Study "Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays 221-275

X Filters 

Campesino Do We Ever Wonder Reaction Paper

… Campesino

Do we ever wonder where our food comes from? Do we ever wonder just what it takes to ensure that ripe strawberries are available during most of the year, or how we have lemons and limes in the bitter… [read more]

Political Ecology of the World Essay

… With that in mind, each and every person who is born taken more resources away from those who are already here. As long as the population does not continue to grow at such a rapid rate, there is hope for the planet and hope for the environment. People are already starving in many different countries, and the people who hold the strings of the government in those countries are not interested in the masses and how much food they need.

Politics has gotten so far entrenched into everything that there seems to be little help for those who need it most. The damage to the environment is upsetting, but it is required to feed the people. Not feeding the people is not an option, because it is wrong to just allow them to starve. No matter what is done, there will be a winner and a loser. Most politicians today - and what seems to be the majority of other people, as well - assume that the environment can just "take one more for the team." Eventually, however, that will no longer be the case. This understanding is behind alternative fuels and the growth and development of specific crops, but nothing seems to be moving quickly enough to stem the tide of starvation that is seen in several countries. With that comes disease and decay, both of which are difficult to stop once they have become established and started to spread. If there were no political agendas being considered when it came to crops and fuels, things would be much different for a large number of people all over the world. Despite being aware of the problem, big government appears to have no interest in making any changes. That is true in the United States, and also seems to be true in other countries, where there have not been any political moves toward making things better.


Holt-Gimenetz, E. (2007). The great biofuel hoax. Indypendent. Global Policy Forum.

Little, A. (2005). Cooking Oil. Power Trip, Chapter Five, p. 147-177.

Vidal, J. (2010). How food and water are driving a 21st…… [read more]

Raj Patel's Staffed and Starved Essay

… For instance, the U.S. believes that Brazilians are slave drivers and corrupt while Brazilians perceive U.S. farmers as opportunists reaping off the taxpayers.

In addition, the author notes that the Brazil soy industry has also resulted in stagnated growth of other sectors. First, the laborers have totally been neglected by the current developments. Moreover, many farmers have also neglected production of other food crops and concentrated on the soya. The rapid development of soya, a moneymaker has been made possible due to lack government supervision, corruption and social economic conditions. The author mentions the unequal structure of land holdings, where some hold large tracks of land while others are congestion in tenement areas where houses are so small, limited water and poor quality of shelter. This has led to the rise of "Movimento dos Trabalhadores" a movement that seeks to improve people's lives by empowering them. The movement has been received well by the people and celebrates achievements in many areas such as education and uplifting lives of the poor.

This chapter of Stuffed and Starved is loaded with much information about the soya business. It investigates the uses of soya, growth in the U.S. And eventually in Brazil. The chapter is not easy to comprehend as every paragraph presents new information on soya. The book cover a variety of subjects including chemical, historical, geographical, social, political economical aspects of soya production. The reading is so detailed yet appears general. This could make it difficult for the reader to absorb in equal capacity al the sections covered. Each bit of information builds on another and one has to understand it for consistent learning from one paragraph to the next, one section to the next.

In addition, the Chapter sounds like a campaign against what many have come to accept as the American culture. A campaign against chocolate, McDonald and McNuggets is literally a campaign against market icons that represents America and this is may be a tough sell. The chapter points to the tough realities of the American life. The chapter seems to portray negativity not only towards soya, but also towards the industry, the effects on health, environment and as well as negative social and economic effects on the Brazilian people and the nation .

On the contrary, this chapter is a mine of key information about the ongoing in the soya industry of the United States and the southern neighbor. The author has packed all the information necessary for any serious reader with the need to understand the realities of the soya industry. The chapter is an encyclopedia of soya focusing on the American production and market.


Patel, R. (2008…… [read more]

Political Ecology Essay

… (Jackson, n.d., pg. 137)

If this can happen, it will help to create a stable environment for food production that keeps up with increases in population and changes from the weather conditions. Moreover, it will ensure that all available land and water is utilized to effectively increase food production. The combination of these factors will create a sustainable strategy that is addressing these challenges in the future. This is in line with some of the more popular ecology theories that are discussing production.

A good example of this can be seen by looking at Gaian thinking. Under this basic approach, there is an emphasis on maintaining some kind of balance within the ecosystem (in order to address the needs of stakeholders). Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Litfin (2009) who said, "International environmental law, which consists of a myriad of separate regimes for hundreds of issues ranging from toxic waste exports to fisheries management, is itself rooted in an atomistic demarcation of the planet into sovereign nation-states. By highlighting the embeddedness of human systems in the living Earth system, Gaian thinking fosters a kind of meta-position from which a systemic perspective on global environmental governance might emerge. In broad terms, global environmental problems represent a collision of human systems with the larger Gaian system. In contrast to the mechanical billiard-ball metaphors that inform much of modern political discourse, the Gaian image of a living Earth may be more amenable to the problems at hand. Moreover, as a scientific alternative to modern reductionism, Gaian provides important concepts and metaphors that can help move us toward a viable future." This is illustrating how new concepts need to be used in addressing the agricultural needs of a growing planet. Therefore, alternative polices must be implemented that will take these different viewpoints into account. (Litfin, 2009, pg. 197)


Jackson, W. (n.d.). Tackling the Oldest Environmental Problem.

Litfin, K. (2009).…… [read more]

People Feed Themselves? Essay

… Taxes were only remitted if they agreed to devote a specific portion of their land to cash crops. Or their land was simply seized by the ruling government and they were divested of their property, forcing them into homelessness as well as poverty and hunger.

To reduce the amount of leveraging power the farmers could have in setting a price for their crops, national governments created organizations like the West African Coca Control Board to set the price of coca in a uniform fashion. This was supposed to give farmers a more fair price than could be obtained solely from negotiating with more powerful private businesses, but ultimately the result was the same -- the colonial powers profited far more off of the crops of the farmers, despite the fact that the farmers were doing the lion's share of the work to harvest these valuable products. However, the farmers who were merely economically exploited by the colonial government could count themselves lucky compared with farmers whose land was simply taken away from them in the name of the crown. The land was designated public territory or given over to private businesses. In almost all of these instances, the cash crops that the farmers were forced to grow were coffee, tobacco, and sugar -- products with no nutritional value.

The effect of plantation economies was to make the populace dependent upon the ruling government for everything. Without land, the peasants were helpless and the government provided them water, roads, and access to seeds, access to credit, and all of the basic tools peasants needed to survive. Peasants were often herded into areas where they were needed, away from their original homelands. Their agricultural labor was taxed, even while imported goods from the colonies was cheap. Peasants were also prevented from constructing competitive cash crop enterprises of their own, to compete with…… [read more]

Southern and Midwestern States Comparison Essay

… The agricultural products grown in both regions are highly important to the United States, and much of the cotton and tobacco grown in the South along with some of the meat and grain grown in the Midwest, are also shipped to overseas markets. That makes the farming and cultivating of crops in those regions a global endeavor. Agriculture is changing to some degree, however, as farmers are always looking for ways in which crops and livestock can be grown more efficiently and in new places where they were not grown or cultivated successfully in the past.

Urbanization is taking place in both regions, too. Cities are growing, and major hubs like Atlanta, Georgia are becoming more popular and more populous, as they begin to offer new opportunities for education and employment. Social, economic, and political changes are affecting both the Midwestern and Southern states, as the entire society of the United States is evolving and changing. Transportation is still lacking in these regions, however, as the bus and train and taxi services that are seen in places like the Northeast and California are not common in the Southern and Midwestern states.

Key industries in the Midwest mostly revolve around agriculture and mining, whereas key industries in the Southern states are more "industrial" in some senses. Steel and paper mills, as well as other factors, are also seen in both regions, but the Southern states have the advantage when it comes to tourism. With Florida's popularity as a tourist destination, that state and the rest of the Southern states make money from the travel of others. It is easy to see that the two regions are quite different, but yet they are also very similar in many ways. The people who live and work in those regions are both dedicated to what they do, and do making the regions better for everyone…… [read more]

John Mackey: Whole Foods Leader Research Paper

… Whole Foods, after anti-trust regulations were resolved, eventually acquired rival Wild Oats to expand across the Midwest. When Whole Foods was starting out, Mackey was told: "You know, I really think you're just selling hippie food to hippies. I gotta… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma in Recent Years Essay

… Thus, the paradox becomes our obsession with health and healthy foods combined with our consumption of even more unhealthy foods, less fresh or organic products, and our declining levels of health. For example, in looking at the idea of American food production, we see:

Tremendous overcrowding of animals (chickens, turkeys, etc.) in less than sanitary conditions and production techniques that have a tendency to allow the greater possibility of bacteria into the processed food.

Processing of food, vegetables, etc. To the point in which vitamins must be "added" in order to even meet basic RDA standards. All designed for shelf life and ease of transportation.

Numerous "empty" caloric foods that briefly satisfy hunger or thirst (soda, candy, etc.), but provide little nutritive value and only serve as a quick fix for those on the go.

The lopsided use of resources to produce our insane desire for meat -- if the amount of meat America eats was cut, there would be far more room for the production of fruits and vegetables at a far greater efficiency and lower cost.

The capitalistic and monetary use of corn -- ruining fields of other crops to feed the maw of syrups, sweeteners, oils, and other derivatives without really providing nutrient value.

So, what is the solution, or does Pollan offer a way to feed the burgeoning population, the increased urban demand, or even the greater needs within the developing world? There is clearly no easy solution to this "dilemma." Realistically, several changes would need to be made to reduce the dependence on agribusiness and corn, and those changes would need to come primarily from the urban population. It takes a family with an income that can sustain shopping for better products and not just "filling" foods to change the pattern of behavior in American food consumption. Greater emphasis on utilizing fresh fruits and vegetables, salads, and other green products would need to occur at an early age; and a lessening of dependence on highly sugared cereal products for children. The key, then, may be Aristotelian balance -- yes, eat meat, but not 3 times per day; yes, occasionally eat sugar, but not at every meal; try to shop locally, try to shop in season, think about what you are eating as part of the grander picture of the sustainability of both one's own health, and the global environment as a whole. The goal is every reaching and changing - the perfect meal: "… the perfect meal is one that's been fully paid for, that leaves no debt outstanding. This is almost impossible ever to do… It's impossible to prepare and eat a meal that is so physically, intellectually, and emotionally costly without thinking about the incalculably larger debts we incur when we eat industrially -- which is to say, when we eat without a thought of what we're doing" (pp. 409-10).

Instead of the perfect meal, perhaps a start is that we begin to think about where that bread is made, where those vegetables… [read more]

Imagining Myself as a Person in a Historical Setting Essay

… ¶ … person in an historical setting.

Question No.

As a hunter-gatherer, there are a number of advantages to the adoption of farming techniques and to the transition of an agricultural way of life. One of the primary reasons that a farm-based economy and means of substance is preferable to that of a hunter-gatherer is due to the fact that agriculture is a more regular, regulated process with distinct seasons and largely predictable methods and outcomes, for the most part. Furthermore, the life of a farmer is significantly less dangerous than that of a hunter, which yields another example in the fact that an agricultural-based economy involves more of a population group than that of a hunter. Both women and even children can play significant roles in the farming and maintenance of crops, while societies that base their economy and means of sustenance upon hunting primarily rely on men -- and the fittest of men at that -- whose departure to hunt may leave the society unprotected and vulnerable to attacks from wildlife or from enemies. Additionally, it should be added that the food gained from livestock and farming is typically more than that gained from hunting, which allows for a surplus and food for times in which it may be disadvantageous to hunt -- such as in winter when game is scarce.

One of the things that many societies that transitioned from a hunting-gathering lifestyle to an agriculturally-based lifestyle did to improve crops and livestock over time was to design systems of irrigation to keep their crops watered. Such irrigation systems, such as those employed by Egyptian cultures who utilized the Nile River for such purposes, not only keep crops well-watered and tended to, but also tend to provide a source of water for livestock, as well. The systems of irrigation used by agriculturally-based societies increased in sophistication and efficacy over time, and helped to…… [read more]

Parents and Fast Food Research Paper

… A quantitative study may be better coupled with a qualitative study that fuses together data that gives a wider picture of the problem behind why adults consume fast food with their children.

In conclusion, this study appears to show that what drives adults to consume fast food with their children is 1) it saves time, 2) it is easy, and 3) it is advertised. These three factors are revealed from this quantitative study, but a qualitative analysis may provide more details about what drives adults to value time over money and ease over good health.

From this study I learned how to formulate a questionnaire and provide data for quantitative analysis. I also learned how to prepare a proper methodology after proposing a rationale for study. Gathering the data showed me how much work and preparation actually goes into empirical studies -- and the information I learned revealed some interesting points about human behavior and beliefs and what people find most important in life.

Reference List

Campbell, K. (2006). Australian parents' views on their 5-6-year-old children's food choices. Health Promotion International. doi:10.1093/heapro/dal035

Halford, Jason et al.…… [read more]

Animals and Their Place Inside Research Paper

… For example, one cannot have such cases as the head of the FDA being a former business man in favor of big companies. This is simply un-American, un-democratic and unfair towards the system which this nation has set up. If… [read more]

Marketing Segmentation at Food Lion Essay

… If Food Lion used demographic segmentation variables such as: age, gender, family size and income, background and social classes they will determine what are the main types of customers that come in to the grocery store. Once Food Lion has determined their target customers, they can decide if they are meeting the needs of that particular customer by the types of milk they stock. In this particular store, the number one consumer is middle to upper class men and women who shop for their families and Food Lion can determine which kinds of milk products are required to keep these consumers coming back. The grocery stores will need to consider the prices of their products and other competitive stores in the region so they can get the most out of each gallon or other types of milk they supply. It is very important for Food Lion to look at the minority shoppers that do business with them and what their needs are and if they supply a variety of milk products they like and can afford such as a generic brands and variety. The minority groups that shop to keep Food Lion in business are important because these consumers keep sales viable in other areas and levels of marketing.

By Food Lion getting to know their customers from a demographic and psychographic stand point, they can meet the needs of every individual who comes in to shop and how to keep them coming back in the future because it is important in the success of the store. When Food Lion sees what milk is demanded by consumers they can order less and discontinue products that do not increase profits and learn ways to promote and advertise the milk that does increase revenue. Milk is a necessity product that consumers need, and by providing a competitive variety in required food groups, consumers will stay satisfied and continue shopping in their local grocery stores and not go elsewhere to do business.… [read more]

Food Create a Chart Term Paper

… Food

Create a chart that lists all the ingredients most commonly used in flour mixtures, and indicate the function/s of each ingredient.







Main ingredient; structure; gluten

Structure; texture

Tenderizing; mouthfeel; flavor


Hydration of protein, starch, leavening

Production of gas to cause expansion and rising



Explain how over-mixing and under-mixing impact the texture of a muffin. Be specific.

Overmixing causes too much gluten development, leading to muffins that are tough and too dry. Undermixing causes muffins that fall apart and crumble because the gluten has not had sufficient time to develop. Undermixing also causes clumps of baking powder.

Describe the (yeast) bread-making process step-by-step and indicate the importance of each step with respect to the quality of the final product.

The stages of bread making include mixing, kneading, fermentation, punch down/second rising, shaping, proofing, and baking. Mixing is the first step in the bread making process and involves the initial combining of the ingredients, which will vary according to the bread type affecting flavor and texture. Kneading is the act of physically handling, playing and working with the dough to develop the gluten and achieve optimal dough and bread consistency. Fermentation refers to the rising of the dough, especially the first rising of the dough in a multi-stage fermentation process. Covering the bowl ensures proper fermentation, the stage at which the dough doubles in size and achieves an optimal lightness or airiness. Fermentation also affects flavor, size, and texture of the finished product. The punch down involves literally punching the beer to encourage a second fermentation. This changes the texture of the bread and generally encourages the production of bread that is more finely textured. Punching down the dough allows gas to escape, while redistributing the dough ingredients. Next, the dough is shaped according to aesthetics and functionality of the end product. Proofing is the penultimate stage in the baking process, during which a final rising occurs. Glazes and other textural and aesthetic elements can be added. This prepares the dough for its final step: baking. Baking brings all the ingredients together with heat, making the dough into an edible and tasty finished product. The temperature level and amount of exposure to the heat all affect the quality, texture and taste.

04. What are the general guidelines for the handling and preparation of vegetables?

Vegetables must be thoroughly washed, occasionally scrubbed, and rarely if ever soaked. Preparing vegetables depends on the intent, as some vegetables simply need to be cut and served raw. Those that need cooking can be cooked for brief periods of time in small amounts of water, or for long periods of time in no water such as baking potatoes. Cooking dramatically changes the taste, texture, and nutritional content of vegetables.

05. What are the two most important principles to keep in mind when preparing foods that contain cheese? Explain what will happen to the product if you violate one or both of the principles. Be specific.

The two… [read more]

Business Model Analysis Essay

… ¶ … Meal -- a Culinary Destination

Reading the description of this imagined restaurant is quite enough to make the mouth start watering. But more than that, it is enough to make the mind start spinning because of the promise of an experience that encompasses not only food and drink but a sense of history and culture. Eating is a highly evocative experience, and being able to eat as Cleopatra might have, or Anne of Cleaves, or the first female America president carries with it a promise of an unforgettable event. Given that the restaurant promises all of this for a relatively modest price, the restaurant (should it be able to keep the promises that it makes in this description) should be a wild success.

So who might be attracted to such a restaurant?

A relatively well-to-do clientele. The cost, as noted above, is not immodest, but neither is it modest. For regular diners, professional status is probably a given to be able to afford the experience.

There will no doubt be other clients who will visit the restaurant for special occasions. These are likely to include students who are especially interested in the time period, others with similar historical interests, and "foodies" -- those who are dedicated to the careful preparation and presentation of food and who therefore spend more than the usual percentage of their income on food.

At least during the first year, a number of the restaurant's patrons will no doubt be those who are simply interested in being seen at the latest chic eatery. Whether they will continue to patronize the restaurant after the initial season depends on the restaurant's popular culture profile.

Because the architects of the building are as famous as the chef, there will be a number of people who eat at the restaurant at least once simply to see the inside of the building. They are probably the least likely to return on a regular basis.

The restaurant will not target those interested in fast food for the cheapest price possible…… [read more]

Animal Production: Biotechnology Has Achieved Research Paper

… Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Maurer, Stephen M., and Markus Fischer. "How to control dual-use technologies in the age of global commerce." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 66.1 (2010): 41-47. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Siontorou, Christina G., and Fragiskos A. Batzias. "Innovation in biotechnology: moving from academic research to product development -- the case of biosensors." Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 30.2 (2010): 79-98. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Wenxin, Shi. "Biotechnology: healing, fueling, and feeding the world." Reviews in Environmental Science & Biotechnology 9.4 (2010): 311-314. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Whetten, Ross W., and Robert Kellison. "Research Gap Analysis for Application of Biotechnology to Sustaining U.S. Forests." Journal of Forestry 108.4 (2010): 193-201. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Zwart, Hub. "Biotechnology…… [read more]

Kudler Fine Foods Research Paper

… Kudler Fine Foods: Justification of International Market

Kudler fine Foods is planning to expand into other growing markets of the world and this time, it is seriously considering Italy as its next potential market. Kudler is known for its world class wine and its gourmet meats and other grocery items. It is for now only focusing on introducing its class of wine into Italian market and thus seeks to understand the growth potential and the size of the new market.

We must not forget that European Union countries are known for their role in wine production and Italy had once been producing more than 30% of wine coming from EU. However lately the number of vineyards has gone down but Italy still contributes 25% to total EU wine production. What makes Italy a very attractive market for Kudler is the fact that Italy has seen a consistent rise in its wine exports while local consumption has decreased. This means that if Kudler enters the market, it may be able to capture some of that export share as well while also getting significant share from local consumption.

With greater exports, Italy is more than welcoming to anyone who will help them increase their local wine production and become bigger exporters. Kudler can focus on this area of wine market as well while trying to capture the local market. This is because if a country is considered one of the hubs of wine production, it always makes sense to make an entry into that market with your own product.

Before we study this any further, let us see how Italy has been doing in the wine export area. According to research conducted by Association of enologists (Assoenologi), Italian export growth is majorly concentrated in two key areas i.e. two major types of table wines. One is Vini da Tavola…… [read more]

Protein the Lakeview Pantry Is a Food Term Paper

… Protein

The Lakeview Pantry is a food pantry on the north side of Chicago. Their website is: ( The pantry was established in 1970 and provides food to those residents living below the poverty level. This food pantry receives some of its food from donations and also from the Greater Chicago Food Depository ( The Lakeview Pantry has several programs to help feed the city's hungry. One of the programs the pantry sponsors is their Home Delivery Program which began in 1989 and now serves over 190 people per month. This is the program that will be evaluated for the purposes of this paper. Since the recipients of this program are home bound and generally elderly or sick, it is important that they do not suffer from hunger or improper nutrition because of their immobility.

Since the pantry's website does not list the types of food delivered to the recipients of this program, a call needed to be made to get this type of information. The person listed on their website is Jenny Dwyer and she was available and kind enough to answer questions regarding the types of food distributed by their home delivery service. In speaking with her, she said that many people assume that food pantries only stock and distribute non-perishable foods. This is not the case with food pantries today as they are equipped with industrial sized freezers that can easily store meat for distribution also. Since deliveries are made to each household once a month, it is important that the meat is frozen in order to keep it from spoiling.

Ms. Dwyer was asked what other sources of proteins the pantry provides in addition to meat. We know that lean mean is a good source of protein, but it is not the only source of protein and for those recipients of the program on restricted diets or those who are vegetarians, meat will not be an option. So, the other major sources of proteins that the pantry distributes for this program are: peanut butter, whole grain cereals and breads, canned and…… [read more]

News Related to Food and Policy Essay

… Rabin, Roni Caryn. (2009, March 29). Proximity to fast food a factor in student obesity. The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2010 at

News article review

According to a study summarized in The New York Times, children whose schools are in closer proximity to fast food restaurants are more likely to be obese. This has caused many politicians within the U.S. And elsewhere to demand more stringent zoning laws regarding fast food chains near schools, much as the sale of alcohol and pornography is also prohibited. The author of the article, Roni Caryn Rabin, details how economists from Columbia University and the University of California tracked the BMI of ninth grade. Even adjusted "for a wide range of variables, including income, education and race, the researchers found that obesity rates were 5% higher among the ninth graders whose schools were within one-tenth of a mile of a pizza, burger or other popular fast-food outlet, compared with students attending schools farther away from fast-food stores" (Rabin 2009, p.1). There have also been calls within the UK for such a geographic ban.

The implications of Columbia-UC study suggest that the rapid increase in BMI of schoolchildren nation and world-wise is not merely due to genetics or a failure of willpower -- or even economics, as economic factors were controlled for in the study. Even when parents had enough income to provide children with healthier alternatives, the nearby presence of fast food notably increased children's consumption. The researchers were uncertain why this was the case. "It could be that students don't like to wander too far…Maybe they don't have a long lunch period. Maybe it's just the effect of having temptation right in front of your eyes" surmised the authors (Rabin 2010, p.1). Peer pressure -- seeing all of one's friends eat fast food, and having an environment that normalized fast food consumption, and reinforced pro-fast food messages seen…… [read more]

Globalization of World Food Markets Research Paper

… Globalization of world food markets has had a number of unintended consequences. Nations find themselves limited in their ability to avoid food shortages in the face of increased consumption elsewhere on earth. The poor all over the world are adversely… [read more]

Omnivores Dilemma Term Paper

… Omnivore's Dilemma

Being an omnivore can be a blessing and a curse at the same time. It is an advantage because omnivores can mostly eat any kind of food, thus having an increased ability to adapt to environments which are hostile for either carnivores or herbivores. It is a disadvantage because it brings forth the omnivore's dilemma, meaning that it confuses people to the point where they are uncertain which food is good and which is bad.

Even though there were a series of individuals referring to the concept across time, a research psychologist named Paul Rozin was the first to use the "omnivore's dilemma" expression. In contrast to carnivores and herbivores that have no trouble selecting their foods, omnivores need to carefully analyze what they want to eat before actually doing so.

The French paradox involves the misunderstanding relating to how French people are capable of eating several foods perceived to be toxic in the U.S. And in spite of this they are perfectly healthy. It is strange how Americans are determined to eat healthy food and even with this they are unable to keep the obesity rates down.

Corn (or Zea Mays as it is referred to in Latin) is one of the most important foods for omnivores, herbivores, and carnivores alike. While the latter are not directly involved in consuming corn, most owe their existence to the fact that the meat they eat has fed on corn. A series of foods humans eat, ranging from eggs to beef, exists because of corn, as a large number of animals humans feed on were raised on corn.

It is not surprising that corn has come to be one of the essential aliments society is based on. Its numerous properties make…… [read more]

Is There Really an Elephant in There With Those Blind Men? Research Paper

… Food Security

Is there Really an Elephant in there with those Blind Men?

Food security has been defined as the ability of the population to obtain a safe, nutritionally sufficient food intake through a sustainable food system that amplifies community… [read more]

Genetically Modified Crops Foods and Hormones in Meat Supply Research Paper

… Genetically Modified Crops/Foods and Hormones in Meat Supply

Genetically modified crops or foods result from genetically modified organism. Genetically modified foods are of great importance despite the concerns raised because they will help in solving the food crisis. Use of… [read more]

Geography of California Thesis

… California Geography

Fresno: The desert that became an agricultural Mecca gives its bounty at a great human cost

The state of California is often associated with the Gold Rush -- people came from all over the world to secure their fortune in the territory of the West. Those who did not find wealth lying on California's dry and craggy rocks found wealth in other sources, such as land, the movie industry, ranching, and agricultural produce. Fresno has often been described as a kind of agricultural miracle, a land that manifests the possibility for the dessert to be made green with fertility and prosperity. Humans engineered the ability of Fresno to be used for food, and through careful cultivation the types of crops that can be harvested in the dry region parallel those found in the Mediterranean of Europe, even though the climate is far harsher. The greater aridity of the San Joaquin Valley of central California has yielded impressive dividends for rich agricultural firms. Yet for many workers who toil the land, often illegally, the bounty of Fresno comes at a high price.


Fresno, like all Californian cities, has its own character. The diversity of the state of California is exemplified in its climatic and agricultural variety: some areas of California are so dry they are ideal wine-making regions, while others are nearly arid, almost desert-like in their weather conditions. The area now known as Fresno County was once a barren desert and was only made habitable through the use of irrigation and electricity. Early Spanish and Mexican settlers and missionaries largely avoided the inhospitable region. The name "Fresno" means ash tree in Spanish, and derives from the many ash trees that grow by the Fresno river, but other than giving Fresno a name, these settlers avoided the area in favor of more promising territories ("Fresno, Greenwich Mean Time, 2009).

Fresno's true beginnings as a state can be traced to 1872, "when the Central Pacific Railroad, pushing southward through the Central Valley, reached the site. Fresno's steady growth began when irrigation was introduced" (Drury 2009). An elaborate system of irrigation, known as 'Church Ditches' were developed by the small community of the Moses Church, largely made up of hardy pioneers. Thanks to the Moses Church, agriculture would become a core part of the modern economy of the region. These ditches and canals "transformed the barren desert of Fresno County into rich soil, thus enabling extensive wheat farming in Fresno County" ("Fresno, Greenwich Mean Time, 2009). Now Fresno County is America's leading agricultural region, producing $3 billion per year and over 200 commercial crops (Drury 2009).

Fresno's most famous crop is that of the raisin. Fresno produces about 60% of the world's raisins and about 90% of the raisins sold in America (Drury 2009). Yet the ability of Fresno to produce raisins was discovered only by accident, when a wine producer "accidentally let some of his grapes dry on the vine in 1875" (Drury 2009). Eventually, Fresno's significance as a… [read more]

Unethical Companies Essay

… Pet Food Scandal

In 2007, Purina was among many pet food companies hit with a major scandal. The company had used a supplier, Menu Pet Foods to produce its some of its lines. In turn, Menu had received tainted supplies of wheat gluten from a Chinese supplier. This tainted wheat gluten led to deaths among pets, a massive product recall and legal actions taken against the companies in question (Gillis & Kingston, 2007).

The management decisions that applied to the crisis were twofold. The first decision was the decision to order a recall of Purina's Menu-sourced brands. The recall was announced on March 30, 2007, the same day the FDA informed the company of the source of the contaminated Pet Foods. This decision could have been made earlier based on the recall initiated by Menu on March 16th. The decision to delay the Purina recall failed to adequately mitigate damages to the Purina brand.

The basis of the issue was deliberate criminal action on the part of the Chinese supplier of wheat gluten. Both U.S. And Chinese sources found the Chinese company culpable in deliberately poisoning their products (Barboza, 2007; Akre, 2009). There were concerns that the U.S. importer and Menu Foods also knew about the tainted wheat gluten in advance of the recall order. There is no evidence or suggestion that Purina executives were aware of the tainted wheat gluten prior to the Menu Foods recall order.

The ethical deficiency that led to the problem was not sourced at Ralston Purina. It was sourced at the Chinese supplier, who had used a chemical agent to give its wheat gluten the appearance of having a higher protein value than it actually had. The chemical agent was toxic to animals and led to widespread renal failure.

Organizational leadership at Purina contributed somewhat to the problem because it did not issue a recall order until two weeks after the initial Menu Foods recall order. It acted when the FDA confirmed the source of the tainted food. The company could have acted pre-emptively to help prevent pet illness and death, but did not. Only…… [read more]

Aquaculture Biotechnology Essay

… Aquaculture and Biotechnology as Methods to Addressing World Hunger
The emphasis on fishery operations that are treated in the same
fashion as the world's land-born farming operations is something of a
double edge sword. Though it may potentially promote more sustainable
practices than free-roaming fishing operations, some tactics such as the
use of antibiotics can potentially introduce dangerous and problematic new
elements to the ecosystem. (Wikipedia, 1) Given the bleak projections for
the immediate future of available water-born food supplies, greater
regulation is necessary before we can approve too strongly of aquaculture.
Thus, there is more of an inclination to push for biotechnology methods as
a way to actually increase the food supply.
Of late, world hunger experts have begun to see virtue in employing
methods of agriculture in such developing nations as India which would
allow for a diminished need for the implementation of insecticidal measures
that could contribute to an already stifling and reciprocating problem for
the nation. And there is reason of optimism according to recent findings
regarding the potential benefits of…… [read more]

Is it Ethical to Raise Animals for Human Consumption? Thesis

… ¶ … ethical to raise animals for human consumption? That question can have many different answers, depending first upon one's concept of ethics and morality. Moreover, answers will depend upon in what period of history one has lived, where one… [read more]

Macro Environment Essay

… Macro Environment

NutriPower is a potential breakfast cereal product set for the Australian market. These products are focused on healthy eating, while enjoying the food flavour and range from regular flavour to fruit, nuts, coconut and vanilla. Given their healthy… [read more]

Environmental Crime Thesis

… Environmental Crime

Economic globalization and the demanding competition it often creates in economies that were previously mostly local can potentially have devastating environmental effects. Additionally, it is also not uncommon to see these new globalized economies in places where resources… [read more]

Future of Food Genetically Modified Research Proposal

… GMOs

Should Labeling be Required for GMOs?

The debate over genetically modified foods continues to plague producers and consumers alike. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are foods that have been modified through bioengineering to possess certain characteristics. These plants have been… [read more]

Biotech in the Food Chain Thesis

… rBST in the Milk Supply

Position Statement: Is rBST Safe?

Dr. John Doe, American Medical Association

Biotechnology has gained momentum in the human food chain since the late 1990s. The use of biotechnology allows producers to increase their production and their profitability. We can be certain that these new food products have gone through rigorous testing according to FDA protocol before entering into the market, but one must ask if this is enough. This research will support the position that the decision to allow GMOs, and other biotechnologically altered foods into the marketplace is premature, as not enough studies have been conducted as to the long-term effects of them in the human food supply. It will particularly focus on the use of rBST in the milk supply.

What's the Big Deal?

The question of whether biotechnology has long-term harmful effects surfaces every time a new technology is introduced that involves human enhancement or manipulation of the food supply. Of those that have surfaced in the past, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) has been a topic of fervent controversy since its discovery.

Bovine somatotropin (bST) is a hormone that is produced naturally by the pituitary gland of cattle. Through the use of recombinant gene technologies, researchers have learned to make an exact copy of the hormone known as recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) ( Somatrophins are growth hormones and are found in every living creature. The use of growth hormones in cattle and its potential to harm humans through the introduction of these hormones into the human endocrine system are of key concerns for opponents of the use of rBST.

Monsanto, Inc. is currently the only company producing rBST, marketing it under the trade name, Posilac (Monsanto, 2007). According to the Monsanto company, approximately one-third (nearly 9 million) dairy cows in the United States are now supplemented with Posilac. The Monsanto corporation claims that over 99% of producers currently using Posilac report increases in mild production (Monsanto. 2007). However, the methods used for arriving at these numbers is not known. One must also consider that the source may be biased, as they are the only producer of the pharmaceutical product.

The controversy picked up speed when a group of milk advertisers began advertising their milk as free from rBST. Although there was no evidence that rBST was harmful to humans, this labeling tactic placed the ideas in the consumer's mind that milk without rBST was better for them. This inadvertently led to the assumption that milk containing rBST may be harmful. This erupted into a battle in the dairy industry between those who wished to reap the production benefits of rBST against those who were wary of its effects on humans.

The Journal of the American Dietetic Association has the most comprehensive collection of clinical studies on rBST and many factors associated with it. However, much of the research centers on production and cattle issues, rather than human consumption issues.The original study, conducted by Monsanto and used as evidence for the licensing of… [read more]

California Medflies Essay

… California Medflies

The Medfly Problem: General Overview

How to combat the problem posed by the medfly to agriculture and international trade? While the California agricultural industry looks eagerly towards the expanding Asian market as a potential and continuing source of… [read more]

Organic Food Is Better Food? Deconstructing Essay

… Organic Food is Better Food?

Deconstructing a current cultural myth

Organic food, the media has counseled us, must be better for us than food cultivated by other methods. After all, we have been taught to believe that natural is better. A work colleague of mine is devoted to buying 'all organic,' and every morsel of food she brings with her to the office is organic, from the orange juice she drinks to the mustard she puts on her organic veggie burgers eaten on organic whole wheat bread. However, I remain unconvinced of the inherent value of organic products, either of their benefits to the environment or to human health. Eating a healthy diet that leaves a small carbon footprint is more important to me than simply buying organic. In other words, oranges may be good for you, but organic oranges are not necessarily 'better.'

To begin with the issue of 'organic' produce: an 'organic' orange, even though it is grown without chemicals, might be shipped in from far away. Growing crops without pesticides and artificial fertilizers can be expensive, and sometimes only very large farms can accomplish this task. It is not better for the environment if people eat fruits and vegetables shipped for long distances. Buying produce from a local farmer entails less damage to the environment, because it involves less burning of fossil fuels used in transport. It also ensures that the customer knows what the practices of the farmers are, given that he or she can talk to the individual who is selling the produce -- or, even if buying the local produce at a supermarket, the consumer at least has the confidence that the buyer at the supermarket knows the provider of 'Jersey tomatoes' if the New Jersey Pathmark is buying from a farm in New Jersey.

Buying locally makes it easier to avoid the type of scares that occurred regarding spinach grown in California, where spinach became tainted with e.coli after being watered with liquid laden with the deadly bacteria contaminated with human waste. The spinach was organic, but grown by a large, commercial farmer. The farm may have been organic, but it was impersonal in its outlook, and had no ties to a community or sense of responsibility to the community like a local farmer. While organic produce is not supposed to be fertilized with human waste, the water was contaminated from an outside source and with no protections to guard against the infection (which could also happen with rainwater, which does not carry human waste, but may be contaminated with other harmful substances) the organic produce quickly became infected.

The spinach scare brings up another issue with organic produce -- some toxins in the environment are deadly, and certain 'unnatural' methods may be required to protect produce against these dangers to consumer health. Protecting crops from certain insects and bacteria with chemicals may be medically and economically necessary, to ensure a steady stream of produce is provided to consumers. While many chemicals are… [read more]

Global Activism Thesis

… Global Activism

An informed society represents one of the most important assets of a state and of a nation. It constitutes the basis of the public opinion. However, it is not sufficient enough to be informed without being active and… [read more]

Salmonella and Tomato Scare Term Paper

… Salmonela and Tomato Scare

If you were looking yesterday for your favorite Whooper at Burger King, the taste must have surprised you. There were no tomatoes in it. This is something most Florida dwellers will have to get used to for the next month or so. The cause: salmonella and tomato scare.

Food and Drug Administration announced in the weekend that there is a worrisome concern about the spread of the salmonella disease among the tomato crops in Florida. Safety measures have been taken to analyze all sources of tomatoes which come from the fields of Florida as well as Mexico and other close by regions. Still, until a proper decision would be taken, the customers will have to deal with a shortage of tomato supply.

Specialists are worried about a possible spread of the salmonella virus through tomatoes. Their concerns are not without a strong argument. Since mid April there have been 145 reported cases of salmonella in 16 different states of the U.S., most of the cases being reported in Texas and New Mexico. The authorities in Florida have decided to step in and deal with the situation until any case is reported in this state as well.

Salmonella is an unusual type of bacteria causes fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Those with a weak immune system are most likely at risk. So far, no critical casualties have been reported, yet the FDA wants to take the safety of the consumer first, and their pleasure for taste last.

There are several states which have yet to be marked as contaminated regions, including Georgia, Tennessee, and the Carolinas. Yet, for Florida it is a major setback as it represents one of the most important sources of fresh grown tomatoes in the country. Stores in Georgia who relied on the production of tomatoes in Florida are now reluctant to purchase tomatoes from the "Sunshine State." Brenda Reid, spokeswoman for Publix stores in Georgia acknowledge this fact and pointed out that "the timing is not good. We're heavy into the growing season in Florida" (Gilbert, 2008). This will most likely cause serious disturbances in the supply chain all over the region.

The effects of the…… [read more]

Marketing Unhealthy Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children Term Paper

… Business - Ethical Issue


It is permissible for companies to market unhealthy food and non-alcoholic beverages to children."

Arguments Supporting the Statement:

In the United States, freedom of speech applies to commercial speech. Companies have a constitutional right to market legal product by targeting their advertising message to any segment of consumers they wish (Halbert & Ingulli 2000). Certain specific products are considered too dangerous for children and advertising those particular products to children is prohibited by law. Otherwise, there is no justifiable basis for prohibiting commercial speech or advertising messages designed to appeal to children for products like junk food, fast food, or breakfast cereal, all of which are perfectly legal for consumption by children.

It is the responsibility of parents to limit children from consuming unhealthy foods and beverages in excessive quantity, or instead of more nutritious alternatives. Food companies are not responsible for monitoring the diets of children. Children do not generally have control over the contents of their diet because parents shop for food and prepare meals in the home. Advertising does not cause children to purchase products; the purpose of advertising to children is simply to motivate children to ask their parents for the advertised product. It is expected, even by the companies advertising to children that parents will limit their children's consumption of unhealthful foods and that children do not have the ability to purchase their products on their own.

3. The federal government strictly regulates foods through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies that ensure the safety and fitness of all foods for human consumption (Halbert & Ingulli 2000). Unlike the case with cigarettes, which are dangerous to human health in virtually any quantity, no food or beverage that complies with government standards is too unhealthy to eat in reasonable quantities.

4. Will power is a necessity of adult life and children benefit from learning to limit their pursuit of instant gratification in childhood. As an adult, they will be able to eat all the unhealthy food that they wish. Therefore, it is beneficial for them to learn to control their cravings as early as possible so that those skills will be developed already by the time they are too old to relay on others to tell them what to do and what not to do when it comes to personal matters like food choices.

Arguments Against the Statement:

I. Freedom of speech does apply to commercial speech, but unlike political speech or artistic expression, commercial speech is subject to more permissible regulation without violating the Constitution. For the same reason, public nudity (for one example) is constitutionally protected expression that can not be unduly censored by the government.

However, nudity associated with commercial speech is not entitled to the same protection and is much more highly regulated. II. While it is true that parents do most of the family food shopping, children are often autonomous enough by the time they… [read more]

GM Crops Term Paper

… ¶ … genetically modified (GM) crops. Specifically it will discuss positive and negative responses from scientists and the general public to genetically modified foods, and assess the potential of GM crops as a source of food. Genetically modified crops are… [read more]

People Fear DNA? Because Criminals Always Leave Essay

… ¶ … people fear DNA? Because criminals always leave it at the scene of a crime: Joke told by Stephen Rogers, Monsanto scientist (cited in Lambrecht, 2001)

Technology has provided people worldwide with a variety of positive additions to their… [read more]

Technology and Society Government and Harmful Term Paper

… Technology and Society

Government and Harmful Technology

When looking for sources about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) it is truly impossible to find a totally objective source. Of course, companies that produce these foods will insist upon GMO's safety. Likewise, both European and American companies that make the exclusion of such foodstuffs a major selling point in their marketing campaigns will insist upon the dangers of GMOs. The European Union is currently standing by its decision to ban such products, and to do so is in the interests of smaller European farmers competing with major American industrial farmers, as American industry is allowed to use or create such products. Even the American government has an interest in defending the use of these products, because the government has validated GMO's safety, which serves the interest of American agriculture and corporations.


According to the American government website addressing the GMO debate, GMO crops can be made resistant to viruses and can be made to produce foods with increased iron and vitamins. This could lessen the chance of feminine in the developing world and help to alleviate chronic malnutrition ("What are Genetically Modified (GM) Foods," 2008, Retrieved 28 Jan 2008 at ( the usefulness of these GMOs to the developing world, one must ask if it is not narrow-minded of the developed world to consider banning such goods, on the small chance GMOs might harm us, when crops that are resistant to viruses, harsh weather, and can be made more nutritious would do so much good for people in dire need?

Discussion 3

We are already eating GMOs in the United States, whether we like it or not. The government should closely monitor the developing research on the potential help or harm of GMOs. But until they are shown to do us great ill, the benefits of GMOs seem to outweigh the risks. On some level it is amazing that people will not bother to look at the calorie or nutritional values of the food they eat on a daily basis, ingest chemicals in processed food, yet worry about GMO…… [read more]

Why I Want to Attend Culinary School Term Paper

… ¶ … Attend Culinary School

Everyone, even retired firefighter/EMTs like myself have dreams beyond their current careers. I am a U.S. Army veteran who became a Baltimore City fire fighter and EMT after my enlistment was over. I've enjoyed that career for many years, but I always knew there was something more I wanted - something that was missing in my life. I'm newly retired, and know that it's now time to act on those dreams.

I'm a passionate cook, and I love to cook for others, I always have. I love to experiment with new recipes and ingredients when I have the time, and I'm always up on the latest cooking techniques and ideas. Trouble is, I know I'm not anywhere near an expert, and that's why I want to attend culinary school and become a master chef. Cooking and entertaining has been a passion for me throughout my life and career choices, it has been the thing that has always buoyed me up during difficult times, and given me joy no matter what. Now that I'm retired…… [read more]

Corporate Fraud and Deception Whole Foods Market Term Paper

… Corporate Fraud and Deception

Whole Foods Market Inc.

The Early Years

Merging With Wild Oats Markets, Inc.

SEC Investigation



John Mackey and his girlfriend Renee Lawson Hardy opened a vegetarian health food store in 1978, Austin, Texas. After… [read more]

Strategic Marketing Plan for Earth's Best Organic Baby Food Term Paper

… Strategic Marketing Plan for Earth's Best Organic Baby Food

Strategic Marketing Plan

Environmental Analysis

Economic Forces

Political and Legal Forces


Competitive Forces

Technological Forces

Social and Cultural Forces

Strengths and Weaknesses

Opportunities and Threats

Marketing Objectives

Marketing Strategies

Target… [read more]

Weight Loss Restaurant Term Paper

… Weight Loss Restaurant

When one decides to invest in setting up a business, some people choose to create a restaurant. However, even from the beginning, if they do not have a clear view of what they really want, and just… [read more]

Moche Chronology and Subsistence Term Paper

… Moche Subsistence

Timeline from Pozorski and Pozorski (1979)


Chronology of Moche ceramic portraits are divided into categories based on form and decoration. This designation was first proposed by Rafael Larco Hoyle in… [read more]

Hopi Perspectives on Moisture or Rain Clouds Are Linked to Hopi Ancestors Term Paper

… ¶ … collective endeavor, agriculture required that the Hopi work together under the guidance of ancestral wisdom. Cultivation of corn and other crops was no small feat in the desert. Especially during summer months when rainfall was scarce, irrigation and water collection determined the outcome of the crops. The well-being and health of the people therefore depended on a bountiful corn harvest. With life so intimately connected with land, the sacred aspects of agriculture permeate everyday Hopi life.

Corn has symbolic as well as nutritive value. As the "staff of life," corn linked the Hopi to their ancestors and to the Great Spirit (Udall). A successful harvest nourishes soul as well as body, enriching the entire community. Corn is used as ritual offerings to the gods and to tribal chiefs, and is also used in ceremonial decoration.

Thus, corn is food for humans and gods. The concept of shared nourishment is why corn meal is also sprinkled as offerings during rituals and why dancers and elders often wear corn ears as part of sacred dress (Curtis & Boesen, nd). Sekaquaptewa's memories reveal the central significance of corn to Hopi ritual and daily life. The cycles of the harvest: the periods of bounty and scarcity characterize Hopi existence even in the post-contact era (Udall). Corn remains the central staple of the Hopi diet and was consumed regularly as well as ritualistically.

Rains and moisture are integral to the survival of the corn and of the clan. Thus, Hopi venerated clouds as ancestral spirits and created kachinas (O'mau kachinato) honor them ("Ancestral Art," 2003). Cloud figures pepper Hopi iconography and the Hopi distinguished between different types of clouds to distinguish those that deliver the blessing of rain from those that simply flank the sky. Cloud kachinas essentially "wear" the clouds on their headdress, and cloud imagery also decorates their sash and garment ("Water").

Likewise, Hopi dances drum up clouds and rain fall. Ritualistic communications between the human and spirit worlds, the dances demonstrate the need for systematic control over rain and rain clouds. The dance, a prayer in motion, is a conscious intent to will the powers of nature to serve the needs of the Hopi people. The Snake Dance is the rain dance, a petition to the snakes to deliver the message of need and hope to the clouds ("Ancestral Art," 2003). Rain prayers, motifs, storytelling and rituals permeate Hopi life throughout the year. However, the Snake Dance is performed annually and in the driest month: August (Smith 2000). Snake Dance and other annual rituals illustrate the interconnectedness of Hopi symbols and the interconnectedness of nature itself.

Agriculture has been referred to as the "fourth way" for the Hopi: a difficult path requiring community solidarity and commitment ("Hopi Agriculture: Introduction"). The Fourth Way entails struggle: the Hopi view…… [read more]

Global Warming and Decreased Crop Production Term Paper


This work in writing will make a review of the literature related to global warming and expected decreases in crop production. This subject is of particular interest due to the impact that decreases in… [read more]

Causes for the Popularity of Fast Food Restaurants Term Paper

… ¶ … Causes for the Popularity of Fast Food Restaurants

The popularity of fast food restaurants: a cause and effect essay of epic proportions

Despite the warnings highlighted in Morgan Spurlock's 2004 documentary "Supersize Me," fast food chain stores continue to proliferate all over America. Why are people not more afraid of the effects of fast food, despite the fact that fast food turned the documentary director's liver to pate when he consumed an all McDonald's diet for thirty days? It can be summed up in three easy words -- tasty convenient, and cheap. Fast food is all three. Yet the causes of fast food's popularity are having a deadly effect upon America, causing waistlines to expand and the population afflicted with the psychological and physical harms of obesity to increase, year by year.

Why do we find fast food tasty? As pointed out in Spurlock's documentary, fast food, from hamburgers to pizza to soda, has a high fat, sodium and sugar content. Humans are biologically hard-wired to prefer foods that are calorie dense. This is how the human race survived famines when food was scarce. However, today, food is abundant, especially foods containing hunger spiking high fructose corn syrup. Also, there are fewer opportunities to burn off the calories consumed during the day. There is no need to go hunt for food. Instead, a consumer can just pull up to the drive-thru and order a full meal. There is no need to go through the time-consuming preparation of a meal, or even walk to the supermarket in a suburb populated with plenty of SUVs and few sidewalks. Thousands of glorious, greasy calories can be eaten in mere minutes.

The convenience factor of fast food is also an undeniable selling point. According to Eric Schlosser: "Women entered the workforce in record numbers," in the 1970s, "often motivated less by feminism than by a need to help pay the bills....the entry of women into the nation's workforce has greatly increased demand for the types of services that housewives traditionally performed: cooking, cleaning and child care," as families have less time to devote to the domestic arts (Schlosser, 1998). After a hard day at work, a mother can provide her family with a hot meal from a fast food chain, guilt-free. She can also assuage some of her children's incessant nagging, given the amount of fast food advertising that is targeted towards children.

Fast food is, after all 'kid's food,' hamburgers and French fries, accompanied by toys and cartoon logos. Simply to avoid being nagged by their children, many parents will bend and allow their child to have a Happy Meal. For health-conscious parents, the token overpriced salad on the menu takes away their potential objections (perhaps) to having to eat the stuff themselves. An adult alone might content him or herself with a can of tuna and a salad for a quick, convenient meal, but an eight-year-old is unlikely to find such a dinner palatable.

The price for this relief from… [read more]

Cafeteria Food in My Community High School Case Study

… ¶ … cafeteria food in my community high school has not been up to standard for some time. The menus were not only unimaginative, but also significantly unhealthy. The menus include a large amount of fried foods, with often overcooked vegetables. The drinks normally comprise of a choice of carbonated sodas. The problem is that both students and their parents are increasingly health conscious. While they are being taught good eating habits at home, students are not given healthy choices at school. Students have attempted to complain to personnel numerous times. The school paper even featured an article regarding the cafeteria food. Parents have also talked to the school board, continued promises to address the matter have remained just that - promises.

A group of five students then decided to take matters into their own hands. To make a point regarding the lack of health in the cafeteria food choices, these students released a number of cockroaches into the kitchen. This was done one night, when the students broke into the kitchen and released a number of cockroaches into the food supply.


The most immediate impact was to the kitchen staff. Considerable upset was caused among employees who found the cockroaches first, when attempting to begin food preparation for the day. Secondarily, children were impacted, as food was of course now even more unsafe than the case was normally. The kitchen staff were obliged to order a fresh supply of food from the local supplier. This impacted the school, as a considerable monetary investment was lost due to the food that had to be destroyed.

The impact on the culprits themselves related to admitting to the perpetration of the "crime" and facing the consequent punishment. As the aim of the act was to make a point regarding the health impact of cafeteria food, the group readily admitted to the act. They also submitted a petition explicating the reasons for their actions, and their desire for a healthier selection of nutrition during the school day. The petition had been signed by more than half of the student body.

Disciplinary Action

The leader of the group was suspended from school for a week, while the other four received detention for the same period of time. The headmaster and staff felt that this was appropriate punishment for the danger and discomfort caused not only to the staff, but also to the students themselves. On the day in question, students had to wait longer for their food, as the supplier needed time to complete the extensive order.

The headmaster and staff also saw fit to contact the parents of each perpetrator for a conference regarding the actions of their children. The main aim of this conference was…… [read more]

Genetically Modified Organisms Food Term Paper

… Genetically Modified Organisms

Discuss general problems with GMO (genetically modified organisms) in food.

One of the major risks of GMOs stems from pollen spread and outcrossing. Wind, animals and insects can spread pollen cover large areas. Researchers studying creeping bentgrass have found modified genes in normal grass up to 13 miles away from the source, and also within close relatives of the same genus (Genetically modified organism). Because pollen from the GMO may carry to a non-GMO crop, there is the potential for introducing the novel gene into a conventional crop (Reiger as cited in Mills, 2006). Or, pollen from a herbicide resistant GMO may cross with a compatible weed and introduce resistance in the weed. Thus, herbicide resistant crop plants may emerge in a subsequent season and be difficult to control.

Possible approaches, or solutions to problem.

Presently, management systems such as spatial and temporal isolation zones, crop barrier rows and vegetarian barriers are used to minimize direct gene flow between crops, and to minimize seed bank and volunteer populations. Although these methods can reduce pollen dispersal, weather and environmental…… [read more]

Globalization and Food in Film Term Paper

… Chocolat

There is no better commodity to discuss than chocolate, when looking at the globalization of food. Food can tell the most astounding stories as well as create a sense of identity for and entire culture. In the film Chocolat,… [read more]

Decline of the American Diet Term Paper

… Decline of the American Diet

Food Nation (summary) - Schlosser for Author Schlosser

Food Revolution (summary) - Robbins for Author Robbins

Engineered Food (summary) Teitel / Wilson for Authors Teitel / Wilson


Abstract chose these three books because they… [read more]

Public Health in the Development of Food Term Paper

… Public Health

In the development of food safety and security during the 20th century, several elements of public health infrastructure played a role. This role was so well fulfilled that food safety and security in the United States is at a level today where assessment of problems and related planning can be carried out from a solid basis of public health infrastructure. Specifically, the most important components of this infrastructure include scientific research, sharing findings with other professionals and the public, public awareness, and government legislation.

Scientific research played a large role especially during the beginning of the century, when the food industry was rife with unsanitary practices. These practices pervaded the industry both in uncleanly dealings with the animals used in food preparation, and in the practices of the persons working with these foods. Hand washing for example became common practice only when scientific research proved it to be necessary (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report., 1999). When research has been conducted, it is essential that findings be published in order to enhance public awareness. These three components work together to ensure public health and…… [read more]

Cuisine This Paper Examines Term Paper

… Maize, or "corn," a staple of life in both Central and South America, also played a major religious and ritual role in the lives of these ancient peoples. To this day, it still has an important ritualistic role. It is a really difficult task to do an inventory of all the cultivated and consumed vegetable products in ancient Peru. Modern world recognizes that approximately 60% of the vegetables consumed today all over the world are native from this part of the earth. That is, adapted, domesticated, acclimatized and even hybridized by our ancient cultures. The most important products in the Tawantinsuyo's daily diet were the " Sara" - Maize or Corn- (Zea Mays) and " Papa" - Potato- (Solanum tuberosum). Maize in its primitive form began being cultivated over here since the year 6,275 B.C. (Verified by Earle Smith Jr., N.Y. 1980, based in some samples gathered in the "Guitarrero" cave, Ancash) (Jenks 5), while that in Mexico (samples of the "El Riego" cave, Tehuacan) since the year 5,200 B.C. approximately.

Characteristic Ingredients, Seasoning, Styles and Cooking Procedures for South America

Beans appear on the table daily in many forms and colors. Some consider the black bean (feijao preto) to be the preferred national bean. It is not uncommon, however, to find dried red beans, blonde beans, brown beans, and pink beans plus black-eyed peas, chick peas, and others in the markets. Coconut is an important ingredient throughout the country, it is used in soups, cocktails, poultry, fish, and shellfish recipes, as well as desserts and sweets. Various forms are utilized: unripe green coconuts (cUco verde); ripe yellow or brown coconuts (cUco amarelo); the soft, almost buttery textured. Lemons in Brazil the fruit is green, small and quite tart, more like our lime as is specified in most recipes here. Rice, Brazilian style (arroz brasileiro or arroz simples) Long grained rice briefly sauteed in garlic and oil before the addition of boiling water. In addition to garlic, some Brazilian cooks add small amounts of onion, diced tomato, or sliced black olive for additional flavor. Properly done, each grain is fluffy and separate from others.


This paper examined the cuisine of South America from the perspective of different elements that make the food unique to the region. This paper asked that one examine and investigate the cuisine history taking into consideration the following elements and distinctions: (1) The influence of geographical location on the cuisine, (2) Historically the groups or nations that have impact upon South American cuisine, (3) Practical and social rituals associated with the cuisine and (4) characteristic and unique ingredients, styles of seasoning, preparation processes and cooking procedures found in South American cooking. Upon investigation of these elements one hopes to gain a better appreciation of the cuisine and what attributes make it unique to the region, contributing to cultural identity.

Works Cited

Cuisine of Argentina and Chile. 31 Oct. 2005
Fox, R. Food and Eating: An Anthropological Perspective. 30 Oct. 2005

Jenks, K. LATIN… [read more]

Personal Chefs Term Paper

… a.

Warehouse stores tend to offer produce and meats that are higher quality and more affordable than grocery stores.


Warehouse stores are much more affordable for items purchased in bulk, such as certain spices, butter, or cheeses.


The major drawback of a warehouse store is a lack of variety.


Grocery stores


Grocery stores provide the most variety for a personal chef.


Drawbacks to grocery stores


Produce may not be as fresh as other locations, such as warehouse stores or specialty markets.


Certain ingredients may be unavailable at the grocery store.


Grocery stores may be more expensive than warehouse stores.


Specialty markets




Provide more selection in certain areas than grocery or specialty stores.


Can cater more specifically to a client's wants or needs.




More expensive than larger, less-specialized stores.


Most personal chefs are going to end up purchasing their ingredients from a variety of locations. For example, a meal may be prepared using meat from a warehouse store, pasta from a grocery store, and fresh produce from a local farmer's market.

How do you set a budget being a personal chef?


Consult with the client.


Find out what the client is willing to pay for ingredients, and what types of meals they are requesting for those costs.


Determine whether or not the client's cost expectations are realistic. If not, show the client the actual cost of ingredients.


Profits are made on services provided, not by making a profit on ingredients.

What is the pay range in being a personal chef?

A. Starting salaries appear to be just over minimum wage.

1. Possible entry-level positions for personal chefs include:


Food preparation for people in assisted living residences.


Working with companies that provide other in-home services, such as housekeeping.

B. There is no real upper-limit to a personal chef's pay range.

1. Depending on what a chef does, and the targeted clientele, a chef can easily make upwards of $30/hour.

2. Experienced personal chefs can command several hundred dollars per hour.

Works Referenced

Anderson, Carol. "Carlin had a high-paying job- but she wanted to have a life!"

Personal Chef Magazine. Jul. 2005. United States Personal Chef

Association Website. 13 Aug. 2005 .

"Training and Education." United States Personal Chef Association Website. 2005. United

States Personal Chef Association. 13 Aug. 2005 .

"What is a Personal Chef?" United States Personal…… [read more]

Genetically Modified or Altered (GM) Term Paper

… ) If GM plants got out of control like some of these other non-native species, then it could be difficult if not impossible to control them, and we could have bigger troubles with farming, the environment, and growing enough food to feed the world than we do now.

Many people also worry about gene transfer between plants, creating contaminated crops in other areas when the plant spreads pollen or seeds. Studies have shown that this does indeed occur, and could be a large concern with GM plants (Pickrell). Another real risk is how quickly genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. One critic writes, "Genetically modified food, however, has been brought full-tilt into the marketplace in a remarkably short time" (Teitel 40). This could be the biggest risk - lack of testing to verify all the effects genetically modified foods and crops have on the population and the environment.

Actually, one of the arguments for GM crops is the work resembles plant breeding. It seems there is little difference between GM crops and traditional plant breeding. This breeding seems a bit like what Gregor Mendel did with his peas during the Renaissance. Scientists and botanists are always trying to develop new and better plants. It seems that while critics are vocal about GM crops, these crops are not that different from the same kind of plant breeding we have known and accepted for centuries. However, some of the most legendary failures of genetic engineering also point to the differences between nature and man. Critic Teitel continues, "Genes for the color red placed into petunia flowers not only changed the color of the petals but also decreased fertility and altered the growth of the roots and leaves. Salmon genetically engineered with a growth hormone gene not only grew too big too fast but also turned green" (Teitel 40). That is one reason studies still need to occur, because man is speeding up what nature does gradually, and that may be the biggest difference between GM crops and natural plant breeding.


Author not Available. "GM Food." University of California, Berkeley. 2005. 18 July 2005.

Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 18 July 2005.

Pickrell, John. "GM Organisms: Instant Expert." 13 Dec. 2004. 18 July 2005.

Teitel, Martin. "Unsafe at Any Seed?" Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.3 (2000): 40.

Vergnes, Bernard. "How Safe is Genetically Modified Food? Principal Conclusions of the Oecd Edinburgh Conference on the Scientific and Health Aspects of Genetically Modified Foods, 28 February - 1 March 2000." OECD Observer a.221/222…… [read more]

European Union Safety Legislation Term Paper

… European Union Safety Legislation and Its Effect on Marketing

In the past few years, it has become notable to citizens, policy makers and government officials that safety legislation enacted in the European Union (EU) has significantly impacted the manner and… [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.