"Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays

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Is There Really an Elephant in There With Those Blind Men? Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Food Security

Is there Really an Elephant in there with those Blind Men?

Food security has been defined as the ability of the population to obtain a safe, nutritionally sufficient food intake through a sustainable food system that amplifies community self-sufficiency and social justice (Bellows & Hamm, 2003). At the local level, food security includes social, economic, and institutional factors… [read more]

Genetically Modified Crops Foods and Hormones in Meat Supply Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,866 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Genetically Modified Crops/Foods and Hormones in Meat Supply

Genetically modified crops or foods result from genetically modified organism. Genetically modified foods are of great importance despite the concerns raised because they will help in solving the food crisis. Use of genetically modified foods have its challenges and the most common one being the transfer of genes from the genetically modified… [read more]

Geography of California Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,343 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


California Geography

Fresno: The desert that became an agricultural Mecca gives its bounty at a great human cost

The state of California is often associated with the Gold Rush -- people came from all over the world to secure their fortune in the territory of the West. Those who did not find wealth lying on California's dry and craggy rocks found wealth in other sources, such as land, the movie industry, ranching, and agricultural produce. Fresno has often been described as a kind of agricultural miracle, a land that manifests the possibility for the dessert to be made green with fertility and prosperity. Humans engineered the ability of Fresno to be used for food, and through careful cultivation the types of crops that can be harvested in the dry region parallel those found in the Mediterranean of Europe, even though the climate is far harsher. The greater aridity of the San Joaquin Valley of central California has yielded impressive dividends for rich agricultural firms. Yet for many workers who toil the land, often illegally, the bounty of Fresno comes at a high price.


Fresno, like all Californian cities, has its own character. The diversity of the state of California is exemplified in its climatic and agricultural variety: some areas of California are so dry they are ideal wine-making regions, while others are nearly arid, almost desert-like in their weather conditions. The area now known as Fresno County was once a barren desert and was only made habitable through the use of irrigation and electricity. Early Spanish and Mexican settlers and missionaries largely avoided the inhospitable region. The name "Fresno" means ash tree in Spanish, and derives from the many ash trees that grow by the Fresno river, but other than giving Fresno a name, these settlers avoided the area in favor of more promising territories ("Fresno, Greenwich Mean Time, 2009).

Fresno's true beginnings as a state can be traced to 1872, "when the Central Pacific Railroad, pushing southward through the Central Valley, reached the site. Fresno's steady growth began when irrigation was introduced" (Drury 2009). An elaborate system of irrigation, known as 'Church Ditches' were developed by the small community of the Moses Church, largely made up of hardy pioneers. Thanks to the Moses Church, agriculture would become a core part of the modern economy of the region. These ditches and canals "transformed the barren desert of Fresno County into rich soil, thus enabling extensive wheat farming in Fresno County" ("Fresno, Greenwich Mean Time, 2009). Now Fresno County is America's leading agricultural region, producing $3 billion per year and over 200 commercial crops (Drury 2009).

Fresno's most famous crop is that of the raisin. Fresno produces about 60% of the world's raisins and about 90% of the raisins sold in America (Drury 2009). Yet the ability of Fresno to produce raisins was discovered only by accident, when a wine producer "accidentally let some of his grapes dry on the vine in 1875" (Drury 2009). Eventually, Fresno's significance as a… [read more]

Unethical Companies Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (703 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Pet Food Scandal

In 2007, Purina was among many pet food companies hit with a major scandal. The company had used a supplier, Menu Pet Foods to produce its some of its lines. In turn, Menu had received tainted supplies of wheat gluten from a Chinese supplier. This tainted wheat gluten led to deaths among pets, a massive product recall and legal actions taken against the companies in question (Gillis & Kingston, 2007).

The management decisions that applied to the crisis were twofold. The first decision was the decision to order a recall of Purina's Menu-sourced brands. The recall was announced on March 30, 2007, the same day the FDA informed the company of the source of the contaminated Pet Foods. This decision could have been made earlier based on the recall initiated by Menu on March 16th. The decision to delay the Purina recall failed to adequately mitigate damages to the Purina brand.

The basis of the issue was deliberate criminal action on the part of the Chinese supplier of wheat gluten. Both U.S. And Chinese sources found the Chinese company culpable in deliberately poisoning their products (Barboza, 2007; Akre, 2009). There were concerns that the U.S. importer and Menu Foods also knew about the tainted wheat gluten in advance of the recall order. There is no evidence or suggestion that Purina executives were aware of the tainted wheat gluten prior to the Menu Foods recall order.

The ethical deficiency that led to the problem was not sourced at Ralston Purina. It was sourced at the Chinese supplier, who had used a chemical agent to give its wheat gluten the appearance of having a higher protein value than it actually had. The chemical agent was toxic to animals and led to widespread renal failure.

Organizational leadership at Purina contributed somewhat to the problem because it did not issue a recall order until two weeks after the initial Menu Foods recall order. It acted when the FDA confirmed the source of the tainted food. The company could have acted pre-emptively to help prevent pet illness and death, but did not. Only…… [read more]

Aquaculture Biotechnology Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (351 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Aquaculture and Biotechnology as Methods to Addressing World Hunger
The emphasis on fishery operations that are treated in the same
fashion as the world's land-born farming operations is something of a
double edge sword. Though it may potentially promote more sustainable
practices than free-roaming fishing operations, some tactics such as the
use of antibiotics can potentially introduce dangerous and problematic new
elements to the ecosystem. (Wikipedia, 1) Given the bleak projections for
the immediate future of available water-born food supplies, greater
regulation is necessary before we can approve too strongly of aquaculture.
Thus, there is more of an inclination to push for biotechnology methods as
a way to actually increase the food supply.
Of late, world hunger experts have begun to see virtue in employing
methods of agriculture in such developing nations as India which would
allow for a diminished need for the implementation of insecticidal measures
that could contribute to an already stifling and reciprocating problem for
the nation. And there is reason of optimism according to recent findings
regarding the potential benefits of…… [read more]

Is it Ethical to Raise Animals for Human Consumption? Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (2,104 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … ethical to raise animals for human consumption? That question can have many different answers, depending first upon one's concept of ethics and morality. Moreover, answers will depend upon in what period of history one has lived, where one lives, what culture a person is part of, and what food is available for consumption. In the interest of a… [read more]

Macro Environment Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,172 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Macro Environment

NutriPower is a potential breakfast cereal product set for the Australian market. These products are focused on healthy eating, while enjoying the food flavour and range from regular flavour to fruit, nuts, coconut and vanilla. Given their healthy orientation, the products are lower in sugar content than the competitors on the market and higher on fibre and vitamins.… [read more]

Environmental Crime Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,261 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Environmental Crime

Economic globalization and the demanding competition it often creates in economies that were previously mostly local can potentially have devastating environmental effects. Additionally, it is also not uncommon to see these new globalized economies in places where resources are abundant, places where the last vestiges of resources exist that have not yet been depleted by human use or… [read more]

Future of Food Genetically Modified Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,589 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Should Labeling be Required for GMOs?

The debate over genetically modified foods continues to plague producers and consumers alike. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are foods that have been modified through bioengineering to possess certain characteristics. These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or increased nutritional content (Whitman, 2000). The… [read more]

Biotech in the Food Chain Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,347 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


rBST in the Milk Supply

Position Statement: Is rBST Safe?

Dr. John Doe, American Medical Association

Biotechnology has gained momentum in the human food chain since the late 1990s. The use of biotechnology allows producers to increase their production and their profitability. We can be certain that these new food products have gone through rigorous testing according to FDA protocol before entering into the market, but one must ask if this is enough. This research will support the position that the decision to allow GMOs, and other biotechnologically altered foods into the marketplace is premature, as not enough studies have been conducted as to the long-term effects of them in the human food supply. It will particularly focus on the use of rBST in the milk supply.

What's the Big Deal?

The question of whether biotechnology has long-term harmful effects surfaces every time a new technology is introduced that involves human enhancement or manipulation of the food supply. Of those that have surfaced in the past, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) has been a topic of fervent controversy since its discovery.

Bovine somatotropin (bST) is a hormone that is produced naturally by the pituitary gland of cattle. Through the use of recombinant gene technologies, researchers have learned to make an exact copy of the hormone known as recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) (RBST_Facts.com). Somatrophins are growth hormones and are found in every living creature. The use of growth hormones in cattle and its potential to harm humans through the introduction of these hormones into the human endocrine system are of key concerns for opponents of the use of rBST.

Monsanto, Inc. is currently the only company producing rBST, marketing it under the trade name, Posilac (Monsanto, 2007). According to the Monsanto company, approximately one-third (nearly 9 million) dairy cows in the United States are now supplemented with Posilac. The Monsanto corporation claims that over 99% of producers currently using Posilac report increases in mild production (Monsanto. 2007). However, the methods used for arriving at these numbers is not known. One must also consider that the source may be biased, as they are the only producer of the pharmaceutical product.

The controversy picked up speed when a group of milk advertisers began advertising their milk as free from rBST. Although there was no evidence that rBST was harmful to humans, this labeling tactic placed the ideas in the consumer's mind that milk without rBST was better for them. This inadvertently led to the assumption that milk containing rBST may be harmful. This erupted into a battle in the dairy industry between those who wished to reap the production benefits of rBST against those who were wary of its effects on humans.

The Journal of the American Dietetic Association has the most comprehensive collection of clinical studies on rBST and many factors associated with it. However, much of the research centers on production and cattle issues, rather than human consumption issues.The original study, conducted by Monsanto and used as evidence for the licensing of… [read more]

California Medflies Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,630 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


California Medflies

The Medfly Problem: General Overview

How to combat the problem posed by the medfly to agriculture and international trade? While the California agricultural industry looks eagerly towards the expanding Asian market as a potential and continuing source of revenue, it must also combat the spread of the medfly, a pest that has dogged the industry since the 1960s… [read more]

Organic Food Is Better Food? Deconstructing Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,191 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Organic Food is Better Food?

Deconstructing a current cultural myth

Organic food, the media has counseled us, must be better for us than food cultivated by other methods. After all, we have been taught to believe that natural is better. A work colleague of mine is devoted to buying 'all organic,' and every morsel of food she brings with her to the office is organic, from the orange juice she drinks to the mustard she puts on her organic veggie burgers eaten on organic whole wheat bread. However, I remain unconvinced of the inherent value of organic products, either of their benefits to the environment or to human health. Eating a healthy diet that leaves a small carbon footprint is more important to me than simply buying organic. In other words, oranges may be good for you, but organic oranges are not necessarily 'better.'

To begin with the issue of 'organic' produce: an 'organic' orange, even though it is grown without chemicals, might be shipped in from far away. Growing crops without pesticides and artificial fertilizers can be expensive, and sometimes only very large farms can accomplish this task. It is not better for the environment if people eat fruits and vegetables shipped for long distances. Buying produce from a local farmer entails less damage to the environment, because it involves less burning of fossil fuels used in transport. It also ensures that the customer knows what the practices of the farmers are, given that he or she can talk to the individual who is selling the produce -- or, even if buying the local produce at a supermarket, the consumer at least has the confidence that the buyer at the supermarket knows the provider of 'Jersey tomatoes' if the New Jersey Pathmark is buying from a farm in New Jersey.

Buying locally makes it easier to avoid the type of scares that occurred regarding spinach grown in California, where spinach became tainted with e.coli after being watered with liquid laden with the deadly bacteria contaminated with human waste. The spinach was organic, but grown by a large, commercial farmer. The farm may have been organic, but it was impersonal in its outlook, and had no ties to a community or sense of responsibility to the community like a local farmer. While organic produce is not supposed to be fertilized with human waste, the water was contaminated from an outside source and with no protections to guard against the infection (which could also happen with rainwater, which does not carry human waste, but may be contaminated with other harmful substances) the organic produce quickly became infected.

The spinach scare brings up another issue with organic produce -- some toxins in the environment are deadly, and certain 'unnatural' methods may be required to protect produce against these dangers to consumer health. Protecting crops from certain insects and bacteria with chemicals may be medically and economically necessary, to ensure a steady stream of produce is provided to consumers. While many chemicals are… [read more]

Global Activism Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,149 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Global Activism

An informed society represents one of the most important assets of a state and of a nation. It constitutes the basis of the public opinion. However, it is not sufficient enough to be informed without being active and supportive of a cause that is affecting the world we live in.

Food and the lack of food can be… [read more]

Salmonella and Tomato Scare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (733 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Salmonela and Tomato Scare

If you were looking yesterday for your favorite Whooper at Burger King, the taste must have surprised you. There were no tomatoes in it. This is something most Florida dwellers will have to get used to for the next month or so. The cause: salmonella and tomato scare.

Food and Drug Administration announced in the weekend that there is a worrisome concern about the spread of the salmonella disease among the tomato crops in Florida. Safety measures have been taken to analyze all sources of tomatoes which come from the fields of Florida as well as Mexico and other close by regions. Still, until a proper decision would be taken, the customers will have to deal with a shortage of tomato supply.

Specialists are worried about a possible spread of the salmonella virus through tomatoes. Their concerns are not without a strong argument. Since mid April there have been 145 reported cases of salmonella in 16 different states of the U.S., most of the cases being reported in Texas and New Mexico. The authorities in Florida have decided to step in and deal with the situation until any case is reported in this state as well.

Salmonella is an unusual type of bacteria causes fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Those with a weak immune system are most likely at risk. So far, no critical casualties have been reported, yet the FDA wants to take the safety of the consumer first, and their pleasure for taste last.

There are several states which have yet to be marked as contaminated regions, including Georgia, Tennessee, and the Carolinas. Yet, for Florida it is a major setback as it represents one of the most important sources of fresh grown tomatoes in the country. Stores in Georgia who relied on the production of tomatoes in Florida are now reluctant to purchase tomatoes from the "Sunshine State." Brenda Reid, spokeswoman for Publix stores in Georgia acknowledge this fact and pointed out that "the timing is not good. We're heavy into the growing season in Florida" (Gilbert, 2008). This will most likely cause serious disturbances in the supply chain all over the region.

The effects of the…… [read more]

Marketing Unhealthy Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,150 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Business - Ethical Issue


It is permissible for companies to market unhealthy food and non-alcoholic beverages to children."

Arguments Supporting the Statement:

In the United States, freedom of speech applies to commercial speech. Companies have a constitutional right to market legal product by targeting their advertising message to any segment of consumers they wish (Halbert & Ingulli 2000). Certain specific products are considered too dangerous for children and advertising those particular products to children is prohibited by law. Otherwise, there is no justifiable basis for prohibiting commercial speech or advertising messages designed to appeal to children for products like junk food, fast food, or breakfast cereal, all of which are perfectly legal for consumption by children.

It is the responsibility of parents to limit children from consuming unhealthy foods and beverages in excessive quantity, or instead of more nutritious alternatives. Food companies are not responsible for monitoring the diets of children. Children do not generally have control over the contents of their diet because parents shop for food and prepare meals in the home. Advertising does not cause children to purchase products; the purpose of advertising to children is simply to motivate children to ask their parents for the advertised product. It is expected, even by the companies advertising to children that parents will limit their children's consumption of unhealthful foods and that children do not have the ability to purchase their products on their own.

3. The federal government strictly regulates foods through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies that ensure the safety and fitness of all foods for human consumption (Halbert & Ingulli 2000). Unlike the case with cigarettes, which are dangerous to human health in virtually any quantity, no food or beverage that complies with government standards is too unhealthy to eat in reasonable quantities.

4. Will power is a necessity of adult life and children benefit from learning to limit their pursuit of instant gratification in childhood. As an adult, they will be able to eat all the unhealthy food that they wish. Therefore, it is beneficial for them to learn to control their cravings as early as possible so that those skills will be developed already by the time they are too old to relay on others to tell them what to do and what not to do when it comes to personal matters like food choices.

Arguments Against the Statement:

I. Freedom of speech does apply to commercial speech, but unlike political speech or artistic expression, commercial speech is subject to more permissible regulation without violating the Constitution. For the same reason, public nudity (for one example) is constitutionally protected expression that can not be unduly censored by the government.

However, nudity associated with commercial speech is not entitled to the same protection and is much more highly regulated. II. While it is true that parents do most of the family food shopping, children are often autonomous enough by the time they… [read more]

GM Crops Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,025 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … genetically modified (GM) crops. Specifically it will discuss positive and negative responses from scientists and the general public to genetically modified foods, and assess the potential of GM crops as a source of food. Genetically modified crops are already on the shelves in many supermarkets, but they are controversial at best. Should we use GM crops as a… [read more]

People Fear DNA? Because Criminals Always Leave Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,851 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … people fear DNA? Because criminals always leave it at the scene of a crime: Joke told by Stephen Rogers, Monsanto scientist (cited in Lambrecht, 2001)

Technology has provided people worldwide with a variety of positive additions to their lives, such as advanced medical care, electricity, heating and cooling, and now instant communication through the Internet. However, there is… [read more]

Technology and Society Government and Harmful Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Technology and Society

Government and Harmful Technology

When looking for sources about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) it is truly impossible to find a totally objective source. Of course, companies that produce these foods will insist upon GMO's safety. Likewise, both European and American companies that make the exclusion of such foodstuffs a major selling point in their marketing campaigns will insist upon the dangers of GMOs. The European Union is currently standing by its decision to ban such products, and to do so is in the interests of smaller European farmers competing with major American industrial farmers, as American industry is allowed to use or create such products. Even the American government has an interest in defending the use of these products, because the government has validated GMO's safety, which serves the interest of American agriculture and corporations.


According to the American government website addressing the GMO debate, GMO crops can be made resistant to viruses and can be made to produce foods with increased iron and vitamins. This could lessen the chance of feminine in the developing world and help to alleviate chronic malnutrition ("What are Genetically Modified (GM) Foods," 2008, Retrieved 28 Jan 2008 at (http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml).Given the usefulness of these GMOs to the developing world, one must ask if it is not narrow-minded of the developed world to consider banning such goods, on the small chance GMOs might harm us, when crops that are resistant to viruses, harsh weather, and can be made more nutritious would do so much good for people in dire need?

Discussion 3

We are already eating GMOs in the United States, whether we like it or not. The government should closely monitor the developing research on the potential help or harm of GMOs. But until they are shown to do us great ill, the benefits of GMOs seem to outweigh the risks. On some level it is amazing that people will not bother to look at the calorie or nutritional values of the food they eat on a daily basis, ingest chemicals in processed food, yet worry about GMO…… [read more]

Why I Want to Attend Culinary School Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Attend Culinary School

Everyone, even retired firefighter/EMTs like myself have dreams beyond their current careers. I am a U.S. Army veteran who became a Baltimore City fire fighter and EMT after my enlistment was over. I've enjoyed that career for many years, but I always knew there was something more I wanted - something that was missing in my life. I'm newly retired, and know that it's now time to act on those dreams.

I'm a passionate cook, and I love to cook for others, I always have. I love to experiment with new recipes and ingredients when I have the time, and I'm always up on the latest cooking techniques and ideas. Trouble is, I know I'm not anywhere near an expert, and that's why I want to attend culinary school and become a master chef. Cooking and entertaining has been a passion for me throughout my life and career choices, it has been the thing that has always buoyed me up during difficult times, and given me joy no matter what. Now that I'm retired…… [read more]

Corporate Fraud and Deception Whole Foods Market Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,965 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Corporate Fraud and Deception

Whole Foods Market Inc.

The Early Years

Merging With Wild Oats Markets, Inc.

SEC Investigation



John Mackey and his girlfriend Renee Lawson Hardy opened a vegetarian health food store in 1978, Austin, Texas. After two successful years, they merged with Clarksville Natural Grocery to become Whole Foods Market. In 1992, company expanded gradually by… [read more]

Strategic Marketing Plan for Earth's Best Organic Baby Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Strategic Marketing Plan for Earth's Best Organic Baby Food

Strategic Marketing Plan

Environmental Analysis

Economic Forces

Political and Legal Forces


Competitive Forces

Technological Forces

Social and Cultural Forces

Strengths and Weaknesses

Opportunities and Threats

Marketing Objectives

Marketing Strategies

Target Markets

Marketing Mix

Product Strategy

Pricing Strategy

Distribution Strategy

Promotional Strategy

Implementation of Marketing Structure

Environmental Analysis

Any company's activity… [read more]

Weight Loss Restaurant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 17


Weight Loss Restaurant

When one decides to invest in setting up a business, some people choose to create a restaurant. However, even from the beginning, if they do not have a clear view of what they really want, and just decide to create it and see how it is going, one might realize that it is a highly risky decision.… [read more]

Moche Chronology and Subsistence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,411 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Moche Subsistence

Timeline from Pozorski and Pozorski (1979)


Chronology of Moche ceramic portraits are divided into categories based on form and decoration. This designation was first proposed by Rafael Larco Hoyle in 1948 due to the changes in the stirrup spout bottle. These were being produced as early as 1500 B.C. In… [read more]

Hopi Perspectives on Moisture or Rain Clouds Are Linked to Hopi Ancestors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (934 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … collective endeavor, agriculture required that the Hopi work together under the guidance of ancestral wisdom. Cultivation of corn and other crops was no small feat in the desert. Especially during summer months when rainfall was scarce, irrigation and water collection determined the outcome of the crops. The well-being and health of the people therefore depended on a bountiful corn harvest. With life so intimately connected with land, the sacred aspects of agriculture permeate everyday Hopi life.

Corn has symbolic as well as nutritive value. As the "staff of life," corn linked the Hopi to their ancestors and to the Great Spirit (Udall). A successful harvest nourishes soul as well as body, enriching the entire community. Corn is used as ritual offerings to the gods and to tribal chiefs, and is also used in ceremonial decoration.

Thus, corn is food for humans and gods. The concept of shared nourishment is why corn meal is also sprinkled as offerings during rituals and why dancers and elders often wear corn ears as part of sacred dress (Curtis & Boesen, nd). Sekaquaptewa's memories reveal the central significance of corn to Hopi ritual and daily life. The cycles of the harvest: the periods of bounty and scarcity characterize Hopi existence even in the post-contact era (Udall). Corn remains the central staple of the Hopi diet and was consumed regularly as well as ritualistically.

Rains and moisture are integral to the survival of the corn and of the clan. Thus, Hopi venerated clouds as ancestral spirits and created kachinas (O'mau kachinato) honor them ("Ancestral Art," 2003). Cloud figures pepper Hopi iconography and the Hopi distinguished between different types of clouds to distinguish those that deliver the blessing of rain from those that simply flank the sky. Cloud kachinas essentially "wear" the clouds on their headdress, and cloud imagery also decorates their sash and garment ("Water").

Likewise, Hopi dances drum up clouds and rain fall. Ritualistic communications between the human and spirit worlds, the dances demonstrate the need for systematic control over rain and rain clouds. The dance, a prayer in motion, is a conscious intent to will the powers of nature to serve the needs of the Hopi people. The Snake Dance is the rain dance, a petition to the snakes to deliver the message of need and hope to the clouds ("Ancestral Art," 2003). Rain prayers, motifs, storytelling and rituals permeate Hopi life throughout the year. However, the Snake Dance is performed annually and in the driest month: August (Smith 2000). Snake Dance and other annual rituals illustrate the interconnectedness of Hopi symbols and the interconnectedness of nature itself.

Agriculture has been referred to as the "fourth way" for the Hopi: a difficult path requiring community solidarity and commitment ("Hopi Agriculture: Introduction"). The Fourth Way entails struggle: the Hopi view…… [read more]

Global Warming and Decreased Crop Production Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,634 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15



This work in writing will make a review of the literature related to global warming and expected decreases in crop production. This subject is of particular interest due to the impact that decreases in crop production will have upon the entire world.

As global warming causes the Earth's average temperatures to rise, crop production… [read more]

Causes for the Popularity of Fast Food Restaurants Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,101 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Causes for the Popularity of Fast Food Restaurants

The popularity of fast food restaurants: a cause and effect essay of epic proportions

Despite the warnings highlighted in Morgan Spurlock's 2004 documentary "Supersize Me," fast food chain stores continue to proliferate all over America. Why are people not more afraid of the effects of fast food, despite the fact that fast food turned the documentary director's liver to pate when he consumed an all McDonald's diet for thirty days? It can be summed up in three easy words -- tasty convenient, and cheap. Fast food is all three. Yet the causes of fast food's popularity are having a deadly effect upon America, causing waistlines to expand and the population afflicted with the psychological and physical harms of obesity to increase, year by year.

Why do we find fast food tasty? As pointed out in Spurlock's documentary, fast food, from hamburgers to pizza to soda, has a high fat, sodium and sugar content. Humans are biologically hard-wired to prefer foods that are calorie dense. This is how the human race survived famines when food was scarce. However, today, food is abundant, especially foods containing hunger spiking high fructose corn syrup. Also, there are fewer opportunities to burn off the calories consumed during the day. There is no need to go hunt for food. Instead, a consumer can just pull up to the drive-thru and order a full meal. There is no need to go through the time-consuming preparation of a meal, or even walk to the supermarket in a suburb populated with plenty of SUVs and few sidewalks. Thousands of glorious, greasy calories can be eaten in mere minutes.

The convenience factor of fast food is also an undeniable selling point. According to Eric Schlosser: "Women entered the workforce in record numbers," in the 1970s, "often motivated less by feminism than by a need to help pay the bills....the entry of women into the nation's workforce has greatly increased demand for the types of services that housewives traditionally performed: cooking, cleaning and child care," as families have less time to devote to the domestic arts (Schlosser, 1998). After a hard day at work, a mother can provide her family with a hot meal from a fast food chain, guilt-free. She can also assuage some of her children's incessant nagging, given the amount of fast food advertising that is targeted towards children.

Fast food is, after all 'kid's food,' hamburgers and French fries, accompanied by toys and cartoon logos. Simply to avoid being nagged by their children, many parents will bend and allow their child to have a Happy Meal. For health-conscious parents, the token overpriced salad on the menu takes away their potential objections (perhaps) to having to eat the stuff themselves. An adult alone might content him or herself with a can of tuna and a salad for a quick, convenient meal, but an eight-year-old is unlikely to find such a dinner palatable.

The price for this relief from… [read more]

Cafeteria Food in My Community High School Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (909 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … cafeteria food in my community high school has not been up to standard for some time. The menus were not only unimaginative, but also significantly unhealthy. The menus include a large amount of fried foods, with often overcooked vegetables. The drinks normally comprise of a choice of carbonated sodas. The problem is that both students and their parents are increasingly health conscious. While they are being taught good eating habits at home, students are not given healthy choices at school. Students have attempted to complain to personnel numerous times. The school paper even featured an article regarding the cafeteria food. Parents have also talked to the school board, continued promises to address the matter have remained just that - promises.

A group of five students then decided to take matters into their own hands. To make a point regarding the lack of health in the cafeteria food choices, these students released a number of cockroaches into the kitchen. This was done one night, when the students broke into the kitchen and released a number of cockroaches into the food supply.


The most immediate impact was to the kitchen staff. Considerable upset was caused among employees who found the cockroaches first, when attempting to begin food preparation for the day. Secondarily, children were impacted, as food was of course now even more unsafe than the case was normally. The kitchen staff were obliged to order a fresh supply of food from the local supplier. This impacted the school, as a considerable monetary investment was lost due to the food that had to be destroyed.

The impact on the culprits themselves related to admitting to the perpetration of the "crime" and facing the consequent punishment. As the aim of the act was to make a point regarding the health impact of cafeteria food, the group readily admitted to the act. They also submitted a petition explicating the reasons for their actions, and their desire for a healthier selection of nutrition during the school day. The petition had been signed by more than half of the student body.

Disciplinary Action

The leader of the group was suspended from school for a week, while the other four received detention for the same period of time. The headmaster and staff felt that this was appropriate punishment for the danger and discomfort caused not only to the staff, but also to the students themselves. On the day in question, students had to wait longer for their food, as the supplier needed time to complete the extensive order.

The headmaster and staff also saw fit to contact the parents of each perpetrator for a conference regarding the actions of their children. The main aim of this conference was…… [read more]

Genetically Modified Organisms Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Genetically Modified Organisms

Discuss general problems with GMO (genetically modified organisms) in food.

One of the major risks of GMOs stems from pollen spread and outcrossing. Wind, animals and insects can spread pollen cover large areas. Researchers studying creeping bentgrass have found modified genes in normal grass up to 13 miles away from the source, and also within close relatives of the same genus (Genetically modified organism). Because pollen from the GMO may carry to a non-GMO crop, there is the potential for introducing the novel gene into a conventional crop (Reiger as cited in Mills, 2006). Or, pollen from a herbicide resistant GMO may cross with a compatible weed and introduce resistance in the weed. Thus, herbicide resistant crop plants may emerge in a subsequent season and be difficult to control.

Possible approaches, or solutions to problem.

Presently, management systems such as spatial and temporal isolation zones, crop barrier rows and vegetarian barriers are used to minimize direct gene flow between crops, and to minimize seed bank and volunteer populations. Although these methods can reduce pollen dispersal, weather and environmental…… [read more]

Globalization and Food in Film Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (4,622 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10



There is no better commodity to discuss than chocolate, when looking at the globalization of food. Food can tell the most astounding stories as well as create a sense of identity for and entire culture. In the film Chocolat, through American eyes, is an example of the changes that can be symbolized by the power of a single food… [read more]

Decline of the American Diet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,127 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Decline of the American Diet

Food Nation (summary) - Schlosser for Author Schlosser

Food Revolution (summary) - Robbins for Author Robbins

Engineered Food (summary) Teitel / Wilson for Authors Teitel / Wilson


Abstract chose these three books because they are among the most respected and most often referenced titles about food and its interrelationship with our culture in libraries… [read more]

Public Health in the Development of Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Public Health

In the development of food safety and security during the 20th century, several elements of public health infrastructure played a role. This role was so well fulfilled that food safety and security in the United States is at a level today where assessment of problems and related planning can be carried out from a solid basis of public health infrastructure. Specifically, the most important components of this infrastructure include scientific research, sharing findings with other professionals and the public, public awareness, and government legislation.

Scientific research played a large role especially during the beginning of the century, when the food industry was rife with unsanitary practices. These practices pervaded the industry both in uncleanly dealings with the animals used in food preparation, and in the practices of the persons working with these foods. Hand washing for example became common practice only when scientific research proved it to be necessary (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report., 1999). When research has been conducted, it is essential that findings be published in order to enhance public awareness. These three components work together to ensure public health and…… [read more]

Cuisine This Paper Examines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,117 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Maize, or "corn," a staple of life in both Central and South America, also played a major religious and ritual role in the lives of these ancient peoples. To this day, it still has an important ritualistic role. It is a really difficult task to do an inventory of all the cultivated and consumed vegetable products in ancient Peru. Modern world recognizes that approximately 60% of the vegetables consumed today all over the world are native from this part of the earth. That is, adapted, domesticated, acclimatized and even hybridized by our ancient cultures. The most important products in the Tawantinsuyo's daily diet were the " Sara" - Maize or Corn- (Zea Mays) and " Papa" - Potato- (Solanum tuberosum). Maize in its primitive form began being cultivated over here since the year 6,275 B.C. (Verified by Earle Smith Jr., N.Y. 1980, based in some samples gathered in the "Guitarrero" cave, Ancash) (Jenks 5), while that in Mexico (samples of the "El Riego" cave, Tehuacan) since the year 5,200 B.C. approximately.

Characteristic Ingredients, Seasoning, Styles and Cooking Procedures for South America

Beans appear on the table daily in many forms and colors. Some consider the black bean (feijao preto) to be the preferred national bean. It is not uncommon, however, to find dried red beans, blonde beans, brown beans, and pink beans plus black-eyed peas, chick peas, and others in the markets. Coconut is an important ingredient throughout the country, it is used in soups, cocktails, poultry, fish, and shellfish recipes, as well as desserts and sweets. Various forms are utilized: unripe green coconuts (cUco verde); ripe yellow or brown coconuts (cUco amarelo); the soft, almost buttery textured. Lemons in Brazil the fruit is green, small and quite tart, more like our lime as is specified in most recipes here. Rice, Brazilian style (arroz brasileiro or arroz simples) Long grained rice briefly sauteed in garlic and oil before the addition of boiling water. In addition to garlic, some Brazilian cooks add small amounts of onion, diced tomato, or sliced black olive for additional flavor. Properly done, each grain is fluffy and separate from others.


This paper examined the cuisine of South America from the perspective of different elements that make the food unique to the region. This paper asked that one examine and investigate the cuisine history taking into consideration the following elements and distinctions: (1) The influence of geographical location on the cuisine, (2) Historically the groups or nations that have impact upon South American cuisine, (3) Practical and social rituals associated with the cuisine and (4) characteristic and unique ingredients, styles of seasoning, preparation processes and cooking procedures found in South American cooking. Upon investigation of these elements one hopes to gain a better appreciation of the cuisine and what attributes make it unique to the region, contributing to cultural identity.

Works Cited

Cuisine of Argentina and Chile. 31 Oct. 2005
Fox, R. Food and Eating: An Anthropological Perspective. 30 Oct. 2005

Jenks, K. LATIN… [read more]

Personal Chefs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (828 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Warehouse stores tend to offer produce and meats that are higher quality and more affordable than grocery stores.


Warehouse stores are much more affordable for items purchased in bulk, such as certain spices, butter, or cheeses.


The major drawback of a warehouse store is a lack of variety.


Grocery stores


Grocery stores provide the most variety for a personal chef.


Drawbacks to grocery stores


Produce may not be as fresh as other locations, such as warehouse stores or specialty markets.


Certain ingredients may be unavailable at the grocery store.


Grocery stores may be more expensive than warehouse stores.


Specialty markets




Provide more selection in certain areas than grocery or specialty stores.


Can cater more specifically to a client's wants or needs.




More expensive than larger, less-specialized stores.


Most personal chefs are going to end up purchasing their ingredients from a variety of locations. For example, a meal may be prepared using meat from a warehouse store, pasta from a grocery store, and fresh produce from a local farmer's market.

How do you set a budget being a personal chef?


Consult with the client.


Find out what the client is willing to pay for ingredients, and what types of meals they are requesting for those costs.


Determine whether or not the client's cost expectations are realistic. If not, show the client the actual cost of ingredients.


Profits are made on services provided, not by making a profit on ingredients.

What is the pay range in being a personal chef?

A. Starting salaries appear to be just over minimum wage.

1. Possible entry-level positions for personal chefs include:


Food preparation for people in assisted living residences.


Working with companies that provide other in-home services, such as housekeeping.

B. There is no real upper-limit to a personal chef's pay range.

1. Depending on what a chef does, and the targeted clientele, a chef can easily make upwards of $30/hour.

2. Experienced personal chefs can command several hundred dollars per hour.

Works Referenced

Anderson, Carol. "Carlin had a high-paying job- but she wanted to have a life!"

Personal Chef Magazine. Jul. 2005. United States Personal Chef

Association Website. 13 Aug. 2005 .

"Training and Education." United States Personal Chef Association Website. 2005. United

States Personal Chef Association. 13 Aug. 2005 .

"What is a Personal Chef?" United States Personal…… [read more]

Genetically Modified or Altered (GM) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


) If GM plants got out of control like some of these other non-native species, then it could be difficult if not impossible to control them, and we could have bigger troubles with farming, the environment, and growing enough food to feed the world than we do now.

Many people also worry about gene transfer between plants, creating contaminated crops in other areas when the plant spreads pollen or seeds. Studies have shown that this does indeed occur, and could be a large concern with GM plants (Pickrell). Another real risk is how quickly genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. One critic writes, "Genetically modified food, however, has been brought full-tilt into the marketplace in a remarkably short time" (Teitel 40). This could be the biggest risk - lack of testing to verify all the effects genetically modified foods and crops have on the population and the environment.

Actually, one of the arguments for GM crops is the work resembles plant breeding. It seems there is little difference between GM crops and traditional plant breeding. This breeding seems a bit like what Gregor Mendel did with his peas during the Renaissance. Scientists and botanists are always trying to develop new and better plants. It seems that while critics are vocal about GM crops, these crops are not that different from the same kind of plant breeding we have known and accepted for centuries. However, some of the most legendary failures of genetic engineering also point to the differences between nature and man. Critic Teitel continues, "Genes for the color red placed into petunia flowers not only changed the color of the petals but also decreased fertility and altered the growth of the roots and leaves. Salmon genetically engineered with a growth hormone gene not only grew too big too fast but also turned green" (Teitel 40). That is one reason studies still need to occur, because man is speeding up what nature does gradually, and that may be the biggest difference between GM crops and natural plant breeding.


Author not Available. "GM Food." University of California, Berkeley. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood/

Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/

Pickrell, John. "GM Organisms: Instant Expert." NewScientist.com. 13 Dec. 2004. 18 July 2005. http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35

Teitel, Martin. "Unsafe at Any Seed?" Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.3 (2000): 40.

Vergnes, Bernard. "How Safe is Genetically Modified Food? Principal Conclusions of the Oecd Edinburgh Conference on the Scientific and Health Aspects of Genetically Modified Foods, 28 February - 1 March 2000." OECD Observer a.221/222…… [read more]

European Union Safety Legislation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,969 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


European Union Safety Legislation and Its Effect on Marketing

In the past few years, it has become notable to citizens, policy makers and government officials that safety legislation enacted in the European Union (EU) has significantly impacted the manner and method in which companies market their products.

One of the most dramatically affected products involves the use of genetically modified… [read more]

Military Food Research on the Food Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,493 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … military food research on the food industry has emerged in recent years as a topic of growing significance and importance to citizens, scientists and government officials alike.

Military research on food has had a significant impact on the food industry, mainly because military research in this area often consists of food preservation, nutrition and performance enhancements. All of… [read more]

Engineered Crops the Rapid Advancements in Genomic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Engineered Crops

The rapid advancements in genomic science have created new possibilities in the fields of agriculture and in the treatment and management of diseases. The biotech revolution characterized by genetically engineered food products is regarded as a boon to the human society, a life saving solution to manage the food crisis of our globe. The farming community were promised economic benefits by way of increased yield and decreased expenses on pest and fertilizer. Bio engineered food products, thus were destined to turn the scarcity into surplus, and become the new agricultural way of the 21st century. However, as with every human effort to dabble with nature, bio engineered food crops are not without environmental hazards. Let us briefly discuss GM farming and analyze the problems associated with the use of genetically modified food crops by a study of some recent scientific articles, which espouse this viewpoint.

GM Food Crops

Altering specific sequences of DNA allows plants to develop resistance to pesticides, resulting in increased yield. Using genetic engineering methods such as electroporation, gene gun, gene silencing and vector mediated transfer, scientists are now able to insert a new gene or control the expression of an already present gene in a plant. [UCS] in a special report from the 'New scientist' the author discusses some of the possibilities of applying genomic science into farming practices. Using these biotech processes scientists have created disease and herbicide resistant crops promising huge increase in productivity. The result of this biotech revolution was amazing. Vitamin boosted rice, Onions without tears, potatoes enriched with proteins, Soya built resistant to pesticides, and even caffeine free coffee became a reality and bio-engineered products offered endless possibilities. [John Pickrell] While there is no doubt that this initial success was enthralling it transpired pretty soon that genetic modification of plants had unforeseen environmental consequences, which are discussed in the other articles under study.

Environmental Impact (the Problem of Super weeds) recent article form the 'New Scientist' discusses the initial economic benefits as well as the later environmental impact. The United States and Argentina are two nations that ventured into GM farming in the later half of the nineties. Almost a decade into GM farming, the environmental impact of the same began to be studied with all seriousness. Recent studies conducted in these nations have revealed severe environmental consequences. For Argentina, a nation swirling under a deep economic crisis, GM cropping offered a new ray of hope. In the late nineties almost half of the nations arable land (11.6 million hectares) was used to for the cultivation of GM Soya (Roundup Ready Soya from Montana). The farmers stood to benefit from the initial promise of high productivity (which reached 173%) and lowered use of pesticides. The fact that the GM Soya was designed to be resistant to glyphosate (reportedly a least toxic pesticide) was an encouraging factor and even contributed to a great reduction in the use of other pesticides. [Branford, Sue]

However the initial boost was not… [read more]

People at Work Supermarket Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,352 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In a car production plant the floor manager is the person who controls the apparent chaos. There is incessant noise and activity and the factory floor seems like total mayhem, or a scene from Dante's Inferno. There are great leaping sparks from the ark welding machines and electrical equipment. There is also a great deal of shouting - but this is necessary to communicate above the noise. The cars on the assembly line are lined up in the hangar-size building with dozens of mechanics and technicians moving about like ants, running between the shining metal bodies. Control of this 'organized' chaos is tightly kept by the foreman with his white clipboard in hand. He wonders with an authoritative air between the working men and checks on their progress. There is an air of professionalism throughout the factory with everyone attentive to their relevant roles and working at their assigned tasks. From above the senior staff and management look down on the melee below but are mostly glued to computer screens like superior beings who have larger issues to deal with than to pay attention to the scurrying beings below.

5. Car wash

There are various types of car washes. The two main types are touchless or cloth-friction washes. The touchless type depends on powered jets of water and detergents while the cloth friction wash has a more hands-on approach. There is also another type of car wash which is simple and completely hands-on. This is the small car wash run to by three to four people with their only equipment consisting of a few buckets, a hose and lots of cloths and detergents. This form of car wash is certainly labor intensive with no automization. The workers have a sequence of tasks - one cleans the inside of the car while the others wash down the outside. There is a sense of fun and enjoyment as I watch them go about their tasks. They talk incessantly and laugh when the water hose accidentally sprays them. They certainly would not make a fortune and would probably have to upgrade their business to really make a decent profit. However, this does not seem to bother them in the least and the cars were lining up. What is noteworthy is that these workers display a healthy amount of pride and enjoyment in their work.

6. Pizza Parlor

One aspect that strikes one immediately about the inside of a pizza parlor is the pleasant aroma and heat that permeates from the open kiln. The parlor is centered around a large open pizza oven. The manger and chef arrive at work very early in the morning. In preparing for the day ahead the chef proceeds to clean the kitchen and mop the floor. He probably does not have to do this but it has become a sort of ritual for him that starts the day. He then proceeds to the most important preparation of the day - making the dough that will be used to… [read more]

Technology Green Revolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Technology is Necessary in Farming, but with Socio-Political Change Too

The world's hunger problem is by far the most exasperating problem we as a human race face. There simply are no simple solutions. In textbook examples of economic theory rearing its ugly and callous head, any artificial "solution" to the world's hunger problem that runs contrary to efficiency models eventually fails and falls flat on its face.

Much hope was placed in the so-called "Green Revolution." This revolution involved not guns and political overthrows, but a concerted infusion of technology and chemicals into agriculture on a global level. (Rosset, 1) The idea behind the revolution was to combat the problem of poverty by drastically increasing the supply of food worldwide.

Unfortunately, that is all that has happened everywhere in the world except in China. (ibid) The supply of food, especially, for instance, basics like grain, has risen astronomically, but the food simply is not finding its way into the poor and hungry's mouths.

Much has been made of the failure of the Green Revolution, but in reality, it was not given a chance to work. The issue of China speaks directly to this failure and the reason for the failure. Hunger has been cut in China by a shocking 75% (Rossett, 5) and experts are racing to discover exactly how this happened. China implemented the Green Revolution, too, but it coincided with an actual Revolution: The assumption among academics, then, is that some combination of technology and chemicals in agriculture and actual socio-economic and political change resulted in a drastic reduction in the hunger levels.

This model needs to be plumbed in other situations and…… [read more]

Scientific and Political Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (7,088 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The companies that produce them, such as the United States, want to make a profit on them because they have put a lot of resources into making them. It is these poorer countries, who might benefit most from the technology, which most likely would not be able to afford to buy the seeds. In 2003, countries that grew 99% of… [read more]

Eric Schlosser's Book "Fast Food Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,079 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


On the other hand, one cannot help while going through the book to be impressed by the size of Mr. Schlosser's research and documentation. From the historical background of the industry (which we may assume could have been easier researched), the author moves on to describe some of the recipe backgrounds. Revelatory in this sense is the reference to the way French fries are made and why they taste so good, what artificial flavoring is all about and what happens at the meatpacking plants. One cannot help, when reading the book, feeling that the author uncovers almost any aspect related to the industry one may think off. At the end of the book, you may simply believe that you have full knowledge of all the underlying things related to the fast food industry.

Another positive aspect which should be mentioned is the fact that the author is not vehement in his discourse. Of course he is furious at the obesity rates in the country, at the underpaid teenagers, the unsanitary conditions in which the meat is packed and the animals are killed, the artificial flavoring which make eating a chemical activity, but you never have the impression while reading the book that he leaves his subject of interest for any moment in order to add some personal opinions and impressions. His anger is felt throughout the book, but only tacitly and slightly through his subjectivism which I have already previously discussed. In this sense, although he feels the need to point out negative aspects in the industry, as a paradox, he does so in an impersonal manner.

As another positive aspect, we should mention the style in which he writes his findings. "Part essayist, part investigative journalist"

, his book is neither a strict investigative story, nor a prose or an essay. The fact that he is able to use both style when the text or the situation requires it is another merit for the book.

As an overall appreciation, although at times subjective and insisting on negative aspects, the book gains a lot through its style and, especially through the size of the investigative work.


1. Kakutani, Michiko. BOOKS OF THE TIMES; Hold the Pickles, Hold the Lettuce. New York Times. January 2001. On the Internet at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E2DD113FF933A05752C0A9679C8B63

2. Review on Amazon, at http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0395977894/104-8012339-9563948?v=glance

3. The Bitter Truth About Fast Food. The Guardian. 2001. On the Internet at http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/press/mcds/theguardian0704011.html

Kakutani, Michiko. BOOKS OF THE TIMES; Hold the Pickles, Hold the Lettuce. New York Times. January 2001. On the Internet at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E2DD113FF933A05752C0A9679C8B63

Review on Amazon, at http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0395977894/104-8012339-9563948?v=glance

Kakutani, Michiko. BOOKS OF THE TIMES; Hold the Pickles, Hold the Lettuce. New York Times. January 2001. On the Internet at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E2DD113FF933A05752C0A9679C8B63

The Washington Post. On the Internet at http://www.mcspotlight.org/media/books/schlosser.html… [read more]

Organic Agriculture, Gardening and Retail Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bioengineered products also are known to cause the naturally grown products to become sterile upon contact with the bioengineered imposter crops.

5. Support of local food is support of local farmers and their families: It is important that the farmers who are farming as their main occupation are supported in the community through patronization of the produce stand of the… [read more]

Technology Food Processing in History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,807 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Food was packed around the box inside the car. The bottom of the box had a hole in it to allow the water to drain as the ice melted.

However, ice was always in demand, and in some warmer years, there were actually ice famines, and so, relying on ice alone was not the best way to preserve foods. Many… [read more]

National Pork Producers Council Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Agriculture: National Pork Producers Council

There are a number of councils that are responsible for the food that the public consumes. It is important to look at the National Pork Producers Council and determine its history, responsibilities, current issues it is addressing and how it affects legislation.

The National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) was established to "conduct public policy outreach on behalf of its 44 affiliated state association member - enhancing opportunities for the success of U.S. pork producers and other industry stakeholders by establishing the U.S. pork industry as a consistent and responsible supplier of high quality pork to the domestic and world market (www.nppc.org/)."

Food Safety Responsibilities

The NCCP stresses that "food safety is the pork industry's number one priority and federal and state meat inspection systems are the key part of ensuring safe food.

The U.S. pork industry is among the most regulated industries in the nation (www.nppc.org/)." The NPPC has implemented a program which addresses "pork quality issues through education and communication of factors affecting pork quality and ways to deal with these factors throughout the pork chain (unknown, 1999)."

The Food Safety Group (FSG) "promotes research that focuses on the microbial ecology of foods, detection methods, and the control of foodborne pathogens to prevent foodborne disease (www.foodscience.psu.edu/Research/fdsafety.html)." The NPPC has provided funding to the FSG to research "the effects of chilling methods for bacterial recovery and reducing bacteria on pork carcasses, optimization of electrolyzed oxidizing water and comparison with other microbial compounds to reduce pathogens on fresh or further processed pork products, effects of commercial chilling methods for reducing bacteria on pork carcasses and microbial profile of overhead surfaces and condensate in pork processing plants (www.foodscience.psu.edu/Research/fdsafety.html)."

Affecting Legislation

The NPPC strives to help its members to…… [read more]

Genetically Modified Crops Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


With the world's rapidly expanding population, having adequate land to grow enough food to feed everyone is a major issue. Because GM crops hold the key to enabling farmers to produce better crops at a faster pace, it is possible that GM crops may be a huge part of the solution to world hunger.

In addition, GM crops can be richer in vitamins and nutrients. This is particularly important in areas of the world that lack sufficient food supply. For example, rice is the main crop for people in many third world countries (Sample, 2003). GM golden rice has genes added so that people can get enough Vitamin A to prevent more than 5000,000 cases of blindness per year.

In conclusion, the GM crop industry has a variety of challenges to overcome before it can gain widespread support from around the world (Reuters, 2000). If it can overcome these challenges, while disproving adverse health and environmental concerns, it can provide unprecedented benefits to farmers and consumers around the world in a variety of ways, while reducing the need to use harmful chemicals or scarce water supplies for agriculture. In this light, GM crops cannot be ignored or outlawed, as they hold so many wonderful possibilities for the future.


Dibb, Susan. Mayer, Sue. (April, 2000). Biotech - The next generation: Good for whose health? The Food Commission (UK) Ltd. And GeneWatch UK. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.foodcomm.org.uk/biotech_summary.htm.

Reuters News Service. (July 6, 2000). GM Crops Safe, Offer Consumer Benefits. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/7361/newsDate/06-Jul-2000/story.htm.

Sakko, Kerryn. (May, 2002). The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Sample, Ian. (June 3, 2003). GM crops. The Guardian.

Sample, Ian. (May 21, 2001). Breakthrough may bring life to barren earth. The Guardian.

SCOPE Research Group. (2004). GM Food: Controversies Surrounding the Risks and Benefits of Genetically Modified Food. UC Berkeley, UW, AAAS. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood/.…… [read more]

Industrial Revolution: Result Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,049 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In his famous doctoral thesis The Division of Labor in Society (1893) Durheim examines the forces that hold societies together and calls the force, 'solidarity." Durkheim theorizes that primitive societies that are characterized by a simple division of labor and a homogenous population (the pre-Industrial age societies) are held together by "Mechanical Solidarity." On the other hand, societies with a high division of labor or increased specialization (i.e., modern societies) are held together by "Organic Solidarity." In his view, the division of labor had made workers more alien to one another and yet, paradoxically, they were more dependent upon one another because no single worker in the age of "specialization" could hope to build a product by himself. Durkheim thought that the alienated workers of the modern age would feel less alienated if he knew that they were part of the whole and their individual actions were contributing to the accomplishment of a common goal. (Jones, 1986, pp. 35-36)


As we saw in this essay, the 18th century Industrial Revolution in Britain is undoubtedly one of the defining moments in human history. Its effects have been all pervasive and are still being felt in different parts of the earth. Although there were a number of causes behind the Industrial Revolution, most historians are in agreement that the Agriculture Revolution which occurred concurrently in Britain helped to trigger and sustain it. The Industrial Revolution also led to far-reaching and significant social changes that shook the very fabric of the societies in which it occurred. Understandably, leading philosophers of the time such as Karl Marx and Emile Durheim were influenced by its consequences and have tried to come to grips with them in their works.


Ashton, T.S. (1997). The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Four Field System." (2004) Open Door Website. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/003f.html

Jones, R.A. (1986) Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to Four Major Works. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. (1894) "The Communist Manifesto." The Project Gutenberg Etext. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext93/manif12.txt

Overton, Mark. (2002). "Agricultural Revolution in England 1500-1850." BBC History Homepage. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/industrialisation/agricultural_revolution_01.shtml

The Seed Drill." (2004). Open Door Website. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/004f.html

The 'Neolithic Revolution' occurred 10~12,000 years ago when people moved from social systems based on hunting and gathering to more complex communities dependent on agriculture and the domestication of animals

The premise is that the technological innovations of the 18th century alone would not have been enough to start the Industrial Revolution if sufficient labor had not been available for running the factories in the urban cities.

There is some controversy about the role of Townshend in improving agriculture; some feel that his role has been exaggerated. Nevertheless, there is little doubt that crop rotation (even if Townshend did not introduce it) played a major role in improving agrarian output in the 18th century.

Due to selling of land by… [read more]

Food Nation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


It is this coziness that Schlosser blames for the worst aspects of the industry. Yet, I find it difficult to believe that the Democrats would make matters much better. This type of big business seems to be engrained in our communities.

A number of laws are being considered regarding the food system. These include food safety law regulations; fast-food obesity litigation and product liability in the food industry; bioterrorism concerns for food safety since 9/11; and the food safety concerns in the global food market and how these translate into legal issues effecting international trade, labeling, and the development of international food safety standards. Whether these regulations will get anywhere regardless of who is elected in November is unknown. Changes take time in the United States, and elections come every two to four years.

In the meantime, I believe that a number of other measures should be seriously considered, such as having fast-food restaurants government funding based on the "actual" training provided. Employees can be given skill tests, with an objective viewer present, to ensure that training has been provided with desired results. City and state health boards have to be much more accountable, so that chicken and meat processing factories are significantly improved. Likewise, there should be more stringent food regulations to ensure that people eat something else besides fat, salt and chemicals. Also, more police need to be put in high-crime areas with fast-food restaurants to protect both the customers and help. Further, individuals in the social services and legal fields need to provide guidance to those workers who do not have unions or other support systems.

After all the gloom and doom, Schlosser ends his book on a positive note. He believes that the saturation of the marketplace will severely curtail the power of the fast- food barons. In fact, 2000 was the first year when the food industry gained no new customers. "A two per cent decline in sales is enough to send stock prices spiraling downward," notes the author. "The glory days of the major chains seem to be over." Time -- and the amount of cravings…… [read more]

Food History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Maize, or corn, is associated with the indigenous cultures of the Americas. Following contact with the Europeans, the crop's place in society dramatically changed.


Maize/corn was viewed as a sacred commodity, one which symbolized a connection with the divine universe. Civilizations like the Mayas created a variety of myths and tales that included maize, including creation stories. The cultivation of maize was considered to be a sacred act, as the grain was viewed as a divine gift (Morales). In some creation tales, maize is known as the "ideal human flesh," (Salvador).


Prior to European contact, corn and other crops were grown without help from animal labor (Salvador). Following contact and colonialism, corn and other crops were cultivated with the help of labor animals and later, with the help of machinery and other industrial and mechanical tools. By growing corn systematically, the Spaniards altered the role that maize played in the global economy. Corn rapidly became a commodity and following the Industrial Revolution, the crop became a viable cash crop. Currently, corn is the third most planted field crop after wheat and rice, and is also grown as animal feed (Salvador).


European conquest, especially by the Spaniards, dramatically altered the political connotations of corn/maize. In fact, the crop became a global commodity because the Spaniards found a way to make the crop economically viable. Corn grown in the Americas was shipped to Europe, which bolstered the Spanish economy in particular. In modern times, corn remains one of the world's greatest cash crops.

Works Cited

Morales, Juan Jose. "Corn and the Maya." Mundo Maya Online. Retrieved June 14, 2004. http://www.mayadiscovery.com/ing/history/default.htm.

Salvador, Ricardo. "Maize." The Maize Page. 1997. Retrieved June 14, 2004. http://maize.agron.iastate.edu/maizearticle.html.… [read more]

Agricultural Innovations the Middle Ages Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,334 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One of the most profound shifts that accompanied the development of cultures was the development of a system of writing. The administration of a city-state depended on writing down words and numbers which first started with keeping track of the bookings of goods for trade. But even the history of writing from the early Linear-B script to today's European system of writing is marked by deep discontinuities, where the alphabet often had to be reinvented. A significant step forward was the invention of a notation system for the vowels. The history of writing, in turn, influenced and was influenced by the way language was understood and spoken among the agricultural societies and that was responsible for the diffusion of agricultural technologies around the world (Taylor, 1986).

All of this proves one thing is that the dramatic transformation in the diffusion took place solely from technology. Even the most assertive believer would have a hard time explaining the social transformations of the Middle Ages, since these diffusions were spread around the world, without having the facilities of media and communication. The main communication medium was only oral culture. But it is the social transformations that had permanent effect in the social structures and wealth earning capabilities of the societies.

So deep were the diffusions of the agricultural techniques that before the First World War, farmers composed the largest single group in every country. They no longer made up the population everywhere, as they had from the dawn of history to the end of the Napoleonic Wars, a hundred years earlier. But farmers still made up a near-majority in every developed country except England and Belgium -- in Germany, France, Japan, the United States -- and, of course, in all underdeveloped countries, too.

And with the current transformation, these agricultural producers are not "farmers" in most senses of the word; they are "agribusiness," which is arguably the most capital-intensive, most technology-intensive, and most information-intensive industry around.

Yet these enormous transformations were accomplished without civil war and, in fact, in almost total silence.

In sum, we can affirm that the use of the agricultural technologies diffused from cultural association, wars, language, as well as the association between tribes and clans. These changes in the social structures brought further changes in the application of the agricultural technologies creating enormous wealth among the people and leading the ways for the formation of the Local communities and governance mechanisms for furthering the diffusion of the technologies across the communities.


1. Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire writes Back. Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures. London, New York 1989.

2. Duerr, Hans Peter, Dreamtime. Concerning the boundary between wilderness and civilisation. Translated by Felicitas Goodman. Oxfod: Basil Blackwell 1985

3. Eckholm, Erik, "Two greybeards race against time to preserve a culture that few people can understand." In: The Sunday Independent, Johannesburg, 16.1.2000, p.12.

4. Fabian, Johannes, Time and the Other. How Anthropology makes its Object. New York: Columbia University Press 1983.

5. Feder, Gershon… [read more]

Climate Change Impacts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,423 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Part of these changes will arise from the biological reactions and the other set will be done by the farmers and the markets. The impact in agriculture will cause heavy damages to some individual plants or animals, while causing gains to others due to the global network. For the individual plant, or in the individual field, the impact of changes… [read more]

Safety and Health Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,838 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The primary objective of carcass dressing is therefore to remove the outer skin, hair and other non-edible parts of the animal to free the meat of infections. Traditionally, carcass dressing was done with the animal laid on the floor or on a cradle. However, this is now being done with the carcass hanging by its hindlegs from an overhead rail… [read more]

Ethical Principle Fast Food Nation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The book covers some key topics such as humanity's modern ecological footprint, the problems related to genetically modified organisms, and the false economics of our present approach to globalization. The authors also offer some examples of how things might be changed for the better. Any of these subjects could take up volumes and the authors deserve credit for condensing them into a few readable chapters. They supply an excellent bibliography for those who wish to expand their knowledge on any of these topics.

The authors point out the flaw in our belief that governments will somehow intervene in events before we push nature over the edge. The sad fact is that giant international corporations are now deciding the fate of our environment and their interests are purely centered on short-term profit. These organizations are in a position to control the rules put in place by governments and they have little concern about the future of our children or our grandchildren. The key lesson is a simple one. Given the extremely complex synergies that have evolved among governments, big business and consumers, it will be absolutely necessary for the public at large, at the grassroots level, to cause backlash against the present globalization paradigm. The companies that supply inane and wasteful products will do so only as long as there are large numbers of consumers willing to buy them.

Contrary to what most believe, nature will not "get out of our way" as we continue along our destructive path; instead, she will simply crush us out of existence when we become too great of a threat to her planet.… [read more]

Small-Business Management &amp Entrepreneurship Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (7,031 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


New York City is also considering a smoking ban, but one that would mirror a stricter version that took effect in California back in 1998. The California law bans smoking in all public workplaces, including stand-alone bars. Currently in New York City, a restaurant must set aside 85% of its seating for non-smokers. If Mayor Michael Bloomberg has his way,… [read more]

Chinese' Food and the Model Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,511 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dor and Raintalyn agreed that there was also a large degree to which Chinese food was Americanized in its creation. Both commented on the absence of many traditional ingredients such as seaweed, and the degree to which American meats replaced Chinese meats or meat substitutes.

A also interviewed a couple non-Asian culturally unaware individuals. Many of them suggested that they… [read more]

Food Supply the Book Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, Lappe and Collins proved that larger populations in primitive cultures were actually more sustainable than smaller populations and that food production became more efficient under these circumstances.

The significance of Lappe and Collin's work is that in recent years, the news media has bombarded the public with more and more messages about the need to increase and improve food production and distribution techniques. The arguments of Lappe and Collins do not support this idea, but instead surmise that we need to use our land and resources more efficiently and maintain a more even food distribution system. The energy consuming manufacture of food will only lead to the need for more, whereas more efficient methods will lead to the need to supply less. Therefore, the "world hunger crisis" is not a cry for more efficient and high technology methods of production, but rather a need to use what we do have more efficiently.

The current methods of production and consumption are not sustainable in the long-term and inequalities in distribution are the key to solving hunger in many parts of the world. We only have limited resources and intensifying production and manufacturing of food only serves to feed a few wealthy persons who own most of the land. A true world food crisis does not exist, it has only been made to appear that way to a hungry American public. The work of Lappe and Collins leads us to believe that the world food crisis does not exist at all, but is rather a result of the rich trying to protect their own interests. Lappe and Collins propose ideas that could revolutionize food production and distribution system and would provide of a more equitable distribution of food for an ever-shrinking planet.

Works Cited

Lappe. Franics Moore and Joseph Collins. Food First: Beyond the Myth…… [read more]

Ethical Issues and Water Film Review

Film Review  |  2 pages (719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … film FLOW has created a better awareness about the pressing issues of water conservation and its importance to daily. The film first describes how many diseases, viruses and other health problems are spread through water. In many instances, these diseases and viruses are created through societies use of chemical and other "convenience" products. Although these products are attempting to make life easier and more enjoyable for society, they are in many instances harming society. Unfortunately, solutions to these problems have not been adopted, therefore creating two pronounced ethical issues. The first ethical issue is the excessive use of chemicals and other harmful products, which ultimately enter into our water supply, and damage society. Should limits be placed on certain pollutants of chemicals? Should companies be allowed to create products that have known destructive impacts on future generations? The second ethical issue is the overall usage of water throughout the world. With populations growing rapidly, the need for food, and the water needed to help cultivate these products are critical. The documentary FLOW describes, how in many instances, chemical and pesticides require farmers to use more water as oppose to less water, creating ethical issues regarding proper disbursement of valuable resources. Should Americans be allowed to use large amounts of water to cultivate a yard or wash a car, when so many others do not have this luxury around the world?

The latter question was particularly intriguing as when considering the large disparity between resources of many third world and developed countries. Below is a brief analysis of this issuing using the three prevailing notions of moral framework: Kant, Utilitarian, and Human Rights.





Water use and overall concentration is focused disproportionately in developed countries as oppose to third world countries. In addition, water has been verified to carry many harmful diseases and bacteria within it. This disproportionate water usage, in some instances amplifies the exchange of toxic materials throughout the world. In addition, many in the developed world use water for luxury consumption such as washing cars, when many around the world do not have enough water to survive.

This…… [read more]

Global Food Companies in Farm Animal Welfare Issues in UK Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  12 pages (3,480 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


Policies of Government and public organization in relation to farm animal welfare (Pigs, broiler chicken and laying hen)

The Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) that advices the UK legislation procedures and Assurance Standards focused on 'Five Freedoms' cognizant with animal welfare as the basis of practice to rear livestock and poultry animals in 1992. These criterions are applicable across the… [read more]

History of Fine Dining Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Dining Room Service: The History Of Fine Dining and Fine Dining Restaurants

The concept of fine dining has often been regarded a fashion, and rightfully so. Guests in fine dining restaurants are served the finest foods, which exceed every day food in terms of aesthetic appeal, taste and originality. The luxurious style of furnishing and the high quality decor used in these restaurants creates a serene atmosphere and the wait staff, usually highly trained, ensures the guests receive all they may require to make their experience memorable. According to Lane (2014), fine dining restaurants target guests who appreciate good food and are open to creative and surprising interpretations of similar ingredients. This is particularly because they revolve around often inspired, highly trained chefs, who combine the concept of food and art together to come up with classy menus. The guests have to adhere to certain rules of dining, such as a dressing code, and they usually have to make reservations a few days in advance. Although a bit more expensive than other restaurants, the extra attention to detail, fine atmosphere and classy foods makes it a worthwhile experience for the guests. This text takes a more detailed look at the history of fine dining and fine dining restaurants.

The history of fine dining and fine dining restaurants

The earliest descriptions of fine dining are found in the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer and in the Old Testament of the bible, where the status of diners was held in high regard (Culinary Institute of America, 2009). In this era, the portion of food an individual would receive was determined by his status and, therefore, the host would receive the best and largest portions. In ancient Greece, formal dining was also reserved for the wealthy in the society. Since there were no public places for dining, banquets would be held in prominent homes and servants would present guests with large dishes from where they would choose their portions. The meals were often presented in three courses (CIA, 2009). The first course consisted of fruit, sea foods and light meat dishes followed by heartier meals, such as roasted meat. Nuts, cheese, and pastries would then be served as dessert. Just like in modern day fine dining, servants in ancient Greece would take good care of the guests, often circulating warm, scented water and towels for the guests to clean their hands.

It was not until the fourteenth century, however, when food and its service was viewed as an art that had to be studied and treated with respect (CIA, 2009). This prompted Guillaume Tirel (1312-1395), a royal cook popular for his French cuisine at the time, to compile the best recipes in the middle ages in two of his books ' Menagier de Paris' and 'Le Viander'. Other writers followed suit by printing books that discussed table settings, proper manners, table etiquette and other issues related to fine dining, and by the fifteenth century, fine dining and service had become more elaborate.

In… [read more]

How to Hedge Against Price Changes Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


50 a pound. Thomas Foods has thus pre-purchased those strawberries at a fixed price, assuring that even though the cost of strawberries may go up for others, Thomas Foods knows how much it will pay. Both parties "sacrifice the possibility of getting a better price"; but then "eliminated the risk of getting a worse price" (finweb.com).

Advantages of forward contracts: a) offers a "complete hedge"; b) can be written "for any amount and term"; disadvantages of forward contracts: a) "requires tying up capital; b) "difficult to find a counterparty (no liquidity)" (UAH). Advantages of futures contracts: a) plenty of liquidity; b) easy to reverse position; and c) doesn't tie up a lot of capital; disadvantages of futures contracts: a) is only a "partial hedge"; and b) subject to risk, as bond issuer can default (UAH). Advantages of options: a) limits possibly losses but doesn't limit possible gains; b) does not tie up large amounts of capital; and c) positions can be reversed; disadvantages of options: a) very little liquidity; b) written for fixed amounts; c) subject to "basis risk"; and d) is only a "partial hedge" (UAH).

Conclusion: Recommendation for Thomas Foods -- Futures Contracts

The "spot market" is where the delivery of product / assets (to Thomas Foods, for example) takes place immediately; but the "futures market" is based on "expectations" of future prices (investinganswers.com). So, for example, in October Thomas Foods purchases six potato futures contracts (1,000 bushels per contract) at $6.14 a bushel, for delivery in April. But in April potatoes are selling for $6.02 a bushel on the spot market, so Thomas Foods could sell its futures contracts and simply buy potatoes on the spot market, saving $1,040 (Zsidisin, 2012), a savings it could pass along to its grocery store owners.

Works Cited

Financial Web. (2012). Forward and Futures Contracts -- Part 1: Forward Contracts.

Retrieved August 3, 2014, from http://www.finweb.com.

Investing Answers. (2011). Spot Market. Retrieved August 3, 2014, from http://www.investinganswers.com.

Investopedia.com. (2011). Futures / Definition of 'Futures' Retrieved August 3, 2014, from http://www.investopedia.com.

Investorplace.com. (2011). What are Options? Options Trading Basics. Retrieved August 3,

2014, from http://www.investorplace.com.

University of Alabama at Huntsville. (2009). Advantages and Disadvantages of Various

Hedges. Retrieved August 3, 2014, from http://www.cba.uah.edu.

Zsidisin, G.A. (2012). Managing Commodity Price Risk: A Supply Chain Perspective.

Various Locations for ebooks: Business Expert Press… [read more]

African Restaurants Outline Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Garner his insight about why now is seeing the arrival of rich, authentic African cuisine in this part of New York.

V. African Restaurant Week

A. This is a good time to go into the publicity that African cuisine is drawing in the area with events such as New York African Restaurant Week. One of the key aspects to emphasize in this part of the article is how there is a dedicated effort on the part of those who sponsor and participate in these events and the growing trend towards African cuisine in New York to propagate a "social conscious mission to bring greater awareness to issues that impact people of the African Diaspora" (Ebony). This fact should be a motif throughout the article; discuss it with all people interviewed for the piece including "event producers A Taste of Africa" (Harris).

VI. Case Study: Restaurant Owners at Buka, Tolani, and Lalibela

A. Discuss the aforementioned motif with each of these owners, ask them about a sense of community among restaurateurs and the residents of Harlem in general, see how community contributes to the restaurant movement.

VII. Marketing

A. Discuss with various PR personnel the unique attributes for marketing African restaurants, as well as restaurants in general, in this part of the city. Tie these results into the motif of the paper.

VIII. Case Study: Eritrean Restaurateur

A. End the article by discussing the prospects for a fledgling African restaurant owner, the woman identified in the instructions. Explain how the previously uncovered information will hurt or help her chances.

Works Cited

Ebony. "African Restaurant Week Storms New York City." www.ebony.com. 2014. Web. http://www.ebony.com/life/african-restaurant-week-storms-new-york-city-323#axzz35nkQz6Wn

Harris, Kysha. "New York African Restaurant Week." New York Amsterdam News. 2014. Web. http://amsterdamnews.com/news/2014/apr/24/new-york-african-restaurant-week/… [read more]

African Restaurants NYC Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (703 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


African Restaurants

New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies descend on food courts in subterranean malls in Queens, Russian bakeries in Brooklyn and ethnic food trucks pretty much anywhere. But for being a cosmopolitan city, with such cosmopolitan tastes, there is surprisingly little attention paid to the diversity of African food. The continent is rich in food tradition, and increasingly we are seeing these traditions manifest in the five boroughs. Several openings the past few years have dramatically altered the African dining scene in New York and this development is very much worth of coverage.

Some of the show-stoppers include Accra (opened 2013, West African), Les Ambassades (2012, West African), Tolani (2010, South African), Lalibela (2012, Ethiopian), Ponty Bistro (2012, Maghrebi), Farafina Cafe (2013, African fusion) and Le Souk Harem (2010, Maghrebi). Harlem has become an epicenter for this revival of African food in the city. Indeed, the number of African restaurants has been growing steadily over the past few years, in part due to an influx of immigrants but also due to events like the African Restaurant Week that draw curious New Yorkers to the events to sample these unique cuisines. Some restaurants, like Tolani with its South African cuisine and wines, have a strong mainstream crossover appeal, while classics like Buka have a menu heavy on the traditional and exotic.

What I want to determine in this story is what is driving this trend towards African restaurants. There has been an increase in high quality African restaurants in the city for these past few years -- where before there were only a handful there are now 2 or 3 opening each year. The fact that so many are clustered in Harlem is particularly interesting, especially in light of the broader Harlem renaissance and other quality dining establishments opening in the neighborhood (Red Rooster, etc.). I want to talk to the restaurateurs behind this African restaurant revival to get their stories, because these are sophisticated restaurants, not just mom-and-pop joints in…… [read more]

Viability of Coconut Production and Trade Dissertation

Dissertation  |  33 pages (9,960 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Viability of Coconut Production and Trade in the Philippines


Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

Many decades past, the Philippine economy was largely dependent on agriculture

(Albert 2013). It gradually became less and less dependent from a third at 29.7% in 1946 to only 11.1% in 2012. The 2011 Gross Regional Domestic Product reported that Central Luzon… [read more]

Option Valuation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


However, the January 2015 put is experiencing increases in the theta and vega with more time. Yet; the delta, vega and the rho are showing negative correlations. This is because the price of the stock is below the strike. ("Whole Foods Markets," 2014) (Lowell, 2009) (Johnson, 2009)

Go to Yahoo! Finance and look up the actual market prices (premiums) for these two calls (please indicate the date and time of the quotes in your answer). Explain why you believe the calculated price may not be the same as the actual market price.

The time and date for these options were taken on April 4, 2014 at the market's closing values. The August 2014 calls are trading at a price of $4.90. While the January 2015 puts are selling for $4.60. The biggest differences in the price, were from the call option trading above the strike. This is because it is worth something and the expiration date is sooner. However, what make the puts so much more, are the greater amounts of time until expiration. This means that there is more time to allow the option to decrease in value. ("Whole Foods Markets," 2014)

Based upon your research, take a position in Whole Foods -- either bullish or bearish and explain how you would act on your opinion in the market, What would you buy or sell and why; what might your potential profit and loss be (specific numbers are required); why is your choice the best choice for capitalizing on your opinion.

The best choice is to take a straddle position at the $51.00 strike price. This is because the options are trading mid range between the 52-week highs and lows. In the past year, the company has experienced slower increases in their earnings. However, analysts are expecting this to improve within the next two years. If a straddle position is taken, there is the possibility of benefiting from the large up or the downward movements. The only challenge, will be selecting a timeframe long enough to ensure this occurs. (Lowell, 2009) (Johnson, 2009)


Binomial Options Calculator. (2014). Waikato. Retrieved from: http://www.management.waikato.ac.nz/kurt/frontpage/studentwork/danielchainov2003/bitree2.htm

Black Scholes Calculator. (2014). My Stock Options. Retrieved from: http://www.mystockoptions.com/bs2.cfm?ticker=&s=51.10&x=50&t=0.6&r=.05%25&v=25%25&calculat e=Calculate

Monte Carlo Options Calculator. (2014). Volatility Trading. Retrieved from: http://www.volatilitytrading.net/monte_carlo_option_calculator.htm

Option Pricer. (2014). Kluge. Retrieved from: http://kluge.in-chemnitz.de/tools/pricer/heston_price.php?filled=1&T=0.7&strike=50.00&barrier_down=&barrier_up=&rd=1.0005&rf=1.0375&spot=123.4&sigma_0=0.1197&sigma_a=0.108977&kappa=1.98937&xi=0.33147&rho=0.0258519&n_s=50&n_v=15&n_t=20

Whole Foods Markets. (2014). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/op?s=WFM&m=2015- 01

Johnson, B. (2001). Options Trading 101. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Lowell, L. (2009). Get Rich with Options. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.… [read more]

Fine Dining: Cafe Pinot Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,750 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Today's organizations need to manage continuous improvements and breakthroughs in quality that meet customer requirements and expectations" (Pun, 2001). From everything that this restaurant has showcased, they understand these elements all too well. Thus, it became more and more important for the restaurant to demonstrate a certain element of cohesiveness to their overall service technique and appearance. The waiters were essentially the living ambassadors of the restaurant and they were the ones who helped to sell its image: they all spoke French and the bulk of them looked French. The restaurant owners were also reported to have given them a course in 1920s slang. All the waiters used expressions in both English and French from the 1920s. This allowed the average patron to feel as though they really were participating in the special time in Paris decades ago.

This was furthered by the fact that in the waiting-room one could look through old magazine in both French and in English that were from the 1920s. All of the glasses and plate were actually slightly smaller to be more representative of the dishware that was actually used in the era. Finally, the bathrooms were not only clean, but music from the 1920s played in them, and there was vintage wallpaper to reflect the times, along with linen towels and other such items to make the average patron feel as though they were having a truly epic experience that made them feel special and riddled with authenticity.

References…… [read more]

Baderman Island: An Evaluation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Baderman Island: An Evaluation

The Baderman Island is a luxurious destination for business travelers and tourists and is a self-contained island which offers up several different hotels along with an array of different restaurants and leisure activities. The hotel offers a wealth of things to do, all the hwile surrounded by a gorgeous vista of unparalleled beauty. One of the more remarkable aspects of the resort is that it is able to accommodate for larger parties. In fact, this report looks at the impact that the recent convention had on different aspects of the hospitality business segment of the Island, including the food and beverage arenas, events and recreation, along with the lodging and facilities of the Baderman Island Resort.

Of the 800 people who arrived on the island for the convention, there were 700 rooms requested. These rooms were requested Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday. It makes sense that only 700 rooms were requested when there were 800 people, because some individuals were no doubt travelling together and would only need one room. However, of the 800 people arriving for the convention, approximately one hundred of them were travelling with children. This meant that the hotel had to supply for 150 children that would be coming to the island. Thus, each restaurant needed to have a kids menu that could be expanded upon and updated. The food supplier for each restaurant needed to have more supplies of some of the frozen staples that were necessary for a higher influx of children on the island such as varieties of milk and juice, along with certain frozen finger foods like French Fries and fish sticks. More food and beverage supplies had to be ordered in general: to meet the needs of the influx of adults along with the needs of the influx of children coming to the island. For instance, for the adults, there needed to be an influx of beer, wine and hard alcohol: twice the regular supply had to be ordered for this particular…… [read more]

History of Thailand Cuisine Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Pepper, salt and the process of fermenting fish is the method used in seasoning dishes in Thailand. An addition to Thai cuisine is the use of soy sauces that originates from China. The sauce use is extensively in meat fries and vegetables.

Rice as a staple part of the cuisine in Thailand relates to most regions in Asia. Jasmine rice is a brand from Thailand; the long grained variety is popular in the country. Rice is steamed and then served with various dishes. These dishes accompany curies and stir-fries. Currie mixed on the steaming rice creates a meal. Sticky rice has a unique quality in the sense that when it is cooked it provides a sticky texture. Sticky rice is a stable variety of rice grown by people of the northeastern region. Various herbs and spices complement Thai cuisine in the Nation (Isaacs 413-136). Spices provide various aroma and tastes, which make soup perfect. One can use chilies, turmeric, lime, garlic and Thai basils. There are five varieties of chilies used in Thai cuisine. Spices are either in vegetative, tubers or as leaves (Mishra 22). Thai cuisine is not complete if fruits are not part of the diet. Fruits vary from papaya, pineapples, grapes jackfruit and langsat.

Works Cited

Civitello, Linda. Cuisine and culture: A history of food and people.Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons. 2011. Print

Mishra, Patit Paban. The history of Thailand. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood. 2010. Print.

Isaacs, Bronwyn, et al. "Competition, adaptation and mutation Fresh market and supermarket conventions in Thailand." Journal of Sociology 46.4 (2010): 413-436. Print

Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne. A History of Food. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Print

Counihan, Carole, M., and Esterik Van, Penny eds. Food and culture: A reader. New York, N.Y: Routledge. 2013. Print

Horng, Jeou-Shyan, and Chen-Tsang…… [read more]

Organic Produce &amp Farming Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Bourn, D. And J. Prescott. (2002). "A Comparison of the Nutritional Value, Sensory

Qualities, and Food Safety of Organically and Conventionally Produced Foods."

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 42(1): 1-34. Cited in:


Dryer, J. (2003). "Market Trends: Organic Lessons." Prepared Foods Network. Cited in:


"Family Farms," (2009). Local Harvest. Cited in:http://www.localharvest.org/organic-farms/

"Food -- Global Industry Guide." (April 2009). Research and Markets. Cited in:


Goldberg, B. (June 5, 2000). "The Hypocrisy of Organic Farmers." AgBioWorld. Cited in:


Goodchild, S. (July 29, 2009). "Organic Food No Healthier Blow." London Evening Standard..

Cited in: http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23725592 -organic-food-no-healthier-blow.do

Nichols, N. (March 10, 2009). "Does Organic Food Really Taste Better?" Daily Spark.

Cited in: http://www.dailyspark.com/blog.asp?post=does_organic_ food_really_taste_better

"Organic Food," (2008). Food Standards Agency. Cited in: http://www.food.gov.uk / foodindustry/farmingfood/organicfood/

"Program Overview -- National Organic Program." (2009). United States Department

of Agriculture. Cited in: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/nop

Scott-Thomas, C. (April 24, 2012). "U.S. Organic market Continues to Outpace Conventional Food Sales Growth." Retrieved from: http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Markets/U.S.-organic-market-continues-to-outpace-conventional-food-sales-growth

Shepherd, M., et.al. (2003). "An Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Organic

Farming." DEFRA Products. Cited in: http://www.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/growing / organic/policy/research/pdf/env-impacts2.pdf

Stolze, M., et.al. (2000). "Environmental Impacts of Organic Farming in Europe." Organic

Farming in Europe, Economics and Policy, #6, Hohenheim University.

Stokstad, E. (May 30, 2002). "Organic Farms Reap Many Benefits." ScienceNow.

Volume 1, Cited in: http://sciencenow.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2002/530/1

Winter, C. And S. Davis. (2006). "Organic Foods." Journal of Food Sciences. 71(9): 117-24.… [read more]

France, Especially Paris Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,332 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Question 2 (Provence)

As a fast-flowing frontier river, broad Rhone has dams and it coils snake-like and sluggishly past gravel islets along a broad valley. Provence has a landscape with various kinds of characters and contrasts. A part from the lush river valleys, Provence tend to be associated with less fertile vegetation. The major rivers, especially the Rhone, have alluvial plains that follow along the sides. A dramatic landscape is revealed through Camargue, with a blurred distinction between land and sea, moreover, few of the available wildlife have resemblance with the one in African environment.

I heard about their famous people such as the Nobel Prize writer Frederic Mistral, the prophet Nostradamus. Some of the available foods are: gardianne de taureau (Camargue bull meat cooked in red wine, gibassier (a galette made with fruited olive oil), and anchoiade (southern French fondue with anchovy, capers and olive oil). It came clearly that Provence came about when the Romans made it their first Roman province beyond the Alps and named it Provincia Romana, thereby evolving into the present name.

Question 3(Alsace)

This region has magnificent panoramas, peaceful lakes, famous vineyards, rounded hills, and majestic forests, as facilitated by where it is situated; between the River Rhine to the east and the Vosges Mountains to the west. Alsace has river Lauter which limits it in the North and it crosses the town of Wissembourg. Some of the towns that are watered by this river are: Strasbourg, Selestat, Colmar, and Mulhouse. Towards the west we have Vosges mountain range, while towards the furthest south we experience Jura mountain range.

I heard a confirmation that Alsace is traced to the Old High German (Ali-saz or Elisaz) which means foreign domain. As Lorraine part, it was a section of the Holy Roman Empire, after which it was annexed by France gradually in 18th century then formalized to be among the France provinces. The famous food is cuisine for a distinctive flavor for cuisine, there is use of pork and goose fat in Alsatian dishes. Some of the famous people are: Actor of Monkey Business Sam Marx, Writer of "The Big Country" Robert Wyler, and master craftsman of cinema William Wyler.

Question 4(Brittany)

Brittany is to the south by Bay of Biscay while English Channel to the north as well as the waters situated between the western coast, moreover Ushant Island has formed the Iroise Sea. The border of Breton has not been marked with any strong geographical landmark, if not river Couesnon that has separated Brittany and Normandy.

What comes out about Brittany that I heard is that they trace their heritage to migrants of British speakers groups from southwestern Great Britain, as well as Cornwall, during the 3rd to 9th century into Armorican peninsula, thereby named after them Brittany. Famous people are Nobel Peace Prize-winning climatologist Jean Jouzel, the writer Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand, and explorer Jacques Cartier. Food offered include Bretagne's culinary jewels that comes from seafood platters with solely local shellfishes and fishes to… [read more]

Pastorilism the Way Humans Eat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Local food benefits the environment and wildlife. Well-managed farms provide ecosystem services: they conserve fertile soil, protect water sources, and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. The farm environment is a patchwork of fields, meadows, woods, ponds and buildings that provide habitat for wildlife in our communities.

Local food is an investment in the future. By supporting local farmers today, you are helping to ensure that there will be farms in that same community tomorrow. That is a matter of importance for food security, especially in light of an uncertain energy future and our current reliance on fossil fuels to produce, package, distribute and store food. There's a unique kind of assurance that comes from looking a farmer in the eye at farmers' market or driving by the fields where one's food comes from. Local farmers aren't anonymous and they take their responsibility to the consumer seriously.

Call to Action

The entire world has a very strong interest in food availability, quality and cost making this issue a truly universal problem. The levels of cooperation needed to solve this problem will require great leaps in understanding about community, sharing and long-term planning. Attacking this problem from the root requires looking at the psychological behaviors behind the elite ways we treat our food. It is clearly evident that something needs to be done before humanity is most likely disposed to a miserable and desolate existence. Taking responsibility for our actions requires thinking about and addressing the individual actions that each person can take to help remedy the situation. Until that time comes, the risks that come with our eating habits will continue to disable and haunt our ability to reach our potential as a planet.


Niedner, F. (2012). Solution needed for wasted food. Chicago Sun Times, 31 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://posttrib.suntimes.com/opinions/14828255-474/solution-needed-for- wasted-food-problems.html

Niman, N. (2009). The Carnivore's Dilemma. The New York Times, 30 Oct, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/31/opinion/31niman.html?_r=2&hp&

Pollan, M. (2006). The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals.…… [read more]

Ethical Issues Concerning the Genetically Modified Crops Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,634 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Ethical Issues Concerning the Genetically Modified Crops

The new technology which is often termed as 'Genetic engineering' or 'Genetic modification' has promised the world to provide with great revolutions in the field of medicine, husbandry and agriculture. The positive point associated with the utilization f genetic engineering in the production of plants is that with the help of this technology… [read more]

Human Practice of Science Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (981 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Herbicides have been known to cause water and soil contamination. Exposure of humans to herbicides (i.e. via spray drift) could also adversely affect their health and well-being.

Macaroni and Cheese

Wheat used to make macaroni could have been sourced from the large wheat farms in North Dakota while cheese could have been produced in any of the large daily processing farms in Wisconsin. While daily cattle are reared in large farms, wheat is cultivated in fields whose acreage could vary widely. In both cases, large areas of natural habitat could be cleared to create room for commercially utilizable fields. The fertilizers used in wheat farming and the pesticides used in the control of ticks in dairy farming could have a negative impact on the environment. Cheese is made from one key ingredient -- milk. To start the cheese making process, a number of ingredients including starter cultures and clotting enzymes are added to the milk. The mass that is formed thereafter is then cooked to achieve firmness after which it is pressed to achieve the desired shape. It is then packed and delivered to the market. Macaroni on the other hand is made form wheat which after being sifted is mixed with water to form dough. This dough is then kneaded mechanically and processed to form macaroni.

Peach Cobbler

The peach fruit in this case could have been sourced from China. Like asparagus, peach is commercially grown in plantations. It is also important to note that peaches, more than many other fruits, require fertilizers that are rich in nitrogen. In most cases, it is the nitrogen that is not absorbed by plants that ends up running off to streams from where it deprives waterways of oxygen, thus killing off aquatic plants and animals. On being harvested, peach is sorted and immediately packed for distribution.

Part 2

To begin with, locally purchased foods happen to be fresher (and hence nutritionally beneficial) as they do not have to be shipped from far away locations. Local foods are also safer given that there are fewer steps involved from the point of production to the point of sale. The country also has in place superior regulations in place to guarantee food safety from production to sale. Purchasing local food could however have some downsides. For instance, it is clear from the discussion above that some farming methods have a negative impact on the environment. Purchasing locally produced food promotes and encourages the production of the same thus causing further damage to the environment.

To help grow our markets, support employment - and hence the prosperity of our nation, I will most likely be purchasing food items that are sourced locally going forward. Should other people adopt a similar move, we could reduce unemployment rates in our country. However, the world is a global village. Such a move would most likely trigger negative reactions from other countries, i.e. adoption of protectionist measures.… [read more]

Buying or Not Buying Local Good Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,561 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Buying or Not Buying Local Good

Those who lived in the early ages had limited options and had to buy anything they wanted to use locally ranging from fruits to vegetables which were grown on farms. However, because the world has become interconnected the idea of cross border trade has widely been accepted. Because of economically volatile times we are… [read more]

Gmi in the 1980s General Mills Inc Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,043 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


GMI in the 1980s

General Mills Inc. (GMI) has long been known for its dominance of the general (as opposed to specialty) cereal and grain-based market. Since the 1970s onward, it has grown increasingly diverse, both inside and outside of the food industry. Acquisitions include steak houses, pretzel companies, and fashion companies. This suggests an attempt to balance two dueling advice profiles given to companies in terms of their expansion and investment strategies: companies can invest in industries in which they have considerable knowledge and which generate synergies with their main product or conversely, they can diversify their profile to engage in risk management. Restaurants, toys, crafts, and specialty retailing made up more of half of GMI sales in 1982; but, nearly half of the growth of the company came from products developed internally in its core food sector (560)

During the 'stagflation' of the 1970s to early 1980s, consumer spending was shaky but General Mills continued to prosper, thanks to its ability to innovate within its product lines to suit changing consumer food preferences. However, overall, there were several unfortunate blows to its overall portfolio. Its 'restaurant' segment went into notable decline, because of the decreasing popularity of Red Lobster. It could be noted that this is not necessarily surprising, given that Red Lobster is a mid-priced restaurant chain (neither high nor low in terms of its target market). During recessionary periods, poorer and lower middle-class consumers tend to eat out less, or eat at very cheap restaurants like fast food establishments while upper class customers are less affected and continue to dine out at high-end places. Consumer tastes were also changing, and Red Lobster has had to remake its image to incorporate fresher, healthy foods into its product offerings (562).

The 'toy group' was equally hard-hit, given Parker Brothers' failure to compete in the video game sector. It was able to sustain its growth through popular product lines like Strawberry Shortcake, Care Bears, and Star Wars but overall the market in this realm remained extremely competitive. Much like eating out, toys are not strictly a necessity, and they are very easy to cut back from a consumer's budget when 'times are tough.' This could likewise be argued about the brands in the 'fashion line' of GMI's acquisitions. Brands like Izod are not necessities but are bought primarily for their labels, often by young people who wish to portray a particular image. This was true of Izod and the 'preppy craze' of the 1980s, when sporting an Izod polo shirt with the iconic crocodile was the height of fashion, particularly amongst young girls. However, fashion is fickle even during the best of economic circumstances. Given Izod's expense, the volatility of the economy and teenage fashion trends, the reliability of a sustained profit from the 'fashion line' of GMI's acquisitions seems questionable.

As General Mills itself noted, in the 'rag trade,' it is very easy to acquire a pile of useless inventory, while ultimately with staples such as cereal, people… [read more]

Waste and Consumption Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Waste & Consumption

Waste and Consumption

Scarlett Lindeman has written a very disturbing article in the September/October 2012 issue of UTNE Magazine. Freegans: The Refined Art of Dumpster Diving was not what I expected. Lindeman reports that "30 to 50% of food production in the United States is wasted." This statistic is indicative of the laissez-faire altitude our modern society harbors toward waste. I had never really considered that the amount of trash and types of garbage produced by our industrialized society is a relatively new event.

This phenomenon may be viewed from a functionalist perspective. Freegans are an example of a counterculture, formed in response to the massive amount of waste produced by our society. In many ways it unconscionable that so much food is wasted at a time when so many still go hungry. The number of people in the world said to suffer from chronic hunger is estimated to be 1.02 billion by the United Nations Food and agriculture Organization. This works out to about one in seven people or 13.6% of the world's population. More than 62% of these people live in Asia and the Pacific, while 26% live in Sub-Saharan Africa, 6% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 4% in the Near East and North Africa, and 2% in developed countries ("2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statisics").

Ironically, the world produces enough food to feed everyone. World agriculture produces 17% more calories per person today than it did 30 years ago, despite a 70% population increase. This is enough to provide everyone in the world with at least 2,720 kilocalories (kcal) per person per day ("2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statisics").

I found the story about Ralph Reese, the NYC Union Square Whole Foods employee who was terminated for "misconduct" because he planned to consume a tuna sandwich that had…… [read more]

Dirt Movie Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


There are many elements that contribute to the unique local chemical compositions of dirt.

Dirt does talk about diversity in dirt, by traveling to different places around the world. In this way, the viewer can understand the divergent agricultural practices that have impacted local dirt quality. Renewed interest in sustainable agriculture has raised awareness of the importance of dirt integrity, which is why it is admirable to see urban gardens in New York City. These are contrasted sharply with the images from all over the world of misused land, and land diverted to mono-crop agriculture that prevents the dirt from renewing itself. The mono-crop mentality might yield short-term profits, but in the long run it can destroy the ability of the earth to yield anything. Similarly, the film shows erosion and other problems related to poor agricultural practices.

The film does a good job of linking people to dirt, which gives a whole new meaning to the concept that human beings come from the earth and will return to the earth. Dirt occupies a central position in the lives of human beings, whether we like it or not and whether we admit it or not. Everything we eat, including both plants and animals, depends on the integrity of dirt. Dirt is highly political, in the sense that the dirt belongs to everyone and yet it can be privately owned. Therefore, serious issues related to food security are being raised by this film. The film Dirt is a call to action, to encourage the viewer to think more critically about where our food comes from, and also where it returns when we need to toss away our banana peels. The filmmakers offer some feasible and workable solutions that can be immediately implemented, such as the small community or school gardens to teach young people about the importance of growing your own food. Permaculture practices are important to use, even if they require a little more thought and planning. Thanks to this film, Dirt, I am more aware of the importance of what is under my feet.… [read more]

Danger of Pesticides for Human and Environment Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,842 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



It has been fifty years since Rachel Carson published Silent Spring, and almost 65 years since Leopold Aldo published a Sand County Almanac. However, the core tenets of these two books remain salient well into the 21st century. Environmental stewardship is one of the most pressing responsibilities of human beings on the planet, as the population continues to skyrocket… [read more]

Pesticide How Should We Live on This Earth Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,835 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Pesticide: How should we live on earth?

Changes Required




Principles of Land Ethic

Support Position

How can be Land ethics achieved

The nature and land of planet earth is widely affected by human developments. The extensive usage of technology and synthetic practices implemented to increase so called quality of life actually exerts adverse effects on life. The… [read more]

Communication Problem Related to Small Group or Organizational Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,342 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Communication Problem Related to Small Group or Organizational Communication

Real world communication problem: Communication issues at the restaurant where I work

Easter Sunday is one of the busiest days for a restaurant. So it was only natural that extra staff should be scheduled to work on that day at the local restaurant where I work. My manager Carmen did not schedule enough additional employees for Easter, and the result was a debacle. There were long waits for food due to a shortage of cooks, and the kitchen struggled to keep pace serving its special holiday menu. There were also not enough servers which resulted in additional backlogs of orders. Even with reservations, there were long waits for tables. The end result was a restaurant full of overworked, unhappy staff and irate customers who received a bad impression of the restaurant.

Miscommunication was evidenced in this problem scenario on several levels. Carmen stated that she had scheduled enough workers but many people cancelled at the last minute, which, according to the employees, was simply not true. Regardless, this indicates a clear failure of downward communication, or the 'horizontal' chain of communication which is supposed to exist between staff members and the organizational leadership. There are few formal controls regarding scheduling: the schedule is simply scrawled on a calendar in the back room, and there is no verification that people have seen any changes, with the exception of the occasional last minute alterations (like someone calling out sick an hour or two before a shift). Because of this haphazard scheduling, there is frequently over and under-staffing, and a lack of 'tailoring' of staff to the needs of the restaurant at high-priority hours of the day or days of the week.

While Carmen cannot be entirely faulted for the faulty chains of vertical communication that have been instituted at the restaurant, she must accept full blame for how she reacted to the most recent problem. She complained to the owner, Kenneth, about the poor performance of the wait staff and accepted no personal responsibility for her culpability in failing to make sure enough staff were scheduled for an anticipated busy weekend. Even if she cannot be blamed for all of the people who called out sick or did not show up on Easter Sunday, she did nothing to placate the irritated customers. Instead of explaining to them why their food was taking so long or offering free drinks and desserts (common practice when the restaurant makes a major error), she simply ignored the problem.

Carmen's classic strategy in coping with all problems is avoidance -- hoping that it will either go away, or that someone else will 'fix it' for her. Unfortunately, in a restaurant setting where so many independent agents are operating in their own interests, it is necessary to have sustained, coherent leadership: the kind which Carmen does not provide. She can also be quite dismissive for requests for her assistance. During the chaos at Easter, for example, when people asked… [read more]

Module 05 Question 01 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


For instance, severe heat waves in the context of North America in 2006 were vital in the deaths of approximately 225 individuals. This is an indication of the threat of the global warming to the individuals, plants, and animals (Gareca et al., 2012).

There is an influence on the wildlife system because of the implications of global warming. For instance,… [read more]