of rolls from open bins, each of which has information about the bread product's origin on the front. There are counters for cheese, sushi, and specialty meats at Whole Foods, where the customers can special-order different products. There is a wide array of fruit and produce.

In contrast, Trader Joe's has shrink-wrapped breads, nuts, and trail mixes that are pre-packaged for the consumer. Although some loose fruits and vegetables are laid out for the customer's personal choice (and are marked at a far less expensive price than Whole Foods), most of the fruits and vegetables are pre-bagged). Consumers cannot inspect produce for bruises or imperfections, in exchange for lower prices and relatively less selection. Trader Joe's has inexpensive organic peanut butter and other nut butters while Whole Foods has a grind-your-own peanut butter section, as well as more exotic nut butters such as walnut butter. Whole Foods has an extensive array of imported goods; Trader Joe's has almost none. Trader Joe's foods are prepackaged, while Whole Foods…… [read more]

Junk Food Really Cheaper? Mark Bittman Argues Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,400 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Junk Food Really Cheaper?" Mark Bittman argues no, junk food is costlier than freshly prepared food at home. To make the argument, Bittman relies on several different rhetorical strategies. One strategy is to rely on a diverse array of credible sources to substantiate his central claims. Bittman draws from former Surgeon Generals, political activists, and culinary groups to… [read more]

Genetically Modified Crops Foods and Hormones in Meat Supply Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,866 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Genetically Modified Crops/Foods and Hormones in Meat Supply

Genetically modified crops or foods result from genetically modified organism. Genetically modified foods are of great importance despite the concerns raised because they will help in solving the food crisis. Use of genetically modified foods have its challenges and the most common one being the transfer of genes from the genetically modified… [read more]

Kudler Fine Foods Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Kudler Fine Foods: Justification of International Market

Kudler fine Foods is planning to expand into other growing markets of the world and this time, it is seriously considering Italy as its next potential market. Kudler is known for its world class wine and its gourmet meats and other grocery items. It is for now only focusing on introducing its class of wine into Italian market and thus seeks to understand the growth potential and the size of the new market.

We must not forget that European Union countries are known for their role in wine production and Italy had once been producing more than 30% of wine coming from EU. However lately the number of vineyards has gone down but Italy still contributes 25% to total EU wine production. What makes Italy a very attractive market for Kudler is the fact that Italy has seen a consistent rise in its wine exports while local consumption has decreased. This means that if Kudler enters the market, it may be able to capture some of that export share as well while also getting significant share from local consumption.

With greater exports, Italy is more than welcoming to anyone who will help them increase their local wine production and become bigger exporters. Kudler can focus on this area of wine market as well while trying to capture the local market. This is because if a country is considered one of the hubs of wine production, it always makes sense to make an entry into that market with your own product.

Before we study this any further, let us see how Italy has been doing in the wine export area. According to research conducted by Association of enologists (Assoenologi), Italian export growth is majorly concentrated in two key areas i.e. two major types of table wines. One is Vini da Tavola…… [read more]

Business Model Analysis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (681 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Meal -- a Culinary Destination

Reading the description of this imagined restaurant is quite enough to make the mouth start watering. But more than that, it is enough to make the mind start spinning because of the promise of an experience that encompasses not only food and drink but a sense of history and culture. Eating is a highly evocative experience, and being able to eat as Cleopatra might have, or Anne of Cleaves, or the first female America president carries with it a promise of an unforgettable event. Given that the restaurant promises all of this for a relatively modest price, the restaurant (should it be able to keep the promises that it makes in this description) should be a wild success.

So who might be attracted to such a restaurant?

A relatively well-to-do clientele. The cost, as noted above, is not immodest, but neither is it modest. For regular diners, professional status is probably a given to be able to afford the experience.

There will no doubt be other clients who will visit the restaurant for special occasions. These are likely to include students who are especially interested in the time period, others with similar historical interests, and "foodies" -- those who are dedicated to the careful preparation and presentation of food and who therefore spend more than the usual percentage of their income on food.

At least during the first year, a number of the restaurant's patrons will no doubt be those who are simply interested in being seen at the latest chic eatery. Whether they will continue to patronize the restaurant after the initial season depends on the restaurant's popular culture profile.

Because the architects of the building are as famous as the chef, there will be a number of people who eat at the restaurant at least once simply to see the inside of the building. They are probably the least likely to return on a regular basis.

The restaurant will not target those interested in fast food for the cheapest price possible…… [read more]

Protein the Lakeview Pantry Is a Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The Lakeview Pantry is a food pantry on the north side of Chicago. Their website is: (http://www.lakeviewpantry.org/). The pantry was established in 1970 and provides food to those residents living below the poverty level. This food pantry receives some of its food from donations and also from the Greater Chicago Food Depository (http://www.chicagosfoodbank.org/site/PageServer). The Lakeview Pantry has several programs to help feed the city's hungry. One of the programs the pantry sponsors is their Home Delivery Program which began in 1989 and now serves over 190 people per month. This is the program that will be evaluated for the purposes of this paper. Since the recipients of this program are home bound and generally elderly or sick, it is important that they do not suffer from hunger or improper nutrition because of their immobility.

Since the pantry's website does not list the types of food delivered to the recipients of this program, a call needed to be made to get this type of information. The person listed on their website is Jenny Dwyer and she was available and kind enough to answer questions regarding the types of food distributed by their home delivery service. In speaking with her, she said that many people assume that food pantries only stock and distribute non-perishable foods. This is not the case with food pantries today as they are equipped with industrial sized freezers that can easily store meat for distribution also. Since deliveries are made to each household once a month, it is important that the meat is frozen in order to keep it from spoiling.

Ms. Dwyer was asked what other sources of proteins the pantry provides in addition to meat. We know that lean mean is a good source of protein, but it is not the only source of protein and for those recipients of the program on restricted diets or those who are vegetarians, meat will not be an option. So, the other major sources of proteins that the pantry distributes for this program are: peanut butter, whole grain cereals and breads, canned and…… [read more]

Globalization of World Food Markets Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,439 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Globalization of world food markets has had a number of unintended consequences. Nations find themselves limited in their ability to avoid food shortages in the face of increased consumption elsewhere on earth. The poor all over the world are adversely affected by food price increases. The risks inherent in the globalization of food production have not yet been adequately addressed… [read more]

Omnivores Dilemma Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Omnivore's Dilemma

Being an omnivore can be a blessing and a curse at the same time. It is an advantage because omnivores can mostly eat any kind of food, thus having an increased ability to adapt to environments which are hostile for either carnivores or herbivores. It is a disadvantage because it brings forth the omnivore's dilemma, meaning that it confuses people to the point where they are uncertain which food is good and which is bad.

Even though there were a series of individuals referring to the concept across time, a research psychologist named Paul Rozin was the first to use the "omnivore's dilemma" expression. In contrast to carnivores and herbivores that have no trouble selecting their foods, omnivores need to carefully analyze what they want to eat before actually doing so.

The French paradox involves the misunderstanding relating to how French people are capable of eating several foods perceived to be toxic in the U.S. And in spite of this they are perfectly healthy. It is strange how Americans are determined to eat healthy food and even with this they are unable to keep the obesity rates down.

Corn (or Zea Mays as it is referred to in Latin) is one of the most important foods for omnivores, herbivores, and carnivores alike. While the latter are not directly involved in consuming corn, most owe their existence to the fact that the meat they eat has fed on corn. A series of foods humans eat, ranging from eggs to beef, exists because of corn, as a large number of animals humans feed on were raised on corn.

It is not surprising that corn has come to be one of the essential aliments society is based on. Its numerous properties make…… [read more]

Is There Really an Elephant in There With Those Blind Men? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Food Security

Is there Really an Elephant in there with those Blind Men?

Food security has been defined as the ability of the population to obtain a safe, nutritionally sufficient food intake through a sustainable food system that amplifies community self-sufficiency and social justice (Bellows & Hamm, 2003). At the local level, food security includes social, economic, and institutional factors… [read more]

News Related to Food and Policy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Rabin, Roni Caryn. (2009, March 29). Proximity to fast food a factor in student obesity. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/26/health/nutrition/26obese.html

News article review

According to a study summarized in The New York Times, children whose schools are in closer proximity to fast food restaurants are more likely to be obese. This has caused many politicians within the U.S. And elsewhere to demand more stringent zoning laws regarding fast food chains near schools, much as the sale of alcohol and pornography is also prohibited. The author of the article, Roni Caryn Rabin, details how economists from Columbia University and the University of California tracked the BMI of ninth grade. Even adjusted "for a wide range of variables, including income, education and race, the researchers found that obesity rates were 5% higher among the ninth graders whose schools were within one-tenth of a mile of a pizza, burger or other popular fast-food outlet, compared with students attending schools farther away from fast-food stores" (Rabin 2009, p.1). There have also been calls within the UK for such a geographic ban.

The implications of Columbia-UC study suggest that the rapid increase in BMI of schoolchildren nation and world-wise is not merely due to genetics or a failure of willpower -- or even economics, as economic factors were controlled for in the study. Even when parents had enough income to provide children with healthier alternatives, the nearby presence of fast food notably increased children's consumption. The researchers were uncertain why this was the case. "It could be that students don't like to wander too far…Maybe they don't have a long lunch period. Maybe it's just the effect of having temptation right in front of your eyes" surmised the authors (Rabin 2010, p.1). Peer pressure -- seeing all of one's friends eat fast food, and having an environment that normalized fast food consumption, and reinforced pro-fast food messages seen…… [read more]

Geography of California Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,343 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


California Geography

Fresno: The desert that became an agricultural Mecca gives its bounty at a great human cost

The state of California is often associated with the Gold Rush -- people came from all over the world to secure their fortune in the territory of the West. Those who did not find wealth lying on California's dry and craggy rocks found wealth in other sources, such as land, the movie industry, ranching, and agricultural produce. Fresno has often been described as a kind of agricultural miracle, a land that manifests the possibility for the dessert to be made green with fertility and prosperity. Humans engineered the ability of Fresno to be used for food, and through careful cultivation the types of crops that can be harvested in the dry region parallel those found in the Mediterranean of Europe, even though the climate is far harsher. The greater aridity of the San Joaquin Valley of central California has yielded impressive dividends for rich agricultural firms. Yet for many workers who toil the land, often illegally, the bounty of Fresno comes at a high price.


Fresno, like all Californian cities, has its own character. The diversity of the state of California is exemplified in its climatic and agricultural variety: some areas of California are so dry they are ideal wine-making regions, while others are nearly arid, almost desert-like in their weather conditions. The area now known as Fresno County was once a barren desert and was only made habitable through the use of irrigation and electricity. Early Spanish and Mexican settlers and missionaries largely avoided the inhospitable region. The name "Fresno" means ash tree in Spanish, and derives from the many ash trees that grow by the Fresno river, but other than giving Fresno a name, these settlers avoided the area in favor of more promising territories ("Fresno, Greenwich Mean Time, 2009).

Fresno's true beginnings as a state can be traced to 1872, "when the Central Pacific Railroad, pushing southward through the Central Valley, reached the site. Fresno's steady growth began when irrigation was introduced" (Drury 2009). An elaborate system of irrigation, known as 'Church Ditches' were developed by the small community of the Moses Church, largely made up of hardy pioneers. Thanks to the Moses Church, agriculture would become a core part of the modern economy of the region. These ditches and canals "transformed the barren desert of Fresno County into rich soil, thus enabling extensive wheat farming in Fresno County" ("Fresno, Greenwich Mean Time, 2009). Now Fresno County is America's leading agricultural region, producing $3 billion per year and over 200 commercial crops (Drury 2009).

Fresno's most famous crop is that of the raisin. Fresno produces about 60% of the world's raisins and about 90% of the raisins sold in America (Drury 2009). Yet the ability of Fresno to produce raisins was discovered only by accident, when a wine producer "accidentally let some of his grapes dry on the vine in 1875" (Drury 2009). Eventually, Fresno's significance as a… [read more]

Unethical Companies Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (703 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Pet Food Scandal

In 2007, Purina was among many pet food companies hit with a major scandal. The company had used a supplier, Menu Pet Foods to produce its some of its lines. In turn, Menu had received tainted supplies of wheat gluten from a Chinese supplier. This tainted wheat gluten led to deaths among pets, a massive product recall and legal actions taken against the companies in question (Gillis & Kingston, 2007).

The management decisions that applied to the crisis were twofold. The first decision was the decision to order a recall of Purina's Menu-sourced brands. The recall was announced on March 30, 2007, the same day the FDA informed the company of the source of the contaminated Pet Foods. This decision could have been made earlier based on the recall initiated by Menu on March 16th. The decision to delay the Purina recall failed to adequately mitigate damages to the Purina brand.

The basis of the issue was deliberate criminal action on the part of the Chinese supplier of wheat gluten. Both U.S. And Chinese sources found the Chinese company culpable in deliberately poisoning their products (Barboza, 2007; Akre, 2009). There were concerns that the U.S. importer and Menu Foods also knew about the tainted wheat gluten in advance of the recall order. There is no evidence or suggestion that Purina executives were aware of the tainted wheat gluten prior to the Menu Foods recall order.

The ethical deficiency that led to the problem was not sourced at Ralston Purina. It was sourced at the Chinese supplier, who had used a chemical agent to give its wheat gluten the appearance of having a higher protein value than it actually had. The chemical agent was toxic to animals and led to widespread renal failure.

Organizational leadership at Purina contributed somewhat to the problem because it did not issue a recall order until two weeks after the initial Menu Foods recall order. It acted when the FDA confirmed the source of the tainted food. The company could have acted pre-emptively to help prevent pet illness and death, but did not. Only…… [read more]

Aquaculture Biotechnology Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (351 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Aquaculture and Biotechnology as Methods to Addressing World Hunger
The emphasis on fishery operations that are treated in the same
fashion as the world's land-born farming operations is something of a
double edge sword. Though it may potentially promote more sustainable
practices than free-roaming fishing operations, some tactics such as the
use of antibiotics can potentially introduce dangerous and problematic new
elements to the ecosystem. (Wikipedia, 1) Given the bleak projections for
the immediate future of available water-born food supplies, greater
regulation is necessary before we can approve too strongly of aquaculture.
Thus, there is more of an inclination to push for biotechnology methods as
a way to actually increase the food supply.
Of late, world hunger experts have begun to see virtue in employing
methods of agriculture in such developing nations as India which would
allow for a diminished need for the implementation of insecticidal measures
that could contribute to an already stifling and reciprocating problem for
the nation. And there is reason of optimism according to recent findings
regarding the potential benefits of…… [read more]

Is it Ethical to Raise Animals for Human Consumption? Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (2,104 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … ethical to raise animals for human consumption? That question can have many different answers, depending first upon one's concept of ethics and morality. Moreover, answers will depend upon in what period of history one has lived, where one lives, what culture a person is part of, and what food is available for consumption. In the interest of a… [read more]

Macro Environment Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,172 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Macro Environment

NutriPower is a potential breakfast cereal product set for the Australian market. These products are focused on healthy eating, while enjoying the food flavour and range from regular flavour to fruit, nuts, coconut and vanilla. Given their healthy orientation, the products are lower in sugar content than the competitors on the market and higher on fibre and vitamins.… [read more]

Environmental Crime Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,261 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Environmental Crime

Economic globalization and the demanding competition it often creates in economies that were previously mostly local can potentially have devastating environmental effects. Additionally, it is also not uncommon to see these new globalized economies in places where resources are abundant, places where the last vestiges of resources exist that have not yet been depleted by human use or… [read more]

Future of Food Genetically Modified Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,589 words)
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Should Labeling be Required for GMOs?

The debate over genetically modified foods continues to plague producers and consumers alike. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are foods that have been modified through bioengineering to possess certain characteristics. These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or increased nutritional content (Whitman, 2000). The… [read more]

Biotech in the Food Chain Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,347 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


rBST in the Milk Supply

Position Statement: Is rBST Safe?

Dr. John Doe, American Medical Association

Biotechnology has gained momentum in the human food chain since the late 1990s. The use of biotechnology allows producers to increase their production and their profitability. We can be certain that these new food products have gone through rigorous testing according to FDA protocol before entering into the market, but one must ask if this is enough. This research will support the position that the decision to allow GMOs, and other biotechnologically altered foods into the marketplace is premature, as not enough studies have been conducted as to the long-term effects of them in the human food supply. It will particularly focus on the use of rBST in the milk supply.

What's the Big Deal?

The question of whether biotechnology has long-term harmful effects surfaces every time a new technology is introduced that involves human enhancement or manipulation of the food supply. Of those that have surfaced in the past, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) has been a topic of fervent controversy since its discovery.

Bovine somatotropin (bST) is a hormone that is produced naturally by the pituitary gland of cattle. Through the use of recombinant gene technologies, researchers have learned to make an exact copy of the hormone known as recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) (RBST_Facts.com). Somatrophins are growth hormones and are found in every living creature. The use of growth hormones in cattle and its potential to harm humans through the introduction of these hormones into the human endocrine system are of key concerns for opponents of the use of rBST.

Monsanto, Inc. is currently the only company producing rBST, marketing it under the trade name, Posilac (Monsanto, 2007). According to the Monsanto company, approximately one-third (nearly 9 million) dairy cows in the United States are now supplemented with Posilac. The Monsanto corporation claims that over 99% of producers currently using Posilac report increases in mild production (Monsanto. 2007). However, the methods used for arriving at these numbers is not known. One must also consider that the source may be biased, as they are the only producer of the pharmaceutical product.

The controversy picked up speed when a group of milk advertisers began advertising their milk as free from rBST. Although there was no evidence that rBST was harmful to humans, this labeling tactic placed the ideas in the consumer's mind that milk without rBST was better for them. This inadvertently led to the assumption that milk containing rBST may be harmful. This erupted into a battle in the dairy industry between those who wished to reap the production benefits of rBST against those who were wary of its effects on humans.

The Journal of the American Dietetic Association has the most comprehensive collection of clinical studies on rBST and many factors associated with it. However, much of the research centers on production and cattle issues, rather than human consumption issues.The original study, conducted by Monsanto and used as evidence for the licensing of… [read more]

California Medflies Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,630 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


California Medflies

The Medfly Problem: General Overview

How to combat the problem posed by the medfly to agriculture and international trade? While the California agricultural industry looks eagerly towards the expanding Asian market as a potential and continuing source of revenue, it must also combat the spread of the medfly, a pest that has dogged the industry since the 1960s… [read more]

Organic Food Is Better Food? Deconstructing Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,191 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Organic Food is Better Food?

Deconstructing a current cultural myth

Organic food, the media has counseled us, must be better for us than food cultivated by other methods. After all, we have been taught to believe that natural is better. A work colleague of mine is devoted to buying 'all organic,' and every morsel of food she brings with her to the office is organic, from the orange juice she drinks to the mustard she puts on her organic veggie burgers eaten on organic whole wheat bread. However, I remain unconvinced of the inherent value of organic products, either of their benefits to the environment or to human health. Eating a healthy diet that leaves a small carbon footprint is more important to me than simply buying organic. In other words, oranges may be good for you, but organic oranges are not necessarily 'better.'

To begin with the issue of 'organic' produce: an 'organic' orange, even though it is grown without chemicals, might be shipped in from far away. Growing crops without pesticides and artificial fertilizers can be expensive, and sometimes only very large farms can accomplish this task. It is not better for the environment if people eat fruits and vegetables shipped for long distances. Buying produce from a local farmer entails less damage to the environment, because it involves less burning of fossil fuels used in transport. It also ensures that the customer knows what the practices of the farmers are, given that he or she can talk to the individual who is selling the produce -- or, even if buying the local produce at a supermarket, the consumer at least has the confidence that the buyer at the supermarket knows the provider of 'Jersey tomatoes' if the New Jersey Pathmark is buying from a farm in New Jersey.

Buying locally makes it easier to avoid the type of scares that occurred regarding spinach grown in California, where spinach became tainted with e.coli after being watered with liquid laden with the deadly bacteria contaminated with human waste. The spinach was organic, but grown by a large, commercial farmer. The farm may have been organic, but it was impersonal in its outlook, and had no ties to a community or sense of responsibility to the community like a local farmer. While organic produce is not supposed to be fertilized with human waste, the water was contaminated from an outside source and with no protections to guard against the infection (which could also happen with rainwater, which does not carry human waste, but may be contaminated with other harmful substances) the organic produce quickly became infected.

The spinach scare brings up another issue with organic produce -- some toxins in the environment are deadly, and certain 'unnatural' methods may be required to protect produce against these dangers to consumer health. Protecting crops from certain insects and bacteria with chemicals may be medically and economically necessary, to ensure a steady stream of produce is provided to consumers. While many chemicals are… [read more]

Global Activism Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,149 words)
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Global Activism

An informed society represents one of the most important assets of a state and of a nation. It constitutes the basis of the public opinion. However, it is not sufficient enough to be informed without being active and supportive of a cause that is affecting the world we live in.

Food and the lack of food can be… [read more]

Marketing Unhealthy Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,150 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Business - Ethical Issue


It is permissible for companies to market unhealthy food and non-alcoholic beverages to children."

Arguments Supporting the Statement:

In the United States, freedom of speech applies to commercial speech. Companies have a constitutional right to market legal product by targeting their advertising message to any segment of consumers they wish (Halbert & Ingulli 2000). Certain specific products are considered too dangerous for children and advertising those particular products to children is prohibited by law. Otherwise, there is no justifiable basis for prohibiting commercial speech or advertising messages designed to appeal to children for products like junk food, fast food, or breakfast cereal, all of which are perfectly legal for consumption by children.

It is the responsibility of parents to limit children from consuming unhealthy foods and beverages in excessive quantity, or instead of more nutritious alternatives. Food companies are not responsible for monitoring the diets of children. Children do not generally have control over the contents of their diet because parents shop for food and prepare meals in the home. Advertising does not cause children to purchase products; the purpose of advertising to children is simply to motivate children to ask their parents for the advertised product. It is expected, even by the companies advertising to children that parents will limit their children's consumption of unhealthful foods and that children do not have the ability to purchase their products on their own.

3. The federal government strictly regulates foods through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies that ensure the safety and fitness of all foods for human consumption (Halbert & Ingulli 2000). Unlike the case with cigarettes, which are dangerous to human health in virtually any quantity, no food or beverage that complies with government standards is too unhealthy to eat in reasonable quantities.

4. Will power is a necessity of adult life and children benefit from learning to limit their pursuit of instant gratification in childhood. As an adult, they will be able to eat all the unhealthy food that they wish. Therefore, it is beneficial for them to learn to control their cravings as early as possible so that those skills will be developed already by the time they are too old to relay on others to tell them what to do and what not to do when it comes to personal matters like food choices.

Arguments Against the Statement:

I. Freedom of speech does apply to commercial speech, but unlike political speech or artistic expression, commercial speech is subject to more permissible regulation without violating the Constitution. For the same reason, public nudity (for one example) is constitutionally protected expression that can not be unduly censored by the government.

However, nudity associated with commercial speech is not entitled to the same protection and is much more highly regulated. II. While it is true that parents do most of the family food shopping, children are often autonomous enough by the time they… [read more]

GM Crops Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,025 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … genetically modified (GM) crops. Specifically it will discuss positive and negative responses from scientists and the general public to genetically modified foods, and assess the potential of GM crops as a source of food. Genetically modified crops are already on the shelves in many supermarkets, but they are controversial at best. Should we use GM crops as a… [read more]

People Fear DNA? Because Criminals Always Leave Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,851 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … people fear DNA? Because criminals always leave it at the scene of a crime: Joke told by Stephen Rogers, Monsanto scientist (cited in Lambrecht, 2001)

Technology has provided people worldwide with a variety of positive additions to their lives, such as advanced medical care, electricity, heating and cooling, and now instant communication through the Internet. However, there is… [read more]

Technology and Society Government and Harmful Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Technology and Society

Government and Harmful Technology

When looking for sources about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) it is truly impossible to find a totally objective source. Of course, companies that produce these foods will insist upon GMO's safety. Likewise, both European and American companies that make the exclusion of such foodstuffs a major selling point in their marketing campaigns will insist upon the dangers of GMOs. The European Union is currently standing by its decision to ban such products, and to do so is in the interests of smaller European farmers competing with major American industrial farmers, as American industry is allowed to use or create such products. Even the American government has an interest in defending the use of these products, because the government has validated GMO's safety, which serves the interest of American agriculture and corporations.


According to the American government website addressing the GMO debate, GMO crops can be made resistant to viruses and can be made to produce foods with increased iron and vitamins. This could lessen the chance of feminine in the developing world and help to alleviate chronic malnutrition ("What are Genetically Modified (GM) Foods," 2008, Retrieved 28 Jan 2008 at (http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml).Given the usefulness of these GMOs to the developing world, one must ask if it is not narrow-minded of the developed world to consider banning such goods, on the small chance GMOs might harm us, when crops that are resistant to viruses, harsh weather, and can be made more nutritious would do so much good for people in dire need?

Discussion 3

We are already eating GMOs in the United States, whether we like it or not. The government should closely monitor the developing research on the potential help or harm of GMOs. But until they are shown to do us great ill, the benefits of GMOs seem to outweigh the risks. On some level it is amazing that people will not bother to look at the calorie or nutritional values of the food they eat on a daily basis, ingest chemicals in processed food, yet worry about GMO…… [read more]

Why I Want to Attend Culinary School Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Attend Culinary School

Everyone, even retired firefighter/EMTs like myself have dreams beyond their current careers. I am a U.S. Army veteran who became a Baltimore City fire fighter and EMT after my enlistment was over. I've enjoyed that career for many years, but I always knew there was something more I wanted - something that was missing in my life. I'm newly retired, and know that it's now time to act on those dreams.

I'm a passionate cook, and I love to cook for others, I always have. I love to experiment with new recipes and ingredients when I have the time, and I'm always up on the latest cooking techniques and ideas. Trouble is, I know I'm not anywhere near an expert, and that's why I want to attend culinary school and become a master chef. Cooking and entertaining has been a passion for me throughout my life and career choices, it has been the thing that has always buoyed me up during difficult times, and given me joy no matter what. Now that I'm retired…… [read more]

Corporate Fraud and Deception Whole Foods Market Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,965 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Corporate Fraud and Deception

Whole Foods Market Inc.

The Early Years

Merging With Wild Oats Markets, Inc.

SEC Investigation



John Mackey and his girlfriend Renee Lawson Hardy opened a vegetarian health food store in 1978, Austin, Texas. After two successful years, they merged with Clarksville Natural Grocery to become Whole Foods Market. In 1992, company expanded gradually by… [read more]

Strategic Marketing Plan for Earth's Best Organic Baby Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Strategic Marketing Plan for Earth's Best Organic Baby Food

Strategic Marketing Plan

Environmental Analysis

Economic Forces

Political and Legal Forces


Competitive Forces

Technological Forces

Social and Cultural Forces

Strengths and Weaknesses

Opportunities and Threats

Marketing Objectives

Marketing Strategies

Target Markets

Marketing Mix

Product Strategy

Pricing Strategy

Distribution Strategy

Promotional Strategy

Implementation of Marketing Structure

Environmental Analysis

Any company's activity… [read more]

Weight Loss Restaurant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 17


Weight Loss Restaurant

When one decides to invest in setting up a business, some people choose to create a restaurant. However, even from the beginning, if they do not have a clear view of what they really want, and just decide to create it and see how it is going, one might realize that it is a highly risky decision.… [read more]

Moche Chronology and Subsistence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Moche Subsistence

Timeline from Pozorski and Pozorski (1979)


Chronology of Moche ceramic portraits are divided into categories based on form and decoration. This designation was first proposed by Rafael Larco Hoyle in 1948 due to the changes in the stirrup spout bottle. These were being produced as early as 1500 B.C. In… [read more]

Hopi Perspectives on Moisture or Rain Clouds Are Linked to Hopi Ancestors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (934 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … collective endeavor, agriculture required that the Hopi work together under the guidance of ancestral wisdom. Cultivation of corn and other crops was no small feat in the desert. Especially during summer months when rainfall was scarce, irrigation and water collection determined the outcome of the crops. The well-being and health of the people therefore depended on a bountiful corn harvest. With life so intimately connected with land, the sacred aspects of agriculture permeate everyday Hopi life.

Corn has symbolic as well as nutritive value. As the "staff of life," corn linked the Hopi to their ancestors and to the Great Spirit (Udall). A successful harvest nourishes soul as well as body, enriching the entire community. Corn is used as ritual offerings to the gods and to tribal chiefs, and is also used in ceremonial decoration.

Thus, corn is food for humans and gods. The concept of shared nourishment is why corn meal is also sprinkled as offerings during rituals and why dancers and elders often wear corn ears as part of sacred dress (Curtis & Boesen, nd). Sekaquaptewa's memories reveal the central significance of corn to Hopi ritual and daily life. The cycles of the harvest: the periods of bounty and scarcity characterize Hopi existence even in the post-contact era (Udall). Corn remains the central staple of the Hopi diet and was consumed regularly as well as ritualistically.

Rains and moisture are integral to the survival of the corn and of the clan. Thus, Hopi venerated clouds as ancestral spirits and created kachinas (O'mau kachinato) honor them ("Ancestral Art," 2003). Cloud figures pepper Hopi iconography and the Hopi distinguished between different types of clouds to distinguish those that deliver the blessing of rain from those that simply flank the sky. Cloud kachinas essentially "wear" the clouds on their headdress, and cloud imagery also decorates their sash and garment ("Water").

Likewise, Hopi dances drum up clouds and rain fall. Ritualistic communications between the human and spirit worlds, the dances demonstrate the need for systematic control over rain and rain clouds. The dance, a prayer in motion, is a conscious intent to will the powers of nature to serve the needs of the Hopi people. The Snake Dance is the rain dance, a petition to the snakes to deliver the message of need and hope to the clouds ("Ancestral Art," 2003). Rain prayers, motifs, storytelling and rituals permeate Hopi life throughout the year. However, the Snake Dance is performed annually and in the driest month: August (Smith 2000). Snake Dance and other annual rituals illustrate the interconnectedness of Hopi symbols and the interconnectedness of nature itself.

Agriculture has been referred to as the "fourth way" for the Hopi: a difficult path requiring community solidarity and commitment ("Hopi Agriculture: Introduction"). The Fourth Way entails struggle: the Hopi view…… [read more]

Global Warming and Decreased Crop Production Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,634 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15



This work in writing will make a review of the literature related to global warming and expected decreases in crop production. This subject is of particular interest due to the impact that decreases in crop production will have upon the entire world.

As global warming causes the Earth's average temperatures to rise, crop production… [read more]

Causes for the Popularity of Fast Food Restaurants Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,101 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Causes for the Popularity of Fast Food Restaurants

The popularity of fast food restaurants: a cause and effect essay of epic proportions

Despite the warnings highlighted in Morgan Spurlock's 2004 documentary "Supersize Me," fast food chain stores continue to proliferate all over America. Why are people not more afraid of the effects of fast food, despite the fact that fast food turned the documentary director's liver to pate when he consumed an all McDonald's diet for thirty days? It can be summed up in three easy words -- tasty convenient, and cheap. Fast food is all three. Yet the causes of fast food's popularity are having a deadly effect upon America, causing waistlines to expand and the population afflicted with the psychological and physical harms of obesity to increase, year by year.

Why do we find fast food tasty? As pointed out in Spurlock's documentary, fast food, from hamburgers to pizza to soda, has a high fat, sodium and sugar content. Humans are biologically hard-wired to prefer foods that are calorie dense. This is how the human race survived famines when food was scarce. However, today, food is abundant, especially foods containing hunger spiking high fructose corn syrup. Also, there are fewer opportunities to burn off the calories consumed during the day. There is no need to go hunt for food. Instead, a consumer can just pull up to the drive-thru and order a full meal. There is no need to go through the time-consuming preparation of a meal, or even walk to the supermarket in a suburb populated with plenty of SUVs and few sidewalks. Thousands of glorious, greasy calories can be eaten in mere minutes.

The convenience factor of fast food is also an undeniable selling point. According to Eric Schlosser: "Women entered the workforce in record numbers," in the 1970s, "often motivated less by feminism than by a need to help pay the bills....the entry of women into the nation's workforce has greatly increased demand for the types of services that housewives traditionally performed: cooking, cleaning and child care," as families have less time to devote to the domestic arts (Schlosser, 1998). After a hard day at work, a mother can provide her family with a hot meal from a fast food chain, guilt-free. She can also assuage some of her children's incessant nagging, given the amount of fast food advertising that is targeted towards children.

Fast food is, after all 'kid's food,' hamburgers and French fries, accompanied by toys and cartoon logos. Simply to avoid being nagged by their children, many parents will bend and allow their child to have a Happy Meal. For health-conscious parents, the token overpriced salad on the menu takes away their potential objections (perhaps) to having to eat the stuff themselves. An adult alone might content him or herself with a can of tuna and a salad for a quick, convenient meal, but an eight-year-old is unlikely to find such a dinner palatable.

The price for this relief from… [read more]

Cafeteria Food in My Community High School Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (909 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … cafeteria food in my community high school has not been up to standard for some time. The menus were not only unimaginative, but also significantly unhealthy. The menus include a large amount of fried foods, with often overcooked vegetables. The drinks normally comprise of a choice of carbonated sodas. The problem is that both students and their parents are increasingly health conscious. While they are being taught good eating habits at home, students are not given healthy choices at school. Students have attempted to complain to personnel numerous times. The school paper even featured an article regarding the cafeteria food. Parents have also talked to the school board, continued promises to address the matter have remained just that - promises.

A group of five students then decided to take matters into their own hands. To make a point regarding the lack of health in the cafeteria food choices, these students released a number of cockroaches into the kitchen. This was done one night, when the students broke into the kitchen and released a number of cockroaches into the food supply.


The most immediate impact was to the kitchen staff. Considerable upset was caused among employees who found the cockroaches first, when attempting to begin food preparation for the day. Secondarily, children were impacted, as food was of course now even more unsafe than the case was normally. The kitchen staff were obliged to order a fresh supply of food from the local supplier. This impacted the school, as a considerable monetary investment was lost due to the food that had to be destroyed.

The impact on the culprits themselves related to admitting to the perpetration of the "crime" and facing the consequent punishment. As the aim of the act was to make a point regarding the health impact of cafeteria food, the group readily admitted to the act. They also submitted a petition explicating the reasons for their actions, and their desire for a healthier selection of nutrition during the school day. The petition had been signed by more than half of the student body.

Disciplinary Action

The leader of the group was suspended from school for a week, while the other four received detention for the same period of time. The headmaster and staff felt that this was appropriate punishment for the danger and discomfort caused not only to the staff, but also to the students themselves. On the day in question, students had to wait longer for their food, as the supplier needed time to complete the extensive order.

The headmaster and staff also saw fit to contact the parents of each perpetrator for a conference regarding the actions of their children. The main aim of this conference was…… [read more]

Genetically Modified Organisms Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Genetically Modified Organisms

Discuss general problems with GMO (genetically modified organisms) in food.

One of the major risks of GMOs stems from pollen spread and outcrossing. Wind, animals and insects can spread pollen cover large areas. Researchers studying creeping bentgrass have found modified genes in normal grass up to 13 miles away from the source, and also within close relatives of the same genus (Genetically modified organism). Because pollen from the GMO may carry to a non-GMO crop, there is the potential for introducing the novel gene into a conventional crop (Reiger as cited in Mills, 2006). Or, pollen from a herbicide resistant GMO may cross with a compatible weed and introduce resistance in the weed. Thus, herbicide resistant crop plants may emerge in a subsequent season and be difficult to control.

Possible approaches, or solutions to problem.

Presently, management systems such as spatial and temporal isolation zones, crop barrier rows and vegetarian barriers are used to minimize direct gene flow between crops, and to minimize seed bank and volunteer populations. Although these methods can reduce pollen dispersal, weather and environmental…… [read more]

Globalization and Food in Film Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (4,622 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10



There is no better commodity to discuss than chocolate, when looking at the globalization of food. Food can tell the most astounding stories as well as create a sense of identity for and entire culture. In the film Chocolat, through American eyes, is an example of the changes that can be symbolized by the power of a single food… [read more]

Parents and Fast Food Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,734 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


A quantitative study may be better coupled with a qualitative study that fuses together data that gives a wider picture of the problem behind why adults consume fast food with their children.

In conclusion, this study appears to show that what drives adults to consume fast food with their children is 1) it saves time, 2) it is easy, and 3) it is advertised. These three factors are revealed from this quantitative study, but a qualitative analysis may provide more details about what drives adults to value time over money and ease over good health.

From this study I learned how to formulate a questionnaire and provide data for quantitative analysis. I also learned how to prepare a proper methodology after proposing a rationale for study. Gathering the data showed me how much work and preparation actually goes into empirical studies -- and the information I learned revealed some interesting points about human behavior and beliefs and what people find most important in life.

Reference List

Campbell, K. (2006). Australian parents' views on their 5-6-year-old children's food choices. Health Promotion International. doi:10.1093/heapro/dal035

Halford, Jason et al.…… [read more]

Imagining Myself as a Person in a Historical Setting Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … person in an historical setting.

Question No.

As a hunter-gatherer, there are a number of advantages to the adoption of farming techniques and to the transition of an agricultural way of life. One of the primary reasons that a farm-based economy and means of substance is preferable to that of a hunter-gatherer is due to the fact that agriculture is a more regular, regulated process with distinct seasons and largely predictable methods and outcomes, for the most part. Furthermore, the life of a farmer is significantly less dangerous than that of a hunter, which yields another example in the fact that an agricultural-based economy involves more of a population group than that of a hunter. Both women and even children can play significant roles in the farming and maintenance of crops, while societies that base their economy and means of sustenance upon hunting primarily rely on men -- and the fittest of men at that -- whose departure to hunt may leave the society unprotected and vulnerable to attacks from wildlife or from enemies. Additionally, it should be added that the food gained from livestock and farming is typically more than that gained from hunting, which allows for a surplus and food for times in which it may be disadvantageous to hunt -- such as in winter when game is scarce.

One of the things that many societies that transitioned from a hunting-gathering lifestyle to an agriculturally-based lifestyle did to improve crops and livestock over time was to design systems of irrigation to keep their crops watered. Such irrigation systems, such as those employed by Egyptian cultures who utilized the Nile River for such purposes, not only keep crops well-watered and tended to, but also tend to provide a source of water for livestock, as well. The systems of irrigation used by agriculturally-based societies increased in sophistication and efficacy over time, and helped to…… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma in Recent Years Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,218 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, the paradox becomes our obsession with health and healthy foods combined with our consumption of even more unhealthy foods, less fresh or organic products, and our declining levels of health. For example, in looking at the idea of American food production, we see:

Tremendous overcrowding of animals (chickens, turkeys, etc.) in less than sanitary conditions and production techniques that have a tendency to allow the greater possibility of bacteria into the processed food.

Processing of food, vegetables, etc. To the point in which vitamins must be "added" in order to even meet basic RDA standards. All designed for shelf life and ease of transportation.

Numerous "empty" caloric foods that briefly satisfy hunger or thirst (soda, candy, etc.), but provide little nutritive value and only serve as a quick fix for those on the go.

The lopsided use of resources to produce our insane desire for meat -- if the amount of meat America eats was cut, there would be far more room for the production of fruits and vegetables at a far greater efficiency and lower cost.

The capitalistic and monetary use of corn -- ruining fields of other crops to feed the maw of syrups, sweeteners, oils, and other derivatives without really providing nutrient value.

So, what is the solution, or does Pollan offer a way to feed the burgeoning population, the increased urban demand, or even the greater needs within the developing world? There is clearly no easy solution to this "dilemma." Realistically, several changes would need to be made to reduce the dependence on agribusiness and corn, and those changes would need to come primarily from the urban population. It takes a family with an income that can sustain shopping for better products and not just "filling" foods to change the pattern of behavior in American food consumption. Greater emphasis on utilizing fresh fruits and vegetables, salads, and other green products would need to occur at an early age; and a lessening of dependence on highly sugared cereal products for children. The key, then, may be Aristotelian balance -- yes, eat meat, but not 3 times per day; yes, occasionally eat sugar, but not at every meal; try to shop locally, try to shop in season, think about what you are eating as part of the grander picture of the sustainability of both one's own health, and the global environment as a whole. The goal is every reaching and changing - the perfect meal: "… the perfect meal is one that's been fully paid for, that leaves no debt outstanding. This is almost impossible ever to do… It's impossible to prepare and eat a meal that is so physically, intellectually, and emotionally costly without thinking about the incalculably larger debts we incur when we eat industrially -- which is to say, when we eat without a thought of what we're doing" (pp. 409-10).

Instead of the perfect meal, perhaps a start is that we begin to think about where that bread is made, where those vegetables… [read more]

Southern and Midwestern States Comparison Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The agricultural products grown in both regions are highly important to the United States, and much of the cotton and tobacco grown in the South along with some of the meat and grain grown in the Midwest, are also shipped to overseas markets. That makes the farming and cultivating of crops in those regions a global endeavor. Agriculture is changing to some degree, however, as farmers are always looking for ways in which crops and livestock can be grown more efficiently and in new places where they were not grown or cultivated successfully in the past.

Urbanization is taking place in both regions, too. Cities are growing, and major hubs like Atlanta, Georgia are becoming more popular and more populous, as they begin to offer new opportunities for education and employment. Social, economic, and political changes are affecting both the Midwestern and Southern states, as the entire society of the United States is evolving and changing. Transportation is still lacking in these regions, however, as the bus and train and taxi services that are seen in places like the Northeast and California are not common in the Southern and Midwestern states.

Key industries in the Midwest mostly revolve around agriculture and mining, whereas key industries in the Southern states are more "industrial" in some senses. Steel and paper mills, as well as other factors, are also seen in both regions, but the Southern states have the advantage when it comes to tourism. With Florida's popularity as a tourist destination, that state and the rest of the Southern states make money from the travel of others. It is easy to see that the two regions are quite different, but yet they are also very similar in many ways. The people who live and work in those regions are both dedicated to what they do, and do making the regions better for everyone…… [read more]

Political Ecology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (645 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Jackson, n.d., pg. 137)

If this can happen, it will help to create a stable environment for food production that keeps up with increases in population and changes from the weather conditions. Moreover, it will ensure that all available land and water is utilized to effectively increase food production. The combination of these factors will create a sustainable strategy that is addressing these challenges in the future. This is in line with some of the more popular ecology theories that are discussing production.

A good example of this can be seen by looking at Gaian thinking. Under this basic approach, there is an emphasis on maintaining some kind of balance within the ecosystem (in order to address the needs of stakeholders). Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Litfin (2009) who said, "International environmental law, which consists of a myriad of separate regimes for hundreds of issues ranging from toxic waste exports to fisheries management, is itself rooted in an atomistic demarcation of the planet into sovereign nation-states. By highlighting the embeddedness of human systems in the living Earth system, Gaian thinking fosters a kind of meta-position from which a systemic perspective on global environmental governance might emerge. In broad terms, global environmental problems represent a collision of human systems with the larger Gaian system. In contrast to the mechanical billiard-ball metaphors that inform much of modern political discourse, the Gaian image of a living Earth may be more amenable to the problems at hand. Moreover, as a scientific alternative to modern reductionism, Gaian provides important concepts and metaphors that can help move us toward a viable future." This is illustrating how new concepts need to be used in addressing the agricultural needs of a growing planet. Therefore, alternative polices must be implemented that will take these different viewpoints into account. (Litfin, 2009, pg. 197)


Jackson, W. (n.d.). Tackling the Oldest Environmental Problem.

Litfin, K. (2009).…… [read more]

Political Ecology of the World Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


With that in mind, each and every person who is born taken more resources away from those who are already here. As long as the population does not continue to grow at such a rapid rate, there is hope for the planet and hope for the environment. People are already starving in many different countries, and the people who hold the strings of the government in those countries are not interested in the masses and how much food they need.

Politics has gotten so far entrenched into everything that there seems to be little help for those who need it most. The damage to the environment is upsetting, but it is required to feed the people. Not feeding the people is not an option, because it is wrong to just allow them to starve. No matter what is done, there will be a winner and a loser. Most politicians today - and what seems to be the majority of other people, as well - assume that the environment can just "take one more for the team." Eventually, however, that will no longer be the case. This understanding is behind alternative fuels and the growth and development of specific crops, but nothing seems to be moving quickly enough to stem the tide of starvation that is seen in several countries. With that comes disease and decay, both of which are difficult to stop once they have become established and started to spread. If there were no political agendas being considered when it came to crops and fuels, things would be much different for a large number of people all over the world. Despite being aware of the problem, big government appears to have no interest in making any changes. That is true in the United States, and also seems to be true in other countries, where there have not been any political moves toward making things better.


Holt-Gimenetz, E. (2007). The great biofuel hoax. Indypendent. Global Policy Forum.

Little, A. (2005). Cooking Oil. Power Trip, Chapter Five, p. 147-177.

Vidal, J. (2010). How food and water are driving a 21st…… [read more]

Campesino Do We Ever Wonder Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  5 pages (1,742 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Do we ever wonder where our food comes from? Do we ever wonder just what it takes to ensure that ripe strawberries are available during most of the year, or how we have lemons and limes in the bitter cold months? In fact, the entire process of the food regime is tied up with capitalism, globalism, and international relations.… [read more]

Political Ecology of the World Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In some cases, this could involve an individual, planting their own food on empty land. While those who live in urban areas will be able to: reclaim land that is not being used and can work in conjunction with local community organizations. (Berry 148-152) (Allen 140-150)

At the same time, there is also a focus on using greenhouses as a way to produce fruits and vegetables year round. In many locations (such as: Holland and China) these practices are being utilized for effectively achieving this objective. As this is allowing someone to grow what they want in a cost effective manner. This is illustrating how more people will become involved in these activities. The main reasons are from: economic challenges and the need to improve the quality of foods they are consuming. (Robin 41-48) (Bonheim 265-268) (Bomford 119-127)

Clearly, the food system is transforming itself by encouraging more individuals to begin growing their own fruits and vegetables. This is because the costs of consuming these products (under the commercialized approach) are increasing and it is yielding lower quality. At the same time, the tremendous rates of population growth are placing strains on available supplies. This causing whole sale and retails prices for food to increase exponentially (which is affecting the psychology of consumers)

To deal with these challenges, more people are using open spaces to grow their own food. This is transforming the food system by encouraging them to take an active part in understanding where the food they consume is coming from. As a result, an increasing number of individuals will begin taking this kind approach in order to control costs and what products they are consuming.

Works Cited

Allen, Ericka. Growing Community Food System. N.d, Print.

Berry, Wendell. What are People For? New York: Northpoint Press, 1990. Print.

Bomford, Michael. Getting Fossil Fuels off the Plate. N.d, Print.

Bonheim, Jalaja. Hope Beneath Our Feet. N.d., Print.

Robin, Vicki. Letter from Home. N.d., Print… [read more]

Genetically Modified Crops Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


With the world's rapidly expanding population, having adequate land to grow enough food to feed everyone is a major issue. Because GM crops hold the key to enabling farmers to produce better crops at a faster pace, it is possible that GM crops may be a huge part of the solution to world hunger.

In addition, GM crops can be richer in vitamins and nutrients. This is particularly important in areas of the world that lack sufficient food supply. For example, rice is the main crop for people in many third world countries (Sample, 2003). GM golden rice has genes added so that people can get enough Vitamin A to prevent more than 5000,000 cases of blindness per year.

In conclusion, the GM crop industry has a variety of challenges to overcome before it can gain widespread support from around the world (Reuters, 2000). If it can overcome these challenges, while disproving adverse health and environmental concerns, it can provide unprecedented benefits to farmers and consumers around the world in a variety of ways, while reducing the need to use harmful chemicals or scarce water supplies for agriculture. In this light, GM crops cannot be ignored or outlawed, as they hold so many wonderful possibilities for the future.


Dibb, Susan. Mayer, Sue. (April, 2000). Biotech - The next generation: Good for whose health? The Food Commission (UK) Ltd. And GeneWatch UK. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.foodcomm.org.uk/biotech_summary.htm.

Reuters News Service. (July 6, 2000). GM Crops Safe, Offer Consumer Benefits. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/7361/newsDate/06-Jul-2000/story.htm.

Sakko, Kerryn. (May, 2002). The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Sample, Ian. (June 3, 2003). GM crops. The Guardian.

Sample, Ian. (May 21, 2001). Breakthrough may bring life to barren earth. The Guardian.

SCOPE Research Group. (2004). GM Food: Controversies Surrounding the Risks and Benefits of Genetically Modified Food. UC Berkeley, UW, AAAS. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood/.…… [read more]

Technology Food Processing in History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,807 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Food was packed around the box inside the car. The bottom of the box had a hole in it to allow the water to drain as the ice melted.

However, ice was always in demand, and in some warmer years, there were actually ice famines, and so, relying on ice alone was not the best way to preserve foods. Many… [read more]

Eric Schlosser's Book "Fast Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


On the other hand, one cannot help while going through the book to be impressed by the size of Mr. Schlosser's research and documentation. From the historical background of the industry (which we may assume could have been easier researched), the author moves on to describe some of the recipe backgrounds. Revelatory in this sense is the reference to the way French fries are made and why they taste so good, what artificial flavoring is all about and what happens at the meatpacking plants. One cannot help, when reading the book, feeling that the author uncovers almost any aspect related to the industry one may think off. At the end of the book, you may simply believe that you have full knowledge of all the underlying things related to the fast food industry.

Another positive aspect which should be mentioned is the fact that the author is not vehement in his discourse. Of course he is furious at the obesity rates in the country, at the underpaid teenagers, the unsanitary conditions in which the meat is packed and the animals are killed, the artificial flavoring which make eating a chemical activity, but you never have the impression while reading the book that he leaves his subject of interest for any moment in order to add some personal opinions and impressions. His anger is felt throughout the book, but only tacitly and slightly through his subjectivism which I have already previously discussed. In this sense, although he feels the need to point out negative aspects in the industry, as a paradox, he does so in an impersonal manner.

As another positive aspect, we should mention the style in which he writes his findings. "Part essayist, part investigative journalist"

, his book is neither a strict investigative story, nor a prose or an essay. The fact that he is able to use both style when the text or the situation requires it is another merit for the book.

As an overall appreciation, although at times subjective and insisting on negative aspects, the book gains a lot through its style and, especially through the size of the investigative work.


1. Kakutani, Michiko. BOOKS OF THE TIMES; Hold the Pickles, Hold the Lettuce. New York Times. January 2001. On the Internet at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E2DD113FF933A05752C0A9679C8B63

2. Review on Amazon, at http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0395977894/104-8012339-9563948?v=glance

3. The Bitter Truth About Fast Food. The Guardian. 2001. On the Internet at http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/press/mcds/theguardian0704011.html

Kakutani, Michiko. BOOKS OF THE TIMES; Hold the Pickles, Hold the Lettuce. New York Times. January 2001. On the Internet at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E2DD113FF933A05752C0A9679C8B63

Review on Amazon, at http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0395977894/104-8012339-9563948?v=glance

Kakutani, Michiko. BOOKS OF THE TIMES; Hold the Pickles, Hold the Lettuce. New York Times. January 2001. On the Internet at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E2DD113FF933A05752C0A9679C8B63

The Washington Post. On the Internet at http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/books/schlosser.html… [read more]

National Pork Producers Council Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Agriculture: National Pork Producers Council

There are a number of councils that are responsible for the food that the public consumes. It is important to look at the National Pork Producers Council and determine its history, responsibilities, current issues it is addressing and how it affects legislation.

The National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) was established to "conduct public policy outreach on behalf of its 44 affiliated state association member - enhancing opportunities for the success of U.S. pork producers and other industry stakeholders by establishing the U.S. pork industry as a consistent and responsible supplier of high quality pork to the domestic and world market (www.nppc.org/)."

Food Safety Responsibilities

The NCCP stresses that "food safety is the pork industry's number one priority and federal and state meat inspection systems are the key part of ensuring safe food.

The U.S. pork industry is among the most regulated industries in the nation (www.nppc.org/)." The NPPC has implemented a program which addresses "pork quality issues through education and communication of factors affecting pork quality and ways to deal with these factors throughout the pork chain (unknown, 1999)."

The Food Safety Group (FSG) "promotes research that focuses on the microbial ecology of foods, detection methods, and the control of foodborne pathogens to prevent foodborne disease (www.foodscience.psu.edu/Research/fdsafety.html)." The NPPC has provided funding to the FSG to research "the effects of chilling methods for bacterial recovery and reducing bacteria on pork carcasses, optimization of electrolyzed oxidizing water and comparison with other microbial compounds to reduce pathogens on fresh or further processed pork products, effects of commercial chilling methods for reducing bacteria on pork carcasses and microbial profile of overhead surfaces and condensate in pork processing plants (www.foodscience.psu.edu/Research/fdsafety.html)."

Affecting Legislation

The NPPC strives to help its members to…… [read more]

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