"Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays

X Filters 

Organic Agriculture, Gardening and Retail Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bioengineered products also are known to cause the naturally grown products to become sterile upon contact with the bioengineered imposter crops.

5. Support of local food is support of local farmers and their families: It is important that the farmers who are farming as their main occupation are supported in the community through patronization of the produce stand of the… [read more]

Scientific and Political Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (7,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The companies that produce them, such as the United States, want to make a profit on them because they have put a lot of resources into making them. It is these poorer countries, who might benefit most from the technology, which most likely would not be able to afford to buy the seeds. In 2003, countries that grew 99% of… [read more]

Technology Green Revolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Technology is Necessary in Farming, but with Socio-Political Change Too

The world's hunger problem is by far the most exasperating problem we as a human race face. There simply are no simple solutions. In textbook examples of economic theory rearing its ugly and callous head, any artificial "solution" to the world's hunger problem that runs contrary to efficiency models eventually fails and falls flat on its face.

Much hope was placed in the so-called "Green Revolution." This revolution involved not guns and political overthrows, but a concerted infusion of technology and chemicals into agriculture on a global level. (Rosset, 1) The idea behind the revolution was to combat the problem of poverty by drastically increasing the supply of food worldwide.

Unfortunately, that is all that has happened everywhere in the world except in China. (ibid) The supply of food, especially, for instance, basics like grain, has risen astronomically, but the food simply is not finding its way into the poor and hungry's mouths.

Much has been made of the failure of the Green Revolution, but in reality, it was not given a chance to work. The issue of China speaks directly to this failure and the reason for the failure. Hunger has been cut in China by a shocking 75% (Rossett, 5) and experts are racing to discover exactly how this happened. China implemented the Green Revolution, too, but it coincided with an actual Revolution: The assumption among academics, then, is that some combination of technology and chemicals in agriculture and actual socio-economic and political change resulted in a drastic reduction in the hunger levels.

This model needs to be plumbed in other situations and…… [read more]

People at Work Supermarket Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,352 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In a car production plant the floor manager is the person who controls the apparent chaos. There is incessant noise and activity and the factory floor seems like total mayhem, or a scene from Dante's Inferno. There are great leaping sparks from the ark welding machines and electrical equipment. There is also a great deal of shouting - but this is necessary to communicate above the noise. The cars on the assembly line are lined up in the hangar-size building with dozens of mechanics and technicians moving about like ants, running between the shining metal bodies. Control of this 'organized' chaos is tightly kept by the foreman with his white clipboard in hand. He wonders with an authoritative air between the working men and checks on their progress. There is an air of professionalism throughout the factory with everyone attentive to their relevant roles and working at their assigned tasks. From above the senior staff and management look down on the melee below but are mostly glued to computer screens like superior beings who have larger issues to deal with than to pay attention to the scurrying beings below.

5. Car wash

There are various types of car washes. The two main types are touchless or cloth-friction washes. The touchless type depends on powered jets of water and detergents while the cloth friction wash has a more hands-on approach. There is also another type of car wash which is simple and completely hands-on. This is the small car wash run to by three to four people with their only equipment consisting of a few buckets, a hose and lots of cloths and detergents. This form of car wash is certainly labor intensive with no automization. The workers have a sequence of tasks - one cleans the inside of the car while the others wash down the outside. There is a sense of fun and enjoyment as I watch them go about their tasks. They talk incessantly and laugh when the water hose accidentally sprays them. They certainly would not make a fortune and would probably have to upgrade their business to really make a decent profit. However, this does not seem to bother them in the least and the cars were lining up. What is noteworthy is that these workers display a healthy amount of pride and enjoyment in their work.

6. Pizza Parlor

One aspect that strikes one immediately about the inside of a pizza parlor is the pleasant aroma and heat that permeates from the open kiln. The parlor is centered around a large open pizza oven. The manger and chef arrive at work very early in the morning. In preparing for the day ahead the chef proceeds to clean the kitchen and mop the floor. He probably does not have to do this but it has become a sort of ritual for him that starts the day. He then proceeds to the most important preparation of the day - making the dough that will be used to… [read more]

Engineered Crops the Rapid Advancements in Genomic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Engineered Crops

The rapid advancements in genomic science have created new possibilities in the fields of agriculture and in the treatment and management of diseases. The biotech revolution characterized by genetically engineered food products is regarded as a boon to the human society, a life saving solution to manage the food crisis of our globe. The farming community were promised economic benefits by way of increased yield and decreased expenses on pest and fertilizer. Bio engineered food products, thus were destined to turn the scarcity into surplus, and become the new agricultural way of the 21st century. However, as with every human effort to dabble with nature, bio engineered food crops are not without environmental hazards. Let us briefly discuss GM farming and analyze the problems associated with the use of genetically modified food crops by a study of some recent scientific articles, which espouse this viewpoint.

GM Food Crops

Altering specific sequences of DNA allows plants to develop resistance to pesticides, resulting in increased yield. Using genetic engineering methods such as electroporation, gene gun, gene silencing and vector mediated transfer, scientists are now able to insert a new gene or control the expression of an already present gene in a plant. [UCS] in a special report from the 'New scientist' the author discusses some of the possibilities of applying genomic science into farming practices. Using these biotech processes scientists have created disease and herbicide resistant crops promising huge increase in productivity. The result of this biotech revolution was amazing. Vitamin boosted rice, Onions without tears, potatoes enriched with proteins, Soya built resistant to pesticides, and even caffeine free coffee became a reality and bio-engineered products offered endless possibilities. [John Pickrell] While there is no doubt that this initial success was enthralling it transpired pretty soon that genetic modification of plants had unforeseen environmental consequences, which are discussed in the other articles under study.

Environmental Impact (the Problem of Super weeds) recent article form the 'New Scientist' discusses the initial economic benefits as well as the later environmental impact. The United States and Argentina are two nations that ventured into GM farming in the later half of the nineties. Almost a decade into GM farming, the environmental impact of the same began to be studied with all seriousness. Recent studies conducted in these nations have revealed severe environmental consequences. For Argentina, a nation swirling under a deep economic crisis, GM cropping offered a new ray of hope. In the late nineties almost half of the nations arable land (11.6 million hectares) was used to for the cultivation of GM Soya (Roundup Ready Soya from Montana). The farmers stood to benefit from the initial promise of high productivity (which reached 173%) and lowered use of pesticides. The fact that the GM Soya was designed to be resistant to glyphosate (reportedly a least toxic pesticide) was an encouraging factor and even contributed to a great reduction in the use of other pesticides. [Branford, Sue]

However the initial boost was not… [read more]

Military Food Research on the Food Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … military food research on the food industry has emerged in recent years as a topic of growing significance and importance to citizens, scientists and government officials alike.

Military research on food has had a significant impact on the food industry, mainly because military research in this area often consists of food preservation, nutrition and performance enhancements. All of… [read more]

European Union Safety Legislation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,969 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


European Union Safety Legislation and Its Effect on Marketing

In the past few years, it has become notable to citizens, policy makers and government officials that safety legislation enacted in the European Union (EU) has significantly impacted the manner and method in which companies market their products.

One of the most dramatically affected products involves the use of genetically modified… [read more]

Genetically Modified or Altered (GM) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


) If GM plants got out of control like some of these other non-native species, then it could be difficult if not impossible to control them, and we could have bigger troubles with farming, the environment, and growing enough food to feed the world than we do now.

Many people also worry about gene transfer between plants, creating contaminated crops in other areas when the plant spreads pollen or seeds. Studies have shown that this does indeed occur, and could be a large concern with GM plants (Pickrell). Another real risk is how quickly genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. One critic writes, "Genetically modified food, however, has been brought full-tilt into the marketplace in a remarkably short time" (Teitel 40). This could be the biggest risk - lack of testing to verify all the effects genetically modified foods and crops have on the population and the environment.

Actually, one of the arguments for GM crops is the work resembles plant breeding. It seems there is little difference between GM crops and traditional plant breeding. This breeding seems a bit like what Gregor Mendel did with his peas during the Renaissance. Scientists and botanists are always trying to develop new and better plants. It seems that while critics are vocal about GM crops, these crops are not that different from the same kind of plant breeding we have known and accepted for centuries. However, some of the most legendary failures of genetic engineering also point to the differences between nature and man. Critic Teitel continues, "Genes for the color red placed into petunia flowers not only changed the color of the petals but also decreased fertility and altered the growth of the roots and leaves. Salmon genetically engineered with a growth hormone gene not only grew too big too fast but also turned green" (Teitel 40). That is one reason studies still need to occur, because man is speeding up what nature does gradually, and that may be the biggest difference between GM crops and natural plant breeding.


Author not Available. "GM Food." University of California, Berkeley. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood/

Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/

Pickrell, John. "GM Organisms: Instant Expert." NewScientist.com. 13 Dec. 2004. 18 July 2005. http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35

Teitel, Martin. "Unsafe at Any Seed?" Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.3 (2000): 40.

Vergnes, Bernard. "How Safe is Genetically Modified Food? Principal Conclusions of the Oecd Edinburgh Conference on the Scientific and Health Aspects of Genetically Modified Foods, 28 February - 1 March 2000." OECD Observer a.221/222…… [read more]

Personal Chefs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (828 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Warehouse stores tend to offer produce and meats that are higher quality and more affordable than grocery stores.


Warehouse stores are much more affordable for items purchased in bulk, such as certain spices, butter, or cheeses.


The major drawback of a warehouse store is a lack of variety.


Grocery stores


Grocery stores provide the most variety for a personal chef.


Drawbacks to grocery stores


Produce may not be as fresh as other locations, such as warehouse stores or specialty markets.


Certain ingredients may be unavailable at the grocery store.


Grocery stores may be more expensive than warehouse stores.


Specialty markets




Provide more selection in certain areas than grocery or specialty stores.


Can cater more specifically to a client's wants or needs.




More expensive than larger, less-specialized stores.


Most personal chefs are going to end up purchasing their ingredients from a variety of locations. For example, a meal may be prepared using meat from a warehouse store, pasta from a grocery store, and fresh produce from a local farmer's market.

How do you set a budget being a personal chef?


Consult with the client.


Find out what the client is willing to pay for ingredients, and what types of meals they are requesting for those costs.


Determine whether or not the client's cost expectations are realistic. If not, show the client the actual cost of ingredients.


Profits are made on services provided, not by making a profit on ingredients.

What is the pay range in being a personal chef?

A. Starting salaries appear to be just over minimum wage.

1. Possible entry-level positions for personal chefs include:


Food preparation for people in assisted living residences.


Working with companies that provide other in-home services, such as housekeeping.

B. There is no real upper-limit to a personal chef's pay range.

1. Depending on what a chef does, and the targeted clientele, a chef can easily make upwards of $30/hour.

2. Experienced personal chefs can command several hundred dollars per hour.

Works Referenced

Anderson, Carol. "Carlin had a high-paying job- but she wanted to have a life!"

Personal Chef Magazine. Jul. 2005. United States Personal Chef

Association Website. 13 Aug. 2005 .

"Training and Education." United States Personal Chef Association Website. 2005. United

States Personal Chef Association. 13 Aug. 2005 .

"What is a Personal Chef?" United States Personal…… [read more]

Cuisine This Paper Examines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,117 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Maize, or "corn," a staple of life in both Central and South America, also played a major religious and ritual role in the lives of these ancient peoples. To this day, it still has an important ritualistic role. It is a really difficult task to do an inventory of all the cultivated and consumed vegetable products in ancient Peru. Modern world recognizes that approximately 60% of the vegetables consumed today all over the world are native from this part of the earth. That is, adapted, domesticated, acclimatized and even hybridized by our ancient cultures. The most important products in the Tawantinsuyo's daily diet were the " Sara" - Maize or Corn- (Zea Mays) and " Papa" - Potato- (Solanum tuberosum). Maize in its primitive form began being cultivated over here since the year 6,275 B.C. (Verified by Earle Smith Jr., N.Y. 1980, based in some samples gathered in the "Guitarrero" cave, Ancash) (Jenks 5), while that in Mexico (samples of the "El Riego" cave, Tehuacan) since the year 5,200 B.C. approximately.

Characteristic Ingredients, Seasoning, Styles and Cooking Procedures for South America

Beans appear on the table daily in many forms and colors. Some consider the black bean (feijao preto) to be the preferred national bean. It is not uncommon, however, to find dried red beans, blonde beans, brown beans, and pink beans plus black-eyed peas, chick peas, and others in the markets. Coconut is an important ingredient throughout the country, it is used in soups, cocktails, poultry, fish, and shellfish recipes, as well as desserts and sweets. Various forms are utilized: unripe green coconuts (cUco verde); ripe yellow or brown coconuts (cUco amarelo); the soft, almost buttery textured. Lemons in Brazil the fruit is green, small and quite tart, more like our lime as is specified in most recipes here. Rice, Brazilian style (arroz brasileiro or arroz simples) Long grained rice briefly sauteed in garlic and oil before the addition of boiling water. In addition to garlic, some Brazilian cooks add small amounts of onion, diced tomato, or sliced black olive for additional flavor. Properly done, each grain is fluffy and separate from others.


This paper examined the cuisine of South America from the perspective of different elements that make the food unique to the region. This paper asked that one examine and investigate the cuisine history taking into consideration the following elements and distinctions: (1) The influence of geographical location on the cuisine, (2) Historically the groups or nations that have impact upon South American cuisine, (3) Practical and social rituals associated with the cuisine and (4) characteristic and unique ingredients, styles of seasoning, preparation processes and cooking procedures found in South American cooking. Upon investigation of these elements one hopes to gain a better appreciation of the cuisine and what attributes make it unique to the region, contributing to cultural identity.

Works Cited

Cuisine of Argentina and Chile. 31 Oct. 2005
Fox, R. Food and Eating: An Anthropological Perspective. 30 Oct. 2005

Jenks, K. LATIN… [read more]

Public Health in the Development of Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Public Health

In the development of food safety and security during the 20th century, several elements of public health infrastructure played a role. This role was so well fulfilled that food safety and security in the United States is at a level today where assessment of problems and related planning can be carried out from a solid basis of public health infrastructure. Specifically, the most important components of this infrastructure include scientific research, sharing findings with other professionals and the public, public awareness, and government legislation.

Scientific research played a large role especially during the beginning of the century, when the food industry was rife with unsanitary practices. These practices pervaded the industry both in uncleanly dealings with the animals used in food preparation, and in the practices of the persons working with these foods. Hand washing for example became common practice only when scientific research proved it to be necessary (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report., 1999). When research has been conducted, it is essential that findings be published in order to enhance public awareness. These three components work together to ensure public health and…… [read more]

Decline of the American Diet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Decline of the American Diet

Food Nation (summary) - Schlosser for Author Schlosser

Food Revolution (summary) - Robbins for Author Robbins

Engineered Food (summary) Teitel / Wilson for Authors Teitel / Wilson


Abstract chose these three books because they are among the most respected and most often referenced titles about food and its interrelationship with our culture in libraries… [read more]

Salmonella and Tomato Scare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Salmonela and Tomato Scare

If you were looking yesterday for your favorite Whooper at Burger King, the taste must have surprised you. There were no tomatoes in it. This is something most Florida dwellers will have to get used to for the next month or so. The cause: salmonella and tomato scare.

Food and Drug Administration announced in the weekend that there is a worrisome concern about the spread of the salmonella disease among the tomato crops in Florida. Safety measures have been taken to analyze all sources of tomatoes which come from the fields of Florida as well as Mexico and other close by regions. Still, until a proper decision would be taken, the customers will have to deal with a shortage of tomato supply.

Specialists are worried about a possible spread of the salmonella virus through tomatoes. Their concerns are not without a strong argument. Since mid April there have been 145 reported cases of salmonella in 16 different states of the U.S., most of the cases being reported in Texas and New Mexico. The authorities in Florida have decided to step in and deal with the situation until any case is reported in this state as well.

Salmonella is an unusual type of bacteria causes fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Those with a weak immune system are most likely at risk. So far, no critical casualties have been reported, yet the FDA wants to take the safety of the consumer first, and their pleasure for taste last.

There are several states which have yet to be marked as contaminated regions, including Georgia, Tennessee, and the Carolinas. Yet, for Florida it is a major setback as it represents one of the most important sources of fresh grown tomatoes in the country. Stores in Georgia who relied on the production of tomatoes in Florida are now reluctant to purchase tomatoes from the "Sunshine State." Brenda Reid, spokeswoman for Publix stores in Georgia acknowledge this fact and pointed out that "the timing is not good. We're heavy into the growing season in Florida" (Gilbert, 2008). This will most likely cause serious disturbances in the supply chain all over the region.

The effects of the…… [read more]

Relationship Between Sustainability and Food Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,961 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … evidence you draw from one or more of the articles we have read and (if applicable) "real world" experience; a logically sound line of reasoning; properly integrated evidence in APA format; a counterargument; clear evidence of critical thinking and reading. Each prompt poses a number of questions. Your essay does not have to answer all or exclusively these… [read more]

Global and National Hunger Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,075 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


If people are to copy the eating habit of the American, then the food that is supplied currently will be able to accommodate just only 2.5 billion people or approximately half of the world population. But if we are to eat subsistence diet, getting the needed calories, then the recent annual food production will be able to feed 6 billion people. For example, consuming 5,000 daily calories while my neighbor do not have any, will make me lower my intake to about 2,500 daily calories which go with the normal needed 2,000 so that those who are not able to get can as well find the opportunity of getting. This is from the fact that America is a heavy consumer economy coupled with very poor food conservation habit leading to high food demand and high food wastage across the country.

When we are to follow this above criteria and eat less, then we will be able to substantially reduce global hunger, and this will be on top of improving the health of American people who have continued to fight obesity and its medical consequences as a national epidemic. Daniel Chiras through his book title "Environment Science" takes the same view that if U.S. beef consumption can be reduced by 10% only, then will be able to release enough grain that can feed 60 million people in the less-developed nations, (Miguel De La Torre, 2012). In the same line, those who have chosen to waste our natural resources can still make a turn and listen to the cry of the hungry by stopping food wastage. In other word eat all that you can procure.

Using the report recently produced by the Natural Resource Defense Council, it indicated that 40% of the entire U.S. food is wasted, which is approximately $165 billion a year, and they usually end up in landfills, that have impact in degradation of our water resources hence result in greenhouse gas emissions. About 40% the food wastage totals to approximately 20 pounds of food per citizen of America per month, which is about $1,350 to $2,275 annually that a family of four wastes through food mishandling. Based on the reports, if we reduce 15% only, then a population of 25 million Americans will be fed every year, (World Hunger Education Service, 2011).

We are still able to change this wastage of food and resources and stop wasting whatever is needed by others for their survival. Therefore it will not be morally and ethically right for some to be overweight because they have abundant to eat while others become underweight because of lack. On considering these factors, hunger is a common enemy since it ravages Africa on an annual basis and it kills thousands across the continent, particularly in the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions. The 40% wasted food, if conserved can help alleviate this global challenge. References Anup Shah, ( 2010). Solving World Hunger Means Solving World Poverty" Retrieved November 4, 2012 from http://www.globalissues.org/article/8/solving-world-hunger-means-solving-world-poverty

Miguel De La Torre, (2012).… [read more]

Thumps Up for Genetically Modified Food Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Thumps Up for Genetically Modified Food

The last two decades have herald unprecedented developments in both science and technology. As the physicists and engineers celebrate the inventions and innovations in information and technology, the biologists equally celebrate the advancements in the science of genetics. The latter group of scientists has successfully managed to engineer production of plants and animals using… [read more]

System Feedback Loops Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


System Feedback Loops

Over the last several years, Whole Foods has built its reputation based upon quality and the overall products they are offering to consumers. This has helped the company to create a unique image which enables them to standout against competitors. To fully understand how they were able to achieve these larger objectives requires focusing on: balancing and reinforcing loops inside the organization. At which point, there will be an examination of how this has helped the company to generate organizational learning and the way they can improve in these areas. Together, these elements will highlight the strengths, weaknesses and the way the company is able to continually reach out to a variety of stakeholders.

Identify One Reinforcing Loop and One Balancing Loop.

A reinforcing loop is designed to objectively determine if the strategy a firm is using contributes to growth or hurts their underlying profit margins. This is based upon the approach managers are utilizing, in order to allow the firm to standout against competitors and create a larger following among customers. In the case of Whole Foods, these changes are occurring through the rapid expansion of demand for naturally grown products. This means that consumers are focused on the growing practices of farmers. At the same time, they want meats which are not utilizing steroids or feed with corn-based derivatives. These factors have helped the company to standout and offer everyone with something more. ("Feedback Loops," 2012) ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)

The way company has been achieving these objectives is through mergers and acquisitions. Utilizing this approach, managers are able to purchase firms which can help to improve their ability to meet the demands of consumers. Evidence of this can be seen with the kinds of organizations they have acquired since 1980. The most notable include: Wellspring Grocery, Bread & Circus, Fresh Fields, Bread of Life, Merchant of Vino, Allegro Coffee, Nature's Heartland, Harry's Farmers Market, Select Fish, Fresh & Wild and Wild Oats Markets. These divisions have helped Whole Foods to reach out to a larger segment of consumers. That wants products which are more natural and healthier for them. ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)

The balancing loop is seeking out stability on a given level. This means that companies will examine the response of consumers and how this is impacting the kinds of products / services they are delivering. As far as Whole Foods is concerned, they are concentrating on the way clients perceive the firm, the practices they are utilizing and their image inside the community. To support these objectives, the company will add to the overall products they are providing. ("Feedback Loops," 2012) ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)

At the same time, they are utilizing procedures that will benefit the entire community. This is achieved through focusing…… [read more]

Feeding the World Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Community Food System Elements

It is reported that there are elements of the community food system that are well acknowledged including those stated as follows:

(1) Provision of the farmer's market of the chance to meet and talk with producers;

(2) School and community gardens, which are a rich sources of fresh produce;

(3) Agriculture that is community supported;

(4) U-Pick operations and roadside farm stands make provision of access to fresh produce;

(5) Community kitchens serve as locations where food that is produced locally or gleaned or recovered foods can be processed and preserved for the community;

(6) Finally, it is reported that "Small Scale food processing and decentralized root cellars provide infrastructure and technical expertise necessary to launch new food-based businesses." (USDA, 2013, p.1)

V. External Benefits

External benefits exist as well to the community-based food system in that there are benefits to lowering pollution levels since food is not transported by a trucking company. As well, the food will not bear the additional costs associated with the cost of fuels when foods are transported over long distances. The USDA states specifically that community food systems, "by narrowing the distance between producers, processors and consumers, have a greater chance of "internalizing" any externalities in the food system and actually reducing many." (2013, p.1)

Summary and Conclusion

The community food system presents a method that can be used to increase food security, increase access to nutritional food, and lower the costs of food since transportation costs are minimized. The community food system from all reports is a viable system for food production for community areas, regions, or bioregions.

Works Cited

Brown, L. (2011) The New Geopolitics of Food. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/04.24/the_new_geo...

Discovering the Food System A Primer on Community Food Systems: Linking Food, Nutrition and Agriculture (2013) USDA. Cornell University, Retrieved from: http://www.discoverfoodsys.cornell.edu/primer.html

Jensen, J. (2010) Local and Regional…… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma Advanced English Composition Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (972 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The majority of America is not pastoral any more, and only a very small, often privileged section of the population can drive far and wide to purchase ethically-produced meat.

A final problem is with simple, human desire, free will, and the finitude of time. Even with the great personal incentive to simply lose weight, many Americans are unable to make dietary changes to realize this goal. In contrast to the more abstract idea of improving the environment, most Americans have a very real and pressing need to normalize their weight and want to do so for social as well as health-related reasons. However, they are still unable to do so. Why does Pollan think that ethical pressures will result in changed consumption habits, such as a shying away from fast food, when doctors and other healthcare professionals have been so ineffective in encouraging people to change? Eating is a habit and old habits die hard. Particularly for the poor who do not have an extensive food budget to 'experiment' with new foods that they may not like, Pollan's model is unsuitable.

Pollan has attempted to counter his critics by protesting that eating in season should be cheaper than fast, processed foods. "A salad of grated root vegetables, for example, is a refreshing change from lettuce, and far more nutritious" (Worthen 2010). But once again, this presumes that the eater has the time to learn how to prepare tough root vegetables, when he or she may simply be grateful that his child eats cheap canned peas, even if peas are not technically in season. Also, the concept of seasonality does not apply to meat, eggs, and dairy, which are particularly costly and labor-intense to rear in an ethically acceptable manner. Also, even if all-natural ingredients are cheaper, people who are poor and working multiple jobs often do not have the time or money to prepare them.

Pollan's passions are clearly in the right place and it is difficult to argue with his contention that eating plain food that is virtuously raised is the best possible choice one can make, if money is no object. But that is not the case for most consumers, and the production and distribution of such foods make their production prohibitively high. Until Pollan can come up with a solution to this 'economist's dilemma' to feed a modern world with ancient, traditional practices, his counsel for the upper-middle class individual may be wise (buy local, buy ethically) but not feasible as a way of feeding a hungry planet.


Pollan, Michael. (2006). The Omnivore's Dilemma. New York: Penguin.

Worthen, B. (2010). A dozen eggs for $8? Michael Pollan explains the math of buying local.

The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved:…… [read more]

Movie Sicko Super Size Me an Inconvenient Truth Waiting for Superman Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Food Inc.

The 2008 documentary Food, Inc. highlights the evolution of food processing in the United States during the last 50 years. Food, Inc. also brings attention to the tremendous amount of pressure exerted on farmers as they are forced to comply with the demands of the major food production companies they work for or risk being put out of business. Food, Inc. focuses on various aspects of food production, which includes the meat, corn, and the soybean industries. Food, Inc. is a relatable documentary that aims to enlighten viewers and the general public about not only food production, but also how their purchasing practices influence production practices.

Food, Inc. begins by explaining how the food production industry has evolved and transitioned from independent farmer supplying limited quantities of food to an industry of mass production that utilizes any and all means necessary to produce mass quantities of food in the shortest time frame possible. One of the reasons the film is relatable is because it focuses on all aspects of food production thus, is inclusive of all food consumers.

Film, Inc. uses easily recognizable brands such as Perdue, Tyson, and Smithfield not only to demonstrate how widespread the control of the chicken/poultry industry is, but also to emphasize how it is controlled by a few select firms that dictate how farmers must either conform to the demands of these few firms or be put out of business. Food, Inc. also spotlights the conditions of the meat industry and demonstrates how unhygienic and barbaric practices are within this specific industry, and while the film touches upon the pork industry, it does not go into as much detail as the chicken/poultry and beef industries.

For those individuals that do not consume meat, such as vegetarians and vegans, Food, Inc. investigates the corn and soybean industries. One of the most shocking revelations about the corn industry is not how intertwined it is with the meat industry as it provides feed for…… [read more]

Fast Food 4I's Analysis the Nonmarket Environment Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Fast Food 4I's Analysis

The nonmarket environment affects the fast food industry with issues, interests, institutions, and information that raises public awareness of health concerns, the safety of consumer products, as well as ethical concerns about how the products are raised, cared for and produced. The way the fast food does its advertisements can send negative messages in caring about public health and what they say to children where nutrition is concerned as well as raise ethical issues as to how the business is run and what they value. How a supplier raises livestock for food plays a role in how the public views the fast food industry in purchasing the products customers consume. Chemicals used to produce food products can become concerns for the fast food industry where the food products are used in fast food establishments.

Obesity becoming a bigger public health issue effects the fast food industry because lot of the fast foods have high fat content. Advertising that targets children often gets viewed in negative ways because of the nutritional value of the products advertised. Workplace practices, such as not allowing an employee to work until a uniforms is received that fits because the employee is overweight, sends a negative message to the public in the ethical considerations of the business. When acrylamide was found in foods cooked at high temperatures, McDonald's French Fries were targeted as containing the acrylamide at unsafe levels. Mad cow disease, the use of antibiotics and growth hormones in animals, and the treatment of animals raised for food consumption became ethical issues for McDonald's because of purchasing the products from suppliers for use in food products sold. Vegetarianism is an issue in targeting the vegetarian population in strategic strategies. Brand name attractions become an issue where McDonald's was targeted in firebombing and labeled as a 'Meat Murderer."

Institutions include government agencies, such as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention who…… [read more]

Wegmans Store Brand Food Items Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


General Mills Golden Grahams

Review placement on shelf: Wegmans cereals are located on one side of the aisle while the brand name cereals are located on the other side

Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans $1.99; Golden Grahams $3.29 (both prices for 12 ounce box)

Ingredients same or different?: Golden Grahams lists wheat whole grain as the first ingredient; Wegmans lists corn meal, although the other ingredients are virtually identical

Is private label made by brand manufacturer?: Yes

Category 5: Condiments

Wegmans pancake syrup vs. Mrs. Butterworth pancake syrup

Review placement on shelf: Wegmans is at eye-level; Mrs. Butterworth was on the second-lowest shelf

Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans $2.49; Mrs. Butterworth $2.99

Ingredients same or different?: Virtually identical.

Is private label made by brand manufacturer?: Yes

Category 6: Canned goods

Wegmans chunk light tuna vs. Bumble Bee

Review placement on shelf: Side-by-side in the middle of the canned goods aisles

Cost of brand vs. cost of private label: Wegmans $1.29 for 6 ounces; Bumble Bee $1.29 for 5 ounces

Ingredients same or…… [read more]

Consumer Lifestyle and Behavior Eating Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (778 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


McDonald's now boast that eighty percent of their menu consists of items that have fewer than 400 calories. Furthermore they have added a variety of salads and different wraps to their menu to improve their product mix in regards to health. There is also a fruit and yogurt snack that would appeal to health conscious consumers. However, despite the menu alterations, McDonalds still has most of their classic lineup with items such as the double quarter pounder which has over forty grams of fat. Yet it is now possible for the health conscious to eat at McDonalds without sacrificing their dietary requirements.

Figure 1 - McDonald's Favorites Under 400 (McDonald's, N.d.)

Panera Bread

Panera Bread represents a fairly new development in the restaurant industry. A Panera's location does not have a drive through and does not fit the traditional fast food model. However, consumers can order food through a traditional counter such as food in fast food establishments but the rest of the dining experience is self-service. Panera's will likely appeal to the health conscious consumers more than traditional fast food establishments such as McDonalds because the quality of their foods is much higher.

Panera bakes their own breads each morning and offers a variety of fresh salads, soups, and sandwiches. The quality of foods is higher however the prices that Panera's offers are also substantially higher than traditional fast food establishments. Furthermore they do not offer quite the convenience of fast food and consumers must go into to the restaurant to get their orders. Yet in regards to healthier foods, Panera's is well positioned to cater to the health conscious consumers. Panera has been able to develop a new business model that is likely to be primed for substantial growth as the industry continues to evolve in the socio-cultural health direction.

Figure 2 - Panera's Spinach Salad (Panera Bread, N.d.)

Works Cited

Bite Club, 2011. National Restaurant Chains Most Likely to Go Bankrupt in 2011. [Online]

Available at: http://www.biteclubeats.com/national-restaurant-chains-most-likely-to-go-bankrupt-in-2011/

[Accessed 13 January 2013].

McDonald's, N.d.. Favorites Under 400. [Online]

Available at: http://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en/food/meal_bundles/favoritesunder400.html

[Accessed 13 January 2013].

National Restaurant Association, 2012. Trends and Forecasts. [Online]

Available at: http://restaurant.org/research/forecast / [Accessed 13 January 2013].

Panera Bread, N.d.. Power Up. [Online]

Available at: http://www.panerabread.com/?ref=pbhomeleft [Accessed 13 January 2013].… [read more]

Proposition 37 From the Standpoint Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,128 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The advocates of prop. 37 indicate that these types of measures have been used in Europe for more than a decade and they have not cause the food producers any more money than they would have incurred otherwise (Huff, 2012). The fact is that no one knows how much it will cost except for one thing. The manufacturers of GMO crops are not able to make money unless they find farmers willing to plant their seed. Since people are more concerned about this type of product now, it has become less profitable to grow crops that use GMOs. This means that the food producers may actually gain from this type of legislation because it will force them to use different methods to produce greater yields which will bring customers to them. Proposition 37 could actually have the effect of benefitting food producers because people who are against the use of GMOs will be more likely to purchase products that are not using them.

2. Explain the effects of specific California regulations as they impact the banking industry.

The state of California has tried to be forward thinking as far as regulations are concerned in all areas of commerce. This is supposedly a means by which the state legislators can protect the people of the state against corporations and others who wish to make money at the expense of the citizenry. Recently, with the financial crisis of 2008/2009, this has led to regulations concerning the banking industry.

In California, this industry is controlled by the California Code of Regulations (Dodrill, 2011). This set of regulations controls "industrial development, issuance of traveler's checks, money order processing, credit union account management and the fair lending policies enacted by the Housing Financial Discrimination Act of 1977" (Dodrill, 2011). The fair lending policies is a special concern for banks as it governs how people can acquire money and what they must divulge to obtain loans. The banks want to make sure that they have enough information on a prospective customer that they can make an informed decision about whether to lend money or not. However, the lending act makes sure that the bank is not too invasive. The Act allows banks to ask enough information to make a fair determination, but does not allow invasive information, such as health questions, to be a determinant.

One law that has been passed since the financial crisis happened is the California Foreclosure Prevention Act. Primarily, this provides a waiting period before a notice of sale can be issued (Dodrill, 2011). The reason for this is to make sure that the previous owner can have enough time to find alternative financing so that they can avoid a sale. The banking industry was seen as too willing to foreclose on individuals at the beginning of the crisis which meant that thousands of people could possibly be out on the street. The legislature determined that banks needed to be curtailed so that they would give owners every potential avenue for a… [read more]

United States Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As highlighted by Bereano (2011, pg. 286) the loophole which exist in the FDA rules. The FDA rules does not require the food stuff to labeled whether GEF or natural. However, I believe this rules and regulation can be changed through the Congress or president veto.

Secondly, I agree with Bereano on the point that if the GEF cannot be labeled then it is prudent to indicate on the food stuff whether certain contains ingredient which can cause an allergy or has allergy, so that consumers can be easily guarded. Again, it would be safe to indicate whether particular food has certain ingredients which mainly seen by certain culture or religion as unsuitable for consumption. For example if certain food has pork as an ingredient it should be clearly indicated.

Since consumers need to know what they eat and the general public at large, carrying out public relations or publicity on the GEF is needed in our society. This will definitely help the public or consumers to make an informed decision when purchasing food stuff. However, the government should take more initiative to advice consumers on the GEF so that the country does not face any calamities that might arise because of GEF.

Effects of Genetically Engineered Food on the U.S. banking sector

The genetically engineered food would affect the U, S banking sector in many ways. For instance, since the technology for the genetically modified crops is patented and would require heavy investment on the side of the farmers, there would be a need for these farmers to require increased credit funding from the U.S. banking sector. This means that the lending rates would have to be altered by the governments in order to ensure that enough incentives are provided by the government so as to encourage farming and hence improve national food security.

The banking industry would therefore require some form of a reform in order to accommodate the newly formed market segment (genetically modified food farmers) with special needs. The genetically modified food would also lead to an increase in the level of food production and hence an increase in the average amount of agricultural-based fund deposits into the banking system (due to increased liquidity from the export and domestic sale of farm products). It could therefore lead to some of a mini inflation would further affect the banking industry's interest rates.


Newton, Lisa, Elaine Englehardt, and Michael Pritchard, Taking Side; Clashing Views on Business Ethics and Society, 12th Ed.,…… [read more]

Cheap: Chapter 8 Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (949 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


When food growth in food production fell behind growth in food consumption this also contributed to food scarcity and drove market prices higher. Unfortunately many developing countries did not have, or had lost, the capacity to produce food within their borders.

Cheap food requires cheap labor. Shell uses the shrimp industry in Thailand as an example of human rights abuse brought on by the quest for lower food prices. Not enough Thais are willing to work cheaply enough to satisfy the demand for cheap shrimp. As a consequence the industry is mostly served by migrant workers from Burma, Cambodia, and Vietnam. There are well documented incidents of these migrants, many of whom do not speak the native language, being subjugated to abuses ranging from unpaid overtime, child labor, torture, and even rape.

The increase in factory farming is also leading to an increase in food related illness. Shell warns that food farmed, harvested, and processed in enormous quantities and sold at low prices is more susceptible to being handled with a lack of care. This often leads to contamination, infestation, and infection. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted by food through viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and other means. It is estimated that 76 million cases of food borne disease occur each year in the United States alone resulting in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths.

There are also potential health related issues with imported food products. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), responsible for inspecting imported meats and poultry, inspects only 16% of imports while the FDA, responsible for inspecting imported fruits, vegetables and most other foods inspects only 1% of these imports. Given this, one may easily conclude that it is highly likely that cheap tainted food imports are a growing threat to American health.

To further exacerbate the problem many see the abundance of cheap food as the root cause of the obesity epidemic currently plaguing developed countries. The price of food over the last couple of decades has become so cheap as to be irresistible and dangerous. Overweight has overtaken malnutrition as a health hazard in the developed world. This phenomenon has caused scientists to predict that the next generation of Americans will be the first to die younger than their parents.

Shell believes that issues of land use, labor and subsidies all need to be addressed and the global food distribution system need to be reconsidered in order to mitigate this problem. Rather than flooding developing nations with cheap food, thereby weakening incentives to grow and process food locally, local governments and world development organizations must invest in sustainable growth for local agriculture. Only this will provide food security in developing nation. Shell reminds us that cheap food was meant to makes us happier and healthier, however recently the opposite seems to be true.…… [read more]

New Jersey Farming the State Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Only approximately 15% of New Jersey farm land is owned by groups other than individuals or families. Of these other 85%, most are linked to some other large company who they sell to or a larger distributor which functions as a buffer between the farmer and the seller. [9: This number is equal to approximately 2% of the population, as opposed to a century ago when nearly half of the nation was employed in farming. ]

Despite these figures, there has been a backlash of sorts against the farming community in recent years due to the increased rate of obesity in this country. Media reports have erroneously claimed that agriculture has become another industry, controlled by mass corporations.[footnoteRef:10] Other claims include that farmers are injecting their foods with additives which preserve the fruits and vegetables but also make them less healthy. It seems that in the coming years, agriculture around the country and New Jersey is no exception will have to deal with these claims and some will have to completely modify their current farms. [10: In the book Omnivore's Dilemma, author Michael Pollan explains the many deficits that he perceives in the ways in which food is distributed in the United States of America. Pollan's harshest criticisms are aimed at the food production companies and farms, and the ways in which they have bastardized the natural system of food production and turned it into a system which is dependent on fossil fuels; specifically the way that processed corn has become a staple of food products including how it is used as a substitute for grass in the feeding of cattle and as corn syrup and similar derivatives to be used to unnaturally preserve packaged food products. ]

Works Cited:

Adam, Pegi. "Fast Facts." New Jersey Farm Bureau. 2002. Print.

Barna, John, "New Jersey's Agriculture History Detailed Through Online Exhibit." Gloucester

County Times. 2011. Print.

Dimitri, Carolyn. The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agricultural and Farm Policy. U.S.

Dept. Of Agriculture. 3. 2005.

Green, Howard L Words that Make New Jersey History. New Jersey Historical Commission.

1995. Print.

Harrison, Charles Hampton. Tending the Garden State: Preserving New Jersey's Farming

Legacy. Piscatawny, NJ: Rutgers. 2007. Print.

"Historical Overview -- Where's…… [read more]

Applying Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (875 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


I hold a Patisserie and Baking certificate from the Le Cordon Bleu College of Culinary Art, in addition to being a certified California Food Handler. I recently earned the Certificate in Japanese Culinary from the Sushi Institute of America, a meaningful complement to my hands-on sushi experience. This practical experience includes the overall running of a sushi bar, from filleting fresh fish to making sauces to cooking sushi rice to constructing hand rolls, all tasks requiring close attention to detail and process. While experiences such as these may, at first glance, appear unrelated to the focus and goals of the Making + Meaning program, I strongly believe that this is not the case.

Just as does architecture and design, culinary creations require a keen sense of form, balance, and structure. A successful dish or plate must first be visually appealing to the diner. This requires consideration of color, shape, and texture, to name but a few characteristics. Second, a dish must withstand its own consumption; for instance, a well-composed sushi roll does not fall apart at the first bite. The food must maintain its form and structure throughout the dining experience. Food that immediately loses its form also loses some of its appeal, and devolves into an unstructured mess of food. Thus care must be taken to ensure some means of structure throughout the consumption of the meal or dish. A successful culinary creation must exhibit an adherence to form as well as function. The creation of a culinary experience must take into consideration all aspects of the meal, from visual appeal, including color, texture, and shape, to taste, to smell, to the ways in which the food is presented at the meal or sushi bar. Consumption of my culinary creations is but just one part of the overall experience, just as the outward appearance of a home or other building is but one consideration, and manifestation, of its overall design and function.

Thus while my pursuit of this program may, at first glance, appear to signify a marked departure from my prior professional and experiential endeavors, it is in fact a continuation of my prior experiences. I will bring an understanding of composition and aesthetics to the program; whereas some students will bring a sense of spatial organization and design derived from experience in fine arts or industrial design, my understanding of visual appeal and structural stability has been refined in the culinary world. I will bring this perspective to the class, contributing to the collaborative and innovative spirit of the program and, hopefully, helping to broaden perspectives on what…… [read more]

Raj Patel's Staffed and Starved Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


For instance, the U.S. believes that Brazilians are slave drivers and corrupt while Brazilians perceive U.S. farmers as opportunists reaping off the taxpayers.

In addition, the author notes that the Brazil soy industry has also resulted in stagnated growth of other sectors. First, the laborers have totally been neglected by the current developments. Moreover, many farmers have also neglected production of other food crops and concentrated on the soya. The rapid development of soya, a moneymaker has been made possible due to lack government supervision, corruption and social economic conditions. The author mentions the unequal structure of land holdings, where some hold large tracks of land while others are congestion in tenement areas where houses are so small, limited water and poor quality of shelter. This has led to the rise of "Movimento dos Trabalhadores" a movement that seeks to improve people's lives by empowering them. The movement has been received well by the people and celebrates achievements in many areas such as education and uplifting lives of the poor.

This chapter of Stuffed and Starved is loaded with much information about the soya business. It investigates the uses of soya, growth in the U.S. And eventually in Brazil. The chapter is not easy to comprehend as every paragraph presents new information on soya. The book cover a variety of subjects including chemical, historical, geographical, social, political economical aspects of soya production. The reading is so detailed yet appears general. This could make it difficult for the reader to absorb in equal capacity al the sections covered. Each bit of information builds on another and one has to understand it for consistent learning from one paragraph to the next, one section to the next.

In addition, the Chapter sounds like a campaign against what many have come to accept as the American culture. A campaign against chocolate, McDonald and McNuggets is literally a campaign against market icons that represents America and this is may be a tough sell. The chapter points to the tough realities of the American life. The chapter seems to portray negativity not only towards soya, but also towards the industry, the effects on health, environment and as well as negative social and economic effects on the Brazilian people and the nation .

On the contrary, this chapter is a mine of key information about the ongoing in the soya industry of the United States and the southern neighbor. The author has packed all the information necessary for any serious reader with the need to understand the realities of the soya industry. The chapter is an encyclopedia of soya focusing on the American production and market.


Patel, R. (2008…… [read more]

People Feed Themselves? Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (639 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Taxes were only remitted if they agreed to devote a specific portion of their land to cash crops. Or their land was simply seized by the ruling government and they were divested of their property, forcing them into homelessness as well as poverty and hunger.

To reduce the amount of leveraging power the farmers could have in setting a price for their crops, national governments created organizations like the West African Coca Control Board to set the price of coca in a uniform fashion. This was supposed to give farmers a more fair price than could be obtained solely from negotiating with more powerful private businesses, but ultimately the result was the same -- the colonial powers profited far more off of the crops of the farmers, despite the fact that the farmers were doing the lion's share of the work to harvest these valuable products. However, the farmers who were merely economically exploited by the colonial government could count themselves lucky compared with farmers whose land was simply taken away from them in the name of the crown. The land was designated public territory or given over to private businesses. In almost all of these instances, the cash crops that the farmers were forced to grow were coffee, tobacco, and sugar -- products with no nutritional value.

The effect of plantation economies was to make the populace dependent upon the ruling government for everything. Without land, the peasants were helpless and the government provided them water, roads, and access to seeds, access to credit, and all of the basic tools peasants needed to survive. Peasants were often herded into areas where they were needed, away from their original homelands. Their agricultural labor was taxed, even while imported goods from the colonies was cheap. Peasants were also prevented from constructing competitive cash crop enterprises of their own, to compete with…… [read more]

John Mackey: Whole Foods Leader Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Whole Foods, after anti-trust regulations were resolved, eventually acquired rival Wild Oats to expand across the Midwest. When Whole Foods was starting out, Mackey was told: "You know, I really think you're just selling hippie food to hippies. I gotta tell ya that I don't think it's gonna work. But if it does work, Safeway's gonna just steal it from… [read more]

Animals &amp Their Place Inside Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


For example, one cannot have such cases as the head of the FDA being a former business man in favor of big companies. This is simply un-American, un-democratic and unfair towards the system which this nation has set up. If companies were to be better regulated, they should not be compromised from the inside. According to the film Food, Inc.,… [read more]

Marketing Segmentation at Food Lion Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


If Food Lion used demographic segmentation variables such as: age, gender, family size and income, background and social classes they will determine what are the main types of customers that come in to the grocery store. Once Food Lion has determined their target customers, they can decide if they are meeting the needs of that particular customer by the types of milk they stock. In this particular store, the number one consumer is middle to upper class men and women who shop for their families and Food Lion can determine which kinds of milk products are required to keep these consumers coming back. The grocery stores will need to consider the prices of their products and other competitive stores in the region so they can get the most out of each gallon or other types of milk they supply. It is very important for Food Lion to look at the minority shoppers that do business with them and what their needs are and if they supply a variety of milk products they like and can afford such as a generic brands and variety. The minority groups that shop to keep Food Lion in business are important because these consumers keep sales viable in other areas and levels of marketing.

By Food Lion getting to know their customers from a demographic and psychographic stand point, they can meet the needs of every individual who comes in to shop and how to keep them coming back in the future because it is important in the success of the store. When Food Lion sees what milk is demanded by consumers they can order less and discontinue products that do not increase profits and learn ways to promote and advertise the milk that does increase revenue. Milk is a necessity product that consumers need, and by providing a competitive variety in required food groups, consumers will stay satisfied and continue shopping in their local grocery stores and not go elsewhere to do business.… [read more]

Food Create a Chart Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,114 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Create a chart that lists all the ingredients most commonly used in flour mixtures, and indicate the function/s of each ingredient.







Main ingredient; structure; gluten

Structure; texture

Tenderizing; mouthfeel; flavor


Hydration of protein, starch, leavening

Production of gas to cause expansion and rising



Explain how over-mixing and under-mixing impact the texture of a muffin. Be specific.

Overmixing causes too much gluten development, leading to muffins that are tough and too dry. Undermixing causes muffins that fall apart and crumble because the gluten has not had sufficient time to develop. Undermixing also causes clumps of baking powder.

Describe the (yeast) bread-making process step-by-step and indicate the importance of each step with respect to the quality of the final product.

The stages of bread making include mixing, kneading, fermentation, punch down/second rising, shaping, proofing, and baking. Mixing is the first step in the bread making process and involves the initial combining of the ingredients, which will vary according to the bread type affecting flavor and texture. Kneading is the act of physically handling, playing and working with the dough to develop the gluten and achieve optimal dough and bread consistency. Fermentation refers to the rising of the dough, especially the first rising of the dough in a multi-stage fermentation process. Covering the bowl ensures proper fermentation, the stage at which the dough doubles in size and achieves an optimal lightness or airiness. Fermentation also affects flavor, size, and texture of the finished product. The punch down involves literally punching the beer to encourage a second fermentation. This changes the texture of the bread and generally encourages the production of bread that is more finely textured. Punching down the dough allows gas to escape, while redistributing the dough ingredients. Next, the dough is shaped according to aesthetics and functionality of the end product. Proofing is the penultimate stage in the baking process, during which a final rising occurs. Glazes and other textural and aesthetic elements can be added. This prepares the dough for its final step: baking. Baking brings all the ingredients together with heat, making the dough into an edible and tasty finished product. The temperature level and amount of exposure to the heat all affect the quality, texture and taste.

04. What are the general guidelines for the handling and preparation of vegetables?

Vegetables must be thoroughly washed, occasionally scrubbed, and rarely if ever soaked. Preparing vegetables depends on the intent, as some vegetables simply need to be cut and served raw. Those that need cooking can be cooked for brief periods of time in small amounts of water, or for long periods of time in no water such as baking potatoes. Cooking dramatically changes the taste, texture, and nutritional content of vegetables.

05. What are the two most important principles to keep in mind when preparing foods that contain cheese? Explain what will happen to the product if you violate one or both of the principles. Be specific.

The two… [read more]

Animal Production: Biotechnology Has Achieved Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Maurer, Stephen M., and Markus Fischer. "How to control dual-use technologies in the age of global commerce." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 66.1 (2010): 41-47. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Siontorou, Christina G., and Fragiskos A. Batzias. "Innovation in biotechnology: moving from academic research to product development -- the case of biosensors." Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 30.2 (2010): 79-98. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Wenxin, Shi. "Biotechnology: healing, fueling, and feeding the world." Reviews in Environmental Science & Biotechnology 9.4 (2010): 311-314. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Whetten, Ross W., and Robert Kellison. "Research Gap Analysis for Application of Biotechnology to Sustaining U.S. Forests." Journal of Forestry 108.4 (2010): 193-201. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Zwart, Hub. "Biotechnology…… [read more]

Geneticly-Modified Crop Economics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It also has to be ascertained whether the crop is safe for human consumptions and whether it has a clear advantage, overall, compared to regular crops that are not genetically modified and/or have been in the market for a while with established success (Klein, 2013).

What economic trends are to be observed? Who will make money from the technology?

In the case of subsidies, it is actually a loss to the taxpayers to protect the farmers. It begs the question why farms are making, or are being paid not to make, crops that are not needed and/or have no market value, but it's obviously deemed a good thing for farms that are the beneficiary. As for more effective crop types, there is obviously a lot of money to be made for the farms, the government (in terms of tax revenue), the retailers, restaurants and so forth that use the advantages of the modified crops to sell more goods and present them in a more appealing way than is possible with non-modified crops that are smaller and not as high-quality (perception or not) as other goods (Klein, 2013).

Who is funding the research and development? Who controls the purse strings, and why?

For the most part, the funders of research and development related to genetically modified crops would be the United States taxpayer (government-funded research), the mid-size to larger seed and agriculture companies and the universities that are agriculturally-based in whole or in part. Just one example of such a university would be Kansas State University (K-State, 2013). As noted above, the government agency research as well as the public university research both come from government grants and other sources funded by taxpayer dollars and those grants can come from the federal and state governments of the United States (Klein, 2013).

Look at foundations and charitable organizations, the outcomes and the nature of consumers.

In terms of genetically-modified crops, the foundations, charitable organization and non-profits in general are usually going to be advocacy groups, either for or against crops that are genetically modified and/or in favor of crops that are organic and not involved in any sort of insect or disease control that has not clearly been sanctioned and approved by the United States government Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency and other relevant agencies (Klein, 2013).

Appendix I

Source: http://www.thedailygreen.com/environmental-news/blogs/shapley/clones-food-47121711

Appendix II

Source: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/graphic/2012/feb/09/gm-crops-world-2011-map

Appendix III

Source: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/sec006group5/gm_food

Appendix IV

Source: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/05/01/the-rise-of-genetically-modified-crops-in-two-charts/… [read more]

Whole Foods Managerial Economics Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,415 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The idea is for customers to feel that while there may be certain product prices that are going up, they are finding plenty of good deals to make up for that, said executives, who call the strategy 'price perception'" (Gasparro 2012).

Depending upon the area, although consumers may be willing to pay more for certain goods such as vegan, vegetarian… [read more]

GMO Speaking Notes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Brazil is the second largest nation, with around 30 million hectares of maize, soybean, and cotton being grown as genetically modified. Argentina, another Latin American country sees the rate of around 23.7 hectares.

Canada and India are also major producers of genetically modified crops. Canada grew around 10.4 million hectares, with India growing around 10.6 million hectares.

Many European countries have opted out of the trend. In fact, most European countries have seen relatively little growth of genetically modified crops, especially in comparison to North and South American countries.

Slide 5

Increasing use of genetically modified crops around the world has continued to grow. The trend is highest in North and South America, yet this graph clearly shows that it is still a major force in the modern agricultural market. The amount of acreage devoted to genetically modified foods has increased ten fold over the past two decades. In 1996, less than 10 million acres grew genetically modified crops. By 1999, this number had exploded to near 100 million acres growing genetically modified crops around the world. Undoubtedly, this trend has continued to increase in recent years as well.

Slide 6

As suggested previously, North and South American nations have tapped into the genetically modified crops trends more so than anywhere else, with the exception of India.

This graph illustrates how the United States has been the leader in genetically modified crops for the longest period of time. Canada and Argentina have also been using this method for long periods as well, with strong numbers as far back as 1997. Brazil and India, two other leaders in growing genetically modified foods, jumped on to the band wagon much later. In fact, it wasn't until around…… [read more]

Food Supply the Book Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, Lappe and Collins proved that larger populations in primitive cultures were actually more sustainable than smaller populations and that food production became more efficient under these circumstances.

The significance of Lappe and Collin's work is that in recent years, the news media has bombarded the public with more and more messages about the need to increase and improve food production and distribution techniques. The arguments of Lappe and Collins do not support this idea, but instead surmise that we need to use our land and resources more efficiently and maintain a more even food distribution system. The energy consuming manufacture of food will only lead to the need for more, whereas more efficient methods will lead to the need to supply less. Therefore, the "world hunger crisis" is not a cry for more efficient and high technology methods of production, but rather a need to use what we do have more efficiently.

The current methods of production and consumption are not sustainable in the long-term and inequalities in distribution are the key to solving hunger in many parts of the world. We only have limited resources and intensifying production and manufacturing of food only serves to feed a few wealthy persons who own most of the land. A true world food crisis does not exist, it has only been made to appear that way to a hungry American public. The work of Lappe and Collins leads us to believe that the world food crisis does not exist at all, but is rather a result of the rich trying to protect their own interests. Lappe and Collins propose ideas that could revolutionize food production and distribution system and would provide of a more equitable distribution of food for an ever-shrinking planet.

Works Cited

Lappe. Franics Moore and Joseph Collins. Food First: Beyond the Myth…… [read more]

Chinese' Food and the Model Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dor and Raintalyn agreed that there was also a large degree to which Chinese food was Americanized in its creation. Both commented on the absence of many traditional ingredients such as seaweed, and the degree to which American meats replaced Chinese meats or meat substitutes.

A also interviewed a couple non-Asian culturally unaware individuals. Many of them suggested that they… [read more]

Small-Business Management &amp Entrepreneurship Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (7,031 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


New York City is also considering a smoking ban, but one that would mirror a stricter version that took effect in California back in 1998. The California law bans smoking in all public workplaces, including stand-alone bars. Currently in New York City, a restaurant must set aside 85% of its seating for non-smokers. If Mayor Michael Bloomberg has his way,… [read more]

Ethical Principle Fast Food Nation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The book covers some key topics such as humanity's modern ecological footprint, the problems related to genetically modified organisms, and the false economics of our present approach to globalization. The authors also offer some examples of how things might be changed for the better. Any of these subjects could take up volumes and the authors deserve credit for condensing them into a few readable chapters. They supply an excellent bibliography for those who wish to expand their knowledge on any of these topics.

The authors point out the flaw in our belief that governments will somehow intervene in events before we push nature over the edge. The sad fact is that giant international corporations are now deciding the fate of our environment and their interests are purely centered on short-term profit. These organizations are in a position to control the rules put in place by governments and they have little concern about the future of our children or our grandchildren. The key lesson is a simple one. Given the extremely complex synergies that have evolved among governments, big business and consumers, it will be absolutely necessary for the public at large, at the grassroots level, to cause backlash against the present globalization paradigm. The companies that supply inane and wasteful products will do so only as long as there are large numbers of consumers willing to buy them.

Contrary to what most believe, nature will not "get out of our way" as we continue along our destructive path; instead, she will simply crush us out of existence when we become too great of a threat to her planet.… [read more]

Safety and Health Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,838 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The primary objective of carcass dressing is therefore to remove the outer skin, hair and other non-edible parts of the animal to free the meat of infections. Traditionally, carcass dressing was done with the animal laid on the floor or on a cradle. However, this is now being done with the carcass hanging by its hindlegs from an overhead rail… [read more]

Climate Change Impacts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,423 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Part of these changes will arise from the biological reactions and the other set will be done by the farmers and the markets. The impact in agriculture will cause heavy damages to some individual plants or animals, while causing gains to others due to the global network. For the individual plant, or in the individual field, the impact of changes… [read more]

Agricultural Innovations the Middle Ages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,334 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One of the most profound shifts that accompanied the development of cultures was the development of a system of writing. The administration of a city-state depended on writing down words and numbers which first started with keeping track of the bookings of goods for trade. But even the history of writing from the early Linear-B script to today's European system of writing is marked by deep discontinuities, where the alphabet often had to be reinvented. A significant step forward was the invention of a notation system for the vowels. The history of writing, in turn, influenced and was influenced by the way language was understood and spoken among the agricultural societies and that was responsible for the diffusion of agricultural technologies around the world (Taylor, 1986).

All of this proves one thing is that the dramatic transformation in the diffusion took place solely from technology. Even the most assertive believer would have a hard time explaining the social transformations of the Middle Ages, since these diffusions were spread around the world, without having the facilities of media and communication. The main communication medium was only oral culture. But it is the social transformations that had permanent effect in the social structures and wealth earning capabilities of the societies.

So deep were the diffusions of the agricultural techniques that before the First World War, farmers composed the largest single group in every country. They no longer made up the population everywhere, as they had from the dawn of history to the end of the Napoleonic Wars, a hundred years earlier. But farmers still made up a near-majority in every developed country except England and Belgium -- in Germany, France, Japan, the United States -- and, of course, in all underdeveloped countries, too.

And with the current transformation, these agricultural producers are not "farmers" in most senses of the word; they are "agribusiness," which is arguably the most capital-intensive, most technology-intensive, and most information-intensive industry around.

Yet these enormous transformations were accomplished without civil war and, in fact, in almost total silence.

In sum, we can affirm that the use of the agricultural technologies diffused from cultural association, wars, language, as well as the association between tribes and clans. These changes in the social structures brought further changes in the application of the agricultural technologies creating enormous wealth among the people and leading the ways for the formation of the Local communities and governance mechanisms for furthering the diffusion of the technologies across the communities.


1. Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire writes Back. Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures. London, New York 1989.

2. Duerr, Hans Peter, Dreamtime. Concerning the boundary between wilderness and civilisation. Translated by Felicitas Goodman. Oxfod: Basil Blackwell 1985

3. Eckholm, Erik, "Two greybeards race against time to preserve a culture that few people can understand." In: The Sunday Independent, Johannesburg, 16.1.2000, p.12.

4. Fabian, Johannes, Time and the Other. How Anthropology makes its Object. New York: Columbia University Press 1983.

5. Feder, Gershon… [read more]

Food History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Maize, or corn, is associated with the indigenous cultures of the Americas. Following contact with the Europeans, the crop's place in society dramatically changed.


Maize/corn was viewed as a sacred commodity, one which symbolized a connection with the divine universe. Civilizations like the Mayas created a variety of myths and tales that included maize, including creation stories. The cultivation of maize was considered to be a sacred act, as the grain was viewed as a divine gift (Morales). In some creation tales, maize is known as the "ideal human flesh," (Salvador).


Prior to European contact, corn and other crops were grown without help from animal labor (Salvador). Following contact and colonialism, corn and other crops were cultivated with the help of labor animals and later, with the help of machinery and other industrial and mechanical tools. By growing corn systematically, the Spaniards altered the role that maize played in the global economy. Corn rapidly became a commodity and following the Industrial Revolution, the crop became a viable cash crop. Currently, corn is the third most planted field crop after wheat and rice, and is also grown as animal feed (Salvador).


European conquest, especially by the Spaniards, dramatically altered the political connotations of corn/maize. In fact, the crop became a global commodity because the Spaniards found a way to make the crop economically viable. Corn grown in the Americas was shipped to Europe, which bolstered the Spanish economy in particular. In modern times, corn remains one of the world's greatest cash crops.

Works Cited

Morales, Juan Jose. "Corn and the Maya." Mundo Maya Online. Retrieved June 14, 2004. http://www.mayadiscovery.com/ing/history/default.htm.

Salvador, Ricardo. "Maize." The Maize Page. 1997. Retrieved June 14, 2004. http://maize.agron.iastate.edu/maizearticle.html.… [read more]

Food Nation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It is this coziness that Schlosser blames for the worst aspects of the industry. Yet, I find it difficult to believe that the Democrats would make matters much better. This type of big business seems to be engrained in our communities.

A number of laws are being considered regarding the food system. These include food safety law regulations; fast-food obesity litigation and product liability in the food industry; bioterrorism concerns for food safety since 9/11; and the food safety concerns in the global food market and how these translate into legal issues effecting international trade, labeling, and the development of international food safety standards. Whether these regulations will get anywhere regardless of who is elected in November is unknown. Changes take time in the United States, and elections come every two to four years.

In the meantime, I believe that a number of other measures should be seriously considered, such as having fast-food restaurants government funding based on the "actual" training provided. Employees can be given skill tests, with an objective viewer present, to ensure that training has been provided with desired results. City and state health boards have to be much more accountable, so that chicken and meat processing factories are significantly improved. Likewise, there should be more stringent food regulations to ensure that people eat something else besides fat, salt and chemicals. Also, more police need to be put in high-crime areas with fast-food restaurants to protect both the customers and help. Further, individuals in the social services and legal fields need to provide guidance to those workers who do not have unions or other support systems.

After all the gloom and doom, Schlosser ends his book on a positive note. He believes that the saturation of the marketplace will severely curtail the power of the fast- food barons. In fact, 2000 was the first year when the food industry gained no new customers. "A two per cent decline in sales is enough to send stock prices spiraling downward," notes the author. "The glory days of the major chains seem to be over." Time -- and the amount of cravings…… [read more]

Industrial Revolution: Result Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,049 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In his famous doctoral thesis The Division of Labor in Society (1893) Durheim examines the forces that hold societies together and calls the force, 'solidarity." Durkheim theorizes that primitive societies that are characterized by a simple division of labor and a homogenous population (the pre-Industrial age societies) are held together by "Mechanical Solidarity." On the other hand, societies with a high division of labor or increased specialization (i.e., modern societies) are held together by "Organic Solidarity." In his view, the division of labor had made workers more alien to one another and yet, paradoxically, they were more dependent upon one another because no single worker in the age of "specialization" could hope to build a product by himself. Durkheim thought that the alienated workers of the modern age would feel less alienated if he knew that they were part of the whole and their individual actions were contributing to the accomplishment of a common goal. (Jones, 1986, pp. 35-36)


As we saw in this essay, the 18th century Industrial Revolution in Britain is undoubtedly one of the defining moments in human history. Its effects have been all pervasive and are still being felt in different parts of the earth. Although there were a number of causes behind the Industrial Revolution, most historians are in agreement that the Agriculture Revolution which occurred concurrently in Britain helped to trigger and sustain it. The Industrial Revolution also led to far-reaching and significant social changes that shook the very fabric of the societies in which it occurred. Understandably, leading philosophers of the time such as Karl Marx and Emile Durheim were influenced by its consequences and have tried to come to grips with them in their works.


Ashton, T.S. (1997). The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Four Field System." (2004) Open Door Website. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/003f.html

Jones, R.A. (1986) Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to Four Major Works. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. (1894) "The Communist Manifesto." The Project Gutenberg Etext. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext93/manif12.txt

Overton, Mark. (2002). "Agricultural Revolution in England 1500-1850." BBC History Homepage. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/industrialisation/agricultural_revolution_01.shtml

The Seed Drill." (2004). Open Door Website. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/004f.html

The 'Neolithic Revolution' occurred 10~12,000 years ago when people moved from social systems based on hunting and gathering to more complex communities dependent on agriculture and the domestication of animals

The premise is that the technological innovations of the 18th century alone would not have been enough to start the Industrial Revolution if sufficient labor had not been available for running the factories in the urban cities.

There is some controversy about the role of Townshend in improving agriculture; some feel that his role has been exaggerated. Nevertheless, there is little doubt that crop rotation (even if Townshend did not introduce it) played a major role in improving agrarian output in the 18th century.

Due to selling of land by… [read more]

Viability of Trade Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Viability of Trade Within the Philippines

The author is a native of Butawanan, Camarines Norte, a province in the Philippines and currently pursuing a Master's Degree in International Business in China. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility and viability of producing high-value vegetable, coconut, rice, and pineapple and fish farming. She inherited a 20-hectare property from… [read more]

Factory Farming Is the Norm Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Factory farming is the norm in agriculture today, but its focus on profit is ultimately destructive, especially in terms of animal suffering.

Many studies have shown that animals have emotions, that they feel pain, and that they crave interaction in their natural environments. This contrasts with the conditions under which they are kept in factory farms. Many factory animals have no access to the outdoors at all. They never experience natural light or fresh air. Instead they live inside, in cramped conditions that are breeding grounds for disease. Even animals that do spend some time outside, like cows, eat in feedlots rather than pastures, and suffer the same cramped, diseased conditions. Sometimes they are even force fed through a feed tube. These extreme conditions that would otherwise kill them. To prevent this, they are pumped full of antibiotics -- nearly half of all antibiotic use is in the meat industry.

These conditions arose mainly after World War Two, so what we are experiencing is a real-time experiment on a new approach to food production never seen before. The war had been preceded by the Great Depression, and the combination of the two drove many people into the cities in search of good, well-paying jobs. In the booming post-war economy, they found them. This movement caused higher prices for farmland. The baby boom and post-war immigration meant there were a lot more people to feed. As a result of these societal changes, there were fewer people involved in agriculture. They were gradually replaced by machines and technology, which quickly evolved into the factory farms of today.

Aldridge (2011) notes that the objective of a factory farm is quite different from a traditional farm. The goal is strictly to produce as much food as possible. This has resulted in the horrific conditions we have seen today in factory farms. An example of these conditions is with eggs farms, where hens are confined 5-6 birds into a space 12" x 18," around the size of an iPad. Animals of all types are often force fed, and their food is not always their natural diet. Cows are vegetarians, but there is often meat in the food they are given. The conditions are so horrific that even the people who work in these farms need to wear respirators (Rollin, 2004).

Many people argue that animals do not feel pain, which is simply not the case. For some of these people, it is probably a case of…… [read more]

Dining Analysis When Deciding Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


I did not look at all of the beer selections, but recognized one beer brand, Shiner Bock, which I know is a local beer, though not a craft beer, from a relatively small sized brewery in Central Texas. I also recognized Jax beer, which I know is a local New Orleans beer.

The food at the restaurant was incredible. The… [read more]

Biotechnology Exploring the Pros Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (917 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The alterations to the DNA of these organisms have not been studied enough in large contexts in order to truly understand what negatives could come along with them. Additionally, there is research suggesting that the process of altering these organisms's DNA does have the side effect of producing dangerous and unhealthy toxins. Essentially, it involves the "unexpected production of toxic substances ... In genetically engineered bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals with the problem remaining undetected until a major health hazard has arisen" (Cummins). The issue here is that these products are automatically being marketed as safe, without the traditional testing process that goes along with new food on the market. This ultimately places the consumer at risk, especially in regards to individuals with certain allergies or sensitivities to foods and substances that may be a bi product of the GMO engineering process. Even worse, the major companies that are working to produce GMO foods "intend to use GE to dominate and monopolize the global market for seeds, foods, fiber, and medical products" (Cummins). Many opponents of GMO believe that the big companies are trying to create a monopoly and push out smaller, organic farmers with their mass produced and cheaper GMO products.

Clearly, there are some major issues here. Many of these GMO products have not been studied enough to deem safe for massive consumption. It is from this perspective that I personally do not support GMO foods and initiatives. It is almost like the companies producing them do not care what happens to the consumer or the other economies that are dependent on agriculture and food production. This complete disregard for safety and fair practices is unfair. Even worse, the "U.S. does not yet require labeling of GE foods" (Center for Food Safety). This means that many consumers could be buying products that are GMO without even knowing it. If it is going to be legal to produce GMO foods, consumers should be aware of what they are buying.

Overall, the issue is quite a controversial one. There are arguments for both sides. However, the consumer needs to be more informed so that they can make their own decisions about their safety and well being.


Cummins, Ronnie. Chapter 13. Hazards of Genetically Engineered Foods and Crops: Why We Need a Global Moratorium. In: Ethical Issues in Biotechnology, eds Richard Sherlock, John D. Morrey, pp 203-211, Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Non-GMO Food Shopper's guide, Center for Food Safety

http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/fact-sheets/1974/true-food-shoppers-guide-to-avoiding-gmos accessed 3-27-14.

United States Department of Agriculture. (2014). Agricultural biotechnology. Topics. Web. http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=BIOTECH… [read more]

Food Security and Feeling Secure in the World Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


And in Baltimore, 46% of lower-income neighborhoods have limited access to healthy food (based on a healthy food availability survey) compared to 13% of higher-income neighborhoods" (Treuhaft & Karpyn 2014:8). The reason such profound health disparities exist between poor and rich can be traced to food access. Without remedying this situation America will quickly become divided into a community of the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' -- those that have food and those who do not. And having access to food means having access to health. Additionally, the consequences of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions associated with poor access to food can also impede the individuals' efforts to seek social mobility.

Some initiatives to address this problem include distributing unused, still-good but unsellable foods such as imperfect fruits and vegetables or discarded menu items from restaurants to food banks and via 'meals on wheels' programs. Providing economic incentives to open supermarkets in low income communities is also essential as is allowing EBT (or 'food stamps') to be used at farmers' markets and other places that sell fresh produce. Employment can also be stimulated by opening up supermarkets in under-served areas. And ultimately, cooking at home often results in cost savings in the long-term, versus relying upon fast food establishments. Improving the health of all Americans by improving food access is a 'win-win' situation. Although providing assistance to communities and individuals to gain better access to affordable, healthy food has been controversial in the past, ultimately a hungry or sick person cannot strive to improve his or her life situation.


Access to healthy affordable food. (2014). Public Health Law Center.

Retrieved from:


Food security in the U.S. (2014). USDA. Retrieved from:


Treuhaft, S. & Karpyn, A. (2014). The grocery gap. The Food Trust. Retrieved:


Williamson, E. (2006). Some Americans lack food but U.S. won't call them hungry.

The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/15/AR2006111501621.html

UN warns world must produce 60% more food by 2050 to avoid mass unrest. (2014). FT.

Retrieved from: http://rt.com/news/world-food-security-2050-846/… [read more]

Catering Manager and Self-Proclaimed 'Foodie Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The adulation on the face of my neighbor and her parents is something that I will never forget.

As much as I am able to enjoy professional experiences related to food and my experience in the catering industry, I think I probably like my own as a foodie even more. I have kept a travel blog of sorts for the past couple of years; virtually everywhere I go I make a substantial attempt to sample the local cuisine. My blog is actually fairly involved; I take pictures of various dishes, have a fairly stern criteria for evaluating dishes, and frequently ask to speak to chef's to try to pilfer a few secrets regarding the creation of their concoctions.

One of the best dishes that I have ever experienced was an ice cream cake that an Italian restaurant just outside of Santa Barbra served up. The cake was sumptuously chocolate, with a caramel type of frosting that hardened on the outside and still retained a smooth, creamy texture on the inside. Yet it was had scoops of rich vanilla bean ice cream in the center. The dichotomy between these two things -- the hardness and softness of the cake, as well as the hardness and softness of the ice cream as it oozed away over time, was exceedingly sumptuous. I always like to fancy that if I can put away a few dollars to buy a restaurant, this one will probably be it.

Ironically, after all I've seen and experienced and created when it comes to food, some of my favorite pleasures still involve going home and waking up on Saturdays and Sundays to my mother's hotcakes and blueberry…… [read more]

SWOT Analysis of the Fast Food Business SWOT

SWOT  |  10 pages (3,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


SWOT Analysis: Fast Food Industry

While the global economy has been tumultuous for various industries, the fast food industry has not been hugely affected. Even with the society becoming more aware of the health risks that come with eating unhealthy food, their market share has continued to rise in the past 5 years. This could be due to the steps… [read more]

Saving the Brazilian Amazon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Saving the Brazilian Amazon

Over the last 20 years, the overall issue of the destruction of the Amazon rainforest has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there was a consistent push by the Brazilian government to develop the region since the 1960's. Where, they began to encourage people to locate to the region, as they were seeking… [read more]

Sushi in the United States Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Sushi is one of the most sought-after elite foods in the U.S. And is one clear sign of Japanese influence on American eating habits. Once seen as a method to reduce the smell of raw fish, Sushi has come a long way as it is now a must-have item on many upscale restaurants in the U.S. "Sushi marries the flavor of vinegared rice to the clean flavor of fresh raw fish and shellfish. The rice is deftly shaped into bite-sized 'fingers'. seasoned with a dab of zesty wasabi horseradish, and covered by a strip of choice seafood...Sushi originated as a way of preserving tuna, or curcian, a kind of carp. The fish was salted and allowed to mature on a bed of vinegared rice, after which the rice was discarded. Long before vinegared rice came to be eaten together with the fish and many different combination and ways of serving them evolved." (Tsuji, p. 285-288) Many believe that sushi entered the U.S. with the cultural changes of 1970s but there is definitely more to the history of sushi than meets the eye.

Sushi probably came to the U.S. through the Pacific route and hence was first introduced to the western coast. It was some time in 1950s that a trading company by the name of Mutual Trading Company decided to introduce Japanese cuisine to Caucasian-Americans. However MTC realized that if it adopted the retail route, it would take a long time -- at least 25 years and hence they found it easier and faster to "… introduce Japanese foods through the restaurant trade because then the Americans could taste the foods that had already been prepared and served, in the way they were intended to be, by Japanese chefs."

It is believed that an American by the name of Mr. Wolff had once visited Japan and he fell in love with sushi. It was with his inspiration and support that a man named Mr. Kanai decided to open restaurants serving Japanese food in the U.S. And this led to the opening of the first sushi bar. "The first sushi bar in Southern California was Kawafuku restaurant, started in 1966 in Little Tokyo, Los Angeles. It was owned by Mr. Nakajima and the chefs were Mr. And Mrs. Shigeo Saito."

The sushi bar was a huge success and led to many young chefs seeking entry into the U.S. The problem of lack of chefs was finally solved: "They made a fortune of $30,000. Upon returning to Tokyo, they started a sushi restaurant in Ginza. Word of Kawafuku's success spread quickly in Japan, starting a flood of young Japanese sushi chefs to the U.S.A."

Slowly but consistently sushi became a sought after item in California restaurants and one after the other, sushi bars began mushrooming in the state. The one question that many would ask is why America was so keen to accept sushi and why suddenly Americans were ready to try something that was exclusively Japanese. Consumers'… [read more]

Stevia Underlying the Sweetness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,471 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Rajasekaran et al. (2008) used several different methods of preparation of the Stevia leaves and analysis via mass spectrometry, and came to a variety of conclusions regarding the issue. In cultured and suspended samples of the Stevia substances, biosynthesis of certain steviosides -- one class of the eight different glycosides identified in the Stevia leaf in this study -- was… [read more]

Filipino Culture Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Filipino Culture


This country is a collection of more than 7,000 islands where the East and West cultures amalgamate. This thus makes Filipino psyche the receptacle of a number and even contradictory influences and cultures, which make the Filipino a unique race in a single category. Having been a colony of Spain for four centuries,… [read more]

California Water Pricing Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Water Pricing

California Water Pricing Recommendations and Arguments

There are obviously significant complexities when attempting to develop an efficient pricing strategy for water in California that serves all of the necessary purposes for which water is needed throughout the state. Southern California, which is essentially a desert, experiences droughts on a perennial basis and requires water from northern areas for all manner of uses, including widespread industry and heavy residential use. Agriculture is also a major source of water consumption in the state, yet provides a great deal of economic growth and stability to the state even with the massive amounts of irrigation necessary and the complexities of the irrigation system. Balancing the water needs of the state through pricing strategies is thus far from a simple task, but ultimately it would best be accomplished by implementing a long run marginal cost pricing strategy. This will ensure that revenues allow for the continued supply of adequate water to necessary regions and industries over the long-term, allowing for alternative water sources to be developed without major impacts on price (as long as they are accounted for with the establishment of current prices), while also distributing costs on a somewhat more equitable basis.

Supporting Arguments…… [read more]

Scientific Concepts Theories and Inquiry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Photosynthesis: How Does Light Affect Soybean Growth?

This experiment deals with how environmental photosynthesis different wavelengths of light affect plant growth. The direct inspiration for this experiment (adapted of course to a student's budget and resources) was a published study in which soybean plants showed that between 14 and 18 days after sowing, it was possible to relate adaptations in… [read more]

Bloodstain Geometry Experiment Lab Report

Lab Report  |  1 pages (407 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … oz of white corn syrup and red food dye. Mix to the appearance of blood.

I used:

A 12-inch square piece of cardboard

A 12-inch square piece of lumber

A 12-inch square piece of linen

Paper towels

Tape measure


Observations and Documentation

Describe the texture of the surface: The texture of the surface on the carboard was hard; on the linen cloth it was porous; on the lumbar it was hard.

Describe the edge characteristics of the resulting stains

The cloth resembled a hot dog / banana shape

The blood blot on the paper seemed to me most like that of an embryo

Whilst that on the lumbar resembled a kite with a long looping skimpy tail.

Describe the extent of peripheral satellite spatter

On the cloth there were more splatterings to a right angle of the blob .

On the lumbar it looped off into a thin trail, with outlier splatterings connected by the trail; on the cardboard it was a disfigured shape with precisley one splatter.

Measure the diameter of each drop (in millimeters)

The measurements:

Diameter was approximately 5 by 4 ml on the cardboard.

Diameter was approximately 2 by 8ml on the cloth.

Diameter was approximately…… [read more]

Plastics the Ecology Center ) Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



The Ecology Center (2011) says that besides the fact that plastics create safety problems during production, many chemical additives that give plastic products their desirable properties for performance also have very negative effects on the environment and humans' health.

Chemicals can migrate from plastic packaging to the foods that they contain (Ecology Center (2011). Some of the examples of plastics contaminating food have been found with most plastic types -- "including Styrene from polystyrene, plasticizers from PVC, antioxidants from polyethylene, and Acetaldehyde from PET" (2011).

The chemical structure of the migrants and the nature of the packaged food are the factors that control migration (Ecology Center 2011). "In studies cited in Food Additives and Contaminants, LDPE, HDPE, and polypropylene bottles released measurable levels of BHT, Chimassorb 81, Irganox PS 800, Irganix 1976, and Irganox 1010 into their contents of vegetable oil and ethanol" (2011). There was also evidence that showed that acetaldehyde migrated out of PET and into water (2011).

Some of the effects of these plastics are quite grave. PVC, for example, found in plastic wrap, food packaging, among other types of household equipment and containers, can cause birth defects, cancer, genetic changes, ulcers, chronic bronchitis, vision failure, liver dysfunction, skin diseases, and indigestion, to name a few (Ecology Center). DEHP used in creating product packaging and food wrap can cause endocrine disruption, is linked to asthma, and is also linked to reproductive effects (2011). Polystyrene is used for food containers for meats, fish, yogurt, cheese and seafood as well as for bakery goods can irritate the eyes, nose, and throat and is known to cause dizziness in people. It migrates into the food and then is stored in body fat (2011). There are increased rates of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers for workers who work around polystyrene (2011). Polythelyne, which is used for water and soda bottles, drinking glasses, and is used in chewing gum is…… [read more]

Kudler Fine Foods Product Launch Plan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … product launch plan for two markets (domestic and international): Canada and Italy.

Kudler Fine Foods started in California, in1998, by Kathy Kudler with the intent of supplying high-end diversity gourmet items at reasonable prices. It has already expanded to four stores and is considering international expansion. Specifically, Kudler's Fine Foods is considering a move into the Canadian and… [read more]

Atrazine Banned in Europe Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Atrazine Banned in Europe


There is a considerable amount of controversy about the issue of the use of the chemical atrazine in agriculture. Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the U.S. And is applied to approximately seventy percent of the maize crop (Atrazine). The debate about the use of this herbicide in the United States… [read more]

Life During the ICE Age Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Life During the Ice Age

For humanity, the ice age represents a shift that was occurring with life on Earth. What was happened was the planet became gradually cooler, causing large ice caps to form at the poles. They would then move southward, covering millions of square miles. For example, during the last ice age, the glaciers would move as… [read more]

Christian Fasting Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Biblical fasting is a unique and ancient way for people to connect or become closer to God. Through reading the Bible one learns that fasting enables the Holy Spirit to reveal your true spiritual condition, resulting in brokenness, repentance, and a transformed life. In addition to this, fasting and prayer are the only disciplines that fulfill the requirements of II Chronicles 7:1. On my personal journey to get closer to God I encountered some issues due to my schedule. This experience was ultimately positive however as it revealed to me that God takes care of us even when we feel broken and empty, and I learned that I also hold the power to push past these weighty feelings.

In order to satisfy the requirements of II Chronicles 7:1, I took it upon myself to fast for a day. The difficulty with this was my busy day. I had work that day for six hours from one until seven, which are not optimal hours for fasting. Because of my busy day, it was not particularly easy for me to spend much time meditating but I took advantage of my breaks by doing so. Truthfully, the fast wasn't as hard on me physically as it was mentally. At approximately four o'Clock I started to think about how long it had been since I had eaten, which led my stomach to tell me it was yearning for food. From then on until 8 o'clock when I ravenously ate a microwaveable pizza, thoughts of hunger plagued my mind constantly and forcefully. A less important but still significant effect of my fasting was my newfound appreciation for having food. It forced me to question what it would be like if not eating for a day was normal as it is for much of the world. I am extremely grateful that I participated in this activity for it revealed to me much about myself and what circumstances I could withstand, but it also taught me more about God.

G-d won't give up on us if we don't give up on Him. This is the main lesson I took away from fasting for a day. God guides us through all times of trouble and despair. Not eating for twenty-four hours is by no means a tragedy or a time of great horror, but it is not an easy thing to do for a lot of people. Yet, as the fast ended, I felt fine and my body was left unharmed. God helped me through the difficult day with His guidance and I…… [read more]

Project Statement of How to Make Pancakes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Crash

For this project, I decided to shoot a video about how to make pancakes. I chose pancakes because it is a pretty simple, but delicious meal to make. While pancakes are most often eaten at breakfast, they can really be eaten at any time of the day and they are filling as well as good for you (depending on what kind of toppings you use, of course). There are many different recipes for pancakes, but I decided to use a pretty simplistic one for this project. The main ingredients are flour (which can be white or whole wheat flour), eggs, milk, baking powder, vegetable oil, and butter. There are optional ingredients that you can add to pancakes -- such as blueberries or even chocolate chips, but for this video I will be showing how to make plain pancakes.

The first thing I had to do was find a friend who would be in the video. Once I found her, I went to Whole Foods to find my ingredients. This shot of Whole Foods was done in a wide screen shot, moving into close-up. Then in a medium close-up frame I recorded the image all the different ingredients -- the eggs, milk, butter, and flour. The next thing I did was give some information on the importance of washing your hands before cooking so you don't spread germs in your cooking.

The next part of the video is the process of mixing the ingredients. The first step in making pancakes is to crack the eggs into a bowl. In a medium close-up frame I showed how to melt the butter using the stovetop. You don't need a lot of butter, just a bit. Then using a spatula, I had my friend move the butter around the pan so that the pan was completely coated in butter so that they pancakes would not stick.

Next, I had my friend add all of the ingredients -- flour, milk, baking powder, and vegetable oil -- into the bowl with the cracked eggs. Then she mixed the ingredients…… [read more]

Description of My Local Convenience Store Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Delight Is in the Details

The local Jiffy Mart reminds me of the classic mom and pop one-stop shop and the essence of small-town America. The shop is not a store filled with strangers. It is just the opposite: it is a place where you are sure to recognize one, if not every, face. The store is teeming with life from the local population, which ranges from stay at home moms to local farmers. The people, sights, smells, and sounds of this store tell a story about what it means to belong to a small community in America.

The familiar faces are one of the best things about this store. Only after a few visits, everyone knows who will be working behind the counter on a particular day. Today, it is Kathy, a short woman on the heavy side that likes to wear colorful scarves. She wears tortoise-shell reading glasses, has a squeaky, high-pitched voice, and a shining smile. She reminds me of Betty Boop with her dark, short hair. Farmers, hunters, loggers, and other locals congregate at the coffee bar to discuss who has their hunting tags and who is trapping beaver as they eat doughnuts and drink their piping hot coffee. Their hunter camouflage and orange clothing stands out across the store. When listening closely, I hear a fishing tale about a bass that was so big, it jerked the pole right out of Jimmy's hands. Meanwhile, mothers with children, school kids, and older customers come in. They are like me and come here to get lively service, good conversation and tasty food. This store represents the heart and soul of what small-town America is all about.

The best time to visit this shop is the mornings because the aromas enhance the experience. With I open the door, the smell of coffee brewing and fresh-baked pastries hit me in the face. The aromas make me imagine how good fresh baked, crispy doughnuts would taste dipped into a steamy, fresh cup of coffee. The gigantic exhaust fan spreads the wonderful aroma of homemade pastries throughout the village.…… [read more]

NYC Program to Help the Homeless Chronically Mentally Ill Hungry or Impoverished Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,157 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Hunger NYC

Hunger is a major problem throughout the United States. The problem of hunger is considerably troubling in cities with large populations such as New York. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on the New York City Coalition against Hunger and their efforts to assists those who are dealing with the issue of hunger. The research will explore the various programs and initiative established by the aforementioned organization.

Current Statistics

According to a U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) report on hunger in 2008 there were 49.1 million people living in food insecure households.

This number was an increase aof nearly 13 million from 2007 when the amount was 36.2 million.

Of the 49.1 million 32.4 million are adults (about 14. Of all adults) and 16.7 million are children (23% of all children). Furthermore, the report explains that "17.3 million people lived in households that were considered to have "very low food security," a USDA term (previously denominated "food insecure with hunger") that means one or more people in the household were hungry over the course of the year because of the inability to afford enough food. This was up from 11.9 million in 2007 and 8.5 million in 2000."

In addition the USDA reports that the recession has only compounded an already dire situation as the problem of hunger more than doubled between 200 and 2008. Minority groups have been adversely affected by this issue with 26% of Black households and 27% of Hispanic households experiencing food insecurity.

To combat the problem of hunger in New York City the New York City Coalition Against Hunger was developed in 1983 as a reaction to the growing problem of hunger in the city. Representatives from all five boroughs convened to investigate what could be done to assist the hungry. Prior to the development of this coalition each of the boroughs were handling the proble of hunger through various small church and non-profit organizations but these organizations could no longer efficiently handle the growing numbers of individuals seeking assistance and so the coalition was born. The mission of the coalition is to "coordinate the activities of the emergency food providers in the city so that issues can be identified, prioritized and addressed effectively."

In addition to this original mission the organization has also grown to include engaging in advocacy and legislative efforts to combat hunger.

In an effort to combat hunger in the city the Coalition has created nine unique programs to effectively serve the people of the city. These programs include the following

1. Emergency Food Action Center- the purpose of this program Is to provide assistance to food pantries and soup kitchens throughout the city. It is one of the first programs of its kind in the United States that is designed to specifically assist these organizations with expanding their services so that they can be completely independent. In addition the assistance given to these organizations is unique and designed to meet the needs of specific emergency food… [read more]

What Are the Causes of Famine? Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Causes of Famine

In spite of the enormous technological advances in the last 50 years, famine is still an element of everyday life in many poorer regions, mainly developing or third world countries. In principle, a famine is an incident in which a large percentage of the populations of a region or country are hungry and death by starvation… [read more]

Ethnic Dining Experience Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethnic Dining Experience

Miami has been socially and culturally driven by its Cuban community for the better part of five decades. The community has been built in two major waves, one following the Communist takeover of the island and the other during the Mariel Boatlift in 1980. The community is focused on the Little Havana neighborhood and Versailles Restaurant is an embodiment of old Cuba in the heart of the Calle Ocho strip. The restaurant drips character, from its characterful building and staff to the musicians to the authentic Cuban food. This essay will discuss the experience of dining at Versailles, a rich experience in ethnic dining.

A visit to Miami a few years ago was mostly for non-cultural purposes but it also afforded an opportunity to explore Calle Ocho and to indulge in some of the more accessible trappings of Miami Cuban culture. Without having been to Cuba it is difficult to ascertain exactly how authentic the experience is, but the experience at Miami's most famous Cuban restaurant Versailles is certainly unique and very different from what one would experience at a more typical American restaurant.

The class of a bygone era is evident immediately upon entering Versailles. The restaurant is decorated with chandeliers and etched mirrors, delivering a time warp experience into what a Cuban working class in the 1950s would have viewed as high style. Yet the basic furniture belies the establishment's status as a working-class institution rather than a hall of fine dining. Diners -- the restaurant is typically packed -- are crowded into simple tables with cafeteria chairs. The attempts at sophistication in light of such obvious working-class leanings would in other situations seem tacky but at Versailles this is not the case as everything about the look and feel of the restaurant is genuine.

Upon entering, a table can be arranged by the host. The wait staff are all neat in appearance, clean and sharp. The men wear crisp white shirts with aprons and black pants and ties. Yet they are casual and open as well. Spanish is the language of choice, and although English will suffice it seemed evident that the staff are friendlier to those speaking Spanish, although this could simply be because the Spanish-speakers are from the same Cuban community.

The menu at Versailles is quintessential Cuban cuisine. Pork is the dish of the day, every day, and in every way. Cubans take their pork is sandwich format -- including the famous medianoche and Cubano sandwiches -- but they also eat a variety of roast pork dishes as well. Chicken is also available, as are beef "steaks" which is often pounded flat and cooked well done. Side dishes are uniquely Cuban as well, including salty black beans, fried plantains, bread pressed flat, rice (with or without beans) and boiled yucca.

Desserts and drinks also reflect the Cuban cultural heritage. Desserts are simple and sweet, including Latin American staples such as flan and tres leches. Drinks include a variety of rum beverages,… [read more]

Competition the Reasons the Florida Department Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The reasons the Florida Department of Citrus advertises as a singular cooperative rather than on the basis of individual farms is because the market is competitive. Competitive markets have a number of traits that make them distinct. The price is set by the market, and this is the case with oranges. The product lacks differentiation, as is the case in most agricultural commodities. For the Florida Department of Citrus, the marketing is an attempt to brand Florida oranges as unique, which is possible given the unique climate and soil conditions of the state. However, the orange market remains largely undifferentiated.

In addition, there are numerous competitors in the market and there is relatively easy market entry and exit. Certainly there are numerous competitors in oranges, not just in Florida but California and other parts of the world as well. As a result, individual farmers would have difficulty distinguishing their products from those of other farmers. Market entry and exit is relatively easy, in that farms can be bought and sold easily.

There are competitors in the market around the world, and aside from tariffs, subsidies and other external constraints on price, the price of oranges is set by the global commodities market. Surpluses in one region can be exported around the world to offset shortages in another. The Florida website is an attempt to build the brand for Florida oranges so that its products are deemed to be sufficiently differentiated that they cannot be substituted with other oranges. The site is geared towards consumers, which raises an interesting point about the nature of this competition. Florida oranges are typically used to make juice. Juicemakers may understand that Florida oranges can be readily substituted with oranges from other parts of the world, but if the consumer can be convinced that other oranges are inferior, then juice makers will be compelled to make their juice from Florida oranges. That the product is not differentiated stems from perfect knowledge on the part of buyers; imperfect knowledge on the part of the end user can be leveraged to overcome that. The Florida marketing effort, therefore, is an attempt to create imperfect market conditions where perfect competition currently exists.

3. Monopolistic competition is a form of competition in which there are many competitors, somewhat difficulty entry or exit, products that are only partially differentiated and there is only some degree of price control on the part of the seller (No author, 2010). The fast food industry has these characteristics, and this shall be considered with respect to McDonald's, Burger King and Wendy's.

There are dozens of fast food chains, in addition to independent fast food outlets, in the United States. Each of these chains is slightly differentiated from one another. Whereas KFC is differentiated significantly by product, the three leading burger chains are only differentiated somewhat. The characteristics of the good in fast food in general is a low-cost filling food product focused on basic attractive flavor elements such as meat, salt, fat and… [read more]

Geographies of Global Change Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,794 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Geographies of Global Change

(1.) Globalization may be understood as Christopherson describes it as a globally-scaled process involved in "the increased international flow of people, commodities, and information" (245). It involves the transformation of worldwide communication and information systems (e-commerce and e-marketing), as the editors of Geographies of Global Change mention, and it "transcends relations between states" so that it… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma by Michael Pollan Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma. New York: Penguin, 2006.

We have, according to Michael Pollan, a "national eating disorder" (Pollan 2). Americans have grown so disassociated from the ways in which food is produced that they have lost a sense of what food really is. The title of Pollan's 2006 manifesto the Omnivore's Dilemma underlines the paradox that all human beings must face: because they are human, they are confronted with a seemingly infinite array of choices of what they can consume. Theoretically, a McDonald's meal is edible because a human being's stomach acids are capable of breaking down a fries, burger, and milkshake. But Pollan asks: what does that meal do to our bodies -- and to our environment and the larger food chain? "When you can eat just about anything nature has to offer, deciding what you should eat will inevitably stir anxiety, especially when some of the potential foods on offer are liable to sicken or kill you" (Pollan 3).

Many animals, such as the koala bear, only need one type of food to thrive. The koala bear only needs eucalyptus leaves to eat a balanced diet. In contrast, if human beings eat a very limited diet, they can grow extremely sick. One of the reasons for the explosion of obesity and over diet and lifestyle-related diseases, argues Pollan, is because we are unintentionally limiting ourselves to a nutrient-poor way of eating. Although food is packaged in many unique and attractive ways, the distinction is only on the surface, and due to clever packaging, rather than actual substance. Corn, one of the main commodity crops of subsidized agriculture, is everywhere. Sweet foods have high fructose corn syrup in them; corn sugar is even hidden in savory foods to enhance flavor in foods like burgers and tomato sauce. Corn is the "building block" of industrial food, particularly the ability of corn to be converted into high-fructose corn syrup, which is less expensive and sweeter than regular sugar (Pollan 88-89).

Pollan divides his book into three sections, or three different aspects of the food production cycle: industrial, pastoral, and personal. Industrial food processing is based upon the use of corn, and Pollan notes how government policy has made it cheap and easy to fatten animals for slaughter in feed lots, although the animals cannot digest corn unless they are given antibiotics to do so. The availability of cheap corn enables highly processed and caloric foods, from chips to snack cakes, to be shelf-stable and sold for pocket change. Food, which used to take up a tremendous percentage of a family's budget, is now quite inexpensive, but at tremendous cost to human health. One of Pollan's most controversial arguments is that food is too cheap. The methods used to make food inexpensive also make food harmful to the body. "You can buy honestly priced-food or you can buy irresponsibility priced food" that is…… [read more]

Hunger and America's Youth Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hunger and America's Youth

If you've never had to skip a meal because you didn't have money to buy food, consider yourself lucky. Hunger in America's youth is a complex and multifaceted problem and a growing challenge for many American families. Food insecurity, or the lack of access to enough food for a healthy and active life, affects a wide… [read more]

Society Ecology War Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (999 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … ecology, war: Connections

The phrase 'Mother Nature' suggests that human beings personify nature as a physical human being. The image of nature as a human entity is very common throughout literature across a variety of cultures. Yet for much of Western civilization, nature has not been treated with great sensitivity or respect. Ever since the birth of modern agriculture, there has always been a tension between human needs and the need to respect the demands of nature. While some societies have striven to remain in balance with nature, not taking any more or less than needed from the land, this has not been the case for much of the history of Western dominance of the known world.

The failure to show respect for the demands of nature can be seen in the failure of the early Jamestown colony in Virginia. A lack of knowledge of sustainable faming practices and a contempt for tilling the soil lead to the deaths of most of the residents. Were it not for the intervention of the native people, the early colonists would likely have starved, given their lack of knowledge of how to make the soil yield food. And even after growing more accustomed to farming, the European colonists always focused on the land's ability to yield a profit more than its ability to keep them alive: "The European colonists were engaged from the beginning (almost...) in market-oriented farming. Within the first decade, the Virginia colonists were raising tobacco for export rather than food for subsistence. For the first five or more years, the colonists depended upon the resupply shipments from England plus trade with the local Indians for a substantial portion of their food supply" ("Virginia agriculture," Virginia Places, 2010.).

The fact that many of the native peoples lived in harmony with nature, and respected the needs of the soil was viewed with contempt by the Europeans. Because the natives were more 'natural' in their lifestyles they were seen as inferior. The fact that the natives did not view the land as an object to be possessed was seen as justification for acquiring their land by any means necessary. When natives, lacking the resistance to European ailments, began to be decimated by the diseases brought to the Old World, this was seen as further proof of Indian 'inferiority.' "Nature to the Europeans - and the Indians detected this - was something of an obstacle, even an enemy. It was also a commodity: A forest was so many board feet of timber, a beaver colony so many pelts, a herd of buffalo so many robes and tongues. Even the Indians themselves were a resource - souls ripe for the Jesuit, Dominican, or Puritan plucking" ("Native Americans," American West, 2010).

Of course, native societies were not free from war even before the arrival of the Europeans. But the European mentality was distinctive in that it saw the need to colonize the land and make it yield a profit as synonymous with eradicating…… [read more]

Environmental Interest Groups Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,050 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Environmental Interest Groups

The National Cattleman's Beef Association: Environmental group profile

The National Cattleman's Beef Association: Environmental group profile

While most individuals think of environmental interest groups as predominantly left-wing in nature, the power of the National Cattleman's Beef Association in the U.S. Congress is a reminder that not all interest groups that affect national environmental and agricultural policy support a green agenda. As its name suggests, the National Cattleman's Beef Association (CBA)'s website states that it supports the interests of independent cattle producers, small and large. The organization is more than one hundred years old, and comprises 29,000 independent cattlemen and more than 64 state and cattle breed affiliates. It claims to represent over 230,000 cattlemen across the United States. However, because of its support of industrialized farming practices, some of its position statements could be said to run against the interests of small, organic, and grass-fed beef farmers.

CBA identifies its mission as promoting 'free enterprise' in American agriculture. It seeks to minimize any federal regulation over food and agriculture, including the use of hormones and antibiotics in beef. It states that it opposes 'extreme' environmental regulation of land use and animal welfare regulation. It does support reducing the capital gains tax; expanding market access to nations that have either banned or sharply regulated the import of American beef, including Japan and Korea; and permitting the use of science in animal husbandry (Join now, 2010, CBA).

One of its most enthusiastic causes is the allowing the use of growth-promoting hormones in agriculture. According to its website: "growth-promoting hormones help stimulate growth by increasing the efficiency in which feed is converted to muscle. Certain products, when administered to animals in very small amounts, supplement their natural hormone production and improve growth rates by allowing the animal to produce more muscle and less fat. This helps the industry produce leaner beef for consumers" (Hormones, 2010, CBA). It is obviously in the cattle producer's interest to be able to use growth hormones to increase the weight of the animal more quickly to 'slaughter weight.' This means a swifter time to market and less time spent fattening cattle on feedlots, where the cows cost money for their food and upkeep.

Why does the organization stress the leanness of hormone-raised beef? Reading between the lines, the organization's position reflects the growing link between obesity and the use of hormones in animal products, including beef. "Fetuses, infants, and children are thought to be more vulnerable to the hormone-disrupting effects of exogenous hormones and hormone-like chemicals & #8230;Since 1988, use of steroid hormones in cattle production has been illegal in Europe," and abstaining from the use of hormones has also been supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics (Opposition to the use of hormone growth promoters in beef and dairy cattle production, 2010, APHA).

While the use of hormones is a debatable issue, other policy statements by the CBA seem openly misleading. For example, the organization defends the use of antibiotics in cattle, stating that… [read more]

Cause and Effect of Deforestation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Deforestation

On a very basic level, the cause of deforestation seems simple: deforestation is caused the cutting-down of trees. But why are humans as a species so careless about the precious natural resource of trees? This was not always the case. According to the World Wide Forest Report, during the days of the Roman Empire ninety percent of… [read more]

Ethical Problem Ethical System Restaurant Ethics: Special Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (775 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethical Problem

Ethical system

Restaurant ethics: Special treatment for food critics

Food critics are supposed to be anonymous: many have gone to legendary lengths to preserve their incognito status, from donning wigs to adopting funny accents, as well as using phony names on their expense accounts and credit cards. However, in the age of the Internet, it is increasingly difficult for a restaurant critic's face to go unremarked-upon in a dining room. The title of John Colapinto's 2009 New Yorker article "Why restaurant critics need anonymity" suggests that if a reviewer's identity becomes widely known, restaurants will use any means necessary to influence a review. Once a major critic is supposed to be taking over the Dining Out section for the New York Times or another major newspaper, people with camera phones are likely to try to snap his or her picture or find an old, previously photographed image of the critic. This raises the question: if a critic is suspected to be on the premises, is it ethical for the restaurant to alter its quality of service above and beyond the norm, to make a good impression? This often means that the food critic is getting an experience very different from the average diner.

Of course, some might protest that there is only so much a restaurant can alter. However, consider the following anecdote: one prominent restaurant critic was recently eating in a New York restaurant he was about to review. The critic had a Twitter account and tweeted that his chair was uneven. "Seconds later, the maitre d' appeared at the table offering a new chair and his apologies" (Colapinto 2010). A member of the staff had been following the critic on Twitter. Even in the pre-Internet era, when critics have been recognized, "dried-out slices of cake from the dessert wagon were replaced with whole, freshly-iced gateaux;" stale bread replaced with fresh; and the best cuts of meat and fish, of course, are offered to the critic (Colapinto 2010).

Even more ethically dubious is the practice of offering free food to known restaurant critics. This may include free appetizers, desserts, and drinks, some of which may not be on the menu. For less ethical restaurant critics, the restaurant may offer to pay for the meal, and say that it is 'on the house, complements of…… [read more]