"Agriculture / Food / Culinary" Essays

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Omnivore's Dilemma the Research Question Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Author Michael Pollen notes that "…no thinking person" can believe that animals are "incapable of feeling pain"; Pollen explains that beef cattle slaughtered for food in the typical U.S. factory farm stand "…ankle-deep in their own waste eating a diet that makes them sick" (317). Philosophy professor Brian G. Henning claims that the "…mass production and overconsumption of meat now constitutes one of the single greatest threats to public health" (Henning, 2011, 66). Because of the unclean spaces ("concentrated animal feeding operations" or CAFOs) and "intense confinement" producers of animal meat are "forced" to inject antibiotics into their herds to avoid the spread of disease, Henning explains. Amazingly, half of all antibiotics that are produced in the world "…are administered to livestock" (Henning, 66).

Children in many instances have turned away from eating meat because they detest "…the suffering that meat eating implies for animals" (Hussar, et al., 2009). In a study of 48 American middle class children (from 6 to 10 years of age) the answers that Hussar received (As to why children are vegetarians) included: a) "I don't like the idea of killing animals"; b) "I like the taste of corn and carrots better than chicken"; and c) meat "…tastes kind of like weird" (Hussar, 630).

In conclusion, although Pollan insists that "…killing animals is probably unavoidable no matter what we choose to eat" (because a farmer's use of a combine to harvest grain "shreds field mice," the tractor wheel "crushes woodchucks,"… [read more]

Silent Spring by Rachel Carson Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,494 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Again, the Department of Agriculture developed an all-out campaign to eradicate an insect -- this time, the fire ant. Using spray planes and without studying the correct dosage of insecticide, the U.S. Department of Agriculture treated 20,000,000 acres in 9 southern states. The result was the widespread deaths of fish, birds and livestock, with more red ants than when the… [read more]

Economics Class and Morality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,362 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


Economic, Class And Morality

Economics, Class, and Morality

Introduction to Hunger and Famine

The world is confronting innumerable problems since the time humans have first walked on planet Earth; however, with the passage of time, these problems are intensifying and posing a horrendous threat to the subsistence and survival of human species. A fact that makes this concern more complex… [read more]

Mediterranean Restaurants in Chelsea Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Aleo Restaurant and Bar on 7 West 20th Street in contrast, focuses on Italian cuisine. It offers traditional Italian-American dishes such as Chicken Parmesan, a wide pasta menu with staples such as penne, and also American crowd-pleasers like steaks and veal chops. The restaurant does not present itself as focusing on a particular Italian region, and few dishes could be characterized as adventurous. Flatbread pizzas round out a menu with many selections designed to appeal to virtually 'anyone.' The restaurant seems designed to please a wide array of fairly conventional diners' palates.

The relatively low prices and broad menu selections of these restaurants highlight Chelsea's close location to the theater district. Tourists often frequent the district, meaning that restaurants cater to people who want familiar food and menus that are not overly intimidating. The one exception to this trend of menus designed to comfort rather than to challenge is Periyali, a Greek restaurant on 35 West 20th Street that offers a more eclectic menu of foods such as mosharaki sharas rigani agriomanitaria (Grilled marinated medallions of veal, horta, wild mushroom sauce). Periyali is still within the price range of the other restaurants (ranging from $20-30 per entree) on average and offers mousakas and more familiar menu items as well. But its willingness to use bold flavors and different meats (such as quail, rabbit, and chicken livers) that typical American consumers might not necessarily be accustomed to or even inclined to embrace shows a more forward-thinking attitude and a commitment to showcasing Mediterranean cuisine a desire to please everyday diners.


Aleo Restaurant. Available at http://www.aleorestaurant.com / [2 Dec 2012]

Nisos' Mediterranean Cuisine. Available at: http://www.nisos-ny.com / [2 Dec 2012]

Periyali. Available at: http://www.periyali.com/menu.htm [2 Dec 2012]

Uncle Nick's Greek Restaurant. Available at: ahttp://unclenicksgreekcuisine.com / [2…… [read more]

Allouche, J. ). The Sustainability Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (814 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The significance of this report to the research is the focus on pertinent causes and recommendation it makes in regard to areas where action is needed in ensuring future food sustainability.

Tai, S. (2011). The Rise of U.S. Food Sustainability Litigation. Legal Studies Research Paper Series Paper.

This paper outlines the significance between the values of the sustainable food movement and related litigation. The paper focuses on the challenges of genetically modified organisms in the food system. These are the fastest growing areas of United States agriculture in regard to food sustainability.

The article provides an analysis of both Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO) and GMO litigations coming from the sustainable food Movement. It investigates the relationship between the challenges of the objectives of the various sustainable food movements. The paper concludes that there is need for creation of additional legal channels for addressing the evolving U.S. food system in order for the food sustainability movement to succeed.

This article is significant to the research paper as it addresses food sustainability from the legal point-of-view. Many countries of the world are grappling with the GMO and CAFO issues without clear legal guidance. This article puts issue in proper perspective as a way forward.

Center for Sustainable Systems. (2011). U.S. Food System: Fact Sheets. Retrieved November 19, 2012, from
This paper provides facts about the state of food systems in the U.S. It highlights major food sustainability issues such as, patterns of use, agricultural production, consumption patterns, life cycle impacts and solutions as well as sustainable alternatives.

This paper is significant in giving direction on food sustainability issues. It provides summary of the facts about the important issues in food system in the United States of America.


Allouche, J. (2010). The sustainability and resilience of global water and food systems: Political analysis of the interplay between security, resource scarcity, political systems and global trade. Journal of Food Policy.

Center for Sustainable Systems. (2011). U.S. Food System: Fact Sheets. Retrieved November 19, 2012, from
Feenstra, G.W. (1997). Local Food Systems and Sustainable Communities. American Journal of Altrnative Agriculture.

Tai, S. (2011). The Rise of U.S. Food Sustainability Litigation. Legal Studies Research Paper Series Paper.

The UN Secretary-General's High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis. (2008). Food Sustainability A guide to Private Sector Action. Comprehensive Framework for Action.… [read more]

Organic Fruit Taste Test Comparative Study Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Organic Fruit Taste Test

Comparative Study for Organic and Conventionally Grown Fruit

The question for this study is: Whether it is possible for someone to consistently tell the difference between organic and conventionally grown fruit.

This study is important for the improvement of the agricultural industry in general. Many studies have been conducted on the health benefits and taste benefits on organic produce (Fillion, 2002), but few come to precise statistical conclusions as to whether it is possible to entirely distinguish between the two (Weibel, 2000). In fact, many studies have instead focused on determining whether only certain populations prefer organically grown fruit (Padel, 2005).

The null hypothesis for this experiment is: There is no flavor distinction between organically grown and conventionally grown produce.

The alternative hypothesis for this experiment is: There is a discernible difference between organically grown and conventionally grown produce within a margin of 10%.


1. The participant for this study is a volunteer who claims to have the ability to consistently discern the difference between organic and conventionally grown produce. The participant for this study was a volunteer whose sensitivity of taste is well-known throughout many social circles. The participant for this study was chosen based on the met criteria that he has the ability to discriminate various foods by their flavor.

2. This experiment will be a comparative test where one organic and one conventional fruit will be tasted in each sitting.

3. This design was chosen as it directly establishes whether the person is able to taste the difference between the two fruits, or whether their claim is not true.

4. The data was collected on a chart. The participant was asked to distinguish which was the conventionally grown and which the organic.

5. The statistical analysis formed for this study is cumulative/percentage based. In order for this person's claim to be true, they must get 90% or more of the samplings correct. The test is calculated using the following formula: total amount correct/total amount…… [read more]

Consequences of Factory Farms Annotated Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  2 pages (676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


" As the author further points out, it is under such confinement that these Holsteins spend their days without ever encountering "a blade of grass." This inevitably has some moral, health and environmental implications. Pollan's book will come in handy as I seek to present the harmful and unsustainable nature of factory farming. The author has in the past written a number of other popular books on food and agriculture.

Seitz, J.L. & Hite, K.A. (2011). Global Issues: An Introduction (4th ed.). Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.

This is one of the books that successfully offer a comprehensive look at the most urgent global issues facing us today. In addition to factory farming, Seitz and Hite examine several other global concerns affecting us on the social, political as well as economic arena. On factory farms, the authors in brief offer a candid "look at factory farms and the anticipated consequences that have come with the adoption of factory techniques to produce animals for human consumption." Seitz and Hite are respected academics and professionals in their diverse fields with both offering their services as instructors at Wofford College and at the School of Advanced International Studies respectively.

Weber, K. (Ed.). (2009). Food, Inc.: How Industrial Food is Making Us Sicker, Fatter and Poorer -- And What You Can Do About it. New York, NY: Public Affairs.

This is yet another anthology that basically expands and complements subjects covered in the Food Inc. documentary. The book succeeds in challenging the reader's perception of food. In regard to factory farms, the contributors successfully highlight the harmful effects of industrialized farming to not only the affected animals but also to the environment and consumers. The only problem I have with the book is the occasional loss of focus. Although a majority of the chapters are largely concerned with the issues at hand, i.e. The factory/industrial food system, some other chapters occasionally deviate from the book's central focus. Contributors in this case are individuals and organizations of repute.… [read more]

Beer Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,277 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


(Beer Industry Report, 2008)

V. Beer Company Market Shares

Annheuser-Busch is reported to have 48.2% of the market share followed by Miller with 18.4%, Coors at 11.1%, Crown (Barton) at 5.4%, Heineken USA at 4.1%, Pabst at 2.8%, Diageo/Guiness at 1.5%, Boston at 0.8%, Yuengling at 0.8%, Labatt USA at 0.7%, and Gambrinus at 0.2%. Other beer companies are reported to hold a 6.2% market share. (Beer Industry Report, 2008) The largest consumers of beer are reported to be "male, younger, moderately educated, and higher-income households." (Beer Industry Report, 2008) These statistics are shown in the following charts labeled Figure 1.

Figure 1

Consumers of Beer by Gender, Age, Education and Household Income

Source: Beer Industry Report (2008)

The following chart shows the percentage of total beer consumers by demographic segments.

Figure 2

Source: Beer Industry Report, 2008

The beer industry report shows additionally that 31% of beer drinkers are also frequent shoppers for beer. As well is it reported that approximately 40% of the U.S. adult population are regular consumers of beer. When beer purchasing by the day of the week was examined results show that the majority of beer, between 18% and 32% is on Friday with between 22% and 31% of beer purchased on Saturday. Analysis of the time of day that beer is purchased shows that the peak sales of beer occur at 1:00 P.M. (18%) 4:00 P.M. (15.9%) 5:00 P.M. (17%) and 6:00 P.M. And 7:00 P.M. (18.4% and 18.6%) respectively. (Beer Industry Report, 2008)

VI. Explanation of Difference in Beer Consumption

The work of Colen and Swinnen (2011) examines the differences in beer consumption between countries of the world and this examination is conducted in regards to beer consumption in countries of the world over time. Colen and Swinnen state:

"Historically, there have been major changes in beer consumption in the world. In recent times, per capita consumption has decreased in traditional "beer drinking nations" while it increased strongly in emerging economies. Recently, China has overtaken the U.S. As the largest beer economy. A quantitative empirical analysis shows that the relationship between income and beer consumption has an inverse U-shape. Beer consumption initially increases with rising incomes, but at higher levels of income beer consumption falls. Increased openness to trade and globalization has contributed to a convergence in alcohol consumption patterns across countries. In countries that were originally "beer drinking nations," the share of beer in total alcohol consumption reduced while this is not the case in countries, which traditionally drank mostly wine or spirits. Climatic conditions, religion, and relative prices also influence beer consumption." (Colen and Swinnen, 2008, p.1)

Therefore, it can be understood that economies that are experiencing an increase in incomes initially consume more beer than previously but upon those economies stabilizing with the higher incomes that these economies slow down on their beer consumption. This was not found to be so in countries that was traditional drinkers of wine and spirits. In addition, beer consumption is influenced by such as… [read more]

S.W.O.T. Analysis. SWOT Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The FDA has a very broad mission as an organization, which can make effective use of organizational resources a challenge.


In 2011, Congress passed a law calling "for the FDA to significantly step up scrutiny of domestic and imported food and devise a new system aimed at preventing the kind of contamination that sickens one in six Americans every year" (Layton 2011). This occurred after several widely-publicized food contamination scares in products as varied as "spinach, peanuts and cookie dough" (Layton 2011). There have also been calls for the FDA to exercise increased scrutiny over herbal supplements and other natural products not subject to the same regulations as pharmaceuticals. These efforts underline the vital nature of the FDA.


The House recently tried to cut the FDA's food safety budget by $87 million, which would make it very difficult to enforce the new food safety law (Layton 2011). The FDA must also compete for resources with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which also regulates other aspects of the food supply.

How the FDA could benefit from SWOT analysis

As an organization with ever-expanding responsibilities and a shrinking budget, the FDA must allocate its resources effectively. It must recognize from what quarters it can draw support as well as respond to charges from its critics.


FDA facing increasing criticism and calls for restructuring. (2009). American Association for Cancer Research. Retrieved at: http://www.aacr.org/home/public--media/science-policy -- government-affairs/aacr-cancer-policy-monitor/aacr-cancer-policy-monitor-february/fda-facing-increasing-criticism-and-calls-for-restructuring.aspx

Layton, Lyndsay. (2011). Food safety advocates decry FDA cuts. The Washington Post.

Retrieved at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/food-safety-advocates-decry-fda-cuts/2011/05/27/AGzY7yEH_story.html

What does the FDA do? (2012). FDA. Retrieved at:

http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/Transparency/Basics/ucm194877.htm… [read more]

Market Communication Plan for Divine Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  10 pages (3,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


This communication plan will help the company in better targeting its consumers, transform their consumption behavior in the favor if Fair Trade products, and improve the company's advertising and promotional campaigns (Ferrell & Hartline 2011).


The DAGMAR Approach (Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results) will help the company in achieving its aforementioned aims and objectives in the… [read more]

Various Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Scaling Techniques

The following concepts could be measured using the different kinds of measurement scales:

Store customers

Nominal -- specific geographic location of store customers within the store's trade area (i.e., residential location)

Ordinal -- comparative ranking of the store vs. other stores (i.e., store a has better service than store B, etc.)

Interval -- shopping hours or hours of the day when customers visit or go to the store

Ratio -- household income group (actual or estimated amount but will be re-categorized as high, medium, or low)

Voter attitudes

Nominal -- political affiliation or preference (Democrat, Republican, Independent, Other)

Ordinal - preference for a political candidate (prefer Candidate a than Candidate B, etc.)

Interval - number of hours per day (or number of days in a week) spent on engaging in politics-related activities

Ratio -- voter age (can be aggregated later as age group)

Hardness of steel alloys

Nominal -- steel alloy brand, geographic location of manufacturer, steel quality

Ordinal -- steel alloy quality (brand a harder than brand B, etc.)

Interval -- number of hours (interval time) for the steel alloy product to physically show "stress" in a product test (or hardness test)

Ratio -- hardness or thickness grade as ascertained from the product test

Preference for a particular common stock

Nominal -- industries or markets of interest when it comes to choosing and purchasing common stock

Ordinal -- assessment of stock option offerings (stock options for industry/company a performing better than stock options for industry/company B)

Interval -- years of engagement/involvement in stock investments

Ratio -- amount invested on common stock every quarter (or every year)

Profitability of various divisions in the company

Nominal -- division in the company the respondent belongs to Ordinal -- comparative ranking of profitability across divisions (division a more profitable than division B, etc.)

Interval -- number of months in a year that division has reached its target profit quota

Ratio -- profits earned per quarter or annually per division

2. Customer Confidence study for Menu Foods

Constant sum scale

"Given a grocery budget of $50, how many percent or what proportion of that budget will you allocate to Menu Foods products?"

Likert scale

Respond to this statement: "Menu Foods products meet my standards on product safety and quality."

5- Strongly agree 4- Agree 3- Neither agree nor disagree 2- Disagree 1-Strongly disagree

Semantic differential scale

Please evaluate and rate Menu Foods products based on the following characteristics:



Stapel scale

Rating of Menu Foods brand in the following attributes/characteristics:













































Forced ranking scale

"How would you rate, in general, Menu Foods with respect to the safety of its products?"

5 -- Product safety of products highly meets the standards.

4 -- Product safety meets more than the… [read more]

Histories of the World Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,056 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This merely fanned the flames of discontent and the coffeehouse is cited as important gathering-place that motivated opposition to the government, which eventually cumulated in the French Revolution and the overthrow of the monarchy. "It literally began at a cafe" (Standage 170).

'Coke is it:' The cultural power of Coca-Cola

In contrast to the other beverages in Standage's book, Coca-Cola seems something of an outlier, in terms of what it represents as a beverage. Coke is a processed, manufactured food, versus the other beverages which have at least some origin in nature, whether in fermentation of grains or fruits, coffee beans, or tea leaves. But Coca-Cola clearly was one of the most innovative beverages of the 20th century (the 21st century remains an open question, given current opposition to soda-drinking). Coca-Cola, according to Standage, is the all-American beverage, and the rise of Coca-Cola parallels the rise of America as a great power and the rise of industrialized, branded food. Although early American culture may have been defined by hard spirits, modern American culture is defined by soda. It is precisely because of Coke's status as an industrial product that Standage chooses to showcase it. Industrialization flourished in America and produced a beverage that is a triumph of branding, whose brand name is so ubiquitous it is synonymous with soda itself. Earl Grey or French Roast is not synonymous with coffee and tea, and even Miller or Budweiser is not synonymous with beer. But because of the way that Coca-Cola is mass-produced, to order a soda is to order 'Coke.'

Coca-Cola is both a symbol of "ruthless industrial capitalism" and American democracy, given its low cost and lack of differentiation (unlike wine, coffee, tea, and even spirits) (Standage 225). It provides an alternative to alcohol and was even sold at pharmacies in a kind of medicinal fashion in its original form (Standage 239). However, stressing the refreshing and fun aspects of the beverage soon proved to be a better business strategy (Standage 242). Coca-Cola, like other beverages, changed the culture that produced it. Suddenly, caffeine was acceptable to sell to children, which formerly was a taboo (Standage 245). The image of Santa Claus drinking a cold Coca-Cola, as opposed to a hot beverage, became part of standard American iconography. Who would drink soft drinks after the end of Prohibition, some wondered, but Coca-Cola, through aggressive marketing, was not only able to retain its hold on the American imagination but even to take over the world and alter drinking habits everywhere (Standage 246).


Today, the original symbolism of beer, coffee, and Coca-Cola is far different than it was originally -- and yet there is some consistency. Beer is the alcohol of the working man; coffee is the beverage of the elites, and Coca-Cola symbolizes all that is bad and good about America. The calls to ban or tax soda sales show that even today what we drink defines who we are in the cultural imagination. The beverage of our contemporary 21st… [read more]

Pros' and Con's of Botulism or Clostridium Botulinum Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,941 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Botulism is a disease that is considered rare and it is caused by "extremely potent toxins" that appear in foods humans eat, according to the Journal of Environmental Health. Botulism toxins are actually produced by Clostridium botulinum, a bacterium, and while certain types of botulism are dangerous to humans, botulism is not transmitted from person-to-person, so it is incapable of… [read more]

Landscape Ecology Introduction Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (771 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Our brain -- which uses about 20 times as much energy as the equivalent amount of muscle" (Joyce 2012). Simply put, we evolved as omnivores, not vegans.

Although some individuals may thrive on a vegetarian diet, a complete worldwide shift to vegetarianism or veganism (given the equally considerable resources used to produce dairy-based products) seems unlikely in the future. Vegan diets are low in B12 and may not be optimal for all people at all stages of life. Furthermore, there are indications that on an individual level, actually lowering the level of carbohydrates and increasing the level of protein may provide a potential solution for the burgeoning obesity epidemic. In a comparison study, it was found that dieters on a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, burned 300 more calories a day than dieters on a low-fat diet and 150 calories more than on a diet of whole grains (Taubes 2012). Guidelines that suggested that ultra low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets were a superior path to health have been questioned, and refined sugar and carbohydrates have instead become more of the focus of negative dietary criticism.

Reducing meat consumption therefore may be better for the planet, but not necessarily for every individual's health, although some might benefit. Furthermore, changing meat consumption patterns would require profound changes to existing agriculture, industry, and culture. Some producers have attempted to create more sustainable methods of producing meat, such as grass-fed cattle (versus corn -- and soy-fed) cattle. "grass-feeding uses fewer chemicals on the land to grow crops as well as fewer chemicals (antibiotics and hormones) for the animal" (Is eating meat sustainable, 2012, Real Food University). Smaller-scale, local producers are capable of producing more traditionally farmed livestock, but such meat is often more expensive than conventionally-raised agriculture for consumers who do not live near small farms. To produce a large amount of truly sustainable meat on a mass scale remains an unanswered dilemma.


Bittman, Mark. (2008). Re-thinking the meat guzzler. The New York Times. Retrieved:


Is eating meat sustainable. (2012). Real Food University. Retrieved:


Joyce, Christopher. (2012). Food for thought: Meat-based diet made us smarter. NPR.

Retrieved: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128849908

Taubes, Gary. (2012). What really makes us fat. The New York Times. Retrieved:

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/01/opinion/sunday/what-really-makes-us-fat.html?_r=1&ref=health… [read more]

Charleston South Carolina's Lowland Cuisine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,204 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


South Carolina Cuisine

Lowcountry Cuisine

The United States is unique among nations for its sheer geographical diversity. Its expansive territory and the wide variance of climates, elevations and typographies make for an inherently colorful and multifarious mix of regionally-shaped cultures. Perhaps most notable among the cultural features that are shaped by their surrounding landscape and environment is cuisine. Were one to travel the United States in search of distinct, exciting and exotic foods reflective of their various geographical contexts, one would find almost unlimited opportunities for new discovery. One particular regional cuisine which is exceptionally distinct, exciting and exotic is the Lowcountry Cooking of coastal South Carolina.

Like so many aspects of life below the fall line, the food of lowcountry is shaped by the preeminence of the coastal marshes and estuaries in its surround. Both in terms of the impact that this has on its agricultural climate and on the accessibility of myriad marine-based food sources, the waters surrounding the great city of Charleston and extending as far south as Coastal Georgia are directly responsible for forging one of the unique delicacy menus in the continental U.S. Prather (2012) tells that "according to John Martin Taylor-author of Hoppin' John's Lowcountry Cooking and arguably the foremost authority on the region's cuisine-this area stretches along the South Carolina coast from the Savannah River in Georgia north to Pawley's Island. Inland it encompasses about 80 miles of low-elevation land." (Prather, p. 1)

As Taylor (2000) goes on to indicate in the aforementioned text, the relationship between the people of this region and their coastline has been an intimate one. Quite in fact, a rich, vibrant and specific culture encompasses this region and takes many of its distinguishing features from its environment. In fact, as Taylor explains it, the sheer dominance of wetlands on the South Carolina landscape would demand a cultural adaptation to the micro-climate's peculiarities. Accordingly, Taylor (2000) tells in his book that "in the three counties into which modern Charleston, the capital of the Lowcountry, sprawls, there are more than five hundred thousand acres of wetlands -- salt marsh, rivers, swamps, ponds, creeks, lakes, and former rice fields. That's an acre per resident! The people of the Lowcountry -- Sandlappers -- have lived off those waters, played on them, and made them their lives for three hundred years." (Taylor, p. 4)

Taylor goes on to describe an incredible preponderance and variety of marine-life in this region and, in the centuries prior to refrigeration, a kind only accessible to those living in the immediate region. As such, the lowcountry cooking traditions that would emerge would be heavily influenced by the availability of shrimp, crabs, oysters, frogs and fish, with distinct spices and recipes revolving around these key ingredients. Of course, geography and region alone cannot shape an entire culinary tradition. In the case of lowcountry cuisine, an unusual hybrid of ethnic influences would also factor into its evolution. The spice and emphasis on seafood reflect some Caribbean traditions as is common… [read more]

Natural Resources and Energy: Florida Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Furthermore, the contamination of the natural systems in this manner has also been linked to health hazards to humans, such as esophageal, gastric, and bladder cancers. Therefore there is sufficient evidence to suggest that intervening actions must be taken to preserve the integrity of the natural ecosystem before the damages become irreversible. Furthermore, it may be the case that the negative environmental impacts cannot now be undone. Rather, mitigation of some of the worst effects may be the best possible outcome.

Effects of Human Population

In July 2010 the World Heritage Committee placed the Everglades on the "List of World Heritage in Danger" as a result of the reduction in natural water flows and the introduction of various pollutants from urban growth that reduce the nutrients necessary for ecological balances to occur naturally. Excess water flows at given times is also a problem for nesting animals that build in areas that would normally be elevated during dryer seasons. The Everglades is an aquatic ecosystem and the loss of the habitat for all the species that inhabit or migrate to the area is critical. Furthermore, the Everglades represents a dynamic region where saltwater meets freshwater. This acts to provide a replenishment area for the Biscayne Aquifer which in turn accounts for most of the freshwater supply for Southern Florida.

The increase of construction and related activities after hurricanes Katrina and Andrew have increased the amount of pollution emitted into the local system which in turn further increases the environmental threats for 14 endangered species, over 400 birds, and many mammals,… [read more]

Pretzels Supply and Demand Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (658 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Raising the minimum wage would mean that one of the most important input goods for the firm (labor costs) would increase.

Do some research on your own and explain the advantages and disadvantages to price controls? In general, do you think the government should intervene in the market?

When prices cannot rise above certain levels, consumers initially experience lower prices. This can be important, particularly regarding staple goods during a time of economic crisis. However, this can also lead to lower supply, as producers have less of an incentive to meet consumer demand. But this is not always the case. For example, in the case of rent controls, landlords often "have monopoly power and supply is very inelastic. In this case a maximum price may make renting cheaper without reducing supply" (Pettinger 2012). Rent controls are often cited as an important component in making housing more affordable. In the case of minimum wage increases, producers often complain that they must raise the prices for consumers to offer higher wages. However, on a macro level studies reveal that "states with higher minimum wages saw, on average, about the same unemployment rate as states with low minimum wage. Furthermore, high minimum wage states saw a greater decrease in the unemployment rate than low minimum wage states" (Cascio 1999). Experience indicates that wages will tend to be lower than what can support an individual above the poverty line without some minimum wage threshold. Thus, some type of government intervention in the economy is often necessary.


Cascio, Paul, Brian Crane, & Amen Teter. (1999). The effects of increases in the minimum wage. University of Vermont. Retrieved:


Pettinger, Tejvan. (2012). Price controls: Advantages and disadvantages. Economics Help.


http://www.economicshelp.org/blog/621/economics/price-controls-advantages-and-disadvantages/… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma: Connection With Food Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Omnivore Chapter 15-16-17

It is a simple question: "What should we have for dinner?" Author Michael Pollan asks his readers this question readers at the beginning of his book, the Omnivore's Dilemma. In part one of his book, Pollan looks at the all the products available in today's supermarkets and the how much we have come to rely on one plant, corn. In part two, Pollan shares the experiences he had living and working on an organic farm in Virginia. It was a very different place than the very industrialized farm Pollan wrote about first. For the next part of the book, chapters 15, 16, and 17, Pollan wanted to get even closer to the food supply. He wanted to make a dinner prepared entirely from ingredients he personally hunted, gathered, and grew. It is the author's contention that people would eat more healthfully if they had a more direct connection to the food they ate.

Pollan grew vegetables and ate from home gardens his entire life. He was uneasy about killing an animal, especially because he had lived so close to them at Polyface Farm. He did not know the first thing about hunting and had never fired a gun. He also did not know anything about which wild mushrooms to eat. Pollan was so nervous about the mushroom that he found that he threw it away rather than take a chance it might be poisonous. In the following chapter, Pollan explains "the omnivore's dilemma." He points out that human beings can eat many different things in nature. That is good, because of the variety, but also bad, because it can be difficult to figure out which things are safe to eat. Early man expanded the range of available foods by learning how to cook. Modern man has further expanded the range of foods through engineering and manufacturing. It has not been a benefit to overall health. In fact, Pollan talks about "America's national eating disorder" (Pollan, 2006, p. 298). He believes the nation's eating habits become worse the more disconnected people come from the food source. He also believes, as he explains in chapter…… [read more]

Human and Societal Benefits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,446 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Manure dispersal is happening on newly harvested growth. Farmers have to guarantee that dispersal is not done when the earth is wet as shallow ground run off and outflow into the drainage arrangement possibly will happen producing water contamination. Some pig systems use floors that are slatted. This allows the muck to drop away from the animals and into a… [read more]

World Hunger Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Hunger

The number of people in the world said to suffer from chronic hunger is estimated to be 1.02 billion by the United Nations Food and agriculture Organization. This works out to about one in seven people or 13.6% of the world's population. More than 62% of these people live in Asia and the Pacific, while 26% live in Sub-Saharan Africa, 6% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 4% in the Near East and North Africa, and 2% in developed countries ("2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statisics" (2011).

Causes of Hunger

The principal cause of hunger is poverty. Poverty is the result of an individual's lack of resources unequal income distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict and hunger itself. The World Bank estimates that 1,345 million people in developing countries live on $1.25 a day or less. The chief under lying cause of poverty and hunger is the ordinary operation of the economic and political systems in the world. For all intents and purposes control over resources and income is based on military, political and economic power is in the hands of a minority who live well while a significant number struggled ("2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statisics" 2011).

Another source of hunger and poverty is conflict. During the last three years there has been a significant increase in the number of refugees due primarily to the disturbances in Iraq and Somalia. Currently there are approximately 36 million displaced people throughout the world. Hunger is also a source of poverty and thus a cause of hunger. By causing poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental impairment, hunger can lead to even greater poverty by reducing people's ability to work and learn, thus leading to even greater hunger. Finally climate change is increasingly…… [read more]

Business Analysis of a Proposed Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  5 pages (1,352 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Pricing strategy will be relatively straightforward, as the identified market does not have an affordable food alternative within walking distance other than the school cafeteria. Keeping prices low enough to remain attractive will be an immense part of the revenue model and overall strategy for the business, yet will still allow for a comfortable profit margin to be maintained for the food products sold -- a burger that costs approximately $2.50 in labor and ingredients can be sold for $5 without out pricing customers. Non-pricing strategies include location, promotional events, and prominent signage at the location itself.

Other non-pricing strategies, such as attempting to create or reinforce barriers to entry and so protect market share, are less possible and less reliable for the proposed business venture. A significant barrier will be put in place simply through the establishment of the proposed business, however; as local ordinance mandates that food truck can only operate in off-street locations such as parking lots and only with the express permission of the lot owner, direct competition will be all but impossible during the first year of the food truck's operation. Signing a contract with the lot owner that prevents other food trucks from occupying the lot will cement this barrier still further, but as this location is the only viable location for such a business without the land purchase and construction of a physical restaurant, simply starting the business will present a major entry barrier for this particular market.

Product Differentiation and Cost Minimization

Product differentiation is not a major concern for this business in its initial and possible its ongoing phases of operation. Again, the key success factor for this business is the relatively untapped market available, and in fact product familiarity could be a major selling point for many of the products offered. Pricing strategy is seen as much more important in this type of situation (Freed, 2005; Mankiw, 2011). At the same time, product quality will be a significant and ongoing concern for the business, and this can be seen as at least partially related to product differentiation (Mankiw, 2011). While the menu items will be fairly standard fare primarily incentivized by price, the health and taste of the products will also be important.

Minimizing costs would initially seem to run counter to these principles, and indeed it cannot be denied that especially in the food world lower quality products can be obtained at cheaper -- sometimes drastically cheaper -- prices. The costs of low cost food can be enormous in terms of customer loss, however, and so this route will not be followed. Instead, cost minimization will be achieved through the above-mentioned methods of increasing efficiency and operating at higher volumes with lower marginal costs (Mankiw, 2011). By increasing the volume of business and streamlining the operations necessary to serve customers at this level, the per-unit (i.e. marginal) costs of each product sold can be reduced, which will in turn help to maximize profits. Energy costs are unfortunately not… [read more]

Decade Long Doha Round Negotiations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,043 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Doha Rounds

The Decade Long Doha Round Negotiations

The World Trade Organization was formed in 1995 as part of a post-cold war experiment in trade liberalization and an extension of the principles of the United States; those principles being removing all existing borders between all nations in a regulated international institution environment. Before the WTO formed, the world's trade barriers… [read more]

Matsumoto in Farming the Home Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


There is no magical or mechanical transmission of culture from one generation to the next. In fact, the new land influences culture as much as the previous generation; there is no need to judge or criticize the process of cultural assimilation or acculturation. The concept of community and its reflection of the organic nature of culture is even evident now, when people are more transient -- partly because the creation of online communities can substitute for more earth-bound ones.

Admirable for its use of a plethora of primary sources including personal interviews, Matsumoto's work has the potential to change the discourse of American history. The author shows that American history is not just about the Mayflower and slavery but is also peppered with the input, sweat, and tears of other non-European ethnic groups. The history of the west coast is particularly important for the Asian experience. The author spends a great deal of time on the horrors of internment camps; how the anti-Japanese sentiment has become an ugly part of the fabric of American history. The reader makes easy connections between the internment camp experiences and those of Muslim Americans in the post-9/11 panic that continues to grip the United States even after Bin Laden is dead. No matter how long an immigrant community has been entrenched in American society, nonwhites will be perceived as "alien" rather than as American. Japanese-American communities have, however, highlighted the American trend towards cultural empowerment. Empowerment has the potential to counterbalance the more negative trends of bigotry that have infringed upon the rights and freedoms of millions of citizens throughout the history of the nation.

Work Cited

Matsumoto, Valerie J. Farming the Home Place.…… [read more]

Human Geography in Action (Textbook) Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The developing world often sees this as another manifestation of colonialism: the developed world once again making former colonies serve its own needs, rather than their own. However, development can have profound, immediate negative consequences even for residents of poorer nations. Environmental degradation can lead to pollution of natural resources and an even poorer state of health for residents than currently exists. Workers labor under unsafe conditions in poorly-paid jobs and often seem to have little hope of bettering themselves in a material fashion in the developing world, even when there is Westernized industrialization.

A new path must be created. Developing world nations can be encouraged to invest in clean and green technology as a way of building their infrastructures. Ideally, both developing and developed world nations must work together to set emissions limits and promote reusing and recycling in exchange for the developed world's political and financial support of environmentally-friendly policies that improve local economies. One first step to achieve this objective is exercising responsibility in how the developed world engages in trade with struggling economies. For example, in Life and Debt, "a chicken plant which had a flourishing business selling high-quality chicken to the domestic Jamaican market" is "undercut by U.S. 'dumping' of low-grade chicken parts in Jamaica (About Life and Debt, 2012). Trade liberalization policies have had a profoundly negative effect on nations such as Jamaica, which struggles to rehabilitate its banana and milk industries in the face of competition from more economically advantaged nations. The developed world cannot expect the developing world to limit its industrialized growth while stifling non-industrialized businesses in the name of progress.

Works Cited

About Life and Debt. [31 Mar 2012] http://lifeanddebt.org/about.html

The Story of Stuff. [31 Mar 2012] http://www.storyofstuff.com/… [read more]

Future Food Lust Advertising Design Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"The first new Wendy's in the country [Japan] opened this week in a luxury shopping area in Tokyo....The goose liver-topped burger won't show up in the U.S. any time soon. Wendy's said its most expensive items here [in the U.S.] are in the $5-to-$6 range" (Hsu 2011).

Concern about dieting, however, means that many low-end products are also marketed based upon their chastity, or abstinence. Slim Fast is a reasonably-priced diet product that is sold in many supermarkets and drug stores, and promotes the abstinence it is able to encourage in the consumer. The meal replacement is advertised to be able to stop hunger for up to four hours and even Slim Fast's containers are hourglass-shaped, to suggest that they promote weight loss. In contrast, the high-end spa Canyon Ranch promotes the abstinence of its food as well and the value of chastity, despite its high cost. The "Nutrition" section of the Canyon Ranch website depicts a beautifully sliced Granny Smith apple, dotted with moisture. This suggests that eating extremely spare healthy food to lose weight can still be a luxurious and indulgent experience.

Quite often, in the United States, more affluent consumers are more interested in the weight loss or health benefits of food and may be more attracted to chaste packaging of food products, versus products that stress excess and affluence. In contrast, less affluent consumers are more interested in value -- hence the appeal of the Baconater. But this is not necessarily true around the world, and a complex interplay of economics and attitudes towards consumption will determine if a high-end or low-end food marketer chooses a 'luxuria' or a 'chastity' approach.

Works Cited

"Baconater." Wendy's. [9 Mar 2010]


Hsu, Tiffany. "Wendy's reenters Japan with $16 foie-gras-and-truffle burger." The LA Times

28 Dec 2011. [9 Mar 2010]


"Nutrition." Canyon Ranch. . [9 Mar 2010] http://www.canyonranch.com/lenox/nutrition/

Slim Fast. Official Website. [9 Mar 2010] http://www.slim-fast.com/… [read more]

Business Communications Routine Emails and Persuasive Memos Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,039 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Zachary Evans, Vice President of Operations

Joseph Mirola, Claims Manager


Healthy Employees Program

In preparation for your upcoming report to the President, CEO and Board of Directors for Rocky Mountain Mutual, I have prepared a report outlining several reasons that support the idea of retaining the Fitness Center and expanding a Healthy Employees Initiative within our company.… [read more]

Revise an Original Instruction Set Memo White Paper

White Paper  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Hummus Recipe


garlic cloves, mashed and then minced

15-oz cans of garbanzo beans (chickpeas), drained and rinsed

2/3 cup of tahini (roasted, not raw)

1/3 cup freshly squeezed lemon juice

1/2 cup water

1/4 cup olive oil

1/2 teaspoon of salt

Pine nuts (toasted) and parsley (chopped) for garnish

In a food processor, combine the garlic, garbanzo beans, tahini, lemon juice, 1/2 cup water, and olive oil. Process until smooth. Add salt, starting at a half a teaspoon, to taste.

Spoon into serving dish and sprinkle with toasted pine nuts and chopped parsley.

Serve with crackers, raw dip vegetables such as carrots or celery, or with pita bread. You can cut the pita bread into thin triangles, brush with olive oil and toast for 10 minutes in a 400°F oven to make pita chips with which to serve the hummus.

Makes about 3 cups.

To: My Boss

Date: 14 February 2012

Subject: Recently Published Hummus Recipe

As a culinary publication company, it is our mission to strive for the utmost in perfection regarding all published recipes. Last night I had the most unfortunate task of testing and verifying a recently published recipe on the site, specifically, the Hummus Recipe. Having lived in Turkey for the duration of my childhood and enjoyed hummus on a regular basis, I must address the inaccuracy and failure of this recipe to portray culinary perfection. This hummus recipe is lacking in flavor, texture and garnish.


True Middle Eastern hummus recipes rarely use raw garlic. It is much more common to utilize roasted or saute garlic. These techniques are well established within the culinary disciplines to remove the bitterness of the garlic and replace it with a sweet yet pungent overtone. Without this overtone, the garlic exists in a manner similar to some Italian recipes, not Middle Eastern.

Additionally, the recipe listed includes much too high of an amount of tahini. Tahini has a strong flavor in hummus, and in this case, overrides the flavor of the garlic as well as the fresh flavor of the lemon juice.


After completing the hummus according to the listed directions and tasting the first bite,…… [read more]

Practical Use of Cheese in Today's Market Place Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (1,028 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Cheese in Today's Market Place

Cheese has been consumed by human beings since before recorded history (Ensrud, 1981). Essentially, it has always been something people have eaten and enjoyed. Still, it is important to consider not just the history of cheese, but its practical use in today's market place. People think of eating cheese, but they do not realize the jobs that it provides and the social implications of cheese as a comfort food throughout American society. Many also fail to see the value of cheese as a rodent control, but it has been used as the "staple" food for mousetraps for many years. The stereotype of mice liking cheese is there for a reason. Cheese and practicality, however, are not two words that commonly go together in the human mind. People eat cheese because they like the taste of it, and they generally do not think much more about it than that. Still, for the true cheese connoisseur, or someone who wants to study all that cheese has to offer, there is more to be considered than just the idea that cheese is a food (Jenkins, 1996).


Naturally, the most practical use for cheese is to eat it. Ever since people began to consume cheese, societies have created dishes that either centered around the use of cheese or allowed for cheese as a form of garnish (McGee, 2004). With that in mind, people devoted their time to recipes that required various types of cheeses, and people became enamored with the flavors and textures that could be found in cheese. Tastings were a popular way to express one's interest in cheese, which was often paired with good wines and high-quality crackers or breads (McGee, 2004). Cheese spreads are also very popular, as one is able to get the flavor of the cheese as well as the flavor of the herbs or spices that are added to the spread (McGee, 2004). As a practical use for cheese, there is nothing more common or expected than eating it, either alone or in a particular kind of dish designed to incorporate it.

Social and Comfort Aspects

Other practical uses of cheese that may not occur to people as often are its social and psychological aspects. Cheese is often a "comfort food" to many people in the western world, as evidenced by all the schoolchildren who take cheese sandwiches or cheese cubes to school with them in their lunchboxes (Jenkins, 1996). Many children and adults also love grilled cheese sandwiches, frequently paired with soup, on a cold winter day, for other lunch or dinner. The feeling of "home" one gets when eating cheese is not something that can be easily duplicated by other foods in middle-class and lower-middle-class American families (McGee, 2004). These individuals have grown up eating cheese sandwiches made by their parents and macaroni and cheese from boxes, and they are now making those same kinds of sandwiches and side dishes for their children. Undoubtedly, the same kinds of… [read more]

Consumer Who Has Read Fast Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


There is anecdotal evidence that fast food may be somewhat 'addictive' because of its high fat and high sugar content, which to some extent takes away the element of 'choice' from the matter.

The market equilibrium of supply and demand thus does not take into consideration a variety of costs to either the individual in terms of health or society in terms of damage to the environment. Consumers are not cognitively capable of prioritizing the long-term consequences of unsustainable meat consumption and health damage. The initial, apparent price of a fast food meal does not reflect its true costs. It is more expensive to buy a head of cauliflower and free-range chicken than it is to buy soda, fries, and a burger but these items might be less 'costly' in the long-term.

Of course, defenders of Adam Smith would note that fast food does not reflect its true commercial price because of substantial intervention by the government, in the form of agricultural subsidies. While this is indeed fair, it is also important to note that the producers of fast food engage in substantial 'tampering' with their products, to entice consumer's taste buds. Fast food is artificially crafted to please the palate because it offers a wallop of sugar and fat. Chicken McNuggets and fries are flavored, unlike more natural products that assault the taste buds less vigorously. As consumers get used to foods tasting extremely sweet and fatty, other foods taste less interesting to them.

The fries do to taste food because they are 'good' in the sense that they are carefully prepared. Consumers may love McDonald's fries, but they do so because of artificial flavor engineering. However, it could be argued that many consumer products throughout the ages that sell 'bad' things, such as alcohol producers, have tried to trick consumers into consuming more (such as offering salty bar snacks) through ingenious methods not prohibited by the market. Human biology, particularly in regards to food and drink, means that consumers have trouble behaving like the perfectly rational 'economic man' of Adam Smith's…… [read more]

Animal Proteomics Is the Study Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


, 2010). They were able to determine that marker in cattle, pigs and fowl (Picard et al., 2010). In fact, they found that protein modifications during the aging process helped explain why older animals generally yield tougher meat than younger animals (Picard et al., 2010). Furthermore, they looked out how proteins react to the stress of slaughter, because of the long-held belief that the slaughter process can impact meat quality (Picard et al., 2010).

While Picard et al. specifically concentrated on meat quality; Bendixen et al. looked at how studying animal proteomics could contribute to the understanding of human genetics. They did focus on proteomics and the role it plays in factory-farm meat production and acknowledged that most research in the area focuses on how to improve meat quality. However, by reviewing current research, they were also able to present an overview of the topic in farm animal proteomics and "highlight some of the areas where synergy between classic model organism proteomics and farm animal proteomics is rapidly emerging" (Bendixen et al., 2011). It is no surprise that factory farm animals and classically raised animals have different characteristics, having been grown for different purposes. In fact, since animals were first domesticated, humans have been engaging in genetic modifications to make farm animals better sources of food and labor for human beings. In recent years, those genetic modifications have been accelerated through lab work, rather than having to rely upon old-school breeding programs. Specifically, understanding proteomics helps agriculture professionals manipulate an animal's biology to optimize its role in food production. Moreover, because much of this manipulation is on a muscular level, that research could lead to muscle manipulation in humans, with possible applications for people with muscular illnesses.


Bendixen, E., Danielsen, M., Hollung, K., Gianazza, E., & Miller, I. (2011). Farm animal proteomics- a review. J Proteomics, 74(3), 282-93.

Picard, B., Berri, C., Lefaucheur, L., Molette, C., Sayd, T., &…… [read more]

Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Farming Villages Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Farming Villages in Kenya

The purpose of this research is to examine the potential success for implementing rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems within areas in rural Kenya. SAMCAN advocates will focus on the implementation of such systems to help provide access to healthy water for both residential and agricultural purposes. Moreover, staff will focus on… [read more]

Thomas Keller: Classic Innovator Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,003 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


" In each of these restaurants, Keller's menus have been built upon classic fare easily accessible to diners and executed with flawless technique. However, as fellow chef Michael Ruhlman points out, dining at one of Keller's restaurants is hardly a mundane experience. "[One experiences] not only a range of luxury food items… but also an entire meal that arrives out of a unique intelligence -- quirky, eccentric, distinct" (Ruhlman ____).

Keller's ability to meld the classic with the unique made waves in the culinary community when he opened the French Laundry, and continues to guide dining trends today. While more recent restaurant concepts have either plunged completely into the back-to-basics, ingredient-centered "simple fare" or have taken the opposite route towards bold fusion and radical experimentation, Keller is unrivaled in his mastery of the middle road. His menu at Per Se features dishes like Mac and Cheese, Bacon and Eggs, and Creamsicles, but these traditional dishes are reimagined in inventive ways. The Bacon and Eggs, for instance, is a buttery cake studded with pieces of braised pig's head and topped with a poached quail egg (Platt 2005). The Mac and Cheese is reinvented nightly, and often features lobster or scallops.

Keller is passionate about sharing his knowledge and love of food, and his cookbooks, including the popular French Laundry Cookbook, offer home cooks the ability to make his dishes exactly as they are made in his restaurants. His commitment to demystifying process of high-level cooking and spreading the philosophy of discipline and attention to detail have made him not only a celebrated chef and businessman but also a respected and admired educator, and his generosity in sharing his techniques and his unique vision of food have made him influential not only in the restaurant scene but in American homes as well.

Food and Wine magazine summed up Keller's particular talent when they named him their top All-Star American Chef in 2008, citing his ability to "meld the classic and creative to astounding effect." From his first recognition of perfection in Hollandaise sauce to his ultimate standing as one of the most admired culinary minds in the world, Keller has kept true to the love of precision and invention that attracted him to cooking in the first place. Because of his commitment to these fundamental principles, he has been able to maintain for decades a standard of excellence that few can hope to achieve in a lifetime.


Hamilton, D., Kuh, P., Septimus, M. (2007) Chef's Story: 27 Chefs Talk about What Got Them into the Kitchen. New York: Harper Perennial.

Miller, B. (2008) "Five All-Star American Chefs." Food and Wine. Retrieved 10 November 2011 from http://www.foodandwine.com/articles/5-all-star-american-restaurateurs

Keller, T. (1999) The French Laundry Cookbook. New York: Artisan Publishing.

Platt, A. (2005, May 21) "Killer Keller." The New York Magazine, Vol 37. p 112.

Ruhlman, M. (2001) The Soul…… [read more]

Potashcorp Industry Trends: -Agricultural Demand Is Increasing Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … PotashCorp

Industry Trends:

-Agricultural demand is increasing with the world's population

-Arable land areas are shrinking due to environmental changes and other factors

-New and previously unfarmed land might be opening up in new areas due to warming

-Moves to natural fertilizers/compost are becoming more common on commercial farms

-Agriculture is continuing to shift to the developing world with globalized distribution

-Innovations in plant science are leading to newer and more efficient growing methods

Bureau of Labor Statistics)

Uncertainties (from high to low):

-Legislation promoting agricultural growth might be drawn back as an austerity measure

-Food price shocks could create ripple effects that put buyers out of business

-U.S. Presidential election in 2012 could cause real economic turmoil with any outcome

-Environmental legislation could impact production methods and expenses significantly

-Import legislation could restrict the flow of agricultural products and affect demand

If legislation providing subsidies and other incentives to agricultural producers are cut back or eliminated, the demand for PotashCorp's products is likely to significantly decrease. This, along with the potential for food price shocks to also negatively impact producers, runs the risk of putting smaller producers out of business. This will in turn give the major producers -- already large customers of PotashCorp -- more consolidated buying power, which could affect the price PotashCorp is able to command for its products and thus the ultimate profitability and stability of the company. It is for this reason that these tow uncertainties are seen as having the highest potential.


In a worst-case scenario, ongoing fluctuations in production and distribution costs that cause shocks in food prices that then ripple back and affect the profitability of production will cause many producers to leave the industry. This, coupled with a legislative end to agricultural incentives in many countries, significantly impacts the production…… [read more]

Deforestation in the Amazon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Deforestation in the Amazon

One of the consequences of modernization and industrialization is that certain primeval lands become more desirable for human settlement, agriculture, timber mining, and other land development. This has happened throughout history, as primitive tribes and even the Ancient Empires used up resources in a given area and then moved on. However, one specific and quite serious… [read more]

Popularity of Foreign Restaurant: Consumer Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  27 pages (7,176 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 27


8m visitors to Thailand last year -- up 7.3 per cent on 1997 -- passed through Bangkok." (Cooke, 1999)

Additionally, according to Cooke (1999), "One of the pleasures of Bangkok is eating. While there are Thai restaurants on virtually every street corner, the capital also has a wealth of other cuisines on offer. A number of the more unusual establishments… [read more]

Students' Absence. My First Hypothesis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Did any of the non-absent student partake of that food too

My second hypothesis for this spoke of absences is the following: a fever-related disease- swine flue for instance. The school site shows that the same incident happened a year ago. Even thoguh the case focuses on the band students, it may be that students of other classes were absent too. Or that the band students involved themselves in some activity or became infected by some substance related to their band practice that caused them to become infected with this specific fever.

In this case, my six testable questions would be the following:

1. Were any students from other classes absent during this period too

2. Were absent students suffering from fever

3. The reason for absences of students form other classes (if there were absences)

4. Was there a high number of band students absent the year before too

5. Is this ration of absence of band students higher than that of students form other classes

6. Is there any specific activity during this month that differs from the rest of the year? May this be linked to outbreak of fever?

Is the following statement a suitable hypothesis: "The Brentwood Indians basketball team lost the state championship because there is bad stuff in the stars happening with Mars in Aquarius"? Explain why or why not.

The statement is not a suitable hypothesis since 'bad stuff in the stars' is an astrological phenomenon that cannot be examined by testable…… [read more]

Marketing Plan for Vinny's Prima Prego Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  18 pages (6,435 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Vinny's Prima Prego! Is a blossoming gourmet pasta restaurant in Kansas City with a rapidly developing consumer brand and growing customer base. The restaurant is to serve the younger generation of working professionals living in Kansas City. The restaurant faces stiff competition from various other restaurants but the one of the main ways of gaining competitive advantage is to offer… [read more]

Taco Bell. A2034298 Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,191 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In September of 2000, the company got accused of selling Kraft taco shells that were genetically modified to grocery stores. The shells contained some molecules of protein (Cry9c), which was unapproved, for consumption of humans. In December 2006, Taco Bell restaurants got implicated in hepatitis A outbreak in multiple countries, in Nevada, Kentucky and Florida. Analysis revealed that the green onion was likely one of the source, but these ingredients got contaminated prior to their arrival at the Taco bell restaurants. On December 13, 2006 Taco Bell got determined that lettuce from its suppliers in California was the probable source for the outbreak of E. coli. The FDA and CDC confirmed this after additional statistical analysis of the company's ingredients. Since lettuce is server in approximately 70% of all Taco bell menu items, it increased the probability that it would be the source. The CDC indicated that the contamination of lettuce occurred before reaching the restaurants, .

Following the E. coli outbreak, New York lawmakers called on United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), CDC and FDA to form a joint task forces so as to examine the E. coli outbreak, recommend necessary changes and regulations to prevent food contaminations. In April of 2007, the USDA published guidelines for the produce industry to prevent contamination in the food supply chains. The FDA, CDC and USDA, are all working together with the state and health departments in the local to detect infections rapidly, to identify sources, and provide information on treatment of infections. The CDC, a leading agency for outbreaks investigation and conducting disease surveillance in United States, top priority, is to educate the general population. The FDA is responsible for regulating everything American people eat, except meat, processed egg products and poultry that regulated by USDA. The FDA launched the Lettuce Safety initiative in August 2006 because of the contamination of spinach whose objectives were to assess current industrial approaches, to alert customers early and respond to outbreaks rapidly. The USDA develops, and executes policy on farming, food and agriculture and aims to meet any needs of farmers and rancher. It works to assure food safety, promote agricultural trade, production and get concerned with assisting farmers with the sale of crops in the world and domestic markets. It is currently inspecting the manufacturing plants where Taco bell's ground beef gets cooked then shipped to restaurant. They have rested guidelines in place for their suppliers that should be followed,

The Escherichia coli infection is a particularly dangerous illness, which when not, controlled or detected early can bring complications in the bodies. Restaurant food can be extremely appetizing but also dangerous because of how it gets prepared. It can be prepared hygienically, but the handlers themselves do not observe proper hygiene. All organizations concerned with the safety of his citizen should ensure that restaurant follow quality hygienic procedures and staff should be safe and free of any disease. They should present certificates of proper health before employment. The Taco Bell infection was the… [read more]

Environmental Material Accounting Phosphorus (P) Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


To locations that are currently deficient in To capture and recycle P. that has drained off of the land and into the streams and rivers, a system of filters can be established along the waterways to capture the P. And aggregate all excess P. into a distribution network for transport to agricultural lands that lack P. The city consumption region is the economic beneficiary of this distribution system and of the food provided. City consumption is the recipient of the product derived from the sustainable use of According to Hammond & White (2008), "Consequently, the only way to recycle phosphorus in the environment is to capture it before iti s released to the sea. While reducing overall use of fertilisers is one option for minimising the environmental burden, breeding crops that utilise the nutrients in the soil and fertiliser more effectively could provide greater sustainability." (Hammond, White, 2008)

The national system should be a contingent system of measures and balances. A national database should be kept and maintained via a website where agricultural economists or farmers whom maintain their crops can access a password protected section of the website that allows them to input the P. levels of their soil. If the P. levels differ, they may enter the range value and the mean/median value. The P. collection system is going to be a system of filtration systems that collect P. In the streams and rivers as runoff from the land. The collected P. will be aggregated and transported to areas throughout the country that are lacking P. For sustainable purposes.

I. Conceptual Design for Sustainable P. Infrastructure System

A. Filtration System

1. Micron filtration system

a. The filtration system is placed where the gradient in streams and rivers shifts downward. As the water trickles down from one land level to the next, the water is filtered of phosphorus while not retaining wildlife from travelling downstream.

b.) The filstration system is placed in the aforementioned strategic locations throughout the country and especially where runoff from rain events are evident, as near mountainsides and the hillsides.

B.) Transport of P

1.) P. that is collected as excess is then entered into the system in total.

2.) The areas that lack P. will be identified in the system from the morning tally.

3.) The most efficient route will be planned from the area where the P. is retained to the location where the P. is in need.


Hammond, J. & White, P. 2008, "Sustainable future for fertilisers," Horticulture Week,, pp. 33-34.

Phosphorus: Too Much or Too Little? 2011,, SPRINGFIELD, VA, United States.

Sharpley, A., Foy, B. & Withers, P. 2000, "Practical and innovative measures for the control of agricultural phosphorus losses…… [read more]

American Product That Is Not Readily Present but Was Sought After in Turkey Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Demand for American Soy Products in Turkey

Just as American peanut butter is always in great demand in Turkey, so are American soy products. Tofu, in particular, is in demand by young people who have an interest in vegetarianism and vegan life styles because it is one of the best sources of protein within vegetarian and vegan diets. Tofu is also in demand in Turkey because it is readily able to be incorporated into many types of traditional Turkish and Mediterranean dishes, largely because of it consistency which is very similar to soft cheeses. Tofu is very high in protein and low in dietary fat. American soy milk is also in demand in Turkey because it is a good nutritional equivalent of cow's milk and it can be used for many of the same types of purposes as cow's milk. Soy milk is higher in protein and much lower in dietary fat than cow's milk and can…… [read more]

Genetic Engineering the Answer to Hunger Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,059 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Genetic Engineering the Answer to Hunger

Over the last several years, the issue of genetic engineering, as a way to address the growing world hunger problem has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Simply put, genetic engineering is when you are manipulating the DNA in various genes to: create different desirable traits in the organism. In the case… [read more]

Conceptualizing a Business Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (983 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Conceptualizing a Business

Heavy Henry's Hogs is a restaurant dedicated to the finest in barbequed pork. The vision for Heavy Henry's is to be America's finest purveyor of pork products, smoked, grilled, cured and otherwise. The restaurant will take its cue from fine dining establishments that specialize in tip-to-tail dining, a big trend in the restaurant business right now (Church, 2008). Heavy Henrys' mission is to be a destination restaurant that changes how everyday Americans think about the food that they eat. For too long, food has been a homogenized product, far removed from its agricultural origins. Heavy Henry's seeks to restore the fine tradition of country food, authentic and using the whole animal. Just as important as the social mission of Heavy Henry's is the fact that the food is going to be amazing. There are a lot of barbeque restaurants, but Heavy Henry's will be differentiated from them all by virtue not only of Heavy's dedication to going whole hog, but because Henry's will have the best barbeque on the planet. The finest ingredients, combined with authentic techniques, will combine to give guests the most astonishing culinary experience they have ever encountered. This means heirloom hog breeds, organic vegetables and sugars, a real smoker and a real barbeque pit, and the top chefs in the area working hard to bring this to the table. It will not be cheap, and it definitely will not be fast, but what Heavy Henry's will be is the absolute best.

This business is not intended to grow into anything more than one spectacular destination restaurant. One cannot franchise quality like this, nor would one want to. People will come from miles, if not entire counties and states around to eat at Heavy Henry's. Little boys will hear the story from their fathers of eating at Heavy's and grow up dreaming of one day eating there themselves. Ultimately Heavy Henry's should find itself on lists like this: http://www.esquire.com/blogs/food-for-men/travel-restaurants-2011

The culture of the organization will be dedicated to all forms of gustatory excellence. The staff will be exceptionally well-trained and have high levels of knowledge and experience. The ingredients will only be sourced through suppliers with high standards and ethics -- so no industrial suppliers will be needed. The restaurant will be a fun one in which to work, however, because that sense of fun is then conveyed to the customers. They are dining for pleasures, for an indulgence, and it is desired that the staff is able to deliver that to them. The staff, if tense, will be unable to do so.

Heavy Henry's will be dedicated a strict code of values. Our values include respect for the animal that gave its life to feed our customers, which means no wasting of food product. Respect for the customer is also a key value. The customer is who we are in business to please, and we can do that by giving them what they came…… [read more]

Dust Bowl Bibliography Annotated Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  7 pages (2,245 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Shindo's cultural history examiners how Dorothea Lange, Jogn Steinbeck, John Ford and Woody Guthrie created images and myths about the Dust Bowl migrants that made them symbolic of the Great Depression, even though their views of what the migrants should be were quite different from how they actually saw themselves. Even today, these images of Henry Fonda playing Tom Joad… [read more]

Filipino Culture Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Filipino Culture


This country is a collection of more than 7,000 islands where the East and West cultures amalgamate. This thus makes Filipino psyche the receptacle of a number and even contradictory influences and cultures, which make the Filipino a unique race in a single category. Having been a colony of Spain for four centuries,… [read more]

International Market Evaluation Political Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,001 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


(AMB Country Risk Report, 2010)

II. Maple Leaf Foods, Inc. -- SWOT Analysis


Maple Leaf Foods, Inc. has been in business over ten years.

Maple Leaf Foods, Inc. is the largest food processor in Canada producing "fresh and processed pork and poultry products for retail and wholesale sales, as well as pet and livestock foods." (The Canadian Press, 2010)

Maple Leaf Foods is making the largest effort toward reduction in cost in its history.

Cost reduction efforts are projected to raise the profit margins of Maple Leaf Foods, Inc. By 75% over the next five years.


The current network of Maple Leaf Foods Inc. is reported to be "fragmented, small scale and low-technology." (The Canadian Press, 2010)


Breaking in to the Australian marketplace which is similar to the Canadian marketplace which are both defined as CRT-1 characterized by a "predictable and transparent legal environment, legal system and business infrastructure; sophisticated system regulation with deep capital markets; mature insurance industry framework." (AMB Country Risk Report, 2010)


Threats for Maples Leaf Foods, Inc. include the following:

The food product recalls in 2008 after the deaths of approximately 28 people is likely to haunt Maple Leaf Foods Inc. In the near future. (Howell and Miller, 2010, paraphrased) The social and political economy of Australia is very much like that of Canada, therefore there should be no serious challenge in this consideration of expansion on the part of the company.

It is reported that a breakdown in communications at Maple Leaf Foods, Inc. was to blame for the food products that were recalled following the death of 28 individuals. Maple Leaf Foods, Inc. network is fragmented and this is likely due to the failure to communicate during the food processing process effectively.(Howell and Miller, 2010, paraphrased)

III. Findings and Recommendations

Maples Leaf Food, Inc. should redesign its networking so as to effect better communication between employees and to support the new product expansion into Australia. Expansion into Australia as well as in the initiative to regain the trust of consumers enables the company to best exploit the Australia food as well as experiencing a more stable opportunity for growth in its home location. Maple Leaf Foods, Inc. will necessarily be required to address the same weaknesses that the company has experienced in Australia: (1) network fragmentation; and (2) communication breakdowns. The Australian economy is expanding greatly even in the midst of the economic crises and it is certain that Maple Leaf Foods, Inc. desires to reap some of the benefits of locating their plants in Australia.


Maple Leaf Foods (2008) Retrieved from: http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Maple-Leaf-Foods-Inc.-Company-History.html

Howell, GV and Miller, R (nd) Maple Leaf Foods: Crisis and containment case Study. University of Sydney. Retrieved from http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/ojs/index.php/pcr/article/viewFile/1297/1529

Australia (2010) Country Risk Tier. Retrieved from: http://www3.ambest.com/ratings/cr/re ports/australia.pdf

Canada (2010) Canada. Country Risk Tier Retrieved from: http://www3.ambest.com/ratings/cr/repor ts/australia.pdf

Perner, L (2010) The Global Marketplace. USC Marshall. University of California. Retrieved from: http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/international_marketing.html… [read more]

California Water Pricing Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Water Pricing

California Water Pricing Recommendations and Arguments

There are obviously significant complexities when attempting to develop an efficient pricing strategy for water in California that serves all of the necessary purposes for which water is needed throughout the state. Southern California, which is essentially a desert, experiences droughts on a perennial basis and requires water from northern areas for all manner of uses, including widespread industry and heavy residential use. Agriculture is also a major source of water consumption in the state, yet provides a great deal of economic growth and stability to the state even with the massive amounts of irrigation necessary and the complexities of the irrigation system. Balancing the water needs of the state through pricing strategies is thus far from a simple task, but ultimately it would best be accomplished by implementing a long run marginal cost pricing strategy. This will ensure that revenues allow for the continued supply of adequate water to necessary regions and industries over the long-term, allowing for alternative water sources to be developed without major impacts on price (as long as they are accounted for with the establishment of current prices), while also distributing costs on a somewhat more equitable basis.

Supporting Arguments…… [read more]

Omnivore's Dilemma by Michael Pollan Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma. New York: Penguin, 2006.

We have, according to Michael Pollan, a "national eating disorder" (Pollan 2). Americans have grown so disassociated from the ways in which food is produced that they have lost a sense of what food really is. The title of Pollan's 2006 manifesto the Omnivore's Dilemma underlines the paradox that all human beings must face: because they are human, they are confronted with a seemingly infinite array of choices of what they can consume. Theoretically, a McDonald's meal is edible because a human being's stomach acids are capable of breaking down a fries, burger, and milkshake. But Pollan asks: what does that meal do to our bodies -- and to our environment and the larger food chain? "When you can eat just about anything nature has to offer, deciding what you should eat will inevitably stir anxiety, especially when some of the potential foods on offer are liable to sicken or kill you" (Pollan 3).

Many animals, such as the koala bear, only need one type of food to thrive. The koala bear only needs eucalyptus leaves to eat a balanced diet. In contrast, if human beings eat a very limited diet, they can grow extremely sick. One of the reasons for the explosion of obesity and over diet and lifestyle-related diseases, argues Pollan, is because we are unintentionally limiting ourselves to a nutrient-poor way of eating. Although food is packaged in many unique and attractive ways, the distinction is only on the surface, and due to clever packaging, rather than actual substance. Corn, one of the main commodity crops of subsidized agriculture, is everywhere. Sweet foods have high fructose corn syrup in them; corn sugar is even hidden in savory foods to enhance flavor in foods like burgers and tomato sauce. Corn is the "building block" of industrial food, particularly the ability of corn to be converted into high-fructose corn syrup, which is less expensive and sweeter than regular sugar (Pollan 88-89).

Pollan divides his book into three sections, or three different aspects of the food production cycle: industrial, pastoral, and personal. Industrial food processing is based upon the use of corn, and Pollan notes how government policy has made it cheap and easy to fatten animals for slaughter in feed lots, although the animals cannot digest corn unless they are given antibiotics to do so. The availability of cheap corn enables highly processed and caloric foods, from chips to snack cakes, to be shelf-stable and sold for pocket change. Food, which used to take up a tremendous percentage of a family's budget, is now quite inexpensive, but at tremendous cost to human health. One of Pollan's most controversial arguments is that food is too cheap. The methods used to make food inexpensive also make food harmful to the body. "You can buy honestly priced-food or you can buy irresponsibility priced food" that is…… [read more]

Bloodstain Geometry Experiment Lab Report

Lab Report  |  1 pages (407 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … oz of white corn syrup and red food dye. Mix to the appearance of blood.

I used:

A 12-inch square piece of cardboard

A 12-inch square piece of lumber

A 12-inch square piece of linen

Paper towels

Tape measure


Observations and Documentation

Describe the texture of the surface: The texture of the surface on the carboard was hard; on the linen cloth it was porous; on the lumbar it was hard.

Describe the edge characteristics of the resulting stains

The cloth resembled a hot dog / banana shape

The blood blot on the paper seemed to me most like that of an embryo

Whilst that on the lumbar resembled a kite with a long looping skimpy tail.

Describe the extent of peripheral satellite spatter

On the cloth there were more splatterings to a right angle of the blob .

On the lumbar it looped off into a thin trail, with outlier splatterings connected by the trail; on the cardboard it was a disfigured shape with precisley one splatter.

Measure the diameter of each drop (in millimeters)

The measurements:

Diameter was approximately 5 by 4 ml on the cardboard.

Diameter was approximately 2 by 8ml on the cloth.

Diameter was approximately…… [read more]

Plastics the Ecology Center ) Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (636 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



The Ecology Center (2011) says that besides the fact that plastics create safety problems during production, many chemical additives that give plastic products their desirable properties for performance also have very negative effects on the environment and humans' health.

Chemicals can migrate from plastic packaging to the foods that they contain (Ecology Center (2011). Some of the examples of plastics contaminating food have been found with most plastic types -- "including Styrene from polystyrene, plasticizers from PVC, antioxidants from polyethylene, and Acetaldehyde from PET" (2011).

The chemical structure of the migrants and the nature of the packaged food are the factors that control migration (Ecology Center 2011). "In studies cited in Food Additives and Contaminants, LDPE, HDPE, and polypropylene bottles released measurable levels of BHT, Chimassorb 81, Irganox PS 800, Irganix 1976, and Irganox 1010 into their contents of vegetable oil and ethanol" (2011). There was also evidence that showed that acetaldehyde migrated out of PET and into water (2011).

Some of the effects of these plastics are quite grave. PVC, for example, found in plastic wrap, food packaging, among other types of household equipment and containers, can cause birth defects, cancer, genetic changes, ulcers, chronic bronchitis, vision failure, liver dysfunction, skin diseases, and indigestion, to name a few (Ecology Center). DEHP used in creating product packaging and food wrap can cause endocrine disruption, is linked to asthma, and is also linked to reproductive effects (2011). Polystyrene is used for food containers for meats, fish, yogurt, cheese and seafood as well as for bakery goods can irritate the eyes, nose, and throat and is known to cause dizziness in people. It migrates into the food and then is stored in body fat (2011). There are increased rates of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers for workers who work around polystyrene (2011). Polythelyne, which is used for water and soda bottles, drinking glasses, and is used in chewing gum is…… [read more]

Kudler Fine Foods Product Launch Plan Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … product launch plan for two markets (domestic and international): Canada and Italy.

Kudler Fine Foods started in California, in1998, by Kathy Kudler with the intent of supplying high-end diversity gourmet items at reasonable prices. It has already expanded to four stores and is considering international expansion. Specifically, Kudler's Fine Foods is considering a move into the Canadian and… [read more]

Scientific Concepts Theories and Inquiry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,584 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Photosynthesis: How Does Light Affect Soybean Growth?

This experiment deals with how environmental photosynthesis different wavelengths of light affect plant growth. The direct inspiration for this experiment (adapted of course to a student's budget and resources) was a published study in which soybean plants showed that between 14 and 18 days after sowing, it was possible to relate adaptations in… [read more]

Rainfall Simulation Studies to Estimate Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  35 pages (11,071 words)
Bibliography Sources: 150


Incorporated residue is crop residue that is mulched into the soil such as corn stalks being buried to increase the organic matter content of the soil and which further operates like grade control structures thereby preventing rills from expanding. The use of no-till and reduce tillage practices result in less soil erosion and sediment than do convention methods of tillage… [read more]

Restaurant Evaluation Word Count (Excluding Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Approximately ten minutes later, Annie returned with our drinks and then came back once again with a basket of freshly bread loaf, oil, and salad plates. She then asked if we were ready to order. We both ordered the prime rib, apparently the best in town according to one of the patrons. In addition, we both ordered a side salad and a glass of Cabernet Sauvignon. It took 20 minutes or more but the atmosphere was so pleasant that the time passed quickly. Our waitress brought the food and served it according to proper service standards. The food arrived as ordered. The food was hot and the wine at room temperature. All aspects were exceptional.

When the meal was finished, a busboy, whose name I could not see, cleared the plates with the proper etiquette. Another server, named Aiden, came to refresh our water glasses and asked if we would care for dessert. He recited the dessert options and we ordered apple pie and a cup of coffee. The dessert arrived promptly, approximately five minutes later. It was a very good apple pie. It was a generous slice, served warm, and had a very flaky crust; though it was a bit too sweet for my taste. After a few bites, I realized that the waitress had forgotten to bring the coffee. When I reminded her, she apologized graciously and brought hot strong coffee promptly. The busboy returned to clear our plates, again with the best of professionalism.

When our meal was complete, Annie arrived with the check within a few minutes. The dinner and drink prices were fair and competitive however the dessert prices seemed a bit inflated. A credit card was placed in the billfold and Annie returned once more and completed the transaction in a timely manner.

During the visit, I did not notice any safety or sanitation violations. The restrooms were very clean and a cleaning schedule was posted. I would return to this…… [read more]

Hunger and America's Youth Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,365 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Hunger and America's Youth

If you've never had to skip a meal because you didn't have money to buy food, consider yourself lucky. Hunger in America's youth is a complex and multifaceted problem and a growing challenge for many American families. Food insecurity, or the lack of access to enough food for a healthy and active life, affects a wide… [read more]

Atrazine Banned in Europe Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Atrazine Banned in Europe


There is a considerable amount of controversy about the issue of the use of the chemical atrazine in agriculture. Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the U.S. And is applied to approximately seventy percent of the maize crop (Atrazine). The debate about the use of this herbicide in the United States… [read more]

Life During the ICE Age Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Life During the Ice Age

For humanity, the ice age represents a shift that was occurring with life on Earth. What was happened was the planet became gradually cooler, causing large ice caps to form at the poles. They would then move southward, covering millions of square miles. For example, during the last ice age, the glaciers would move as… [read more]

Christian Fasting Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Biblical fasting is a unique and ancient way for people to connect or become closer to God. Through reading the Bible one learns that fasting enables the Holy Spirit to reveal your true spiritual condition, resulting in brokenness, repentance, and a transformed life. In addition to this, fasting and prayer are the only disciplines that fulfill the requirements of II Chronicles 7:1. On my personal journey to get closer to God I encountered some issues due to my schedule. This experience was ultimately positive however as it revealed to me that God takes care of us even when we feel broken and empty, and I learned that I also hold the power to push past these weighty feelings.

In order to satisfy the requirements of II Chronicles 7:1, I took it upon myself to fast for a day. The difficulty with this was my busy day. I had work that day for six hours from one until seven, which are not optimal hours for fasting. Because of my busy day, it was not particularly easy for me to spend much time meditating but I took advantage of my breaks by doing so. Truthfully, the fast wasn't as hard on me physically as it was mentally. At approximately four o'Clock I started to think about how long it had been since I had eaten, which led my stomach to tell me it was yearning for food. From then on until 8 o'clock when I ravenously ate a microwaveable pizza, thoughts of hunger plagued my mind constantly and forcefully. A less important but still significant effect of my fasting was my newfound appreciation for having food. It forced me to question what it would be like if not eating for a day was normal as it is for much of the world. I am extremely grateful that I participated in this activity for it revealed to me much about myself and what circumstances I could withstand, but it also taught me more about God.

G-d won't give up on us if we don't give up on Him. This is the main lesson I took away from fasting for a day. God guides us through all times of trouble and despair. Not eating for twenty-four hours is by no means a tragedy or a time of great horror, but it is not an easy thing to do for a lot of people. Yet, as the fast ended, I felt fine and my body was left unharmed. God helped me through the difficult day with His guidance and I…… [read more]

Project Statement of How to Make Pancakes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Crash

For this project, I decided to shoot a video about how to make pancakes. I chose pancakes because it is a pretty simple, but delicious meal to make. While pancakes are most often eaten at breakfast, they can really be eaten at any time of the day and they are filling as well as good for you (depending on what kind of toppings you use, of course). There are many different recipes for pancakes, but I decided to use a pretty simplistic one for this project. The main ingredients are flour (which can be white or whole wheat flour), eggs, milk, baking powder, vegetable oil, and butter. There are optional ingredients that you can add to pancakes -- such as blueberries or even chocolate chips, but for this video I will be showing how to make plain pancakes.

The first thing I had to do was find a friend who would be in the video. Once I found her, I went to Whole Foods to find my ingredients. This shot of Whole Foods was done in a wide screen shot, moving into close-up. Then in a medium close-up frame I recorded the image all the different ingredients -- the eggs, milk, butter, and flour. The next thing I did was give some information on the importance of washing your hands before cooking so you don't spread germs in your cooking.

The next part of the video is the process of mixing the ingredients. The first step in making pancakes is to crack the eggs into a bowl. In a medium close-up frame I showed how to melt the butter using the stovetop. You don't need a lot of butter, just a bit. Then using a spatula, I had my friend move the butter around the pan so that the pan was completely coated in butter so that they pancakes would not stick.

Next, I had my friend add all of the ingredients -- flour, milk, baking powder, and vegetable oil -- into the bowl with the cracked eggs. Then she mixed the ingredients…… [read more]

Society Ecology War Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (999 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … ecology, war: Connections

The phrase 'Mother Nature' suggests that human beings personify nature as a physical human being. The image of nature as a human entity is very common throughout literature across a variety of cultures. Yet for much of Western civilization, nature has not been treated with great sensitivity or respect. Ever since the birth of modern agriculture, there has always been a tension between human needs and the need to respect the demands of nature. While some societies have striven to remain in balance with nature, not taking any more or less than needed from the land, this has not been the case for much of the history of Western dominance of the known world.

The failure to show respect for the demands of nature can be seen in the failure of the early Jamestown colony in Virginia. A lack of knowledge of sustainable faming practices and a contempt for tilling the soil lead to the deaths of most of the residents. Were it not for the intervention of the native people, the early colonists would likely have starved, given their lack of knowledge of how to make the soil yield food. And even after growing more accustomed to farming, the European colonists always focused on the land's ability to yield a profit more than its ability to keep them alive: "The European colonists were engaged from the beginning (almost...) in market-oriented farming. Within the first decade, the Virginia colonists were raising tobacco for export rather than food for subsistence. For the first five or more years, the colonists depended upon the resupply shipments from England plus trade with the local Indians for a substantial portion of their food supply" ("Virginia agriculture," Virginia Places, 2010.).

The fact that many of the native peoples lived in harmony with nature, and respected the needs of the soil was viewed with contempt by the Europeans. Because the natives were more 'natural' in their lifestyles they were seen as inferior. The fact that the natives did not view the land as an object to be possessed was seen as justification for acquiring their land by any means necessary. When natives, lacking the resistance to European ailments, began to be decimated by the diseases brought to the Old World, this was seen as further proof of Indian 'inferiority.' "Nature to the Europeans - and the Indians detected this - was something of an obstacle, even an enemy. It was also a commodity: A forest was so many board feet of timber, a beaver colony so many pelts, a herd of buffalo so many robes and tongues. Even the Indians themselves were a resource - souls ripe for the Jesuit, Dominican, or Puritan plucking" ("Native Americans," American West, 2010).

Of course, native societies were not free from war even before the arrival of the Europeans. But the European mentality was distinctive in that it saw the need to colonize the land and make it yield a profit as synonymous with eradicating…… [read more]

Description of My Local Convenience Store Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (697 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Delight Is in the Details

The local Jiffy Mart reminds me of the classic mom and pop one-stop shop and the essence of small-town America. The shop is not a store filled with strangers. It is just the opposite: it is a place where you are sure to recognize one, if not every, face. The store is teeming with life from the local population, which ranges from stay at home moms to local farmers. The people, sights, smells, and sounds of this store tell a story about what it means to belong to a small community in America.

The familiar faces are one of the best things about this store. Only after a few visits, everyone knows who will be working behind the counter on a particular day. Today, it is Kathy, a short woman on the heavy side that likes to wear colorful scarves. She wears tortoise-shell reading glasses, has a squeaky, high-pitched voice, and a shining smile. She reminds me of Betty Boop with her dark, short hair. Farmers, hunters, loggers, and other locals congregate at the coffee bar to discuss who has their hunting tags and who is trapping beaver as they eat doughnuts and drink their piping hot coffee. Their hunter camouflage and orange clothing stands out across the store. When listening closely, I hear a fishing tale about a bass that was so big, it jerked the pole right out of Jimmy's hands. Meanwhile, mothers with children, school kids, and older customers come in. They are like me and come here to get lively service, good conversation and tasty food. This store represents the heart and soul of what small-town America is all about.

The best time to visit this shop is the mornings because the aromas enhance the experience. With I open the door, the smell of coffee brewing and fresh-baked pastries hit me in the face. The aromas make me imagine how good fresh baked, crispy doughnuts would taste dipped into a steamy, fresh cup of coffee. The gigantic exhaust fan spreads the wonderful aroma of homemade pastries throughout the village.…… [read more]

NYC Program to Help the Homeless Chronically Mentally Ill Hungry or Impoverished Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,157 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Hunger NYC

Hunger is a major problem throughout the United States. The problem of hunger is considerably troubling in cities with large populations such as New York. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on the New York City Coalition against Hunger and their efforts to assists those who are dealing with the issue of hunger. The research will explore the various programs and initiative established by the aforementioned organization.

Current Statistics

According to a U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) report on hunger in 2008 there were 49.1 million people living in food insecure households.

This number was an increase aof nearly 13 million from 2007 when the amount was 36.2 million.

Of the 49.1 million 32.4 million are adults (about 14. Of all adults) and 16.7 million are children (23% of all children). Furthermore, the report explains that "17.3 million people lived in households that were considered to have "very low food security," a USDA term (previously denominated "food insecure with hunger") that means one or more people in the household were hungry over the course of the year because of the inability to afford enough food. This was up from 11.9 million in 2007 and 8.5 million in 2000."

In addition the USDA reports that the recession has only compounded an already dire situation as the problem of hunger more than doubled between 200 and 2008. Minority groups have been adversely affected by this issue with 26% of Black households and 27% of Hispanic households experiencing food insecurity.

To combat the problem of hunger in New York City the New York City Coalition Against Hunger was developed in 1983 as a reaction to the growing problem of hunger in the city. Representatives from all five boroughs convened to investigate what could be done to assist the hungry. Prior to the development of this coalition each of the boroughs were handling the proble of hunger through various small church and non-profit organizations but these organizations could no longer efficiently handle the growing numbers of individuals seeking assistance and so the coalition was born. The mission of the coalition is to "coordinate the activities of the emergency food providers in the city so that issues can be identified, prioritized and addressed effectively."

In addition to this original mission the organization has also grown to include engaging in advocacy and legislative efforts to combat hunger.

In an effort to combat hunger in the city the Coalition has created nine unique programs to effectively serve the people of the city. These programs include the following

1. Emergency Food Action Center- the purpose of this program Is to provide assistance to food pantries and soup kitchens throughout the city. It is one of the first programs of its kind in the United States that is designed to specifically assist these organizations with expanding their services so that they can be completely independent. In addition the assistance given to these organizations is unique and designed to meet the needs of specific emergency food… [read more]

What Are the Causes of Famine? Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



Causes of Famine

In spite of the enormous technological advances in the last 50 years, famine is still an element of everyday life in many poorer regions, mainly developing or third world countries. In principle, a famine is an incident in which a large percentage of the populations of a region or country are hungry and death by starvation… [read more]

Ethnic Dining Experience Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Ethnic Dining Experience

Miami has been socially and culturally driven by its Cuban community for the better part of five decades. The community has been built in two major waves, one following the Communist takeover of the island and the other during the Mariel Boatlift in 1980. The community is focused on the Little Havana neighborhood and Versailles Restaurant is an embodiment of old Cuba in the heart of the Calle Ocho strip. The restaurant drips character, from its characterful building and staff to the musicians to the authentic Cuban food. This essay will discuss the experience of dining at Versailles, a rich experience in ethnic dining.

A visit to Miami a few years ago was mostly for non-cultural purposes but it also afforded an opportunity to explore Calle Ocho and to indulge in some of the more accessible trappings of Miami Cuban culture. Without having been to Cuba it is difficult to ascertain exactly how authentic the experience is, but the experience at Miami's most famous Cuban restaurant Versailles is certainly unique and very different from what one would experience at a more typical American restaurant.

The class of a bygone era is evident immediately upon entering Versailles. The restaurant is decorated with chandeliers and etched mirrors, delivering a time warp experience into what a Cuban working class in the 1950s would have viewed as high style. Yet the basic furniture belies the establishment's status as a working-class institution rather than a hall of fine dining. Diners -- the restaurant is typically packed -- are crowded into simple tables with cafeteria chairs. The attempts at sophistication in light of such obvious working-class leanings would in other situations seem tacky but at Versailles this is not the case as everything about the look and feel of the restaurant is genuine.

Upon entering, a table can be arranged by the host. The wait staff are all neat in appearance, clean and sharp. The men wear crisp white shirts with aprons and black pants and ties. Yet they are casual and open as well. Spanish is the language of choice, and although English will suffice it seemed evident that the staff are friendlier to those speaking Spanish, although this could simply be because the Spanish-speakers are from the same Cuban community.

The menu at Versailles is quintessential Cuban cuisine. Pork is the dish of the day, every day, and in every way. Cubans take their pork is sandwich format -- including the famous medianoche and Cubano sandwiches -- but they also eat a variety of roast pork dishes as well. Chicken is also available, as are beef "steaks" which is often pounded flat and cooked well done. Side dishes are uniquely Cuban as well, including salty black beans, fried plantains, bread pressed flat, rice (with or without beans) and boiled yucca.

Desserts and drinks also reflect the Cuban cultural heritage. Desserts are simple and sweet, including Latin American staples such as flan and tres leches. Drinks include a variety of rum beverages,… [read more]

Competition the Reasons the Florida Department Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,252 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The reasons the Florida Department of Citrus advertises as a singular cooperative rather than on the basis of individual farms is because the market is competitive. Competitive markets have a number of traits that make them distinct. The price is set by the market, and this is the case with oranges. The product lacks differentiation, as is the case in most agricultural commodities. For the Florida Department of Citrus, the marketing is an attempt to brand Florida oranges as unique, which is possible given the unique climate and soil conditions of the state. However, the orange market remains largely undifferentiated.

In addition, there are numerous competitors in the market and there is relatively easy market entry and exit. Certainly there are numerous competitors in oranges, not just in Florida but California and other parts of the world as well. As a result, individual farmers would have difficulty distinguishing their products from those of other farmers. Market entry and exit is relatively easy, in that farms can be bought and sold easily.

There are competitors in the market around the world, and aside from tariffs, subsidies and other external constraints on price, the price of oranges is set by the global commodities market. Surpluses in one region can be exported around the world to offset shortages in another. The Florida website is an attempt to build the brand for Florida oranges so that its products are deemed to be sufficiently differentiated that they cannot be substituted with other oranges. The site is geared towards consumers, which raises an interesting point about the nature of this competition. Florida oranges are typically used to make juice. Juicemakers may understand that Florida oranges can be readily substituted with oranges from other parts of the world, but if the consumer can be convinced that other oranges are inferior, then juice makers will be compelled to make their juice from Florida oranges. That the product is not differentiated stems from perfect knowledge on the part of buyers; imperfect knowledge on the part of the end user can be leveraged to overcome that. The Florida marketing effort, therefore, is an attempt to create imperfect market conditions where perfect competition currently exists.

3. Monopolistic competition is a form of competition in which there are many competitors, somewhat difficulty entry or exit, products that are only partially differentiated and there is only some degree of price control on the part of the seller (No author, 2010). The fast food industry has these characteristics, and this shall be considered with respect to McDonald's, Burger King and Wendy's.

There are dozens of fast food chains, in addition to independent fast food outlets, in the United States. Each of these chains is slightly differentiated from one another. Whereas KFC is differentiated significantly by product, the three leading burger chains are only differentiated somewhat. The characteristics of the good in fast food in general is a low-cost filling food product focused on basic attractive flavor elements such as meat, salt, fat and… [read more]

Geographies of Global Change Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,794 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Geographies of Global Change

(1.) Globalization may be understood as Christopherson describes it as a globally-scaled process involved in "the increased international flow of people, commodities, and information" (245). It involves the transformation of worldwide communication and information systems (e-commerce and e-marketing), as the editors of Geographies of Global Change mention, and it "transcends relations between states" so that it… [read more]

Stevia Underlying the Sweetness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,471 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Rajasekaran et al. (2008) used several different methods of preparation of the Stevia leaves and analysis via mass spectrometry, and came to a variety of conclusions regarding the issue. In cultured and suspended samples of the Stevia substances, biosynthesis of certain steviosides -- one class of the eight different glycosides identified in the Stevia leaf in this study -- was… [read more]

Cause and Effect of Deforestation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Deforestation

On a very basic level, the cause of deforestation seems simple: deforestation is caused the cutting-down of trees. But why are humans as a species so careless about the precious natural resource of trees? This was not always the case. According to the World Wide Forest Report, during the days of the Roman Empire ninety percent of… [read more]

Organic Farming in Saudi Arabia Its Environmental and Socio Economical Prospects and Challenges Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,760 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Organic Farming in Saudi Arabia: Environmental and Socio-Economical Prospects and Challenges

Conceptual Framework Chapter

"Many organic practices simply make sense, regardless of what overall agricultural system is used.

Far from being a quaint throwback to an earlier time, organic agriculture is proving to be a serious contender in modern farming and a more environmentally sustainable system over the long-term"

(David… [read more]

Sushi in the United States Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,307 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Sushi is one of the most sought-after elite foods in the U.S. And is one clear sign of Japanese influence on American eating habits. Once seen as a method to reduce the smell of raw fish, Sushi has come a long way as it is now a must-have item on many upscale restaurants in the U.S. "Sushi marries the flavor of vinegared rice to the clean flavor of fresh raw fish and shellfish. The rice is deftly shaped into bite-sized 'fingers'. seasoned with a dab of zesty wasabi horseradish, and covered by a strip of choice seafood...Sushi originated as a way of preserving tuna, or curcian, a kind of carp. The fish was salted and allowed to mature on a bed of vinegared rice, after which the rice was discarded. Long before vinegared rice came to be eaten together with the fish and many different combination and ways of serving them evolved." (Tsuji, p. 285-288) Many believe that sushi entered the U.S. with the cultural changes of 1970s but there is definitely more to the history of sushi than meets the eye.

Sushi probably came to the U.S. through the Pacific route and hence was first introduced to the western coast. It was some time in 1950s that a trading company by the name of Mutual Trading Company decided to introduce Japanese cuisine to Caucasian-Americans. However MTC realized that if it adopted the retail route, it would take a long time -- at least 25 years and hence they found it easier and faster to "… introduce Japanese foods through the restaurant trade because then the Americans could taste the foods that had already been prepared and served, in the way they were intended to be, by Japanese chefs."

It is believed that an American by the name of Mr. Wolff had once visited Japan and he fell in love with sushi. It was with his inspiration and support that a man named Mr. Kanai decided to open restaurants serving Japanese food in the U.S. And this led to the opening of the first sushi bar. "The first sushi bar in Southern California was Kawafuku restaurant, started in 1966 in Little Tokyo, Los Angeles. It was owned by Mr. Nakajima and the chefs were Mr. And Mrs. Shigeo Saito."

The sushi bar was a huge success and led to many young chefs seeking entry into the U.S. The problem of lack of chefs was finally solved: "They made a fortune of $30,000. Upon returning to Tokyo, they started a sushi restaurant in Ginza. Word of Kawafuku's success spread quickly in Japan, starting a flood of young Japanese sushi chefs to the U.S.A."

Slowly but consistently sushi became a sought after item in California restaurants and one after the other, sushi bars began mushrooming in the state. The one question that many would ask is why America was so keen to accept sushi and why suddenly Americans were ready to try something that was exclusively Japanese. Consumers'… [read more]

Saving the Brazilian Amazon Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Saving the Brazilian Amazon

Over the last 20 years, the overall issue of the destruction of the Amazon rainforest has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there was a consistent push by the Brazilian government to develop the region since the 1960's. Where, they began to encourage people to locate to the region, as they were seeking… [read more]

Ethical Problem Ethical System Restaurant Ethics: Special Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (775 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Ethical Problem

Ethical system

Restaurant ethics: Special treatment for food critics

Food critics are supposed to be anonymous: many have gone to legendary lengths to preserve their incognito status, from donning wigs to adopting funny accents, as well as using phony names on their expense accounts and credit cards. However, in the age of the Internet, it is increasingly difficult for a restaurant critic's face to go unremarked-upon in a dining room. The title of John Colapinto's 2009 New Yorker article "Why restaurant critics need anonymity" suggests that if a reviewer's identity becomes widely known, restaurants will use any means necessary to influence a review. Once a major critic is supposed to be taking over the Dining Out section for the New York Times or another major newspaper, people with camera phones are likely to try to snap his or her picture or find an old, previously photographed image of the critic. This raises the question: if a critic is suspected to be on the premises, is it ethical for the restaurant to alter its quality of service above and beyond the norm, to make a good impression? This often means that the food critic is getting an experience very different from the average diner.

Of course, some might protest that there is only so much a restaurant can alter. However, consider the following anecdote: one prominent restaurant critic was recently eating in a New York restaurant he was about to review. The critic had a Twitter account and tweeted that his chair was uneven. "Seconds later, the maitre d' appeared at the table offering a new chair and his apologies" (Colapinto 2010). A member of the staff had been following the critic on Twitter. Even in the pre-Internet era, when critics have been recognized, "dried-out slices of cake from the dessert wagon were replaced with whole, freshly-iced gateaux;" stale bread replaced with fresh; and the best cuts of meat and fish, of course, are offered to the critic (Colapinto 2010).

Even more ethically dubious is the practice of offering free food to known restaurant critics. This may include free appetizers, desserts, and drinks, some of which may not be on the menu. For less ethical restaurant critics, the restaurant may offer to pay for the meal, and say that it is 'on the house, complements of…… [read more]

Environmental Interest Groups Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,050 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Environmental Interest Groups

The National Cattleman's Beef Association: Environmental group profile

The National Cattleman's Beef Association: Environmental group profile

While most individuals think of environmental interest groups as predominantly left-wing in nature, the power of the National Cattleman's Beef Association in the U.S. Congress is a reminder that not all interest groups that affect national environmental and agricultural policy support a green agenda. As its name suggests, the National Cattleman's Beef Association (CBA)'s website states that it supports the interests of independent cattle producers, small and large. The organization is more than one hundred years old, and comprises 29,000 independent cattlemen and more than 64 state and cattle breed affiliates. It claims to represent over 230,000 cattlemen across the United States. However, because of its support of industrialized farming practices, some of its position statements could be said to run against the interests of small, organic, and grass-fed beef farmers.

CBA identifies its mission as promoting 'free enterprise' in American agriculture. It seeks to minimize any federal regulation over food and agriculture, including the use of hormones and antibiotics in beef. It states that it opposes 'extreme' environmental regulation of land use and animal welfare regulation. It does support reducing the capital gains tax; expanding market access to nations that have either banned or sharply regulated the import of American beef, including Japan and Korea; and permitting the use of science in animal husbandry (Join now, 2010, CBA).

One of its most enthusiastic causes is the allowing the use of growth-promoting hormones in agriculture. According to its website: "growth-promoting hormones help stimulate growth by increasing the efficiency in which feed is converted to muscle. Certain products, when administered to animals in very small amounts, supplement their natural hormone production and improve growth rates by allowing the animal to produce more muscle and less fat. This helps the industry produce leaner beef for consumers" (Hormones, 2010, CBA). It is obviously in the cattle producer's interest to be able to use growth hormones to increase the weight of the animal more quickly to 'slaughter weight.' This means a swifter time to market and less time spent fattening cattle on feedlots, where the cows cost money for their food and upkeep.

Why does the organization stress the leanness of hormone-raised beef? Reading between the lines, the organization's position reflects the growing link between obesity and the use of hormones in animal products, including beef. "Fetuses, infants, and children are thought to be more vulnerable to the hormone-disrupting effects of exogenous hormones and hormone-like chemicals & #8230;Since 1988, use of steroid hormones in cattle production has been illegal in Europe," and abstaining from the use of hormones has also been supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics (Opposition to the use of hormone growth promoters in beef and dairy cattle production, 2010, APHA).

While the use of hormones is a debatable issue, other policy statements by the CBA seem openly misleading. For example, the organization defends the use of antibiotics in cattle, stating that… [read more]

Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis SWOT

SWOT  |  4 pages (1,257 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis

Whole Foods Market Case Study

Trends in retailing of organic foods

The retailing market is affected by frequent changes that influence the companies activating on this market, and that also influence consumers. The retailing market for organic foods makes no exception. Over the past decade, the organic food market has suffered a series of modifications, most of them leading to the development of this market segment.

For example, since 2000 the country's traditional supermarkets have sold more organic food than the 14,500 natural food stores. Even more, since 2002, most supermarkets have expanded the range of the commercialized organic foods, their display ranging from fresh products to wine, cereals, even cheeses, potato chips, different types of meat, and also canned and frozen fruits and vegetables.

Furthermore the organic product that was preferred by consumers is represented by fresh products, mainly lettuce, carrots, and apples. Other top sellers in the organic foods department include meat, dairy, bread, and snack foods, increased sales volume being reported for these categories in particular. Consumers' increased appetite for organic foods has determined large chains of supermarkets and hypermarkets to create departments specialized for these types of items only.

The organic foods retailing in the U.S. has developed from a niche market to the fastest growing food sales segment because of the modifications that changed consumers' behavior. For example, certain customer segments, like those oriented towards a healthier lifestyle, which includes healthier eating, have expanded their knowledge on organic foods and their advantages. Aside from a healthy lifestyle, many consider that organic farming addresses the health of the environment, therefore orienting to such activities.

Organic foods sales have increased from $1 billion in 1990 to an estimated $23 billion in 2008. It is expected that sales will increase 18% each year (OTA, 2008). Although sales have decreased in most areas because of the economic and financial crisis, the organic foods sector did not report any sales volume decreases (Hunt & Dorfman, 2009).

Whole Foods Competitive Environment

The threat of substitute products and services

Organic foods can be easily replaced by regular foods. Organic foods do not represent a majority in comparison with other types of foods, which means they are easy to be replaced. Also, the price of organic foods is higher than the price of regular foods, many consumers avoiding to buy organic foods because of their price. Another factor that might disadvantage organic foods in comparison with regular foods is represented by the availability or organic foods. Certain stores do not commercialize organic foods, which are considered to have low availability by customers that do not buy such items.

The threat of the new entry of new competitors

Given consumers' increased interest in organic foods, more and more companies that produce and sell such items enter the market. Some of them are small companies that produce and sell on limited local level, but others are large chains of stores that deal exclusively with organic foods, covering a wider geographical… [read more]

Farm Subsidies Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,708 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Farm Subsidies

The subject of farm subsidies becomes convoluted when it is discussed in terms of the West, and in terms of third world nations in Africa, or elsewhere around the world. It is especially misleading and of great concern when discussions are from a third world perspective, encouraging the west to cut back on farm subsidy dollars, because there… [read more]

Scarcity as the Person Responsible Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (748 words)
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As the person responsible for the allocation of the food supplies, I must determine the most efficient use of the fixed supply of food. The production possibilities frontier can shed light on the best possible allocation. The production possibilities frontier (PPF) typically outlines the tradeoff between two possibilities (Investopedia, 2010). The frontier represents any point at which aggregate production is optimized. In my role, I am dealing with a fixed amount of food, so I cannot exceed maximum production. That is to say I cannot distribute food beyond the efficient frontier. I can, however, distribute food in an inefficient way, below the frontier.

I need to make several assumptions. One is that the food is easily divisible. Whatever we have, we can easily measure and divide it. The food is also non-perishable (the nature of the food is otherwise irrelevant). Another assumption is that there is enough food for all eight people to survive, if properly rationed, but that there is not enough food for us to feast. If the amount of food is beyond what we need -- that is beyond the efficient frontier -- then my rationing is irrelevant. Given that humans can survive six days without eating, the amount of food may be below the efficient frontier, meaning that my job is to best ration the food, not perfectly ration it. It is also assumed that there are no other food sources on this island and that we are unlikely to catch any fish. If there were other food sources, the efficient frontier would be pushed outward. In the course of my decision-making, however, I must assume that this is not possible or I will overallocate the food. I did assume, however, that we have adequate water supplies. This removes what would otherwise be a constraint in our food decision making, since six days without water would begin to kill us regardless of the food decision.

The scarcity of food reflects a tradeoff that must be made between nutrition and time. One of the most important factors in my decision-making is the certainty that we will be rescued within six days. Humans can live beyond six days with no food, and without further food sources we may be required to…… [read more]

Using Social Psychological Principles to Help Create a Sustainable Future Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (1,965 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Social Psychological Principles to create a Sustainable Future

Social Psychology Principles for a Sustainable Future

Today more than ever before, societies around the globe are pressed with increasingly complex issues. Environmental, economical and social issues have reached a critical stage forcing us to seriously reconsider indiscriminate use and abuse of natural resources towards a sustainable development plan for the future.… [read more]

In-N-Out Burger a Behind the Counter Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,533 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


in-N-Out Burger a Behind the Counter Look at the Fast Food Chain That Breaks all the Rules

Perman, Stacey. In-N-Out Burger: A behind-the-counter look at the fast food chain that breaks all the rules. HarperCollins, 2009.

Does the fast food burger have a future? Concerns about obesity, sustainability, unfair labor practices, and homogenizing American tastes have been raised by such… [read more]

Milk Got Milk Abstract Motivation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,001 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


The federal Dairy Promotion Program was not income rate adjusted so the Cochrans were forced to pay the same as large-scale producers.

Results -- Represented by the Institute for Justice, the Cochrans challenged the law in the United States 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals. "The Cochrans attempted to challenge the government-mandated dairy checkoff after mushroom growers won in a 2001 Supreme Court ruling that said the Mushroom Act was unconstitutional." (American Agriculturist) They argued that they were being forced to participate in a program that they did not agree with. They successfully disputed that government compelled speech was a direct violation of their First Amendment right to abstain from paying for speech in which they did not agree with. The 3rd Circuit agreed. But, in February of 2004, the Supreme Court ruled that the law was unconstitutional. Unfortunately, in 2005, the United States Supreme Court ruled in a similar case regarding compelled speech programs. Like the Dairy Program, this new case also equated to 'government speech' which translates into the government having the right to make the Cochrans and other farmers to dish out for the ads because of the legal decision that because the ads benefit all of society, government compelled speech is not unconstitutional.

Conclusion -- There may in fact be an unconstitutional tax being applied to these and other dairy farmers, but this decision will also impact other many other agricultural industries or where ever the government decides they have to advertise for the good of all. "This case will have major implications for the many similar programs promoting a wide variety of agricultural products such as 'ahh, the power of cheese,' 'beef, it's what's for dinner' and 'pork, the other white meat' ad campaigns, to name just a few. The Cochrans' lawsuit raises the question, 'Should the government force individual producers to pay for them whether or not they want to advertise their products and whether or not they agree with the advertising the programs fund?'" (American Agriculturist) There are other implications. The local, state and federal governments now has a compelling reason to create situations similar to the dairy farmer's concerns because there will now be no stopping the creation of hidden tax policies for financially troubled governmental organizations. "With the number of cash-strapped local governments feeling the pinch of budget cuts, more may soon be lining up at the milk board's well-endowed trough." (CFIF)

Works Cited

CFIF.Org. "Welcome to the Town of "Got Milk?" A Shining Symbol of the Fleecing of America's Dairy Farmers." Ed. CFIF, October 31, 2001. Retrieved on November 21, 2009 from http://www.cfif.org/htdocs/legislative_issues/federal_issues/hot_issues_in_congress/agriculture/fleecing_dairy_farmers.htm.

American Agriculturist. "Got Milk' Constitutionality Challenged." American Agriculturist, January 8, 2004. Retrieved on November 21, 2009 from http://americanagriculturist.com/story.aspx?s=1093&c=8.

Goliath. "Dairy Farmers No Longer Must Ask: 'Got Milk?'." Ed. ecnext, April 1, 2004. Retrieved on November 21, 2009 from http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-249498/Dairy-farmers-no-longer-must.html… [read more]

Issue of Beef Import Between Korea and USA Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,557 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Korea-U.S. Beef Issue

South Korea: Economy

South Korea is the world's 14th largest economy, with a GDP (purchasing power parity) of $1.335 trillion. With $433.5 billion in exports, South Korea is the world's 12th largest exporter. The export industries are focused on technology (semiconductors, telecommunications) and industry (steel, automobiles, computers, petrochemicals) (CIA World Factbook, 2009). South Korea's four-decade rise as… [read more]

Plants Make Life on Earth Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (642 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Plants make life on earth possible: Why this is so Plants possess a very useful quality: they can convert light into food through the process of photosynthesis. When plants absorb sunlight, they create sugar, and convert that sugar into ATP through cellular respiration (Farabee 2007). Because photosynthesis involves water and releases oxygen into the air, plants are important in ensuring there is enough oxygen for humans and other organisms to breathe.

Plants are the ultimate source of most of the food animals consume: even carnivores consume plants indirectly, as their prey often eats plants to survive. Humans are omnivores and consume both plants and animals as food. The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends that fruits, vegetables, and grains are a mainstay of every healthy individual's diet, regardless of whether he or she is a vegetarian or an omnivore: fruits, vegetables, and grains contain vital nutrients necessary for human functioning. Human beings are one of the few species that cannot manufacture Vitamin C: without fruits and vegetables that are a vital source of this nutrient, humans can get scurvy and become quite ill. A variety of plants of different colors and varieties should be consumed to have a balanced diet.

Some people are vegetarians and subsist on a largely plant-based diet and use protein-dense products derived from plant sources such as soybeans, nuts, and legumes to get all of their essential nutrients. For humans and animals who eat meat, the quality and survival of the plants their prey consumes is linked to the health and safety of the meat served at dinner. Plants need water to live, but they can even provide a source of water: fruits and vegetables contain a great deal of water within them, and can help organisms guard against dehydration. In the desert, cacti and other succulent plants that store water are often used as sources of nourishment by travelers.

Plants are useful as a source of shelter.…… [read more]