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American Revolution New American History Research Paper

… 3 Wood, The American Revolution, 126

Equality and the fact that 'all men are created equal' were stressed a lot in the Declaration of Independence.

The founders of the nation itself did not go on to act on the words that they had written. In the end, the ultimate result was that people realized that they were not slaves and they were also citizens of the country. Therefore, another reason why American Revolution was important is that it provided the basis on which racial segregation was removed.

The American Revolution also gave rise to a cultural and social awareness for the people. It is clear that the people did not want to belong to the British empire. America originally had always been considered a free land. Ironically enough, the British themselves came to the country so they could let go of their own norms and restrictions. 4 We see that the American Revolution did consist of any replacement of ruling class like the Russian Revolution or any reign of terror that occurred in the French Revolution. It was seen that the Revolutionary spirit was present in every American and led to a great change in the societal and cultural ways of the nation. People begin to be more aware of their rights regarding slavery and voting. Religious minorities and women in the country were not afraid to speak for their rights.

Even though the changes for women and colored people did not happen instantaneously, the revolution paved way for the start of this abolitionist movement. It was seen that land inheritance e laws were eliminated right then. Prior to independence, English law stated that the land would be passed down to the eldest son of the family.

4 "Paul Johnson Explains America." The American Enterprise, Septemer 22, 2013.

Due to this reason, land and wealth in the society was present in the hands of some people in the society. This led to class distributing and the very bad treatment of the poor in the society. As mentioned earlier, the revolution also made it possible for the poor man to get his rights. Also, the religious life also changed such that the Anglican Church did not stay in America. During this time, religious tolerance and an increase in underground religions also changed. It was also seen that American art, architecture and literature all flourished during this time. The concept of family was also reformed as women began to attain more power and rights. Therefore, it was seen that the Revolution changed the culture and society of America to a great extent.

In conclusion, the American Revolution was a very important turning point in the history of America. It was because of the American Revolution that the political structure of the country transitioned from a monarchy to democracy. This change came not from the government or the regime but from the people of the country. Soon enough the people realized the power of speaking up and demanding a change in the way… [read more]

Culture and the United States Essay

… Economy, Energy and Infrastructure

The United States of America has remarkable mineral and agricultural resources. In the past, the country was almost self-reliant. However, the continuous and escalating consumption of energy has made America reliant on certain imports. Yet, it… [read more]

American History, 1820-1920 Five Positive Essay

… The doctrine stressed that the United States has the capacity and the right to defend the foreign policy of its neighboring countries as well as its internal affairs from European countries if the interest of the United States so required. The initial motivation behind this doctrine was positive in the sense that the United States offered its support and consideration in case of foreign or domestic disturbance of its neighboring countries. However in time, due to the volatility of international politics the United States where soon seen as interventionists in the internal affairs of its neighboring countries. Therefore cases have been in Mexico or Cuba in which the United States intervened and supported politically or otherwise different factions of the political environment. This approach brought about negative feelings towards the United States, one such example being Mexico. At the same time such an approach provided tensions between the United States and other European countries that had interest in Latin America at that time.

The beginning of the First World War in Europe greatly affected the foreign policy of the United States. This is because the United States and the European countries, in particular Great Britain, were important allies to the U.S. The strong commitments between the United States and its European allies demanded that the U.S. support the war effort against Germany throughout the 1914-1918 global war. Furthermore as a result of the First World War the Great Depression affected the United States at the end of the 1920s. Despite the fact that the United States had entered the first world war as a prosperous nation, after the end of the war the European continent was bankrupt and therefore no longer a viable trading partner. Under these conditions the commercial relationship between Europe and the U.S. soon changed and became less advantageous for the American states. In doing this resulted in a decrease of transactions and therefore a decline in trade. Notwithstanding the support provided to the Europeans, the U.S. was unable to regroup and focus on different trading areas and partners, which resulted in part to the Great Depression of the late 30s.

The issue of slavery is yet another negative aspect in the American Society of the 19th century. Despite the fact that that slavery was officially abolished as the "peculiar institution" it marked generations of African-American families in discriminatory actions and retaliation for decades. Today race is no longer a priority on the political agenda; yet, to this day there are communities in which the differentiation between African-American and white people is still made. This sense of discrimination has historical roots and the enslavement of African-Americans affected the mentality in the society as well as the behavior of the African-American community itself.

The Dred Scott decision of 1857 was an essential piece of legislation that denied the black population the right to an eventual American citizenship. The legal case on the one hand defined the limits of the U.S. Congress which could not override the authority of… [read more]

United States,1776-1786 Previous Term Paper

… In the year to follow the British minister decided to send an army in every colony to defeat the revolt. Generals Carleton and Burgoyne commanded the northern army which arrived in St. Lawrence. Their objective was to chase all the colonists in Canada. In the South, the British army was commanded by Generals Clinton and Cornwallis. Their army was defeated in the Charleston, but their commanders managed to escape and joined the main British army. The main army in New York had was commanded by General William Howe. It tried to negotiate with the colonists, but by that time the Americans decided that they want to be independent. "Howe defeated Washington's army on Long Island in August, and captured New York City in September, and pursued Washington's disintegrating army as it fled across New Jersey in November and December." (Stephen Conway, page 4) In the meantime, General Clinton successful conquered Newport from Rhode Island.

Although England was celebrating the defeat, Washington did not give up the fight and in 1777 he defeated a British army in Princeton. Germain decided to reapply the plan of 1776 campaigns. New England was seen by the British as the main location for the American resistance. In this new campaign England chase to suppress this region, thinking that like this the rebellion will end.

In 1777, Howe decided that to defeat Washington is more important than to help General Burgoyne. He took the main British army, leaving Clinton with almost no defense to go forward to Hudson Valley. Although Howe won the battle at Brandywine Creek, and conquered Philadelphia Burgoyne was defeated by Americans, and he admitted defeat at Saratoga on October 17. This victory gave Americans the trust they needed to go forward and win the war. Also, it brought the French to the colonists' side. One year after France joined the colonists' side, Spanish signed an alliance with the Americans. With the French interfering, the British government was obliged to send its armies to defend the Caribbean colonies. In 1780 the British army conquered Charleston and made peace with the south. But they were soon obliged to march towards north, due to the differences between the Loyalists and Patriots. In the North Washington's army was expecting them and as a result the British needed to surrender.

The Declaration of Independence was signed on 4th July 1776 although the war was not finished. The act was authorized by all the colonies and marked "the beginning of American independence." (America's Fight for Independence) In 1778 France and the United States signed the Treaty of Alliance and of Amity and Commerce. Through this act France recognized the independence and granted the United States a privileged status in trade. "France renounced claims to Canada but not Newfoundland and guaranteed American Liberty, sovereignty, and independence forever. France appeared to gain little except the opportunity to undermine Britain in Europe and the world." (Dr. Ian Barnes, Charles Royster, page 102)


1. America's Fight for Independence, Retrieved December 17,… [read more]

American History Assessment the United States Assessment

… American History Assessment

The United States was reluctant to enter World War II. What term have historians used to describe the American position?





In his War Message of April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson said, "The world… [read more]

United States History on April Term Paper

… The perceived need for a more powerful and complete federal government led, in 1787, to the calling of a convention, to consider revising the Articles. That Convention, meeting in Philadelphia, chose, instead, to write a Constitution, which was ratified by eleven States in 1788.

In 1789, the Constitution of the United States was put into operation, and George Washington was elected the first President of the United States.

Centralization proved difficult for many people to accept. America had been settled in large part by Europeans who had left their homelands to escape religious or political oppression, as well as the rigid economic patterns of the Old World that locked individuals into a particular station in life regardless of their skill or energy. These settlers highly prized personal freedom, and they were wary of any power especially that of government that might curtail individual liberties.

The diversity of the new nation was also a formidable obstacle to unity. The people who were empowered by the Constitution in the 18th century to elect and control their central government represented different origins, beliefs, and interests. Most had come from Britain, but Sweden, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Prussia, Poland, and many other countries also sent immigrants to the New World. Their religious beliefs were varied and, in most cases, strongly held. There were Anglicans, Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Huguenots, Lutherans, Quakers, Jews, and many more. Economically and socially, Americans ranged from the land-owning aristocracy to slaves from Africa and indentured servants working off debts.

Of all the issues confronting the Constitutional Convention, none was more contentious than the issue of slavery. There had already started to develop a divergence between North and South, based on economic realities. Southern landowners were unwilling to relinquish their prerogatives over the slaves and a compromise was finally reached which prevented Congress from banning the import of slaves before 1808. In that year, Congress acted to ban further imports, and any new slaves would have to be descendants of ones that were currently in the U.S.

Two other issues that confronted the early Americans were the fiscal policies, proposed by Alexander Hamilton, and the location of the new capital of the U.S. Hamilton, as Secretary of the Treasury, was frustrated in his attempts to gain acceptance from southern leaders for one the key provisions of his fiscal proposal, assumption of state debts by the federal government, which would doom all his efforts for fiscal reform. A compromise was reached with James Madison during a dinner that took place on the evening of June 20, 1790, in which "Jefferson [read more]

American History the United States Term Paper

… This was also the region where black slavery intensified, even regulated for its economic efficiency and benefit to the cotton farmers.

The Trans-Mississippi west expansion was accomplished right after the Louisiana Purchase, wherein an expedition headed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark was conducted to survey the territory bought by the new American government. In this stage of the U.S. expansion, the new government encountered numerous hindrances due to strong opposition from the Indians, specifically the Sioux tribe, who were the first inhabitants of the Americas. Thus, apart from the problem of black slavery, another social problem that the expansion had brought to society was the continued oppression and antagonism against the Indians.

The inclusion of Oregon and Texas in the American territory was also another step towards expansion that led to the emergence of greater division between the north and the south. North's opposition to black slavery prevalent in the south caused this social conflict. However, this stage in the U.S. expansion was a necessary move to ensure that America would not meet the same antagonism and territorial vulnerability it had during the British occupation.

The last stage of the expansion was culminated through the Mexican War (1846), wherein America forced the country and its citizenry to surrender its territory to the new American government. This occupation of Mexico became America's final step towards establishing United States as a politico-economic superpower through strong and strategic territorial lands. [read more]

2nd Continental Congress Essay

… In such a setting, it became virtually impossible to modify the Articles, since all members could not agree.

Last, the final weakness of the Articles of Confederation is represented by an expansion of the previous limitation, in the meaning that the Congress had the power to create new laws, but could only enforce them upon receiving a majority of 9 votes out of 13 (Kelly).

Having recognized the shortages of the Articles of Confederation, representatives of the U.S. states met up to adjust the Articles. However, the delegates ended up creating a new document that would better address the issues identified within the United States. The Constitutional Convention was as such formed from educated men, better educated than the average American citizens, and most of them had a strong background by having fought in the American Revolution.

These men shared common visions and the intellectual capacity to see them implemented, but they also encountered differences in beliefs and perceptions. They nevertheless formed the Constitutions, which remains through today, the cornerstone of the American society.

In terms of the specific makeup of the framers of the Constitution, these include, it has to be noted that some of the more notable representatives include George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton or Benjamin Franklin. Thomas Jefferson did not attend the Convention, having then been delegated as ambassador in France; upon return, he revealed some concerns regarding specific elements in the Constitution.

The priorities of the delegates in the Constitutional Convention were multiple and the delegates emphasized most on the issues in which they believed the most. Some for instance placed an increased emphasis on education, whereas others focused on slavery, the rights to vote, the extent of the power of the government, the individuality of the states, the committee to be advising the president or the freedom of the press.

Thomas Jefferson was the leader of the Antifederalists and he militated for the rights of the state, whereas the Federalist, led by Alexander Hamilton, militated for more rights for the government. Thomas Jefferson envisioned a country led by a rather weak government, with the primary concern of representing the United States in foreign affairs; Jefferson's ideal was that of creating an agrarian country, based on production and power of the people.

On the other hand, the approach implemented by Hamilton envisioned a strong government, which became involved in all state affairs, both within the country as well as in its international relationships. The government envisioned by Hamilton would run on principles of efficiency and effectiveness and would focus on economic growth through industrial stimulation and commercial activity (Country Studies).

Thomas Jefferson would eventually become the third president of the United States, but this was not until 1801. Meanwhile, Hamilton served as the First Secretary of the State until 1795, in the office of George Washington and John Adams. The measures implemented by Hamilton have long lasting effects in the future of the United States, two important examples being revealed at the level of commercial… [read more]

Manifest Destiny the United States Term Paper

… Manifest Destiny

The United States has often been accused of promoting the image of exceptional values and moral norms. Indeed, the fact that the U.S. is the result of a historical context in which the forces of imperialism were defeated… [read more]

Slavery in the United States Term Paper

… Slavery in the United States was largely a result of pulling economic factors. When the colonists originally arrived in America and, later, established a new nation, they were faced with needing to find a means of creating both personal and national economic stability. The greatest advantage that this new continent offered was space. With space, large scale agriculture could occur. Yet, in order to operate a large-scale, profitable agricultural venture in a time when technology was limited, there was a demand for cheap labor. Thus, the conditions were set for the use of African slaves.

Further, as demand for such agricultural products as tobacco and cotton, which were the main production crops of the south's plantations, the need for slave labor increased. As a result, slavery in the United States was largely a manner of supply, demand, agricultural efficiency and lack of technology.

Since large scale agriculture was limited to the south, slavery had the unintended effect of dividing the nation. In the north, industry was the main source of economic income and did… [read more]

American History the Reconstruction Exacerbated Term Paper

… 5. The major technologies that helped propel the American economy forward after the Civil War include the railroads and its related industries like steel and coal; and the development of the automobile. The railroad industry linked together otherwise isolated parts of the nation, helping make rural areas more economically prosperous. However, during the initial development of the automobile, roads and cars were not meaningful to the vast majority of Americans. Similarly, the booming textile industry touched Eastern seaboard regions but failed to make an impact on the Western territories. Therefore, although the rapid industrial expansion of the United States was a positive step forward in terms of economic growth and political empowerment, the industrial revolution had negative environmental and social consequences. Farming changed, and some farmers were driven out of business due to the technological developments in agriculture. The rise of big business translated into the demise of small businesses and the end of artisan trades. Regardless, the industrial revolution was a worldwide phenomenon that the United States could hardly ignore.

6. Capitalism has obvious benefits: a free market economy enables any person to become an entrepreneur, to capitalize on his or her creative ideas. On the other hand, the free market economy is inherently exploitative. The most notable problem with capitalism can be seen in the American educational and health care systems. In capitalist America, tax breaks are low for businesses to promote enterprise but social services are likewise low. The European model is in many ways preferable: although taxes are high, individual citizens receive a better deal on education and do not have to face hospital bills on the level of thousands of dollars per day.

7. On the race to Industrial supremacy, the poor people suffered the most. For the most part, the poor were also racial minorities. Therefore, the wealthy whites benefited from industrial growth because of corporate ownership. The trickle-down effect has yet to be observed except in rare cases. The rich do get richer, and the poor remain poor.

8. The growth of American cities is directly related to the rapid rise of industrialism for many reasons. Factories blossomed in regions near urban centers, drawing many citizens from rural areas in the hopes of earning more money.

9. Cities also attracted more minority populations and in the early twentieth century, drew immigrants from abroad. Therefore, the rise of cities substantially changed the American culture, making it more diverse. The results are still evident today, as cities remain more diverse than rural areas.

10. Between the 1860s and the 1890s, the demographics of the nation shifted to allow for the integration of freed slaves into the workforce and to prepare the nation for the rapid rise of industrialization. The immigrants' traditional cultural beliefs and values added to the richness and diversity of American… [read more]

American History From the Colonial Term Paper

… It was a terrible legacy, killing hundreds of thousands on both sides, and it showed completely new generations of Americans how horrible war could be. However, it also showed how strong the country was, because the country survived a bitter… [read more]

American History Your Highnesses Term Paper

… " (Turner 114). Jefferson's brand of Democracy was in many ways a revolt against the former ways imposed by the British.

As Americans gradually expanded west they routinely came into conflict with native tribes. "In 1824 President James Monroe wrote congress concerning the notion that all Indians should be 'removed' to the areas west of the Mississippi River." (Brinkley 154). By 1838 the evacuation order was given and federal soldiers were sent in to forcibly remove twenty-thousand Cherokee Indians, among others, from Georgian lands all the way to Oklahoma. The path came to be known as "the trail of tears," for almost a quarter of the Cherokee that set-out died along the way from disease, exhaustion, or even starvation. The former Cherokee lands of Northwest Georgia still retain much of their original beauty, but they still mark the notorious starting point of this terrible incident in American History.

Jefferson was one of the first to begin the abolitionist movement in America. Many of the original authors of the Constitution thought that the practice should be banned upon the founding of the country. However, the economic dependence on slavery in the southern states created one of many rifts between the North and the South. Meanwhile, the abolitionist movement gained increasing approval in the northern states.

Americans continued to spread westward in search of their fortunes. "Pioneer spirit was endemic by 1841 when John Bidwell shepherded the first wagon train along the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri, to California." (Brinkley 170). Many pioneers were later to follow, and in 1850, when California was official granted statehood Bidwell himself became a U.S. congressman. Once gold was discovered in California the Oregon Trail became the primary route for settlers to reach the west.

However, the Americans were not the first people of European descent to settle what is now California. "It was the Spanish who began settlements in the state in 1769. Most settlers were religious missionaries sent to try to convert Native Americans to Christianity." (Gutman 19). At their height twenty-one missions dotted the coast of California, and many can still be visited today along what is known as the "El Camino Real," or Royal Highway (Gutman 19).

Unfortunately, the thirst for fortune and adventure held by many Americans, and the similarities present in many of their ideals were not enough to hold the divided nation together. The war between the North and the South formally began with Confederate troops firing upon fort Sumter on April 12, 1861 (Brinkley 207). "Shortly thereafter the border states found themselves obliged to choose sides." (Brinkley 207). It would become the bloodiest war in American history, and its end would spell economic devastation of the southern states. By 1865 both sides had exhausted their resources, and the nation that emerged from the rubble was hardly recognizable from the America that the British had once seeded.

Bibliography… [read more]

American History Should Remind Us Term Paper

… An abuse of power would be the consequence should the United States enforce an Iraqi regime change. Not only would the U.S. acts a world bully; it would abuse the privilege of righteous use of American tax dollars. Too much money is already spent on the military-industrial complex. Perhaps our fair nation should devote these self-same dollars to the eradication of AIDS, to the elimination of poverty, or to the promotion of positive education. Money could be better spent on humanitarian causes instead of on contrived regime changes. A plethora of altruistic organizations need the funding that would be unnecessarily spent on fabricating another puppet world leader.

At the core of the problem with United States-backed and orchestrated regime changes is the illusory connection between the current "war on terrorism" and Saddam Hussain. Fear mongering is an effective tactic to spur the American public into supporting military action in Iraq. Ousting Saddam Hussain is appealing on many levels, especially following the disastrous events of September 11, 2001. The general public still recalls the horrors of that day and the media has done an effective job in promoting the idea that Iraq is involved. Perhaps the Iraqi government was and is connected with Al Qaeda. What then?

There certainly exists a real and present danger. Not only do terrorist groups like Al Qaeda pose a threat to the United States and sister nations, but also enemy regimes like that in Iraq may possess weapons of mass destruction. These weapons can potentially wipe out the entire human race; their presence threatens the globe. The United States does have the responsibility to take action against nuclear proliferation and the possession of biological weapons. But the United States also has the responsibility to act with caution and conscience, always keeping peace and human rights in the forefront. Democracy and peace can be encouraged without an aggressive and forced regime change. The United States should serve as an example to the world without falling into the arrogance trap. [read more]

Gamut of Subjects Related Term Paper

… While the film addresses race, the filmmakers also touch upon class and gender issues as well. In Chapter 11 of A People's History, Zinn discusses the robber baron phenomenon and the beginnings of what would become an essentially corrupt system of capitalism in the United States. Workers' unions and labor movements impacted ideologically by the writings of Karl Marx helped to raise awareness of worker exploitation and the need for organization as self-empowerment (Zinn). One of the reasons Americans continue to fear words like socialism is because the corporate oligarchy that began with the robber barons has systematically controlled the media, thus casting a negative shadow on labor rights movements. Magazines like Mother Jones overtly embrace a socialist ideology that provides intelligent counterpoint to unbridled capitalism, but such periodicals are deemed fringe in spite of their astute attention to detail and scholarship.

For example, Gilson charts exactly who in America earns income in the top one percent bracket. According to Gilson, "most Americans have flatlined," whereas the superrich grow exponentially richer due to their crafty use of market economics (1). In a different chart for Mother Jones, Drum and Gilson debunk myths that are perpetuated by the mainstream media. Because the mainstream media are owned by corporate conglomerates, it is in the best interest of the editorial staff to promote ideologies that support the success of its senior management team. As with the corporate control of textbooks, the control of the media restricts Americans' access to real information. The Internet contains too many sources, including too many unreliable sources, for the average person to sort through. Relying on what textbooks and the media provide means continuing to be brainwashed.

Chapter 7 in Lies My Teacher Told Me is about the myth of the "Land of Opportunity." Sure, there are still immigrant success stories even today. The vast majority of Americans, no matter where they were born, remain stuck at a certain tier of society. Getting ahead is not about hard work. There is a myth of meritocracy, which is promulgated by American textbooks (Loewen). This myth is particularly damaging, in that it sends the message that anyone who is not rich is somehow not worthy of consideration. Indeed, the "little people," as Leona Helmsley calls them, are the ones footing the American tax bill and are still reminded that their efforts working two jobs for minimum wage was not good enough (Gilson "Only Little People").

This course basically teaches that American history is equal parts myth, propaganda, and fact. While some of what is taught is actually verifiable, it is not the names, dates and places that matter. It is the overarching themes, and the ways topics like race, class, and gender are discussed. Power is the key to understanding American history. Europeans who possessed greater military power than Native Americans were able to steal land from the indigenous; an ideology of racial supremacy allowed the subjugation of Native Americans, blacks, and all other non-European minorities. The rich go rich… [read more]

Globalization's Effect Term Paper

… The United States has been a leader in encouraging the cross-border deals for the advancement of domestic opportunities. While there are numerous opportunities to derive from the inter-relations of business opportunities with other countries, the United States often faces fundamental… [read more]

American History Final Exam Stages Term Paper

… Turner lived at a time before a large middle class existed or the U.S. had become a consumer society, so he naturally thought of pioneers as farmers and ranchers who moved the agricultural frontier to the West. In his era,… [read more]

American History Sam Adams. Franklin. Jefferson Research Proposal

… American History

Sam Adams. Franklin. Jefferson. Alexander Hamilton. Hancock.

Clearly, each of these individuals are related in that they all participated in the drafting of the Declaration of Independence which ultimately led to the American fight for independence from England, and the formation of the new United States Government. They were all instrumental in creating the document and the philosophy behind it, and they were leaders in the new government. Adams and Jefferson served as presidents, Franklin served as a diplomat and patriot, and Hamilton and Hancock served in the government. Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury, and Hancock served as the President of the Continental Congress.

The period was before, during, and after the Revolutionary War, and all of these men were key players in the development of the new country and the laws that govern it. In addition, because they were public figures, they motivated others to support American independence. Today, these are some of the most well-known and respected members of early American society. These men all stood up for what they believed in, created a new government, and then made it work, and they are the foundation of American freedom and democracy.

Pontiac. Powhatan. Tecumseh. Pequot War. Iroquois.

All of these items relate to Native Americans, especially their early treatment by the English settlers, who drove them from their native lands, destroyed their way of life, and led them to revolt in retaliation for their harsh treatment. Chief Pontiac was a leader of an Ottawa band that rebelled against the British in the area around the Great Lakes. Powhatan was the leader of the Powhatan people of Virginia, one of the first tribes to make contact with the white settlers from England, and the father of Pocahontas, who married an Englishman and traveled to England with him. Tecumseh was the leader of the Shawnee and led Tecumseh's War against the United States after he disagreed with massive land sales that took away native lands. The Pequot War was another skirmish between whites and natives, with… [read more]

Presidents of USA Term Paper

… American Presidents

The United States has had 43 presidents since George Washington took office in 1789. He served until 1797, was married to Martha Washington, and he died in 1799. His vice-president was John Adams for both terms he served. Washington's major contributions were being the first president, and developing a strong sense of foreign policy. He is remembered as "the father of his country" and a Revolutionary war general. Next came John Adams from 1797 to 1801. He was married to Abigail, and he died in 1826. His vice-president was Thomas Jefferson, and his main accomplishments were managing the war between the French and the English without the U.S. becoming involved, building up America's naval defenses, and he is remembered for being the first president to live in the White House. The third president was Thomas Jefferson, from 1801 to 1809. He was married to Martha, but she died before he took office. He died in 1826. His vice-president was Aaron Burr until 1805 and George Clinton during his second term. His main accomplishments were cutting the national debt, acquiring the Louisiana Purchase, and he is remembered for sending Lewis and Clark on their journey to explore the west, and for writing the Declaration of Independence. James Madison served from 1809 to 1817. He was married to Dolly, and died in 1836. His vice-presidents were George Clinton and Elbridge Gerry, who died in office. His main accomplishments were declaring war on Britain, and leading the country to victory and he is remembered as the "father of the Constitution." James Monroe served from 1817 to 1825. He was married to Elizabeth and he died in 1831. His vice-president was Daniel Tompkins. His main accomplishments were choosing a strong cabinet, and for helping create the Missouri Compromise that allowed slavery in certain areas. He is most remembered for the Monroe Doctrine on foreign policy. John Quincy Adams served from 1825 to 1829. He was married to Louisa, and he died in 1848. His vice-president was John Calhoun. His accomplishments included beginning a building program of canals and highways, and for attempting to bring more art and culture to the nation. He is most remembered for serving in the House of Representatives after being president.

Andrew Jackson served from 1829 to 1837. He was married to Rachel, and he died in 1845. His nickname was "Old Hickory,"… [read more]

United States Term Paper

… South Carolina did not want to act alone, however, which caused them to move forward somewhat cautiously, and with ample planning.

Before Lincoln could even take office, secession rallies began erupting across the Southern states. Because of their immense supporters, the elected secession delegates of South Carolina decided to move ahead earlier than planned, on December 20, 1860 (451). The following year in February, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Texas and Louisiana followed suit (451).

Lincoln's Presidential Inaugural Address was meant to calm the fears of Southerners, along with smooth over the immediate threats to peace, while buying time in the hopes that a resolution could be worked out (454). He attempted to calm a fear that "seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered...never been any reasonable cause for such" (Inaugural Address). He continued declaring that, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists...I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so" (Inaugural Address). In his closing statements, Lincoln stated that In 'your' hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in 'mine', is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail 'you'. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. 'You' have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend it." (Inaugural Address) which was seen to some southerners as a threat of violence against their secession. Many felt it was a "potent mixture of firmness and generosity" while others chose to interpret his speech as further evidence that the secessions must continue (454). Regardless of how it was construed, Lincoln's election was no sooner declared official before the breakdown of America as it was known began.

Again, there were many contributing factors to the Civil War. Slavery was the hot topic, and the citizenship of "free slaves," or other African-Americans was the cause for much animosity between the Northern states and the Southern states from 1855 until the Civil War, and beyond. The Dred Scott case, the Kansas conflicts that were always making headlines, and the raid on Harper's Ferry - each of these events added to the rising tensions in America. However, the clear point at which the nation was set on the path to war, and could not be averted from that path was the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, after which the southern states began to secede from the Union.

Ayers, Edward. American Passages. Harcourt College Publishers, © 1999

Lincoln's First Inaugural Address. A Compilation of Messages and Papers of the Presidents, volume VI. New York: Bureau of National Literature, 1914. 5ff Online Version: American Passages Website.

The Day of Battle," Richmond "Enquirer," November 6, 1860. Online Version: American Passages Website.

The News of… [read more]

United States Should Be Against Immigration Research Paper

… Immigration: Why the United States Should Be Opposed to It

Today, the U.S. plays host to millions of both legal and illegal immigrants. Those who oppose the current levels of immigration include but they are not limited to labor advocates… [read more]

United States: Mitigate China's Influence in African Continent Research Paper

… China's Influence In Africa

Though the United States remain the sole true global superpower following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, over the subsequent two decades China has risen to fill some of… [read more]

Environmental Ethics US Government Term Paper

… The 1930s brought about a strange environmental phenomenon called the Dust Bowl, which spread over several states that had been agriculturally important to the United States, and wreaked havoc on the country at a time when many people were suffering… [read more]

Mill and U.S. Constitution None Research Paper

… By the beginning of the Civil War, there were over four million slaves in the U.S. And this institution was more profitable than ever. Even after it was officially destroyed in 1865, it continued in everything but name, usually in… [read more]

Foreign Policy of the United States Term Paper

… ¶ … United States

Digressions with Current American Foreign Policy

Our Nation's cause has always been larger than our Nation's defense. We fight, as we always fight, for a just peace -- a peace that favors liberty. We will defend… [read more]

United States Government Is a Republic Term Paper

… United States Government is a Republic, formed on democratic principles. This means that the United States operates under a system of democracy that is "for the people, by the people." Citizens of the United States are participants in their democracy by way of the electoral processes that allow them to elect members to the House of Representatives, the United States Senate, and the president and his vice president. The president's term is limited to two four-year terms, to ensure that no elected official ever has such a taste of power for the office of the President of the United States - an office that has come to represent one of the most powerful people not just in the United States, but in the world; such that he, or she, might succumb to the forces of evil and attempt to hold that office forever as a dictator or absolute ruler. At the same time, those officials elected to the House of Representatives and to the United States Senate can serve for unlimited lengths of time, so long as they are elected by their constituents in the states they represent.

There are branches to the United States Government; the Executive Branch, which serves as the law enforcement branch, having under its auspices the United States military forces. It is comprised of the office of the president, vice president and his staff at the White House. The Legislative Branch, which is the law making branch of the government comprised of the House of Representatives and the United States Senate; and the Judicial Branch, which is inclusive of the court systems throughout the country, culminating in the final authority of the Supreme Court for those cases for which appeals have been successfully perfected to that level of decision. The judicial branch is the final decision in the legislative and enforcement processes begun under the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Government. The Supreme Court has the final authority in reviewing and striking down legislation that stands in conflict with the rights enumerated under the Constitution of the United States. Justice are appointed to the Supreme Court by the President, although they must… [read more]

United States Manifest Destiny Term Paper

… Manifest Destiny

United States: Manifest Destiny

Comment on the relationship seen in the growth of U.S. borders against the backdrop of the siege of native people's land. Was this siege of native land at the expense of native people survival and identity? Is this a justified price for progress?

Although the United States never had a formal empire, like England or Rome, it could be argued that the doctrine of Manifest Destiny was a kind of imperialism, as the native people living in what became the U.S. Western and Southwestern states saw their culture systematically eradicated by the military and political power of the U.S. federal government. Ironically, the faith in the right of the United States to acquire new territory, regardless of who was living it on before, was expressed in the language of freedom and the U.S.'s special quality, in contrast to past, European systems of government: "our national birth was the beginning of a new history...we are the nation of progress, of individual freedom, of universal enfranchisement (O'Sullivan, 1839)

But this belief that America's unique democratic spirit was used to justify colonizing the Mexican province of Texas with North American populations, because of American "enterprise and… [read more]

United States Engaged in a World Term Paper

… ¶ … United States engaged in a world wide war against terrorism in the wake of September 11th, it is believed that we have become much more isolationist in our economic and foreign policies. Many view this as a reactionary… [read more]

Geography of the United States Term Paper

… Geography of the United States is one of the most diverse of any continent or country of the world. It has become the focus of many songs, from "This Land is Your Land," to "America," in a way that topography… [read more]

US Patriot Act Term Paper

… USA Patriot Act

The purpose of this paper is to research the "USA Patriot Act" and examine exactly what the implications are in the implementation of this act should another terrorist event such as 911 occur.

Restrictive laws have been… [read more]

Japan and the United States Term Paper

… The result was a rapid growth in GNP and a swift rise as a major world economic power (CIA, 2004a). However, Japan must import much of its basic needs. It does not have the land to grow all the food needed for its population and has few natural resources for raw materials and fuel (CIA, 2004a). The United States is the most significant world economic force (CIA, 2004a) but has built its economic base more gradually, over several centuries. It has a wider range of incomes among the population with significant number of both wealthy and poor families (CIA, 2004a).

Politically, the two countries have some similarities and some significant differences. They both use a parliamentary form of government. However Japan also has an emperor by birthright (CIA, 2004a), who exerts significant influence on the country's policies. Japan is a relatively new democracy, having adopted its Constitution in 1947 (CIA, 2004a). By comparison, the United States adopted its Constitution in 1789, giving the country well over 200 years of experience with representational democracy as a form of government (CIA, 2004b).

The two countries' histories are markedly different. Japan existed for centuries as a band of feudal states, founded as a country in 660 BC. The country has a long history of relative isolation, which allowed the country to focus in on itself, its culture, its heritage, and develop a common collective view of what it meant to be Japan and Japanese. However, once Japan opened its doors to the West, it rapidly adopted some facets of Western culture, so today's Japan is a meld of very old and relatively new ideas (CIA, 2004a).

The land that is now the United States was of course populated for many centuries before Europeans came, but its identity as a country began with the American Revolution (1776-1783). The United States had an entirely different response to contact with other cultures and encouraged people to emigrate, resulting in a country with many cultural heritages and influences (CIA, 2004b).

Finally, environmentally both countries face significant challenges because both countries rely on manufacturing for a significant portion of their economy. Japan, for instance, is dealing with acid rain and the resulting changes in the pH of bodies of water (CIA, 2004a). In addition, Japan uses large amounts of timber, and the traditional diet emphasizes consumption of seafood. As a result, both forestry and fishing industries face depletion of resources not only in Japan but for the other countries, mostly Asian, supplying those materials (CIA, 2004a). Japan also grapples with air pollution.

The United States, because of its size as well as its consumption habits, emits more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than any other country. Runoff into waters of pesticides and fertilizers challenge the quality of water. The country has had to aggressively work to reduce both acid rain and air pollution.


CIA. 2004. "Japan," in The World Fact Book. Accessed via the Internet 6/16/04.

CIA. 2004. "United States," in The World Fact Book. Accessed… [read more]

American History From the Origins Term Paper

… The Company's monopoly on the imported tea coming to America had infuriated American businessmen and traders, and this again resulted to a resistance, this time in the form of the Boston Tea Party 9 led by Samuel Adams), a group that expressed their opposition by attacking the cargo ships of the British India Company, and throwing out the cargos of tea into the sea. This rebellious and courageous act had disturbed the British government greatly, and indeed, the over taxation and unequal treatment between the Americans and the British had resulted to a greater resistance by the Americans, and the Revolution against British invasion began. It is evident that before the Revolution, the major problem of the Americans had been economic and social in nature, which is illustrated in the problems of over-taxation (economic), and inequality and injustice to Americans (social).

After the Revolution, Americans began re-building their nation through the implementation and enforcement of governmental regulations to maintain peace and stability in the country. In this phase of the American reconstruction, political problems arose as a result disputes between after the formation, development, and enforcement of the new American Constitution. However, the main problem encountered in this phase is the conflict between two political parties, between Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Party and Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican (or Anti-Federalist) Party. This political conflict will later result to a bigger problem, since the conflict between the Federalists (which strongly supports Great Britain) and anti- Federalists will result to the War of 1812, which is a war between the Americans and Great Britain one again, in the latter's effort to exert control over American territory. Although neither the British nor the Americans had won the war, America had prevented another invasion from coming through the 1812 War, and after this event, America had once again reconstructed their country's social, political, and economic organization. However, as the War of 1812 has come to a close, Americans had experienced another problem, this time in the social aspect of the people's lives, as the number of Americans practicing the Christian religion lessened, while new, emerging religions had become the newest forms of philosophies and beliefs of the citizens, such as Mormons and evangelical religions such as Seventh Day Adventists, Methodists, and Baptists. Social transformation is under way, and evidently, America had experienced a social revival and dichotomy after the War of 1812.

It is evident that the memorable events in America's history such as the Revolution and the War of 1812 were triggered by major problems that are economic (over-taxation), political (Federalists vs. Anti- Federalists) and social (inequality between English and Americans and social dichotomy and revival) in nature, as illustrated and proven in the discussion presented in this paper about the major problems of the Americans during the period of pre-American Revolution- War of 1812.


An Outline of American History." An online book published by the U.S. Department of State International… [read more]

United States of America Initially Term Paper

… When Washington left the post as President he urged his fellow countrymen to remain free from any other country, to prevent any influential rise of any political parties that could ruin all that the American people had fought and died for, the run of isolationism continued for many years until America was strong enough to defeat any country that attempted to have an influence upon its affairs (Cole, 1991)

Furthermore they withdrew from any political arena in the official capacity, it must be remembered that American Privateers still helped the French during the Peninsula Wars with Great Britain (Cole, 1991)

When the United States of America decided to take on an Isolationist role they took it upon themselves to step out of the world, they took a non-involvement attitude towards all affairs that concerned the Old world of Europe, its wars and petty entanglements. (Cole, 1991)

The United States felt that their interests as seen above were to remain at home to look after themselves and remain in many ways aloof from the children of Europe, this view they believed would lead them to freedom and a true democratic stance that would be seen to through peaceful means rather than the abject force of militaristic involvement (Cole, 1991)

It is seen that America became isolationists after the revolution yet it is clear that this view was clearly a part of their life when the old settlers came to the New world (Cole, 1991)


Anonymous (2002) The American Revolution[online] accessed at

Cole W.S. (1991) My History is America's History… [read more]

American History X An Exercise Essay

… American History X

An exercise in and a meditation upon subversion, the film American History X is at once making a bold social and political commentary on the inherent destructiveness of racism and bigotry. At the same time, one could argue it's a tragic ballad for a family riddled with loss. Simultaneously, the film is a subversive series of photographs that illuminate a defiant culture and renegade civic identity. Just as iconic photographs can work to "reflect social knowledge and dominant ideologies; they shape understanding of specific events and periods…" (Hariman & Lucaites, 2002), the successive images of American History X works to reflect ideologies unwelcome to idealistic American sensibilities and rattle one's understanding of America today. If an iconic photo like the Flag Raising at Iwo Jima can reaffirm an individual's sense of collective pride, and shape collective beliefs about world events, than the subversive visual images which appear throughout American History X, have similar but far more disturbing effects. This paper will treat the connected images of American History X as having a comparable impact as that of the iconic photograph as described by Hariman and Lucaites, in this case, however, the influence is mutinous and subverted.

The renegade still images in the film have the impact of shedding light on the disturbing underbelly of American culture and particular American beliefs systems that flourish throughout parts of the country. If certain iconic photographs shape our understanding of particular events and periods, than subversive photography such as that which flourishes throughout American History X illuminates not only the unpleasant fact that racism and bigotry is still alive in America today, but that the average non-bigoted American is resistant to such illumination.

A pervasive image, one which appears in the film American History X and on the movie poster is a defined and muscled Derek Vinyard (Ed Norton), bare-chested, with a massive swastika over his left pectoral muscle, and his right hand placed gently there, over his heart, in rapt devotion and reverence, tinged in hostility, to his bigoted beliefs. Such an image denies the pride that Americans can have about their often bloody and shameful collective history: that slavery and segregation have been abolished, as well as racist legislation like Jim Crow Laws, the Chinese Exclusion Act and skewed, corrupt ruling of cases like Plessy vs.… [read more]

Legal Immigration Is Good Research Paper

… However, as I have highlighted elsewhere in this text, legal immigrants benefit the economy on a number of fronts i.e. In terms of contribution to the nation's tax revenues and GDP, in terms of provision of cheap labor which in turn benefits consumers and in terms of provision of specialist skills and capabilities relating to technology, entrepreneurship etc. Further, there are those who feel that the influx of immigrants in the recent past has put a strain on the nation's social and government services. However, this assertion in Isidore's (2006) view is largely misplaced as according to economists, such an occurrence "is outweighed by the increased economic activity." Lastly, since the September 11 terrorist attack, there are those who have time and again expressed their fears over the influx of immigrants - most particularly those of Muslim descent. This in my opinion should be regarded as a stereotype fed by misplaced perceptions. Indeed, as Arnold (2011) notes, none of the terrorists involved in the September 11 attack can fit the definition of an immigrant. As a matter of fact, the author notes that those individuals involved in the attack "were all visitors" (Arnold, 2011). Based on this, I am convinced that the terrorist threat posed by legal immigrants is almost nil.


In conclusion, it is clear from the above arguments that legal immigration has a number of distinct key benefits and hence is good for the U.S. The vast majority of those who legally immigrate to the U.S. do so for valid reasons and are therefore ready to work hard and live harmoniously with the rest of the populace. With that in mind and given the above arguments in favor of legal immigration, proper policies should be adopted to encourage the same while discouraging undocumented immigration.


Arnold, K.R. (2011). Anti-Immigration in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. California: ABC-CLIO.

Estrom, P. (2007, June 7). Immigration: Google makes Its Case. Retrieved February 12th, 2012, from Business Week website:

Geigenberger, J. (2008). The lasting Value of Legal Immigration for the United States of America. Norderstedt Germany: GRIN Verlag.

Griswold, D. (2009, July 21). As Immigrants Move in, Americans Move Up. Retrieved February 14th, 2012, from CATO Institute website:

Isidore, C. (2006, May 1). Illegal Workers: Good for U.S. Economy. Retrieved February 12th, 2012, from CNN Money website:

Shally-Jensen, M. (2010). Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Social Issues (4 Volumes). California: ABC-CLIO. [read more]

Turning Point in American History Essay

… The colonists' revolt was heightened by civil unrest as people took the law into their hands, and riots broke out in many colonial cities. They stopped buying English goods in opposition to the Acts while the group Sons of Liberty terrorized stamp agents. The repulsion by colonists to the Stamp Act led to the Declaratory Act in 1766, which asserted the authority of the parliament on the colonies. The Sons of Liberty were the beginning of the revolution, that saw the need of keeping the revolution spirit alive by colonists through talk and writings, which they circulated in the form of books, pamphlets and leaflets. This led to the first organized colonial meeting in September 1774, at First Continental Congress. This marked the beginning of an organized revolution not only as a response to the policies but for independence from British rule and control, to self-government.

The first revolutionary war for independence arose from the decisions made by the First Continental Congress, which gave American farmers the morale to oppose the British in Lexington and Concord. The move from protest to fight for independence is clearly seen when First Continental Congress, rejected the proposal that a colonial union should be under British authority. The second policy that conceded that the colonial parliament had a right to control trade and repeal from earlier Legislations set forth by the British, as drove the desire for self-government. Moreover, this protest to independence is said to have been driven by the desire of the colonists to form their own military to defend their land from possible attacks by the British. Therefore, it is evident that the tight regulations and continued oppression by the British led to the rise of a resistance in settlers that was the rise to a desire for self-government, and… [read more]

United States and the Trans-Atlantic Essay

… "[footnoteRef:6] Consequently, in the earliest months of the war, the Confederacy could have successfully exported most of its 1860 cotton crop.[footnoteRef:7] Nevertheless, the Confederacy abruptly stopped exporting cotton to Britain and France, believing that an abrupt and total stoppage would make it much likelier that those two countries would diplomatically recognize the Confederacy, intervene in the U.S. Civil War and either fight on the side of the Confederacy or force the Union to negotiate peaceful secession for the Confederacy.[footnoteRef:8] [1: Steven E. Woodworth, This Great Struggle: America's Civil War (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2011), 67.] [2: Ibid.] [3: Ibid.] [4: Ibid., 68.] [5: Ibid.] [6: Ibid.] [7: Ibid.] [8: Ibid., 68-9.]

Other than the Confederacy's reliance on the importance of cotton, there were several factors working for and against intervention. A second factor, this one working against Britain's and France's intervention, was official neutrality. Britain and France officially adopted stances of neutrality during the U.S. Civil War;[footnoteRef:9] however, the lack of Confederacy cotton did cause considerable hardship to the textile workers and related industries in France and Britain. A third factor or set of factors, these supporting intervention, were that Britain's upper class noticed and resented America's growing wealth and power, exerted considerable influence over British government, believed that the U.S. would surpass Britain as a world power if the growth continued unchecked,[footnoteRef:10] and British governmental leaders were reportedly secretly happy about Lee's early victories in Virginia.[footnoteRef:11] After those victories, there was some discussion among British leaders about finally diplomatically recognizing the Confederacy; however, British leaders decided to wait and see whether Lee would continue to be victorious.[footnoteRef:12] A fourth factor, this working for intervention, was a diplomatic incident called "The Trent Affair" between the… [read more]

US Supreme Court Orff v. United States 545 U.S. 596 2005 Term Paper

… ¶ … United States: 545 U.S. 596 (2005)

Was the United States in breach of its 1963 contract with Westlands Water District and liable for money damages by reducing the delivery of water?

Were the Petitioners intended third-party beneficiaries of the 1963 contract?

Did the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982 waive the United States' sovereign immunity from breach of contract suits?


Reclamation Reform Act (1982): Section 390uu of the Act which waives the United States' sovereign immunity for certain purposes.

H.F. Allen Orchards v. U.S. (1984)- a case in which the Federal Circuit held that farmers were "true parties in interest" to the irrigation district's water contract with the Reclamation Bureau since the district has no real stake in the water contract as opposed to the farmers, who actually use and pay for the water.

Klamath Water Users Protective Assn. v. Patterson (1999): A 9th Circuit ruling that members of the public who benefit from a government contract are "generally assumed" to be incidental rather than intended beneficiaries.

Terms of the 1963 Contract between Westlands Water District and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation


The case involves a 1963 Contract between Westlands Water District and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for supply of water to the District. When the Bureau restricted water supplies in 1993, the action was challenged in a suit by the District that was joined by Californian farmers (end-users of the water) as plaintiffs. Even though the District eventually withdrew its suit, the farmers persisted with their claims.

The District Court heard the case in 2000, in which the plaintiffs cited the Federal Circuit court's ruling in H.F. Allen v U.S. (1984) that farmers were "true parties in interest" to the irrigation district's water contract with the Reclamation Bureau. However, the District Court ruled that sovereign immunity bars the farmers' claims because they had no "direct right to sue" or "enforcement rights"… [read more]

Management Response the United States Term Paper

… Management


The United States response to an emergency such as the situation in Surat would probably be one of widespread panic as well. Of course, social and political culture play a role in panic and disaster management. After the 9/11 attacks, the nation rallied together because of strong governmental support and an appearance that after initial panic, things were at least under control. However, the mass exodus during Hurricane Katrina from New Orleans and then later from Houston shows what a catastrophe disaster planning can be at its worst. There was mass panic and anger after the refugees ended up in the Superdome without any food or water, and there was mass panic when the people had to try to flee Houston and the roads were clogged with traffic and accidents. If people are faced with death, panic is a natural reaction.

Many of the healthcare professionals and government officials stayed behind in these cases; however, they did not abandon their patients (although some certainly did). Culturally, it seems… [read more]

Frontier in American History Term Paper

… ¶ … Frontier in American History

In what is believed to be the "single most important document in the history of America," Frederick Jackson Turner presented his Frontier thesis. The document, which is popularly known with the title 'The Significance of Frontier in American history' delineates the role played by frontier in the development of American history. The thesis was presented in Chicago in 1893, three years after the U.S. Census Bureau announced the closing of American Frontier.

Turner saw this as an opportunity to express his views on the impact of frontier on development of American history and character. Turner defined American frontier as "...the outer edge of the wave-- the meeting point between savagery and civilization." He argued that while frontier was important in various aspects, its significance in the development of American society, culture and character had been essentially ignored by academics. Turner explained that American development as initiated by having open frontier "begins with the Indian and the hunter; it goes on with the disintegration of savagery by the entrance of the trader... The pastoral stage in ranch life; the exploitation of the soil by the raising of unrotated crops of corn and wheat in sparsely settled farm communities; the intensive culture of the denser farm settlement; and finally the manufacturing organization with the city and the factory system."

He contended that having an advancing frontier meant American people were regularly treated to a glimpse of the uncivilized world. Generations after generations were taken to uncharted territories every time America decided to expand just a little further. While Turner's frontier thesis was regarded as the single most influential document by some, modern academics have largely argued… [read more]

American Expansion Post-Reconstruction America Gave Thesis

… This belief in democracy and the values that were perceived to be associated with it were viewed as an inevitable evolution in human progress. This led many to believe that anything that stood in the way of this trend was to be destroyed and much of the American population accepted this as it was consistent with their own ambitions.

Woodrow Wilson was a great believer in the superiority of his background and his culture. He was descended from Presbyterian ministers on both sides of the family and he was known to be moralistic, infuriating, and self-righteously inflexible as he believed that he was carrying out God's plan for the country (Stone and Kuznick 2013). He used his power in South America with a desire to have certain loyal politicians who shared his values elected or "to elect good men" as he was recorded as saying. President Wilson can be viewed as the epitome the self-righteous and driven personality that helped to form the notion of the nation's imperial ambitions. The sense that God has empowered peoples has served as the backbone of much of the nation's drive as well as many of the other imperial nations through history.

Manifest Destiny had other implications on the American consciousness as well as a sense of hypocrisy. For example, it was believed that this superiority was only applicable to the individuals deemed as having the capacity to be able to self-govern. Therefore minority groups such as the Native Americans, Mexicans, and African-Americans were not included in the philosophy of Manifest Destiny. Even though Mexico established their independence in Spain in 1821, they were targets in the American conquest for land, power, and self-advancement (Minster 2002). There was a lot of discrimination against non-European immigrant groups as well as the Native Americans, Mexicans, and Chinese for example. This sentiment was deeply embedded in mainstream American culture and the view was upheld that expansion was the country's destiny and future prosperity.

The expansionary efforts were not constrained by the geographic barriers as the U.S. ran out of room to the West and out of opportunity to the South. When the advent of technology permitted efficient movement of goods and people, then the navy allowed for further imperial expansions. Captain A.T. Mahan of the U.S. navy, a popular propagandist for expansion, greatly influenced Theodore Roosevelt and other American leaders with such phrases as "Americans must now look outward" and the countries with the biggest navy would inherit the Earth (Zinn 2003). Thus although Manifest Destiny definitely changed when the frontier closed, the concept merely morphed into a new strategy to further American interests. Furthermore, though the phraseology of Manifest Destiny eventually fell out of fashion, the drive towards imperialist ambitions certainly did not.

The rights of minorities to gain freedoms spread to other groups as well -- most notably women. However, women are not technically a minority as their numbers should equal roughly half of the population; however they were still a repressed group on many… [read more]

U.S. History Background Report Essay

… U.S. History Background report

The United States history dates back to the era of the voyage made by Christopher Columbus in the year 1492 during the prehistory of the native citizens. The involved aspects in the relative history of the… [read more]

Watches a Recording of an Event Term Paper

… ¶ … watches a recording of an event, when learning of it one must be happy with a version of events that has been filtered by another person. This person may be a reporter, they may be the creator of a program, or they may be a writer; but someone will always be giving their version of the events, with all their prejudices and preconceptions. This has been the case with many history textbooks written about the United States over the years. The writers of textbooks have been servants to an idealized version of American history, and therefore, have cleansed their works of any and all embarrassing facts. Historical figures, with all their human faults, have been transformed into saintly, heroic figures of unstained virtue and honor. Events, or ideas which are no longer acceptable to the modern public have been removed and are no longer mentioned in the texts. If there is anything I have learned this semester it is that all history textbooks are written by those with agendas, sometimes political, sometimes economic, and sometimes honorable, but they all write their version of history as they want the reader to see it.

It is a common belief, albeit wrong, that George Washington never told a lie. There is even a story about him chopping down a cherry tree and admitting to it rather than lie about it. But this is just an example of the heroification of certain historical figures, a process by which the American educational system turns "flesh-and-blood individuals into pious, perfect creatures without conflicts, pain, credibility, or human interest." (Loewen 11) In the 20th century, another president has been heroified by the educational system, Woodrow Wilson. Most Americans are taught that Woodrow Wilson kept American out of World War I until he was forced into it by German actions, and afterward struggled to create the League of Nations. While he is also remembered as the president who supported women's suffrage, few have ever read that Woodrow Wilson was a devoted white supremacist who racially segregated the federal government for the first time. He sent legislation to Congress that would severely limit the civil rights of African-Americans, he refused to appoint African-Americans to government posts traditionally reserved for them, segregated the military for the first time, and even "vetoed a clause on racial equality in the Covenant of the League of Nations." (Loewen 20) But instead of being taught everything about Woodrow Wilson, most history textbooks limit themselves to presenting Wilson as an almost perfect progressive president.

A few decades later the United States was involved in a conflict which was as complicated as it was long; with American involvement lasting from 1965 to 1973. The conflict in Vietnam was extremely controversial at the time and historians have not always presented the complexities, or the images available to the readers. For instance,… [read more]

American Foreign Policy Since Its Inception Term Paper

… American Foreign Policy

In his farewell address, given to Congress on September 17, 1796, the father of the country, George Washington warned his fellow Americans against "the insidious wiles of foreign influence, & #8230;since history and experience prove that foreign… [read more]

United States History: The 1950s Research Proposal

… United States History: The 1950s in the United States

Many Americans look back on the 1950s with great nostalgia and view America as having been at its best during this decade in history. This work will examine the characteristics of American society during the decade of the 1950s and identify what it was that was unusual or different between 1945 and 1960 and seek to understand the hidden realities in years full of optimism and prosperity. Finally this work will answer the question of whether the 1950s were in actuality a positive or negative period in U.S. history.

Time Life's "Fabulous Century" reporting the decade of the 1950s begins by stating: "Shortly after the start of the New Year in 1951, with the sort of fanfare that only Hollywood could provide, Mrs. Ruth Colhoun, a Los Angeles mother of three, officially broke ground for her backyard atomic-bomb shelter. The 1950s were a time of change however, that change was contained somewhat in the undercurrent of society arising only occasionally but for the most part life in American in the 1950s was Mayberry in realtime characterized by a simpler time in American history and a time in which Americans were inherently naive to an extent because it did not hurt during the 1950s to believe in the 'American Dream'.


One of the primary characteristics of the 1950s was that of uniformity which was pervasive in the society of the United during that decade. The rule of thumb was conformity and group forms were strictly followed by all ages in the American society during this decade in history. New employment patterns emerged during World War II in the previous century however during the 1950s the traditional roles were assumed once again. Homogenization via the television was a contributor to the mindset of Americans and reflected the days accepted by society of the 1950s.


Not everyone in this society conformed however and in fact writers that were members of the 'beat generation' shunned conventional values and stressed spontaneity and spirituality and intuition was held to be superior to reason. The respectability of the culture was blatantly challenged by the beat generation.


Civil rights were emergent during the decade of the 1950s and the work entitled: "Defying Dixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950" states that a problem in American historical thought has been "chronic willful amnesia." (Gilmore, 2008) Gilmore states that most Americans prefer "a simplified and sanitized version of national history, one that smoothes out the rough edges that might complicate comforting visions of harmony and progress. Politics in the two-party context of American exceptionalistm, had been reduced to a mere quibbling over details. In this fulsome view of… [read more]

People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn Term Paper

… ¶ … People's History of the United States

Howard Zinn's 1980 publication a People's History of the United States offers an alternative perspective on American history. Rather than provide only the point-of-view of the victors as many traditional history books do, Zinn lends insight into the point-of-view of the vanquished groups such as the Native Americans, the African-Americans, the political dissenters, and women. Zinn's book also addresses incidents in American history that are usually underreported or not emphasized in most history courses, such as his thorough analysis of the counterculture movement and social rebellion of the 1960s and 1970s. A People's History of the United States shows that not all in American history has been honorable, and therefore the book is valuable in dispelling the illusory idealized version of American history often propounded.

Amazingly, Zinn presents his people's history without bias. As a historian, the author offers readers the facts. However, by presenting material that is often left out of textbooks, Zinn allows readers to form a more complete picture of American history. For example, instead of focusing on the persona of war generals like Grant and Lee in his chapter on the Civil War, Zinn tells the story about ordinary class struggles that lie beneath the Civil War. Chapter 10: "The Other Civil War" includes a wealth of information pertaining to poverty in America and the class conflicts that influenced history as much as battle tactics did.

People's History of the United States is in fact organized like a textbook: without introduction or conclusion, the book contains twenty-one chapters organized in chronological order. The material begins with a chapter on "Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress," and proceeds through revolutionary times, the Civil War, the World Wars, and Vietnam. As a people's history, Zinn delves into social trends such as racism and religious revivalism, to show how important ordinary lives of Americans are in shaping large-scale events.… [read more]

History Is Lies Research Paper

… In Lies My Teacher Told Me, Loewen also unravels the lies that strangle American schoolchildren in their brainwashing classes. The author points out that there are deep problems in the very questions that are being asked, and the assumptions built into terms like "settle." When his students are asked when the land now known as the United States was first settled, no one in his class can answer correctly. Their version of history leaves out thousands of years of human history -- an appalling testimony to the terrifyingly insincere version of history taught in public schools. Likewise, Loewen discusses the "invisibility of racism" in American history textbooks in Chapter 5. To make race more visible, Loewen states, "the most pervasive theme in our history is the domination of black America by white America," (p. 136). Loewen's assertion could just as easily refer to Native Americans and Latin Americans. Understanding American history in terms of systems of power and abuses of power better helps students of history understand what is going on today.

History is often taught in a dangerous fashion, as DuBois, Loewen, and Zinn point out. The danger in brainwashing students from a young age is that teachers, consciously or not, set up those students to perpetuate the problems of the past. Instead of questioning assumptions like the supremacy of European music, art and culture or like the beneficence of an unbridled free market, historians have an obligation to show a more nuanced view. Human beings are complex, and their societies are even more complex. This means that history is never as black-and-white as the traditional history books would like us to believe.

Works Cited

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Touchstone, 2007.

Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. Online version at: [read more]

Mexican-American War -1848) the Great Essay

… In this regard, Huston emphasizes that, "In their search for an understanding of what the future might bring under the Wilmot prohibition, southerners were misled by classical economic theory; and thus they read into the Wilmot Proviso a more grim outcome than was likely."

Although history provides 20-20 hindsight, it appears that few observers at the time could have predicted the unintentional impact that the Wilmot Proviso would have on America's historical course. As Huston concludes, "By this route, by leading southerners to miscalculate the effects of a prohibition against slavery's geographical expansion, Malthusian population theory, and classical political economy in general, helped push the South to secession and the nation to civil war."

The Popular Sovereignty proposal to allow voters to decide on slavery within their territories resulted in the Compromise of 1850 and finally achieved the immediate goals of the Wilmot Proviso.

Critics of popular sovereignty argued that its provisions were too weak and failed to guarantee slaveholder access to the territories.

Nevertheless, the Compromise of 1850 bought the country a few more years of troubled peace. In this regard, Huston reports that, "In state conventions in late 1850 and in the congressional and gubernatorial elections; of 1851, those who accepted the Compromise of 1850 -- dramatically triumphed. At least for a few years, the sectional issue of slavery in the territories slumbered."

The Meaning of the Mexican-American War

In the final analysis, the meaning of the Mexican-American War was the message that the United States took its Manifest Destiny very seriously and would prosecute this historical course of action with military force if necessary. For example, Yoo reports that, "Although the United States has used force abroad more than 100 times, it has declared war only five times: the War of 1812, the Mexican-American and Spanish-American wars, and World War I and II."

Despite the inexorable force of Manifest Destiny in shaping the country's course during the mid-19th century, the United States' invasion of Mexico in response to a provocation it created prompted President Ulysses S. Grant to characterize the Mexican-American War as "one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. It was an instance of a republic following the bad example of European monarchies, in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory."

For many modern Mexicans, this is the real meaning of the Mexican-American War.


Coward, John M. "Dispatches from the Mexican War," Journalism History 26 (2000, Spring) 1:


Huston, James L. "Southerners against Secession: The Arguments of the Constitutional

Unionists in 1850-51," Civil War History 46 (2000, December) 4: 280-291.

Huston, James L. "Theory's Failure: Malthusian Population Theory and the Projected Demise of Slavery," Civil War History 55 (2009, September) 3: 354-361.

Kurth, James. "America's Grand Strategy," The National Interest 43 (1996, Spring): 3-9.

"The Mexican-American War," Public Broadcasting Service Special Features. [online]


Reiter, Dan. How Wars End (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009).

Varon. Elizabeth R. Disunion! The Coming of the… [read more]

Unruly Americans in Woody Holton Book Review

… Making the Revolution seem like someone like me had a personal stake in either the success or failure of the American Revolutionary War. This is the functioning thesis I believe of Holton's book, that every future American had a part in the Revolution and in the formulation of the United States of America. Yet, at the same time the Founding Fathers did not believe that the average man should have a say in the governing of the country which is what required the formulation of the federal, central government.

Upon reflection, the comparison of the necessity of the common man in the American Revolution and then the resentment of the same person after the war is over is something of a dichotomy. The average person was needed to fight the war but the Founding Fathers still did not believe that the common person was capable of helping with the governing of that nation. The Articles of Confederation were the first attempt at trying to find a system of governance that would fit the new country. This failed and then came the Bill of Rights and the Constitution of the United States. There is considerable question about why the Articles of Confederation failed and most of the reasoning for this has to do with the fact that the articles were unenforceable. Given that the introduction to the book discusses the game scenario, it is then confusing that he does not explain this enough later on in the text.

The thing that I did not appreciate in Unruly Americans is that although the point is solid and the pace relatively quick, I could not help but notice that Woody Holton tends to repeat himself and reiterates many of the same points again and again. I assume that he does this to make the reader knowledgeable of the important points in American, lest they be forgotten from chapter to chapter. Although this is helpful in creating context for certain events, it is highly frustrating and serves to undermine the previously established relationship between author and reader. I also felt that Holton takes too much time discussing the economic situation of 1780s America without really explaining its significance in the same way that he expands on individual choice and the common man. It is hard to conceptualize 18th century banking in the present economic circumstances and more concrete definitions may have alleviated the confusion that I felt during this portion of the book.

Works Cited:

Woody Holton, Unruly Americans (United States: Hill and Wang,… [read more]

American Foreign Policy Term Paper

… Because the United States is geographically remote and isolated yet has substantial financial and military capabilities, it has been able to go alone in many of its military endeavors, with little military support from international organizations or other nations. Even the League of Nations, as founded by Woodrow Wilson, was not initially joined by the United States because of domestic opposition as well as isolationist sentiment, to becoming entangled in international obligations.

Yet unlike Great Britain, the U.S. has never, in terms of its ideological fabric, been overtly imperialistic. Although it may have shown a certain narrow mindedness and self-interest in its foreign policy goals, unlike the colonial powers, it has not actively used other nations to enrich itself. The influence of populists such as William Jennings Bryan has also kept alive a strong wing of both parties that stress that 'it's the economy, stupid' to use a modern turn of phrase, and the interests of America at home that must predominate in the political discourse of the day. [read more]

United States History 1492-1865 Term Paper

… Thus, the leaders decided to change the legislation and reframe it according to the need of the hour.

Q.2) What compromises were made in Philadelphia to placate the small states and the large states?

The Context

The basic reason why compromises had to be made was the fact that the representatives in the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia and their states had extensively dissimilar interests. Even if each individual state aimed at forming a government exclusively for its own benefit, it would not have been possible. The thirteen small and large states had varying geography, demographics and public interests according to their economies. For instance, some delegates intended to abolish the slavery convention while others chose to safeguard it. Such disagreements further worsened the situation when different delegates from large states stood against each other on the slavery convention as some supported it while others did not. The same obscurity persisted among the representatives of the small states too, leading the situation into a political deadlock.

The Compromises

Notwithstanding these dissimilarities, most of the pioneers and founding fathers of the American Constitution were determined to establish a powerful national government. The Virginian delegation presented the Virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention of Philadelphia in 1787 wherein a government was called comprising of the legislative, executive, and the judicial bodies. Unlike in the Articles of Confederation, the legislative division was to be bicameral with population-based representation in both of its houses.

Since representation in the legislative system was based on state population, small states such as New Jersey and Delaware disapproved the Virginia Plan on the reason that they could be easily outvoted in Congress by the large states through this system. In turn, the New Jersey delegation proposed an amendment in the Virginia Plan, calling for a unicameral system of legislature with one vote to each state.

The discussions and arguments continued for weeks, but with no fruitful outcome until the Sherman Compromise saved the convention from disintegration. It proposed a bicameral system of legislature, the two houses known as the House of Representatives and the Senate. Representation in the House of Representatives was proposed to be on the basis of state population. Every thirty thousand people of a state necessitated one representative of the same, elected by the participation of the state's entire vote bank. On the other hand, state representation in the Senate was equal and not population based. Every state could have two senators, nominated by the legislature of that state. The proposition for the House of Representatives satisfied the heavily populated large states while the one for the Senate befriended the less populated small states.

Proposed by Roger Sherman, this proposal is known in the American history as the Great Compromise. Sherman's proposal was approved by the state delegates participating in the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia on 16th July, 1787.


Decision at Philadelphia, Collier and Collier,

Feldmeth, Greg D.U.S. History Resources. March 31, 1998.

Foner, Eric and Garraty, John A. (1991) The Reader's Companion to… [read more]

U.S. History 1877-Present America Essay

… And finally the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in 2000 on Bush v. Gore was a disaster in any number of ways, but chiefly for the unresolved constitutional crisis that it represented.

The problem with the Spanish-American War is that it did not plausibly involve any realistic U.S. interests, and there was no reason to enter it. The reality is that the rest of Europe was engaged in a scramble for colonial territories, and while Spain still had a number of them (including Cuba and the Philippines) the Spanish country as a whole was weak and crumbling. Yet there was no immediate cause for war: the pretense that the battleship Maine was sunk by the Spanish has long since been debunked, and indeed serves the same function as Saddam Hussein's "weapons of mass destruction." In reality, the motives for war were purely financial, and the campaign for war was a well-managed media strategy, largely promoted by the "yellow journalism" newspapers that felt that war stories would appeal to the turn-of-the-century American public. But the long-term results of the war were disastrous, since America basically attempted to become a colonizing power just as colonialism was coming into disrepute. The fact that America had started as colonies should have meant the country was aware of the injustices of a colonial system.

The use of Communism as a fake menace was a staple of American political rhetoric well before Senator McCarthy's day -- the Haymarket Riot was an attempt to place blame on progressive political organizers, and the raids conducted after World War One by attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer were perhaps even more illegal than anything McCarthyism accomplished. However, the real function of McCarthyism was to conduct a witch hunt in American public life, and ruin the careers of people -- also effectively stigmatizing progressive politics for a long stretch afterwards. The most troubling aspect of McCarthyism, however, was that it was brought down by nobody except McCarthy himself. If McCarthy had not overreached by going after the U.S. Army -- which proved to be a crucial miscalculation -- he might have continued his red-baiting until he had effectively forced America into becoming a right-wing one-party totalitarian state, the inverted mirror image of his imaginary enemies.

Finally the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on Bush v. Gore in 2000 was a scandal in any number of ways, but chief among them was the Constitutional crisis that this decision represented. Because the justices split purely along party lines, the decision essentially politicized the Supreme Court, which was not to the benefit of the legal system. But moreover, there was no valid reason to delay the recount in Florida -- which ultimately found Al Gore had won the popular vote there too -- and merely underscored the bizarre elitist character of the Electoral College as being an element of the U.S. Constitution like the three-fifths compromise, a relic of a bygone era. As a result, America ended up with a president who had been installed by… [read more]

Civil War Thesis

… The participation of the U.S. In these events has sparked controversy existed within the American public regarding U.S. involvement and within the country or countries affected by U.S. involvement.

2. 2 List three (3) aspects of U.S. history since 1865 that has led to the U.S.'s rise as a world superpower policeman?

The three aspects of the U.S. history that led the U.S. To rise as a world superpower police officer include:

1. The developments in the U.S. Foreign policy

2. The Empowerment of the U.S. Presidency and Power

3. The development of high intelligence on global security

2. 3 Determine two to three (2-3) international events from the past five years that can be traced back to a foreign policy created after the Civil War.

In the past few decades, the U.S. has played a critical role in various international events. These events date back to a foreign policy created after the civil war. These events include the military action that the U.S. has taken in support of a number of military missions across the world. A good example includes the Tunisian crisis where the U.S. provided military aid comprising many of helicopters and ammunition. This was done despite the human violations, and abuse of power in the country. The other example is the Syrian conflict, where the U.S. has come public against Syrian political unrest.

2.4 List three to five (3-5) driving forces that fueled international policy decisions involving the international incidents you outlined previously. (Consider treaties, exit strategies, elections, wars, etc.)?

In the case of Syria, the driving force that fueled the international policy decisions undertaken by the U.S. was political unrest in the country. The political unrest in the country and increased conflict threatened peace, which affects the U.S. due to its economic and social interests in the country. The same case happens in the context of Tunisia. Tunisia experienced political unrest, which risked the country to enter into anarchy. The challenge was that the people were against the leadership because of the threats it posed to America. This situation was getting worse, and the U.S. had to step in through providing support to calm the situation (Cameron, 2005).


In conclusion, this study has shown that the United States has actively taken part in international relations, making the country be referred to as the 'world's policemen'. Evidently, the United States redefined its foreign policy on international relations after the WWII. This has seen the country taking key decisions on various international issues as opposed to the isolation strategy that was in place during the WWI.


Benhabib, S. (2008). U.S. Foreign Policy; The legitimacy of human rights. Daedalus, Vol. 137, Issue 3, p. 94-104.

Cameron, F. (2005). U.S. Foreign Policy After The Cold War. London: Routledge.

Kerstin, M. (2004). Security and Human rights; less liberty for greater security? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 42, No. 27, p. 14-20. [read more]

14th, 15th, and 19th Amendments Research Paper

… The 14th Amendment, which was submitted that same year and passed a full two years later, was based on the foundation of the aforementioned legislation and extended the rights of citizenship it issued. Both Johnson and the southern portion of the country were largely against this amendment, contributing to its delay in passing. This delay in turn only further delayed the passing of the 15th amendment, which enabled African-Americans the right to vote, largely because of opposition in the South. It was formally proposed in 1869 and passed in 1870.

There is a direct correlation between the passing of the 15th Amendment and that of the 19th amendment, which gave women the right to vote and was not sanctioned until the early part of the 20th century in 1920 (Miller). Women were some of the most vocal supporters of reconstruction and the obtaining of citizenship rights for African-Americans in the 19th century. Many of these reform-minded women championed rights for African-Americans, and then became aware that while doing so, they were not privy to many of these same rights. For instance, Frederick Douglas was in an alliance with prominent women's suffrage movement supporters such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. These movements somewhat diverged after African-Americans were given the right to vote with the 15th amendment. However, it is significant to realize that women were campaigning for their rights, and for the right to suffrage in particular, since the middle of the 19th century (Harper 604). When one considers that the 19th Amendment did not pass until nearly a century later, it becomes clear that the structure of the U.S. social and political system was merely trying to circumscribe the rights of all those who were not Anglo-Saxon males who founded the country.

Thus, there is a certain degree of commonality found in the reasons that the 14th, 15th and 19th Amendments to the U.S. constitution took a considerable amount of time to fully be realized. The conception that this country was based upon was that white males were the primary citizens.; All others who did not fit into this neat category, including African-Americans and women, were regarded as second or third-class citizens and were not priorities. Therefore, there was a profound amount of resistance from the country's political and social structure about passing amendments that would grant some pretense of parity.

Works Cited

Current, Richard. "Love, Hate and Thaddeus Stevens." Pennsylvania History. 14 (4): 259-272. 1947. Print.

Harper, Ida Husted. "Susan B. Anthony: The Woman and her Work." The North American Review. 182 (593) [HIDDEN] Print. 1906.

Miller, Kim. "The history of the 19th Amendment." 2011. Print.

Johnson, Andrew. "President Johnson's Veto of the Civil Rights Act, 1866." 1866. Web. [read more]

Atlas, Ed., How They See Term Paper

… Limerick and White, The Frontier in American Culture


I appreciated this book for its not romanticizing the cowboy culture and Pioneer culture, the way Western expansion is often presented in American history books. Also, this book was an interesting component to the course because it focuses on one specific aspect of American history.

O'Hearn, ed., Half+Half: Writers on Growing Up Biracial and Bicultural


Especially because we have a biracial president, it is important to incorporate issues related to racial identity in a class on American history. Most Americans come from a position that we must choose one race or another. This is more a matter of American culture and identity than it is history. The best thing about having this book in the syllabus is that it allows many students to think differently about who writes history, and the biases that we often miss.

Smith, Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992


Although it focuses on a relatively narrow bandwidth of American history, this incredibly creative presentation was enlightening. It was very helpful to have this perspective in the course, because I am personally interested in the issues discussed. I remember when the riots happened, and I look forward to learning more about why the riots happened, and what impact they have had on the evolution of culture in Los Angeles and the rest of the country.

If I had to choose one text that had the greatest impact on my thinking, it would be Smith's Twilight: Los Angeles. The film was powerful, because Smith presents so many different and alternative points-of-view. I found myself being riveted, and having more questions after watching than before. Twilight has expanded my view of what it means to "do history." Smith has also helped to reconstruct a vision of American history and culture that takes into account the complex realities we face every day. I appreciate the lack… [read more]

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