"American History / United States" Essays

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American Revolution New American History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,195 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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3 Wood, The American Revolution, 126

Equality and the fact that 'all men are created equal' were stressed a lot in the Declaration of Independence.

The founders of the nation itself did not go on to act on the words that they had written. In the end, the ultimate result was that people realized that they were not slaves and they were also citizens of the country. Therefore, another reason why American Revolution was important is that it provided the basis on which racial segregation was removed.

The American Revolution also gave rise to a cultural and social awareness for the people. It is clear that the people did not want to belong to the British empire. America originally had always been considered a free land. Ironically enough, the British themselves came to the country so they could let go of their own norms and restrictions. 4 We see that the American Revolution did consist of any replacement of ruling class like the Russian Revolution or any reign of terror that occurred in the French Revolution. It was seen that the Revolutionary spirit was present in every American and led to a great change in the societal and cultural ways of the nation. People begin to be more aware of their rights regarding slavery and voting. Religious minorities and women in the country were not afraid to speak for their rights.

Even though the changes for women and colored people did not happen instantaneously, the revolution paved way for the start of this abolitionist movement. It was seen that land inheritance e laws were eliminated right then. Prior to independence, English law stated that the land would be passed down to the eldest son of the family.

4 "Paul Johnson Explains America." The American Enterprise, Septemer 22, 2013.

Due to this reason, land and wealth in the society was present in the hands of some people in the society. This led to class distributing and the very bad treatment of the poor in the society. As mentioned earlier, the revolution also made it possible for the poor man to get his rights. Also, the religious life also changed such that the Anglican Church did not stay in America. During this time, religious tolerance and an increase in underground religions also changed. It was also seen that American art, architecture and literature all flourished during this time. The concept of family was also reformed as women began to attain more power and rights. Therefore, it was seen that the Revolution changed the culture and society of America to a great extent.

In conclusion, the American Revolution was a very important turning point in the history of America. It was because of the American Revolution that the political structure of the country transitioned from a monarchy to democracy. This change came not from the government or the regime but from the people of the country. Soon enough the people realized the power of speaking up and demanding a change in the way… [read more]


Culture and the United States Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,490 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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Economy, Energy and Infrastructure

The United States of America has remarkable mineral and agricultural resources. In the past, the country was almost self-reliant. However, the continuous and escalating consumption of energy has made America reliant on certain imports. Yet, it is the largest producer of both electrical and nuclear energy in the world. It is also recognized as the chief… [read more]


American History, 1820-1920 Five Positive Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,361 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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The doctrine stressed that the United States has the capacity and the right to defend the foreign policy of its neighboring countries as well as its internal affairs from European countries if the interest of the United States so required. The initial motivation behind this doctrine was positive in the sense that the United States offered its support and consideration in case of foreign or domestic disturbance of its neighboring countries. However in time, due to the volatility of international politics the United States where soon seen as interventionists in the internal affairs of its neighboring countries. Therefore cases have been in Mexico or Cuba in which the United States intervened and supported politically or otherwise different factions of the political environment. This approach brought about negative feelings towards the United States, one such example being Mexico. At the same time such an approach provided tensions between the United States and other European countries that had interest in Latin America at that time.

The beginning of the First World War in Europe greatly affected the foreign policy of the United States. This is because the United States and the European countries, in particular Great Britain, were important allies to the U.S. The strong commitments between the United States and its European allies demanded that the U.S. support the war effort against Germany throughout the 1914-1918 global war. Furthermore as a result of the First World War the Great Depression affected the United States at the end of the 1920s. Despite the fact that the United States had entered the first world war as a prosperous nation, after the end of the war the European continent was bankrupt and therefore no longer a viable trading partner. Under these conditions the commercial relationship between Europe and the U.S. soon changed and became less advantageous for the American states. In doing this resulted in a decrease of transactions and therefore a decline in trade. Notwithstanding the support provided to the Europeans, the U.S. was unable to regroup and focus on different trading areas and partners, which resulted in part to the Great Depression of the late 30s.

The issue of slavery is yet another negative aspect in the American Society of the 19th century. Despite the fact that that slavery was officially abolished as the "peculiar institution" it marked generations of African-American families in discriminatory actions and retaliation for decades. Today race is no longer a priority on the political agenda; yet, to this day there are communities in which the differentiation between African-American and white people is still made. This sense of discrimination has historical roots and the enslavement of African-Americans affected the mentality in the society as well as the behavior of the African-American community itself.

The Dred Scott decision of 1857 was an essential piece of legislation that denied the black population the right to an eventual American citizenship. The legal case on the one hand defined the limits of the U.S. Congress which could not override the authority of… [read more]


United States,1776-1786 Previous Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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In the year to follow the British minister decided to send an army in every colony to defeat the revolt. Generals Carleton and Burgoyne commanded the northern army which arrived in St. Lawrence. Their objective was to chase all the colonists in Canada. In the South, the British army was commanded by Generals Clinton and Cornwallis. Their army was defeated in the Charleston, but their commanders managed to escape and joined the main British army. The main army in New York had was commanded by General William Howe. It tried to negotiate with the colonists, but by that time the Americans decided that they want to be independent. "Howe defeated Washington's army on Long Island in August, and captured New York City in September, and pursued Washington's disintegrating army as it fled across New Jersey in November and December." (Stephen Conway, page 4) In the meantime, General Clinton successful conquered Newport from Rhode Island.

Although England was celebrating the defeat, Washington did not give up the fight and in 1777 he defeated a British army in Princeton. Germain decided to reapply the plan of 1776 campaigns. New England was seen by the British as the main location for the American resistance. In this new campaign England chase to suppress this region, thinking that like this the rebellion will end.

In 1777, Howe decided that to defeat Washington is more important than to help General Burgoyne. He took the main British army, leaving Clinton with almost no defense to go forward to Hudson Valley. Although Howe won the battle at Brandywine Creek, and conquered Philadelphia Burgoyne was defeated by Americans, and he admitted defeat at Saratoga on October 17. This victory gave Americans the trust they needed to go forward and win the war. Also, it brought the French to the colonists' side. One year after France joined the colonists' side, Spanish signed an alliance with the Americans. With the French interfering, the British government was obliged to send its armies to defend the Caribbean colonies. In 1780 the British army conquered Charleston and made peace with the south. But they were soon obliged to march towards north, due to the differences between the Loyalists and Patriots. In the North Washington's army was expecting them and as a result the British needed to surrender.

The Declaration of Independence was signed on 4th July 1776 although the war was not finished. The act was authorized by all the colonies and marked "the beginning of American independence." (America's Fight for Independence) In 1778 France and the United States signed the Treaty of Alliance and of Amity and Commerce. Through this act France recognized the independence and granted the United States a privileged status in trade. "France renounced claims to Canada but not Newfoundland and guaranteed American Liberty, sovereignty, and independence forever. France appeared to gain little except the opportunity to undermine Britain in Europe and the world." (Dr. Ian Barnes, Charles Royster, page 102)

Reference:

1. America's Fight for Independence, Retrieved December 17,… [read more]


American History Assessment the United States Assessment

Assessment  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
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American History Assessment

The United States was reluctant to enter World War II. What term have historians used to describe the American position?

Separatism

Isolationism

Federalism

Neutrality

In his War Message of April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson said, "The world must be made safe for democracy...." To what was he referring?

The right for countries to engage in battle

The fight for international peace and justice

The privilege of people to choose their government

The liberation of prisoners of war

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was significant for which reasons?

had to fight the war on two fronts

The attack caused the U.S. To enter the war

The Pacific fleet was seriously damaged

All of the above

e. A and b

f. b and c

Why did Italy change sides during World War II?

a. Mussolini lost power

b. Germans occupied Rome

c. The Allies captured Sicily

They didn't want to fight in the war

e. All of the above

f. None of the above

Questions 5 -- 31 are from NCDPI North Carolina Test of U.S. History, Form F. Fall 2009

5. What is the significance of Pinckney's Treaty (1795) with Spain?

a. It gave the United States the right to navigate the Mississippi.

b. It gave the United States most-favored nation status.

c. It allowed Lewis and Clark to explore the Louisiana Territory.

d. It moved the Shawnee to the Indiana Territory.

6. What impact did the Battle of New Orleans have on the United States in 1815?

a. It weakened the strength of the U.S. military.

b. It resolved the issue of British impressment of U.S. ships.

c. It caused the United States to lose access to the Gulf port.

d. It boosted a sense of patriotism and unity among U.S. citizens.

Why can the Emancipation Proclamation be seen as a diplomatic document?

a. It made it hard for foreign nations to recognize and support the Confederacy.

b. It warned European nations to stay out of affairs in the Western Hemisphere.

c. It called on England and France to sell weapons to the Union army.

d. It encouraged France to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States.

8. Which action abolished slavery in the United States?

a. Suspension of habeas corpus

b. Passage of the Thirteenth Amendment

c. Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866

d. Delivery of the Gettysburg Address

9. Which of these is the strongest evidence of the federal government showing its power over state governments during the Reconstruction period?

a. The creation of the sharecropping system

b. The migration of carpetbaggers into southern states

c. The military occupation of former Confederate states

d. The creation of the Freedmen's Bureau

10. Why did the House of Representatives impeach Andrew Johnson?

a. The president refused to follow Lincoln's Reconstruction plan.

b. The president violated the Tenure of Office Act.

c. Congress wanted to test the Fifteenth Amendment.

d. The Supreme Court supported separation of powers

11. What impact did the transcontinental railroad… [read more]


American History the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (513 words)
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This was also the region where black slavery intensified, even regulated for its economic efficiency and benefit to the cotton farmers.

The Trans-Mississippi west expansion was accomplished right after the Louisiana Purchase, wherein an expedition headed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark was conducted to survey the territory bought by the new American government. In this stage of the U.S. expansion, the new government encountered numerous hindrances due to strong opposition from the Indians, specifically the Sioux tribe, who were the first inhabitants of the Americas. Thus, apart from the problem of black slavery, another social problem that the expansion had brought to society was the continued oppression and antagonism against the Indians.

The inclusion of Oregon and Texas in the American territory was also another step towards expansion that led to the emergence of greater division between the north and the south. North's opposition to black slavery prevalent in the south caused this social conflict. However, this stage in the U.S. expansion was a necessary move to ensure that America would not meet the same antagonism and territorial vulnerability it had during the British occupation.

The last stage of the expansion was culminated through the Mexican War (1846), wherein America forced the country and its citizenry to surrender its territory to the new American government. This occupation of Mexico became America's final step towards establishing United States as a politico-economic superpower through strong and strategic territorial lands.… [read more]


United States History on April Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
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The perceived need for a more powerful and complete federal government led, in 1787, to the calling of a convention, to consider revising the Articles. That Convention, meeting in Philadelphia, chose, instead, to write a Constitution, which was ratified by eleven States in 1788.

In 1789, the Constitution of the United States was put into operation, and George Washington was elected the first President of the United States.

Centralization proved difficult for many people to accept. America had been settled in large part by Europeans who had left their homelands to escape religious or political oppression, as well as the rigid economic patterns of the Old World that locked individuals into a particular station in life regardless of their skill or energy. These settlers highly prized personal freedom, and they were wary of any power especially that of government that might curtail individual liberties.

The diversity of the new nation was also a formidable obstacle to unity. The people who were empowered by the Constitution in the 18th century to elect and control their central government represented different origins, beliefs, and interests. Most had come from Britain, but Sweden, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Prussia, Poland, and many other countries also sent immigrants to the New World. Their religious beliefs were varied and, in most cases, strongly held. There were Anglicans, Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Huguenots, Lutherans, Quakers, Jews, and many more. Economically and socially, Americans ranged from the land-owning aristocracy to slaves from Africa and indentured servants working off debts.

Of all the issues confronting the Constitutional Convention, none was more contentious than the issue of slavery. There had already started to develop a divergence between North and South, based on economic realities. Southern landowners were unwilling to relinquish their prerogatives over the slaves and a compromise was finally reached which prevented Congress from banning the import of slaves before 1808. In that year, Congress acted to ban further imports, and any new slaves would have to be descendants of ones that were currently in the U.S.

Two other issues that confronted the early Americans were the fiscal policies, proposed by Alexander Hamilton, and the location of the new capital of the U.S. Hamilton, as Secretary of the Treasury, was frustrated in his attempts to gain acceptance from southern leaders for one the key provisions of his fiscal proposal, assumption of state debts by the federal government, which would doom all his efforts for fiscal reform. A compromise was reached with James Madison during a dinner that took place on the evening of June 20, 1790, in which "Jefferson… [read more]


Manifest Destiny the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,128 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

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Manifest Destiny

The United States has often been accused of promoting the image of exceptional values and moral norms. Indeed, the fact that the U.S. is the result of a historical context in which the forces of imperialism were defeated at the hands of the revolutionary armies offered historians, politicians, journalists, and even common people the base for constructing a… [read more]


Slavery in the United States Was Largely Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (348 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Slavery in the United States was largely a result of pulling economic factors. When the colonists originally arrived in America and, later, established a new nation, they were faced with needing to find a means of creating both personal and national economic stability. The greatest advantage that this new continent offered was space. With space, large scale agriculture could occur. Yet, in order to operate a large-scale, profitable agricultural venture in a time when technology was limited, there was a demand for cheap labor. Thus, the conditions were set for the use of African slaves.

Further, as demand for such agricultural products as tobacco and cotton, which were the main production crops of the south's plantations, the need for slave labor increased. As a result, slavery in the United States was largely a manner of supply, demand, agricultural efficiency and lack of technology.

Since large scale agriculture was limited to the south, slavery had the unintended effect of dividing the nation. In the north, industry was the main source of economic income and did…… [read more]


American History From the Colonial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,040 words)
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It was a terrible legacy, killing hundreds of thousands on both sides, and it showed completely new generations of Americans how horrible war could be. However, it also showed how strong the country was, because the country survived a bitter Civil War, and still managed to prosper and grow, affecting the world economy as well as the national economy. The Civil War showed how other countries, such as Great Britain, were dependent on our crops such as cotton, and began to show our influence on the world. The country would be far different had the outcome been different, and the economy of the country probably would not have grown nearly as quickly, because the South was an agrarian society, while the North was more industrialized. If the South had won, American might not have made the technological advances we did in the latter half of the 20th century, and if the war had not happened at all, the South may never have modernized, and it may have taken much longer to free the slaves.

Finally, the fourth most important event of this period was the continued immigration of foreigners into our country. Our country is built on not only English traditions, but also the traditions of the millions of immigrants who have come to the country to better themselves. America is truly a melting pot, and the country would be far different if the founders and governors of the country had curtailed immigration and created an isolationist state. Immigrants populated the country from the beginning. They fought in the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, they worked in the factories of the industrial revolution, and in the farmlands of the Midwest, they built the railroads and the cities, and they brought their own unique blend of their culture and beliefs to our American culture. Immigration is the foundation of a country that wants to remain free, and without the immigrants, America would be a bland and unenlightened country. We share food, religion, and outlook with the immigrants in our daily lives, from ethnic restaurants to Chinatowns and other ethnic enclaves across the country. Immigration helped build the country, and without it, our country would be a lot less successful, and a lot less interesting.

In conclusion, any one of these events was extremely significant in American history. Each one changed America in numerous ways, and each, if they had not occurred, would have seriously altered the history of America and its' people. Our history is long, varied, and unique, and so are the events that made America what it is today, a nation of free and independent people who fight for what they believe in and work hard to make their country great.

References

Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1947.

Woodward, C. Vann, ed. The Comparative Approach to American History. New York: Oxford U.S., 1997.

Zucker, Morris. The Philosophy of American History: Periods in American History. New York: The Arnold-Howard…… [read more]


American History the Reconstruction Exacerbated Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (963 words)
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5. The major technologies that helped propel the American economy forward after the Civil War include the railroads and its related industries like steel and coal; and the development of the automobile. The railroad industry linked together otherwise isolated parts of the nation, helping make rural areas more economically prosperous. However, during the initial development of the automobile, roads and cars were not meaningful to the vast majority of Americans. Similarly, the booming textile industry touched Eastern seaboard regions but failed to make an impact on the Western territories. Therefore, although the rapid industrial expansion of the United States was a positive step forward in terms of economic growth and political empowerment, the industrial revolution had negative environmental and social consequences. Farming changed, and some farmers were driven out of business due to the technological developments in agriculture. The rise of big business translated into the demise of small businesses and the end of artisan trades. Regardless, the industrial revolution was a worldwide phenomenon that the United States could hardly ignore.

6. Capitalism has obvious benefits: a free market economy enables any person to become an entrepreneur, to capitalize on his or her creative ideas. On the other hand, the free market economy is inherently exploitative. The most notable problem with capitalism can be seen in the American educational and health care systems. In capitalist America, tax breaks are low for businesses to promote enterprise but social services are likewise low. The European model is in many ways preferable: although taxes are high, individual citizens receive a better deal on education and do not have to face hospital bills on the level of thousands of dollars per day.

7. On the race to Industrial supremacy, the poor people suffered the most. For the most part, the poor were also racial minorities. Therefore, the wealthy whites benefited from industrial growth because of corporate ownership. The trickle-down effect has yet to be observed except in rare cases. The rich do get richer, and the poor remain poor.

8. The growth of American cities is directly related to the rapid rise of industrialism for many reasons. Factories blossomed in regions near urban centers, drawing many citizens from rural areas in the hopes of earning more money.

9. Cities also attracted more minority populations and in the early twentieth century, drew immigrants from abroad. Therefore, the rise of cities substantially changed the American culture, making it more diverse. The results are still evident today, as cities remain more diverse than rural areas.

10. Between the 1860s and the 1890s, the demographics of the nation shifted to allow for the integration of freed slaves into the workforce and to prepare the nation for the rapid rise of industrialization. The immigrants' traditional cultural beliefs and values added to the richness and diversity of American…… [read more]


2nd Continental Congress Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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In such a setting, it became virtually impossible to modify the Articles, since all members could not agree.

Last, the final weakness of the Articles of Confederation is represented by an expansion of the previous limitation, in the meaning that the Congress had the power to create new laws, but could only enforce them upon receiving a majority of 9 votes out of 13 (Kelly).

Having recognized the shortages of the Articles of Confederation, representatives of the U.S. states met up to adjust the Articles. However, the delegates ended up creating a new document that would better address the issues identified within the United States. The Constitutional Convention was as such formed from educated men, better educated than the average American citizens, and most of them had a strong background by having fought in the American Revolution.

These men shared common visions and the intellectual capacity to see them implemented, but they also encountered differences in beliefs and perceptions. They nevertheless formed the Constitutions, which remains through today, the cornerstone of the American society.

In terms of the specific makeup of the framers of the Constitution, these include, it has to be noted that some of the more notable representatives include George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton or Benjamin Franklin. Thomas Jefferson did not attend the Convention, having then been delegated as ambassador in France; upon return, he revealed some concerns regarding specific elements in the Constitution.

The priorities of the delegates in the Constitutional Convention were multiple and the delegates emphasized most on the issues in which they believed the most. Some for instance placed an increased emphasis on education, whereas others focused on slavery, the rights to vote, the extent of the power of the government, the individuality of the states, the committee to be advising the president or the freedom of the press.

Thomas Jefferson was the leader of the Antifederalists and he militated for the rights of the state, whereas the Federalist, led by Alexander Hamilton, militated for more rights for the government. Thomas Jefferson envisioned a country led by a rather weak government, with the primary concern of representing the United States in foreign affairs; Jefferson's ideal was that of creating an agrarian country, based on production and power of the people.

On the other hand, the approach implemented by Hamilton envisioned a strong government, which became involved in all state affairs, both within the country as well as in its international relationships. The government envisioned by Hamilton would run on principles of efficiency and effectiveness and would focus on economic growth through industrial stimulation and commercial activity (Country Studies).

Thomas Jefferson would eventually become the third president of the United States, but this was not until 1801. Meanwhile, Hamilton served as the First Secretary of the State until 1795, in the office of George Washington and John Adams. The measures implemented by Hamilton have long lasting effects in the future of the United States, two important examples being revealed at the level of commercial… [read more]


American History Should Remind Us Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (671 words)
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An abuse of power would be the consequence should the United States enforce an Iraqi regime change. Not only would the U.S. acts a world bully; it would abuse the privilege of righteous use of American tax dollars. Too much money is already spent on the military-industrial complex. Perhaps our fair nation should devote these self-same dollars to the eradication of AIDS, to the elimination of poverty, or to the promotion of positive education. Money could be better spent on humanitarian causes instead of on contrived regime changes. A plethora of altruistic organizations need the funding that would be unnecessarily spent on fabricating another puppet world leader.

At the core of the problem with United States-backed and orchestrated regime changes is the illusory connection between the current "war on terrorism" and Saddam Hussain. Fear mongering is an effective tactic to spur the American public into supporting military action in Iraq. Ousting Saddam Hussain is appealing on many levels, especially following the disastrous events of September 11, 2001. The general public still recalls the horrors of that day and the media has done an effective job in promoting the idea that Iraq is involved. Perhaps the Iraqi government was and is connected with Al Qaeda. What then?

There certainly exists a real and present danger. Not only do terrorist groups like Al Qaeda pose a threat to the United States and sister nations, but also enemy regimes like that in Iraq may possess weapons of mass destruction. These weapons can potentially wipe out the entire human race; their presence threatens the globe. The United States does have the responsibility to take action against nuclear proliferation and the possession of biological weapons. But the United States also has the responsibility to act with caution and conscience, always keeping peace and human rights in the forefront. Democracy and peace can be encouraged without an aggressive and forced regime change. The United States should serve as an example to the world without falling into the arrogance trap.… [read more]


American History Your Highnesses Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,981 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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" (Turner 114). Jefferson's brand of Democracy was in many ways a revolt against the former ways imposed by the British.

As Americans gradually expanded west they routinely came into conflict with native tribes. "In 1824 President James Monroe wrote congress concerning the notion that all Indians should be 'removed' to the areas west of the Mississippi River." (Brinkley 154). By 1838 the evacuation order was given and federal soldiers were sent in to forcibly remove twenty-thousand Cherokee Indians, among others, from Georgian lands all the way to Oklahoma. The path came to be known as "the trail of tears," for almost a quarter of the Cherokee that set-out died along the way from disease, exhaustion, or even starvation. The former Cherokee lands of Northwest Georgia still retain much of their original beauty, but they still mark the notorious starting point of this terrible incident in American History.

Jefferson was one of the first to begin the abolitionist movement in America. Many of the original authors of the Constitution thought that the practice should be banned upon the founding of the country. However, the economic dependence on slavery in the southern states created one of many rifts between the North and the South. Meanwhile, the abolitionist movement gained increasing approval in the northern states.

Americans continued to spread westward in search of their fortunes. "Pioneer spirit was endemic by 1841 when John Bidwell shepherded the first wagon train along the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri, to California." (Brinkley 170). Many pioneers were later to follow, and in 1850, when California was official granted statehood Bidwell himself became a U.S. congressman. Once gold was discovered in California the Oregon Trail became the primary route for settlers to reach the west.

However, the Americans were not the first people of European descent to settle what is now California. "It was the Spanish who began settlements in the state in 1769. Most settlers were religious missionaries sent to try to convert Native Americans to Christianity." (Gutman 19). At their height twenty-one missions dotted the coast of California, and many can still be visited today along what is known as the "El Camino Real," or Royal Highway (Gutman 19).

Unfortunately, the thirst for fortune and adventure held by many Americans, and the similarities present in many of their ideals were not enough to hold the divided nation together. The war between the North and the South formally began with Confederate troops firing upon fort Sumter on April 12, 1861 (Brinkley 207). "Shortly thereafter the border states found themselves obliged to choose sides." (Brinkley 207). It would become the bloodiest war in American history, and its end would spell economic devastation of the southern states. By 1865 both sides had exhausted their resources, and the nation that emerged from the rubble was hardly recognizable from the America that the British had once seeded.

Bibliography…… [read more]


American History Sam Adams. Franklin. Jefferson Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (682 words)
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American History

Sam Adams. Franklin. Jefferson. Alexander Hamilton. Hancock.

Clearly, each of these individuals are related in that they all participated in the drafting of the Declaration of Independence which ultimately led to the American fight for independence from England, and the formation of the new United States Government. They were all instrumental in creating the document and the philosophy behind it, and they were leaders in the new government. Adams and Jefferson served as presidents, Franklin served as a diplomat and patriot, and Hamilton and Hancock served in the government. Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury, and Hancock served as the President of the Continental Congress.

The period was before, during, and after the Revolutionary War, and all of these men were key players in the development of the new country and the laws that govern it. In addition, because they were public figures, they motivated others to support American independence. Today, these are some of the most well-known and respected members of early American society. These men all stood up for what they believed in, created a new government, and then made it work, and they are the foundation of American freedom and democracy.

Pontiac. Powhatan. Tecumseh. Pequot War. Iroquois.

All of these items relate to Native Americans, especially their early treatment by the English settlers, who drove them from their native lands, destroyed their way of life, and led them to revolt in retaliation for their harsh treatment. Chief Pontiac was a leader of an Ottawa band that rebelled against the British in the area around the Great Lakes. Powhatan was the leader of the Powhatan people of Virginia, one of the first tribes to make contact with the white settlers from England, and the father of Pocahontas, who married an Englishman and traveled to England with him. Tecumseh was the leader of the Shawnee and led Tecumseh's War against the United States after he disagreed with massive land sales that took away native lands. The Pequot War was another skirmish between whites and natives, with…… [read more]


Globalization's Effect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

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The United States has been a leader in encouraging the cross-border deals for the advancement of domestic opportunities. While there are numerous opportunities to derive from the inter-relations of business opportunities with other countries, the United States often faces fundamental challenges in balancing the interest of the national security with the national economy. The September 11, 2001 attack has made… [read more]


Presidents of USA Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (791 words)
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American Presidents

The United States has had 43 presidents since George Washington took office in 1789. He served until 1797, was married to Martha Washington, and he died in 1799. His vice-president was John Adams for both terms he served. Washington's major contributions were being the first president, and developing a strong sense of foreign policy. He is remembered as "the father of his country" and a Revolutionary war general. Next came John Adams from 1797 to 1801. He was married to Abigail, and he died in 1826. His vice-president was Thomas Jefferson, and his main accomplishments were managing the war between the French and the English without the U.S. becoming involved, building up America's naval defenses, and he is remembered for being the first president to live in the White House. The third president was Thomas Jefferson, from 1801 to 1809. He was married to Martha, but she died before he took office. He died in 1826. His vice-president was Aaron Burr until 1805 and George Clinton during his second term. His main accomplishments were cutting the national debt, acquiring the Louisiana Purchase, and he is remembered for sending Lewis and Clark on their journey to explore the west, and for writing the Declaration of Independence. James Madison served from 1809 to 1817. He was married to Dolly, and died in 1836. His vice-presidents were George Clinton and Elbridge Gerry, who died in office. His main accomplishments were declaring war on Britain, and leading the country to victory and he is remembered as the "father of the Constitution." James Monroe served from 1817 to 1825. He was married to Elizabeth and he died in 1831. His vice-president was Daniel Tompkins. His main accomplishments were choosing a strong cabinet, and for helping create the Missouri Compromise that allowed slavery in certain areas. He is most remembered for the Monroe Doctrine on foreign policy. John Quincy Adams served from 1825 to 1829. He was married to Louisa, and he died in 1848. His vice-president was John Calhoun. His accomplishments included beginning a building program of canals and highways, and for attempting to bring more art and culture to the nation. He is most remembered for serving in the House of Representatives after being president.

Andrew Jackson served from 1829 to 1837. He was married to Rachel, and he died in 1845. His nickname was "Old Hickory,"…… [read more]


American History Final Exam Stages Term Paper

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Turner lived at a time before a large middle class existed or the U.S. had become a consumer society, so he naturally thought of pioneers as farmers and ranchers who moved the agricultural frontier to the West. In his era, even though the country was rapidly industrializing, the majority of people still lived on farms and in small towns. For… [read more]


United States Term Paper

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South Carolina did not want to act alone, however, which caused them to move forward somewhat cautiously, and with ample planning.

Before Lincoln could even take office, secession rallies began erupting across the Southern states. Because of their immense supporters, the elected secession delegates of South Carolina decided to move ahead earlier than planned, on December 20, 1860 (451). The following year in February, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Texas and Louisiana followed suit (451).

Lincoln's Presidential Inaugural Address was meant to calm the fears of Southerners, along with smooth over the immediate threats to peace, while buying time in the hopes that a resolution could be worked out (454). He attempted to calm a fear that "seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered...never been any reasonable cause for such" (Inaugural Address). He continued declaring that, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists...I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so" (Inaugural Address). In his closing statements, Lincoln stated that In 'your' hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in 'mine', is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail 'you'. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. 'You' have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend it." (Inaugural Address) which was seen to some southerners as a threat of violence against their secession. Many felt it was a "potent mixture of firmness and generosity" while others chose to interpret his speech as further evidence that the secessions must continue (454). Regardless of how it was construed, Lincoln's election was no sooner declared official before the breakdown of America as it was known began.

Again, there were many contributing factors to the Civil War. Slavery was the hot topic, and the citizenship of "free slaves," or other African-Americans was the cause for much animosity between the Northern states and the Southern states from 1855 until the Civil War, and beyond. The Dred Scott case, the Kansas conflicts that were always making headlines, and the raid on Harper's Ferry - each of these events added to the rising tensions in America. However, the clear point at which the nation was set on the path to war, and could not be averted from that path was the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, after which the southern states began to secede from the Union.

Ayers, Edward. American Passages. Harcourt College Publishers, © 1999

Lincoln's First Inaugural Address. A Compilation of Messages and Papers of the Presidents, volume VI. New York: Bureau of National Literature, 1914. 5ff Online Version:

http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.lincoln.html. American Passages Website.

The Day of Battle," Richmond "Enquirer," November 6, 1860. Online Version:

http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.battle.html. American Passages Website.

The News of… [read more]


Gamut of Subjects Related Term Paper

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While the film addresses race, the filmmakers also touch upon class and gender issues as well. In Chapter 11 of A People's History, Zinn discusses the robber baron phenomenon and the beginnings of what would become an essentially corrupt system of capitalism in the United States. Workers' unions and labor movements impacted ideologically by the writings of Karl Marx helped to raise awareness of worker exploitation and the need for organization as self-empowerment (Zinn). One of the reasons Americans continue to fear words like socialism is because the corporate oligarchy that began with the robber barons has systematically controlled the media, thus casting a negative shadow on labor rights movements. Magazines like Mother Jones overtly embrace a socialist ideology that provides intelligent counterpoint to unbridled capitalism, but such periodicals are deemed fringe in spite of their astute attention to detail and scholarship.

For example, Gilson charts exactly who in America earns income in the top one percent bracket. According to Gilson, "most Americans have flatlined," whereas the superrich grow exponentially richer due to their crafty use of market economics (1). In a different chart for Mother Jones, Drum and Gilson debunk myths that are perpetuated by the mainstream media. Because the mainstream media are owned by corporate conglomerates, it is in the best interest of the editorial staff to promote ideologies that support the success of its senior management team. As with the corporate control of textbooks, the control of the media restricts Americans' access to real information. The Internet contains too many sources, including too many unreliable sources, for the average person to sort through. Relying on what textbooks and the media provide means continuing to be brainwashed.

Chapter 7 in Lies My Teacher Told Me is about the myth of the "Land of Opportunity." Sure, there are still immigrant success stories even today. The vast majority of Americans, no matter where they were born, remain stuck at a certain tier of society. Getting ahead is not about hard work. There is a myth of meritocracy, which is promulgated by American textbooks (Loewen). This myth is particularly damaging, in that it sends the message that anyone who is not rich is somehow not worthy of consideration. Indeed, the "little people," as Leona Helmsley calls them, are the ones footing the American tax bill and are still reminded that their efforts working two jobs for minimum wage was not good enough (Gilson "Only Little People").

This course basically teaches that American history is equal parts myth, propaganda, and fact. While some of what is taught is actually verifiable, it is not the names, dates and places that matter. It is the overarching themes, and the ways topics like race, class, and gender are discussed. Power is the key to understanding American history. Europeans who possessed greater military power than Native Americans were able to steal land from the indigenous; an ideology of racial supremacy allowed the subjugation of Native Americans, blacks, and all other non-European minorities. The rich go rich… [read more]


Foreign Policy of the United States Term Paper

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¶ … United States

Digressions with Current American Foreign Policy

Our Nation's cause has always been larger than our Nation's defense. We fight, as we always fight, for a just peace -- a peace that favors liberty. We will defend the peace against the threats from terrorists and tyrants. We will preserve the peace by building good relations among the… [read more]


United States Government Is a Republic Term Paper

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United States Government is a Republic, formed on democratic principles. This means that the United States operates under a system of democracy that is "for the people, by the people." Citizens of the United States are participants in their democracy by way of the electoral processes that allow them to elect members to the House of Representatives, the United States Senate, and the president and his vice president. The president's term is limited to two four-year terms, to ensure that no elected official ever has such a taste of power for the office of the President of the United States - an office that has come to represent one of the most powerful people not just in the United States, but in the world; such that he, or she, might succumb to the forces of evil and attempt to hold that office forever as a dictator or absolute ruler. At the same time, those officials elected to the House of Representatives and to the United States Senate can serve for unlimited lengths of time, so long as they are elected by their constituents in the states they represent.

There are branches to the United States Government; the Executive Branch, which serves as the law enforcement branch, having under its auspices the United States military forces. It is comprised of the office of the president, vice president and his staff at the White House. The Legislative Branch, which is the law making branch of the government comprised of the House of Representatives and the United States Senate; and the Judicial Branch, which is inclusive of the court systems throughout the country, culminating in the final authority of the Supreme Court for those cases for which appeals have been successfully perfected to that level of decision. The judicial branch is the final decision in the legislative and enforcement processes begun under the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Government. The Supreme Court has the final authority in reviewing and striking down legislation that stands in conflict with the rights enumerated under the Constitution of the United States. Justice are appointed to the Supreme Court by the President, although they must…… [read more]


United States Manifest Destiny Term Paper

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Manifest Destiny

United States: Manifest Destiny

Comment on the relationship seen in the growth of U.S. borders against the backdrop of the siege of native people's land. Was this siege of native land at the expense of native people survival and identity? Is this a justified price for progress?

Although the United States never had a formal empire, like England or Rome, it could be argued that the doctrine of Manifest Destiny was a kind of imperialism, as the native people living in what became the U.S. Western and Southwestern states saw their culture systematically eradicated by the military and political power of the U.S. federal government. Ironically, the faith in the right of the United States to acquire new territory, regardless of who was living it on before, was expressed in the language of freedom and the U.S.'s special quality, in contrast to past, European systems of government: "our national birth was the beginning of a new history...we are the nation of progress, of individual freedom, of universal enfranchisement (O'Sullivan, 1839)

But this belief that America's unique democratic spirit was used to justify colonizing the Mexican province of Texas with North American populations, because of American "enterprise and…… [read more]


United States Engaged in a World Term Paper

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¶ … United States engaged in a world wide war against terrorism in the wake of September 11th, it is believed that we have become much more isolationist in our economic and foreign policies. Many view this as a reactionary step to the events of September 11th, however this view obscures a longstanding and growing set of dysfunctional relationships that… [read more]


US Patriot Act Term Paper

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USA Patriot Act

The purpose of this paper is to research the "USA Patriot Act" and examine exactly what the implications are in the implementation of this act should another terrorist event such as 911 occur.

Restrictive laws have been passed at crucial times in the history of the United States before the passing of the U.S.A. Patriot Act. Although the laws within this Act are intrusive upon the privacy of United States Citizens, there are those who do not mind the restrictiveness of the Act in exchange for safety. This is understandable to a certain extent however one must keep in mind that the Constitutional rights vested in each individual in the United States has been tread upon to a great extent by the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

Disempowerment of the U.S. Constitution:

One example is the steps that have been taken in searching homes and offices without rendering prior notice, the use of roving wiretaps listening in on telephone conversations, monitoring computers and mail and all of this being done without the benefit of a warrant signed by a judge who has been convinced that there is a need of this type action in a specific case. The random violation of the rights of privacy vested in the individual's Constitutional rights has never seen the scope of what the U.S.A. Patriot Act has deemed to be legal. For the sake of security the minor liberties being taken with our liberty may culminate in larger compromises than the individual originally conceived to be worth the giving up of.

II. Centralization of Law Enforcement

The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, or the U.S.A. Patriot Act was passed on October 26, 2001 by Congress and signed by President Bush the exact same day. The Act is written in ten parts and exceeds 300 pages in length. The Justice Department stated the following regarding the Act:

Within hours of passage of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, we made use of its provisions to begin enhanced information sharing between the law-enforcement and intelligence communities. We have used the provisions allowing nationwide search warrants for e-mail and subpoenas for payment information. And we have used the ACT to place those who access the Internet through cable companies on the same footing as everyone else."

III. Expansion of Scope: Terrorism & Domestic Terrorism

While assuring us that the only one needing to fear the new authority is the terrorist it is almost as if somehow the individual begins to hear themselves in the description being provided for defining a terrorist. Chapter 113B of the Criminal Code, 18 U.S.C. Section 2331 added a new definition of "domestic terrorist" defined by involvement in activities that:

A) involve acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State:

B) appear to be intended-

I) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population;

II) to influence the policy of… [read more]


Geography of the United States Term Paper

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Geography of the United States is one of the most diverse of any continent or country of the world. It has become the focus of many songs, from "This Land is Your Land," to "America," in a way that topography seldom is in national anthems and patriotic hymns. The beauty and richness of the land's diversity is matched, of course,… [read more]


Environmental Ethics US Government Term Paper

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The 1930s brought about a strange environmental phenomenon called the Dust Bowl, which spread over several states that had been agriculturally important to the United States, and wreaked havoc on the country at a time when many people were suffering due to the Great Depression. The Department of Agriculture created for the promotion of farming in 1862, had become much… [read more]


United States: Mitigate China's Influence in African Continent Research Paper

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China's Influence In Africa

Though the United States remain the sole true global superpower following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, over the subsequent two decades China has risen to fill some of the subsequent power vacuum, particularly in regions where the United States has never maintained a substantial presence. This is nowhere… [read more]


United States Should Be Against Immigration Research Paper

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Immigration: Why the United States Should Be Opposed to It

Today, the U.S. plays host to millions of both legal and illegal immigrants. Those who oppose the current levels of immigration include but they are not limited to labor advocates and nativists. While labor advocates are concerned that some U.S. citizens could lose their jobs to immigrants, nativists are convinced… [read more]


Mill and U.S. Constitution None Research Paper

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By the beginning of the Civil War, there were over four million slaves in the U.S. And this institution was more profitable than ever. Even after it was officially destroyed in 1865, it continued in everything but name, usually in the form of sharecropping and tenant farming in the South that left most blacks in absolute poverty.

Although Thomas Jefferson… [read more]


United States of America Initially Term Paper

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When Washington left the post as President he urged his fellow countrymen to remain free from any other country, to prevent any influential rise of any political parties that could ruin all that the American people had fought and died for, the run of isolationism continued for many years until America was strong enough to defeat any country that attempted to have an influence upon its affairs (Cole, 1991)

Furthermore they withdrew from any political arena in the official capacity, it must be remembered that American Privateers still helped the French during the Peninsula Wars with Great Britain (Cole, 1991)

When the United States of America decided to take on an Isolationist role they took it upon themselves to step out of the world, they took a non-involvement attitude towards all affairs that concerned the Old world of Europe, its wars and petty entanglements. (Cole, 1991)

The United States felt that their interests as seen above were to remain at home to look after themselves and remain in many ways aloof from the children of Europe, this view they believed would lead them to freedom and a true democratic stance that would be seen to through peaceful means rather than the abject force of militaristic involvement (Cole, 1991)

It is seen that America became isolationists after the revolution yet it is clear that this view was clearly a part of their life when the old settlers came to the New world (Cole, 1991)

References

Anonymous (2002) The American Revolution[online] accessed at http://ragz-international.com/american_revolution.htm

Cole W.S. (1991) My History is America's History…… [read more]


American History From the Origins Term Paper

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The Company's monopoly on the imported tea coming to America had infuriated American businessmen and traders, and this again resulted to a resistance, this time in the form of the Boston Tea Party 9 led by Samuel Adams), a group that expressed their opposition by attacking the cargo ships of the British India Company, and throwing out the cargos of tea into the sea. This rebellious and courageous act had disturbed the British government greatly, and indeed, the over taxation and unequal treatment between the Americans and the British had resulted to a greater resistance by the Americans, and the Revolution against British invasion began. It is evident that before the Revolution, the major problem of the Americans had been economic and social in nature, which is illustrated in the problems of over-taxation (economic), and inequality and injustice to Americans (social).

After the Revolution, Americans began re-building their nation through the implementation and enforcement of governmental regulations to maintain peace and stability in the country. In this phase of the American reconstruction, political problems arose as a result disputes between after the formation, development, and enforcement of the new American Constitution. However, the main problem encountered in this phase is the conflict between two political parties, between Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Party and Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican (or Anti-Federalist) Party. This political conflict will later result to a bigger problem, since the conflict between the Federalists (which strongly supports Great Britain) and anti- Federalists will result to the War of 1812, which is a war between the Americans and Great Britain one again, in the latter's effort to exert control over American territory. Although neither the British nor the Americans had won the war, America had prevented another invasion from coming through the 1812 War, and after this event, America had once again reconstructed their country's social, political, and economic organization. However, as the War of 1812 has come to a close, Americans had experienced another problem, this time in the social aspect of the people's lives, as the number of Americans practicing the Christian religion lessened, while new, emerging religions had become the newest forms of philosophies and beliefs of the citizens, such as Mormons and evangelical religions such as Seventh Day Adventists, Methodists, and Baptists. Social transformation is under way, and evidently, America had experienced a social revival and dichotomy after the War of 1812.

It is evident that the memorable events in America's history such as the Revolution and the War of 1812 were triggered by major problems that are economic (over-taxation), political (Federalists vs. Anti- Federalists) and social (inequality between English and Americans and social dichotomy and revival) in nature, as illustrated and proven in the discussion presented in this paper about the major problems of the Americans during the period of pre-American Revolution- War of 1812.

Reference

An Outline of American History." An online book published by the U.S. Department of State International…… [read more]


Japan and the United States Term Paper

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The result was a rapid growth in GNP and a swift rise as a major world economic power (CIA, 2004a). However, Japan must import much of its basic needs. It does not have the land to grow all the food needed for its population and has few natural resources for raw materials and fuel (CIA, 2004a). The United States is the most significant world economic force (CIA, 2004a) but has built its economic base more gradually, over several centuries. It has a wider range of incomes among the population with significant number of both wealthy and poor families (CIA, 2004a).

Politically, the two countries have some similarities and some significant differences. They both use a parliamentary form of government. However Japan also has an emperor by birthright (CIA, 2004a), who exerts significant influence on the country's policies. Japan is a relatively new democracy, having adopted its Constitution in 1947 (CIA, 2004a). By comparison, the United States adopted its Constitution in 1789, giving the country well over 200 years of experience with representational democracy as a form of government (CIA, 2004b).

The two countries' histories are markedly different. Japan existed for centuries as a band of feudal states, founded as a country in 660 BC. The country has a long history of relative isolation, which allowed the country to focus in on itself, its culture, its heritage, and develop a common collective view of what it meant to be Japan and Japanese. However, once Japan opened its doors to the West, it rapidly adopted some facets of Western culture, so today's Japan is a meld of very old and relatively new ideas (CIA, 2004a).

The land that is now the United States was of course populated for many centuries before Europeans came, but its identity as a country began with the American Revolution (1776-1783). The United States had an entirely different response to contact with other cultures and encouraged people to emigrate, resulting in a country with many cultural heritages and influences (CIA, 2004b).

Finally, environmentally both countries face significant challenges because both countries rely on manufacturing for a significant portion of their economy. Japan, for instance, is dealing with acid rain and the resulting changes in the pH of bodies of water (CIA, 2004a). In addition, Japan uses large amounts of timber, and the traditional diet emphasizes consumption of seafood. As a result, both forestry and fishing industries face depletion of resources not only in Japan but for the other countries, mostly Asian, supplying those materials (CIA, 2004a). Japan also grapples with air pollution.

The United States, because of its size as well as its consumption habits, emits more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than any other country. Runoff into waters of pesticides and fertilizers challenge the quality of water. The country has had to aggressively work to reduce both acid rain and air pollution.

Bibliography

CIA. 2004. "Japan," in The World Fact Book. Accessed via the Internet 6/16/04. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ja.html

CIA. 2004. "United States," in The World Fact Book. Accessed… [read more]


Legal Immigration Is Good Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,929 words)
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However, as I have highlighted elsewhere in this text, legal immigrants benefit the economy on a number of fronts i.e. In terms of contribution to the nation's tax revenues and GDP, in terms of provision of cheap labor which in turn benefits consumers and in terms of provision of specialist skills and capabilities relating to technology, entrepreneurship etc. Further, there are those who feel that the influx of immigrants in the recent past has put a strain on the nation's social and government services. However, this assertion in Isidore's (2006) view is largely misplaced as according to economists, such an occurrence "is outweighed by the increased economic activity." Lastly, since the September 11 terrorist attack, there are those who have time and again expressed their fears over the influx of immigrants - most particularly those of Muslim descent. This in my opinion should be regarded as a stereotype fed by misplaced perceptions. Indeed, as Arnold (2011) notes, none of the terrorists involved in the September 11 attack can fit the definition of an immigrant. As a matter of fact, the author notes that those individuals involved in the attack "were all visitors" (Arnold, 2011). Based on this, I am convinced that the terrorist threat posed by legal immigrants is almost nil.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is clear from the above arguments that legal immigration has a number of distinct key benefits and hence is good for the U.S. The vast majority of those who legally immigrate to the U.S. do so for valid reasons and are therefore ready to work hard and live harmoniously with the rest of the populace. With that in mind and given the above arguments in favor of legal immigration, proper policies should be adopted to encourage the same while discouraging undocumented immigration.

References

Arnold, K.R. (2011). Anti-Immigration in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. California: ABC-CLIO.

Estrom, P. (2007, June 7). Immigration: Google makes Its Case. Retrieved February 12th, 2012, from Business Week website: http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/jun2007/db20070606_792054.htm

Geigenberger, J. (2008). The lasting Value of Legal Immigration for the United States of America. Norderstedt Germany: GRIN Verlag.

Griswold, D. (2009, July 21). As Immigrants Move in, Americans Move Up. Retrieved February 14th, 2012, from CATO Institute website: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=10650

Isidore, C. (2006, May 1). Illegal Workers: Good for U.S. Economy. Retrieved February 12th, 2012, from CNN Money website: http://money.cnn.com/2006/05/01/news/economy/immigration_economy/index.htm

Shally-Jensen, M. (2010). Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Social Issues (4 Volumes). California: ABC-CLIO.… [read more]


American History X An Exercise Essay

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American History X

An exercise in and a meditation upon subversion, the film American History X is at once making a bold social and political commentary on the inherent destructiveness of racism and bigotry. At the same time, one could argue it's a tragic ballad for a family riddled with loss. Simultaneously, the film is a subversive series of photographs that illuminate a defiant culture and renegade civic identity. Just as iconic photographs can work to "reflect social knowledge and dominant ideologies; they shape understanding of specific events and periods…" (Hariman & Lucaites, 2002), the successive images of American History X works to reflect ideologies unwelcome to idealistic American sensibilities and rattle one's understanding of America today. If an iconic photo like the Flag Raising at Iwo Jima can reaffirm an individual's sense of collective pride, and shape collective beliefs about world events, than the subversive visual images which appear throughout American History X, have similar but far more disturbing effects. This paper will treat the connected images of American History X as having a comparable impact as that of the iconic photograph as described by Hariman and Lucaites, in this case, however, the influence is mutinous and subverted.

The renegade still images in the film have the impact of shedding light on the disturbing underbelly of American culture and particular American beliefs systems that flourish throughout parts of the country. If certain iconic photographs shape our understanding of particular events and periods, than subversive photography such as that which flourishes throughout American History X illuminates not only the unpleasant fact that racism and bigotry is still alive in America today, but that the average non-bigoted American is resistant to such illumination.

A pervasive image, one which appears in the film American History X and on the movie poster is a defined and muscled Derek Vinyard (Ed Norton), bare-chested, with a massive swastika over his left pectoral muscle, and his right hand placed gently there, over his heart, in rapt devotion and reverence, tinged in hostility, to his bigoted beliefs. Such an image denies the pride that Americans can have about their often bloody and shameful collective history: that slavery and segregation have been abolished, as well as racist legislation like Jim Crow Laws, the Chinese Exclusion Act and skewed, corrupt ruling of cases like Plessy vs.…… [read more]


US Supreme Court Orff v. United States 545 U.S. 596 2005 Term Paper

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¶ … United States: 545 U.S. 596 (2005)

Was the United States in breach of its 1963 contract with Westlands Water District and liable for money damages by reducing the delivery of water?

Were the Petitioners intended third-party beneficiaries of the 1963 contract?

Did the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982 waive the United States' sovereign immunity from breach of contract suits?

Rules

Reclamation Reform Act (1982): Section 390uu of the Act which waives the United States' sovereign immunity for certain purposes.

H.F. Allen Orchards v. U.S. (1984)- a case in which the Federal Circuit held that farmers were "true parties in interest" to the irrigation district's water contract with the Reclamation Bureau since the district has no real stake in the water contract as opposed to the farmers, who actually use and pay for the water.

Klamath Water Users Protective Assn. v. Patterson (1999): A 9th Circuit ruling that members of the public who benefit from a government contract are "generally assumed" to be incidental rather than intended beneficiaries.

Terms of the 1963 Contract between Westlands Water District and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

Analysis

The case involves a 1963 Contract between Westlands Water District and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for supply of water to the District. When the Bureau restricted water supplies in 1993, the action was challenged in a suit by the District that was joined by Californian farmers (end-users of the water) as plaintiffs. Even though the District eventually withdrew its suit, the farmers persisted with their claims.

The District Court heard the case in 2000, in which the plaintiffs cited the Federal Circuit court's ruling in H.F. Allen v U.S. (1984) that farmers were "true parties in interest" to the irrigation district's water contract with the Reclamation Bureau. However, the District Court ruled that sovereign immunity bars the farmers' claims because they had no "direct right to sue" or "enforcement rights"…… [read more]


Management Response the United States Term Paper

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Management

Response

The United States response to an emergency such as the situation in Surat would probably be one of widespread panic as well. Of course, social and political culture play a role in panic and disaster management. After the 9/11 attacks, the nation rallied together because of strong governmental support and an appearance that after initial panic, things were at least under control. However, the mass exodus during Hurricane Katrina from New Orleans and then later from Houston shows what a catastrophe disaster planning can be at its worst. There was mass panic and anger after the refugees ended up in the Superdome without any food or water, and there was mass panic when the people had to try to flee Houston and the roads were clogged with traffic and accidents. If people are faced with death, panic is a natural reaction.

Many of the healthcare professionals and government officials stayed behind in these cases; however, they did not abandon their patients (although some certainly did). Culturally, it seems…… [read more]


Frontier in American History Term Paper

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¶ … Frontier in American History

In what is believed to be the "single most important document in the history of America," Frederick Jackson Turner presented his Frontier thesis. The document, which is popularly known with the title 'The Significance of Frontier in American history' delineates the role played by frontier in the development of American history. The thesis was presented in Chicago in 1893, three years after the U.S. Census Bureau announced the closing of American Frontier.

Turner saw this as an opportunity to express his views on the impact of frontier on development of American history and character. Turner defined American frontier as "...the outer edge of the wave-- the meeting point between savagery and civilization." He argued that while frontier was important in various aspects, its significance in the development of American society, culture and character had been essentially ignored by academics. Turner explained that American development as initiated by having open frontier "begins with the Indian and the hunter; it goes on with the disintegration of savagery by the entrance of the trader... The pastoral stage in ranch life; the exploitation of the soil by the raising of unrotated crops of corn and wheat in sparsely settled farm communities; the intensive culture of the denser farm settlement; and finally the manufacturing organization with the city and the factory system."

He contended that having an advancing frontier meant American people were regularly treated to a glimpse of the uncivilized world. Generations after generations were taken to uncharted territories every time America decided to expand just a little further. While Turner's frontier thesis was regarded as the single most influential document by some, modern academics have largely argued…… [read more]


Turning Point in American History Essay

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The colonists' revolt was heightened by civil unrest as people took the law into their hands, and riots broke out in many colonial cities. They stopped buying English goods in opposition to the Acts while the group Sons of Liberty terrorized stamp agents. The repulsion by colonists to the Stamp Act led to the Declaratory Act in 1766, which asserted the authority of the parliament on the colonies. The Sons of Liberty were the beginning of the revolution, that saw the need of keeping the revolution spirit alive by colonists through talk and writings, which they circulated in the form of books, pamphlets and leaflets. This led to the first organized colonial meeting in September 1774, at First Continental Congress. This marked the beginning of an organized revolution not only as a response to the policies but for independence from British rule and control, to self-government.

The first revolutionary war for independence arose from the decisions made by the First Continental Congress, which gave American farmers the morale to oppose the British in Lexington and Concord. The move from protest to fight for independence is clearly seen when First Continental Congress, rejected the proposal that a colonial union should be under British authority. The second policy that conceded that the colonial parliament had a right to control trade and repeal from earlier Legislations set forth by the British, as drove the desire for self-government. Moreover, this protest to independence is said to have been driven by the desire of the colonists to form their own military to defend their land from possible attacks by the British. Therefore, it is evident that the tight regulations and continued oppression by the British led to the rise of a resistance in settlers that was the rise to a desire for self-government, and…… [read more]


United States and the Trans-Atlantic Essay

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"[footnoteRef:6] Consequently, in the earliest months of the war, the Confederacy could have successfully exported most of its 1860 cotton crop.[footnoteRef:7] Nevertheless, the Confederacy abruptly stopped exporting cotton to Britain and France, believing that an abrupt and total stoppage would make it much likelier that those two countries would diplomatically recognize the Confederacy, intervene in the U.S. Civil War and either fight on the side of the Confederacy or force the Union to negotiate peaceful secession for the Confederacy.[footnoteRef:8] [1: Steven E. Woodworth, This Great Struggle: America's Civil War (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2011), 67.] [2: Ibid.] [3: Ibid.] [4: Ibid., 68.] [5: Ibid.] [6: Ibid.] [7: Ibid.] [8: Ibid., 68-9.]

Other than the Confederacy's reliance on the importance of cotton, there were several factors working for and against intervention. A second factor, this one working against Britain's and France's intervention, was official neutrality. Britain and France officially adopted stances of neutrality during the U.S. Civil War;[footnoteRef:9] however, the lack of Confederacy cotton did cause considerable hardship to the textile workers and related industries in France and Britain. A third factor or set of factors, these supporting intervention, were that Britain's upper class noticed and resented America's growing wealth and power, exerted considerable influence over British government, believed that the U.S. would surpass Britain as a world power if the growth continued unchecked,[footnoteRef:10] and British governmental leaders were reportedly secretly happy about Lee's early victories in Virginia.[footnoteRef:11] After those victories, there was some discussion among British leaders about finally diplomatically recognizing the Confederacy; however, British leaders decided to wait and see whether Lee would continue to be victorious.[footnoteRef:12] A fourth factor, this working for intervention, was a diplomatic incident called "The Trent Affair" between the…… [read more]


U.S. History Background Report Essay

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U.S. History Background report

The United States history dates back to the era of the voyage made by Christopher Columbus in the year 1492 during the prehistory of the native citizens. The involved aspects in the relative history of the United States considered a common increment following the elapsing of decades. The U.S. has grown prosperously with a rapid and… [read more]


American Expansion Post-Reconstruction America Gave Thesis

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This belief in democracy and the values that were perceived to be associated with it were viewed as an inevitable evolution in human progress. This led many to believe that anything that stood in the way of this trend was to be destroyed and much of the American population accepted this as it was consistent with their own ambitions.

Woodrow Wilson was a great believer in the superiority of his background and his culture. He was descended from Presbyterian ministers on both sides of the family and he was known to be moralistic, infuriating, and self-righteously inflexible as he believed that he was carrying out God's plan for the country (Stone and Kuznick 2013). He used his power in South America with a desire to have certain loyal politicians who shared his values elected or "to elect good men" as he was recorded as saying. President Wilson can be viewed as the epitome the self-righteous and driven personality that helped to form the notion of the nation's imperial ambitions. The sense that God has empowered peoples has served as the backbone of much of the nation's drive as well as many of the other imperial nations through history.

Manifest Destiny had other implications on the American consciousness as well as a sense of hypocrisy. For example, it was believed that this superiority was only applicable to the individuals deemed as having the capacity to be able to self-govern. Therefore minority groups such as the Native Americans, Mexicans, and African-Americans were not included in the philosophy of Manifest Destiny. Even though Mexico established their independence in Spain in 1821, they were targets in the American conquest for land, power, and self-advancement (Minster 2002). There was a lot of discrimination against non-European immigrant groups as well as the Native Americans, Mexicans, and Chinese for example. This sentiment was deeply embedded in mainstream American culture and the view was upheld that expansion was the country's destiny and future prosperity.

The expansionary efforts were not constrained by the geographic barriers as the U.S. ran out of room to the West and out of opportunity to the South. When the advent of technology permitted efficient movement of goods and people, then the navy allowed for further imperial expansions. Captain A.T. Mahan of the U.S. navy, a popular propagandist for expansion, greatly influenced Theodore Roosevelt and other American leaders with such phrases as "Americans must now look outward" and the countries with the biggest navy would inherit the Earth (Zinn 2003). Thus although Manifest Destiny definitely changed when the frontier closed, the concept merely morphed into a new strategy to further American interests. Furthermore, though the phraseology of Manifest Destiny eventually fell out of fashion, the drive towards imperialist ambitions certainly did not.

The rights of minorities to gain freedoms spread to other groups as well -- most notably women. However, women are not technically a minority as their numbers should equal roughly half of the population; however they were still a repressed group on many… [read more]


United States History: The 1950s Research Proposal

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United States History: The 1950s in the United States

Many Americans look back on the 1950s with great nostalgia and view America as having been at its best during this decade in history. This work will examine the characteristics of American society during the decade of the 1950s and identify what it was that was unusual or different between 1945 and 1960 and seek to understand the hidden realities in years full of optimism and prosperity. Finally this work will answer the question of whether the 1950s were in actuality a positive or negative period in U.S. history.

Time Life's "Fabulous Century" reporting the decade of the 1950s begins by stating: "Shortly after the start of the New Year in 1951, with the sort of fanfare that only Hollywood could provide, Mrs. Ruth Colhoun, a Los Angeles mother of three, officially broke ground for her backyard atomic-bomb shelter. The 1950s were a time of change however, that change was contained somewhat in the undercurrent of society arising only occasionally but for the most part life in American in the 1950s was Mayberry in realtime characterized by a simpler time in American history and a time in which Americans were inherently naive to an extent because it did not hurt during the 1950s to believe in the 'American Dream'.

I. UNIFORMITY in CONVENTIONAL SOCIETY

One of the primary characteristics of the 1950s was that of uniformity which was pervasive in the society of the United during that decade. The rule of thumb was conformity and group forms were strictly followed by all ages in the American society during this decade in history. New employment patterns emerged during World War II in the previous century however during the 1950s the traditional roles were assumed once again. Homogenization via the television was a contributor to the mindset of Americans and reflected the days accepted by society of the 1950s.

II. The REBELLIOUS SECT

Not everyone in this society conformed however and in fact writers that were members of the 'beat generation' shunned conventional values and stressed spontaneity and spirituality and intuition was held to be superior to reason. The respectability of the culture was blatantly challenged by the beat generation.

III. CIVIL RIGHTS EMERGENT

Civil rights were emergent during the decade of the 1950s and the work entitled: "Defying Dixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950" states that a problem in American historical thought has been "chronic willful amnesia." (Gilmore, 2008) Gilmore states that most Americans prefer "a simplified and sanitized version of national history, one that smoothes out the rough edges that might complicate comforting visions of harmony and progress. Politics in the two-party context of American exceptionalistm, had been reduced to a mere quibbling over details. In this fulsome view of…… [read more]


American Foreign Policy Since Its Inception Term Paper

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American Foreign Policy

In his farewell address, given to Congress on September 17, 1796, the father of the country, George Washington warned his fellow Americans against "the insidious wiles of foreign influence, & #8230;since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of Republican Government." (Washington) When discussing American foreign policy since the inception… [read more]


Watches a Recording of an Event Term Paper

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¶ … watches a recording of an event, when learning of it one must be happy with a version of events that has been filtered by another person. This person may be a reporter, they may be the creator of a program, or they may be a writer; but someone will always be giving their version of the events, with all their prejudices and preconceptions. This has been the case with many history textbooks written about the United States over the years. The writers of textbooks have been servants to an idealized version of American history, and therefore, have cleansed their works of any and all embarrassing facts. Historical figures, with all their human faults, have been transformed into saintly, heroic figures of unstained virtue and honor. Events, or ideas which are no longer acceptable to the modern public have been removed and are no longer mentioned in the texts. If there is anything I have learned this semester it is that all history textbooks are written by those with agendas, sometimes political, sometimes economic, and sometimes honorable, but they all write their version of history as they want the reader to see it.

It is a common belief, albeit wrong, that George Washington never told a lie. There is even a story about him chopping down a cherry tree and admitting to it rather than lie about it. But this is just an example of the heroification of certain historical figures, a process by which the American educational system turns "flesh-and-blood individuals into pious, perfect creatures without conflicts, pain, credibility, or human interest." (Loewen 11) In the 20th century, another president has been heroified by the educational system, Woodrow Wilson. Most Americans are taught that Woodrow Wilson kept American out of World War I until he was forced into it by German actions, and afterward struggled to create the League of Nations. While he is also remembered as the president who supported women's suffrage, few have ever read that Woodrow Wilson was a devoted white supremacist who racially segregated the federal government for the first time. He sent legislation to Congress that would severely limit the civil rights of African-Americans, he refused to appoint African-Americans to government posts traditionally reserved for them, segregated the military for the first time, and even "vetoed a clause on racial equality in the Covenant of the League of Nations." (Loewen 20) But instead of being taught everything about Woodrow Wilson, most history textbooks limit themselves to presenting Wilson as an almost perfect progressive president.

A few decades later the United States was involved in a conflict which was as complicated as it was long; with American involvement lasting from 1965 to 1973. The conflict in Vietnam was extremely controversial at the time and historians have not always presented the complexities, or the images available to the readers. For instance,…… [read more]


People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn Term Paper

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¶ … People's History of the United States

Howard Zinn's 1980 publication a People's History of the United States offers an alternative perspective on American history. Rather than provide only the point-of-view of the victors as many traditional history books do, Zinn lends insight into the point-of-view of the vanquished groups such as the Native Americans, the African-Americans, the political dissenters, and women. Zinn's book also addresses incidents in American history that are usually underreported or not emphasized in most history courses, such as his thorough analysis of the counterculture movement and social rebellion of the 1960s and 1970s. A People's History of the United States shows that not all in American history has been honorable, and therefore the book is valuable in dispelling the illusory idealized version of American history often propounded.

Amazingly, Zinn presents his people's history without bias. As a historian, the author offers readers the facts. However, by presenting material that is often left out of textbooks, Zinn allows readers to form a more complete picture of American history. For example, instead of focusing on the persona of war generals like Grant and Lee in his chapter on the Civil War, Zinn tells the story about ordinary class struggles that lie beneath the Civil War. Chapter 10: "The Other Civil War" includes a wealth of information pertaining to poverty in America and the class conflicts that influenced history as much as battle tactics did.

People's History of the United States is in fact organized like a textbook: without introduction or conclusion, the book contains twenty-one chapters organized in chronological order. The material begins with a chapter on "Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress," and proceeds through revolutionary times, the Civil War, the World Wars, and Vietnam. As a people's history, Zinn delves into social trends such as racism and religious revivalism, to show how important ordinary lives of Americans are in shaping large-scale events.…… [read more]


Mexican-American War (1846-1848) the Great Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 5

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In this regard, Huston emphasizes that, "In their search for an understanding of what the future might bring under the Wilmot prohibition, southerners were misled by classical economic theory; and thus they read into the Wilmot Proviso a more grim outcome than was likely."

Although history provides 20-20 hindsight, it appears that few observers at the time could have predicted the unintentional impact that the Wilmot Proviso would have on America's historical course. As Huston concludes, "By this route, by leading southerners to miscalculate the effects of a prohibition against slavery's geographical expansion, Malthusian population theory, and classical political economy in general, helped push the South to secession and the nation to civil war."

The Popular Sovereignty proposal to allow voters to decide on slavery within their territories resulted in the Compromise of 1850 and finally achieved the immediate goals of the Wilmot Proviso.

Critics of popular sovereignty argued that its provisions were too weak and failed to guarantee slaveholder access to the territories.

Nevertheless, the Compromise of 1850 bought the country a few more years of troubled peace. In this regard, Huston reports that, "In state conventions in late 1850 and in the congressional and gubernatorial elections; of 1851, those who accepted the Compromise of 1850 -- dramatically triumphed. At least for a few years, the sectional issue of slavery in the territories slumbered."

The Meaning of the Mexican-American War

In the final analysis, the meaning of the Mexican-American War was the message that the United States took its Manifest Destiny very seriously and would prosecute this historical course of action with military force if necessary. For example, Yoo reports that, "Although the United States has used force abroad more than 100 times, it has declared war only five times: the War of 1812, the Mexican-American and Spanish-American wars, and World War I and II."

Despite the inexorable force of Manifest Destiny in shaping the country's course during the mid-19th century, the United States' invasion of Mexico in response to a provocation it created prompted President Ulysses S. Grant to characterize the Mexican-American War as "one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. It was an instance of a republic following the bad example of European monarchies, in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory."

For many modern Mexicans, this is the real meaning of the Mexican-American War.

References

Coward, John M. "Dispatches from the Mexican War," Journalism History 26 (2000, Spring) 1:

39.

Huston, James L. "Southerners against Secession: The Arguments of the Constitutional

Unionists in 1850-51," Civil War History 46 (2000, December) 4: 280-291.

Huston, James L. "Theory's Failure: Malthusian Population Theory and the Projected Demise of Slavery," Civil War History 55 (2009, September) 3: 354-361.

Kurth, James. "America's Grand Strategy," The National Interest 43 (1996, Spring): 3-9.

"The Mexican-American War," Public Broadcasting Service Special Features. [online]

available: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/grant-mexican-american-war/.

Reiter, Dan. How Wars End (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009).

Varon. Elizabeth R. Disunion! The Coming of the… [read more]


Unruly Americans in Woody Holton Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (844 words)
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Making the Revolution seem like someone like me had a personal stake in either the success or failure of the American Revolutionary War. This is the functioning thesis I believe of Holton's book, that every future American had a part in the Revolution and in the formulation of the United States of America. Yet, at the same time the Founding Fathers did not believe that the average man should have a say in the governing of the country which is what required the formulation of the federal, central government.

Upon reflection, the comparison of the necessity of the common man in the American Revolution and then the resentment of the same person after the war is over is something of a dichotomy. The average person was needed to fight the war but the Founding Fathers still did not believe that the common person was capable of helping with the governing of that nation. The Articles of Confederation were the first attempt at trying to find a system of governance that would fit the new country. This failed and then came the Bill of Rights and the Constitution of the United States. There is considerable question about why the Articles of Confederation failed and most of the reasoning for this has to do with the fact that the articles were unenforceable. Given that the introduction to the book discusses the game scenario, it is then confusing that he does not explain this enough later on in the text.

The thing that I did not appreciate in Unruly Americans is that although the point is solid and the pace relatively quick, I could not help but notice that Woody Holton tends to repeat himself and reiterates many of the same points again and again. I assume that he does this to make the reader knowledgeable of the important points in American, lest they be forgotten from chapter to chapter. Although this is helpful in creating context for certain events, it is highly frustrating and serves to undermine the previously established relationship between author and reader. I also felt that Holton takes too much time discussing the economic situation of 1780s America without really explaining its significance in the same way that he expands on individual choice and the common man. It is hard to conceptualize 18th century banking in the present economic circumstances and more concrete definitions may have alleviated the confusion that I felt during this portion of the book.

Works Cited:

Woody Holton, Unruly Americans (United States: Hill and Wang,…… [read more]


United States History 1492-1865 Term Paper

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Thus, the leaders decided to change the legislation and reframe it according to the need of the hour.

Q.2) What compromises were made in Philadelphia to placate the small states and the large states?

The Context

The basic reason why compromises had to be made was the fact that the representatives in the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia and their states had extensively dissimilar interests. Even if each individual state aimed at forming a government exclusively for its own benefit, it would not have been possible. The thirteen small and large states had varying geography, demographics and public interests according to their economies. For instance, some delegates intended to abolish the slavery convention while others chose to safeguard it. Such disagreements further worsened the situation when different delegates from large states stood against each other on the slavery convention as some supported it while others did not. The same obscurity persisted among the representatives of the small states too, leading the situation into a political deadlock.

The Compromises

Notwithstanding these dissimilarities, most of the pioneers and founding fathers of the American Constitution were determined to establish a powerful national government. The Virginian delegation presented the Virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention of Philadelphia in 1787 wherein a government was called comprising of the legislative, executive, and the judicial bodies. Unlike in the Articles of Confederation, the legislative division was to be bicameral with population-based representation in both of its houses.

Since representation in the legislative system was based on state population, small states such as New Jersey and Delaware disapproved the Virginia Plan on the reason that they could be easily outvoted in Congress by the large states through this system. In turn, the New Jersey delegation proposed an amendment in the Virginia Plan, calling for a unicameral system of legislature with one vote to each state.

The discussions and arguments continued for weeks, but with no fruitful outcome until the Sherman Compromise saved the convention from disintegration. It proposed a bicameral system of legislature, the two houses known as the House of Representatives and the Senate. Representation in the House of Representatives was proposed to be on the basis of state population. Every thirty thousand people of a state necessitated one representative of the same, elected by the participation of the state's entire vote bank. On the other hand, state representation in the Senate was equal and not population based. Every state could have two senators, nominated by the legislature of that state. The proposition for the House of Representatives satisfied the heavily populated large states while the one for the Senate befriended the less populated small states.

Proposed by Roger Sherman, this proposal is known in the American history as the Great Compromise. Sherman's proposal was approved by the state delegates participating in the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia on 16th July, 1787.

Bibliography

Decision at Philadelphia, Collier and Collier,

Feldmeth, Greg D.U.S. History Resources. March 31, 1998. http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html

Foner, Eric and Garraty, John A. (1991) The Reader's Companion to… [read more]


American Foreign Policy Term Paper

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Because the United States is geographically remote and isolated yet has substantial financial and military capabilities, it has been able to go alone in many of its military endeavors, with little military support from international organizations or other nations. Even the League of Nations, as founded by Woodrow Wilson, was not initially joined by the United States because of domestic opposition as well as isolationist sentiment, to becoming entangled in international obligations.

Yet unlike Great Britain, the U.S. has never, in terms of its ideological fabric, been overtly imperialistic. Although it may have shown a certain narrow mindedness and self-interest in its foreign policy goals, unlike the colonial powers, it has not actively used other nations to enrich itself. The influence of populists such as William Jennings Bryan has also kept alive a strong wing of both parties that stress that 'it's the economy, stupid' to use a modern turn of phrase, and the interests of America at home that must predominate in the political discourse of the day.… [read more]


History Is Lies Research Paper

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In Lies My Teacher Told Me, Loewen also unravels the lies that strangle American schoolchildren in their brainwashing classes. The author points out that there are deep problems in the very questions that are being asked, and the assumptions built into terms like "settle." When his students are asked when the land now known as the United States was first settled, no one in his class can answer correctly. Their version of history leaves out thousands of years of human history -- an appalling testimony to the terrifyingly insincere version of history taught in public schools. Likewise, Loewen discusses the "invisibility of racism" in American history textbooks in Chapter 5. To make race more visible, Loewen states, "the most pervasive theme in our history is the domination of black America by white America," (p. 136). Loewen's assertion could just as easily refer to Native Americans and Latin Americans. Understanding American history in terms of systems of power and abuses of power better helps students of history understand what is going on today.

History is often taught in a dangerous fashion, as DuBois, Loewen, and Zinn point out. The danger in brainwashing students from a young age is that teachers, consciously or not, set up those students to perpetuate the problems of the past. Instead of questioning assumptions like the supremacy of European music, art and culture or like the beneficence of an unbridled free market, historians have an obligation to show a more nuanced view. Human beings are complex, and their societies are even more complex. This means that history is never as black-and-white as the traditional history books would like us to believe.

Works Cited

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Touchstone, 2007.

Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. Online version at: http://www.historyisaweapon.com/zinnapeopleshistory.html… [read more]


Italian Immigration to the US Term Paper

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Italian Immigration Late 19th to Early 20th Century

Italian Immigration to the U.S.

During the latter part of the 19th century and the first part of the 20th century, the United States experienced a mass influx of Italian migration. Between 1880 and 1920, more than 4 million Italians immigrated to the United States. One of the chief reasons Italians left… [read more]


American History Federal Government Post Civil War Term Paper

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American History

Federal Government Post Civil War

Many things may have led to the federal government's increasing gain in power and influence in the years following the American Civil War. The purpose of the American Revolution was to break free of the monarchy of England so that each state could gain more autonomy. The problem with this is that there may have been too many differences between the states with some favoring such acts as slavery and some wanting to abolish slavery. Under the constitution, the federal government was created to serve the states. However, in the years after the American Civil War, the federal government has gained more power than the states.

A major political outcome of the American Civil War was that the Thirteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution was passed which abolished slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment granted United States citizenship to those born within the country. These two amendments were detrimental to the south because the slaves were the ones that performed all of the labor to make the slave owners wealthy. With the abolishment of slavery, this meant that slave owners could no longer force the slaves to work for free. Also, the slaves were not even considered human by many, so granting full legal citizenship of those that were born in the United States was another source of trouble for many. These two amendments snowballed into the Fifteenth Amendment which gave African-American men the right to vote. According to Foner, states failing to enfranchise black men lost some of their seats in Congress (2008).

A social impact that the American Civil War has had is that although one of its outcomes was the freedom of African-American slaves, it drove an even bigger wedge between blacks and whites of this country. Even though they were considered free, African-Americans were still treated by many whites as less than human. But because of the amendments mentioned earlier, many former slaves now had rights that they never could have imagined having before. Access to these rights did not come easy, but through the years the African-American's social position in the United States…… [read more]


Causes of the United States Civil War Essay

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Civil War

The American Civil War: Causes and Repercussions

Although today for most Americans the existence of a united union is taken for granted, this was not the case for most of the antebellum period. In 1832, South Carolina even went so far as to suggest that a state legislature had superior authority to nullify the laws enacted by the… [read more]


American Revolution 1763-1783 and Jacksonian Democracy 1824-1848 Term Paper

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American History

As a generalization, it is my opinion based on the readings that the colonists who settled in the "new world" - most of them having immigrated from England to escape religious persecution or to start a new life - gradually became weary of being dictated to by a distant king. As to specifics, one of the main causes of the American Revolution was the British attempt to raise a lot of money from the colonists to keep their empire going. The British did this fundraising through various taxes, starting with the Sugar Act. According to the text (Faragher, et al. 2000) on page 148, the Sugar Act not only placed a "prohibitive duty" (tax) on sugar imports, it also regulated American shipping, and in effect slapped controls on a new country that wanted to be free to trade with whatever countries they wanted to.

The Stamp Act in 1765 was a further intrusion into American commerce, and in fact it seemed designed to but restrictions on printers, insurance companies, lawyers and other colonists, Faragher writes on page 148. Next came the Declaratory Act (1766) which basically "asserted the authority of Parliament" to hold power over the colonies. The Townshend Revenue Act of 1767 and the Tea Act 1773 put more pressure on the colonies to help put money into British coffers.

Finally, the "Intolerable Acts" of 1774 were designed to "punish Massachusetts" and angered the colonists perhaps more than any other act the British had placed on the colonists. On of the Intolerable Acts (called the "Coercive Acts" in England) - the "Massachusetts Government Act" - made it illegal to have any town meetings except once a year, unless the British-appointed governor approved. Town meetings were a vital part of the movement to resist British oppression, so when a law was passed that attempted to prevent the people meeting to discuss their political future, that angered the colonists.

Would I have signed the Declaration of Independence? Yes, certainly. But I would have taken Thomas Jefferson's side and insisted that slavery be addressed in the document. How can you say "...all men are created equal" and yet overlook the fact that thousands of people were being held as slaves, to help colonists grow their crops and strengthen their economy?…… [read more]


Technology Contributes to US End of Isolation Period Term Paper

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¶ … American Isolationism

End of U.S. Isolation

The End of American Isolationism

George Washington, in his farewell address in 1796, warned future Americans that "the great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, [but] to have with them as little political connection as possible." (Washington 1796) The father of the country knew that trade was the key to American economic stability and prosperity, but warned that increased trade with overseas nations can often lead to political entanglements with those nations. Washington wanted the "best of both worlds," an America that traded with all nations but had political entanglements with none. While this may have been a possibility when the United States was a small, primarily agricultural nation, the development of industrialization would make international political entanglements impossible.

Throughout the 19th century the United States of America was successful in expanding it's productivity and international trade, while managing to simultaneously maintain it's political isolationism. Instead of involving itself in international affairs, America concentrated on it's "manifest destiny;" the idea that America was destined to expand territorially across the continent. However, as the both the American frontier and the 19th century came to a close, the United States of America began to look out toward the rest of the world for both the expansion of trade as well as political influence. It was the new technological advancements of the American Industrial Revolution that spurred the need for the expansion of American trade and caused the United States to end a century of isolationism and embark on a policy of increased international influence and power.

For much of the 19th century the United States was primarily an agricultural nation, and Americans found overseas markets for their agricultural produce. The continual advance of technological inventions such as Eli Whitney's cotton gin, John Deere's steel plow, or Cyrus McCormick's reaper increased the output of American agriculture. ("A History of American Agriculture:1800") Along with the creation of a number of canals and the invention of the Railroad, these technological innovations allowed Americans to slowly expand westward, across the continent, to the Pacific Ocean. However, by the late 1800's, Americans had settled the West, and needed an outlet for the ever increasing industrial production.

The American Industrial Revolution can be attributed to the 19th century entrepreneurs who "invested aggressively to develop the nation's vast resources." (Barney, 2006, p. 149) One of those vast resources was iron, which could be made into steel.…… [read more]


History of the United States Without Acquiring Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (772 words)
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¶ … history of the United States without acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the civil rights movement. From the beginning of United States history, the fate of blacks, in general, and their respective civil rights have been a disputed issue. In nearly every election throughout the history of the republic, race has been a central issue in some form but the change that has occurred in the country relative to the rights of blacks has occurred as a result of the attitudes of national elite, comprised of educated whites, instead of a response to the pressures of the majority (Dye, 2011). If the civil rights movement would have waited for the white majority in the United States to take action relative the civil rights of blacks, chances are that blacks would still be waiting for any change. The advancements that have occurred in civil rights in America have been the result of the actions of the elite and their ability to influence public policy. Once public policy was changed the white majority reacted and adopted their behavior accordingly.

The change in public policy and the attitudes of the white majority toward civil rights has been a slow and arduous journey and there have been ups and downs in the process. From the period immediately following the end of the American Revolution, the enactment of the U.S. Constitution, and the years leading up to the Civil War the nation endured one compromise after another in an attempt to satisfy the white majority in regard to the rights of American blacks. The Civil War was largely fought over the issue of slavery and brought into focus the civil rights of blacks. Reconstruction after the War brought a promise of major change but within a few years a new compromise was reached which resulted in the election of Rutherford Hayes and the end of any further attempt to transform the civil rights of blacks for almost eighty years.

Some minor advances were made by blacks and their efforts to advance their civil rights as they forced the issue of segregation. Various groups were organized such as the NAACP and the Urban League in an effort to provide organized opposition to the discrimination and segregation that blacks continued to endure in America. The most significant advance in the civil rights'…… [read more]


American History the Objective of This Work Term Paper

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American History

The objective of this work is to answer the question asking whether or not it was necessary to change the Articles of Confederation? Examined will be the factors that led to the drafting of the Constitution. The region represented will be identified as well as priorities notes along with noting concerns. Expressed will be the compromises that would be acceptable in order to preserve the union.

The United States of America was formed over time, through shared experiences and step-by-step working and focusing toward the Constitution. Many considerations, concerns, and viewpoints as well as opinions, standards and beliefs were that which formulated first the Articles of Confederation and ultimately the U.S. Constitution. When considering that which led to the changing of the Articles of Confederation one must consider that change from many perspectives. The Articles gave the government very little powers and no jurisdiction over the citizens in the country. No authority to tax the citizens was given but instead revenue generation was upon the shoulders of the individual states at the government's request. Laws were difficult to change under this forum and the agreement of all thirteen states was a requirement if amendments were to be made to the governing Articles.

Essay: Viewpoint of Virginia (Jamestown) Citizen

The rebellions shaking each of the 13 states and the country at large as well are overshadowed by the fact that the government as a whole is under threat to be usurped by individual states. However, the rebellions wracking individual states threaten the country at large. It is known that not all states are holding up their end of revenue generation. Trade is wild and uncontrolled. The laws that need to be changed cannot be changed under this structure of government.

Who can dare state that the Articles of Confederation are all that this country needs for find cohesiveness, for surely this country is coming apart from within. The citizens of Virginia remember the original dream of what this country would be. The winter of near starvation after a long journey across the waters to claim this land runs in the Virginian's blood.

While all of the proposals for the new agreement are failing in some aspect, and indeed are short of being the perfect plan of action, surely there exists some such agreement that if abided by will serve better toward preserving that which was so hard-won and which required so much be sacrificed in pursuit of. The issue has arisen in relation to the number of votes assigned to each state. This issue is naturally of real concern to those in smaller and less populated states. However, it is fortunate that the 'Great Compromise' has been attained whereby each of the states receives one delegate for each 40,000 citizens as of July 5, 1887, under the direction of the special committee.

American History

Essay Questions

Objective Two

The objective of this work is to consider the fact that the framers of the Constitution left out entire groups of… [read more]


14th, 15th, and 19th Amendments Research Paper

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The 14th Amendment, which was submitted that same year and passed a full two years later, was based on the foundation of the aforementioned legislation and extended the rights of citizenship it issued. Both Johnson and the southern portion of the country were largely against this amendment, contributing to its delay in passing. This delay in turn only further delayed the passing of the 15th amendment, which enabled African-Americans the right to vote, largely because of opposition in the South. It was formally proposed in 1869 and passed in 1870.

There is a direct correlation between the passing of the 15th Amendment and that of the 19th amendment, which gave women the right to vote and was not sanctioned until the early part of the 20th century in 1920 (Miller). Women were some of the most vocal supporters of reconstruction and the obtaining of citizenship rights for African-Americans in the 19th century. Many of these reform-minded women championed rights for African-Americans, and then became aware that while doing so, they were not privy to many of these same rights. For instance, Frederick Douglas was in an alliance with prominent women's suffrage movement supporters such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. These movements somewhat diverged after African-Americans were given the right to vote with the 15th amendment. However, it is significant to realize that women were campaigning for their rights, and for the right to suffrage in particular, since the middle of the 19th century (Harper 604). When one considers that the 19th Amendment did not pass until nearly a century later, it becomes clear that the structure of the U.S. social and political system was merely trying to circumscribe the rights of all those who were not Anglo-Saxon males who founded the country.

Thus, there is a certain degree of commonality found in the reasons that the 14th, 15th and 19th Amendments to the U.S. constitution took a considerable amount of time to fully be realized. The conception that this country was based upon was that white males were the primary citizens.; All others who did not fit into this neat category, including African-Americans and women, were regarded as second or third-class citizens and were not priorities. Therefore, there was a profound amount of resistance from the country's political and social structure about passing amendments that would grant some pretense of parity.

Works Cited

Current, Richard. "Love, Hate and Thaddeus Stevens." Pennsylvania History. 14 (4): 259-272. 1947. Print.

Harper, Ida Husted. "Susan B. Anthony: The Woman and her Work." The North American Review. 182 (593) [HIDDEN] Print. 1906.

Miller, Kim. "The history of the 19th Amendment." www.Helium.com. 2011. Print. http://www.helium.com/items/2093289-the-history-of-the-19th-amendment

Johnson, Andrew. "President Johnson's Veto of the Civil Rights Act, 1866." www.prenhall.com. 1866. Web. http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/107/109768/ch16_a2_d1.pdf… [read more]


Atlas, Ed., How They See Term Paper

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Limerick and White, The Frontier in American Culture

A

I appreciated this book for its not romanticizing the cowboy culture and Pioneer culture, the way Western expansion is often presented in American history books. Also, this book was an interesting component to the course because it focuses on one specific aspect of American history.

O'Hearn, ed., Half+Half: Writers on Growing Up Biracial and Bicultural

B

Especially because we have a biracial president, it is important to incorporate issues related to racial identity in a class on American history. Most Americans come from a position that we must choose one race or another. This is more a matter of American culture and identity than it is history. The best thing about having this book in the syllabus is that it allows many students to think differently about who writes history, and the biases that we often miss.

Smith, Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992

A

Although it focuses on a relatively narrow bandwidth of American history, this incredibly creative presentation was enlightening. It was very helpful to have this perspective in the course, because I am personally interested in the issues discussed. I remember when the riots happened, and I look forward to learning more about why the riots happened, and what impact they have had on the evolution of culture in Los Angeles and the rest of the country.

If I had to choose one text that had the greatest impact on my thinking, it would be Smith's Twilight: Los Angeles. The film was powerful, because Smith presents so many different and alternative points-of-view. I found myself being riveted, and having more questions after watching than before. Twilight has expanded my view of what it means to "do history." Smith has also helped to reconstruct a vision of American history and culture that takes into account the complex realities we face every day. I appreciate the lack…… [read more]


German Immigration Term Paper

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Clearly, they could influence the political process if they voted as a block (Spencer 150). Germans usually became involved in politics to protect their own land holdings and lifestyle, but as they continued to hold office, they made more changes politically, and continued to influences the lives and culture of everyone in Pennsylvania. In later years, the Germans moved into what is known as the "German triangle" in the Midwest, made up of the cities of Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Milwaukee (Editors). Germans are still extremely influential in politics today, and their participation in the early political development of the United States helped form a democracy that was open to everyone, despite their birthplace or heritage.

As is apparent, Germans have been immigrating to the United States for centuries, and their participation in our culture and society has influenced our lives in many ways. John Jacob Astor, one of the wealthiest men in American history, migrated to America from Germany before he amassed his fortune and created a vast empire of real estate holdings. It was a German woman, Margaretha Meyer Schurz, who created the first kindergarten in America. Many Germans brought their knowledge and skills with them when they immigrated, and one of these men was Augustus Busch, who created the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association in his new home of St. Louis, which became one of the largest beer brewers in the United States. Many Germans became beer brewers in America because of their roots in brewing in their homeland. Others included Pabst and Miller. Germans also brought many other foods with them, and introduced them to the American people. Sauerkraut, sausages, (such as Bratwurst and Knackwurst), beer, pretzels, schnitzel, noodles, German potato salad, and much more are commonplace in many restaurants. Most large cities have at least one German restaurant, and Amish foods are becoming increasingly popular in America. German food is hearty and wholesome, and most people enjoy many German influenced foods every week without even realizing it. German folk art and craftwork is also extremely prevalent in American society. From the stylized folk art with its recognizable tulips, vines, and birds to the sturdy woodworking and colorful patchwork quilts that represent the Amish country of Pennsylvania, German crafts are common in the United States, and they had their beginnings in the immigration from Germany in the 18th and 19th centuries (Wittke 8). It is clear that Germans have influenced American society and culture in a variety of ways, from food to education and business acumen.

In conclusion, when Germans came to America they brought a new and vivid culture with them. They were extremely determined to hold on to their heritage even as they created new lives for themselves in a New World. As one author noted, "Thus in the process of their struggle for success, they helped create a new, diverse, competitive America and -- without becoming less German -- became 'Americanized' by their adaptation to their new land"

Spencer 12). These diverse people brought new… [read more]


Civil War Thesis

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The participation of the U.S. In these events has sparked controversy existed within the American public regarding U.S. involvement and within the country or countries affected by U.S. involvement.

2. 2 List three (3) aspects of U.S. history since 1865 that has led to the U.S.'s rise as a world superpower policeman?

The three aspects of the U.S. history that led the U.S. To rise as a world superpower police officer include:

1. The developments in the U.S. Foreign policy

2. The Empowerment of the U.S. Presidency and Power

3. The development of high intelligence on global security

2. 3 Determine two to three (2-3) international events from the past five years that can be traced back to a foreign policy created after the Civil War.

In the past few decades, the U.S. has played a critical role in various international events. These events date back to a foreign policy created after the civil war. These events include the military action that the U.S. has taken in support of a number of military missions across the world. A good example includes the Tunisian crisis where the U.S. provided military aid comprising many of helicopters and ammunition. This was done despite the human violations, and abuse of power in the country. The other example is the Syrian conflict, where the U.S. has come public against Syrian political unrest.

2.4 List three to five (3-5) driving forces that fueled international policy decisions involving the international incidents you outlined previously. (Consider treaties, exit strategies, elections, wars, etc.)?

In the case of Syria, the driving force that fueled the international policy decisions undertaken by the U.S. was political unrest in the country. The political unrest in the country and increased conflict threatened peace, which affects the U.S. due to its economic and social interests in the country. The same case happens in the context of Tunisia. Tunisia experienced political unrest, which risked the country to enter into anarchy. The challenge was that the people were against the leadership because of the threats it posed to America. This situation was getting worse, and the U.S. had to step in through providing support to calm the situation (Cameron, 2005).

Conclusion

In conclusion, this study has shown that the United States has actively taken part in international relations, making the country be referred to as the 'world's policemen'. Evidently, the United States redefined its foreign policy on international relations after the WWII. This has seen the country taking key decisions on various international issues as opposed to the isolation strategy that was in place during the WWI.

References

Benhabib, S. (2008). U.S. Foreign Policy; The legitimacy of human rights. Daedalus, Vol. 137, Issue 3, p. 94-104.

Cameron, F. (2005). U.S. Foreign Policy After The Cold War. London: Routledge.

Kerstin, M. (2004). Security and Human rights; less liberty for greater security? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 42, No. 27, p. 14-20.… [read more]


U.S. History 1877-Present America Essay

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And finally the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in 2000 on Bush v. Gore was a disaster in any number of ways, but chiefly for the unresolved constitutional crisis that it represented.

The problem with the Spanish-American War is that it did not plausibly involve any realistic U.S. interests, and there was no reason to enter it. The reality is that the rest of Europe was engaged in a scramble for colonial territories, and while Spain still had a number of them (including Cuba and the Philippines) the Spanish country as a whole was weak and crumbling. Yet there was no immediate cause for war: the pretense that the battleship Maine was sunk by the Spanish has long since been debunked, and indeed serves the same function as Saddam Hussein's "weapons of mass destruction." In reality, the motives for war were purely financial, and the campaign for war was a well-managed media strategy, largely promoted by the "yellow journalism" newspapers that felt that war stories would appeal to the turn-of-the-century American public. But the long-term results of the war were disastrous, since America basically attempted to become a colonizing power just as colonialism was coming into disrepute. The fact that America had started as colonies should have meant the country was aware of the injustices of a colonial system.

The use of Communism as a fake menace was a staple of American political rhetoric well before Senator McCarthy's day -- the Haymarket Riot was an attempt to place blame on progressive political organizers, and the raids conducted after World War One by attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer were perhaps even more illegal than anything McCarthyism accomplished. However, the real function of McCarthyism was to conduct a witch hunt in American public life, and ruin the careers of people -- also effectively stigmatizing progressive politics for a long stretch afterwards. The most troubling aspect of McCarthyism, however, was that it was brought down by nobody except McCarthy himself. If McCarthy had not overreached by going after the U.S. Army -- which proved to be a crucial miscalculation -- he might have continued his red-baiting until he had effectively forced America into becoming a right-wing one-party totalitarian state, the inverted mirror image of his imaginary enemies.

Finally the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on Bush v. Gore in 2000 was a scandal in any number of ways, but chief among them was the Constitutional crisis that this decision represented. Because the justices split purely along party lines, the decision essentially politicized the Supreme Court, which was not to the benefit of the legal system. But moreover, there was no valid reason to delay the recount in Florida -- which ultimately found Al Gore had won the popular vote there too -- and merely underscored the bizarre elitist character of the Electoral College as being an element of the U.S. Constitution like the three-fifths compromise, a relic of a bygone era. As a result, America ended up with a president who had been installed by… [read more]


Significant Influences During the Early National Period Essay

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¶ … National Period

American history technically begins in the east in the English colonies and it then spread gradually westward, only reaching the Appalachian Mountains by the end of the colonial period. According to this perspective, the "seeds" of the United States first appeared with the English colonists in 1607 at Jamestown in Virginia, and then followed in 1620 by "the Pilgrims" at Plymouth in New England (Taylor 2002, x). The small colonial cast (as the earlier Spanish and French settlements were pretty much irrelevant except as enemies) is compromised of the people who would create American colonial history, as it wasn't until the United States invaded the "West" during the early nineteenth century that the West would also become a part of the United States. Alaska and Hawaii wouldn't become a part of the United States' national history until the end of the nineteenth century (2002, x).

The early Spanish and French colonizers neglected the mid-Atlantic seaboard, which is an important aspect to consider when contemplating what the United States would become. Because of their neglect of this region, the mid-Atlantic seaboard was open to English colonization during the 1580s. This area they simply called Virginia, named to honor their queen, Elizabeth I, a supposed virgin. Between the years of 1580 and 1620, the English name Virginia the entire area of coast between Florida and Acadia (Taylor 2002, 118). The English at first searched for gold mines on land and Spanish ships with treasures by sea -- sort of "get rich quick" tactics, but these tactics failed and they were forced to come up with ways that were more low and laborious when it came to making their livings. Thus, they began to harvest their plantation. By 1616, the colonists discovered a prime commodity in tobacco, "which permitted an explosive growth in population, territory, and wealth" (2002, 118).

Middleton (2002, 115) states in his book, Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776, by 1660, the colonists were exporting tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo and other dyes back to England. In October of 1660, English Parliament passed a new act, which excluded foreign traders by only allowing vessels owned and three-quarters manned by Englishmen to enter English colonial ports (2002, 115). This meant that all the aforementioned goods had to go back to England before being shipped elsewhere -- there they would be taxed and therefore denied any competitive advantage. These measures were only beneficial to England, however, the large mercantile marine was being established in the colonial states and it gave work to thousands of men. This provided the source for major naval power, which would become important as the century went on -- and we see its early influences today in our own naval power.

The Great Awakening is another period of time -- during the 1730s and the 1740s -- where there was a decreasing emphasis on the importance of church doctrine and instead there was a greater emphasis put on the individual and his or her… [read more]


U.S. Immigration Into the United States Essay

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U.S. Immigration

Immigration into the United States: Ongoing Controversy in the Political and Public Spheres

Immigration has always been a controversial issue in the United States, even before this nation was formed on the North American continent. Different groups of settlers arriving in successive waves sought different opportunities and different freedoms, and the idea of the immigrant outsider quickly developed… [read more]


Immigration the United States Is a Land Term Paper

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Immigration

The United States is a land of immigrants. The first waves of immigrants killed or encroached on the land of the indigenous people. Some American immigrants were forcibly moved as slaves from Africa. The 19th century bore witness to the first era of "mass migration," during which some 15 million European immigrants moved to the United States (Diner 2008). A policy of Manifest Destiny enabled Westward expansion that allowed for such tremendous and rapid population growth. The Industrial Age also necessitated population growth, to meet the needs of a growing labor market. Patterns of immigration changed over time. For example, Asian immigrants arrived in droves to the West coast of the United States in the late 19th century. Until then, most immigrants to the United States except for African slaves hailed from Europe. Racial discrimination has consistently been a part of the American immigration experience. African slaves experienced the brunt of discrimination, even after abolition. However, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 showed that anti-Asian sentiment would also become a hallmark of the American immigration experience. Around the turn of the last century, mass migrations of southern and eastern Europeans also altered the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural character of the country. Discrimination against groups like the Jews and Irish became commonplace. By the late 20th century, immigration patterns shifted once again as Southeast Asians claimed refugee status in the aftermath of the Vietnam War. Increasing numbers of Central Americans and Caribbean immigrants, many of whom were also seeking political asylum, entered the United States. The immigrant experience in the United States has been shaped by two seemly divergent but related issues: discrimination and the American Dream.

Immigration has altered American demographics over the course of the country's development. In fact, population growth in the United States depends in part on immigrants. The following chart shows how immigration patterns have changed, and how current levels of mass migration "vastly exceeds traditional levels," (Colorado Alliance for Immigration Reform 2010). The Center for Immigration Studies points out that the first great wave of immigrants arrived around the time of the First World War, from between 1900 to 1920. By 1924, Americans were becoming overwhelmed by the changing demographics of the nation and Congress created the country's first border control (Center for Immigration Studies). During World War Two, new immigrants fleeing the war in Eastern Europe were prohibited entry, as were East Asians ("A Historical Look at U.S. Immigration Policy" 1995).

The current outcry against "illegal immigrants" is an extension of the prejudice that has pervaded the American immigration experience. There is nothing qualitatively different about the immigration patterns of the 21st century vs. The 17th. When the nation was first formed, "the only immigration restrictions at this time were on criminals and public charges," (Vellos 1997). Immigration was viewed as a means to bolster the labor market, make industrialization more profitable, and enable the extraction of natural resources throughout the nation. Especially after slavery was abolished after the Civil War, the need… [read more]


US Decision to Enter World War I Term Paper

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World War I, like all wars tend to, had a devastating effect on all the parties involved. The War in question began in Europe, resulting from a dispute between just two countries. The rest of Europe became involved through various alliances, loyalties, and enmity, respectively. The involvement of the United States lasted only months, from 1917 to the end of… [read more]


United States Were Fraught With Danger Essay

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¶ … United States were fraught with danger and problems. From colonization to how women were treated to slavery, there were many issues that were faced. Over time, many things changed and developed. However, during that period in history where the issues faced were strong and significant, there were many ways in which individuals depicted those issues. One of the… [read more]


Top 5 Presidents Term Paper

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¶ … top 5 presidents of the U.S.: 1789-1864

This is my list prioritized according to ranking order:

George Washington

Thomas Jefferson

Abraham Lincoln

Theodore Roosevelt

John Adams

I rated them thus according to their particular activity that I considered important.

George Washington

As the dominant politician and military leader and warrior who fought for the new United States despite surmounting odds and little support and as presider over the writing of the Constitution that drafted the new nation, I believe that Washington has founding place as premier president of those years.

He was unanimously elected to be president and managed to hold together his nation in beginning of the first few tottering years keeping them from being involved in the wars raging throughout Europe.

Washington's enduring actions included helping o establish a strong, well-financed national government as well as winning acclaim for America from international nations and suppressing rebellion. He also established the ethos of much or our government, as it is known today, such as the implementation of a cabinet system and the delivering of an inaugural address.

Rating Washington as 1 is a criteria that is shared by most Americans, since he is known as the "Father of this Country" Much of his image has been converted from original military leader into a moral symbol of the new republic, particularly since Washington, time and again, refused to exploit his military reputation for political power (Schwartz, 1983)

2. Thomas Jefferson

Education makes the country. Jefferson instituted that free elementary schools were to be provided to all citizens and that a university education, funded by public taxes, would be provided for a select few who would, consequently go on to use their education in order to contribute to the state. The university would not only accommodate a select group of poor students but would also accommodate those who could afford to pay.

Jefferson was the positive epitome of the new democratic government in that he endeavored to level differences between rich and poor. Jefferson, creator of the America's constitution that famously promised freedom and equality to all, attempted to destroy anything that stood in the way of that freedom. Opponent of the slaves trade, he also formed the national bank and purchased the vast Louisiana territory from France. It seems to me that his greatest action is standardization and leveling of the American education system, where he enabled the poor to receive the same educational opportunities that the wealthy enjoyed.

3. Abraham Lincoln

Revered as a rag to riches story (although I am skeptical about that), I see Lincoln's importance as lying in the fact that he fought for and introduced the Civil War that attempted to repeal racial differences and injustice that was existent in the country and left to abolishing of the slave trade. Lincoln successfully led his country through military, moral and constitutional crisis; with the country split in two -- one faction battling the other -- he successfully accomplished union at war's end. Finally, he… [read more]


Was the 20th Century a Renaissance Period for the United States? Term Paper

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Accounting-History

Was the 20th Century a Renaissance Period

This is a paper about American in the 20th Century. There are six references used for this paper.

The United States and Europe saw a number of changes during the 20th Century. It is interesting to compare the two in terms of science and technology, religion, politics and economics, leisure time, the roles of women, art, music and literature, and fashion.

Science and Technology

There are "three broad innovations which the 20th century will be remembered for: unprecedented means to save, prolong and enhance life; unprecedented means to destroy life, including for the first time putting global civilization at risk; and unprecedented insights into the nature of humans and the Universe (Sagan, 1996)."

During the 20th century, "advances in science and technology played key roles in the two world wars and in space exploration (Kohlstedt, 2004)." Industrialized nations in Europe and the United States gave "unprecedented support to advancing systematic inquiry and, in many cases, privileged experimental and quantitative research. Some of the most outstanding discoveries of the 20th century include radio and television, laser and fiber optics, nuclear technologies, genetic research, and geological plate tectonics (Kohlstedt, 2004)."

Technology is responsible for prolonging many individual's lives. In 1901, the "life expectancy in the United States and Western Europe was about 45 years, while today it is approaching 80 years, a little more for women, a little less for men (Sagan, 1996)."

Religion, Politics, and Economics

The religious, political, and economic arenas were also filled with changes. Religion underwent changes in both the United States and Europe during the 20th century. The United States had been predominantly Protestant prior to the early 1900s, however with the influx of immigrants came a large Catholic population. In Europe, thousands of Jews were persecuted for their religious beliefs.

In the "post-war period, leadership shifted in the world, especially to America and Europe. Post-war leaders such as British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and United States President Harry Truman continued to have an impact in the world, but their rule became much collectively oriented through international organizations and power blocs and the creation of military pacts (Asmar, 1999)."

In 1945, Britain had an "elected labor government, which resulted in an emphasis on domestic issues, and the creation of the welfare state (Asmar, 1999)." The United States found its leadership role increased when the Marshall plan involved it in the post-war reconstruction of Europe.

There were alliances forged with Europe during the 1950s, which began with Franklin Roosevelt. He, Harry Truman, and Dwight Eisenhower were "part of a political, social and military machine that reflected America's rise to world prominence (Asmar, 1999)."

In the 1960s, the United States began to lose some of its power, due to incidences such as the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Vietnam War. However, Europe had recovered from World War II, and "slowly began to put its footprints on the world arena. Germany still suffering from the shame of Nazism, plunged itself into an… [read more]


World War II Life on the Home Front Term Paper

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World War II -- Life on the Homefront

As World War II was beginning to emerge, the world was being reshaped. The war began in 1939 and ended in 1945 with more than fifty countries at war (PBS). All of these countries experienced a different outcome during and before the war. Life was especially life-changing in the United States and… [read more]


Theodore Roosevelt and His Conservation Research Paper

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Consequently, eighteen monuments were personally designated by Roosevelt out of which 4 are national parks at present times (Sheffield 89).

Roosevelt, however, was not contented with the setting aside of land to serve the purpose of providing enjoyment and recreational activities to the American citizens. Thus, he shifted his focus towards the forests in the country which were being rapidly consumed by the American population. Therefore, due to his constant recommendation, the United States Forest Service was established by the Congress. The honesty and dedication behind Roosevelt's conservation efforts is evident from the fact that "by the end of his presidency, Roosevelt's administration had created over forty-two million acres of national forest land, to be managed for the common good by the U.S. government" (Sheffield 89). It can be said that this approach of treating the civic land as a resource to be supervised instead of exploitation proved to be the core of Roosevelt's policy regarding conservation and preservation of the natural resources (Sheffield 89).

In addition to the above-mentioned efforts, Roosevelt also committed himself to preserve the natural sumptuousness and dignity of the national parks. Moreover, he made the expansion of the system sure for protecting the endangered areas. He also supervised the establishment of fifty-one wildlife refuges national forests, numbering one hundred and fifty (Powell). In addition to all the mentioned efforts to conserve the natural resources of the country, Roosevelt also made efforts to manage "the interconnected streams and rivers that depended on the "great sponge" upstream" (Gurney 61) in a scientific manner.

Roosevelt's administration can thus be considered as the best when it comes to conservation efforts as under his excellent supervision, there was more or less one hundred and thirty million acres of land that grew under the forest system. Taken together, the federal protection was made bigger to 230 million acres of land under his administration. Moreover, in 1907, the Inland Waterways Commission was appointed by the nature-loving president. In 1908, he also appointed National Conservation Commission in 1908. The major purposes of the two mentioned appointments were "to inventory the existing natural resources of the nation, especially forests and rivers, and make recommendations for managing them for the public bene-t" (Gurney 61). Even though the opponents of Roosevelt in Congress made endeavors to put a halt to the foundation of such commissions, they were foiled by President Roosevelt when he asked for the nonfederal money to be used for the printing and distribution of the reports (Gurney 61).

Conclusion

By using the power and authority of his presidency, Theodore Roosevelt was communicative enough to design a conservational model based on the intrinsic worth of civilization, partisanship, and public morals. It is not surprising to see that the American public places him in high regard by calling him the Good Roosevelt. It is exceedingly important for the American nation to stop judging the country's leaders keeping in mind their good things. It wouldn't be fair to judge the personality and speeches of Roosevelt. To… [read more]


Second Reconstructions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  14 pages (6,309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 16

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This was much less than the $35 billion cost of "an unjust, evil war in Vietnam," which King wanted to end (King 1967). Yet he also opposed violence and insisted that the riots in Watts in 1965 and in Detroit and Newark two years later accomplished nothing for civil rights or the improvement of economic conditions. Nor did he believe… [read more]


Conservative American Presidents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,587 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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A comment from conservative Republican Representative Newt Gingrich of Georgia, quoted December 27, 1984, in the "Christian Science Monitor" by historian Allan J. Lichtman, who wrote: The near extinction of liberal Republicans has not united the party, only shifted rivalries to the right. Without Reagan to pull the Republicans together the question is when will the GOP's moderate, conservative and radical right factions begin squabbling over the post-Reagan succession (Dansker 212).

The similarities between the terms of early presidents like Harding shows how differently each president reacts to and manage the many emergencies and issues that arise. Each man faced fiscal crisis, world issues, and internal staff struggles and scandals, yet one rose above them, and the other succumbed to them. The office of the presidency is a highly visible and powerful office. The men that take on the job are as varied as the issues they will face, and some are much more suited to keep America a strong global force than others.

Works Cited

Anderson, Dennis M. "Ronald Reagan." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 563-578.

Dansker, Emil. "William Howard Taft." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 211-234.

Editors. "Warren G. Harding." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/WH/WH_In_Brief.htm

Editors. "Ronald Reagan: Impact and Legacy." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/RR/RR_Impact_and_Legacy.htm

Florig, Dennis. The Power of Presidential Ideologies. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1992.

Jennings, David H. "Warren Gamaliel Harding." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 267-292.

Rejai, Mostafa, Kay Phillips, and Warren L. Mason. Demythologizing an Elite: American Presidents in Empirical,…… [read more]


American History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,191 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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If he negatively affected history, it was with his lack of action on trade embargos with Britain and France, which many feel ultimately led to the War of 1812 under James Madison's presidency. "But the embargo failed to produce the desired result, and the subsequent war with England was 'Mr. Madison's War' only because Jefferson did not push the issue in 1809 when, left to their own direction, Congress repealed the embargo without substituting war" (Spragens 37).

JAMES MADISON

James Madison was the first president to preside over a full-fledged war, when problems with the British escalated into the War of 1812. Most of his two terms in office were spent dealing with the war and its after-effects on America. During his administration, the British captured Washington D.C. And burned the Capitol building and the White House.

President James Madison was the only President to face enemy gunfire while in office and the first and only President to exercise actively his authority as commander-in-chief.

On August 19, 1814, General Robert Ross, in command of British regulars, and Admiral George Cockburn, commanding the Marines, landed at Benedict, Md., on the Patuxent River. They started a forty-mile march to Washington, D.C. Five days later, at Bladensburg, Md., they encountered and routed the militia and marines under General William Henry Winder, who fled to Georgetown after a losing battle. President James Madison on August 25 assumed command of Commodore Joshua Barney's battery, known as "Barney's Battery," stationed a half-mile north of Bladensburg, Md., to forestall the capture of Washington by the British (Kane 39).

While Madison's administration saw the ravages of war, it also saw the build-up of American manufacturing in New England, and the development of many of the resources of the country.

The war of 1812, like other wars, was followed in time by an economic depression, but this depression was far less severe than it would have been had the shipping trade been allowed to expand to the full extent which England's preoccupation with war made possible (Smith 328).

If there was a negative impact of Madison's presidency, it was the ravages of war that helped decimate our nation's capital, and his lack of inspiration as a leader and diplomat. "As always throughout his life, he was regarded as a learned and agreeable person, but not as an inspiring leader" (Smith 330).

JAMES MONROE

James Monroe also served two terms as President. During his time in office, he helped created the standardized American flag, authorized the construction of the Erie Canal, and created the Monroe Doctrine, which stipulated that America was not open to colonization by any other nation (Kane 45). "James Monroe was so popular during his first term, 1817-1821, that an 'era of good feeling' swept the nation. All of the 232 electors, with only one exception, voted for Monroe for a second term" (Kane 43). His popularity waned slightly during his second term, but remained high with the American people. "After two highly successful terms as President… [read more]


Comparing Manifest Destiny and the Louisiana Purchase Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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America failed to gain any significant Canadian territory but did end the Indian raids into the Midwest territory (Kennedy & Cohen, 2013). The war ended with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, which reestablished diplomatic relations between the two countries and returned borders to their original lines before the war. The war did not quell the American desire for territories. An early proponent of this notion was John Quincy Adams. He was an integral part in the Treaty of 1818, formalizing the U.S.-Canada border and creating a joint governorship of the Oregon territory. Adams was also responsible for the purchase of Florida from Spain, by signing the Transcontinental Treaty in 1819. Finally, he was the architect of Monroe Doctrine of 1823, forbidding Europe from any further attempts of colonizing the Western Hemisphere (Kennedy & Cohen, 2013). It can be argued that Manifest Destiny and the Monroe Doctrine go hand in hand. In order to effectively enforce the Monroe Doctrine, the United States needed to expand its borders. Manifest Destiny influenced other decisions in American history. Manifest Destiny was an important factor several military conflicts such as the Mexican-American War in 1846, the annexation of Texas, and to an extent the Spanish-American War and the annexation of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico (Howe, 2009).

The idea of American imperialism and superiority propelled America as it acquired new lands. This notion that America needed to expand its borders is what makes Manifest Destiny analogous with the Louisiana Purchase. The Louisiana Purchase marks the beginning of the United States formulating a grand future for the country. Manifest Destiny acts on this plan and moves it forward. This idea is still present today. America sees itself as the promoter and protector of democracy around the world. The United States still goes to war in order to protect freedom, establish democratic governments, and further American interests. The present day form of Manifest Destiny is more subtle, there is no longer a need to expand our borders but there is certainly a belief in American superiority and spreading the ideology of freedom and democracy. The advent of technology and media has done more to spread American ideas and culture than an army invasion. Movies, television shows, and music are the new tools to implement Manifest Destiny.

The Louisiana Purchase and Manifest Destiny are events that propelled the American self-esteem. Thomas Jefferson knew the new nation needed territory to expand and wanted to provide territory for American citizens to farm. He saw the beginning of an emerging great nation. Manifest Destiny is the embodiment of Thomas Jefferson's vision. It was an idea that swept the nation during the 19th century and while changed, is still around today. The idea that America is the protector of freedom and the leader of the "Free World" is originates from Manifest Destiny. The annexation of Texas, the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War, all events that expanded the American empire and driven by the idea of American Exceptionalism. Today, we are… [read more]


American History 1600-1877 Essay

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They are Eli Whitney, John Brown, and Judah P. Benjamin.

Eli Whitney is usually regarded as a great industrial innovator, although during his lifetime he was mostly a failure financially. He is known for two great innovations, and it is worth considering both of them. The first was Whitney's claim to have introduced the idea of interchangeable parts into American… [read more]


Role of Cotton in Shaping Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (764 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

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The King Cotton diplomacy attempted to force the most powerful nation in the world, Great Britain, into the war on behalf of the Confederacy. The belief was that European powers would help break the Union blockade around the coastal areas and ports which was becoming increasingly effective. Although the Confederate coastline was never completely sealed, it did cause imports and exports in the South to drop drastically. This meant reduced funds needed for the Confederacy war efforts. Britain's economy relied heavily on the South' cotton exports; thus, the South cut-off their cotton supply with the belief that they would have to intervene to save their economy. However, the Southern states had failed to account for the bumper crops that they had exported throughout the late 1850's and in 1960, which led to an overabundance of cotton in Europe at the time of the Civil War outbreak. In addition, the British would not intervene due to their hostility towards slavery. Thus, the "cotton famine" that the Southern states were attempting to create was delayed until late 1862. When it did come, the global economy was transformed. The price of cotton soared and the British began buying cotton from other countries such as India, Egypt, and Brazil, urging these countries to increase their cotton production.

Although the South was never able to convince foreign powers to intervene against the North, cotton diplomacy did succeed in obtaining financial assistance from abroad in the form of loans, bonds, and certificates, which Confederate Treasurer Christopher G. Memminger secured with cotton (Current 1998). The Confederacy also used cotton as a bartering tool to purchase ships, weapons, and ammunition from British manufacturers. Blockade-runners who were willing to transport armaments to the Confederacy by crossing the Union blockades were paid with cotton at a rate of 300% to 500% per voyage. In response, the union increased blockaders; however, it was the Union's capturing of southern ports that was most effective in the reduction of the Confederate cotton-armaments trade. Furthermore, the successful blockades resulted in severe shortages of food and supplies in the South. The Civil War came to an end on April 9th, 1865. The Confederacy was defeated and the slave plantation system…… [read more]


United States President, George Washington Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,100 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

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¶ … United States president, George Washington (in his own words) pursued the "undeviating exercise of a just, steady, and prudent national policy." That quote (found in Robert Francis Jones' book George Washington: ordinary man, extraordinarily leader) was in the context of Washington preferring to stay out of wars between various European powers. He knew the young country he was leading was "gradually recovering from the distresses in which the war left us" (Jones, p. 138) and hence he concentrated on building the nation's internal strengths rather than engage in more conflict with European powers. And while Washington was definitely a strong man, which he showed on the battlefield during the Revolutionary War, his talents "in most fields" Jones writes (202) were "relatively commonplace."

What Washington did was to "raise those talents to the level of superlative accomplishment by self-discipline… [enabling] him in turn, to pay unremitting attention to details" (Jones, p. 202). In the book, George Washington and the origins of the American presidency, Mark J. Rozell et al., the authors point out that Washington "visited every section of the country… to become acquainted with his fellow citizens and to encourage" voters to back his administration (p. 6). By visiting all the sections of the country Washington "put a personal face on government, making it less threatening," Rozell writes (p. 6). He insisted "a man in public office…is accountable for the consequences of his measures to others" (Rozell, p. 7). As to his role as head of the executive branch, Washington used his veto power twice (Rozell, p. 11). One of his most notable accomplishments was working with Congress to establish the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established the federal court system. He also signed the "Indian Intercourse Acts" (regulating commerce between Indians and the U.S.) into law.

Thomas Jefferson's America was a place where there was more political factional fighting than Jefferson had hoped for, but to his benefit Republicanism was gaining power over the Federalists. In fact, according to the Miller Center Web site link called "American President An Online Resource," Jefferson was "hostile" to a strong central government and was wary of "judicial overreach" when it came to the Supreme Court.

The White House Web site reports that after the French Revolution, Jefferson "slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey" which was very unpopular out West (www.whitehouse.gov). Jefferson's America was a place where there was a massive federal debt, and the president cut it "by a third." He also ordered the Navy to attack the Barbary pirates who had been attacking U.S. commerce in the Mediterranean, which was a bold use of military power. But his most lasting legacy in the minds of many historians was the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from the French in 1803 (www.whitehouse.gov). Meriwether Lewis -- who had been recruited by Thomas Jefferson to serve the president's personal secretary -- was chosen to lead the expedition west into the Louisiana Territory.

In time Jefferson would… [read more]


American History New Orleans Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (683 words)
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American History

New Orleans

The most important reason for my choice of New Orleans from this particular selection is that I have absolutely loved the city since I first visited it. It seems filled with magic, warmth and good times. This appears to be historically substantiated to some degree by Thomas N. Ingersoll's writing. Indeed, he notes that, even since its beginnings, Bourbon Street has seen many a drunken patron. In addition to the fascinating history of its beginnings, as well as Dubreuil's energetic contributions to this, I also find the end of the piece both shocking and revealing. Despite his wealth and entrepreneurial spirit, Dubreuil was a slave to the system of the time, much as society is today. Perhaps this says something about human nature, or perhaps it is a challenge: maybe we can be free if we choose freedom.

Week 7: A Midwife's Tale-Chapter 1 find the story of Martha Ballard extremely inspirational. Not only did she fulfill the role of midwife, traditionally that of a woman, but she took on many other duties as well, including those of doctor, pharmacist and wife. What makes her story unusual is not as much her workload as the fact that she so clearly and factually documented everything from illness to birth to death. The lack of emotional connection, particularly with the deaths of children and babies, makes her records all the more poignant and realistic. The beginning of this chapter struck me as unusual, as it is a direct extract from Martha's diary. With this, the author demonstrates very clearly the points made about Martha and her writing, as well as the tone she uses when keeping her records. Martha Ballard is inspirational on a number of levels: she takes on many professional and personal duties; appearing almost superhuman in dealing with a workload that would kill a lesser person. Secondly, the fact that her records survived among a body of writing that was mainly produced by men during the time shows that she was special.

Week 8: 1773

The…… [read more]

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