"Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays

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Conceptualizing a Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Conceptualizing a Business

Heavy Henry's Hogs is a restaurant dedicated to the finest in barbequed pork. The vision for Heavy Henry's is to be America's finest purveyor of pork products, smoked, grilled, cured and otherwise. The restaurant will take its cue from fine dining establishments that specialize in tip-to-tail dining, a big trend in the restaurant business right now (Church, 2008). Heavy Henrys' mission is to be a destination restaurant that changes how everyday Americans think about the food that they eat. For too long, food has been a homogenized product, far removed from its agricultural origins. Heavy Henry's seeks to restore the fine tradition of country food, authentic and using the whole animal. Just as important as the social mission of Heavy Henry's is the fact that the food is going to be amazing. There are a lot of barbeque restaurants, but Heavy Henry's will be differentiated from them all by virtue not only of Heavy's dedication to going whole hog, but because Henry's will have the best barbeque on the planet. The finest ingredients, combined with authentic techniques, will combine to give guests the most astonishing culinary experience they have ever encountered. This means heirloom hog breeds, organic vegetables and sugars, a real smoker and a real barbeque pit, and the top chefs in the area working hard to bring this to the table. It will not be cheap, and it definitely will not be fast, but what Heavy Henry's will be is the absolute best.

This business is not intended to grow into anything more than one spectacular destination restaurant. One cannot franchise quality like this, nor would one want to. People will come from miles, if not entire counties and states around to eat at Heavy Henry's. Little boys will hear the story from their fathers of eating at Heavy's and grow up dreaming of one day eating there themselves. Ultimately Heavy Henry's should find itself on lists like this: http://www.esquire.com/blogs/food-for-men/travel-restaurants-2011

The culture of the organization will be dedicated to all forms of gustatory excellence. The staff will be exceptionally well-trained and have high levels of knowledge and experience. The ingredients will only be sourced through suppliers with high standards and ethics -- so no industrial suppliers will be needed. The restaurant will be a fun one in which to work, however, because that sense of fun is then conveyed to the customers. They are dining for pleasures, for an indulgence, and it is desired that the staff is able to deliver that to them. The staff, if tense, will be unable to do so.

Heavy Henry's will be dedicated a strict code of values. Our values include respect for the animal that gave its life to feed our customers, which means no wasting of food product. Respect for the customer is also a key value. The customer is who we are in business to please, and we can do that by giving them what they came…… [read more]

Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis SWOT

SWOT  |  4 pages (1,257 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis

Whole Foods Market Case Study

Trends in retailing of organic foods

The retailing market is affected by frequent changes that influence the companies activating on this market, and that also influence consumers. The retailing market for organic foods makes no exception. Over the past decade, the organic food market has suffered a series of modifications, most of them leading to the development of this market segment.

For example, since 2000 the country's traditional supermarkets have sold more organic food than the 14,500 natural food stores. Even more, since 2002, most supermarkets have expanded the range of the commercialized organic foods, their display ranging from fresh products to wine, cereals, even cheeses, potato chips, different types of meat, and also canned and frozen fruits and vegetables.

Furthermore the organic product that was preferred by consumers is represented by fresh products, mainly lettuce, carrots, and apples. Other top sellers in the organic foods department include meat, dairy, bread, and snack foods, increased sales volume being reported for these categories in particular. Consumers' increased appetite for organic foods has determined large chains of supermarkets and hypermarkets to create departments specialized for these types of items only.

The organic foods retailing in the U.S. has developed from a niche market to the fastest growing food sales segment because of the modifications that changed consumers' behavior. For example, certain customer segments, like those oriented towards a healthier lifestyle, which includes healthier eating, have expanded their knowledge on organic foods and their advantages. Aside from a healthy lifestyle, many consider that organic farming addresses the health of the environment, therefore orienting to such activities.

Organic foods sales have increased from $1 billion in 1990 to an estimated $23 billion in 2008. It is expected that sales will increase 18% each year (OTA, 2008). Although sales have decreased in most areas because of the economic and financial crisis, the organic foods sector did not report any sales volume decreases (Hunt & Dorfman, 2009).

Whole Foods Competitive Environment

The threat of substitute products and services

Organic foods can be easily replaced by regular foods. Organic foods do not represent a majority in comparison with other types of foods, which means they are easy to be replaced. Also, the price of organic foods is higher than the price of regular foods, many consumers avoiding to buy organic foods because of their price. Another factor that might disadvantage organic foods in comparison with regular foods is represented by the availability or organic foods. Certain stores do not commercialize organic foods, which are considered to have low availability by customers that do not buy such items.

The threat of the new entry of new competitors

Given consumers' increased interest in organic foods, more and more companies that produce and sell such items enter the market. Some of them are small companies that produce and sell on limited local level, but others are large chains of stores that deal exclusively with organic foods, covering a wider geographical… [read more]

Farm Subsidies Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,708 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Farm Subsidies

The subject of farm subsidies becomes convoluted when it is discussed in terms of the West, and in terms of third world nations in Africa, or elsewhere around the world. It is especially misleading and of great concern when discussions are from a third world perspective, encouraging the west to cut back on farm subsidy dollars, because there… [read more]

Scarcity as the Person Responsible Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (748 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



As the person responsible for the allocation of the food supplies, I must determine the most efficient use of the fixed supply of food. The production possibilities frontier can shed light on the best possible allocation. The production possibilities frontier (PPF) typically outlines the tradeoff between two possibilities (Investopedia, 2010). The frontier represents any point at which aggregate production is optimized. In my role, I am dealing with a fixed amount of food, so I cannot exceed maximum production. That is to say I cannot distribute food beyond the efficient frontier. I can, however, distribute food in an inefficient way, below the frontier.

I need to make several assumptions. One is that the food is easily divisible. Whatever we have, we can easily measure and divide it. The food is also non-perishable (the nature of the food is otherwise irrelevant). Another assumption is that there is enough food for all eight people to survive, if properly rationed, but that there is not enough food for us to feast. If the amount of food is beyond what we need -- that is beyond the efficient frontier -- then my rationing is irrelevant. Given that humans can survive six days without eating, the amount of food may be below the efficient frontier, meaning that my job is to best ration the food, not perfectly ration it. It is also assumed that there are no other food sources on this island and that we are unlikely to catch any fish. If there were other food sources, the efficient frontier would be pushed outward. In the course of my decision-making, however, I must assume that this is not possible or I will overallocate the food. I did assume, however, that we have adequate water supplies. This removes what would otherwise be a constraint in our food decision making, since six days without water would begin to kill us regardless of the food decision.

The scarcity of food reflects a tradeoff that must be made between nutrition and time. One of the most important factors in my decision-making is the certainty that we will be rescued within six days. Humans can live beyond six days with no food, and without further food sources we may be required to…… [read more]

Using Social Psychological Principles to Help Create a Sustainable Future Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,965 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Social Psychological Principles to create a Sustainable Future

Social Psychology Principles for a Sustainable Future

Today more than ever before, societies around the globe are pressed with increasingly complex issues. Environmental, economical and social issues have reached a critical stage forcing us to seriously reconsider indiscriminate use and abuse of natural resources towards a sustainable development plan for the future.… [read more]

In-N-Out Burger a Behind the Counter Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,533 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


in-N-Out Burger a Behind the Counter Look at the Fast Food Chain That Breaks all the Rules

Perman, Stacey. In-N-Out Burger: A behind-the-counter look at the fast food chain that breaks all the rules. HarperCollins, 2009.

Does the fast food burger have a future? Concerns about obesity, sustainability, unfair labor practices, and homogenizing American tastes have been raised by such… [read more]

Milk Got Milk Abstract Motivation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,001 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


The federal Dairy Promotion Program was not income rate adjusted so the Cochrans were forced to pay the same as large-scale producers.

Results -- Represented by the Institute for Justice, the Cochrans challenged the law in the United States 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals. "The Cochrans attempted to challenge the government-mandated dairy checkoff after mushroom growers won in a 2001 Supreme Court ruling that said the Mushroom Act was unconstitutional." (American Agriculturist) They argued that they were being forced to participate in a program that they did not agree with. They successfully disputed that government compelled speech was a direct violation of their First Amendment right to abstain from paying for speech in which they did not agree with. The 3rd Circuit agreed. But, in February of 2004, the Supreme Court ruled that the law was unconstitutional. Unfortunately, in 2005, the United States Supreme Court ruled in a similar case regarding compelled speech programs. Like the Dairy Program, this new case also equated to 'government speech' which translates into the government having the right to make the Cochrans and other farmers to dish out for the ads because of the legal decision that because the ads benefit all of society, government compelled speech is not unconstitutional.

Conclusion -- There may in fact be an unconstitutional tax being applied to these and other dairy farmers, but this decision will also impact other many other agricultural industries or where ever the government decides they have to advertise for the good of all. "This case will have major implications for the many similar programs promoting a wide variety of agricultural products such as 'ahh, the power of cheese,' 'beef, it's what's for dinner' and 'pork, the other white meat' ad campaigns, to name just a few. The Cochrans' lawsuit raises the question, 'Should the government force individual producers to pay for them whether or not they want to advertise their products and whether or not they agree with the advertising the programs fund?'" (American Agriculturist) There are other implications. The local, state and federal governments now has a compelling reason to create situations similar to the dairy farmer's concerns because there will now be no stopping the creation of hidden tax policies for financially troubled governmental organizations. "With the number of cash-strapped local governments feeling the pinch of budget cuts, more may soon be lining up at the milk board's well-endowed trough." (CFIF)

Works Cited

CFIF.Org. "Welcome to the Town of "Got Milk?" A Shining Symbol of the Fleecing of America's Dairy Farmers." Ed. CFIF, October 31, 2001. Retrieved on November 21, 2009 from http://www.cfif.org/htdocs/legislative_issues/federal_issues/hot_issues_in_congress/agriculture/fleecing_dairy_farmers.htm.

American Agriculturist. "Got Milk' Constitutionality Challenged." American Agriculturist, January 8, 2004. Retrieved on November 21, 2009 from http://americanagriculturist.com/story.aspx?s=1093&c=8.

Goliath. "Dairy Farmers No Longer Must Ask: 'Got Milk?'." Ed. ecnext, April 1, 2004. Retrieved on November 21, 2009 from http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-249498/Dairy-farmers-no-longer-must.html… [read more]

Issue of Beef Import Between Korea and USA Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Korea-U.S. Beef Issue

South Korea: Economy

South Korea is the world's 14th largest economy, with a GDP (purchasing power parity) of $1.335 trillion. With $433.5 billion in exports, South Korea is the world's 12th largest exporter. The export industries are focused on technology (semiconductors, telecommunications) and industry (steel, automobiles, computers, petrochemicals) (CIA World Factbook, 2009). South Korea's four-decade rise as… [read more]

Plants Make Life on Earth Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (642 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Plants make life on earth possible: Why this is so Plants possess a very useful quality: they can convert light into food through the process of photosynthesis. When plants absorb sunlight, they create sugar, and convert that sugar into ATP through cellular respiration (Farabee 2007). Because photosynthesis involves water and releases oxygen into the air, plants are important in ensuring there is enough oxygen for humans and other organisms to breathe.

Plants are the ultimate source of most of the food animals consume: even carnivores consume plants indirectly, as their prey often eats plants to survive. Humans are omnivores and consume both plants and animals as food. The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends that fruits, vegetables, and grains are a mainstay of every healthy individual's diet, regardless of whether he or she is a vegetarian or an omnivore: fruits, vegetables, and grains contain vital nutrients necessary for human functioning. Human beings are one of the few species that cannot manufacture Vitamin C: without fruits and vegetables that are a vital source of this nutrient, humans can get scurvy and become quite ill. A variety of plants of different colors and varieties should be consumed to have a balanced diet.

Some people are vegetarians and subsist on a largely plant-based diet and use protein-dense products derived from plant sources such as soybeans, nuts, and legumes to get all of their essential nutrients. For humans and animals who eat meat, the quality and survival of the plants their prey consumes is linked to the health and safety of the meat served at dinner. Plants need water to live, but they can even provide a source of water: fruits and vegetables contain a great deal of water within them, and can help organisms guard against dehydration. In the desert, cacti and other succulent plants that store water are often used as sources of nourishment by travelers.

Plants are useful as a source of shelter.…… [read more]

Emerging Health Issues Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (939 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Health Issue in Florida

In August 2009, the Herald Tribune reported that consumption of raw milk by Consumers in Florida are increasing. It provided that said inclination of consumers are due to the raw milk's beneficial effect to health like cure of eczema, aches, stomach upsets and even lactose intolerance. Ron Schmid, a licensed naturopathic physician, supported this claim by stating that his long-standing intractable illness disappeared after shifting to a diet of fresh, locally produced foods and raw milk. Along with Schmid is the Weston a. Price Foundation advocating for the intake of unprocessed food yields and supporting the consumption of raw milk by its "A Campaign for Real Milk" drive.

Florida is the 27th State in America. It has an estimated population of 18,328,340 in 2008 and it reported that its' Agriculture sector as one of its economic pillars. This sector reportedly produced of 75% of the country's demand for oranges and 40% of the world's need for orange juice.

Milk is one of the goods that the agricultural sector of Florida is producing.

The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services is regulating milk production in the State of Florida. Through its' Dairy Division, a statistical data of 143 farms with about 840 cows each were reported in 2009. From these cows, 5.5 gallons of milk are produced each day which amounts to about 17, 200 pounds in one year.

The Herald Tribune reported that the increasing Florida consumer preference for raw milk is because of their inclination to eat organic food for its benefits. It further reported that according their interviewees, raw milk is being claimed to be more nutritious than the pasteurized ones. Pasteurization is the heating of raw milk for a required number of minutes to destroy possibly harmful microorganisms in the liquid. Although Valente Alvarez and Francisco Rabell reported that milk from a healthy cow is relatively safe because of its minimal bacteria, milk is still very susceptible to acquiring pathogens during the handling and preparation process.

Currently, the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) is governing the production; processing, packaging and sale of Grade a milk and milk products in Florida. This ordinance was designed in 1927 to prevent milk borne diseases in the population. Although it had undergone revisions, its Section 9 still stated that "only Grade a pasteurized, ultra-pasteurized or aseptically processed milk shall be sold to consumers."

Aside from the PMO, the State of Florida also provided in their "Guideline for Mobile Food Establishments that, "raw milk shall not be sold for human consumption."

Despite the above rules, consumers in Florida are still take raw milk in their diet. The web site realmilk.com reported that the PMO's section 9 could be over ridden by a State through Statutes and implementing rules if said ordinance comes in conflict with State…… [read more]

Economy Summary, Synthesis, and Application of Bill Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Economy

Summary, Synthesis, and Application of Bill McKibben's Deep Economy, Chapter 2: The Year of Eating Locally

In this chapter of Bill McKibben's Deep Economy, the author frames his discussion of the industrial agricultural and food industries with his attempt to eat only local foods through a harsh Vermont winter. His discussion of the advantages and challenges of this decision is interspersed with long commentaries on the basic inefficiencies of producing food and agricultural products on an industrial scale, as well as the environmental in-sustainability of the current system. McKibben also examines the local alternatives to this industrial food complex, providing a more practical use for the frame he provides in his attempt to eat locally for a winter. Ultimately, McKibben is calling for a reassessment of the way we receive our food and the variety of effects -- on our health, economy, and environment -- that industrial food production has.

While out driving on an Interstate highway several months ago, I moved into the left lane to pass a truck loaded with red and somewhat plasticy tomatoes. I initially began thinking about what I had read somewhere, sometime before this incident, tomatoes had been bred in the twentieth century not to preserve their flavor, but to develop toughness that actually destroyed a lot of the flavor but allowed them to be shipped without bruising and squashing much more easily. I had also heard that tomatoes were often picked early, meaning they would be extra firm as they would be under-ripe during shipping, and that sometimes chemicals were used to enhance a tomatoes redness to make up for all of the deficiencies caused by the other practices. These thoughts were certainly a poor enough comment on the changes industrial agriculture have…… [read more]

Chemistry of Pesticides, Including Characteristics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The site notes, "Today, DDT is classified as a probable human carcinogen by U.S. And international authorities. This classification is based on animal studies in which some animals developed liver tumors" (7). However, DDT is still used in some parts of the world to help combat mosquitoes that carry malaria.

Both the United States and Canada now monitor and govern… [read more]

Management Accounting Costing Techniques Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (984 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Management accounting costing techniques

Management accounting costing technique article review: Target cost management (TCM)

According to the interview conducted by Louise Ross for the journal of Financial Management with a senior lecturer in accounting at the Essex Business School named Lisa Jack, there is an untapped potential for individuals within the food industry to adopt target cost management (TCM) to maximize organizational profitability. The food industry has one of the slimmest profit margins of all modern enterprises. Profits depend on high-volume sales and luck -- producers must hope that there is no threat from high oil prices, political instability, or poor growing conditions so they can thrive. "The industry is inherently volatile: weather, disease or accident can destroy a crop or a herd and macro factors such as agricultural policy, tariffs and subsidies also influence commodity prices" (Ross 2008, p.43). Jack suggests that while many successful producers are using "an intuitive form of target cost management (TCM), working backwards from assumed market prices," and that their "contracts between producers and various corporate partners (processors, distributors or retailers) are based on cost targets," she believes that a more formal TCM approach could behoove agricultural producers (Ross 2008, p.42).

The article, which takes the form of an interview between Jack and Ross, sets forth the notion that TCM need not be confined to traditional forms of manufacturing. Jack defines TCM as a process whereby "users establish what the market will pay, then factor in what profit they need in the long-term to arrive at the target cost. Then they examine their processes to see whether that target is achievable. Once committed to a project, they continually monitor and re-engineer processes to reduce costs" (Ross 2008, p.42). Creating leaner processes is the core of TCM.

By its very nature, agriculture is dependant upon financial benchmarking in relation to changing circumstances. The difficulty of predicting the future conditions of soil and weather limit farmers' ability to establish a clear figure as to what price the market will support, yet still cover input costs. This is why Jack admits "to be fair" there are considerable differences between the highly structured Japanese factories where TCM was first implemented and even modern farming, although the need for re-engineering in relation to change is an essential component of TCM's applicability (Ross 2008, p.42). TCM can be problematic when "prices are imposed by powerful customers," such as the government or by powerful exterior market forces such as the weather (Ross 2008, p.42). It also can be less accurate "where products are complex, possibly including components that are themselves subject to TCM" and other independent market forces (Ross 2008, p.42). While agricultural products may seem very simple on their surface, the components that are involved in their processing, from the development of seeds to the shipping of the final product is highly complex. The prices of processed raw agricultural products are dependant upon the cost management techniques used in every component…… [read more]

Organic Chcoloate Everyday Organic Chocolate Mission Statement Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (385 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Organic Chcoloate

Everyday Organic Chocolate Mission Statement

The Everyday line of chocolate bars will address the dual market demands for a healthy alternative organic chocolate product and, simultaneously, for an organic chocolate product that is competitively priced. Using the products offered by mainstream rather than organic chocolate, Everyday will attempt to place a product on the shelves which is an organic counterpart to popularly embraced brands.

This ambition makes the Everyday chocolate bar a totally unique entity in the marketplace, appealing as it does to many of the growing and harvesting techniques which distinguish the health and environmental soundness of organic farming practices, and yet simultaneously demonstrating a greater interest in meeting the economic needs of the general buying public. According to current research, growing techniques for organic chocolate offer distinct ethical advantages over traditional methods. Accordingly, "organic cocoa is cultivated on small plots under a shade canopy that preserves critical elements of the native tropical forests. Biologists have determined that this environmentally sound method of farming helps to maintain bio-diversity and protect the winter habitat of millions of migratory songbirds." (OTA, 1)

This serves as just one ethical impetus for a…… [read more]

Michael Pollan in 2006, Published a Work Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,777 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Michael Pollan in 2006, published a work that has to some degree changed the way that people eat, or at the very least attempted to change the way that we think about the food we eat. (Shea 54) Pollan demonstrates through fundamentally modern rhetoric the relationship that people, and more specifically American's have with food and how very distant we… [read more]

Marrakech Moskowitz Questions: Moskowitz Opens Her Review Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (913 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



Moskowitz questions: Moskowitz opens her review by discussing her life as a restaurant critic. What is her purpose in doing so?

Moskowitz wants the reader to understand that her life is not as glamorous as people often assume, and to convey the fact that she does try to be an objective and unbiased journalist. She wants people to know that she does hide her identity to avoid special treatment and thus she is often served bad food. Her experience, she believes, does approximate that of an average diner's in a restaurant.

The service at this restaurant is clearly a disappointment to Moskowitz. What does it take to be a good server? In your experience, why does service sometimes break down?

A good server communicates with the customer -- for example, he or she should ask what the customer's preferences are, in terms of food, and make sure the food arrives on time, and in optimal condition. He or she should have a good memory for things like a request for more water. The server should be flexible and not simply stick to a script like 'always ask if they want more bread,' even if the bread basket is full. Service breaks down because of a breakdown of communication -- the server is distracted by other things (like other customers, too much of a focus on one aspect of service like speed or pushing 'specials') or because the customer is too intent upon pushing his own agenda on the server, like impressing a date, getting a free meal, or tailoring the food to certain specifications.

According to Moskowitz, she could have "in good conscience, sent back three out of four dishes that arrived from the Mpls. Cafe kitchen." If she's disappointed in the food, why doesn't she send it back to the kitchen? Under what circumstances would you ask a server to return your meal?

Part of being a restaurant critic is evaluating the food 'as is' -- she is trying to replicate the experience of an ordinary diner, which means no substitutions, and no 'editing' of the dish. I would send food back if it was not what I ordered, was poorly prepared, or of extremely poor quality.

Although this is an unusually negative review, Moskowitz does find some things to praise. What does she achieve by reporting that the restaurant in question had a good wine list and good desserts?

She shows that she does not have a particular 'axe' to grind regarding this establishment -- she does not have a particular vendetta against this type of restaurant or cuisine.

How would you describe the tone of this review? Does it seem appropriate under the circumstances?

Bemused -- Moskowitz was not treated especially rudely,…… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma: Human Eating Habits Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,499 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Omnivore's Dilemma

Michael Pollan's award-winning expose of human eating habits is effective not just because of its poignant content but also in the author's rhetorical strategies. The Omnivore's Dilemma details agro-business and its impact on American consumption habits. In the first of three parts, Pollan focuses on industrial food including the fast food industry. The fast food industry is an… [read more]

Agricultural Health Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,173 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Agricultural Health in Pennsylvania


This work intends to assess how a rural community in Pennsylvania is dealing with agricultural safety in regards to the risk factors, behavior, machinery, environment and other such issues.

"The Dirt on Pennsylvania Agriculture" published in the journal of Trends in Rural Pennsylvania" states that agriculture makes provision of "a common image of rural life and is an integral part of the Pennsylvania landscape and culture." (2004) Central Pennsylvania's agricultural community is stated to be "facing increasing pressures from encroaching urban development and shrinking agricultural support infrastructure." (Journal of Extension, 2003) This is likely due to the extensive regulations in today's farming operations as well as the expenses associated with compliance. Moreover, accidents and injuries that are witnessed by children who grow up in rural agriculture areas quite clearly does not assist in attracting today's rural children to become future farmers.

I. Farm Respiratory Hazards

The work of Murphy (2009) entitled: "Farm Respiratory Hazards" states that while farming is generally associated with "fresh air and a healthy, robust environment in which to work and live…" in reality "much of the air that farmers breathe is dirty and sometimes lethal." (Murphy, 2009) Farmer's Lung and Organic Dust Toxicity Syndrome (ODTS) is the name used to describe "two farm occupational diseases caused by inhaling airborne mold spores." (Murphy, 2009) Another name for Silo Unloaders Syndrome is another name for ODTS because the condition often occurs during the unloading or uncapping of silos." (Murphy, 2003)

A. Symptoms

Symptoms of exposure include those as follows: (1) shortness of breath; (2) tightness in chest; (3) fatigue; (4) a dry, unproductive cough; (5) muscle ache; (6) headache; (7) chills and (8) fever. (Murphy, 2009) Acute exposure symptoms are stated to disappear eventually with no apparent lasting effect however, permanent lung damage may result.

B. Precautions

It is stated by Murphy that "…respiratory protection is the last line of defense against Farmer's Lung ODTS. The proper type of respirator can protect those who have not contacted the diseases or help prevent the diseases from getting worse. Particulate respirators are available at your local pharmacy or from your agricultural chemical supplier." (Murphy, 2009) There is equipment that is more expensive as well as more sophisticated that are occasionally required. The following figure illustrates 'dust deposition in the human respiratory system'.

Figure 1

Dust Deposition in Human Respiratory System

Source: Murphy (2003)

C. Management Practices

There are stated to be several practices that management of agricultural initiatives can take to prevent mold spores growth or to limit the potential damage that these mold spires cause. These practices include: (1) using mold inhibitors; (2) baling hay; (3) ensiling crops; and (4) harvesting and storing grains at the recommended moisture content limits. (Murphy, 2009) the following figure illustrates the three different types of protection masks that can be utilized in safe agricultural farming initiatives.

Figure 2

Three types of Dust Masks for Agricultural Initiatives… [read more]

Ecological Footprint Analysis Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


ecological footprint analysis: Calculations, explanations, and remedies.

The ecological footprint is a calculation of how much a particular individual's lifestyle exerts a toll upon the planet. It calculates how many nonrenewable resources the individual uses, how an individual's food and energy consumption impacts the planet, and puts the unnaturalness of modern life into context by stating how many 'earths' an individual requires to sustain his or her lifestyle -- in other words, it shows if everyone lived like the individual with a particular kind of footprint on the earth, how many earths this would require. Ecological footprint analysis can also be used to analyze a household, a nation, or an industry.

On a basic level, simply the process of doing an ecological footprint analysis can be a positive wake-up call for the individual. In some ways, doing this analysis did not 'feel' very fair -- there is only so much one can avoid traveling by car, for example, depending on where you live. Some individuals may have access to more local produce and food. Other individuals may have low utility and energy bills and little trash because they spend most of their day away from home, but still tax the planet because of their use of energy and disposal of waste at work, school, or leisure-time activities. But the unsustainable nature of modern life and the need for many 'earths' is an important concept to grasp, given that more and more members of the developing world are driving, eating and consuming like members of the developed world.

Some critical aspects of environmental usage were left out that we considered important. For example, water waste was not calculated, nor was the use of potentially hazardous toxins -- whether we used organic foods or foods grown with pesticides. Whether we recycle or not was not calculated. Also, the fact that we did not have children should have lessened our ecological footprint. The more children a couple has ensures couple is generating more potential consumers for the future. The tool really should have been called calculate a rough estimate of your ecological footprint rather than all of it.

I was surprised by the divergence in our results, given that we are all within the same age range and have similar lifestyles. My footprint was mainly enlarged by what I ate, as was Zulemia's while Kelsey's was dominated by goods and services. However, we all roughly required the same number of planets to sustain our current lifestyles. The differences had to do with how much we rode in cars, used public transportation, and drove our cars. Kelsey did not drive her car as much as Zulemia or me. However, she tended to purchase more goods and services that generated trash and waste. I am not much of a 'shopper' but I eat more environmentally damaging foodstuffs, and eat more food grown far away from local sources that generates trash than either Kelsey or Zuleima. This is partially due to my lifestyle, gender, and greater… [read more]

Career Opportunities for Chefs Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,675 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Career Opportunities for Chefs in the United States

Letter of Transmittal

Today, interest in becoming a chef has never been greater due in large part to more consumers dining in finer restaurants as well as an increasing number of popular television series featuring charismatic and talented young chefs as their stars. While it is clear that not all… [read more]

Grammar Exercise - Sentence Structure Learn Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (843 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Grammar Exercise - Sentence Structure

Learn to identify and use the building blocks of a sentence: main and subordinate clauses. Learn to identify and correct faults in sentence structure.

Part a) What is a clause? What is the difference between the two types of clauses?

A clause is a group of words that include a subject and a predicate. Dependent/subordinate clauses cannot stand alone as sentences whereas independent/main clauses can.

Write an example of each type of clause.

Subordinate Clause: especially when they are fried.

Main Clause: I like potatoes.

In the following paragraph, identify subordinate (dependent) clauses with parentheses () and main (independent) clauses with brackets [].

Whenever the arrows of outrageous fortune threaten Albert), [he resolves to get a job]. (Unemployment is) [what he knows best]. Nevertheless, the threat of eviction from his apartment, [which looms like a black cloud], is very unpleasant. [Albert's landlord seems serious this time] (because the eviction notice arrived by priority post). [the clock has just struck noon], and [Albert has decided to search for gainful employment.]

Part B) Identify sentence faults in the following paragraph: enclose sentence fragments in brackets [], enclose fused sentences in parentheses (), and underline comma splices.

Albert's first stop is the fast-food restaurant at the corner of Clementine and Main. There is a "Help Wanted" sign in the window, however it asks for experience in burger-flipping. [Which Albert has never done.] in fact, the only jobs he's ever held, briefly, were in the Department of Physics at Queen's University. (One involved writing grant proposals the other involved tutoring graduate students). Albert decides not to enter the fast-food restaurant.

Part C) Write a correct version of the previous paragraph.

Albert's first stop is the fast-food restaurant at the corner of Clementine and Main. There is a "Help Wanted" sign in the window. However, it asks for experience in burger flipping and Albert has never flipped burgers. In fact, the only jobs he's ever held were brief ones in the Department of Physics at Queen's University. One job involved writing grant proposals; the other involved tutoring graduate students. Albert decides not to enter the fast-food restaurant.


Learn to use subordination and coordination in order to show relationships between ideas in sentences. Learn to identify and correct faulty parallelism.

Part a) Combine each of the following sets of sentences into one sentence that is an example of coordination and one sentence that is an example of subordination.

1) Suzanne liked the control that driving her own…… [read more]

Rice Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,724 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Rice is one of the most important crops grown in the world. Many, especially Asian cultures rely on a large amount of rice every day to sustain life, supplemented with vegetables and in good times some meat. Therefore the growing of rice as a commodity is an absolutely essential aspect of the sustenance of life. Rice then becomes one of… [read more]

Ageless Benefits of Pure Dark Chocolate Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,712 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Chocolate Health

The Health Benefits of Dark Chocolate

Chocolate may well be one of the rare consumables that belies the old assumption regarding that which is healthy and that which is enjoyable to eat. The conventional logic suggests that these two qualities rarely intersect. However, the larger body of research concerning the intake of cacao indicates that indeed there are… [read more]

Simplifying My Life Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (974 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … woke up on the sheets my mother gave me, which are soft and apparently expensive. I have no idea where she bought them or where they were manufactured, though. Many high-end products are not ethically produced, any more so than the cheap items sold at Wal*Mart. However, as I reflect on my consumer purchases I deepen my commitment to steer clear of Wal*Mart, not just because of their support of environmentally stupid manufacturing processes and human rights abuses abroad but also because of their labor policies. Any company the size of Wal*Mart should be able to create a workforce that makes above the minimum wage and one that also takes pride in their jobs. Instead, Wal*Mart panders to the consumer society by promising "jobs" that mean only pocket change to people who need real income to feed themselves if not also their families. Meditating on the labor force helps me to see more where my consumer purchases affect the globe. I would prefer to live in a society that does not tolerate a whole class of working poor while professing to be the greatest nation on earth. If I have to spend slightly more at a store that treats their workers well, then those few dollars extra are well spent.

When I open my breakfast cereal, I do not feel guilty. I actually know that the manufacturer appreciates whole grains because they actually do taste good, in spite of the propaganda delivered by the mass-market sugar industry. Sugar is fine in moderation, but in excess has caused tremendous harm to individuals as well as to the environment. The manufacturer of my organic whole grain cereal might appreciate organically grown whole grains because they are financially feasible and if so, the market has spoken. Profit is not the problem; ethics are.

Looking in my refrigerator I notice that I have been spending more money on food because I want to purchase organic as well as locally produced products. Organic products, no matter what products they are, help build market interest in the organic farming industry. Greater consumer interest means more support for organic farming, which in turn means cheaper and more readily available organic goods.

My kitchen contains a wide variety of foods, some of which I am proud of and others of which I am not. I do feel better when I buy and consume products from companies that use organic ingredients even if those companies also produce non-organic counterparts too. For example, a major potato chip manufacturer still makes their standard familiar brand but recently branched out into the organic market sector and now makes organic chips.

In fact, I know that my dollars prove the market demands increased production of organic goods. Today I went grocery shopping and carefully watched what I spent my money on. I used to buy whatever item was cheapest or whatever brand name I was familiar with but…… [read more]

Statistical Case Study

Case Study  |  8 pages (2,324 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Statistical Case Study: The Possibility

Statistical analysis may be a useful tool in examining the possibilities which are open to a business, and may be used to assist in the decision-making process. This paper will examine the use of the statistical technique known as linear programming in relation to two case studies based in the restaurant business.

The first case-study… [read more]

Technology the Hazards and Benefits Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2




Throughout the history of science, new advances and discoveries have had to confront criticisms from those worried about the possible dangers associated with new technology. During the Middle Ages, astronomers like Giordano Bruno were burned at the stake for publicizing astronomical observations that contradicted religious teachings about the origin and history of the Solar System. Even Galileo was branded a heretic, threatened with torture and death, and ultimately confined to the Medieval equivalent of "house arrest" for the remainder of his life (Bishop 1997).

On the other hand, new technologies and modern applications of science are not necessarily entirely risk free. Especially when science is conducted or applied for the purposes of business for profit, the risks naturally associated with them are magnified dramatically. Ecological history provides numerous examples illustrating the potential risks of irresponsible scientific applications (Rifkin 2004).

Discussion of the Issue:

Modern genetic technology represents a fundamental difference between the types of agricultural advances before and after the genetic revolution made possible by the technologies of the Genetic Age. Previously, scientists were limited by the natural processes of genetic inheritance; since the beginning of the modern science of genetic engineering, the limits have changed substantially. Now, for the first time, scientists are actually creating new life forms (Rifkin 2004).

Ecological history provides numerous examples of the types of risks posed by the artificial introduction of non-indigenous species into an existing ecosystem. The many examples of devastation caused by non-native organisms within a foreign ecosystem include the Gypsy moth, Kudzu vine, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, among others (Rifkin 2004). In the case of artificially produced new forms of life created in laboratories, the dangers are potentially even greater for several reasons.

First, both natural evolution and even traditional scientific agricultural methods result in much slower and less dramatic types of changes than those made possible through the use of modern genetic engineering. Second, the profit motive sometimes overshadows these concern; third, many applications of genetically engineered agriculture relate to creating stronger crops that are more resistant to disease along with the simultaneous development of stronger pesticides. In addition to these major concerns, modern agricultural engineering science also presents possible dangers of depleting the agricultural gene pool and the production of new foods…… [read more]

Smithfield Foods Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,270 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Morality and the Americans -

Smithfield Foods

About a century ago, the meat industry was quite limited, basically formed from small farms, owned by individuals, growing animals and selling them for meat. The times were quite prosperous, but the first problems aroused in the 1970s, when newer growing processes were developed. The family farms came to balance during the 1990s, when the first corporate, or factory farms, were introduced. The Smithfield Foods was one of these large and competitive farms. "Large metal sheds with concrete floors were built, each designed to hold up to 1,000 hogs. Feeding was by means of a mechanized conveyor that carried food alongside both walls. Waste was removed by hosing it off the floors to a central trough that carried it to a storage lagoon. Temperature was controlled by huge fans at each end of each shed. Every effort was made to reduce costs" (Hosmer, 2004). Smithfield's primary competitors are the Cargill Meat Solutions, Hormel and Tyson Foods (Hoovers, 2008).

However, the role of the family farms has decreased to a certain extent, they still represent important players, which are in the end responsible for the success or failure of the factory farms. The players in the industry today use family farms to raise the hogs, and then purchase them and sell the produced meat items. "The responsibility of the farm family was to raise those hogs to marketable weight as quickly and as efficiently as possible. This was termed contract farming" (Hosmer, 2004). The operational risks of the farmers and the buying organization are shared in varying proportions.

Regardless of the family farms of the factory farms, fact remains that the industry has developed significantly, and most importantly, this growth has led to the creation of additional jobs.

Smithfield Foods bases their business model on various strategic approaches, a relevant and highly successful one being that of using franchising operations. Also, they were able to combine franchising with exclusive contracts. Through these operations, the meat producer was able to get constant access to fresh meat, which would they then transform into high quality products; also, the exclusive contracts ensured the manufacturer that the competition would be restricted from their raw materials and that the items they produced would be unique. Ergo, the competitive state is quite strong from this instance. "The company had exclusive U.S. franchise rights to a proprietary breed of SPG sows that accounted for about 55% of its herd and provided live hogs for its best-selling Smithfield Lean Generation Pork products" (Hosmer, 2004).

Another successful strategic approach was given by the international expansion implemented by the executives at Smithfield Foods. In this order of ideas, the company began small, through several acquisitions in the United States. An acquisition in 2002 for instance, turned them into the U.S. fifth largest producer. More recently, the organization has become increasingly aware of the opportunities presented by the expansion of the European Union. All in all, since 1981, the company has signed 32 deals of… [read more]

Ethical Legal and Social Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Advertising - Ethical Issues


Ethical Issues in Food Advertising:

Advertising in the United States has come a long way since the era of Hollywood movie stars doing television commercials for Lucky Strikes cigarettes. Nowadays, the ethical component of advertising requires that statements about products be truthful and limits the advertising options available to certain types of products altogether. Alcohol consumption, for example, may no longer be depicted in television advertisements because of its potential to influence young people to emulate what they see on the screen. It is still permissible to advertise fast food products without restrictions of this type, but it is conceivable that in time ethical concerns over the nationwide epidemic of obesity (Gibbs 2007), especially among children, will limit the types of advertisement currently available to the industry.

Legal Issues in Food Advertising:

Liability concerns have arisen in litigation over food and beverages in several contexts already, including cases over hot coffee that was alleged to be too hot and fast food that was allegedly advertised deceptively, thereby contributing to the consumer's obesity and weight-related health problems (Howard 2005). Legislation restricting the time, place, or manner of commercial advertising is nothing new (Halbert & Ingulli 2000), but the recent liability claims suggest that advertisers must adapt their messages to anticipate possible adverse consequences, especially where the products involved may be associated with negative consequences to the user.

Social Issues in Food Advertising:

As mentioned previously in another context, obesity is national concern and the fast food industry has been widely implicated as one of the main factors contributing to the national obesity epidemic (Gibbs 2007). To the extent that association is accurate, it raises legitimate social issues because obesity is known to be a major cause of a variety of medical conditions and serious ailments including diabetes, heart disease, asthma, and arthritis, just to name a few. Therefore, social consciousness demands that the fast food industry consider the long-term effects of its products on society

Challenges to the Healthy Fast Food Industry:

The primary challenge to the healthy fast food industry is simply distinguishing itself from traditional fast food. On one hand, the viability and success of healthy fast food ventures depends on its ability to mirror the associations triggered by the draw of traditional fast food, which means it must be convenient, fast, and extremely recognizable from the consumer's perspective. On the other hand, the entire healthy…… [read more]

Salmonella and Tomato Scare Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Tomato Scare Slams Florida Tomato Crops

At the peak of the shipping season, Florida tomato growers' products' lie at a standstill, packing houses sit quite and empty, and fieldworkers have disappeared further north to pick cotton, even though the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared Florida tomatoes as safe to eat after a statewide inspection. It could be a major blow to the $50 million Florida tomato industry.

Worried about consumer safety, Florida tomatoes growers pulled their products after news of a nationwide salmonella outbreak hit the news on Monday. It took over 24 hours for the FDA to clear Florida tomatoes from any blame in the outbreak, but consumers aren't convinced, and the tomatoes, ready and waiting for shipping, instead remain rotting in packing houses all around the state.

Growers want the public to know their products are safe, but stores and restaurants, following public concern, are largely keeping tomatoes off their menus, leaving the growers frustrated and concerned. Doug Archer, Associate Dean for the Institute of Food and Agricultural Science at the University of Florida in Gainesville said, "If consumers stop buying tomatoes, the state's tomato industry could lose more than $40 million."

Word of the salmonella outbreak first broke on June 3 from the FDA, and cases quickly multiplied as news of the outbreak spread. The FDA determined raw red plum, Roma, or red tomatoes were not safe to eat, but restaurants and supermarkets voluntarily pulled all raw tomatoes from the shelves as consumers reacted to the outbreak. The salmonella strain traced to the tomatoes is Saintpaul, a rare form of the bacterial disease. Since April 167 cases of salmonella have been reported in 17 states, with the most cases in New Mexico and Texas. There has been at…… [read more]

US Soybean Export Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,558 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


U.S. Soybean Export

The United States represents the largest economy of the globe in terms of measured gross domestic product and China is the second largest global economy, in terms of the same measurements. The two countries have been trading for decades now. China is U.S.' fourth export partner and the second import partner in terms of traded quantities. For… [read more]

Consumer Profile Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (826 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Consumer Profile

Urban society creates different living styles determined by its individuals. Subway and healthy fast food establishments represent an alternative to the fattening food. Eating on the run represents for the most active people the habitual way of eating and the sales in the fast food industry increasing about 5% per year (the Globalist, 2005). According to a market research on www.vizu.com,41% of 222 respondents say that healthy fast food establishments are not enough and that "people even claim that they would be willing to pay more for a healthier hamburger and fries fast food option. Specifically 65% of 1174 respondents to date say that they would pay at least 10% more and 48% say that would pay 25% more.." Having the well-known story of Jared Fogle as a real fact, Subway restaurants are dedicated to people who decided to take control of their weight, eating right. Jared Fogle inspired other people and made them to follow his exemple. Healthy fast foods restaurants consumers' are people from different geographical areas all over the world: there is Subway chain with 29327 restaurants covering a part of healthy food needs in 86 countries (www.subway.com),from urban area (Subway restaurants and other healthy fast food chains are in the main cities of the countries). Based on www.vizu.commarketing research, the main consumer's category of healthy fast food is represented by people between 25 and 54 years old (from 4512 respondents): 11,1% visit more than 7 times a week a healthy fast food restaurant, 11,1% visit 4-6 times a week, 44,4% visit 2-3 times a week, 22,2% visit once a week, 11,1% declare that they never visit a healthy fast food restaurant. Not married people between 25 and 54 years old prefer to eat in healthy fast food restaurant at least once a week (83,3%, according to the same source: (www.vizu.com).Families with minimum two members interviewed on vizu web poll prefer to visit the healthy fast food restaurants, while 25% of singles never visit it. Income is another demographic parameter that influences the consumer. Healthy fast food is not as cheep as the traditional fast food.

Obesity and other diseases related to a chaotic lifestyle begin to be the strongest argument for choosing a healthy diet. People begin to learn how to manage their lives based on healthy decisions. The healthy fast food consumer wants to be healthier, to look better, to lose weight or to maintain its weight eating regular, without starvation. Officially, two-thirds of American adults…… [read more]

Canadian Red Wine Business Plan for Los Angeles California Business Plan

Business Plan  |  20 pages (5,946 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Canadian Red Wine

This is a preliminary plan for the Tropika company to develop a unit that will import Canadian red wine into the Los Angeles market and establish that product as a viable item for the low to medium priced wine consumer. Canadian wine has a long history, but it is not well-known in the U.S. market. In contrast,… [read more]

Gmfood Biotechnology Is Still Developing and Requires Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,766 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8



Biotechnology is still developing and requires rigorous evaluation and regulation before it can be safely accepted. With the present divided opinion among the scientific community and the absence of biosafety standards in many countries, embracing the 'biotechnology way' as an answer to the food requirements of the world, presents a difficult choice.

Biotechnology has advanced at an amazing pace… [read more]

Sociology and Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (623 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Dominant Culture & Entertainment

The dominant culture of the United States is transmitted through the content of its entertainment industry. That content is shaped by those concerned with profit: the heads of media and media conglomerates, book publishers, movie studios, television networks, Web sites, and athletic teams. The dominant ideologies of the United States are regularly transmitted via the content in each of these entertainment fields. For example, imagery related to heterosexual and homosexual relationships transmits social norms and values related to human sexuality and social networking. Similarly, issues related to ethnicity, race, and religion are communicated in the pages of literature or on television. Images of beauty, of femininity and masculinity, pervade the entertainment industry. Those images become ingrained in public consciousness and shape self-image and identity in America.

Discussion 2: The dominant culture of the United States is also transmitted through the content of its new media, which has become "infotainment." Dominant ideology is evident in the types of stories that are accepted for publication or broadcasts and the tone in which journalists and editors address political or social issues. For example, health care is a hot topic in the American media. The media presents the issue of health care in ways that disparage the idea of socialized medicine. Portraying terms like "socialized medicine" in a negative light perpetuates the underlying political and social realities in the United States.

Discussion 3: The dominant culture in the United States is evident also in advertising content and imagery. Because advertising supports the American media, those product placements are integral to popular culture. Images of wealth and power, of masculinity and femininity, are as evident in advertisements as they are in the actual content of whatever those ads sponsor. Changing social values such as the increased visibility of people of color, of women in positions of power, and of gays and…… [read more]

Movie Review Chocolat Movie Review

Movie Review  |  1 pages (488 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Chocolat Directed by Lasse Hallsstrom. Starring Johnny Depp. 2000.

Why does Vianne encounter such resistance to the opening of her chocolate shop?

The small French provincial village where Vianne and her daughter open their shop is extremely pleasure-denying. Denying pleasure and religion are seen as synonymous, and this is reinforced in the sermons of Father Henri and the mayor of the town Comte de Reynaud.

What is the significance of Lent in this small French village?

Lent, which occurs during the time when Vianne opens her shop, is a time to deny the pleasures of the body and of consumption even more so than usual.

What special properties or power does Vianne's chocolate have?

Vianne's chocolate causes people to feel passion and love, and to heal and forgive their old wounds.

How does Vianne's chocolate reflect her heritage?

Vianne does not come from the same conventional, Christian French background as the dwellers of the town, and thus her more Latinate celebration of pleasure and her chocolate creations are in some sense fused. She is of foreign heritage, unlike the residents of the town who have never moved away for most of their lives. They are stagnant while Vianne is mobile and pliable, like chocolate and like the body itself.

5. What role does food (chocolate) play in bringing people together in this film?

Coming into the chocolate shop causes people to encounter people who they have loved from afar, and chocolate becomes a vehicle…… [read more]

Trade Issues Surrounding an Internationally Traded Good Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,013 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … Trade Issues Surrounding an Internationally Traded Good or Service of Your Choice

Trade Issues for Agricultural Products

With market liberalization and globalization, along came a multitude of issues which must be addressed and resolved. As such, since more and more countries are able to freely exchange their products, services, capital and even human resources, international organizations have been… [read more]

Pizza Hut in Egypt Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,946 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


Pizza Hut in Egypt and the United Kingdom

The fast food industry represents one of the greatest achievements of the 20th century in the light of the impact it had on the population as well as for the reactions it triggered in the world of business, economics, and most importantly in terms of corporate affairs. From a business market point-of-view,… [read more]

New York Times, by Benedict Carey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,321 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … New York Times, by Benedict Carey, "Who's Minding the Mind," he explains that a considerable number of research studies on human cognition have found that human beings are more reactive than they might think. It is believed, or hoped, that humans are very proactive and consciously control their thoughts and behavior. However, studies show that there continues to be a strong instinctual part of the reptilian brain that makes unconscious decisions on its own. When looking at history, this conclusion should not come as any surprise. In many cases, humans are reactive rather than proactive. The two readings "Technology, Trauma and the Wild," by Chellis Glendinning and "The Ancient Ones" a chapter about the Anasazi in Jared Diamond's book Collapse, both show this human tendency of reaction. Whether it is the Anasazi of approximately 600 AD or humans of the 21st century, it appears that the tendency is to only be proactive when it is too late.

Why did such an advanced culture as the Anasazi collapse? According to Diamond, agriculture was such an integral aspect of this society that when the crops began to fail and finally the drought came in, they were unable to adapt. This same question is relevant today. Humans in most nations of the world are highly reliant on technology, or even addicted to it as Glendinning details, because of its benefits in health, mental and physical well being and entertainment/social life. Yet, as it is becoming increasingly known, this same technology is causing such problems as deforestation, tropical rainforests destruction, over-fishing, soil erosion and salinization, global warming, depletion of fresh water supply, energy exhaustion, toxics in air, water and soil and overpopulation. On top of this, according to Glendinning, other aspects in our society such as child abuse can also be seen as indicative of this technology addiction, as well as a possibility of beginning to disassociate if major changes occur.

According to Diamond, the Anasazi were very innovative in their ability to survive in their difficult environment of low water, irregular rainfall, and nutrient-poor soils. As the population grew, they fed on agriculture, which sometimes used irrigation to flood the fields. The Anasazi cut down trees for firewood and, in some places more than others, for construction. In every agricultural location, they caused environmental problems with extensive tree cutting and soil exhaustion. Then, they would abandon the site and move on after a few decades. The closer areas became so deforested that they had to go farther and farther away for lumber, until finally they were getting 600-pound logs from 75 miles away and about 4,000 feet above the settlements. In addition, the water levels dropped too low for irrigation and the draught hit. The Anasazi's society could not carry on.

Of interest in the Anasazi situation is that they either they did not have the ability to learn from their experiences, did not care about the outcomes, or thought there were other opportunities. Every few decades, they would destroy the… [read more]

Pizza Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,490 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Pizza Business

Family owned small businesses are frequently left out of the loop when it comes to managerial and accounting science as frequently the owner and/or managers tend to believe that the limited level of operations is manageable via the use of traditional organizational means, or those employed historically. The result is frequently that the individual family business may be… [read more]

Hollandaise Sauce Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,816 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Hollandaise sauce: a history, how it is used and when it is the appropriate time to use it.

Hollandaise sauce is one of the classic sauces of French cuisine, a sauce that is still popular and much-used in restaurants today. Any chef, regardless of whether he or she likes to use the sauce frequently, should know how to prepare a… [read more]

Green Revolution vs. Gmos Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,538 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Green Revolution vs. GMOs

As the world population grows, humans face new challenges regarding how to feed the population. This problem is not new and industrialized nations led the race to develop crops that were more productive, disease resistant and that have more uses. During the 1960s and 1970s producers began an intensive program to develop crops that met the… [read more]

Attitudes Towards the Environment in the Developed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,861 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Attitudes Towards the Environment in the Developed and Developing World

The objective of this work is to examine the differences in attitudes towards the environment in the developed and developing world.

The work of Riley E. Dunlap (1994) entitled: "International Attitudes Towards Environment and Development" relates: "Conventional wisdom holds that concern for the environment is limited to residents… [read more]

Grant Proposal for Theoretical Nutritional Program Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (856 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Grant Proposal for Theoretical Health or Nutrition-Oriented Project

The Community Food Security Coalition CFSC

Community Conservation and Health Education Center

The goals and objectives of the proposal include:

Meeting the nutritional needs of people living in low socio-economic regions of the community.

Increasing the autonomy of individuals living in communities that need food assistance and those that need health assistance.

Promoting logical and helpful information on request about nutrition or health-related issues using our website and pamphlets, and health promotions teams.

Working with agricultural specialists to convert farms to sustainable living environments that will sustain the community in the future and for years to come.

Meeting the specific food and agriculture needs to help create an infrastructure that will allow for development and long-term planning that will benefit consumers and producers.

Providing the children with community recreational support that will provide free nutrition and meals to children living in low socio-economic environments.

Focus Area

Community outreach programs, religious non-profits, farmers' markets, youth, sustainable agriculturalists, health centers within the community, recreation centers, educational facilities for grade school children.


The Community Conservation and Health Education Center is committed to providing health and nutritional information and support to regional facilities by taking advantage of community collaboration and by working directly with rural and urban agriculture, with local healthcare providers and nursing teams, with educational and training facilities and with local food market development teams.


The CCHEC is an organization formed in January of 2007 that is committed to providing the surrounding community with health and nutritional information and education. The organization will also provide the community with health support in the way of screenings for common health problems and with support for agriculturalists interested in learning more about creating healthy sustainable agricultural farms that will provide for the health and nutritional needs of the community.

The CCHEC has expanded its network to also provide solutions that will enable the restructuring and restoration of agricultural farming communities and entities that require building assistance and information pertaining to sustainable living through health and nutritional resources and information.

Previous to the creation of the CCHEC, there was no central unifying body within the area providing educational and health assistance to people in need of it including area youths, farmers, agricultural teams and organic food production advocates. The purpose of this program includes reaching out to these communities and providing them with the health and nutritional support they need to pass education on to others.

The CCHED hopes to form a sustainable chain of centers that will expand into different communities and offer…… [read more]

Market Research Vancouver, British Columbia Bakery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,421 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Market Research

Vancouver, British Columbia Bakery and Party Shop Market Analysis

The intent of this plan is to define the market opportunities for a bakery and party shop in British Columbia, using all available secondary research and completing primary research on what brands are selling, at what price, and what consumers' attitudes are regarding a retail shop that could deliver… [read more]

Cultural Diversity Media Reaction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,046 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Japanese food known as 'sushi' was virtually unknown in America. As awareness of the cuisine spread, eating sushi became the punch line of jokes about eating 'raw fish.' Then eating sushi became a kind of exotic cultural status, evidence of an elite individual's urbanity or embrace of the unusual and international. Now, the fact that platters of sushi are available even in supermarkets in the Midwest, according to a newspaper review in the Village Voice of the book the Sushi Economy by Sasha Issenberg, is commonly seen as evidence of America's cultural diversity and pluralism. Consumption of foodstuffs of other nation's products, and consuming them in the right, culturally appropriate fashion has become synonymous with cultural as well as economic globalization. Recall how everyday Russian's ability to eat McDonald's in the 1990s during the age of glasnost was seen as a triumph of capitalism and the new tolerance. KFC today is one of the most popular franchises in China, as it melds the Chinese traditional love of oily, fried food with an icon of Americana, Cornel Sanders.

The embrace of another nation's commodities does not necessarily mean greater tolerance of that nation's culture and people, and create real cultural change, although it can produce this as a kind of byproduct. It can be a symptom of an influx of new immigration and new ideas. The effects of cultural diversity in terms of the Sushi Economy, according to the author of the book, have not always been democratic. Some people in America pride themselves as being more 'in the know' of the different ways and byways of demonstrating one's fluency in this culture, depending on their sushi preferences. It is not enough merely to wield a pair of chopsticks with deftness. According to the author of the review, Nina Lalli: "You aren't being paranoid -- your sushi chef is judging you. If you sit at the bar and order California rolls and then a piece of salmon, you're likely to receive the sorriest, leanest piece of tail meat in the house" (Lalli 2007). In contrast, the other hand, "an outsider who can prove himself a connoisseur, will be rewarded with the most buttery bites" (Lalli, 2007).

Our level of culture and class as Americans, not merely our tolerance and embrace of cultural diversity, is often graded by what we consume, and how we consume different products. Is merely being able to buy different products a marker of good taste, or merely greater buying power? The capitalist, American media often suggests that cultural tolerance and sporting the attributes of another culture is the same, but the presence of sushi in supermarkets may have more to do with marketing than real evidence of an improvement in Japanese-American relations, notes the Sushi Economy. Does the fact we willingly use Toyotas and eat sushi make us more tolerant, or even reveal that we have grown more diverse and more open as a society, or merely the fact these objects may be cheaper than… [read more]

Banana Republic Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (823 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Marketing Proposal - Philadelphia Cream Cheese

Cable Reality TV

One of the most desirable demographics for companies today is the emerging market segment of young consumers in their twenties who are beginning their own independent lifestyles, who are still establishing their long-term brand affiliations, who have weak ties to their current products of choice, and demonstrate a willingness to use their disposable income on a variety of goods other market segments might consider 'frills.' Although Philadelphia has a strong consumer brand identity and loyalty, it may risk losing its core demographic in the future to competitors if it does not retain the patronage of the next generation of consumers, many of whom might disdain the spread for more exotic flavorings.

The cable television market has a strong draw for young consumers, as does the genre of reality TV. Both make ideal venues for Philadelphia to reach a younger demographic of 'foodies.' The pairing of reality TV, cable television, and a product line that wishes to generate revenue amongst a younger market segment which is willing to spend its money fairly freely was recently exemplified by Banana Republic's association with "Project Runway" on the Bravo Network. However, this particular association did not draw the right demographic for the brand, given that the audience is often far more fashion-conscious than the relatively conservative, moderately priced Banana Republic line of clothing.

Bravo's admitted culinary answer to "Project Runway" is "Top Chef" where chefs compete for dominance in a similar elimination format. The series has a strong interactive component as well. Fans can log on to the show's website and look at the recipes created by the chefs such as Episode 13's "Sea Urchin & Meyer Lemon Gelee with Fennel Cream, Caviar & Kalamata Oil" or Episode 10's "Oreo Lemon Pie." Clearly, there is a fascination with cooking and restaurant life amongst young individuals who enjoy seeing chefs take the time and the patience to cook such elaborate food, even if these consumers may only desire to watch others preparing the dishes.

One way to enable the target demographic to experience the gustatory wonders of Top Chef is to engage them in slightly more accessible contests that the audience can relate to in their own kitchen like burger challenges. A 'cheesecake challenge' sponsored by Philadelphia would be an ideal way to create a tasty, comfort food challenge with a recipe that is relatively accessible, uses larger amounts of the product than a smear on a…… [read more]

Marketing Plan Situation Analysis the Dining Restaurant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Marketing Plan

Situation analysis

The dining restaurant will be opened in Melbourne, one of the largest cities in Australia, with an urban population open to a high life style and to culinary experiences. From a demographic perspective, the targeted segment of consumers we are looking at is formed of individuals aged 25 to 60 years (agreeably this is the age category that is likely to afford such a restaurant), with an income level ranging between $400 and $600 weekly, who can afford going out at least once a month to an expensive, fine restaurant.

From a behavioral perspective, the targeted segment of consumer is formed of individuals who are social, most importantly, who like to go out and spend time with their friends and loved ones. Additionally, they will have to have an interest in food as a hobby (this is the type of restaurant who offers fine food, so it is less the type of restaurant where you go in and have lunch) and, a the same time, they are also the type of individuals for whom social status is important (they like to tell their friends where they have been out).

Melbourne's population totaled almost 3.6 million inhabitants, according to the 2006 Census (2006 Census QuickStats). From these, 68.3% of the population is in the 24-64 years age group (the analysis of the targeted segment of consumers showed that this is the relevant age group for us in this sense). Further more, the median individual income in Melbourne is around $481 per week, higher than the median individual income in Australia, which is $466 per week. From this perspective, we can judge that Melbourne is an excellent location from a demographic perspective to open a fine dining restaurant.

On the other hand, Melbourne is also an active urban area, with one of the most cosmopolitan area in Australia. Individuals here have an active social life and are perfect as targeted consumers.


Strengths. The most important strengths of the company is related to the offer the organization is making on the market itself. A 'product' (fine dining restaurant) that targets a certain category of refined individuals can be constantly developed until it reaches the most satisfactory level. Further more, the sources of raw materials are available (meat, wine etc.) and the restaurant can transform itself in a reference on the dining market in Melbourne.

Weaknesses. The main weakness in these cases…… [read more]

Business Plan Shells Fine Dining Restaurant Business Plan

Business Plan  |  10 pages (2,902 words)
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Business Plan Shells Fine Dining Restaurant in Melbourne, Australia

Product Profile

Marketing Plan

Legal Requirements

Human Resources Plan

Operational Plan

Financial Plan

Future Prospect

Business Plan Shells Fine Dining Restaurant in Melbourne, Australia

Business overview

Shells Fine Dining is an 80 seat fine-dining establishment with an attached 30-seat lounge. Shells Fine Dining focuses on fine dining in an elegant and… [read more]

Decision to Expand Large Animal Veterinary Services Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (558 words)
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¶ … decision to expand large animal veterinary services to Randolph County implies that the number of veterinary practices will increase, which means that the dependent variable in this case is the gap between the actual demand for large animal veterinary services and the supply. If the actual demand for this type of service is higher than their supply and people can afford to pay for them, then expansion has economic sense. Conversely, if the actual demand is below the supply and/or people can't afford to pay for the services, expansion is not a feasible idea.

The first step to determine the market supply is to determine the capacity of the existing veterinary practices in Randolph County to serve the town's demand for veterinary services. The demand is of 2 types: one type for pet care and the other one for food animal (health, maintenance and emergency).

For the sake of the exercise, let us assume that each existing veterinary practice has the capacity to serve 30% of the vet services for pets and 20% of the vet services for food animal. According to West Virginia Bureau of Employment Programs, in the end of 2006, the number of vet practices in Randolph County is 3 and the number of employees is 16 (WVBEP, 2006). Since that the agricultural activity is high in this area, which implies high potential for veterinary activity and since we know that vet activity employs 0.6% of the 'Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services' industry, which at its turn employs 5.2% of the U.S. population (BLS, 2007).

The supply capacity is equal to: the number of vet practices multiplied by their capacity to deliver pet care…… [read more]

Guns, Germs on Page 20, Jared Diamond Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,398 words)
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Guns, Germs

On page 20, Jared Diamond claims that "From the very beginning of my work with New Guineans, they impressed me as being on the average more intelligent, more alert, more expressive...than the average European or American is." The author substantiates his claim with two main reasons. First, Diamond refers to genetics, noting that "natural selection promoting genes for intelligence has probably been far more ruthless in New Guinea than in more densely populated, politically complex societies, (p. 21). Europeans have been living in "densely populated societies with central governments, police and judiciaries" in which "infectious epidemic diseases" were the major cause of death (p. 20-21). Surviving an infectious disease requires the right blood type or genes, and not intelligence. Any survivor of an epidemic would pass on his or her genes to the next generation, causing genetic evolution in that society to be based on disease immunity rather than on intelligence.

In contrast, "murder, chronic warfare accidents, and problems in procuring food" were the main causes of death in traditional New Guinean society. Surviving these threats inherently demands intelligence. Mainly intelligent survivors passed on their genes to the next generation in New Guinea, creating on the whole a gene pool favoring intelligence over disease resistance.

A second reason why Diamond asserts that New Guineans are more intelligent than their European counterparts is related to lifestyle habits. As the author notes, North American children spend much of their time being passively entertained by radio, television, and movies (p. 21). New Guinean children, on the other hand, "have virtually no such opportunities for passive entertainment" and as a result become more intelligently responsive to their environment (p. 21). Diamond backs up his claim by stating that "Almost all studies of child development emphasize the role of childhood stimulation and activity in promoting mental development, and stress the irreversible mental stunting associated with reduced childhood stimulation," (p. 21). Thus, Diamond's observations regarding superior intelligence among New Guineans is due to a combination of genetic and socio-cognitive factors.

3. Proximate causes can obscure the real reasons for why some societies conquer others. Looking deeper into geographical history helps reveal the ultimate causes for why some civilizations became sedentary, tied to animal domestication and agriculture, and organized around a central government. Proximate causes are meaningful but provide only superficial explanations for the differences between societies in different parts of the world. It is important to differentiate between the two, to understand why the proximate causes arose in the first place.

The presence of guns, germs, and steel in Europe were "directly responsible for European conquests," (p. 23). However, stopping at these proximate causes as valid answers to Yali's question fails to address the overarching question of why those proximate causes arose in the first place: why Europeans developed guns, germs, and steel instead of Africans or Native Americans. Not investigating ultimate causes leaves a "big intellectual gap," according to the author (p. 24). As Diamond points out, everything worked in Africa's favor during… [read more]

Market Research Because Expansion Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (834 words)
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Market Research

Because expansion is one of Kudler Fine Foods' immediate objectives, this gourmet food shop needs to research new locations that will be conducive to market success and to avoid costly investment mistakes.

Customers are the foundation of any successful business. Effective market research will help Kudler Fine Foods increase its sales and profits by understanding which locations will deliver access to its target audience and what store adjustments it may need to make to its gourmet food shop product lines and services to meet the needs of customers in different locations. Demographic, competitive and customer research will all benefit Kudler in making the right investment decision and executing a market strategy that is based on the voice of the customer.

When researching new locations, the first priority is to make sure that the demographics of the area meet with Kudler Fine Foods' target market segment characteristics such as level of income, education, age, family size, etc. The gourmet food market has close substitutes, namely groceries from larger supermarkets. Therefore, if the location does not have enough of the specific target audience who are likely purchases of Kudler's high-end goods, the chances of success will be lower because consumers in the area will continue to shop at supermarkets. For instance, a low-income family on a limited budget isn't likely to shop at Kudler Fine Foods because they simply cannot afford to do so.

Kudler will also need to understand the nature of competition in the local area, both direct (other gourmet food and specialty stores) and indirect (grocery and convenience stores) competition. All of these stores will be competing for the business of Kudler's target audience and too much competition will decrease its likelihood of success. With its newly gained competitive intelligence and analysis, Kudler needs use this knowledge to make sure that it will be able to offer differentiated products and services from the established competition at the right price points.

Currently, all of Kudler stores offer a bakery, meat and seafood, produce, cheese and dairy as well as wine. but, these may not always be the most profitable product lines for every location. Based on demographic and competitive research of a geographic location, Kudler Fine Foods needs to consider what types of products are the most appealing to a given location. For example, after researching a location, it may find that the location is desirable except for the prevalence of many specialty wine stores who would compete with its wine department. Even so, it…… [read more]

Global Financial Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Financial Management

Hanft, Adam. (Oct 2003) "The Zentrepreneur." Inc. Magazine. Retrieved 15 Mar 2007 at http://www.inc.com/magazine/20031001/zentrepreneur_Printer_Friendly.html

This article provides a refreshing profile of what it calls the second type of entrepreneurs, what it calls a Zentrepreneurs, who may not have always known what enterprise was their reason for being (unlike the first, highly planned kind), but who have "a wide-angle view of things" and are processing and scanning" the commercial environment "all the time" (Hanft, 2003). Phil Suarez is one of the leaders of the culinary world in fine dining. His most recent venture is a high-end Asian restaurant named 66, and 66 deploys the type of Asian fusion cuisine that takes even the most jaded palates by surprise. Yet although Suarez has an empire, but it is an empire without a plan.

On one hand, it is somewhat frustrating to read this article, although the account of the meal had by the author and the Zentrepreneur is certainly entertaining. How is it possible to find feasible advice from the career of a man who seems to take whatever life offers him? However, it…… [read more]

Economics of the U.S. Wine Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,081 words)
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¶ … Economics of the U.S. Wine Industry

The wine industry in the U.S. began small with most of it accounted for by import until its expansion in California in the early 20th century (Geisler 2006). It was prohibited for a time and then revived in the early 70s and directed by aggressive demands for better quality wine products. Between… [read more]

Farming the Home Place Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,028 words)
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Farming the Home Place -- Tilling the American Land, Before and After Internment

In 1909, nearly half of the immigrant Japanese population within the United States worked in agriculture. These farmers were often called Issei farmers, a Japanese word that came to specifically designate these first-generation tillers of the soil. (Masumoto, p.23) Learning of this community's tie to the land made the later internment and displacement of Japanese-Americans, which wrenched these farmers not simply from their personal homes, but also from the regional area of the United States that was the source of their community's livelihoods, seem particularly unjust and poignant. Even early on in their life in America, first-generation Japanese farmers faced tremendous discrimination and opposition to their efforts. For example, Sakaguchi Mashu, a "picture bride" and her husband, were forced to continually move so they could make their living tilling the land, because the mandatory, legally enforced tenure of every Asian farmer was only three years, according to the alien land laws designed to limit Japanese farming. (Matsumoto, pp.17; 23) However, even during this early period of legal discrimination, because of the construction of collective agricultural organizations, like the Cortez Growers Association (CGA) the Japanese-American farmers had a sense of community, a sense of community cruelly displaced by internment.

Given the history of tremendous struggle during the pre-internment period, the social and economic damage created by internment was a psychological as well as an economic blow. For example, many "picture brides" initially experienced difficulty making the transition between the more secure community provided in their Japanese homeland. Picture brides went to a foreign land to marry men they had never met, in marriages arranged by their families. Despite the inevitable culture shock, these Japanese farmers were determined to prosper. There was tremendous hostility on the part of large farms and labor unions representing the workers at such farms, against smaller, Japanese farmers. (Matsumoto, p.24) This economic divide became racially coded, and the tensions these bodies felt was vented in explicitly anti-Japanese terms, which led to legal limits upon Japanese immigration and farming that were to foreshadow the later internment efforts. This hatred provides evidence, were further evidence needed, that the executive order permitting the internment of Japanese-Americans was rooted in racial hatred, not national security needs. The War Relocation Authority and Executive Order #9066 creating the camps and allowing the displacement and internment was not merely a terrible fate -- it was an act that specifically declared the civil rights of American citizens null and void, on a federal level, simply because of their place of national origin, despite the contributions these farmers had made to America in the form of agriculture, and the legal obstacles they had already weathered. (Matsumoto, p.93)

The key to the community' survival during the leanest years of early economic development, a time of toil, lean meals of miso soup, and constant anxiety about economic survival was a strong sense of community involvement and common ethnic solidarity in an otherwise hostile land.

The… [read more]

Fast Food Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Yum!Brands Strategy Analysis

With increasing competitive and market consolidation pressure on its core lines of business in the U.S., Yum! Brands turned to international markets for increased revenue and gross margin growth. Through a series of acquisitions Yum! Brands had grown to include Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, Long John Silver's and A & W. restaurants worldwide. Combined these brands comprised 33,000 retail outlets, 12,000 of, which were located internationally, and 21,000 domestically. With significant investments already in international markets, Yum! Brands defined their global growth strategy as developing strong market share in a small number of high-growth markets.

Current financial performance for Yum! Brands also quantified the need for a sense of urgency relative to margin growth. For FY2004 the company reported a 8.21% Corporate-Wide Net Profit Margin with 14% margin from Quick Service Restaurant) QSR-related operations, which has for the previous three years had been trending down based on increased competition from sandwich shops, pizza chains, family restaurants, dinner houses, chicken chains and non-dinner concepts domestically. Internationally however in 2004 Yum! Brands was able to attain a 13% gross margin in International Operations and 20% in the rapidly growing Chinese markets it participated in during 2004.

Despite a fundamental re-ordering of the fast food marketplace happening however, four of the Yum! Brands were the market leaders in their segments. These included Pizza Hut, KFC, Taco Bell, and Long John Silver's. Despite these market leadership positions however the company's financials indicate gross margins are beginning to flatline and KFC is becoming a cash drain despite the reinvigoration of support for the franchisees. Fixing KFC is the highest priority domestically as same-store sales volumes have been lagging industry average through 2003 and 2004. Yum! Brands' ability to penetrate emerging high growth markets and gain significant market share had been proven with profit growth in nearly every geography entered with the exception of Mexico and Early Stage markets. Most significant is the growth of Chinese QSR sales and the potential for greater growth in that geography. Table 1, Yum Brands - International Operating Profit Reconciliation, shows a comparison of profits generated by geography in 1999 compared to 2004.

Table 1: Yum! Brands - International Operating Profit Reconciliation


Yum! Brands needs to look at how a multi-brand global strategy can effectively counterbalance the weaknesses of one brand with the strengths of another, all aimed at penetrating new high growth markets. Domestically this strategy is already in motion with multibranding of KFC and Taco Bell, KFC and A&W, Pizza Hut and Taco Bell, and Pizza Hut and Long John Silver's locations with limited local and national advertising. What Yum! Brands is experimenting with in these multi-brand location strategies is the discovery of economies of scale and enabling the experience effect when it comes to attaining greater profitability in the QSR category of products.

Consolidating two QSRs into one location from different brands also has the potential of making each location more operationally efficient with the potential of dropping labor… [read more]

Brand Management of Bd's Mongolian Barbecue vs. P.F. Chang Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,090 words)
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Brand management of BD's Mongolian Barbeque vs. P.F. Chaing

Both BD's Mongolian Barbeque and P.F. Chang are U.S. based organizations acting within the framework of the food industry, focused on the specific traits of the Mongolian and, respectively, Chinese cuisine. Despite having the same activity profile, their brand image is built through different levers that highlight each company's personality and positioning aim.

In order to discuss the parallelism between the two organizations, a primary aspect that one could mention refers to the ingredients which make a brand unique.

BD's Mongolian Barbeque's unique selling proposition (U.S.P) derives from a rather ludic profile because it lays a great stress on the idea of "interactive dining experience" (http://www.gomongo.com/)by inviting its clients to create their own stir-fry. Consequently, it targets a segment that is willing to have the initiative of its own meal while relaxing and having fun, at the same time. The idea of breaking routine boundaries and differentiating from other people who are afraid to try something new or unconventional is perfectly outlined by the company's slogans determining to action: "BDifferent! Go Mongo," "Create your own stir-fry!," "BD's is an interactive casual dining experience focused on fun, choice, control" or "You rule the experience" (http://www.gomongo.com/).Thus, the main emphasis is on the customer seen as an individual who wants to stand out rather than a part of a drove, generically called "clients." On the other hand, BD's specificity is also provided by the conspicuous resemblance existing between the style of a culinary journey, in a BD restaurant, and the manner in which Genghis Khan's warriors or Mighty Khan's haunters used to eat. For instance, a proof showing BD's strongly enrooting in Mongolian history is the design of BD restaurants "out in the open, on a large round stone grille" (http://www.gomongo.com/),reminding of Mongolian ancestors.

Unlike BD's idea of converting clients to highly-motivated participants in the cooking process, P.F. Chang focuses on diligently serving its customers through a competent, reliable staff who is always ready to guide clients when these are at a loss. P.F. Chang's uniqueness is mainly based on the Chinese cultural background whose essence is expressed by the company's goal:"attaining harmony of taste, texture, color, and aroma by balancing the Chinese principles of fan and t'sai. Fan foods include rice, noodles, grains, and dumplings, while vegetables, meat, poultry, and seafood are t'sai foods" (http://www.pfchangs.com/).

Another item that contributes to P.F. Chang's brand personality is the major role of the wine list presenting wines arranged from "the highest to the most intense." This transforms Bacchus' liquor into a drink accessible to all consumers.

P.F. Chang's brand image is also completed by the company's preoccupation with ensuring the proper nutrition for each type of client. This principle explains the "gluten free menu" addressing to people intolerant with this substance and the "training table menu," oriented to people taking part in energy-consuming events who need a higher energetic value.

In contrast with BD, P.F. Chang's creative strategy doesn't abound in slogans highlighting its uniqueness. It… [read more]

Popularity of Foreign Restaurant: Consumer Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  27 pages (7,176 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 27


8m visitors to Thailand last year -- up 7.3 per cent on 1997 -- passed through Bangkok." (Cooke, 1999)

Additionally, according to Cooke (1999), "One of the pleasures of Bangkok is eating. While there are Thai restaurants on virtually every street corner, the capital also has a wealth of other cuisines on offer. A number of the more unusual establishments… [read more]

Marketing Plan for Vinny's Prima Prego Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  18 pages (6,435 words)
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Vinny's Prima Prego! Is a blossoming gourmet pasta restaurant in Kansas City with a rapidly developing consumer brand and growing customer base. The restaurant is to serve the younger generation of working professionals living in Kansas City. The restaurant faces stiff competition from various other restaurants but the one of the main ways of gaining competitive advantage is to offer… [read more]

Students' Absence. My First Hypothesis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Did any of the non-absent student partake of that food too

My second hypothesis for this spoke of absences is the following: a fever-related disease- swine flue for instance. The school site shows that the same incident happened a year ago. Even thoguh the case focuses on the band students, it may be that students of other classes were absent too. Or that the band students involved themselves in some activity or became infected by some substance related to their band practice that caused them to become infected with this specific fever.

In this case, my six testable questions would be the following:

1. Were any students from other classes absent during this period too

2. Were absent students suffering from fever

3. The reason for absences of students form other classes (if there were absences)

4. Was there a high number of band students absent the year before too

5. Is this ration of absence of band students higher than that of students form other classes

6. Is there any specific activity during this month that differs from the rest of the year? May this be linked to outbreak of fever?

Is the following statement a suitable hypothesis: "The Brentwood Indians basketball team lost the state championship because there is bad stuff in the stars happening with Mars in Aquarius"? Explain why or why not.

The statement is not a suitable hypothesis since 'bad stuff in the stars' is an astrological phenomenon that cannot be examined by testable…… [read more]

Deforestation in the Amazon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Deforestation in the Amazon

One of the consequences of modernization and industrialization is that certain primeval lands become more desirable for human settlement, agriculture, timber mining, and other land development. This has happened throughout history, as primitive tribes and even the Ancient Empires used up resources in a given area and then moved on. However, one specific and quite serious… [read more]

Genetic Engineering the Answer to Hunger Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,059 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Genetic Engineering the Answer to Hunger

Over the last several years, the issue of genetic engineering, as a way to address the growing world hunger problem has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Simply put, genetic engineering is when you are manipulating the DNA in various genes to: create different desirable traits in the organism. In the case… [read more]

American Product That Is Not Readily Present but Was Sought After in Turkey Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Demand for American Soy Products in Turkey

Just as American peanut butter is always in great demand in Turkey, so are American soy products. Tofu, in particular, is in demand by young people who have an interest in vegetarianism and vegan life styles because it is one of the best sources of protein within vegetarian and vegan diets. Tofu is also in demand in Turkey because it is readily able to be incorporated into many types of traditional Turkish and Mediterranean dishes, largely because of it consistency which is very similar to soft cheeses. Tofu is very high in protein and low in dietary fat. American soy milk is also in demand in Turkey because it is a good nutritional equivalent of cow's milk and it can be used for many of the same types of purposes as cow's milk. Soy milk is higher in protein and much lower in dietary fat than cow's milk and can…… [read more]

Environmental Material Accounting Phosphorus (P) Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


To locations that are currently deficient in To capture and recycle P. that has drained off of the land and into the streams and rivers, a system of filters can be established along the waterways to capture the P. And aggregate all excess P. into a distribution network for transport to agricultural lands that lack P. The city consumption region is the economic beneficiary of this distribution system and of the food provided. City consumption is the recipient of the product derived from the sustainable use of According to Hammond & White (2008), "Consequently, the only way to recycle phosphorus in the environment is to capture it before iti s released to the sea. While reducing overall use of fertilisers is one option for minimising the environmental burden, breeding crops that utilise the nutrients in the soil and fertiliser more effectively could provide greater sustainability." (Hammond, White, 2008)

The national system should be a contingent system of measures and balances. A national database should be kept and maintained via a website where agricultural economists or farmers whom maintain their crops can access a password protected section of the website that allows them to input the P. levels of their soil. If the P. levels differ, they may enter the range value and the mean/median value. The P. collection system is going to be a system of filtration systems that collect P. In the streams and rivers as runoff from the land. The collected P. will be aggregated and transported to areas throughout the country that are lacking P. For sustainable purposes.

I. Conceptual Design for Sustainable P. Infrastructure System

A. Filtration System

1. Micron filtration system

a. The filtration system is placed where the gradient in streams and rivers shifts downward. As the water trickles down from one land level to the next, the water is filtered of phosphorus while not retaining wildlife from travelling downstream.

b.) The filstration system is placed in the aforementioned strategic locations throughout the country and especially where runoff from rain events are evident, as near mountainsides and the hillsides.

B.) Transport of P

1.) P. that is collected as excess is then entered into the system in total.

2.) The areas that lack P. will be identified in the system from the morning tally.

3.) The most efficient route will be planned from the area where the P. is retained to the location where the P. is in need.


Hammond, J. & White, P. 2008, "Sustainable future for fertilisers," Horticulture Week,, pp. 33-34.

Phosphorus: Too Much or Too Little? 2011,, SPRINGFIELD, VA, United States.

Sharpley, A., Foy, B. & Withers, P. 2000, "Practical and innovative measures for the control of agricultural phosphorus losses…… [read more]

Potashcorp Industry Trends: -Agricultural Demand Is Increasing Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … PotashCorp

Industry Trends:

-Agricultural demand is increasing with the world's population

-Arable land areas are shrinking due to environmental changes and other factors

-New and previously unfarmed land might be opening up in new areas due to warming

-Moves to natural fertilizers/compost are becoming more common on commercial farms

-Agriculture is continuing to shift to the developing world with globalized distribution

-Innovations in plant science are leading to newer and more efficient growing methods

Bureau of Labor Statistics)

Uncertainties (from high to low):

-Legislation promoting agricultural growth might be drawn back as an austerity measure

-Food price shocks could create ripple effects that put buyers out of business

-U.S. Presidential election in 2012 could cause real economic turmoil with any outcome

-Environmental legislation could impact production methods and expenses significantly

-Import legislation could restrict the flow of agricultural products and affect demand

If legislation providing subsidies and other incentives to agricultural producers are cut back or eliminated, the demand for PotashCorp's products is likely to significantly decrease. This, along with the potential for food price shocks to also negatively impact producers, runs the risk of putting smaller producers out of business. This will in turn give the major producers -- already large customers of PotashCorp -- more consolidated buying power, which could affect the price PotashCorp is able to command for its products and thus the ultimate profitability and stability of the company. It is for this reason that these tow uncertainties are seen as having the highest potential.


In a worst-case scenario, ongoing fluctuations in production and distribution costs that cause shocks in food prices that then ripple back and affect the profitability of production will cause many producers to leave the industry. This, coupled with a legislative end to agricultural incentives in many countries, significantly impacts the production…… [read more]

Thomas Keller: Classic Innovator Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,003 words)
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" In each of these restaurants, Keller's menus have been built upon classic fare easily accessible to diners and executed with flawless technique. However, as fellow chef Michael Ruhlman points out, dining at one of Keller's restaurants is hardly a mundane experience. "[One experiences] not only a range of luxury food items… but also an entire meal that arrives out of a unique intelligence -- quirky, eccentric, distinct" (Ruhlman ____).

Keller's ability to meld the classic with the unique made waves in the culinary community when he opened the French Laundry, and continues to guide dining trends today. While more recent restaurant concepts have either plunged completely into the back-to-basics, ingredient-centered "simple fare" or have taken the opposite route towards bold fusion and radical experimentation, Keller is unrivaled in his mastery of the middle road. His menu at Per Se features dishes like Mac and Cheese, Bacon and Eggs, and Creamsicles, but these traditional dishes are reimagined in inventive ways. The Bacon and Eggs, for instance, is a buttery cake studded with pieces of braised pig's head and topped with a poached quail egg (Platt 2005). The Mac and Cheese is reinvented nightly, and often features lobster or scallops.

Keller is passionate about sharing his knowledge and love of food, and his cookbooks, including the popular French Laundry Cookbook, offer home cooks the ability to make his dishes exactly as they are made in his restaurants. His commitment to demystifying process of high-level cooking and spreading the philosophy of discipline and attention to detail have made him not only a celebrated chef and businessman but also a respected and admired educator, and his generosity in sharing his techniques and his unique vision of food have made him influential not only in the restaurant scene but in American homes as well.

Food and Wine magazine summed up Keller's particular talent when they named him their top All-Star American Chef in 2008, citing his ability to "meld the classic and creative to astounding effect." From his first recognition of perfection in Hollandaise sauce to his ultimate standing as one of the most admired culinary minds in the world, Keller has kept true to the love of precision and invention that attracted him to cooking in the first place. Because of his commitment to these fundamental principles, he has been able to maintain for decades a standard of excellence that few can hope to achieve in a lifetime.


Hamilton, D., Kuh, P., Septimus, M. (2007) Chef's Story: 27 Chefs Talk about What Got Them into the Kitchen. New York: Harper Perennial.

Miller, B. (2008) "Five All-Star American Chefs." Food and Wine. Retrieved 10 November 2011 from http://www.foodandwine.com/articles/5-all-star-american-restaurateurs

Keller, T. (1999) The French Laundry Cookbook. New York: Artisan Publishing.

Platt, A. (2005, May 21) "Killer Keller." The New York Magazine, Vol 37. p 112.

Ruhlman, M. (2001) The Soul…… [read more]

Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Farming Villages Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Farming Villages in Kenya

The purpose of this research is to examine the potential success for implementing rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems within areas in rural Kenya. SAMCAN advocates will focus on the implementation of such systems to help provide access to healthy water for both residential and agricultural purposes. Moreover, staff will focus on… [read more]

Animal Proteomics Is the Study Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


, 2010). They were able to determine that marker in cattle, pigs and fowl (Picard et al., 2010). In fact, they found that protein modifications during the aging process helped explain why older animals generally yield tougher meat than younger animals (Picard et al., 2010). Furthermore, they looked out how proteins react to the stress of slaughter, because of the long-held belief that the slaughter process can impact meat quality (Picard et al., 2010).

While Picard et al. specifically concentrated on meat quality; Bendixen et al. looked at how studying animal proteomics could contribute to the understanding of human genetics. They did focus on proteomics and the role it plays in factory-farm meat production and acknowledged that most research in the area focuses on how to improve meat quality. However, by reviewing current research, they were also able to present an overview of the topic in farm animal proteomics and "highlight some of the areas where synergy between classic model organism proteomics and farm animal proteomics is rapidly emerging" (Bendixen et al., 2011). It is no surprise that factory farm animals and classically raised animals have different characteristics, having been grown for different purposes. In fact, since animals were first domesticated, humans have been engaging in genetic modifications to make farm animals better sources of food and labor for human beings. In recent years, those genetic modifications have been accelerated through lab work, rather than having to rely upon old-school breeding programs. Specifically, understanding proteomics helps agriculture professionals manipulate an animal's biology to optimize its role in food production. Moreover, because much of this manipulation is on a muscular level, that research could lead to muscle manipulation in humans, with possible applications for people with muscular illnesses.


Bendixen, E., Danielsen, M., Hollung, K., Gianazza, E., & Miller, I. (2011). Farm animal proteomics- a review. J Proteomics, 74(3), 282-93.

Picard, B., Berri, C., Lefaucheur, L., Molette, C., Sayd, T., &…… [read more]

Practical Use of Cheese in Today's Market Place Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (1,028 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Cheese in Today's Market Place

Cheese has been consumed by human beings since before recorded history (Ensrud, 1981). Essentially, it has always been something people have eaten and enjoyed. Still, it is important to consider not just the history of cheese, but its practical use in today's market place. People think of eating cheese, but they do not realize the jobs that it provides and the social implications of cheese as a comfort food throughout American society. Many also fail to see the value of cheese as a rodent control, but it has been used as the "staple" food for mousetraps for many years. The stereotype of mice liking cheese is there for a reason. Cheese and practicality, however, are not two words that commonly go together in the human mind. People eat cheese because they like the taste of it, and they generally do not think much more about it than that. Still, for the true cheese connoisseur, or someone who wants to study all that cheese has to offer, there is more to be considered than just the idea that cheese is a food (Jenkins, 1996).


Naturally, the most practical use for cheese is to eat it. Ever since people began to consume cheese, societies have created dishes that either centered around the use of cheese or allowed for cheese as a form of garnish (McGee, 2004). With that in mind, people devoted their time to recipes that required various types of cheeses, and people became enamored with the flavors and textures that could be found in cheese. Tastings were a popular way to express one's interest in cheese, which was often paired with good wines and high-quality crackers or breads (McGee, 2004). Cheese spreads are also very popular, as one is able to get the flavor of the cheese as well as the flavor of the herbs or spices that are added to the spread (McGee, 2004). As a practical use for cheese, there is nothing more common or expected than eating it, either alone or in a particular kind of dish designed to incorporate it.

Social and Comfort Aspects

Other practical uses of cheese that may not occur to people as often are its social and psychological aspects. Cheese is often a "comfort food" to many people in the western world, as evidenced by all the schoolchildren who take cheese sandwiches or cheese cubes to school with them in their lunchboxes (Jenkins, 1996). Many children and adults also love grilled cheese sandwiches, frequently paired with soup, on a cold winter day, for other lunch or dinner. The feeling of "home" one gets when eating cheese is not something that can be easily duplicated by other foods in middle-class and lower-middle-class American families (McGee, 2004). These individuals have grown up eating cheese sandwiches made by their parents and macaroni and cheese from boxes, and they are now making those same kinds of sandwiches and side dishes for their children. Undoubtedly, the same kinds of… [read more]

Revise an Original Instruction Set Memo White Paper

White Paper  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Hummus Recipe


garlic cloves, mashed and then minced

15-oz cans of garbanzo beans (chickpeas), drained and rinsed

2/3 cup of tahini (roasted, not raw)

1/3 cup freshly squeezed lemon juice

1/2 cup water

1/4 cup olive oil

1/2 teaspoon of salt

Pine nuts (toasted) and parsley (chopped) for garnish

In a food processor, combine the garlic, garbanzo beans, tahini, lemon juice, 1/2 cup water, and olive oil. Process until smooth. Add salt, starting at a half a teaspoon, to taste.

Spoon into serving dish and sprinkle with toasted pine nuts and chopped parsley.

Serve with crackers, raw dip vegetables such as carrots or celery, or with pita bread. You can cut the pita bread into thin triangles, brush with olive oil and toast for 10 minutes in a 400°F oven to make pita chips with which to serve the hummus.

Makes about 3 cups.

To: My Boss

Date: 14 February 2012

Subject: Recently Published Hummus Recipe

As a culinary publication company, it is our mission to strive for the utmost in perfection regarding all published recipes. Last night I had the most unfortunate task of testing and verifying a recently published recipe on the site, specifically, the Hummus Recipe. Having lived in Turkey for the duration of my childhood and enjoyed hummus on a regular basis, I must address the inaccuracy and failure of this recipe to portray culinary perfection. This hummus recipe is lacking in flavor, texture and garnish.


True Middle Eastern hummus recipes rarely use raw garlic. It is much more common to utilize roasted or saute garlic. These techniques are well established within the culinary disciplines to remove the bitterness of the garlic and replace it with a sweet yet pungent overtone. Without this overtone, the garlic exists in a manner similar to some Italian recipes, not Middle Eastern.

Additionally, the recipe listed includes much too high of an amount of tahini. Tahini has a strong flavor in hummus, and in this case, overrides the flavor of the garlic as well as the fresh flavor of the lemon juice.


After completing the hummus according to the listed directions and tasting the first bite,…… [read more]

Business Communications Routine Emails and Persuasive Memos Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,039 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Zachary Evans, Vice President of Operations

Joseph Mirola, Claims Manager


Healthy Employees Program

In preparation for your upcoming report to the President, CEO and Board of Directors for Rocky Mountain Mutual, I have prepared a report outlining several reasons that support the idea of retaining the Fitness Center and expanding a Healthy Employees Initiative within our company.… [read more]

Business Beer and Liquor Sales Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Beer & Liquor Sales

Alcoholic drink is generally divided in three different categories: beer, wine and liquor (or hard liquor). While beer and wine are produced by a "fermentation" process, liquor is produced by distillation. Beer and wine contain less alcohol (3 to 6% in most beers, and 7 to 14% in most wines) while the alcohol content in liquor… [read more]

Decade Long Doha Round Negotiations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,043 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Doha Rounds

The Decade Long Doha Round Negotiations

The World Trade Organization was formed in 1995 as part of a post-cold war experiment in trade liberalization and an extension of the principles of the United States; those principles being removing all existing borders between all nations in a regulated international institution environment. Before the WTO formed, the world's trade barriers… [read more]

Modern France Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,180 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … France


Emile Zola was a French critic and writer, better known for his extreme opposition of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and his fiery social commentaries against society in the 19th century. Zola was intensely interested in portraying life as he saw it without romanticizing about some of its aspects. Initially his works did not receive much public acclaim but after the publication of THeRESE RAQUIN in 1867, he became a well-known literary figure in France. From 1871 to 1893, Zola focused on the publication of what is now known as the Rougon-Macquart series. Under this series, he came up with some truly amazing novel including L'ASSOMMOIR (1877), NANA (1880), GERMINAL (1885) and LA B. TE HUMAINE in 1890.

All these novels were natural commentaries on the society and culture of 19th century France when industrialization was at its peak and social conditions at their bottom. France was undergoing tremendous change, which was more negative than positive in nature. Germinal thus focused on life of coal miners. Poverty-stricken coal-miners were ruthlessly exploited by the French bourgeois whom Zola once described as a family that "has as its prime characteristic the overflow of appetite, the broad up-thrust of our age, which flings itself into enjoyments. Physiologically the members of this family are the slow working-out of accidents to the blood and nervous system which occur in a race after a first organic lesion, according to the environment determining in each of the individuals of this race sentiments, desires, passions, all the natural and instinctive human manifestations whose products take on the conventional names of virtues and vices."

Zola was a naturalist and believed in presented his stories in the light of his definition of naturalism. His kind of naturalism was based on true depiction of life, as it exists. Germinal studied the circumstances of a group of men gripped in situations they simply couldn't control. French industrialization had resulted in extreme exploitation as at one point, the author observed:

The all-devouring mine had swallowed its daily ration of men, more than 700 workers laboring now in this giant ant heap, burrowing through the earth in every direction, riddling it like an old piece of wood infested by worms." (Germinal, 125)

Zola has used food as one of his tools to accentuate the differences that existed between lower and higher social classes in those times. Food has been described in great detail at various occasions to highlight the hunger that plagued the coalmining class and to stress the fact that man must eat or he perishes. In Part 2, Chapter 3, Zola describes a feast scene that makes one understand that how rarely coalminers were treated to lavish meals:

Beside the rabbit with potatoes, a rabbit which had been fattening in the shed for a month, the Maheus had meat soup and beef. The fortnight's wages had just fallen due the day before. They could not recollect such a spread. Even at the… [read more]

Worst Mistake in the History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (468 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race, Jared Diamond argues that agriculture is humankind's biggest mistake. He suggests that agriculture is at the root of global inequalities, and led to disease, malnutrition, and even sexual inequalities. However, his argument is flawed in that it fails to consider that other technologies (such as gunpowder, the wheel, or nuclear weapons) could be considered equally, or more damaging.

Diamond notes that domestication has had a profoundly negative impact on plants, animals, the landscape, human health, and human lifestyles. He argues that the advent of agriculture brought malnutrition, disease, Class divisions, as well as sexual inequality. Further, Diamond notes that both hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies provided leisure time, thus damaging the argument that free time that came from the agricultural revolution brought about the flowering of art and culture. Agriculture came to dominate human societies by allowing more children to be raised, and providing support for more people (although they may have not been nourished as well as in hunter-gatherer societies). Diamond notes, "Forced to choose between limiting population or trying to increase food production, we chose the latter and ended up with starvation, warfare, and tyranny."

Diamond's argument that domestication was the worst mistake in the history of the human race is fundamentally flawed. It could be easily argued that other technologies, such as nuclear warfare, guns, and biological weapons have been the…… [read more]

World Hunger Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Hunger

The number of people in the world said to suffer from chronic hunger is estimated to be 1.02 billion by the United Nations Food and agriculture Organization. This works out to about one in seven people or 13.6% of the world's population. More than 62% of these people live in Asia and the Pacific, while 26% live in Sub-Saharan Africa, 6% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 4% in the Near East and North Africa, and 2% in developed countries ("2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statisics" (2011).

Causes of Hunger

The principal cause of hunger is poverty. Poverty is the result of an individual's lack of resources unequal income distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict and hunger itself. The World Bank estimates that 1,345 million people in developing countries live on $1.25 a day or less. The chief under lying cause of poverty and hunger is the ordinary operation of the economic and political systems in the world. For all intents and purposes control over resources and income is based on military, political and economic power is in the hands of a minority who live well while a significant number struggled ("2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statisics" 2011).

Another source of hunger and poverty is conflict. During the last three years there has been a significant increase in the number of refugees due primarily to the disturbances in Iraq and Somalia. Currently there are approximately 36 million displaced people throughout the world. Hunger is also a source of poverty and thus a cause of hunger. By causing poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental impairment, hunger can lead to even greater poverty by reducing people's ability to work and learn, thus leading to even greater hunger. Finally climate change is increasingly…… [read more]

Philip Morris Troubles Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Phillip Morris Troubles

This is a review of a case study about Phillip Morris. There is one reference used for this paper.

Introduction number of businesses find themselves facing legal and ethical dilemmas today. It is important to look at the Phillip Morris company and determine not only what moral issues it is dealing with, but also how these issues are concerned with utilitarianism.

Moral Issues

Phillip Morris faces a number of moral issues concerning its activities in the tobacco, beer and food industries. The tobacco division of the company has to contend with knowing their product "causes or contributes to the deaths of about 1000 Americans each day, and an average of five and a half minutes of life are lost for each cigarette smoked (unknown)."

Moral issues faced by the company's beer division include distributing a product which has been shown to cause "long-term effects on internal organs, especially the liver and heart (unknown)." Not only does alcohol affect the body over time, but driving while under the influence of the product can result in the deaths of not only the consumer, but innocent bystanders as well.

The food division of Phillip Morris has been not immune from moral issues. Not only were they producing high-fat and high-cholesterol products, but they were not informing consumers that they were using "new technologies such as irradiation, which was used to preserve foods, and genetic engineering, which was the basis of some of the new crops that its food companies used as ingredients (unknown)."


The moral issues facing Phillip Morris can be looked at with an utilitarian point-of-view. Utilitarians are concerned with what is good and what is right. An utilitarian approach to the moral issues facing the tobacco industry…… [read more]

Tainted Meat Recalls Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,118 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


C., said, "Federal and state (officials) should be more concerned with protecting consumers from unnecessary ... food-borne illness, and less concerned with protecting grocers and meat producers from bad publicity." (Lee, 2004)

Even the most avowed exponent of capitalism could hardly deny consumers the right simply not to buy something, after receiving full disclosure as to its contents. Because meat is not a packaged good like, for instance, Wonder Bread, consumers of agricultural products must rely on government agencies to know that indeed the food they consume is organic, if advertised as such, and is wholesome. The argument against such large-scale advertisement, of course, is that a public health scare along the lines of those directed at apples, because of harmless sprayed pesticides, might cause a panic.

Merely because one batch of chicken is bad does not mean that all chicken is bad, any more that merely because one batch of Jack n' the Box burgers meant that all such hamburgers, at all fast food establishments were tainted. And it cannot be denied, even by consumer advocacy groups, that bad publicity for one sphere of the industry can bleed over into the public's imagination into other spheres. A McDonald's hamburger looks less tasty after hearing that a little boy died from eating hamburgers at his birthday party at Jack n' the Box.

But the alternative nondisclosure policy is, despite the risks of a 'scare' far more noxious. It creates a climate of secrecy and fear that ultimately will not help the industry. And the meat industry is quite determined to keep things secret, even when it is at fault. The agreement the current governor was referring to was a 2002 deal that California health officials cut with the U.S. Department of Agriculture "that gives the state access to information about recalled meat but prevents the public release of details, such as the names and addresses of establishments where the products were sold." (Lee, 2002) In other words, the industry could recall its products without enduring the bad publicity that might ensue -- a luxury not given to Mattel, for instance, when it recalls a toy. Ironically, a happy meal toy recalled because it contains tiny parts that a child could choke on might be publicized as such, but a batch of bad beef that could kill the same child with bacteria would not.

Ethically speaking, capitalism depends upon a consumer who desires to buy and a purchaser who desires to sell, with government stepping in only to ensure that both fully disclose the uses of the product and their ability to pay. However, this is not a fully free and ethical climate. The USDA treats details regarding recalls "as confidential business information and says secrecy is the key to getting cooperation from meat companies." Confidential business information seems a misnomer, however, when full financial data must be disclosed publicly to shareholders, but not what consumers are consuming when they sit down to dinner.

Works Cited

Lee, Mike. (October 2, 2004)"Recall… [read more]

Human and Societal Benefits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,446 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Manure dispersal is happening on newly harvested growth. Farmers have to guarantee that dispersal is not done when the earth is wet as shallow ground run off and outflow into the drainage arrangement possibly will happen producing water contamination. Some pig systems use floors that are slatted. This allows the muck to drop away from the animals and into a… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma: Connection With Food Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Omnivore Chapter 15-16-17

It is a simple question: "What should we have for dinner?" Author Michael Pollan asks his readers this question readers at the beginning of his book, the Omnivore's Dilemma. In part one of his book, Pollan looks at the all the products available in today's supermarkets and the how much we have come to rely on one plant, corn. In part two, Pollan shares the experiences he had living and working on an organic farm in Virginia. It was a very different place than the very industrialized farm Pollan wrote about first. For the next part of the book, chapters 15, 16, and 17, Pollan wanted to get even closer to the food supply. He wanted to make a dinner prepared entirely from ingredients he personally hunted, gathered, and grew. It is the author's contention that people would eat more healthfully if they had a more direct connection to the food they ate.

Pollan grew vegetables and ate from home gardens his entire life. He was uneasy about killing an animal, especially because he had lived so close to them at Polyface Farm. He did not know the first thing about hunting and had never fired a gun. He also did not know anything about which wild mushrooms to eat. Pollan was so nervous about the mushroom that he found that he threw it away rather than take a chance it might be poisonous. In the following chapter, Pollan explains "the omnivore's dilemma." He points out that human beings can eat many different things in nature. That is good, because of the variety, but also bad, because it can be difficult to figure out which things are safe to eat. Early man expanded the range of available foods by learning how to cook. Modern man has further expanded the range of foods through engineering and manufacturing. It has not been a benefit to overall health. In fact, Pollan talks about "America's national eating disorder" (Pollan, 2006, p. 298). He believes the nation's eating habits become worse the more disconnected people come from the food source. He also believes, as he explains in chapter…… [read more]

Factory Farms Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,028 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) for Swine

Water Quality Issues in Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) for Swine

Recent changes in swine-management practices have resulted in a growing controversy surrounding the environmental and public health effects of modern swine production. The numerous wastes that are produced by intensive swine production pose a significant challenge to effective environmental management; however, such practices also are being associated with decreased air quality in confinement houses, potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance patterns, and several infectious agents that can be pathogenic to humans. The studies to date have documented a variety of contaminants, microbial agents, and health effects in workers who are exposed to swine and these have served as a framework for an increasing body of research to evaluate possible community health effects as well. To this end, this paper provides an overview of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for swine, the environmental and human health hazards typically associated with such practices, an assessment of current and future initiatives to help overcome these hazards, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Background and Overview. During the last half of the 20th century, agricultural growth and development in the United States has become more closely linked to a wide range of social and environmental problems (Edward & Ladd, 2002). Partially as a result of the industrialization of farming and food production, soil and water resources have been degraded, wildlife habitats have been destroyed, and rural communities have been dissolved and uprooted (Gertler, 1992). The scale, mechanization, specialization, capital-intensity, and chemical-intensity of agricultural production have dramatically increased, with the result that large agribusinesses and individual farm operators have come under greater environmental scrutiny associated with the broader "greening" of public opinion since 1970 (Buttel, 1992). For many observers, the growing corporate control over the nature of land use and food production in the U.S. constitutes a major crisis for independent farmers, American culture, and the larger ecosystem (Edwards & Ladd, 2002). According to these authors, "Perhaps nowhere are the socio-environmental implications of agro-industrialization and corporate control better illustrated today than in the case of the swine industry" (p. 27).

Environmental and Health Hazards Associated with CAFOs for Swine.

The majority of modern swine operations raise thousands of animals in closed confinement buildings (Cole, Todd & Wing, 2000). On the one hand, such closed-confinement facilitates provide effective climate control for both animals and workers, and the automation of some labor-intensive tasks such as feeding and watering; on the other hand, though, the large number of animals raised in swine CAFOs create enormous amounts of dusts, dander, and waste materials. Furthermore, within the confinement buildings themselves, dust particles comprised of swine skin cells, feces, feed, bacteria, and fungi become airborne and contribute to poor indoor air quality (Robertson, 1994). In addition, the manure and urine that are produced in these buildings create numerous gases that may further adversely impact the quality of the indoor air. "Thousands of gases, particles, and bioaerosol emissions… [read more]