"American History / United States" Essays

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Race and Revolution by Gary B. Nash Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (681 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Race and revolution by Gary B. Nash. Specifically, it will contain a review of the book. The author's thesis for this short history of slavery and revolt during the American Revolution is why the founding fathers failed to abolish slavery when they had the chance. He writes, "In particular, I wish to stress the role of the northern states in the failure to abolish slavery" (Nash, 1990, p. 6). Thus, his book takes a different look at abolition than most histories of the time. Most historians believe the founding fathers were pressured to accept slavery by the southern states, and had little power to change the practice. Nash introduces evidence that shows this was not the case, and it makes for a compelling and interesting look back into history.

Throughout this set of essays, the author produces large amounts of evidence to back up his claims, and he presents many or most of these documents at the end of the book. Thus, the student can read Nash's conclusions and back them up with the actual historical documents he used to come to his conclusions. For example, he uses several documents as references in the First Chapter to indicate how many people were speaking out against slavery before and during the Revolution, and to indicate that the framers of the American Constitution did have a choice. They could have abolished slavery, and it was actually a good time to attempt to end the practice. In fact, Nash notes the 1774 Continental Congress "pledged not only to forswear further traffic in slaves but to hire no vessels and sell no produce or manufactures 'to those who are concerned in it'" (Nash, 1990, p. 9). He shows that many people, northerners and southerners alike, argued against slavery, and many felt it was a foregone conclusion that the founding fathers would eliminate the practice when they formed the foundations of the country.

Of course, Nash's opinions and conclusions are controversial because they go against so many other historians' conclusions. However, it is…… [read more]

Mexican Border Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (629 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Immigration Policy

The Border Fence: A Step in the Right Direction

Individuals from both major parties recognize that immigration is a serious issue in America today. One solution presently on the table is that of border wall spanning the entire Mexican-United States border from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean (Pinkerton, par. 2). Despite many criticisms, such a wall would actually save both federal and state funds currently devoted to illegal immigration. Overall, the control of the border through a total border wall will allow for planned immigration and a better American economy. Finally, a wall would also end the current suffering of immigrants caused by current stopgap measures, including partial walls and river crossings.

Pinkerton estimates that the construction of a border wall would cost between $4 billion and $8 billion (par. 2). Critics focus on that cost as if the American government and individual states are not currently budgeting such extreme amounts for border control. Stromsta finds that California's state government alone spends approximately $10 billion every year to take care of illegal immigrants in the state (par. 4). Beinart additionally reports that the number of border patrol agents has risen more than 200% over the past fifteen years (par. 1). Since border patrol guards are just one factor in border protection that has increased, particularly since September 11, it is obvious that a better solution must be available. Building a complete border wall for a cost of the high estimate of $8 billion would lower states' costs of supporting the overwhelming burden of immigration and would also lessen the federal burden of maintaining the current, faulty border control system.

Building a wall would aid the American economy. Closing the entire border would prevent immigrants from finding more rural areas to cross, thereby lessening the number of illegal immigrants causing economic problems in America. Even Stromsta, who offers a balanced…… [read more]

President Carter Discuss the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan January 4, 1980 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (601 words)
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Before Soviet disintegration in 1990's, Soviet Union and United States were the two supreme world powers. The foreign policy of both the countries focused more on building close affinity with other countries, particularly countries enrich with oil reserves. Both the world powers tried to dominate in technological, industrial, economic and military front, and for the sake of industrial, military, technological open trade relations with smaller countries were required; market accessibility was must.

United States was in the favor of peaceful world, where dominance and influence through force was condemnable. United States was able to win the trust of smaller countries on the basis of reliable, consistent and friendly relation with its smaller counterparts.


When Soviet launched military strikes against Afghanistan, America termed it as a threat to world peace, and violation of United Nation charter. United States government deplored and condemned such an act of suppressing the sovereignty of small countries.

The then president of United States President Jimmy Carter adopted a stern course of action against Soviet. The Soviet attack threatened the fragile oil market, and oil prices surged remarkably. Threat to world peace, threat to liberal and democratic principles by communist country was matter of grave concern; the American government desired strong measures which can hamper the Soviet aggression.

The Russian aggression was followed by the kidnapping of 50 American nationals in Iran, and it was believed that Iranian Islamist revolutionist and Russian intelligence were involved.

Jimmy Charter in his speech to the nation on 4th January 1980 reaffirmed United States commitment towards global peace, and warned Soviets of serious consequences. He pledged U.S. continuous economic, military support towards the Afghanistan, neighboring Pakistan. His speech was mainly directed towards Russian, and serious warnings were issued to Soviets in terms of military, trade sanctions. President Carter also…… [read more]

Ralph Nader and Pat Buchanan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (955 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Rarely are right-wing activists such as Pat Buchanan and left-wing activists such as Ralph Nader on the same side of an issue. However, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) represents an area where these two traditionally opposite ends of the political and economic spectrum have comparable viewpoints. Buchanan and Nader have remarkably similar stances on NAFTA's negative impact on American jobs, favoritism for large global corporations and the devastation of the United States border with Mexico and possibly the sovereignty of nations.

Buchanan and Nader blame NAFTA as the reason the United States trade surplus with Mexico has disappeared. From 1995 through 1998, the United States ran $20 billion trade deficits with Mexico. and, from 1999 through 2005, the United States trade deficit with Mexico grew every year, from $27 billion in 1999 to last year's $54 billion. Those that defend NAFTA claim that the United States can still benefit through the economic theory of comparative advantage, where a country with comparative advantage can produce a particular good or service by giving up less value in other goods or services that it could otherwise produce with its labor and resources than other countries would have to give up in producing that same good or service. Applying comparative advantage theory to NAFTA, the United States would export high-value items to the United States, while Mexico exports products of less-skilled labor to the United States.

Both Buchanan and Nader dispute that NAFTA is facilitating comparative advantage for the benefit of all. According to Nader, "Someday the pollyanna belief that the U.S. economy always replaces the jobs it loses overseas with new jobs here, as we keep racing ahead of other countries with modern technology, may run into a contrary riptide that no set of spurious statistics can obscure." Buchanan elaborates with statistics related to manufacturing jobs. He says that under Bush, three million manufacturing jobs have disappeared, one in every six, and that Mexico is taking on our higher value exports. Mexico's leading exports to the United States in 2005 were automobiles, oil, electrical machinery, computers, furniture, textiles and apparel while the United States' leading exports to Mexico were plastics, chemicals, cereals, cotton, meat, paper, oil seed, aluminum, copper and knitted or crocheted fabrics. Nader, on free trade in general, points out the lost of skilled jobs in the United States in the fields of computer programming, payroll processing, airline passenger billings, and insurance computer applications.

Buchanan and Nader also hold similar views that NAFTA is serving the interest of large global corporations at the expense of participating countries and their citizens. Buchanan states, "Today's trade agreements are about reshaping the world to conform to the demands of transnational corporations that have shed their national identities and loyalties and want to shed their U.S. workers." Similarly, Nader is concerned that free trade agreements such as NAFTA have…… [read more]

America Becomes World Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (902 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


America's Road to Becoming a World Superpower

This paper examines America's route to becoming a "Superpower," as seen in the way the United States acquired the Philippines as a colony in the early 20th century. It examines the many reasons both for and against the colonization of the Philippines. In the conclusion, this paper argues that for the United States, the road to becoming a world power is paved with arguments based on racism and ethnocentrism, as well as a paternalistic attitude towards societies whose values differed from those of traditional Americans.

Arguments for colonialism

Enshrined in 1823, the Monroe Doctrine was originally intended to prevent intervention by European powers, the same Doctrine to justify aggressive intervention by the United States. This policy of aggressive colonialism is a significant departure from previous foreign policies, which were based on coastal defense. The new century, however, brought on a changing global vision of United States security. Previously, the thought of an army and militia coming to the rescue was enough to make the American government feel secure. However, by the 1890s, the age of "big navies" meant that imperialist countries such as the United States could be threatened by conflicts that are occurring far from its shores, such as the Philippine War for independence from Spanish colonizers.

Thus, after avoiding international conflict for its first 100 years of existence, the United States joined the race for world power status in a bid to acquire colonies the Asia. One of the results of this change in foreign policy was the vicious war that the United States waged in the Philippines from 1899 to 1903.

Aside from justifying expansionism based on this perceived threat, many Americans saw colonialism as the natural duty of Americans. For example, Josiah Strong, author of the book Our Country, stated the conviction that as a superior civilized people, Anglo Saxons had a duty to ensure "that all men may be lifted up into the light of the highest Christian civilization." In this argument, the Protestant Christianity of the United States was seen as the epitome of civilization. This was in contrast to the backwards religions practiced in the Philippines -- Catholicism parts previously controlled by Spanish and Islam towards the south.

In addition to this sovereign duty, the acquisition of colonies also meant economic might. Republican Senator Albert Beveridge said in addition to bringing the light of civilization to lesser cultures, the United States stood to benefit largely from colonization. The United States had already acquired Hawaii and Puerto Rico. "The gates to Asia," reasoned Beveridge, meant that "coaling stations are to be ours at the very least." The opening of Asian market, beginning with the Philippines, meant new markets…… [read more]

Navigation Acts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Navigation Acts in Colonial America

THE BRITISH MERCANTILE SYSTEM IN OPERATION. America had 13 colonies in 1765, and the young country was part of the British Empire, which had only the Atlantic Ocean as a "line of communication." The navigations laws of 1649 and 1651 were "reenacted with modifications in 1660 by the Restoration Parliament" (p. 7) and they then… [read more]

Immigration Looking at Immigration Statistics, it Quickly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,855 words)
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Looking at immigration statistics, it quickly became clear that the largest number of immigrants to the United States in the last 10 years came from Mexico. The second largest group came from India. Other leading emigrant countries included: Ukraine, United Kingdom, Vietnam, Taiwan, Russia, Phillipines, Poland, Peru, Pakistan, Korea, Jamaica, Iran, Haiti, El Salvador, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Columbia, and… [read more]

JFK the "Camelot" Presidency Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (394 words)
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Kennedy also accomplished a great deal in the areas of health, education, civil rights and the problems linked to the cities, especially with the introduction of the Medicare program which provided hospital insurance to the elderly covered by social security. His most extensive program for social legislation included a voting rights bill, a bill to control air pollution and a comprehensive civil rights bill, one that came about as the result of the race riots in the South in 1963. Although Kennedy's administration was often marked by political blunders, such as the failed Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis, and has been viewed by some historians as being full of hype and sensationalism, his term as President was quite successful and made it possible for some major social advancements when Lyndon Johnson became President in 1963 after Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.


Schlesinger, Arthur M. (1965). A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. New York: Random House.

White, Theodore H.…… [read more]

Fire Service Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fire Service

The Hackensack Fire Department was established in the year 1871, and its origins in fact date back to 1864, when a meeting was held in the city of Hackensack with all the citizens present, in order to find an effective way to deal with the constant fires ravaging the village and surrounding areas. However, when it was discovered… [read more]

Tragedy at Finger Lakes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (466 words)
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This makes sense when you consider that Americans are the heaviest people in the world and Michigan residents are the heaviest in the United States. Certainly, most of those people aboard weighed more than 140 pounds, which may have resulted in the boat being overloaded.

Since the accident the boat's license has been suspended because the rules call for two employees to be aboard, the Captain and a crewmember. An extra person on hand might have seen the wake coming and warned the captain in time to prevent such a sharp turn. A crewmember might have noticed that people needed to spread out more evenly. A crewmember trained in life saving might have saved some of the old folks who got trapped underneath and couldn't swim out on their own.

Finally, there is the matter of testing the captain for alcohol and drugs, which was not done. Governor Pataki is calling for a State requirement to test whenever there is an accident. Such a rule would have protected the captain from the inevitable suspicion that the media cast upon him right away. And if the captain were drinking, it would have insured his being held accountable. Tragedies on the water don't just happen. They occur when combinations of unsafe factors are present and then challenged by the unexpected. For the Ethan Allen it was a wake…… [read more]

Presidential Administration Continues to Falter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (355 words)
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George Bush and other members of the government do not apologize for their conflicting interests or for their lack of ethical outlook. Many citizens find the administration's attitude appalling, but the situation has gone so far as to make it darkly humorous.

The United States has also become the laughing stock of other nations, which continues to devalue American currency and the potential for future trade. Political and diplomatic relationships with formerly friendly nations have been shattered. Ordinary American citizens risk ridicule and even violence when they travel because of the unscrupulous actions of the Bush administration.

Far from being merely a liberal rant, my attitudes stem from concern and common sense. I don't mind if an American President nominates a Supreme Court Justice with whom he agrees with philosophically. However, I do mind when the nominee has no prior judiciary experience, like Harriet Miers. The American government is a primary concern for all of its citizens as well as for the rest of the world; I hope we can clean up our…… [read more]

Travel in Order to Greatly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Bush has simply declared war on a war he himself began. Without the ascendance of George Bush to the White House, it is probable that:

a) Al Qaeda attacks would have continued to be the relatively minor incidents they had been throughout the Clinton years and before.

b) The U.S. would not have lost many European allies' goodwill over its incursions into Afghanistan and Iraq

c) Great Britain would not have suffered terror attacks of greater magnitude for its role in assisting the U.S. In Iraq.

While the electioneering in Florida was well-reported -- from the turning away of qualified voters who were probably Democrats because they were definitely minority ethnics, to the refusal of Kathleen Harris to abide by the state's own election laws -- it was the Supreme Court of the United States that crowned George Bush. While the Supreme Court, because of its ability to affect policy, has been an issue in elections, it had never before been the arbiter of one (Fitzpatrickd, 2002).

When it had become clear that something was drastically wrong with the way votes were being counted in Florida, lawyers for both Democrats and Republicans wrangled over the recount, taking it to the biased Florida elections officials and into the Florida legislature and courts. Eventually, unresolved at the state level, the issue ascended to the Supreme Court. "The impasse finally was resolved not by the ballot box but by five justices of an ideologically fractured U.S. Supreme Court who, by stopping the state-wide manual recount of invalidated ballots that had been authorized by the Supreme Court of Florida, effectively made Bush the nation's forty-third president" (Fitzpatrickd, 2002).

In so doing, they delivered to George W. Bush not a popular mandate… [read more]

Declaration of Independence Was Drafted by Thomas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Declaration of Independence was drafted by Thomas Jefferson during the period June 11 to June 28, 1776 and was considered to be the nation's most respected sign of liberty and Jefferson's long-term testimonial. Jefferson employed illustrious and memorable phrases to take this declaration to the minds of the American people. In this declaration, "Jefferson listed the tyrannies of the British King and expressed the significance of individual liberty in the form of obvious facts with aim to prove to the world the importance of cutting ties with British King and to become independent." This declaration declared the independence of thirteen colonies or states. These states are: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The signers of the Declaration of Independence represented the new states.

In brief, the Declaration of Independence explains the want, the will and the hopes of the people in an elaborate and convincing way with self-explanatory facts. The essence of the Declaration of Independence is as follows. In the sequence of human proceedings, if there arises a necessity of politically connected entities to break up, the reasons for the separations to be explained. With regard to rights, the obvious truths include: all men are created equal; life, liberty and happiness are the birthrights of individuals. "To obtain these rights, men have created governments. If any government fails to provide these rights, it is the rights of the people to remove that government and institute a new government that ensures safety and happiness." In throwing out governments, care should to be taken to ensure that the failures of the government are not temporary. If the government fails to perform for a long time, removal of government should be thought of. It is the responsibility of men to throw out the governments that continuously harass people and official systems. The thirteen colonies of America have undergone such a continuous harassment under British King that the British government needs to be thrown out and these states have to become independent.

The tyrannies of British King include the following. He never accepted good laws; He prevented his…… [read more]

Running for President Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,054 words)
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Running for President

Like many of my fellow Americans, I am dissatisfied with the current state of affairs in my country. Every day I see homeless people begging for change on the streets; I meet other people who can't afford proper medical care; I know many men and women whose full-time jobs don't pay them enough to meet some of the basic requirements for living. Families who can't afford day care services, children who don't have access to the latest textbooks or technologies in their schools: these situations shouldn't exist in the United States of America. For ten years I worked hard as a civil servant in Capital City and later, as a State Senator so that I could contribute whatever I could to the solution. Now I am asking for your vote for President of the United States. As President my platform is clear. I am asking for a complete overhaul of the budget. I want to increase spending on the arts and on education so that all men, women, and children can maximize their potential as unique individuals. I want to eliminate poverty and homelessness, conditions that I believe should not exist in the wealthiest nation in the world. These are just a few of my domestic policies I will implement as President.

Yet I know that being the President of the United States of America isn't all about domestic needs. That's why I served for ten years in the United States military and also as a foreign diplomat. I have traveled all around the world and I assure you that I have what it takes to do the job. I feel that America needs to change courses regarding its foreign policy. The policies of the last administration served only to isolate the United States of America, to lose us allies and win us deadly enemies. I will change that through a strict and firm, yet reasonable policy of diplomacy and right action. We are but one nation in a world with hundreds of other sovereign states. While we must respect the rights of other nations to pursue their own means of prospering and their own ways of life, we must also learn how to live together in the modern world. New policies regarding the environment, world trade, and defense must be created to reflect the dreams of all persons: dreams of peace and prosperity.

And while I do have much respect for national sovereignty, I also know that sometimes we might need to take action against oppression and tyranny in order to make the whole world a better place for all persons. I assure you that I will never put the lives of Americans at risk for unjust or unreasonable causes. I assure you that I will never take preemptive action unilaterally. I assure you that whenever our nation becomes involved in thorny military affairs that this presidency will work together with other world leaders to come up with multilateral strategies and plans of action.

After the… [read more]

Demise of Traditional Hierarchical Distinctions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Just like today, America wanted heroes to look up to. They idolized General Washington and made him the first President. They also recognized intellectuals like John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were great leaders, and made them President, too. However, American was filled with working people who farmed, hunted, trapped, and lived off the land. They wanted their own heroes to look up to, and Andrew Jackson fit the bill perfectly. Historian Ward continues, "Andrew Jackson was felt to symbolize the fact that the time had already come when all Americans could begin life on a fair field" (Ward 178). Equality was a goal mentioned in the Bill of Rights and the Constitution, and so, Americans wanted it, and they wanted it quickly. Only fifty years after the Revolutionary War, they had it in the "common man" of Andrew Jackson and his controversial presidency. Some people thought he was unequipped to lead the country, and he did come under fire by many opponents who felt he was far too simple-minded for the office. Jackson did not have a higher education, but many felt he had "natural" sense and abilities, which made him a great leader (Ward 52). Thus, he was not academically above the common man, as many other politicians had been, he was their social equal -- a farmer who lived off the land, and so, he was their choice for President, too.

The truth is, Jackson was a wealthy farmer, and so, he may have been socially above the people who identified with him. However, this did not matter either in a society that was reestablishing itself and recreating societal rules. Jackson was a simple farmer to many people, and that did not matter to them. In fact, it made him more appealing to them. Americans no longer wanted to look up to someone like a king, who held himself far above the "common" man and created artificial layers of society. Americans wanted to create something new and different to match their radical idea of democracy, and so, they broke from European tradition and embraced the common, the uneducated, and the working man as symbols of everything that made America great. There was just one problem with this view of society. It was not real. All Americans were not equal, because there were still slaves (Jackson himself was a slave owner). There were still "savages" who had to be dealt with. Americans wanted equality, but not among everyone, only among white males. Women were still lower on the social ladder, too, and did not have the rights men enjoyed, such as voting and owning their own property. Therefore, the idea of equality in society was evolving, and Americans enjoyed more freedom from societal hierarchies than ever before, but they still had a long way to go to create a truly equal society. It only took fifty years for society to evolve to the Jacksonian era, it would take another hundred and more for blacks to gain equality, and if… [read more]

Consequences of the Abolition of Slavery on Blacks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,254 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Consequences of Abolition on Ex-Slaves

Drawbacks of the 13th Amendment

Most people view the abolition of slavery in a positive light. The 13th amendment is credited with ending slavery and involuntary servitude "except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted" (NPS, 1997). Though the emancipation of slaves was at first viewed as a triumphant success for the people it affected, there were many drawbacks. Most of the slaves that were freed did not embark on a life filled with the pursuit of happiness and freedom.

Instead many slaves actually struggled to survive and make ends meat in a society that still looked upon ex-slaves as 'second class citizens.' The notion of ex- slaves as second class citizens the many hardships they faced after passage of the 13th amendment are explored in greater detail below.

Many slaves experienced hardship after abolition. Ex-slaves own accounts attest to the difficulty a number of slaves had finding homes and jobs and protecting themselves from prejudiced and discriminatory behavior (Nichols, 1969). Whereas many slaves had grown up on plantations where they had a roof to cover their head and consistent meals to eat, many found themselves forced out onto the 'street' with nothing to rely on. Many had no job, no home and no education they could rely on to find a reasonable way to make a living for themselves in the world.

The opportunities that existed for most ex-slaves were not considered optimal. Most ex-slaves were still viewed with a great degree of prejudice. Ex-slaves were not afforded the same freedoms as their white counterparts, and there were few people initially that stood up to represent the masses of ex-slaves that had been released so that there was adequate representation among them. Many were turned out and didn't know where to go or how to start living the life of a 'freed' man. Some moved to Canada where they found the environment was less discriminatory and prejudice, though there was still discrimination even in Canada and Europe during the time of abolition (Nichols, 1969).

A cultural gap also existed between the races that even today are considered unsettled and somewhat widespread (White, 1989). From a cultural perspective, the ideals and beliefs that many African-Americans held dear were by and large very different from the cultural norms and ideals held by most white plantation owners and other white citizens. Thus many freed slaves had to struggle to find their place in the new nation and settle themselves within communities that by and large still viewed them as outsiders or intruders. The comfort level of most ex-slaves remained largely unsettled, except when ex-slaves were among ex-slaves and whites among whites.

Many ex-slaves were not freed into a world that welcomed them equally, and struggled for years over the issue of equality after the abolitionist movement (Moller, 2004). For the most part ex-slaves were confined to live in a world that promoted segregation and separation. They did not have the opportunity to… [read more]

President Bush's Admission in Senegal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In fact, if at all there is any difference in the three articles, it lies in the question of reparation. Robinson does not raise the issue at all except by implication, when he says, "the value of Jourdon Anderson's stolen labor was to compound itself ... through the blood lines of the white man who had owned him ...." (p. 241) Carrillo and Burke, in comparison, are pretty much unequivocal in their reporting of and sympathy for the current reparation movements organized by the black and bracero communities. However, there is one critical difference between the bracero and black reparation movements, although it does not in any way reflect on the injustice that has been done. And, that is, the braceros are fighting to win their money back while the blacks are asking to be compensated for generations of unpaid labor.

Following President Bush's admission in Senegal that the United States was mindful of the past wrongs it had committed in enslaving stolen people from Africa, Carrillo (2003) explores the possible gains for the reparations movement.

However, Carrillo does more than simply focus on the "residual value" gained by the reparations movement from what she terms as a slip on President Bush's part. For, she also takes great pains to place in context the significance of Goree Island's notorious "Door of No Return." Carrillo achieves this through descriptions that bring alive the horrors of a place that had witnessed, "human beings ... delivered and sorted and weighed and branded with the marks of commercial enterprises and loaded as cargo on a voyage without return." Indeed, Carrillo is unsparing in her efforts to describe the anguish suffered by slaves in societies that prospered by their unpaid labor, while remaining indifferent to their plight.

Thus, Carrillo places the efforts of the current reparations movement in the context of one of the largest migrations of history, which was also one of the greatest crimes of history. In fact, to further drive home her point, she even quotes Deadria Farmer-Paellmann, the attorney and declared plaintiff in a class-action suit against 19 blue-chip corporations for slavery reparations: "Our lawsuit ... is based on this fact. As with President Bush, international law recognizes that slavery was a crime ... against humanity for which there is no statute of limitation."

Besides placing the injustice of slavery in context, Carrillo's article also explores the possible gains for the reparation movement as a consequence of President Bush's Goree Island speech. As she points out, encouraged by the President's speech, it appears that the reparations movement is now calling on Bush to urge congressional support for Rep. Conyers' H.R. 40 bill to study proposals for reparations.

Works Cited

Burke, G. "Labor's lost legacy." The Sacramento Bee. August 22, 2004. Accessed Nov. 25,

2004: http://www.sacbee.com/content/politics/nation/story/10469935p-11389323c.html

Carrillo, K.J. "Reparations movement looks to gain from Bush's Goree Island slip." The

New York Amsterdam News.…… [read more]

Thomas Paine and Benjamin Franklin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,122 words)
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By all accounts, Franklin was a secure human in all areas of his life, private and public. Thomas Paine on the other hand, seems to have had a more troubled private life, widowed and then divorced, which may or may not have had some bearing on his public personality (Paine pp). After befriending Franklin in England, Paine became editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine and published anonymously several publications, including African Slavery in America, in which he condemned the practice (Paine pp). In 1776, he published his most famous work, a fifty page pamphlet called, Common Sense, advocating the colonies become independent from Great Britain (Paine pp). He served briefly under General Nathanael Greene and his series of pamphlets published between 1776-1783, called The American Crisis, was so inspiring that

George Washington ordered them read to his troops (Paine pp). Paine was appointed secretary of the Committee of Foreign Affairs by the Second Continental Congress, however some two years later he lost his post due to a political dispute and then became clerk of the Pennsylvania legislature (Paine pp). Despite his own lack of income, he established a fund to support needy soldiers, and although he himself applied to Congress for financial help, his plea was buried by his opponents (Paine pp). New York finally gave him in a farm in New Rochelle (Paine pp).

Paine returned to England in 1787, and in 1791 and 1792 he published Rights of Man, in two parts, which was the most famous of all replies to the condemnatory Reflections Upon the French Revolution by the British statesman Edmund Burke (Paine pp). This was also an analysis of the weaknesses of European society, proposing such remedies as republican government and progressive income taxes (Paine pp). The book sold more than a million copies before suppressed by the government and Paine charged with seditious libel (Paine pp). Paine fled to France and was elected deputy to the National Convention where he generally voted with the moderate faction known as the Girodins, who favored the exile of King Louis XVI, rather than execution (Paine pp). However, once again, Paine was involved in a political conflict and when the leader of the radical faction, Maximilen de Robespierre, took offense, Paine was imprisoned for a year, after which he regained his National Convention seat (Paine pp). Paine published Part I of his book The Age of Reason while still in prison, Part II in 1795 and Part III in 1807 (Paine pp). In this writing, Paine's objection to organized religion was misinterpreted as a promotion of atheism and unfortunately this reputation alienated most of his friends, old and new (Paine pp). With the help of President Thomas Jefferson, Paine returned to the United States in 1802, however the public still had the same negative opinion of him (Paine pp).

Apart from his marital misfortune, Paine's youth may have played a part in his unfortunate life. Twenty years younger than Franklin, he may have found himself in the major political… [read more]

Autobiography of Sonny Montgomery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (852 words)
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In fact, although a Democrat, like many Southern 'Dixie-crats' Montgomery seemed to feel most comfortable with Ronald Reagan's terms in office.

Montgomery explicitly calls himself a 'Boll Weevils' a Southern senator who encouraged those of his ideological ilk to break party lines to support a Republican President's legislative agenda. Montgomery actually formed a club of such Democrats. Regardless of what one feels about the ideological legacy of the Reagan Revolution of the 1980's, Montgomery's stress upon organization and teamwork in Congress is commendable and reflective of his communal experiences in the United States army. Alone, a man is just a man, but with other human beings, one individual can move mountains, Sonny Montgomery always believed.

Sonny Montgomery: The Veteran's Champion is mostly thus a chronicle of Montgomery's public life, once he was elected and after his wartime service, but Montgomery states that for him his public commitment to service was the most important thing he accomplished in his life, and cannot be separated from his personal commitment to the United States and its values and government. The book is affectionate towards Montgomery's home life in its tone, but although respective and appreciative, it ultimately retains his family's need for privacy.

Montgomery cites, as his proudest accomplishment, the Montgomery G.I. Bill that reformed the original 1947 GI Bill. The first GI Bill gave all of America's soldiers the benefit of obtaining a free college education. Historians today in retrospect give this bill credit with instituting an important leveling influence in American society. Because of their service, young men whom would never have dreamed of seeking higher education were able to obtain important academic and vocational skills at institutions of post-secondary learning, spanning from trade schools to the Ivy League. A new breed and brand of college graduate was created, and Montgomery was one of the number of young and eager college students the first GI Bill created.

Despite Montgomery's subsequent conservative agenda, he still had a strong sense of liberalism, and of the need to extend benefits to those deserving men and women of society whom wanted opportunities to better themselves. Thus, the Montgomery G.I. bill gave all of the nation's currently returning soldiers an education, by using the legislature's power to extend benefits to thousands of soldiers in the nation's all-volunteer service. Many of these young men and women were minority individuals, again introducing a complex note to this Southern Democrat's legacy as 'the veteran's politician,' and forming an important coda of compassion to his conservative career in…… [read more]

Princess Diana and President Clinton Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,361 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The fundamental difference between Diana and Bill Clinton would appear to be one of birth and of circumstance. Diana was born as a noble woman, eligible for marriage to a prince.

This in itself reinforces the public paradigm of fairy princess, a legacy that follows her to this day, years after her death. Diana represented a fantasy in a world… [read more]

Smith and Kidron, the End Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


After completing his studies at George Washington University, Saakashvili earned a degree from Columbia Law School. He once said, "I was really raised on American democracy, not only my studies but much more. JFK is my idol." Due to his avid support of the United States, Saakashvili would certainly want to establish a strong relationship with his adopted country, if only to promote the vitality of his homeland. Although he has employed directly confrontational tactics to establish himself within the government, advocates such as Alexander Lomaia, executive director of the Open Society Georgia Foundation, declare that he has only posed a threat to those who contributed to the dysfunctional operation of governmental affairs.

Iraq is certainly another example of how a state has fallen victim to incessant warfare in part to the end of the Cold War. The abrupt withdrawal of Soviet forces in neighboring states like Afghanistan in essence created utter chaos, a perfect environment for dictatorships such as that of Saddam Hussein to seize control. The United States, particularly during the administration of George W. Bush, has taken a unilateral approach in the attempt to overthrow the absolute regime. Smith and Kidron allude to the argument that this method may be ineffective by saying that "America's international agenda will be heavily influenced by what others do," meaning that international organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the United Nations (UN) must play an integral role in order for the United States to achieve their goals abroad.

James Dobbins is also an advocate for a multilateral approach to American foreign policy. He contends that the Bush administration would have been better prepared for the aftermath of its military campaign in Iraq if it had heeded the lessons of the United States' perpetual peacekeeping efforts in the Balkans. Dobbins believes that the current administration is modeling its foreign policy after the American occupation of Germany and Japan after World War II. As stated by Dobbins himself,

Iraq in 2003 looks more like Yugoslavia in 1996 than Germany and Japan in 1945. What they have not done is look to the models worked out in the 1990's for sharing the burden and allowing others to participate in the management of the enterprise.

In order to rectify the Bush administration's flawed approach, Dobbins suggests a three tiered plan: 1) the United States should expedite the transition to a provisional government, 2), the American-led occupation force headed by Paul Bremer must be replaced by an international administration, 3) NATO should take on the peacekeeping mission in Iraq.

The end of the Cold War undeniably caused a myriad of civil wars, particularly in former Soviet territories. The disintegration of the local Soviet authorities inevitably created a series of states vulnerable to anarchical organizations determined to unleash and wield their power. Though states such as Georgia and Iraq have suffered the consequences of this transition, there are signs suggesting that political leaders are finally purging themselves of lingering sentiments resulting from the… [read more]

U.S. Tech Jobs Transferred Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another drawback in outsourcing is that it is quite tough to transfer high- cost work to low-cost region. Forrester reported tech executives surveyed last fall by 25% on projects by shifting to overseas. A software engineer fresh from college in India may earn $5,000 a year, as compared to approximately $50,000 in the United States (Geewax, 2003).

This new wave of technology outsourcing that involves tasks with greater skills is cutting this industry's bone, endangering to delay the three-year United States economic downturn.

Among many who oppose the outsourcing trend includes stalwarts Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Microsoft, IBM hold opinion that this will usher in the end of American domination in technology (Geewax, 2003).

Roughly 27,000 technology jobs moved overseas in 2000, according to a November study by Forrester Research. It predicts that number will mushroom to 472,000 by 2015 if companies continue to farm out computer work at today's frenzied pace. According to Forrester, companies in the United States and Europe will spend 28% of their information technology budgets on overseas work in the next two years (Rachel, 2003).

Several opined that sending tech jobs abroad particularly to India might cause United States tech workers' wages to rust. According to the Economic Policy Institute, non-inflation-adjusted wages for tech workers increased 1.7% between the fourth quarter of 2001 and the fourth quarter of 2002, which is certainly not ample in order to keep up with the period's inflation rate of 2.2%. Also, according to consulting firm Cap Gemini Ernst & Young, an average computer programmer in India costs $20 per hour in wages and benefits, while an American with a comparable degree and experience costs $65 per hour (Rachel, 2003).


To conclude, there is growth in United States' economy as well as in creating jobs. But as they have been moved abroad, these foreigners are working at less earning; for instance, a United States beginner computer programmer might earn $60,000 a year, while similar job in India pays them less than $6,000 (Rachel, 2003).


Jeff, Meisner. Exclusive Reports. Sea change: Overseas outsourcing could pose problems for tech sector. American City Business Journals Inc.

Black, Jane; Kripalani, Manjeet (2003). Special Report: Emerging Tech Markets. India: Hungry for Info Tech. Business Week Magazine.

Geewax, Marilyn (2003). Protests grow as tech jobs move offshore. The Atlanta Journal-


A www.ajc.com

Bjorhus,…… [read more]

Martin Luther King, Jr Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,165 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Clashes between black demonstrators and police using police dogs and fire hoses generated newspaper headlines through the world. In June, President Kennedy reacted to the Birmingham protests and the obstinacy of segregationist Alabama Governor George Wallace by agreeing to submit broad civil rights legislation to Congress (which eventually passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964).

Later mass demonstrations in many communities culminated in a march on August 28, 1963, that attracted more than 250,000 protesters to Washington, D.C. Addressing the marchers from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" oration.

During the year following the March, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s reputation grew as he became Time magazine's Man of the Year and, in December 1964, the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. Despite fame and praise, however, Martin Luther King, Jr. faced many challenges to his leadership.

Malcolm X's message of self-defense and black nationalism expressed the discontent and anger of northern, urban blacks more effectively than Martin Luther King, Jr.'s conservative moderation did. During the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march, Martin Luther King, Jr. And his lieutenants were able to keep intra-movement conflicts sufficiently under control to bring about passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, but while participating in a 1966 march through Mississippi, Martin Luther King, Jr. encountered strong criticism from "Black Power" proponent Stokely Carmichael.

Shortly afterward, white counter-protesters in the Chicago area physically assaulted Martin Luther King, Jr. In the Chicago area during an unsuccessful effort to transfer non-violent protest techniques to the urban North. Despite these leadership conflicts, Martin Luther King, Jr. remained committed to the use of non-violent techniques.

Early in 1968, he initiated a Poor Peoples campaign designed to confront economic problems that had not been addressed by early civil rights reforms.

Martin Luther King, Jr.'s effectiveness in achieving his objectives was limited not merely by divisions among blacks, however, but also by the increasing resistance he encountered from national political leaders.

FBI director J. Edgar Hoover's already extensive efforts to undermine Martin Luther King, Jr.'s leadership were intensified during 1967 as urban racial violence escalated and Martin Luther King, Jr. criticized American intervention in the Vietnam War.

Martin Luther King, Jr. had lost the support of many white liberals, and his relations with the Lyndon Johnson administration were at a low point when he was assassinated on April 4, 1968, while trying to assist a garbage workers' strike in Memphis. After his death, Martin Luther King, Jr. remained a controversial symbol of the African-American civil rights struggle, revered by many for his martyrdom on behalf of non-violence and condemned by others for his militancy and rebellious views.


Martin Luther King, Jr. was a man dedicated to peaceful solutions. His intelligence, ability to speak out without fear for what he believed to be true, and his willingness to stand for what was right even when no one else stood with him are all characteristics that will keep him forever in the… [read more]

Vigilance and Discretion Defeat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


I must be active; constantly on the lookout for him. Vigilance means standing like a guard upon a watchtower that faces both within and without.

I take discretion in the context of this article to mean using good judgement. Discretion says to me that my vigilance is wasted if I am foolish. It says to be realistic about what is out of place so I can recognize the spies of the Hun when they are around me and have the courage to act when something is amiss.

Appropriately in today's world of ever-increasing threats, there are many Huns to be wary of. Part of retaining my freedom and way of life, even if that means simply the freedom to not be afraid, requires me to defeat the Hun through discretion and vigilance.


Article Faxed:

Although no sources were asked for, if you are curious about the quotes the Winston Churchill one can be found in:

Churchill to the U.S. Congress 19 May 1943 "Onwards to Victory" Cassell Edition p.100

The Thomas Jefferson and Eleanor Roosevelt quotes are abundantly available on…… [read more]

Demographic Composition of North Central Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One of the reasons for this is that the number of births has decreased between 1951 and 1973. There were 7,281 births in 1951 and only 5,100 in 1973. The births in the United States dropped but not like the area of North Central Wisconsin going from 3,823,000 to 3,137,000. One of the reasons for this is that the number of young people turning 18 has dropped. Often young people that attend college in an area do not settle in that area. This is definitely true for North Central Wisconsin.

It is predicted that the number of people age sixty-five will rapidly increase from 2002 to 2016 from approximately 3,900 to 6,300. This will open up approximately 5,500 jobs each year. The problem is that if people do not receive the training to take the place of these seniors the companies will move their businesses. Another serious problem is that there will need to be more health care workers. This will be a problem because the trained health care workers are leaving to different areas. "It is even more alarming that we see the same thing occurring in northcentral Wisconsin despite the fact that we have several colleges in the area, including a state universities as well as two-year university campuses" (3). Even though the rate of employment has increased in North Central Wisconsin, the comparison of ratio of employment to the United States is lower in the North Central area of Wisconsin.

The population of North Central Wisconsin compared to the United States consists mostly of whites with only 5.7 African-Americans and 0.9 American Indian. This area has more females than males. The number of children has continued to decrease in this area beginning back in 1950.

North Central Wisconsin has continued to lose population since 1900, while the United States has continued to increase its population. During 1950, North Central Wisconsin had its highest rate of young population; but over the years the problem of keeping young people has been a problem. One that must be addressed or the North Central Wisconsin area will one day entirely lose its population.

Works Cited

American Fact Finder" U.S. Census Bureau Quick Tables Wisconsin Available Online at http://factfinder.census.gov/home/en/datanotes/expsf1j.htm

Forstall, Richard…… [read more]

Executive Privilege After Vietnam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Dorf). Nixon resisted on grounds of executive privilege. (Dorf).

According to the Court, there is a "valid need for protection of communications between high Government officials and those who advise and assist them in the performance of their manifold duties." (Dorf). The Court noted that "[h]uman experience teaches that those who expect public dissemination of their remarks may well temper… [read more]

Reconstruction After Civil War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


To do this, they shaped Black Codes. While Codes were exclusive to the post-Civil War south, they encompassed some of the antebellum limits on free blacks, northern apprenticeship laws, and the Freedmen's Bureau and the War Department policy. Codes regulated civil and legal rights, from marriage to the right to hold and sell property to the destined definition of African-Americans… [read more]

Politics - Texas v. Johnson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,223 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Since the interest of Texas in preserving the flag - as a sign of nationhood and national unity - is related to expression in this case, it falls outside the O'Brien test. Pp. 406-410.


The State accepted that under the circumstances, the burning of the flag by Gregory Johnson comprised expressive conduct, which allowed him to invoke the First Amendment. Taking place as it did - right at the conclusion of a demonstration happening together with the Republican National Convention - the expressive, explicitly political nature of the conduct was intentional as well as overwhelmingly apparent. Pp. 402-406.


The conviction of Gregory Johnson was not justified by the latter interest. The restriction on political expression of Gregory Johnson was content based, as the statute of the State was not focused to protect the physical integrity of the flag in all conditions, but rather was designed to protect it from intentional and known abuse that could cause serious offense to others. The act was consequently subject to "the most exacting scrutiny." Boos v. Barry, 485 U.S. 312.


Even if the United States Flag is involved, the government cannot prohibit the verbal or nonverbal expression of an idea just on the basis of the fact that the society finds the idea offensive or disagreeable. Additionally by elimination of expressive conduct relating to the flag, a State may not foster its own view of the flag due to the reason that the government may not allow chosen symbols to be used for the communication of a limited set of messages. Furthermore, the Court did not make an exception to these principles safeguarded by the First Amendment for the American flag alone. Pp. 410-422.


Finally, the Court addressed the highly emotional issue of flag burning by Gregory Johnson in Texas v. Johnson, and reverted the conviction of Gregory Johnson for burning the American flag during the Republican National Convention in Dallas, Texas (1984). The Court concluded the flag for being a burning that was "speech." It determined that the flag defilement statute was aimed at the communicative impact delivered by the message of Gregory Johnson.

Nevertheless, the Court noted that laws of neutral speech, like the ones generally applicable to public burning, could be constitutionally applied against flag burners.

In the Light of Texas v. Johnson's Verdict

The next term the Court again confronted the flag burning issue. This time it had to consider the constitutionality of the Federal Flag Protection Act of 1989 that was passed by an unhappy Congress with the decision of the Court in favor of Gregory Johnson. However, the Court again ruled in favor of the protester - a man who set fire to the United States Flag on the steps of the United States Capitol - in realizing that the act was an effort to suppress unpopular speech.


The decisions of the Court in the flag burning cases, especially in relation to Texas v. Johnson have led to numerous attempts in passing a… [read more]

Right to Privacy and Criminal Searches Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (480 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fourth Amendment Protection: Thermal Imaging

The Fourth Amendment provides citizens with very specific rights and expectations. It is put in place to ensure that individuals are protected in environments in which they may expect a specific level of privacy. One of these environments is the private home. Law abiding citizens who enter their home have the right to expect the government not to intrude within this environment without a warrant. In the decision resulting from Kyllo v. United States, it was found that even thermal imaging devices constitute an invasion of privacy that an individual might expect within the home. Hence, my view is that the advice was incorrect, and that I am not allowed to use any device to determine any contents within a private home without a warrant.

The case of Kyllo v. United States focuses on suspicion of an individual growing marijuana in his private home. The officer in question used a thermo imaging device and found that there was a significant difference in temperature between the home and others surrounding it, suggesting that marijuana growing equipment was used in the home. The government's argument was that no expectation of privacy was inherent in the use of the imaging device, and that no intimate details of the suspect's life were revealed.

Ultimately, however, it was decided that the device still revealed information from inside the house without the probable cause necessary to make this revelation in the…… [read more]

Civil Rights Does the Patriot Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,276 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Civil Rights

Does the Patriot Act Violate our Civil Rights?

When viewed through the lens of Constitutional Civil Rights, The Patriot Act is a monster. Conceived and enacted in post-9/11 hysteria, the Act systematically decimates Civil Liberties. Furthermore, despite later legislation that supposedly tempered the Act's more egregious violations, the Patriot Act remains a monument to governmental oppression in a… [read more]

Era What Would the U.S Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


But Progressives were a tad deluded on this point. The Fed quickly became what it is today -- a currency devaluating monster; big business (promoted by Progressives like Teddy Roosevelt) got the "green" light on the political level, while the famous "Trust Buster" got applause for "breaking" the big corporate trusts and monopolies. (Roosevelt didn't really break up anything but rather, like the Sorcerer's Apprentice, chopped the big broomstick into a thousand smaller broomsticks -- all still marching to the drum of the same corporate entity in the end).

The Yellow Journalists got to whip up public scorn through the media. When the U.S.S. Maine blew up, the newspapermen were quick to blame it on the Spanish. The Spanish-American War followed and a new era of Imperialism was ushered in, with American forces taking their warships all the way to the Philippines. Had there been no Progressive Era, there would have been no new age of Imperialism, America would have remained isolationist, and men like famous author Mark Twain would not to have had to write some compelling arguments in support of the Anti-Imperialist League.

On the other hand, men like Upton Sinclair may not have written books like The Jungle, which raised social awareness about the deplorable conditions of the meat-packing industry at this time. Thanks to his "expose," the Food and Drug Administration was created in response to public outcry. Whether or not the FDA has been put to good use since then or merely become another tool of Big Business and Big Pharma is quite another story. Perhaps the Progressive Era should never have happened -- in spite of the numerous needs and ills of the…… [read more]

Close Was Confederate Victory Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


[footnoteRef:4] Yet even so, McClellan's likelihood of negotiating with the Confederacy to end the war, much like his career as a general, remains an open question. While many in the North were certainly tired of the war, and expressed the sentiment that it was best to let the South go if it was so desirous of leaving, such a tremendous investment of manpower had been made, even the cautious Democratic General McClellan did not advocate wholesale withdrawal from the conflict. [3: McPherson 2002] [4: Steven E. Woodworth This Great Struggle: America's Civil War, (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011), 297]

The Confederacy hoped that if its armies could extract heavy penalties, the North would elect a candidate willing to make peace with the South, despite its undeniably greater political and military weaknesses. [footnoteRef:5] Confederate hopes of success were shattered by Sherman's successful taking of Atlanta, in a strategy that has now come to be called 'total war.' Sherman's destruction of railroads and personal property were designed to isolate the South from critical supplies. But Sherman's taking of Atlanta was far from easy. Sherman vowed to "take every life, every acre of land, every particle of property" to achieve his objective.[footnoteRef:6] Sherman's march destroyed the South economically as well as militarily. Had Sherman not taken Atlanta, Lincoln's reelection would have been in greater doubt, and put a weaker leader and negotiating partner into the seat of the presidency. It would not have been a death-knell for the North's efforts but it would have protracted the duration of the war and strained the support of the northern public to the breaking-point. [5: Woodworth 247] [6: Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 223]

Works Cited

Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.

McPherson, James M. "Could the South Have Won?" The New York Review of Books.

June 2002. [4 Aug 2012]


Woodworth, Steven E. This Great Struggle: America's…… [read more]

Health and Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Health and Life: Improvements in Mining Safety

Workplace injuries are one of the leading causes of fatal and non-fatal injuries in the world. However, some types of jobs and some industries have more injuries than others, simply based on the nature of the work. Though many advances have been made in the past 100 years in regard to worker safety on the job, and a whole organization (OSHA) has been built in the United States around maintaining workplace safety standards, there are still some industries that are dangerous by their very nature. Mining is one of the most dangerous work industries there is, and this is universal; whether the mine is in the United States or another country, whether safety standards are in place to protect workers or not, there are just too many variables in the mining industry that can cause accidents to happen. Sometimes these accidents are fatal, sometimes they are not, but they happen to mine workers far more often than to workers in most other industries. Because of the prevalence of mine accidents, a number of safety measures have either been proposed or introduced in recent years in an effort to improve safety for mine workers while on the job (Dhillon 2010).

Beginning with the Sago mine disaster in 2006, public concern for the safety of mine workers reached an all time high since the 1970s. There were very few mining injuries or accidents in the 1970s, due to new mining safety standards that were introduced then. From that time until 2006, the mining industry seemed fairly stable as far as safety was concerned. However, from 2000 to 2006, there were a number of mining disasters, culminating with the Sago mine disaster, that resulted in 37 deaths. These disasters lead to public demand for additional safety standards for mine workers. Congress duly passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act (MINER) in 2006. The MINER act requires many new safety measures in today's mines. These requirements are direct improvements on the deficiencies that lead to the previous disasters and the fatalities resulting from them. The new safety measures of the MINER act are meant to eliminate…… [read more]

Are We Willing to Give Up Privacy for Safety or Civil Liberties? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … willing to give up Privacy for Safety or Civil Liberties?

"We don't choose the things we believe in; they choose us."- Lamar Burgess

In the twenty-first century one of the most vital concerns with regards to the usage of technology is privacy. As a knee jerk reaction, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) is searching for the finest of resources and proposals to make the sharing of information more organized, proper and complete. These objectives can only be attained if the privacy is intact and the security is on high alert during the process of transferring of information, to preserve its well being of the personal information of the inhabitants of our country against the newly emerging technologies. The question, hence, that rises here is this: Are civil liberties or security more important than one's private lives? The fact of the matter is that past experience has shown that one aspect is always compromised for the achievement of the other. If privacy grows to be non-existent with the application of more advanced security or civil liberties protocols, then these protocols are not really fulfilling their purpose or leading to newer security threats or civil liberties violations. The answer might be in moderation -- which is perhaps why the debate is still ongoing as not many influential individuals can choose between one over the other in the long run. This paper will aim to discuss this very question in light of the actions taken by the U.S. government in the past as well as draw in opinions and viewpoints expressed in the movie "Minority Report."


One recent movie that addresses these concerns is the Minority Report, starring Tom Cruise.…… [read more]

Liberty and the Pursuit Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Did the Founding Fathers properly think through the aspect of what they called "unalienable rights?" Perhaps they had, and perhaps some of them even agreed that the wording of said rights is vague. After all, they were also well aware of their own precarious situations: they believed it was their right to pursue a happiness that broke them apart from the British king, whose happiness was to subdue theirs. It was in tyranny that these Founding Fathers banded together, and perhaps this was where their idea of rights pertained to. The eradication of tyranny thereby game them the right to their lives, their liberties, and the pursuit of their own happiness.

What do these mean, indeed? Is happiness universally defined (Miners)? Craig's discussion rings sense, though how far he goes to define the three differ from what one personally believes. In all aspects of the unalienable rights, the perspective in which to view them determine the belief. As separate individuals, what manner of person will refuse to believe in one's rights to all three? Surely one, as a person, is entitled the rights by the sheer fact that one is a living, breathing, thinking human being. Yet one puts oneself amidst a world of society, and what, then, prioritizes one's life in the face of another? How does one simply "choose" whose rights are unalienable vs. someone else? How far does government law go in "protecting" the rights of one vs. The rights of the second, or the rights of the third, or the rights of the million? It is a puzzle that continues to astound and to be heavily debated, surely.


Fletcher, William A. "INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES." Northwestern University Law Review. 293-306. Northwestern University School of Law, 2010. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Apr. 2011.

Miners, Zach. "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness." U.S. News Digital Weekly 2.16 (2010): 16. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Apr. 2011.

UShistory.org. "Declaration of Independence." The Declaration of Independence. Web. 19…… [read more]

Populations in Developed and Less Developed Nations Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Populations in Developed / Less Developed Nations

Developed Nations (DN) have more stable populations and grow at a much more moderate rate when compared to Less Developed Nations (LDN). DNs are predicted to grow about 3% between the years 2005 and 2050 while LDNs are predicted to grow about 52% between those two years (p. 147). This is quite a shocking fact and if the population growth goes as predicted, this means that by the year 2050, the LDN will possess over 86% of the world's people (p. 147). This will have major effects on not only the environment but also the quality of life for those living in LDNs.

What are the reasons for the differences in population growth in LDNs vs. DNs? By looking at the United States, an obvious DN, and Bangladesh, a LDN, this paper will try to point out some of the differences in social, economic, and cultural factors that may lead to higher population growth / fertility rates.

Population growth and economic development go hand in hand and they both lead to environmental issues (p. 147). One of the major problems in LDNs with high population growth rates is that there isn't enough food being produced to keep up with all of the people. This is why there have been LDNs that have experienced famine in ways that DNs would find hard to imagine.

The United States, as of 2005, had a population of 296.5 million people with about 14 births per 1000 individuals. The fertility rate for woman in the United States is about 2 children per woman per lifetime. Bangladesh, as of 2005, had a population of 144.2 million people and about 27 births per 1000 individuals -- almost double that of the United States. The total fertility rate is 3 children per woman per lifetime (p. 149).

There are social factors that need to be considered when thinking about why LDNs have higher population / versatility growth rates. One reason is that while people in DNs may…… [read more]

Freedom of the Press Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


First Amendment

The Freedom Of The Press To Cover The War In Iraq

The following editorial was written as a protest by, Dawn Helen, CEO of City Daily News, to the President of the United States in protest of his recent press conference announcing a ban on media coverage of the Iraq War.

It is written in the U.S. Constitution that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press." U.S. Const. amend. I, art. III. It follows that, our freedom of the press is guaranteed by the First Amendment and the right of our reporters to provide media coverage to the citizens of the United States is being violated by your ban, Mr. President. Sir, we understand your concern regarding security for our troops and national security in general, however, it is our position that an outright ban on our First Amendment freedom of the press to cover the War in Iraq openly takes away the rights that we have been guaranteed by our forefathers when they drafted the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution. Because of this, Sir, we request that you lift the ban and permit press coverage of the War in Iraq. Mr. President, in conjunction with our legal department, we have researched and located several legal sources support that our First Amendment Freedom of the Press should not be abridged under these circumstances.

We use the case of Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957), to illustrate. While the decision of this case was later overruled, this case provides historical background as to how the Supreme Court has viewed governmental intrusion into our First Amendment Rights. The Court examined the issue of whether obscenity should be protected under the First Amendment and examined the broader question as to when the government should be allowed to regulate our freedom of the speech and the press. The Court reasoned, "The fundamental freedoms of speech and press have contributed greatly to the development and well-being of our free society and are indispensable to its continued growth. The door barring federal and state intrusion into this area cannot be left ajar; it must be kept tightly closed and opened only the slightest crack necessary to prevent encroachment upon more important interests."

The Court limited the government's power to regulate freedom of speech and the press in terms of obscenity. We use this case to illustrate why the government should not be permitted to limit press coverage. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the door permitting…… [read more]

Contemporary Globalization Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … globalization: interconnectivity and diversity. In terms of interconnectivity, globalization has made it more possible for people from different cultures to come together. Appiah's friend, for example, has a brother who lives in Japan because his wife is Japanese. He had no problem in moving to Japan, although he is from Ghana. At the same time, some of his brothers are in Spain or the United States. Maybe only some decades ago, this would have seemed impossible: people were born in some place and usually spent most of their lives in the same area. Even if they worked in the business segment, traveling would have usually been less common.

In terms of diversity, this is also an argument easy to support. The fact that somebody from Ghana is marrying somebody from Japan, despite all the cultural differences which are so obvious, means that globalization has managed to overpass the potential problems that might arise from this diversity and promote cultural diversity as a mean to bring people together rather than drive them apart.

While Appiah's article is important in bringing in examples and ideas related to the cultural impact of globalization, Jervis's article brings a political perspective to the issue of globalization, one which attempts to explain the perspective of a new, unipolar world. The unipolar world is dominated by the United States, which is the only superpower left after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. As the only superpower, the United States often finds itself in the position…… [read more]

U.S. v. Kroll Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (869 words)
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U.S. versus Knoll

IRAC Analysis: United States v. Kroll. United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. 481 F.2d 884. July 10, 1973.

The central issue at stake in the United States vs. Kroll was the question of what constitutes a valid, warrantless search, specifically regarding a passenger about to board a commercial airliner who was searched by a U.S. Marshall.


When a search is conducted without a warrant, the government is required to show that the search was justified by exceptional circumstances to make the evidence admissible in court. In this case, the government attempted to meet the burden by contending, first, that the defendant had consented to the search and secondly, that the search was necessary for the safety of the passengers on board because it took place under exceptional circumstances. The government said that the defendant was assumed to be a suspected hijacker. The search was originally conduced for weapons and explosives because of the defendant's allegedly suspect status as a hijacker although only contraband narcotics in a small amount were discovered on his person, not anything incriminating regarding the defendant's suspect status as a hijacker, which was the original stated reason for the search.


On a TWA flight, the ticket seller, through a process which is not identified in the case information said that he or she found the defendant suspicious. It was feared that the defendant Kroll was a hijacker. Kroll's driver's license was recorded on his ticket, to notify the security officer at the boarding gate that the defendant fit a hijacker profile and should be searched. The metal hinges on Kroll's attache case activated the magnetometer under which the search took place. The TWA security agent instructed the defendant to place the case on table for inspection. A United States Marshal working with the TWA agent watched the search on Kroll. The Marshall became suspicious because the defendant did not open the file section in the upper part of the attache case. He approached the defendant identified himself as a United States Marshal and directed the defendant to open the file section where he observed a white business envelope that was approximately 9 1/2 inches x 4 inches.

The envelope was described as being light in weight, possessing a very small bulge, approximately 1/4-inch thick and 2 inches across, at one end of the envelope. The rest of the envelope was described as being limp and flat. The Marshal felt that the actions of the defendant regarding the file section and the envelope were 'suspicious' and asked the defendant to empty the contents of…… [read more]