"American History / United States" Essays

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Emancipation Proclamation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The Thirteenth Amendment ensure that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude ... shall exist within the United States."[footnoteRef:3] [3: "Emancipation Proclamation," Date accessed 11 September 2012, http://www.history.com/topics/emancipation-proclamation]

The Emancipation Proclamation is an important document because it highlights how much slavery impacted the conflict between the North and the South. Furthermore, the Emancipation Proclamation made slavery a central issue in the war and should the Confederacy have rejected the order, it would have made them appear as though they cared more about keeping their slaves than anything else. Additionally, the Emancipation Proclamation served to influence foreign policy as many European countries that considered supporting the South could no longer do so because of the issue of slavery.[footnoteRef:4] [4: Steve Jones, "Emancipation Proclamation Was Also Foreign Policy," Date accessed 11 September 2012, http://usforeignpolicy.about.com/od/introtoforeignpolicy/a/Emancipation-Proclamation-Was-Also-Foreign-Policy.htm]

The Emancipation Proclamation is an important historical document not only because it influenced society and foreign policy, but also because it helped to start people's journey to equality, even if that would take more than 100 years to accomplish. Without the Emancipation Proclamation, the United States would not have been able to reunify the North and the South and it is likely that the country would remain divided to this day.


"Emancipation Proclamation." History.com. Accessed September 11, 2012.


Jones, Steven. "Emancipation Proclamation Was Also Foreign Policy." Accessed September

11, 2012. http://usforeignpolicy.about.com/od/introtoforeignpolicy/a/Emancipation-Proclamation-Was-Also-Foreign-Policy.htm

"Lincoln Issues Emancipation Proclamation." History.com. Accessed September 11, 2012.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/lincoln-issues-emancipation-proclamation… [read more]

Amistad and Last Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,286 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The Last of the Mohicans is a 1992 film by Michael Mann based on the eponymous 1826 novel by James Fenimoore Cooper. Although a work of fiction, the film and novel center on the relations between colonials residing in America and the English during the French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years War, which lasted from 1754-1763. The film centers on Hawkeye, the adopted son of Chingachgook and adopted brother of Uncas, the last members of the Mohican tribe, as they try to ensure safe passage for Alice and Cora Munro, as well as Major Duncan Heyward, to Fort William Henry where their father, Colonel Edmund Monro, is stationed. Along the way to Ft. William Henry, Hawkeye, Uncas, and Chingachgook, with the help of Major Heyward, must defend the sisters from Magua who is seeking blood vengeance for a slight committed against him and his family by Colonel Monro. While the group safely makes it to Fort William Henry, the British surrender to the French shortly thereafter and the Munro sisters' lives are once again put in peril by Magua who continues to seek revenge. In the end (of the film), Magua appears to be close to obtaining his "justice," however, Alice -- who was ordered to go with him to quell his blood thirst -- ends up committing suicide after Uncas unsuccessfully attempts to rescue her. Through various encounters between Hawkeye and his family and the colonials that they have befriended over the years, the audience is made aware of the relationship that colonials had with the British and how the British treated their American subjects.

In the film, the audience is given insight into colonial life through the Cameron family and through Jack Winthrop, with whom Hawkeye, Uncas, and Chingachgook, have established a friendship. While at the Cameron's frontier house, Jack Winthrop informs Hawkeye, Uncas, and Chingachgook that he is currently in the process of forming a militia for the British army. Although these militiamen are putting their families and homes at risk by leaving them unmanned, the same British army assures them that they will be allowed to return to their families to defend their homes. Because of this assurance, the colonials do not second guess the British and willingly leave their homes and families in order to help defend Fort William Henry, which was, at the time, in need of reinforcements and being heavily bombarded by the French and their Native American allies.

It is clear that the British saw the colonials as a disposable resource as can be seen through their untrustworthy promise to the colonials. While the British had agreed to release colonial militias to defend their homes should they need to, they reneged on their promise claiming that their cause was more important than that of the colonials. Furthermore, they are willing to persecute any person that disobeys the British army's commands. This issue arises when Hawkeye, Uncas, and Chingachgook stumble upon the Cameron's home only to find that its… [read more]

Harry Truman Harry S Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (659 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


While he did obtain a lot of success on the foreign policy front, he failed to prevent tax cuts and to control price controls, not to mention the strict restrictions on Labor Unions.

By election year, 1948, the public approval rating showed that Truman's popularity had dropped down to a mere 36% with the general opinion being that there was no possibility of Truman ever winning the Election. This was no doubt a shocking turn of affairs considering that his rating stood at 87% in July of 1945 (Harry S. Truman - Domestic policies n.d.).

His second term in the White House was dominated by the crisis in South Korea. The American forces invaded the communist state of North Korea to defend South Korea against the communist regime and influence. This was part of the same policy which was being observed against Soviet Union at this time (Miller Center n.d.).

Compared to the first term, the second term was no less dramatic and was filled with enough issues and conflicts. The rise in popularity hardly changed during the second term which was most probably the reason why he didn't stand up for election in the year 1952. The major reason which has been determined for this sort of turbulence during his Presidency terms is due to the Economic Crisis which was the result of the World War II. His civil right bills and legislations were also a point of much concern, despite their proven historical accuracy. It can be safely concluded therefore that his term was instrumental in putting the American Economy.

Works Cited

Dewey Defeats Truman. n.d. http://www.deweydefeatstruman.com/harry-truman-biography.htm (accessed July 5th, 2012).

Harry S. Truman - Domestic policies. n.d. http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Grant-Eisenhower/Harry-S-Truman-Domestic-policies.html#b (accessed July 5th, 2012).

Harry S. Truman Library & Museum. n.d. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/hst-bio.htm (accessed July 5th, 2012).

Miller Center. American President: A Reference Resource. n.d. http://millercenter.org/president/truman/essays/biography/1 (accessed July 5th, 2012).… [read more]

Watchman Award Adrian Veidt (Ozymandias) Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  4 pages (1,928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


February -- Deadline for submission. The Committee bases its assessment on nominations that must be postmarked no later than 1 February each year. Nominations postmarked and received after this date are included in the following year's discussions. In recent years, the Committee has received close to 200 different nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. The number of nominating letters is much higher, as many are for the same candidates.

February-March -- Short list. The Committee assesses the candidates' work and prepares a short list.

March-August -- Adviser review. The short list is reviewed by permanent advisers and advisers specially recruited for their knowledge of specific candidates. The advisers do not directly evaluate nominations nor give explicit recommendations.

October -- Nobel Laureates are chosen. At the beginning of October, the Nobel Committee chooses the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates through a majority vote. The decision is final and without appeal. The names of the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates are then announced.

December -- Nobel Laureates receive their prize. The Nobel Peace Prize Award Ceremony takes place on 10 December in Oslo, Norway, where the Nobel Laureates receive their Nobel Prize, which consists of a Nobel Medal and Diploma, and a document confirming the prize amount.

Are the nominations made public?

The statutes of the Nobel Foundation restrict disclosure of information about the nominations, whether publicly or privately, for 50 years. The restriction concerns the nominees and nominators, as well as investigations and opinions related to the award of a prize.

Qualified Nominators

The right to submit proposals for the Nobel Peace Prize shall, by statute, be enjoyed by:


Members of national assemblies and governments of states;


Members of international courts;


University rectors; professors of social sciences, history, philosophy, law and theology; directors of peace research institutes and foreign policy institutes;


Persons who have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize;


Board members of organizations who have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize;


Active and former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee; (proposals by members of the Committee to be submitted no later than at the first meeting of the Committee after February 1) and


Former advisers appointed by the Norwegian Nobel Institute.

The Nobel Peace Prize may also be awarded to institutions and associations.… [read more]

Homeland Security Questioning the Legality Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


"[footnoteRef:3] The act also requires the following points on financial matters: [3: USA Patriot Act. (2011). Financial Crimes Enforcement Network: U.S. Department of Treasury. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from < http://www.fincen.gov/statutes_regs/patriot/index.html >.]

Strengthening the U.S.(through policy-making, governmental or legal bodies), to "prevent, detect and prosecute" money laundering and objectives to finance terrorism.

Subjecting foreign jurisdictions, financial institutions, and international transactions… [read more]

Domestic Uniformity in the U.S Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (859 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


S. foreign policy for decades to come.

Having twice repelled the forces of imperialism America rose as a beacon of hope for other countries still under the thumb of colonization. Even after claiming victory in the War of 1812 many members of the military privately expressed doubts regarding the way arms were manufactured and distributed. To address is the issue of organization President James Madison followed the direction of "former French officers in the American army" as well as "the chief of ordnance (arms and munitions) and his assistants" who "had long been calling for greater 'system and uniformity' in the manufacture of arms" (Maier, Smith, Keyssar, and Kevles 295-306). With eastward threats now dispelled and their armed forces working in conjunction with industry under a new system of uniformity, American leaders turned their collective attention to the vast, unclaimed western territories and saw there an unspoiled, endless source of timber and farmland. In order to maintain the extraordinary pace of design and production thus far reached by American industry, the U.S. needed to assert its domain from shore to shore. With small nations in Latin America revolting against their colonial oppressors, European powers like Spain and Portugal eyed the American west with envy and envisioned a new colonial empire springing forth. Cognizant of these concerns and keen to protect his nation's interests, President James Monroe introduced a foreign policy plan in 1823 designed to protect the American continent from further European colonization. The Monroe Doctrine asserted unequivocally that "We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety" (Monroe). Issued during a time of great global upheaval, the Monroe Doctrine would emerge as a singularly momentous directive in American foreign policy and one which was shaped directly by the role of domestic uniformity in the nation's management, design and production industries.

Works Cited

Guay, L. "Peace and Conflict: The War of 1812." Historica. (2006): n. page. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. .

Maier, P, M.R Smith, A Keyssar, and D.J. Kevles. Ed. Inventing America. 2nd. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company, 2005. 295-306. Print.

Monroe, J. "President James Monroe's Seventh Annual Message to Congress." United States Congress, Washington D.C.. December 12th, 1823. In Person. .… [read more]

Articles of Confederation &amp Constitution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The Constitution called for the establishment of a Federal judiciary including the Supreme Court; disputes between states are adjudicated by the Supreme Court.

For a new state to be admitted to the union under the Articles of Confederation nine needed to agree, with a special exemption for Canada. An amendment required the agreement of all states. The Constitution required the agreement of Congress to admit a new state and three-fourths of those states to support an amendment.

The Articles of Confederation authorized Congress to build a Navy and states to equip warships to counter piracy. Furthermore, Congress decided on the size and force of the Army and was authorized to requisition troops from each state according to population. The Constitution authorized Congress to build a navy and forbid states to keep warships. It also gave Congress the power to raise and support Armies.

The power to coin money was shared by both the federal and state governments under the Articles of Confederation and taxes were apportioned by Congress and collected by the states. Under the Constitution only the federal government has the power to coin money and taxes are both laid and collected by Congress. While ex post facto laws and bills of attainder were not forbidden by the Articles of Confederation, both were by the Constitution.

The founding fathers felt it was necessary to institute the Constitution because under the Articles of Confederation, the laws passed by congress could not be enforced, and needed laws could not be passed. The economy was collapsing; Shay's rebellion had shown a lack of institutional authority to respond, and thus created fears that the American Revolution's democratic desires were out of hand. More domestic violence seemed likely and it seemed possible the country might just fall apart. The Constitution…… [read more]

Crack Up Scott Fitzgerald Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,373 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


520). Clearly he does not mean that only his own individual life has become a premature victim to the laws on entropy, but the United States as a whole and by extension the entire world. For many years, he was able to hide this reality from himself and even hold two contradictory ideas in his mind at the same time, which sounds eerily similar to the totalitarian doublethink that was central to George Orwell's 1984. Of course, for Orwell, this was not a sign of intelligence at all but rather insanity, even though it served the purposes of the Party elites in the Stalinist police state he described in the novel. Fitzgerald had become rich and famous in the capitalist America of the 1920s, however, and even accepted the dominant propaganda of the time that held that individual initiative and effort would bring success and happiness. At the same time, he also suspected that the entire system was as much a sham and a fraud as Jake Gatsby, which is to say that it was actually a criminal system under the surface. Like most people of the 1920s, though, he was not concerned with the general problems of society, which according to the free market/laissez faire ideology of Coolidge and Herbert Hoover, would eventually fix themselves.

Fitzgerald was able to go on for seventeen years in this condition before he finally cracked up, and these contradictions in his mind and the larger society could no longer be masked and ignored. When the Great Depression came, he experienced it as "a crack up of all values, a crack-up that he scarcely knew of until long after it occurred" (Fitzgerald, p. 528). During the years 1919-35, he had seen many people crack up, including committed Marxists like those who so heavily criticized his 1936 essay as selfish and bourgeois. Some had committed suicide or ended up in mental institutions, while others simply ran away and made a clean break with America and go into self-imposed exile in Europe or the South Seas. For Fitzgerald, all the events he had experienced caused him to give up on humanity and to abandon any impulses or principles that were "kind, just or generous" (Fitzgerald, p. 529). He had become like the narrow and selfish men he had once mocked, not really caring if the whole world was destroyed as long as he could imagine that it would not affect him personally. His enthusiasm and vitality were gone at a relatively young age, and even though he agrees that the society of the 1920s was a corrupt sham and fraud, he has neither the energy nor the desire to join the radicals and revolutionaries of the 1930s in establishing a new social order. Mainly he is a man simply waiting to die, but as far as offering a helping hand to anyone else "I was off the dispensing end of the relief roll forever" (Fitzgerald, p. 530). Of course, this was a reference to the mass… [read more]

Non-Native as President Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,608 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Perhaps this way of thinking is as outmoded as critics of the 2nd Article of the Constitution say it is. In the United States, one of the primary difficulties of the nation is that many of the people have little or no faith in the government. Building up courage and faith in the Commander-in-Chief is integral to having a functioning government. If the people are uncertain of the President's loyalties, so too will be Congress and thus they will be skeptical of any propositions. The functionality of the government therefore relies on faith and that can be easily shaken with a foreign influence so easily had.

A perfect example of this scenario is that of Mrs. John Kerry. In the 2004 election, many people stated that one of the reasons they voted against Senator John Kerry and for George Bush was because Kerry's wife had been born and raised in Germany. The First Lady of the United States has a very large amount of power though she holds no office. People were concerned that someone who was born in another country would have loyalties to their homeland above those of their adopted country. This fear is indicative of the feelings that some people have over the potential for a President who was born in another country. Even though someone may be a United States citizen, would their loyalties be to their adoptive nation or to the nation in which they were born and raised?

Works Cited:

McLaughlin, Andrew. Cyclopedia of American Government. New York, NY: D. Appleton. 1914.


Sabato, Larry J. A More Perfect Constitution: Why the Constitution Must be Revised. New York:

Walker. 2006. Print.

Schultz, David Andrew. Encyclopedia of the United States Constitution, Volume 1. New York,

NY: Facts on File. 2009. Print.

United…… [read more]

Walter Reuther's German Immigrant Father Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,305 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Pragmatic and opportunist politicians like Lyndon Johnson and Hubert Humphrey presided over the Democratic coalition as well as the machinery of the state, and orchestrated the system to provide economic growth with moderate inflation. In 1964, for example, Lyndon Johnson requested that Reuther and the UAW restrict their wage demands to 3.2%, but in the rebellious conditions of the 1960s,… [read more]

Role Did Slavery Play Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


During the period from 1815 to 1850 a string of compromises between the two sides kept the peace.

In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act nullified the Missouri Compromise and several informal skirmishes between pro-slavery forces and abolitionists occurred that signaled a rise in tensions (Cartmell, p. 31). The Northern and Southern factions within the Democratic Party split over this and other issues, and each side entered a candidate into the 1860 presidential campaign. The Republican Candidate Abraham Lincoln won as a result, on a platform of compromise, but before the new President could give his inaugural address containing an appeal to "…the better angels of our nature…" (Stokesbury, p. 22), South Carolina and six other states had formally seceded from the Union and Fort Sumter in the Charleston Harbor was under a state of siege (Cartmell).

South Carolina had demanded the return of all federal property back to the state and the removal of all federal troops. Sensing a rise in tensions, the commander of Fort Moultrie adjacent to Charleston moved his troops into Fort Sumter over a period of two days following Christmas day, 1860. This move further angered South Carolina and pleased the Northern states, causing another increase in tensions as the Southern forces in Charleston built up their armaments facing Fort Sumter. When President Lincoln decided to send supplies and reinforcements by ship to Fort Sumter in early April, 1861, the Confederate forces in Charleston felt they had to attack before the ships arrived. On the morning of April 12, 1861 the first shots were fired by Confederate cannons at Fort Sumter and the Civil War had begun. The start of the Civil War was therefore less about slavery as a human rights issue and more about state sovereignty.

1. Burnan, Michael. Fort Sumter. Minneapolis: Compass Point, 2006.

2. Cartmell, Donald. Civil War 101: Everything you ever wanted to know about the North, the South, the leaders, the battles, and the history. New York: Gramercy,…… [read more]

Watergate Scandal Was a Political Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another factor that led to this scandal is the fact that president Nixon had a very resentful and secretive character. He attempted covering up the act by burglars since he was very secretive. However the attempts of covering up resulted to concealing of evidence and the obstruction of justice (Wiegand, 2010).

Effects of the Watergate scandal

The Watergate scandal resulted to various things.one of them being the obstruction of investigation by the FBI.since president Nixon had hidden and attempted to conceal all the evidence that could be used to investigate this case it became quite difficult for the FBI to continue with investigations. Another effect of this scandal was the resignation of Richard Nixon who was the president of the United States .this took place in 1974 and it goes down the history books as the only resignation of a president in the U.S.A. The scandal also led to the indictment, trial, conviction and the eventual incarceration of 43 people most of who were top officials in the Nixon administration.it led to legislation curbing executive power since leaders I the Nixon administration were apprehended (Watergate.info, 1995).


It is a clear indication that the Watergate scandal shed some light to various dark corners in the administration. This gave rise for mandatory public records being kept in congregational meetings .this also led to laws being enacted which will ensure that there are stricter standards helped in investigative agencies. This scandal forever left an impact on how journalist carry put their research.it also brought down drastically the trust which the public had for the government.


Gill, K.(2010). What Was The Watergate Scandal? Retrieved October 11, 2013 from http://uspolitics.about.com/od/presidenc1/a/what_watergate.htm

Watergate.info. (1995). Watergate: The Scandal That Brought Down Richard Nixon. Retrieved October 11, 2013 from http://watergate.info/

Wiegand, S. (2010). President Richard Nixon and the Watergate Scandal. Retrieved October 11, 2013 from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/president-richard-nixon-and-the-watergate-scandal.html… [read more]

Politics - Texas v. Johnson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,223 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Since the interest of Texas in preserving the flag - as a sign of nationhood and national unity - is related to expression in this case, it falls outside the O'Brien test. Pp. 406-410.


The State accepted that under the circumstances, the burning of the flag by Gregory Johnson comprised expressive conduct, which allowed him to invoke the First Amendment. Taking place as it did - right at the conclusion of a demonstration happening together with the Republican National Convention - the expressive, explicitly political nature of the conduct was intentional as well as overwhelmingly apparent. Pp. 402-406.


The conviction of Gregory Johnson was not justified by the latter interest. The restriction on political expression of Gregory Johnson was content based, as the statute of the State was not focused to protect the physical integrity of the flag in all conditions, but rather was designed to protect it from intentional and known abuse that could cause serious offense to others. The act was consequently subject to "the most exacting scrutiny." Boos v. Barry, 485 U.S. 312.


Even if the United States Flag is involved, the government cannot prohibit the verbal or nonverbal expression of an idea just on the basis of the fact that the society finds the idea offensive or disagreeable. Additionally by elimination of expressive conduct relating to the flag, a State may not foster its own view of the flag due to the reason that the government may not allow chosen symbols to be used for the communication of a limited set of messages. Furthermore, the Court did not make an exception to these principles safeguarded by the First Amendment for the American flag alone. Pp. 410-422.


Finally, the Court addressed the highly emotional issue of flag burning by Gregory Johnson in Texas v. Johnson, and reverted the conviction of Gregory Johnson for burning the American flag during the Republican National Convention in Dallas, Texas (1984). The Court concluded the flag for being a burning that was "speech." It determined that the flag defilement statute was aimed at the communicative impact delivered by the message of Gregory Johnson.

Nevertheless, the Court noted that laws of neutral speech, like the ones generally applicable to public burning, could be constitutionally applied against flag burners.

In the Light of Texas v. Johnson's Verdict

The next term the Court again confronted the flag burning issue. This time it had to consider the constitutionality of the Federal Flag Protection Act of 1989 that was passed by an unhappy Congress with the decision of the Court in favor of Gregory Johnson. However, the Court again ruled in favor of the protester - a man who set fire to the United States Flag on the steps of the United States Capitol - in realizing that the act was an effort to suppress unpopular speech.


The decisions of the Court in the flag burning cases, especially in relation to Texas v. Johnson have led to numerous attempts in passing a… [read more]

Reconstruction After Civil War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


To do this, they shaped Black Codes. While Codes were exclusive to the post-Civil War south, they encompassed some of the antebellum limits on free blacks, northern apprenticeship laws, and the Freedmen's Bureau and the War Department policy. Codes regulated civil and legal rights, from marriage to the right to hold and sell property to the destined definition of African-Americans… [read more]

Executive Privilege After Vietnam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,483 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


(Dorf). Nixon resisted on grounds of executive privilege. (Dorf).

According to the Court, there is a "valid need for protection of communications between high Government officials and those who advise and assist them in the performance of their manifold duties." (Dorf). The Court noted that "[h]uman experience teaches that those who expect public dissemination of their remarks may well temper… [read more]

Demographic Composition of North Central Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


One of the reasons for this is that the number of births has decreased between 1951 and 1973. There were 7,281 births in 1951 and only 5,100 in 1973. The births in the United States dropped but not like the area of North Central Wisconsin going from 3,823,000 to 3,137,000. One of the reasons for this is that the number of young people turning 18 has dropped. Often young people that attend college in an area do not settle in that area. This is definitely true for North Central Wisconsin.

It is predicted that the number of people age sixty-five will rapidly increase from 2002 to 2016 from approximately 3,900 to 6,300. This will open up approximately 5,500 jobs each year. The problem is that if people do not receive the training to take the place of these seniors the companies will move their businesses. Another serious problem is that there will need to be more health care workers. This will be a problem because the trained health care workers are leaving to different areas. "It is even more alarming that we see the same thing occurring in northcentral Wisconsin despite the fact that we have several colleges in the area, including a state universities as well as two-year university campuses" (3). Even though the rate of employment has increased in North Central Wisconsin, the comparison of ratio of employment to the United States is lower in the North Central area of Wisconsin.

The population of North Central Wisconsin compared to the United States consists mostly of whites with only 5.7 African-Americans and 0.9 American Indian. This area has more females than males. The number of children has continued to decrease in this area beginning back in 1950.

North Central Wisconsin has continued to lose population since 1900, while the United States has continued to increase its population. During 1950, North Central Wisconsin had its highest rate of young population; but over the years the problem of keeping young people has been a problem. One that must be addressed or the North Central Wisconsin area will one day entirely lose its population.

Works Cited

American Fact Finder" U.S. Census Bureau Quick Tables Wisconsin Available Online at http://factfinder.census.gov/home/en/datanotes/expsf1j.htm

Forstall, Richard…… [read more]

Vigilance and Discretion Defeat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


I must be active; constantly on the lookout for him. Vigilance means standing like a guard upon a watchtower that faces both within and without.

I take discretion in the context of this article to mean using good judgement. Discretion says to me that my vigilance is wasted if I am foolish. It says to be realistic about what is out of place so I can recognize the spies of the Hun when they are around me and have the courage to act when something is amiss.

Appropriately in today's world of ever-increasing threats, there are many Huns to be wary of. Part of retaining my freedom and way of life, even if that means simply the freedom to not be afraid, requires me to defeat the Hun through discretion and vigilance.


Article Faxed:

Although no sources were asked for, if you are curious about the quotes the Winston Churchill one can be found in:

Churchill to the U.S. Congress 19 May 1943 "Onwards to Victory" Cassell Edition p.100

The Thomas Jefferson and Eleanor Roosevelt quotes are abundantly available on…… [read more]

Martin Luther King, Jr Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,165 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Clashes between black demonstrators and police using police dogs and fire hoses generated newspaper headlines through the world. In June, President Kennedy reacted to the Birmingham protests and the obstinacy of segregationist Alabama Governor George Wallace by agreeing to submit broad civil rights legislation to Congress (which eventually passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964).

Later mass demonstrations in many communities culminated in a march on August 28, 1963, that attracted more than 250,000 protesters to Washington, D.C. Addressing the marchers from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" oration.

During the year following the March, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s reputation grew as he became Time magazine's Man of the Year and, in December 1964, the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. Despite fame and praise, however, Martin Luther King, Jr. faced many challenges to his leadership.

Malcolm X's message of self-defense and black nationalism expressed the discontent and anger of northern, urban blacks more effectively than Martin Luther King, Jr.'s conservative moderation did. During the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march, Martin Luther King, Jr. And his lieutenants were able to keep intra-movement conflicts sufficiently under control to bring about passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, but while participating in a 1966 march through Mississippi, Martin Luther King, Jr. encountered strong criticism from "Black Power" proponent Stokely Carmichael.

Shortly afterward, white counter-protesters in the Chicago area physically assaulted Martin Luther King, Jr. In the Chicago area during an unsuccessful effort to transfer non-violent protest techniques to the urban North. Despite these leadership conflicts, Martin Luther King, Jr. remained committed to the use of non-violent techniques.

Early in 1968, he initiated a Poor Peoples campaign designed to confront economic problems that had not been addressed by early civil rights reforms.

Martin Luther King, Jr.'s effectiveness in achieving his objectives was limited not merely by divisions among blacks, however, but also by the increasing resistance he encountered from national political leaders.

FBI director J. Edgar Hoover's already extensive efforts to undermine Martin Luther King, Jr.'s leadership were intensified during 1967 as urban racial violence escalated and Martin Luther King, Jr. criticized American intervention in the Vietnam War.

Martin Luther King, Jr. had lost the support of many white liberals, and his relations with the Lyndon Johnson administration were at a low point when he was assassinated on April 4, 1968, while trying to assist a garbage workers' strike in Memphis. After his death, Martin Luther King, Jr. remained a controversial symbol of the African-American civil rights struggle, revered by many for his martyrdom on behalf of non-violence and condemned by others for his militancy and rebellious views.


Martin Luther King, Jr. was a man dedicated to peaceful solutions. His intelligence, ability to speak out without fear for what he believed to be true, and his willingness to stand for what was right even when no one else stood with him are all characteristics that will keep him forever in the… [read more]

U.S. Tech Jobs Transferred Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another drawback in outsourcing is that it is quite tough to transfer high- cost work to low-cost region. Forrester reported tech executives surveyed last fall by 25% on projects by shifting to overseas. A software engineer fresh from college in India may earn $5,000 a year, as compared to approximately $50,000 in the United States (Geewax, 2003).

This new wave of technology outsourcing that involves tasks with greater skills is cutting this industry's bone, endangering to delay the three-year United States economic downturn.

Among many who oppose the outsourcing trend includes stalwarts Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Microsoft, IBM hold opinion that this will usher in the end of American domination in technology (Geewax, 2003).

Roughly 27,000 technology jobs moved overseas in 2000, according to a November study by Forrester Research. It predicts that number will mushroom to 472,000 by 2015 if companies continue to farm out computer work at today's frenzied pace. According to Forrester, companies in the United States and Europe will spend 28% of their information technology budgets on overseas work in the next two years (Rachel, 2003).

Several opined that sending tech jobs abroad particularly to India might cause United States tech workers' wages to rust. According to the Economic Policy Institute, non-inflation-adjusted wages for tech workers increased 1.7% between the fourth quarter of 2001 and the fourth quarter of 2002, which is certainly not ample in order to keep up with the period's inflation rate of 2.2%. Also, according to consulting firm Cap Gemini Ernst & Young, an average computer programmer in India costs $20 per hour in wages and benefits, while an American with a comparable degree and experience costs $65 per hour (Rachel, 2003).


To conclude, there is growth in United States' economy as well as in creating jobs. But as they have been moved abroad, these foreigners are working at less earning; for instance, a United States beginner computer programmer might earn $60,000 a year, while similar job in India pays them less than $6,000 (Rachel, 2003).


Jeff, Meisner. Exclusive Reports. Sea change: Overseas outsourcing could pose problems for tech sector. American City Business Journals Inc.

Black, Jane; Kripalani, Manjeet (2003). Special Report: Emerging Tech Markets. India: Hungry for Info Tech. Business Week Magazine.

Geewax, Marilyn (2003). Protests grow as tech jobs move offshore. The Atlanta Journal-


A www.ajc.com

Bjorhus,…… [read more]

Smith and Kidron, the End Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


After completing his studies at George Washington University, Saakashvili earned a degree from Columbia Law School. He once said, "I was really raised on American democracy, not only my studies but much more. JFK is my idol." Due to his avid support of the United States, Saakashvili would certainly want to establish a strong relationship with his adopted country, if only to promote the vitality of his homeland. Although he has employed directly confrontational tactics to establish himself within the government, advocates such as Alexander Lomaia, executive director of the Open Society Georgia Foundation, declare that he has only posed a threat to those who contributed to the dysfunctional operation of governmental affairs.

Iraq is certainly another example of how a state has fallen victim to incessant warfare in part to the end of the Cold War. The abrupt withdrawal of Soviet forces in neighboring states like Afghanistan in essence created utter chaos, a perfect environment for dictatorships such as that of Saddam Hussein to seize control. The United States, particularly during the administration of George W. Bush, has taken a unilateral approach in the attempt to overthrow the absolute regime. Smith and Kidron allude to the argument that this method may be ineffective by saying that "America's international agenda will be heavily influenced by what others do," meaning that international organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the United Nations (UN) must play an integral role in order for the United States to achieve their goals abroad.

James Dobbins is also an advocate for a multilateral approach to American foreign policy. He contends that the Bush administration would have been better prepared for the aftermath of its military campaign in Iraq if it had heeded the lessons of the United States' perpetual peacekeeping efforts in the Balkans. Dobbins believes that the current administration is modeling its foreign policy after the American occupation of Germany and Japan after World War II. As stated by Dobbins himself,

Iraq in 2003 looks more like Yugoslavia in 1996 than Germany and Japan in 1945. What they have not done is look to the models worked out in the 1990's for sharing the burden and allowing others to participate in the management of the enterprise.

In order to rectify the Bush administration's flawed approach, Dobbins suggests a three tiered plan: 1) the United States should expedite the transition to a provisional government, 2), the American-led occupation force headed by Paul Bremer must be replaced by an international administration, 3) NATO should take on the peacekeeping mission in Iraq.

The end of the Cold War undeniably caused a myriad of civil wars, particularly in former Soviet territories. The disintegration of the local Soviet authorities inevitably created a series of states vulnerable to anarchical organizations determined to unleash and wield their power. Though states such as Georgia and Iraq have suffered the consequences of this transition, there are signs suggesting that political leaders are finally purging themselves of lingering sentiments resulting from the… [read more]

Princess Diana and President Clinton Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,361 words)
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The fundamental difference between Diana and Bill Clinton would appear to be one of birth and of circumstance. Diana was born as a noble woman, eligible for marriage to a prince.

This in itself reinforces the public paradigm of fairy princess, a legacy that follows her to this day, years after her death. Diana represented a fantasy in a world… [read more]

Autobiography of Sonny Montgomery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (852 words)
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In fact, although a Democrat, like many Southern 'Dixie-crats' Montgomery seemed to feel most comfortable with Ronald Reagan's terms in office.

Montgomery explicitly calls himself a 'Boll Weevils' a Southern senator who encouraged those of his ideological ilk to break party lines to support a Republican President's legislative agenda. Montgomery actually formed a club of such Democrats. Regardless of what one feels about the ideological legacy of the Reagan Revolution of the 1980's, Montgomery's stress upon organization and teamwork in Congress is commendable and reflective of his communal experiences in the United States army. Alone, a man is just a man, but with other human beings, one individual can move mountains, Sonny Montgomery always believed.

Sonny Montgomery: The Veteran's Champion is mostly thus a chronicle of Montgomery's public life, once he was elected and after his wartime service, but Montgomery states that for him his public commitment to service was the most important thing he accomplished in his life, and cannot be separated from his personal commitment to the United States and its values and government. The book is affectionate towards Montgomery's home life in its tone, but although respective and appreciative, it ultimately retains his family's need for privacy.

Montgomery cites, as his proudest accomplishment, the Montgomery G.I. Bill that reformed the original 1947 GI Bill. The first GI Bill gave all of America's soldiers the benefit of obtaining a free college education. Historians today in retrospect give this bill credit with instituting an important leveling influence in American society. Because of their service, young men whom would never have dreamed of seeking higher education were able to obtain important academic and vocational skills at institutions of post-secondary learning, spanning from trade schools to the Ivy League. A new breed and brand of college graduate was created, and Montgomery was one of the number of young and eager college students the first GI Bill created.

Despite Montgomery's subsequent conservative agenda, he still had a strong sense of liberalism, and of the need to extend benefits to those deserving men and women of society whom wanted opportunities to better themselves. Thus, the Montgomery G.I. bill gave all of the nation's currently returning soldiers an education, by using the legislature's power to extend benefits to thousands of soldiers in the nation's all-volunteer service. Many of these young men and women were minority individuals, again introducing a complex note to this Southern Democrat's legacy as 'the veteran's politician,' and forming an important coda of compassion to his conservative career in…… [read more]

Italian Culture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (488 words)
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Italian Culture

Italian Immigration

My family immigrated from Italy to the United States in 2000. In the last decade there have been many changes in this country, predominately brought on by the events of 9/11. Though these changes have been subtle, the Patriot Act, the wars in the Middle East and the current economic crisis have worked to bring about a transition in the way Americans and the rest of the world sees the United States.

Italian immigration began in earnest in the last half of the nineteenth century. Between 1870 and 1916 more than 25 million immigrants entered the United States. This plus natural growth caused the U.S. population to more than double, increasing from about 40 million to about 100 million. This population growth benefitted the economic boom in a couple of ways, it increased the number of consumers enlarging the market for products and it provided additional workers for the recently created jobs developed by new industries.

In 1850, there was less than 4,000 Italians in the United States, but by 1880 that number had jumped to 44,000, and by 1900 to 484,027. In the Eastern United States where the abundance of cheap land could no longer be found, the mostly agrarian Italians became urban dwellers. Immigrants, along with others, were a significant factor providing labor for industrial revolution in the United States.

The influx of immigrants impacted the character of the cities in which they settled creating neighborhoods known as…… [read more]

Equal Opportunity in America Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Equality in America? No.

A lot of people suggest that the United States of America is the land of the free and the home of the brave. However, while opportunity is indeed plentiful for a lot of people, there are people that get it much more readily than others. Not everyone lives the same life, not everyone's parents has the same resources growing up, not everyone goes to the same caliber of schools and not everyone's race, nationality and creed has the same overall history in this country. While there would never be a way to make outcomes equal for everyone, this country is much further from it than it could or should be. While it is a history that not just the United States can lay claim to, but this country certainly needs to know what is wrong with it before it can fix what is broken.

What is Wrong

As noted quite quickly in the introduction and which now will be supported and explained, this country has a problem with inequality. The author of this report does not take issue with the idea that people are the product of their choices because that is most certainly true. People that shoot up street corners and steal from others are not good people and they should be punished. However, it should be asked why those people are doing that. Surely, society is not to blame for the actions themselves. However, one could certainly make the case that the lead-up to that is most certainly the fault of current policy, current schools and a lot of bloody and stained history in this country. One can just look at black people as an example. They were slaves when the United States first started and that did not end until nearly a century later when the Civil War ended. However, the mire and muck continued during the Jim Crow era, "separate but equal," having to fight for unsegregated schools via Brown vs. Board of Education and so forth. Even fifty years removed from the Civil Rights movement of the 1960's, we are reduced to what has recently gone on with Michael Brown in Saint Louis and what is currently going on in Baltimore relative to what ostensibly happened to poor Freddie Gray (Blake).

However, there are other cultures and movements in the United States that are insidious and not helpful. For example, the mentality that "snitches" are beneath contempt and that they should be threatened, beaten or even killed is a self-defeating proposition. While the police certainly do not do the right thing all of the time, they are generally there for the well-being of the people around them. Indeed, many of the police officers are themselves black or from other groups that are persecuted and mistreated. The "don't snitch" message is not just the sort of thing that black people and gang members do and there are many other things that occur here and there that are insanely self-destructive and hurtful. Even… [read more]

Kentucky Legislature Slavery Letter Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (832 words)
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¶ … fellow Kentuckian first of all, and most importantly, a fellow American concerned about the future of our new nation. We in Kentucky have a key role to play in the ongoing political conflicts brewing over the institution we all hold dear: slavery. Now, before I tell you why I am here to urge a reform of the Manumission Act of 1860, I would like for you all to know more about who I am, where I come from, and why I am speaking to you now. I did not grow up in a privileged household, but I did grow up in Eastern Kentucky and my blood runs through the bluegrass. After seeking my fortune out west (which is a story for another day, my friends), I returned to our fair state to marry and raise my family. I own slaves now and always have and like most of you do, and while I am recommending a course of action that will eventually change our way of life here in the South, I hope you will heed my words as you consider your children and your children's children as I am my own.

Even if you have been denying the truth, some of you may already know that slavery is no longer necessary for the economic growth of our state. We may cling fiercely to our way of life, but the writing is already on the wall. It is time to envision a new method of managing our labor force and growing our businesses, no matter what you grow. Now, you may know me as a lawyer but I come from a long line of yeomen and I can assure you I understand the value of a man's land and his property. I would not urge any slave owner to go home tonight and free his slaves. No, sir. I do urge each and every one of you instead to consider reforming the Manumission Act of 1860, because this Act inhibits our Constitutional rights and freedoms. This Act constrains our rights to do as we see fit with our own property. On that ground alone, I beg of you all to consider repealing this unconstitutional Act.

Now, whatever you may think of Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis makes a few things painfully clear. The most important fact we can take away from Helper's testimony is that while Northern and Southern states started out as equals after the Revolution, we are far from being so today.…… [read more]

Steam Power and Hydroelectric Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … role that steam power and hydroelectricity have played in the past, and what role they could play in the future. There is a discussion of the history of steam power, transitioning to hydroelectric as the other major form of water-based power generation. The issues with steam power in the modern age are discussed, and there is also an analysis of the potential that hydroelectric still holds to help both meet energy needs but also to create employment, much as it did in the 1930s. There is still a role for water-based power in our energy system, and this paper takes a look at both the history of this and where we can apply our knowledge of history to the future.

Steam power was a major development, the first human-made form of power, and this contributed to the growth of factories and transportation on an industrial scale in the 18th and 19th centuries. Steam power on its own is relatively inefficient, and therefore not common today, though steam is utilized in many applications powered by fossil fuels. Hydroelectric plants, where turbines are powered by flowing water, are a more promising means of using water power today.

History of Steam Power

Steam power was first utilized in mining in the 1700s. The steam engine utilizes a heat source that boils water. The steam then moves pistons via the pressure that builds up as the steam builds up. Thomas Newcomen developed a steam engine in 1712 that utilized the steam to move a large piece of wood to drive a piston. This proved popular, but inefficient, and later in that century James Watt would make improvements that increased the usefulness of steam power. By the early 19th century, there were high pressure steam engines that could run larger and more complex pieces of machinery. Steam technology was subject to significant development in the 19th century (Thomasnet.com, 2016).

Steam power contributed signficiantly to industrial development in the 19th century. It was the first form of human-produced power and that meant that there was increased ability to build factories anywhere, and just as important to build them to a larger scale. But factories could now be situated near the source of raw materials, reducing the effort of transportation of goods. When steam power was paired with coal as the heat source, it became even more efficient (No author, 2016). Steam power at that point was conflated with fossil fuel power -- both worked together. Later developments in fossil fuel engines reduced the need for steam power altogether.

Until fossil fuels, conventional steam power was the most common power form. It arose in the north of England in…… [read more]

Populations in Developed and Less Developed Nations Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (672 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Populations in Developed / Less Developed Nations

Developed Nations (DN) have more stable populations and grow at a much more moderate rate when compared to Less Developed Nations (LDN). DNs are predicted to grow about 3% between the years 2005 and 2050 while LDNs are predicted to grow about 52% between those two years (p. 147). This is quite a shocking fact and if the population growth goes as predicted, this means that by the year 2050, the LDN will possess over 86% of the world's people (p. 147). This will have major effects on not only the environment but also the quality of life for those living in LDNs.

What are the reasons for the differences in population growth in LDNs vs. DNs? By looking at the United States, an obvious DN, and Bangladesh, a LDN, this paper will try to point out some of the differences in social, economic, and cultural factors that may lead to higher population growth / fertility rates.

Population growth and economic development go hand in hand and they both lead to environmental issues (p. 147). One of the major problems in LDNs with high population growth rates is that there isn't enough food being produced to keep up with all of the people. This is why there have been LDNs that have experienced famine in ways that DNs would find hard to imagine.

The United States, as of 2005, had a population of 296.5 million people with about 14 births per 1000 individuals. The fertility rate for woman in the United States is about 2 children per woman per lifetime. Bangladesh, as of 2005, had a population of 144.2 million people and about 27 births per 1000 individuals -- almost double that of the United States. The total fertility rate is 3 children per woman per lifetime (p. 149).

There are social factors that need to be considered when thinking about why LDNs have higher population / versatility growth rates. One reason is that while people in DNs may…… [read more]

Freedom of the Press Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
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First Amendment

The Freedom Of The Press To Cover The War In Iraq

The following editorial was written as a protest by, Dawn Helen, CEO of City Daily News, to the President of the United States in protest of his recent press conference announcing a ban on media coverage of the Iraq War.

It is written in the U.S. Constitution that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press." U.S. Const. amend. I, art. III. It follows that, our freedom of the press is guaranteed by the First Amendment and the right of our reporters to provide media coverage to the citizens of the United States is being violated by your ban, Mr. President. Sir, we understand your concern regarding security for our troops and national security in general, however, it is our position that an outright ban on our First Amendment freedom of the press to cover the War in Iraq openly takes away the rights that we have been guaranteed by our forefathers when they drafted the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution. Because of this, Sir, we request that you lift the ban and permit press coverage of the War in Iraq. Mr. President, in conjunction with our legal department, we have researched and located several legal sources support that our First Amendment Freedom of the Press should not be abridged under these circumstances.

We use the case of Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957), to illustrate. While the decision of this case was later overruled, this case provides historical background as to how the Supreme Court has viewed governmental intrusion into our First Amendment Rights. The Court examined the issue of whether obscenity should be protected under the First Amendment and examined the broader question as to when the government should be allowed to regulate our freedom of the speech and the press. The Court reasoned, "The fundamental freedoms of speech and press have contributed greatly to the development and well-being of our free society and are indispensable to its continued growth. The door barring federal and state intrusion into this area cannot be left ajar; it must be kept tightly closed and opened only the slightest crack necessary to prevent encroachment upon more important interests."

The Court limited the government's power to regulate freedom of speech and the press in terms of obscenity. We use this case to illustrate why the government should not be permitted to limit press coverage. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the door permitting…… [read more]

Are We Willing to Give Up Privacy for Safety or Civil Liberties? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … willing to give up Privacy for Safety or Civil Liberties?

"We don't choose the things we believe in; they choose us."- Lamar Burgess

In the twenty-first century one of the most vital concerns with regards to the usage of technology is privacy. As a knee jerk reaction, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) is searching for the finest of resources and proposals to make the sharing of information more organized, proper and complete. These objectives can only be attained if the privacy is intact and the security is on high alert during the process of transferring of information, to preserve its well being of the personal information of the inhabitants of our country against the newly emerging technologies. The question, hence, that rises here is this: Are civil liberties or security more important than one's private lives? The fact of the matter is that past experience has shown that one aspect is always compromised for the achievement of the other. If privacy grows to be non-existent with the application of more advanced security or civil liberties protocols, then these protocols are not really fulfilling their purpose or leading to newer security threats or civil liberties violations. The answer might be in moderation -- which is perhaps why the debate is still ongoing as not many influential individuals can choose between one over the other in the long run. This paper will aim to discuss this very question in light of the actions taken by the U.S. government in the past as well as draw in opinions and viewpoints expressed in the movie "Minority Report."


One recent movie that addresses these concerns is the Minority Report, starring Tom Cruise.…… [read more]

Contemporary Globalization Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (501 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … globalization: interconnectivity and diversity. In terms of interconnectivity, globalization has made it more possible for people from different cultures to come together. Appiah's friend, for example, has a brother who lives in Japan because his wife is Japanese. He had no problem in moving to Japan, although he is from Ghana. At the same time, some of his brothers are in Spain or the United States. Maybe only some decades ago, this would have seemed impossible: people were born in some place and usually spent most of their lives in the same area. Even if they worked in the business segment, traveling would have usually been less common.

In terms of diversity, this is also an argument easy to support. The fact that somebody from Ghana is marrying somebody from Japan, despite all the cultural differences which are so obvious, means that globalization has managed to overpass the potential problems that might arise from this diversity and promote cultural diversity as a mean to bring people together rather than drive them apart.

While Appiah's article is important in bringing in examples and ideas related to the cultural impact of globalization, Jervis's article brings a political perspective to the issue of globalization, one which attempts to explain the perspective of a new, unipolar world. The unipolar world is dominated by the United States, which is the only superpower left after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. As the only superpower, the United States often finds itself in the position…… [read more]

U.S. v. Kroll Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (869 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. versus Knoll

IRAC Analysis: United States v. Kroll. United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. 481 F.2d 884. July 10, 1973.

The central issue at stake in the United States vs. Kroll was the question of what constitutes a valid, warrantless search, specifically regarding a passenger about to board a commercial airliner who was searched by a U.S. Marshall.


When a search is conducted without a warrant, the government is required to show that the search was justified by exceptional circumstances to make the evidence admissible in court. In this case, the government attempted to meet the burden by contending, first, that the defendant had consented to the search and secondly, that the search was necessary for the safety of the passengers on board because it took place under exceptional circumstances. The government said that the defendant was assumed to be a suspected hijacker. The search was originally conduced for weapons and explosives because of the defendant's allegedly suspect status as a hijacker although only contraband narcotics in a small amount were discovered on his person, not anything incriminating regarding the defendant's suspect status as a hijacker, which was the original stated reason for the search.


On a TWA flight, the ticket seller, through a process which is not identified in the case information said that he or she found the defendant suspicious. It was feared that the defendant Kroll was a hijacker. Kroll's driver's license was recorded on his ticket, to notify the security officer at the boarding gate that the defendant fit a hijacker profile and should be searched. The metal hinges on Kroll's attache case activated the magnetometer under which the search took place. The TWA security agent instructed the defendant to place the case on table for inspection. A United States Marshal working with the TWA agent watched the search on Kroll. The Marshall became suspicious because the defendant did not open the file section in the upper part of the attache case. He approached the defendant identified himself as a United States Marshal and directed the defendant to open the file section where he observed a white business envelope that was approximately 9 1/2 inches x 4 inches.

The envelope was described as being light in weight, possessing a very small bulge, approximately 1/4-inch thick and 2 inches across, at one end of the envelope. The rest of the envelope was described as being limp and flat. The Marshal felt that the actions of the defendant regarding the file section and the envelope were 'suspicious' and asked the defendant to empty the contents of…… [read more]

North South Divide Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (365 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


North Korean Foreign Policy

During the campaign, Obama received much attention for his comments that he would be willing to talk to any nation, even -- perhaps especially -- ones typically viewed as aggressive towards the United States, without any preconditions. He included North Korea in this blanket statement, and his immediate and apparently total willingness to enter into negotiations marks a radical departure from the attitude of the current administration.

Under President Bush, no negotiations were held with what was considered to be the rogue state of North Korea until 2006, when that country's underground detonation of a nuclear device forced Bush to move to the negotiating table (Beck 2008, par. 2). Obama's foreign policy, though as yet vaguely stated, is likely to include even more vigorous and open negotiations. He is also likely to be more receptive to South Korea's stated desire and intention to open North Korea in an attempt to raise the income and standard of living in the totalitarian country. Bush, on the other hand, has proven time and again that his foreign policy consists of refusing…… [read more]

School Law Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (594 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



Cause of Action: Not a violation of the First Amendments of rights of freedom of speech

Facts: Spectrum was the in-house publication of Hazelwood East and it was the part of the Journalism course that was being taught to students. The general practice of the petitioner Emerson was to refer the final draft of the paper to the principal Reynolds for his final approval. Objection was raised on May 10 issue of the paper by the principal on two articles that related to sensitive issues. One was related to pregnancy experience of students and the other was on effect of divorce on students. The stories involved indirectly or directly stories of students that could have hurt them. Considering the sensitivity of the issues and time constraints the principal took the decision to withhold the two stories for final printing.

Issues: Is withholding the articles from the paper and exercising control over editorial content a violation of the First Amendment rights of freedom of students?

Ruling: Educators do not offend the First Amendment by exercising editorial control if it is limited to legitimate pedagogical concern.


First & Fourth Amendment: According to the First Amendment of U.S. Constitution, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." It is not just the First Amendment that strengthens the right of freedom of an individual in the United States but another Amendment called Fourteenth Amendment also supports and guarantees all of its citizen's equality.

Exception to the Rule: Even though First & Fourth Amendment of…… [read more]

Comparison of Two Counterintelligence Operations and Analysis of What Caused the Successes Failure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



In terms of national security, counterintelligence remains an essential component of maintaining a firm and secure hold upon potentially dangerous information. It is widely recognized that within a setting in which competing intelligence organizations are continually attempting to infiltrate the ranks of other intelligence agencies, deciding who is privy to what is often a dangerous gamble. Intelligence agencies must… [read more]

Economy in Europe Perec and Monnet Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,036 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Economy in Europe

Perec and Monnet on the European Economy

In April of 1950, Monnet and some other "Europeanist" enthusiasts launched the Schuman Plan, which tied the European nations of France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg together as partners in a plan to freely buy and sell Coal and Steel between them. This was the basis of the Council of Europe and the beginning of free trade between France and Germany, who had always fought bitterly over economy and trade, as well as the other European nations. The economic miracle transformed European life in radically different ways.

Monnet, the organizer of Action Committee for the United States of Europe, pushed the member states of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) toward fuller economic integration. The ESCS promoted the European common market and worked toward a united Europe that would extend beyond The Six, a dream which ultimately came true.

Monnet, speaking to the members of the Common Assembly and members of the Consultative Assembly, declared that the Common Assembly of European nations were working cohesively as one country, a country of 150 million consumers of coal and steel, a number that equaled the population of the United States of America. They had enacted treaties abolishing customs duties and quota restrictions between themselves and had set up the first Common Market. They had been recognized as a new force by Great Britain and the United States.

Monnet quoted President Eisenhower as saying "the uniting of Europe is a necessity for the prosperity of Europeans and for the peace of the whole world." (Monnet 118) He urged all European nations to join. He claimed that they are not just producers of goods, but that they have a responsibility to set up a European Community that is comprehensive and includes Great Britain.

He laid out the three main issues with which the Common Assembly concerned itself, one of them being to prepare the ways and means for enabling workers to share in the advantages of an improved and increased production.

He reinforced the goal of bringing Great Britain into partnership with the other nations in the Common Assembly. He stated that the reality of the Common Assembly embodied a hope. "Because, for men, reality is only satisfactory when it fulfils their hopes at the same time."

He was proud of the fact that for the first time the European nations could go to the United States without asking for anything, and that when other countries in Europe had seen and understood what this new and living Europe meant for them, "they will, one of these days, I hope, themselves join in." (Monnet 559).

The Common market benefited everyone in many ways. People in European nations found that goods were cheaper, life was easier and work was plentiful. These "yuppies" and their counterparts in the United States, lived the good life, coming from the small towns to live in the suburbs of the large cities that were the… [read more]

Health and Life Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Health and Life: Improvements in Mining Safety

Workplace injuries are one of the leading causes of fatal and non-fatal injuries in the world. However, some types of jobs and some industries have more injuries than others, simply based on the nature of the work. Though many advances have been made in the past 100 years in regard to worker safety on the job, and a whole organization (OSHA) has been built in the United States around maintaining workplace safety standards, there are still some industries that are dangerous by their very nature. Mining is one of the most dangerous work industries there is, and this is universal; whether the mine is in the United States or another country, whether safety standards are in place to protect workers or not, there are just too many variables in the mining industry that can cause accidents to happen. Sometimes these accidents are fatal, sometimes they are not, but they happen to mine workers far more often than to workers in most other industries. Because of the prevalence of mine accidents, a number of safety measures have either been proposed or introduced in recent years in an effort to improve safety for mine workers while on the job (Dhillon 2010).

Beginning with the Sago mine disaster in 2006, public concern for the safety of mine workers reached an all time high since the 1970s. There were very few mining injuries or accidents in the 1970s, due to new mining safety standards that were introduced then. From that time until 2006, the mining industry seemed fairly stable as far as safety was concerned. However, from 2000 to 2006, there were a number of mining disasters, culminating with the Sago mine disaster, that resulted in 37 deaths. These disasters lead to public demand for additional safety standards for mine workers. Congress duly passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act (MINER) in 2006. The MINER act requires many new safety measures in today's mines. These requirements are direct improvements on the deficiencies that lead to the previous disasters and the fatalities resulting from them. The new safety measures of the MINER act are meant to eliminate…… [read more]

Dream Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (786 words)
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I was too puzzled to wrestle with the reality but I certainly wanted to meet other people in the house to see what had changed besides the century of course.

The house we were living was huge with a wide veranda and an absolutely magnificent garden. I saw some people having tea and realized it was actually mom, dad and my sister Sarah. They looked fairly at ease and it appeared that the new reality hadn't caused them any trouble. When I joined them, I noticed my father was a little worried. Apparently war had broken out between Northern and Southern Armies. Abraham Lincoln, it appeared, had launched military attack against Southern forces and this could mean a civil war. Mother was of the view that if South lost, it could also mean end of slavery. That was a good thing mom, I told her. She turned and looked at me as if I had committed a crime by saying that. Come on mom, that's what they taught us at school last week. "They didn't" mother retorted. I decided not to discuss what I had studied in school in 2004. Life wasn't the same here and even though I knew how events would shape up, I felt it was no use telling anyone this. However I did hint at slavery coming to an end, South losing its supremacy and Lincoln dying in a theatre. Of course, none of this made any sense to anyone. Sarah especially thought I had lost my mind. And for once I was truly happy. The backward shift in time had certainly caused trouble but at least now I knew the future better than anyone around. Suddenly I found myself not missing my trendy lifestyle in California anymore. This was good.

"Mira, wake up. Its already 8 and you are supposed to be in school in half an hour," Mom's shrill voice brought me back to reality. Oh, I guess I must have had a dream. I woke up and everything was like it was the night before. My room wore a bright and happy look and my clothes as usual were lying all over the carpet. Even the party stuff was still there. So it was indeed a dream, I mused as I took out my old pair of jeans and scanned…… [read more]

Join the Army My Name Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (670 words)
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75 an hour. After working a 40-hour shift as a mechanic, I return to a room which costs me 150.00 per week. Thus, I have little financial savings.

My family understands my situation but still I wish I were working at an occupation, such as in the army that would give me more immediate funds to finance their struggles back home as well as to better develop my skills. I would also like to make them proud of me, as I build a career and a new life for myself in the United States as well as simply make a living. Living in a single room without a sense of belonging to a larger cause and purpose in life can be difficult for a man so accustomed to living amongst and for others.

I love the United States and wish to remain here as a citizen. Although settling in a new country can be difficult, I feel comfortable with the United States' values and emphasis on freedom of thought, belief, and purpose for all people. I truly believe that one can be anything and anyone whom one wants to be in the United States. My transition from Jamaica and the United States proves that I can weather change, and my service in the reserves proves I can weather military adversity. My current work shows I can learn quickly and put my education into action. I am also further adding to my education, taking mechanical classes near where I live in New York.

At present, I am young, only twenty-one years old, and single. I have no children thus I think this would be an ideal time to add to my skills and development as a person and a potential United States citizen in the army. I am still hungry to learn, and a larger life in the service of the United States awaits me. I truly believe I would be a credit to the service, if…… [read more]

George Washington Gomez Author Americo Paredes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,292 words)
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George Washington Gomez

Book Critique: George Washington Gomez

Crossing the Delaware of the Rio Grande -- Revolt, Revolution, and self-hatred in the 1930's Mexican-American community of Texas good life is a life lived honestly, without being torn apart by self-hatred or false racial, class, and gendered ideals. A good society dedicates itself to the pursuit of freedom, and if necessary, to positive forms of revolution. A good society fosters communal ideals such as progressivism and tolerance and unity, rather than racial bigotry and class divisions. In other words, a good society and a good soul are dedicated to the eradication of borders, rather than the creation of borders.

However, in the novel George Washington Gomez the borders of both nations, Anglo and Mexican, within Great Depression-era Texas, are dedicated to keeping up rather than dissolving such borders. The Mexican community is rife with fissures and borders and divisions, some imposed from the outside, some which come from within. These borders are geographical in terms of the proximity to Caucasian land and political, in terms of the proximity to Anglo government, education, and values. The George Washington Gomez of the title, a fair-skinned educated Mexican whose real name is Guanlinto, becomes an unwitting part of the struggle waged by Texan Mexican-Americans against border encroachment by the American governing authorities. Through this struggle, he comes to realize his own self-hatred and the way he draws borders and distinctions between his own identity and the identity of other Mexicans.

The Mexican revolutionaries of the novel fight to preserve their cultural integrity against impingements by Anglos seeking to profit off the Mexican land. The Anglos are motivated by greed and the arid quality of much of America's existing farmland. Their rapaciousness parallels that of the British colonizers to the American colonized -- hence the designation of the novel's protagonist as an ironically titled George Washington Gomez. Like the American Revolution as well, because of financial greed on the part of the colonial, dominating power, brother is pitted against brother, loyalist against revolutionary, and also father against son.

During the height of the military crisis, Gualinto must continually wrestle with his own values and beliefs. He has returned to his community after higher education, law school and the military, all ideologies that have taught him that his people's ways are inferior to white ways. One of the earliest examples of Gualinto verbally expressing his sense of self-hatred occurs in the context of a discussion over money for college, as Gualinto rants against his father, calling him an "ignorant Mexican," even though the boy is of his father's own nation, flesh, and blood, a Mexican himseld. (193).

The greatest internal and external crisis of the novel occurs when Gualinto kills the revolutionary and prison escapee Lupe Garda. symbolically killing his seditionist father, his own identity, and also the integrity of the community, and showing how the Anglo encroachment of law and education has fully impinged upon Gualinto's mind. This act indicates sadly, the fighting between Anglos… [read more]