Study "American History / United States" Essays 661-715

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Cold War Truman 1945-1953 Essay

… It also supported the "quarantine the aggressor" policy Franklin Delano Roosevelt wanted to inflict to hold German and Japanese growth in 1937. This policy (quarantine) recommended the responsibility of public health officials managing a communicable disease. The medical figure of speech widened further than the instantaneous purposes of the Truman Doctrine in the sense that the metaphors put together with fire as well as flood descriptions evocative of disaster presented the United States with an unproblematic changeover to express military confrontation in coming years with communist forces in Korea and Vietnam. By availing ideological disparities in life or death conditions, Truman was in a position to drum up support for this communism controlling policy (Denise M. Bostdorff, 2008)

Among the downfalls of Truman lies the economical struggle that was experienced by a number of European nations which in a way could have exposed them to communists' threats. This paved way for the anticipated Marshall plan which was meant to rescue the nations from these tough economical times by so offering aid to all nations. Marshall Plan easily elevated United States to a proper internationalist nation just in months. (George McGhee, 1990)

For the first time money could be felt in other nations with the main purpose of assisting United States achieve its objective. United States undertook unconstitutional mandate for the purpose of stopping communism to an end and with this United States enemies increased. For instance the period when North Koreans made attempts to capture South Korea and United States intervened by so sending troops over to South Korea purposely to stop communism. These placed the United States in a very tricky position, bringing them up against much more they could take care of. A good number of their troops were swept and the authority was blinded with their objective. Finally, they succeeded in gaining control but at the expense of their own 60,000 men.

A further key downfall of the Truman Doctrine came by as the result of the participation United States had in the Vietnam War. By the time United States was coming to terms with the fact that they were achieving nothing due to relentlessness of North Vietnamese, they had lost a big number of troops amounting to 65,000 and were still not in a position to contain communists The most horrible piece was that the United States society's interest in the war diminished for the reasons that the war was far away

Conclusion

As it is, everything has its good and bad sides, the same way Truman Doctrine its good as well as bad sides. Its main purpose was to bring communism to its total end and if you take a proper glance Soviet Union is no more and for this thumbs up for Truman Doctrine. It is clear that through Truman Doctrine United States somehow played a major role in setting the pace to the rest of the world. Some may term this not right, but somehow someone or some nation had to undertake it… [read more]


Abolitionist's Proposals and Methods Essay

… These ideological grounds would eventually lead to legislative change.

Other ideologies that opposed the institution of chattel slavery during abolitionism pertained directly to religion. As previously noted, Quakers had opposed slavery on moral grounds. This same sentiment intensified during the period of abolition, and, by aggregating sentiment based on Enlightenment philosophies, resulted in concrete legal change. Many states passed laws that either ended slavery or that significantly freed a percentage of the slave population 4. It is important to note that virtually all of the slaves to do so were located in the north of the country. Attempts were made to liberate slavery in parts of the south (some of which enjoyed limited success), but the agricultural-based economy was used to justify the tolerance of this iniquitous institution. Changes in legislation circumscribing slavery were primarily effected in the North 5, although the true egalitarian principles of the age never practically extended to blacks.

Overall, there were a number of different specific factors that distinguished the proposals and measures from abolitionists with those enacted during earlier anti-slavery movements. Several critical components of the day's zeitgeist -- particularly the Enlightenment and Christian morality -- resulted in an intensification of anti-slavery sentiment. This sentiment was organized and channeled into a restructuring of the laws that permitted this institution. Perhaps most significantly, the political atmosphere of the time in which the U.S. was viewed as a republic influenced abolitionists to change slave legislation.

Bibliography

Henretta, James A. And David Brody. America: A Concise History, Volume I: To 1877.,4thed., Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010

Meager, David. "Slavery -- The Abolitionist Movement." www.churchsociety.org. 2007. http://www.churchsociety.org/crossway/documents/Cway_105_SlaveryAbolitionism.pdf

Rosenberg, Amy. "The Abolition Movement." www.csun.edu. No date. http://www.csun.edu/~asr15199/abolitionmovement/index.html

End Notes

1. Amy Rosenberg, "The Abolition Movement," www.csun.edu, no date, http://www.csun.edu/~asr15199/abolitionmovement/index.html

2. James, Henretta and David Brody, America: A Concise History, Volume I: To 1877 (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010), 238.

3. James, Henretta and David Brody, America: A Concise History, Volume I: To 1877 (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010), 240.

4. James, Henretta and David Brody, America: A Concise History, Volume I: To 1877 (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2010), 240.

5. David Meager, "Slavery -- The Abolitionist Movement," www.churchsociety.org, 2007, http://www.churchsociety.org/crossway/documents/Cway_105_SlaveryAbolitionism.pdf… [read more]


First Amendment in 1787 Term Paper

… He said that all of the charges that were against him were not right because the First Amendment's promises that "Congress shall make no law interfering with the freedom of speech." (Engelken, 2011)

After the trial had gone through the… [read more]


Separation of Powers Term Paper

… The ethical dilemma in the case is whether the president's ability to govern should be based on his policies and political partisanship.

As a member of the Senate, the ethical charges I would bring against President Nixon include his confrontational and insensitivity in dealing with the nation's issues at a time when America was in desperate need for someone to heal her wounds. Secondly, I would accuse Johnson of seriously undermining attempts to improve the state of America's newly freed slaves. These charges are actionable because they would constitute to violation of human rights and inability to govern effectively. These charges would not require any criminal proceedings but would necessitate impeachment of the president.

Unlike Johnson, Nixon's impeachment proceedings were characterized by appropriate actions by the Senate. As a member of the Senate, the ethical charges I would bring against President Nixon are similar to those brought against him by the Senate. These charges are actionable since they constituted grounds for impeachment as stated in the constitution. The Senate's actions were not politically motivated but ethical because President Nixon acted in a manner that brought great prejudice to the cause of law and justice and harm to the people of the United States. The ethical dilemma in the case is what constitutes high crimes and misdemeanors that would result in a president's removal from office as stated in the U.S. Constitution. President Nixon's impeachment was justified by his actions that qualified as high crimes and misdemeanors such as bribery, abuse of power, obstructing justice, perjury, and illegal wiretapping among others.

Similar to Johnson's trial, Clinton's impeachment trial was based on inappropriate actions by the Senate since the allegations were politically motivated. While Johnson's and Nixon's trials had substantial constitutional and institutional ramifications, Clinton's trial had more personal and paltry ramifications (Whittington, 2000, p.425). The ethical dilemma from Clinton's impeachment trial is whether lying about an illicit extra-marital affair is a high crime or misdemeanor. The other dilemma is whether personal issues affect the ability of a president to govern and to what extent such issues affect presidential governance. Senate's actions were unethical and politically motivated since the charges against President Clinton were expressions of bitter partisanship during his tenure. Actually, the House voting regarding Clinton's impeachment was deeply divided unlike any other since Reconstruction. Clinton should have not faced an impeachment trial but a criminal proceeding because his actions had significant personal ramifications than constitutional implications. The president should have faced a criminal proceeding based on his personal issues rather than an impeachment trial. In essence, Clinton's impeachment was based on political rather than constitutional reasons.

Conclusion:

The impeachment trials of Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon, and Bill Clinton are examples of the outcomes of such trials i.e. removal from office, forced resignation, and acquittal from charges. Despite of the different outcomes, Johnson's and Clinton's trials were politically motivated due to bitter partisanship while Nixon's trial was based on constitutional violations. Therefore, Johnson and Clinton's trials were characterized by inappropriate and… [read more]


Federalist Papers Term Paper

… In this regard, the United States would be responsible for the security of liberties, general welfare and common defense. Consequently, the Articles of Confederation was written with the aim of keeping the national government as weak as possible (Bibace, 2010).

As the Articles of Confederation took effect, a caseload of problems soon became apparent. These problems contributed to the failure of the document. To begin with, many things happened in the government and in the U.S. that exposed notable flaws. Perhaps we have all heard that the Articles of Confederation were not adequately strong. While this may not be the main reason, it is part of the reason. Another major problem was that the Congress lacked control over the taxes. This was coupled by the failure of the states to give the government money it needed. This worsened the already unpleasant situation. Because the government lacked money, it was unable to pay off its debts amounting to approximately $75 million accumulating during the revolution (Bibace, 2010). This incorporated paying citizens who had provided supplies, as well as the soldiers. As a result, the government lacked the capacity to defend its national borders from the Spanish and British because it could not fund its navy or army as it lacked money. The government became toothless as it could not maintain its army and navy, which formed the backbone of the country's national security. This led to the decline in the value of notes and bonds used in financing the war prompting a widespread unhappiness (Bibace, 2010). As a result, the different states engaged in wars of tariffs that brought to a halt the interstate trade.

References

Bibace, R. (2010). The Continuation of the Federalist Papers. Minneapolis: Hillcrest Pub. Group.

Charles, P.J. (2009). The Second Amendment: The intent and its interpretation by the states and the Supreme Court. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland & Co.

Stobaugh, J.P. (2012). American history: Observations & assessments from early settlement…… [read more]


Kennedy and the Civil Rights Term Paper

… In the speech, he proclaimed that the mistreatment of African-Americans would not be tolerated any further. He expected that they would be treated as equals. However, at the same time he did not want to become personally involved in the… [read more]


Political Leadership Inspired by the Theme Essay

… Lincoln

The Civil War was the bloodiest in American history, and yet President Abraham Lincoln pursued and persisted in a just cause. It could have been considered politically expedient to allow the slave states to cede, avoiding the conflict but permitting the institution of slavery to continue unchallenged, unhindered, and unresolved. Instead, Lincoln did the difficult thing: he invested human and financial resources in a deadly and costly conflict that lasted years. Lincoln is recognized as one of the world's greatest leaders because of his vision, determination, and trust in his fellow Americans. The Union won the war because of Lincoln's leadership, which was unwavering. Lincoln understood that slavery went against the moral fabric of the nation as well as the principles embedded in the United States Constitution. The United States could become a "more perfect union" by achieving a cohesive culture devoid of slavery and other gross injustices. Lincoln's decisions were not necessarily politically expedient; but they were morally correct and did result in a more perfect union "conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal," (Lincoln, 1863).

One of the reasons why Lincoln emerges as one of the greatest American leaders is because he put country before politics, and even before his own self-interest. Lincoln's beliefs about slavery stemmed from his commitment to upholding the core values of the American Constitution, such as liberty, freedom, and equality. As Smith (2013) points out, "to understand Lincoln's leadership properly, one must understand it as a feature of constitutional government." What this means is that Lincoln places formal law and due process of law ahead of personality politics. "Constitutional government cares more about the forms than about the outcomes," (Smith, 2013). Ironically, a strong leader also must be results-oriented and Lincoln was clearly results-oriented based on his "almost uncontrollable obsession" with achieving goals (Phillips, 1992).

Leadership rooted in constitutional law and values can seem paradoxical because of the leader's concern both for process and outcomes. The paradox of constitutional leadership is that "Leadership involves boldness, decisiveness and action, even a willingness to go it alone; constitutions work in the opposite direction, imposing forms and rules, checks on power and limits on executive initiative," (Smith, 2013). Leaders like Lincoln are "masters of paradox," (Philllips, 1992, p. 79). Lincoln "showed his mastery of paradox by skillfully providing a rock-solid, stable government as a foundation for the nation's security, while at the same time personally instituting massive amounts of change," (Phillips, 1992, p. 79). Maintaining the stability and integrity of the nation was the main reason why Lincoln refused to watch the South cede. The United States of America was a union that needed to be preserved, and its integrity depended on the development of shared values and ideals. Slave owners and those who supported them disagreed with Lincoln, but their views were tainted by racism. Lincoln knew that if the nation was to survive, slavery could not be a part of it.

Lincoln chose to do what… [read more]


Film Analysis of the Patriot Case Study

… He is obsessively loyal to the British kingdom and will take any action, particularly if it is amoral as a means to his ends. His character's nickname is "The Butcher."

Much of the film is about the war and freedom… [read more]


Olaudah Equiano / Prince Slave Term Paper

… S. Embassy in Morocco. This results in correspondence, an exchange of letters in order to secure the Prince's freedom. In fact the Sultan of Morocco initiates correspondence with President John Quincy Adams. Somehow the president is convinced that The Prince… [read more]


Inauguration Once Every Four Years Essay

… Day (Jackson, 2012). However, this day means more for Barack Obama, as it shows how we have overcome the tyranny of racism. There may still be racists and bigots in the United States, and they will miss out on the glory and wonder that is peace. I would like tickets to the main inauguration event, so that I can take part in history as America enters a new era.

In addition to tickets to the inauguration event, or the swearing-in ceremony, I would also like tickets to the inaugural ball. This will allow me to wear my best clothes, and meet interesting people in attendance from around the world. The ball events are exciting, and although many of the people in attendance will be ordinary politicians, there will also be celebrities there.

The actual swearing in of the president takes place in private, but the public event is the symbolic one that solidifies the American Dream. We can overcome, and we can achieve anything. The large number of Americans who currently hate President Obama have serious psychological issues that need to be worked out, and there is nothing that the President can do to assuage their fears and make their troubles go away. However, the President of the United States has proven his service as Commander-in-Chief for four years and shall do so for four more. Obama's presence as our political leader has generated love from around the world, as the nation has shown we are not a bunch of fools who vote for George W. Bush. Our credibility as a nation plummeted during the Bush administration, and we have back the credibility that we deserve. My attendance at the inauguration ceremony means I will be one among many constituents, and not stand out in any way. This is good, because I want to remember that I am an American, part of a great nation.

References

Jackson, D. (2012). 2013 inaugural ceremony to be pushed back a day. USA Today. March 28, 2012. Retrieved online: http://content.usatoday.com/communities/theoval/post/2012/03/2013-inaugural-ceremony-to-be-pushed-back-a-day/1#.UKSn_OPreII… [read more]


Moralists and Modernizers by Steven Book Review

… Steven Mintz is interested in explaining why the nation needed both the social scientists and the Christian reformers to move social change forward. He does not try to moralize himself, and gives credit to both types of reformers. His argument is convincing because he does not try to evaluate as much as he tries to offer the reader a glimpse of the types of reforms undertaken and their success. He accomplishes his task.

The author himself offers a comparison to other attempts at the same subject at the end of the book, as does the editor at the beginning, and tries to either relate what other researchers said to his own conclusions or reason why there's was not the correct approach to this subject. The author does lean toward the social reformers in his writing, though he tries not to, but it is obvious that he sees the social reformers use of simple tactics that do not include moralist overtones as the more successful. His conjecture seems to be based on the fact that the modernizers had no ulterior motive rather than to help the people they were trying to reform.

This book would be useful to anyone who wishes to study this period of reform and determine its value to the country. Mintz tries to offer a beginning for study as he says this is not exhaustive. The book is well written and entertaining besides being informative and should appeal to any student of history.

Work Cited

Mintz, Steven. Moralists & Modernizers: America's Pre-Civil War Reformers. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University…… [read more]


First Amendment and Regulated Speech Essay

… First Amendment states that Congress is prohibited from passing laws that would abridge the freedom of speech. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) argues that the First Amendment does not apply to obscene material, which is defined using a three-pronged test. Obscene material is differentiated by law from indecent and profane speech. In mainstream media, this distinction is often lost.

Loewy (1993) argues that obscenity is not necessarily speech -- the term is typically applied to nudity or pornography rather than speech -- and therefore should not be entitled to First Amendment protection, echoing the FCC's position. The definition of obscenity, however, does lend itself to pornographic speech and writing. A verbal or oral description of sexual acts would satisfy all three of the prongs that define obscenity. Loewy does not address this possibility.

I feel that the First Amendment should not enjoy First Amendment protection. Loewy (1993) notes that obscenity is not covered by the First Amendment because it is not speech. This makes it more difficult to determine whether obscene speech should be treated as speech or as obscenity. Lacking further clarification from the courts, it would appear that obscene speech is more commonly regarded as obscenity, and therefore not subject to First Amendment protection. If the wording of the First Amendment were more specific in defining speech, then clearly obscenity, if so defined, would have coverage. There is no such wording with reference to obscenity, however, and the precise definition remains vague even if it is understood to lack First Amendment protection, as Antonin Scalia has noted in references to video games that ran afoul of obscenity laws (Thierer, 2008). In the interests of upholding the moral standards of society, obscenity should remain without the protection of the First Amendment (Thierer, 2008). The standards for defining obscenity should be in the hands of the people, and therefore subject to change over time, but there is no reason to include them within the realm of protected speech.

With respect to commercial language, the major issue at hand is whether the government's powers to regulate commerce gave it the power to regulate speech concerning articles of commerce (UMKC, 2012). Some changes to this view have occurred in recent decades. Virginia State Board of Pharmacy (1976) clarified some of the speech that is protected, noting that laws cannot forbid the advertising of prices, taking the view that the First Amendment protects the right to receive information as well as the right to speech (UMKC, 2012). The ruling curtailing government's ability to regulate advertising was a good first step in expanding freedom of commercial speech.

At issue with commercial speech is also the problem of content neutrality, something that is fundamental to the First Amendment. If commercial speech is exempt from First Amendment protection, then it may also be devoid of content neutrality. The average American then must learn to distinguish between commercial speech and other forms of speech, because the nature of such speech is fundamentally different. The gradual reduction in… [read more]


China's Rise to Power Essay

… China's Rise To Power

Will China's Rise to Power Overthrow American Hegemony?

China's economic rise to power raises the possibility for a major conflict between it and the United States. As recently as six years ago, the hegemony of the United States went unquestioned and the threat of a war or other significant clash between the two was unthinkable. However, as the two superpowers each attempt to expand their influence, it is important to acknowledge the potential for a war between the two and ultimately, the potential for China to overthrow the United States as worldwide economic leader. This paper examines the relationship between the two nations and then attempts to predict the future dynamic between the two, drawing from past historical examples of when a rising nation has challenged or even usurped an existing superpower.

From 2001 until 2004, China and the United States enjoyed a peaceful dynamic; however, in 2005, relations became much stiffer, due to a confluence of factors. These include a fundamental disagreement over the plight of Taiwan, significant distrust from the United States concerning exorbitant military spending by China, as well as an economic fight for control over a limited supply of natural resources (Finn, 2008). Despite these recent developments, however, there are a number of factors that must be examined before reaching the conclusion that a Chinese-American war is impending.

Certainly, there exists substantial data that would suggest that a war will result between the United States and China. For example, in six of seven cases in which a new economic power has challenged an existing one, war has resulted (Qingguo, Rosecrance, 2010). However, it should also be noted that many of these examples occurred centuries ago, and none were especially similar to the dynamic between America and China. For example, many conflicts took place between countries in Europe, including Spain-Holland (16th century), Holland-England (17th century), Britain-France (18th and 19th century), France/Britain-Germany (20th century),…… [read more]


Lewis and Clark Essay

… Lewis and Clark

Who were Lewis and Clark? Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were explorers and naturalists who accepted President Thomas Jefferson's assignment to explore the northwest region of the United States. Lewis was said to be a smart and skilled outdoorsman, a hunter, a horseman, and a man who enjoyed hiking. Lewis was a fairly close neighbor of Jefferson and had been assigned to Jefferson as a young secretary-aid while Lewis was an army captain. Clark was four years older than Lewis, but he was also skilled in the ways of hunting, exploring and other outdoors-related activities. Both men were courageous and resourceful, exactly the qualities that Jefferson needed for this important mission.

The two men were said to be very different as personalities, however. Lewis had more education and was more philosophical about life; Lewis was more romantic and he had lofty, abstract ideas. Clark, on the other hand, was far more pragmatic and while he was also an army officer, he got along well with Lewis. Lewis was chosen by Jefferson to be the commander of the expedition.

What do I think of these two men? They were very impressive people, and in addition to their important roles in the discovery of new places, they stand out among many American heroes because they were unafraid of what they might encounter. In a way is was like a pair of astronauts exploring space and not knowing what was around that next bend in the river. Their contribution to an important part of the history of the United States can never be overstated.

What was the mission of Lewis and Clark? This expedition they undertook was potentially very dangerous because the president and other leaders in Washington D.C. did not really know what Indian tribes were living in the region that Lewis and Clark were asked to explore and document.

Jefferson's instructions were to have the men investigate the various soil types they would encounter, because the production of food for Americans who might choose to live in this region eventually will be important, as it was for any region of the…… [read more]


Gi Bill Do? Book Review

… none of these.

8. In the years immediately after World War II, what did most American civil-rights leaders do?

They ended most of their activity in the South because of intimidation, repression, and murder.

They found themselves shut out of the White House because of President Harry Truman's hatred of blacks.

x

They launched voter-registration drives in the South that raised the percentage of blacks registered to vote.

They were revealed by congressional investigations to be procommunist.

They celebrated their new status as celebrities and their new power as leaders of the Truman administration.

9. What was President Truman's motive in adopting an active pro-civil-rights policy beginning in 1946?

He believed that every American should enjoy the full rights of citizenship.

He wanted to cultivate the African-American vote for future elections.

He felt that racial inequality in the United States undercut American foreign policy in its contest with the Soviet Union.

All of these.

x

None of these.

10. Who were the Dixiecrats?

x

They were white supremacists who hoped to deny Truman's reelection and preserve their way of life.

They bolted the Democratic Party and supported Thomas Dewey in the 1948 presidential election.

They formed the core of President Truman's support in the solid South during the 1948 election.

They were northerners who moved to the South in the postwar years to build new industries and take advantage of cheap labor.

None of these.

11. Between 1947 and 1951, what did the loyalty boards that were established to root out subversives in government service do?

They uncovered evidence of massive subversion and espionage within the Departments of State and Defense.

They restricted their investigations to potential subversives in high-risk areas of government service.

x

They forced several thousand government employees to resign and led to the dismissal of almost six hundred on charges of disloyalty.

They restored to federal government employees a sense of calm and confidence that had been missing since the end of World War II.

They were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

12. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, what did the House Un-American Activities Committee, Hollywood, and some thirty-nine state legislatures have in common?

They were all revealed to be riddled with communist spies and other subversives.

They all took vigorous stands against the witch-hunting of Senator Joseph McCarthy.

They all participated in the crusade to clear Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg of charges that they passed secrets to the Soviets.

x

They all contributed to the anticommunist hysteria of the period and tried to root out subversives in American society.

None of these.

13.… [read more]


For Cause and Comrades Why Men Fought in the Civil War James M. Mcpherson Book Review

… ¶ … Men Fought in the Civil War -- James M. McPherson

Reasons for War

James McPherson's non-fictional account of the Civil War, for Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War, provides a fascinating degree of insight into the principle reasons why young men from the same country would willingly, and in some instances wantonly, engage in armed conflict with one another. The author's primary purpose in writing this manuscript was to explore the motivation and the internal impetus that served these soldiers in battle. His aim of determining what the various causes were that allowed these combatants to wage war for the better part of four years is explored in a non-partisan, objective perspective which is open to a number of sources and interpretations of the information which he has uncovered. By striving to figure out why the participants in the Civil War fought with one another, the author ends up revealing some of the most fundamental issues at the forefront of the United States of America in the midst of the 19th century.

In gathering said information, the author employs a highly selective methodology that attempts to strive for unadulterated information from principle sources: which primarily take the form of written correspondence from participants on both sides of the war, the Confederacy and the Union. Prudently, McPherson chooses to eschew letters, diaries and journal entries that have previously been published or written at what he deems to be too great a distance (both literally and figuratively) from the actual encounter. According to the author, such sources "lack the immediacy of the experience" (McPherson 1997, 100). Instead, the author chooses to focus on non-published sources from the Civil War era that "were not looking back from years later through a haze of memory and myth about the Civil War" (McPherson 1997,…… [read more]


Civil War Awakening Is Adam Book Report

… United under the general rubric of a sense of persecution, the secessionists hastily created a faux nation -- a confederacy of states -- based on its economic clout and commitment to inhuman methods of achieving that economic supremacy. White supremacy is indeed an ancillary undercurrent of Goodheart's 1861. Although the author does not dwell too long on matters related to race, class, and power in the antebellum United States, Goodheart cannot help but trace the evolution of Union sentiment to one that was almost universally ambivalent towards slavery towards one that was adamantly opposed to it. In fact, this is one of the central features of the awakening the nation experienced. Were it not for the shots heard at Fort Sumter, and were it not for the vehemence with which the Civil War would be fought, the Unionists might never have discovered the ethical and moral purpose for fighting against slavery.

Goodheart presents his thesis about the "awakening" of 1861 well, by using narrative and deft prose. The theme of awakening is a strong one because many readers will assume that the Northerners had already become staunch abolitionists when the South seceded. Not so, notes Goodheart. Goodheart's book 1861 is largely about the North finding itself. The book is about the realization that the nation founded in 1776 was not yet perfect and that there was yet work to be done. For the majority of privileged whites in both Northern and Southern states, the status quo worked just fine. However, slavery was an American addiction. It was a sick means of coping with economic competition and the rise of globalization and industrialization. Had the South not foreseen the importance of fighting for its economic sovereignty, the North might never have recognized the sickness it was enabling by allowing slavery to continue to stain the American consciousness. Slavery and democracy cannot coexist; slavery and freedom cannot coexist; and slavery and liberty cannot coexist.

There are few faults to be found with Goodheart's 1861: The Civil War Awakening. The book is not a military history of the war, but the author does incorporate military facts when they are needed in the narrative. Goodheart all but omits input from African-Americans in the north, as well as females, but this approach is to be expected given the lack of voice women and minorities were given in nineteenth century America. Because 1861 offers a peek into one sliver of time and culture, the author must be absolutely comprehensive in his approach; and he is. 1861 is a quality work of accessible but academically robust history.

Work Cited

Goodheart, Adam. 1861: The Civil War Awakening. New York: Borozi, 2011.

Please include information based on the source: 1861: The Civil War Awakening

by Adam Goodheart. Please format the report in the following way: 1) brief summary of the book (1861:Civil…… [read more]


David Mccullough's 1776 Provides a Detailed Account Book Review

… David McCullough's 1776 provides a detailed account of the formative events that helped to found the nation of the United States of America. Focusing as it does on the titular year, McCullough's 1776 cannot help but address the social, economic, and political context and climate of the American War of Independence. However, McCullough's main concern is not with the social or philosophical forces that drove the colonies to rebel. Nor is McCullough's main concern with the underlying economic and political climate, or with issues related to gender and social class. McCullough is first and foremost concerned with a play-by-play account of the war itself. In short, 1776 is a military history of the American Revolutionary War. The historical context is clear to most readers who pick up 1776: the colonies have come into their own. While a large contingency of loyalists remain certain that the status quo will be beneficial, an even greater number of citizens of the colonies are convinced that the Crown is outmoded, unnecessary, and a hindrance to life in the New World. It is within this tumultuous and conflicted political and social landscape that war becomes a possibility: war that is symbolically between parent and child.

1776 is divided into three parts, comprising seven chapters. The first part is entitled "The Siege," which depicts the British Empire and helps the reader understand the weight of rebellion. Part Two is "The Fateful Summer," which comprises two chapters describing the heat of battle. The third and final part of the book is entitled "The Long Retreat" and is essentially the story of the climax and denouement of the Revolutionary War. Readers will already be familiar with the general outline and outcome of the story; what makes McCullough's 1776 stand out is its commitment to detail.

The author is passionate enough about the subject to…… [read more]


Immigration and Its Policies Thesis

… The negative impact of immigration on labor standards and low-skill workers is so great necessitating comprehensive review ("The Immigration Debate," 2006).

While proponents of the current policy support it because of ethical concerns and the need for protection of human rights, this policy has a huge impact on these aspects. The existing policy does not effectively address a series of humanitarian, ethical, and economic concerns. These issues include immigrants' rights to be with their families and to obtain a better living standard. The policy needs comprehensive review because stricter border controls have been unable to reduce illegal immigration flows resulting in victimization of border-crossers and ongoing abuse of human rights.

One of the major factors affecting the various evaluations of the current immigration policies is the increasing sense of economic, social insecurity, and crime in many American communities as well as the increase of drug trafficking in Border States. Throughout the country's history, the fears of immigrants' threat to national security have always served as the basis for policy changes (Gabaccia, 2006). Similarly, the current rise in threats to national security from immigrants necessitates comprehensive policy review and changes.

In conclusion, the increasing number of immigrants into the United States is a factor that sparks the need for the comprehensive review of the current policy. The actual economical and social impact of immigration, humanitarian concerns, and threat to national security should be carefully considered when evaluating the current immigration policy.

References:

Gabaccia, D.R. (2006, November). Today's Immigration Policy Debates: Do We Need a Little

History? Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=488

Modarres, A. & Kitson, J. (2006, June). Toward an Immigration Policy Debate. Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http://www.patbrowninstitute.org/documents/publications/PolicyBrief-3.pdf

"The Immigration Debate: It's Impact on Workers, Wages and Employers." (2006, May 17).

Knowledge Wharton. Retrieved from University of Pennsylvania website: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1482

"The Immigration Debate." (n.d.). U.S. Foreign Policy In Focus. Retrieved November 23, 2011,

from http://www.theodora.com/debate.html… [read more]


Strategic Context of Sub-Saharan Essay

… After the clear identification of U.S. interests, the government practically starts to achieve them outside the state. In order to study them, they are divided into four major classes:

1. Survival

2. Major

3. Vital

4. Peripheral

In the first… [read more]


Comparison of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson Term Paper

… George Washington and Thomas Jefferson are perhaps the most revered of the Founding Fathers. Even during their time, they were looked at as the leaders of the fledgling republic before they became the leaders of their respective parties. Their beliefs,… [read more]


Political Beliefs of Thomas Jefferson and George Washington Term Paper

… Political Beliefs of Thomas Jefferson & George Washington

The founding of a nation represents one of the most important parts in the history of the country. It lays the foundation of the government, of the political thoughts to be engaged,… [read more]


Civil War the War Economic Research Paper

… It was soon thereafter, in the summer of 1863, that the fall of Vicksburg, coupled with the victory at Gettysburg gave the North the initiative.

Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you.... You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it" ("Abraham Lincoln").

Lincoln believed secession illegal, and was willing to use force to defend Federal law and the Union. When Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter and forced its surrender, Lincoln called on the states for 75,000 volunteers. Soon thereafter four more slave states joined the Confederacy; however four remained within the Union. Thus the Civil War began.

The War's End

General Robert E. Lee unconditional surrender at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865, signaled the beginning of the end of the confederacy. President Lincoln wanted to institute a liberal system of Reconstruction in the South, however, his vision of Reconstruction died with his assassination on April 14, 1865. The Radical Republicans dealt harshly with the South and military rule was instituted until Rutherford B. Hayes officially ended Reconstruction in 1876.

The Civil War was a watershed event in the United States. After years of reconstruction the individual states would end up joined together in a stronger union. The war officially ended slavery; however it would be another hundred years before the Civil Rights Movement.

Works Cited

"Abraham Lincoln." The White House. Whitehouse.gov. (2011). 7 August 2011.

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster: New York, 2005.

Roark, James L., Micheal P. Johnson, Patricia Cline Cohen, Sarah Stage, Alan Lawson, & Susan M.Hartmann. The American Promise: A History of the United States, 4th ed. Volume1: To 1877.…… [read more]


Immigration Ethics and Social Responsibility Research Paper

… If these immigrants are sent back to their native countries, perhaps this drug-related violence would increase even more, as those captured would simply be assassinated when nobody would be able to provide funds.

Once again, "customary international law does not… [read more]


Presidential Campaign Thesis

… (2004). All the campaigns were based on delivering people from a war, for example, Lincoln was to deliver the people from the civil war while Wilson was not to take people to another world war. The two campaigns involved a… [read more]


President's Campaign Essay

… Campaigns of Grant and Wilson

A political campaign, particularly a Presidential campaign, is an important part of the American political process. It is an organized, and sometimes lengthy, effort to influence both the decision making process and overall political and social goals of the country for at least a four-year period. Modern political campaigns bear very little resemblance to those in America's history, partially due to social networking, technology, media influences, and a general style of journalism and techniques. Major campaigns in the United States are partisan and Presidential campaigns often last years -- sometimes even beginning shortly after one election and in preparation for the next. Campaigns have become so complex and expensive that only a select few can even begin to aspire to Senatorial or Presidential office (Dinkin, 1989).

However, campaigns were not always such. Campaigns prior to the 1930s, without the benefit of the mass media, were more populace oriented. Advertising and corporate sponsorship and funding were less important, and the messages seemed clearly, more precise, and in a time in which political divisions seemed cleaner and the issues more black and white. Two examples of these types of campaigns were those of Presidents Ulysses S. Grand and Woodrow Wilson. While the Grant campaign is not mentioned in this history books as one of the seminal elections in American history, during his initial run for office, he was extremely popular (particularly in the north), based on his service and accomplishments in the Civil War. . His accomplishments included expansion of Republicanism into the south which yielded the first elections of black Congressmen. However, his administration was marred by corruption and he has gone down in history as one of the least effective presidents politically (Wilentz 2010). Like Grant, Wilson was a very popular man upon his election. Although not a war hero, Wilson was a former President of Princeton University. In that position he had shown himself to be concerned with the plight of underfunded students and to limit the amount of finance-based selectivity throughout the college. Wilson's campaign promised a "New Freedom" which would limit government power and curtail the business monopolies heretofore unchecked power (Link 1945). In fact, the election of 1912 is considered by many to be one of the most important in Presidential history and Wilson's win the result of Theodore Roosevelt breaking with the Republicans, splitting the vote, and allowing Wilson on the less popular Democratic ticket to garner enough votes to win, and possibly change 20th century American Foreign policy to an extreme (Chace, 2004).

Grant - Ulysses S. Grant was a military commander during the Civil War. Under his command, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military and ended the idea of the Confederate States of America. He was a lifelong soldier, entering the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1943 when he was 21 years old. President Abraham Lincoln was not particularly satisfied with the progress of many of the Union generals, and promoted Grant to Commanding General… [read more]


Korea's Place in the Sun a Modern History Book Report

… Korea's Place In The Sun

In Chapter 4 of Bruce Cumming's Korea's Place in the Sun (1997) the division of Korea into North and South is explored. Not long after World War II ended and Japan lost it's battle, the United States declared that all of Japan's colonies would get its freedom and the opportunity to establish themselves as their own free nations. Internal turmoil about how and what type of government would be the majority in order to guide Korea into the new nation that it wanted to become was something that was to be remedied by the intervention of the United States and the Soviet Union. As allies in World War II, the United States and Soviet Union were supposed to help Korea establish a government of freedom for all, but that did not turn out to be the case. From this need to develop itself, two very distinct governments and forms of living emerged. In a mix of jumbled up politics, the Soviet Union decided to reign communism in their portion of Korea, above the 38th parallel, while the South was to be guided by the United States, and would go on to become a democratic nation. Both countries left Korea to be on its own, but not before causing some pretty heavy damage.

When Korea received its freedom and independence from Japan, it was practically taken advantage of. All other nations involved, such as the United States, Russia, Great Britain, etc., wanted to instinctively take part in revitalizing Korea with other intentions in mind. Both parties, both countries involved created unnecessary turmoil in a land that was already in search of its own identity. Instead of helping out, in the end, they ended up causing damage that to this day, still lives on. Everything was decided for a nation, without consulting the nation that would be directly affected by everything. It was this inconsiderate way of thinking that would eventually prevent Korea from every really being just one country.

In Chapter 5 of Bruce Cumming's Korea's Place in the Sun (1997), life for Korea after the division…… [read more]


Virginia and Massachusetts Essay

… Virginia and Massachusetts

A Survey of How the Virginia and Massachusetts Colonies Shaped North and South

There were several differences and several similarities between the Massachusetts and Virginia colonies, which went on to shape the North and the South in the New World. This paper will compare and contrast the two colonies and show how each emerged as its own guiding light of its own universe, setting the stage for the hostilities that would lead to the Civil War in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

While the Virginia colony was founded in 1607 by the London Company and initially made up of a small group of men, led by "soldiers out of employment" like Captain John Smith and "desperate spendthrifts, ready to do anything to retrieve their fortunes" ("Colony of Virginia"), the Massachusetts colony was established in 1620 (after being to some extent already explored by Bartholomew Gosnold, Samuel Champlain, and John Smith) by a group of religious zealots (seeking the freedom to worship and keep their English ways), made up of men, women and children, whose Puritan religion set the stage for New England Protestantism and the "independent spirit" ("Massachusetts Colony"). Like the Virginia colony, the Massachusetts colony suffered from hardships -- yet its numbers grew more rapidly than Virginia's, which was decimated by fever and famine (and warred with the native tribes too).

The Virginia colony, however, managed to survive and grow thanks to, 1) the support of Pocahontas, and 2) thanks to the arrival of 1200 new colonists in 1617, "among whom were ninety respectable young women," which promised new growth ("Colony of Virginia"). The Massachusetts colony had less difficulty growing: for one, it made a treaty with the natives; secondly, the land was more forgiving and less likely to allow disease to fester; and thirdly, it was colonized by families that were intent on reproducing.

Both colonies, however, were fiercely independent in…… [read more]


Grant and Wilson I Propose Research Proposal

… Perhaps his one failing, besides the inability to unite Congress after World War I was in the fact that although an unprecedented number of African-Americans left the Democratic party to vote for Wilson, he did nothing to satiate them or to aid with the racist Jim Crow laws in the south. In fact, he pledged to Southern Democrats that these were state issues and would not be dealt with in Washington, D.C. (Blackmon 2009).

Chief Legislator:

Much of Grant's administration dealt with the subject of Reconstruction and trying to rebuild the south following the Civil War. As the head of the Executive Branch of the government, he instilled a policy of racial harmony, aiding black Americans to be franchised and offering citizenship to Native Americans. Also, despite a history of potential anti-Semitic behaviors, he appointed several Jewish people to the government, more than any other President up until that time. He signed bills regarding Civil Rights and prevented the punishment of former Confederates in order to reinstate peace.

Woodrow Wilson was President during World War I. After the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, Wilson could not convince the United State Congress to accept it (Cooper 2009). During the War, Wilson had come up with the idea for a League of Nations, a precursor to the United Nations. This body would be a worldwide police force which would determine the viability of purposed political action. A Senator Lodge was so opposed to the treaty that he and the press utilized Wilson's then-declining health as a scapegoat, stating that the man was too ill to consider his suggestions rationally.

Works Cited:

Blackmon, Douglas A. (2009). Slavery by Another Name: the Re-Enslavement of Black

Americans from the Civil War to World War II. Anchor Books. 357-58.

Cooper, John (2009). Woodrow Wilson: A Biography.

Link, Arthur (1945). "The Baltimore Convention of 1912." American Historical Review. 50(4):

691-713.

Smith, Jean Edward (2001). Grant. Simon & Schuster: New York.

Wilentz, Sean (2010). "Who's…… [read more]


White Writes About a Very Troubled Time Term Paper

… White writes about a very troubled time in American history when the thought of freedom and the idea of communism and fascism was intertwined and stamped in everyones mind. No one really fully understood what was going on physically, but it was the ideas that were under attack. It was freedom that was being questioned, and to anyone who lived through that time, freedom was something that defined the United States as a nation. This fear of losing freedom, or the idea of being free, was something that scared many. E.B. White criticizes those people who not only didn't care either way, but those who he thought had no opinion in the matter, which was just as bad as believing in fascism.

White criticizes anyone who in his mind threatens the idea of freedom. He especially dislikes intellectuals who seem to be educated in the sense that they read and have gotten some sort of education, but in a sense seem ignorant to their actual surroundings. He writes about a man he met in New York who started to talk about the happenings in Europe and was actually comparing their lifestyle to the American lifestyle and saying how the Germans were better because they seemed more manicured. He writes, as if with disgust, "If it represents the peak of our intelligence, then the steady march of despotism will not receive any considerable setback at our shores" (White, pp. 480). The shame he felt in the "intellectual" Americans made him fear that they had no idea what they were talking about. He disliked their ignorance.

White did not think that ignorance was a bliss. He wanted people to have opinions, to state what it was that they believed instead of going…… [read more]


Th Amendment to the U.S Essay

… ("Plessy vs. Ferguson")

This two-tiered system officially remained in place until the 1950's and 1960's, when a more socially conscious society was faced with the "Civil Rights Movement." America was forced to confront the fact that the civil rights of a portion of it's people had still been denied a century after constitutional amendments had guaranteed these rights. In another series of legal decisions, the U.S. Supreme court stuck down the "Jim Crow" laws which had kept blacks and whites separated from each other. (Feagin) The Supreme Court also guaranteed that African-Americans received the same rights and privileges as other members of American society, without regard to race.

But this was not the end of it. The 13th amendment gave rise to the 14th and 15th amendments, giving former slaves the same rights afforded to all Americans. However, the full exercise of these rights had to wait one hundred years until the "Civil Rights Movement" of the 1950's and 1960's. But then the court rulings which guaranteed African-Americans the same rights as whites now became the inspiration for women to demand the same rights as men. Women were inspired to demand the right to be able to work at the same jobs as men, at the same pay, with the same respect. And other minority groups then became inspired as well, Native-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans and so on. Each group demanded that they too receive the same rights and privileges that whites had enjoyed for so long.

But the spread of freedom did not stop there, many other groups became inspired by the success of, first the African-Americans, and then women and other minorities, to go out and demand their own rights. Groups representing the physically and mentally disabled, animal rights, gay and lesbian rights, environmental rights, and a number of others soon appeared. Each, inspired by the "Civil Rights Movement," and the subsequent court decisions, sought to have those decisions expanded to include their group. As a result, anyone in America, who now feels that they are, or have been discriminated against, can enter a court of law and present their case. If their case has real merit, their grievances will be addressed.

Works Cited

Feagin, Joe. "Excluding Blacks and Others From Housing: The Foundation of White Racism" Cityscape. Web 14 May 2011. http://users.wfu.edu/yamaned/teaching/151/docs/feagin.pdf

"Featured Documents: The Emancipation Proclamation." National Archives and Records Administration. Web 14 May 2011.

www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/emancipation_proclamation/

"The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net." Index Page -- the U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net. Web 14 May 2011. http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html

"Plessy vs. Ferguson: Separate isn't Equal" Ferris State University. Web 14 May 2011. http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/links/misclink/plessy/… [read more]


Why Immigration Was Such a Controversial Issue in the 1830s and 40s Essay

… Immigration in 1830s and '40s

Why Was Immigration Controversial in 1830s and '40s?

The United States may be considered a country of immigrants as the country was founded by them. The founding fathers, including George Washington, therefore were not against immigrants. After the United States was established as an independent nation, however, the early citizens began to see themselves as the natives. These natives primarily consisted of white Protestant men. In the 1820s, the United States began to prosper, expanding westward and offering plenty of opportunities to farmers and workers, while many European countries were rife with conflicts, political turmoil, and hunger. As a result, in the following two decades, the United States experienced the first massive wave of immigration.

The immigrants in this era came from mostly Northern and Western Europe, especially Ireland and Germany. Millions of Europeans flocked to the United States, to flee civil unrest and hardships in their countries and to begin a new life which they believed America promised. While Germans fled riots and rebellions, the Irish fled the potato famine. In America, free enterprise was growing and many were willing to absorb the European immigrants who were willing to work for lower wages than the native laborers. And since the country was moving westward, the available land for farming was plentiful. But soon after, the immigrants began to face stiff opposition from the native population.

There were several reasons why the new immigrants were not welcome. One of the reasons was religious. Americans who were mostly Protestant and detested the Pope, and did not welcome large number of Catholics from Ireland and Germany. The immigrants were viewed as a threat to religious unity and harmony of the nation. Another reason was political opposition to the Democratic Party. The Democrats tried to appeal to the needs of commoners, and many immigrants, therefore, supported the Democratic Party. The numerical edge granted to Democrats by the growing number of immigrants angered many Americans.

The main opposition, however, was generated by the fact that the immigrants competed with local laborers. Most…… [read more]


Political Contributions of Abraham Lincoln Essay

… Political Contributions of Abraham Lincoln:

Abraham Lincoln, America's sixteenth president, is regarded by many historians as the greatest president of the United States. This is because of Lincoln's wisdom, style of leadership and political contribution that has shaped America to what it is today. Lincoln is mostly remembered for his character, leadership qualities, letters, speeches and as a man from a humble background whose perseverance and determination led him to become president. The political contributions of Abraham Lincoln were not only exceptional during his time but they also continue to impact American politics today. His three major political contributions were unification of the country by winning the civil war, liberating slaves in the south and making slavery illegal.

During the long Civil War, President Lincoln endured unusual pressures since he had generals who weren't ready to fight, experienced bickering amongst his Cabinet ministers, received assassination threats, lost many people on the battlefields and faced strong opposition. Regardless of these extraordinary pressures, he remained brave and persevered while refusing to give in to the pressures and terminate the war early. As a result of his perseverance and determination during the war amidst hostile pressures, Lincoln fought until the Confederacy was defeated (Norton par, 2). One of his most famous speeches was the Gettysburg address in which he stated that "Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure."

This decision to continue fighting during the Civil War proved to be very integral since is helped in preserving the United States as a single nation. His main reason for continuing to fight amidst the extraordinary pressures was to ensure that America did not perish from the earth as a result of the Civil War. The result of this decision was that America remained as one nation instead of splitting into two separate countries. The second major political contribution of Abraham Lincoln was the Emancipation Proclamation which resulted in the freedom of all slaves in the south. This proclamation…… [read more]


Copperheads at the Outbreak of the Civil Essay

… Copperheads

At the outbreak of the Civil War, political divisions in the north became evident. Not all Northerners supported Republican President Lincoln's war. The greatest antiwar contingency was in the Democratic Party, naturally, given that it was the Southern Democrats that fought most vehemently for the preservation of Southern culture and for slavery. Northern democrats sympathetic to the Southern cause protested the war and called themselves "Peace Democrats." Peace Democrats became known also as Copperheads.

George McClellan

George McClellan was the Northern Democratic party candidate in the 1864 election. McClellan was chosen under the assumption that he would champion the Copperhead cause. The Democrats wanted to nominate a candidate who would oppose Lincoln vigorously by calling for an immediate end to the war. However, McClellan was not as radical a Peace Democrat as many in his party would have hoped and he went on to lose that election to the incumbent.

Jefferson Davis

A "moderate secessionist before the war," Jefferson Davis became the first and only President of the Confederacy (Brinkley 346). Davis's mandate in the South was weakened by the rabid states' rights political philosophy that reigned there. Southern fear of a federal government, even a Confederate one, rendered Davis practically -- but not thoroughly -- impotent during the Civil War.

4. Robert E. Lee

In 1862, President Davis appointed Robert E. Lee as his principle military advisor. Lee would go on to become the commanding General of the Confederate forces and remains one of the most famous Confederate heroes. Ironically, Lee "opposed secession and was ambivalent about slavery," (Brinkley 352). He nevertheless earned the South some key military victories.

5. Ulysses S. Grant

In 1864, Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant to command the Union armed forces. Grant was a fearsome force, unrelenting in his military strategies. Grant helped the Union secure its eventual victory in the Civil War.

6. Sherman's "March to the Sea"

William Sherman headed the western Union army. Focusing its attention on Georgia, the western army under Sherman seized Atlanta in 1864, reinforced troop presence in Nashville, and then embarked on the "March to the Sea," which was essentially a campaign of utter destruction from Atlanta to Savannah. Sherman burned plantations and villages to cut off Southerners from food and military supplies. Even after Savannah surrendered, Sherman continued the march up into North Carolina.

7. McClellan's Peninsular Campaign

As Commander of the Army of the Potomac, McClellan set out to capture Richmond, Virginia. The capture involved an unconventional and complex water-borne approach in which McClellan's troops sailed down the Potomac. The event was known as the Peninsular Campaign.

8. Emancipation Proclamation

President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. The proclamation declared all slaves in the Confederate states to be forever free. Oddly, the Emancipation Proclamation did not declare slaves to be free in slave-holding Union states or within Confederate states that had already been seized by the Union army.

9. Battle of Vicksburg

In 1863, Grant attacked Vicksburg, a town in one… [read more]


Eli Whitney the Father Essay

… Each weapon was unique. If a part broke its replacement had to be especially made.

Whitney's plan was to supply 10,000 muskets in two years. He designed machine tools by which an unskilled workman made only a particular part that conformed precisely as precision was then measured to a model. The sum of such parts was a musket. Any part would fit any musket of that design. He had grasped the concept of interchangeable parts. In 1801 before President-elect Thomas Jefferson and other officials, Whitney demonstrated the result of his system. From piles of disassembled muskets they picked parts at random and assembled complete muskets. This was the beginning of the American system of mass production.

By the middle of the 19th century the general concepts of division of labor, machine-assisted manufacture, and assembly of standardized parts were well established. Large factories were in operation and some industries, such as textiles and steel, were using processes, machinery, and equipment that would be recognizable even in the late 20th century. The growth of manufacturing was accelerated by the rapid expansion of rail, barge, ship, and road transportation. The new transport companies not only enabled factories to obtain raw materials and to ship finished products over increasingly large distances, but they also created a substantial demand for the output of the new industries ("Industrial Engineering and Production Management").

The expansion of industry in the nineteenth century had a profound effect on American life. The widespread utilization of machines to replace hand labor as the main means of manufacturing increased production capacity greatly. Inventors developed new products, and businesses made these products in large quantities. Investors and bankers supplied the financial resources that business leaders needed to expand their operations. As new businesses sprouted in cities metropolitan populations reached unprecedented numbers. During this period many Americans amassed huge fortunes from the business boom, while others lived in extreme poverty. The social ramifications of the Industrial Revolution were many. Under the factory system the individual workers no longer functioned as partners of employer, had say about the conditions and pay they received, about how their skills would be employed, about the nature of what they were making, or about where and to whom it would be sold. The sharp contrast between the rich and the poor and other features of American life stirred widespread discontent triggering new reform movements.

Works Cited

Bruchey, Stuart. Cotton and the Growth of the American Economy 1790-1860. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc., 1967.

NAI. Industrial Engineering and Production Management. Willamatte University, 2011. 3 May 2011.…… [read more]


Fred I. Greenstein, the Presidential Essay

… As a personality, he was far warmer and more engaging than Carter, and far more interested in the normal give-and-take of politics, but his detached style caused him great problems with corruption in the domestic departments and, worst of all, the Iran-Contra scandal.

Of the more recent present, both George Bush's turned out to be obviously deficient in vision, communication abilities and intellect, with the son turning out to be far more lacking than his father. Bush Senior's expertise was in foreign policy, and his greatest success was ending the Cold War on his watch and overseeing the reunification of Europe. History may well be kinder to his presidential legacy than his contemporaries, as was the case with Eisenhower, although he was a domestic policy failure. Clinton had a brilliant intellect and was a master of politics and communications, but was also easily bored with the details of policymaking and impatient with in-depth analysis. His emotional and personality flaws were obvious, and like Nixon led to his self-destruction, since they played right into the hands of determined enemies who were eager to impeach him. Compared to his successor George W. Bush, however, his administration was generally considered a domestic and foreign policy success. Although no historian can yet make any kind of meaningful pronouncement on the presidency of Barack Obama, his communication sills and intellectual abilities are clearly considerable, while as a personality he always seems calm, cool, detached and balanced -- even eerily so at times. His political skills are also obvious, and he has achieved some major successes in domestic and foreign policy despite intense opposition on the Right. In reality, he has achieved far more than any other Democratic president since Lyndon Johnson, although the magnitude of the problems he inherited was greater…… [read more]


Global Terrorism Waterboarding: A Policy Essay

… It is a sad reality that the United States has become the country to violate these conventions, for, as Mr. Hitchens correctly states, waterboarding is no joking matter, and it really does place one very close feeling as if he is dying. [3: Hitchens, C. (2008). "Believe Me, It's Torture." Vanity Fair, 50(8). Retrieved from .]

Furthermore, waterboarding is a misleading name, for boarding is simply what is holding one up, and the method is just watering to an extreme extent. As the author describes, his arms were tied, his head was lowered and then his legs were "lashed together so that the board and I were one single and trussed unit." Then, on top of the hood which he wore, the administrators placed three layers of enveloping towel, after which they placed him head downward. After waiting awhile, Mr. Hitchens describes an abrupt cascade of water going up his nose, the futility of resistance, the gag reflect and the overwhelming panic at drowning. No harm came to the author, who had then signaled the administrators to release him, but prisoners do not always have this straightforward option.

Recommendations:

From a firsthand narrative experience, one can see that waterboarding is a cruel punishment, and is thus, once again, against the United States constitution and the rules of the Geneva Convention.

Mr. President, our recommendations are as follows:

1. Instead of waterboarding, the administration should make it a priority to abide by international law, and find means of interrogation suitable with these laws and in accordance to the Constitution.

2. The administration should also give a presidential directive to the CIA and all other intelligence services to disclose all forms of potential and future torture in dealing with enemy combatants, so that the administration can determine whether they are incompliance with the United States' and international regulations and so that the administration can ensure that no cruel and unusual punishment is ever again administered to enemy combatants.

3. The President should make a speech telling the nation and the world about this directive, and addressing the wrongdoings of the previous administration.

4. The President should make a strong public commitment against the use of cruel and unusual punishment and should recognize it is against the interests of the United States, from a public diplomacy perspective, but also from a legal perspective.… [read more]


Future Perspective Understandable Reasons for Pessimism Essay

… ¶ … Future Perspective

Understandable Reasons for Pessimism

I can certainly understand why some people are so pessimistic about their future expectations. In the United States, the economic collapse triggered by the busting of the so-called "housing bubble" in 2008 have led to the worst recession in recent American history. In fact, but for the actions taken by the Obama administration, many economic experts suggest that the nation was actually on the verge of a potential economic disaster as bad as or even worse than the infamous Great Depression of the 1930s. The nation is committed to two overseas military campaigns and has just become involved in a third conflict in Libya. At the same time, the U.S. is still hated in much of the world, especially in parts of the Middle East, including in nations that control significant portions of the world's natural oil reserves upon which we still rely for our energy.

Domestically, our national political system seems too embroiled in partisan disputes to accomplish the fundamental tasks of governing and legislating. A large segment of the American population seems allied with political representatives and candidates who are incredibly ignorant and who seem to be motivated by thinly veiled resentment over the fact that President Obama is from a mixed racial background rather than by any genuine substantive opposition to the policies and decisions of his administration. Extremists harboring some of those sentiments have actually perpetrated several deadly attacks, most recently, killing several congressional staffers and nearly fatally wounding a sitting U.S. congresswoman.

Economically, the current generation of young adults are the first generation that will not be able to reach let alone exceed the standards of living of their parents after virtually every generation in the past has had that opportunity. Today, the cost of a college education is more expensive than ever…… [read more]


Earl M. Maltz, Dred Scott Book Report

… He also used the Missouri Records and other state and federal archives for unpublished information about the Dred Scott case in the state courts and lower federal courts. Additional primary sources from the records of the 1787 Constitutional Convention, debates on slavery in the Annals of Congress and Congressional Globe were also important, as were newspapers like the New York Tribune and Charleston Mercury. Among the secondary sources he used were many of the standard works in the field by Stanley Elkins, Howard Jones, Paul Finkelman, Eric Foner and Kenneth Stamp. The book also gives a great deal of background information on the issue of slavery in the federal territories and the law on fugitive slaves, going back to the first Northwest Ordinance of 1785 and Southwest Ordinance of 1790, through to the discussion and debates about slavery during the writing and ratification the Constitution, and then to the 1820 and 1850 Compromises. Certainly one of the key events in U.S. history was the fact that Congress prohibited slavery north of the Ohio River, while the Southern states had insisted that it be permitted in the western territories immediately contiguous to them. In this sense, the ultimate division of the United States during the Civil War was already set decades before by this key event, for south of the Ohio River only the Border State of Kentucky remained loyal to the Union -- if only just barely. Although the main purpose of the Founders at the Philadelphia Convention was hardly to debate slavery, the issue definitely came up, when South Carolina and Georgia insisted that the African slave trade remain open for twenty years or that the Northern states agree that fugitive slaves be returned to their owners.

This issue came up again during the Compromise of 1850, and the fact that the Northern state legislatures increasingly insisted on freeing all runaway slaves and refused to assist in their recovery was a major factor in the breakdown of comity between the states. It also caused a hardening of attitudes in the South, even in states like Missouri, making them less likely to grant freedom to slaves like Dred Scott who had resided in free territory. At the time the Constitution was drafted, the Southern states also insisted that slaves be counted the same as white persons for purpose of representation in the House, while the North would have preferred that they not be counted at all. In the end, the notorious Three-Fifths Compromise counted slaves as 60% of a white person, giving the South an extra advantage of House members and in the Electoral College, even though black slaves obviously had no voting or citizenship rights -- nor did free blacks in most Northern states before the Civil War for that matter. Even so, the issue of slavery in the territories, which had been compromised in 1820 and 1850, finally broke the Union when the leaders of the South decided to force the issue. To be sure, Dred Scott could… [read more]


Constitution Were the 13th, 14th Term Paper

… However, the famous Emancipation Proclamation not only contributed to the resolution of the war, but forever changed the way humanity viewed the instituion of slavery. However, the conflicts during the war, the religious and political situation, and international pressure resulted in the 13th Amendment to the Constituition. This abolished slavery (1864) and changed forever the social and cultural face of the United States (Slavery and the Making of America). Because of the new philosophical mandates arising from not only Europe but from the newly created United States, rationalist thinkers used the Enlightenment to reassess man's place in the universe and in congruency with his fellow man. Of course this led to outright questioning of the slave trade, and the movement of abolitionism became a unique cause in the Americas, and even in Eastern Europe and Russia. This movement gained momentum in the United States after the British outlawed slavery in the 1830s, and seemed to culminate with the ultimate abolitionist -- a duly elected President of the United States.

During the Civil War, Congress and the Lincoln administration took a number of actions against slavery that gave a very clear indication that the institution was doomed, although the fate of the free blacks remained unresolved in 1865. Slavery had already been effectively abolished in most parts of the South by the time the 13th Amendment was ratified in 1865, but this constitutional alternation legally abolished everywhere in the country, including the border states where slavery still lingered. In doing this, it "overrode all constitutional provisions that protected and furthered the institution of slavery," such as the three-fifths compromise and the fugitive slave clause (Tsesis 34). In 1862, Congress had already… [read more]


Marbury v. Madison Essay

… b. The addition of Missouri as a free state would add 2 senatorial votes to the free states, which would destroy the even balance between free and slave state disputes.

7. List two ways in which those who supported making Missouri a free state in 1820 defended their position:

a. The addition of Missouri as a slave state would add 2 senatorial votes to the slave states, in which case a balance was necessary even out voting rights.

b. There should be a limit to the addition of slavery and slave states.

8. According to the 1945 Missouri Constitution, supreme executive power is vested in which of the following?

d. The Governor.

9. According to the 1945 Missouri Constitution, which of the following holds the sole power of impeachment?

d. The House of Representatives.

10. According to the 1945 Missouri Constitution, who appoints members to the Board of Education?

a. The Governor.

11. Which of the following was NOT a part of the transportation innovations of the early 19th century?

a. Turnpikes.

12. Who killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel while serving as vice-president?

b. Aaron Burr.

13. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery north of the Ohio River.

TRUE

14. Shays' Rebellion was…… [read more]


Compare Obama vs. G.W. Bush Foreign Policy Research Paper

… Bush v. Obama Foreign Policies

Neo-conservatism and Liberalism in Practice:

Comparing George W. Bush and Barack Obama Foreign Policies

In 2001 George W. Bush presided over the Presidency which had to face new kinds of challenges in American foreign policy.… [read more]


America: Readings in Race, Culture Book Review

… Their businesses were overtaken, their property stolen, and no reparations were made after the war was over and the people released from the internment camps. Racist ideas are still a part of American history, as much as we would like to deny it. After September 11, 2001 and the attack on the World Trade Center, Muslims and Americans of Middle Eastern descent were all looked at suspiciously. Still accusations are levied at airports and at police departments that racial profiling, not suspicious activity, leads to detainment and further questioning of the person.

The book also discusses the rhetoric of certain speeches and other visual media that was used to convey messages of propaganda during eras of American history. In the chapter, "The Depression and the Two World Wars on the Home Front," Wyle discusses the uses of propaganda during the war years. Posters from the era are examined to show both overt and subliminal messages being relayed. During the Second World War in particular, the United States was encouraged to have a united attitude towards the effort both at home and abroad. Part of that unification was in getting the majority of the population to view the Germans, Japanese, and Italians as enemies not only of the United States, but as the enemies of freedom as well. Consequently many of the war posters, not to mention war cartoons, films, and political speeches used language and imagery designed to cement these ideas.

This is also true for the other speeches that Wyle includes in the text. A political speech is designed to convince the listeners that the person speaking is honest and that their perspective is the correct one. For example, the speeches of the civil rights leaders in the chapter "Civil Rights, Protest, and Foreign Wars" were each designed to convince the reader that the speaker had a viable point and that some sort of change needed to be enacted, not only to aid the speaker's cause but supposedly to help the listener as well.

The process of critical thinking requires that individuals viewing the information not only understand the message, but that the viewer acknowledge that there is a message beyond what is obvious. It is not only that information is being given, but there are rhetorical devices that are designed to impart information in given ways. Most people assume that history is all fact and that there is no underlying message to be understood. This is, of course, false. All history is told from a bias. Either the story is told from an individual who has a perspective and a purpose for their testimony, or history is told from the viewpoint from someone who has not experienced the events directly. Therefore, history, like any other text can be analyzed and interpreted.

Works Cited:

Wyle, Susan. (2003). Revisiting America: Readings in Race,…… [read more]


Leadership in His Pulitzer Prize Book Review

… To be sure, the Native Americans had always regarded him as hostile and aggressive, long before he ever became commander of the Continental Army and launched genocidal campaigns against them along the frontier. Indeed, the "interior regions of Washington's personality began to take shape within the interior region of the colonial frontier" (Ellis, p. 7). He hated James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, who he thought had personally libeled him and to the end of his life, "the political wounds inflicted on him during his second term by the Republican press still festered" (Ellis, p. 247). He regarded his opponents as pro-French subversives who should be suppressed, and supported the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798. Moreover, Washington expected to join with Alexander Hamilton in leading the army when the war with France began, and was surprised when John Adams negotiated a peace agreement with that country in 1799. Unlike the Democratic Republicans, he always favored a string army and centralized state because "he did not trust the people to behave virtuously" (Ellis, p. 274).

Washington was personally opposed to slavery and said in private that if civil war ever came between the North and South, who would move to the North and rally support for the antislavery side. By the 1780s and 1790s he no longer wished to own slaves which he regarded as "repugnant to my own feelings" and he would not sell any of his 300 slaves for fear of breaking up families (Ellis, p. 256). Although he did not think that the United States was yet prepared to abolish slavery totally, he realized that his own historical legacy would depend on freeing his own slaves, which he did in his will. In this matter and many others, Washington realized that doing the morally right thing was also "doing the right thing for his historical reputation" (Ellis, p. 264). One of the reasons he accepted Hamilton's state-directed capitalism and industrialization was that he believed it would lead to the gradual extinction of slavery, an idea accepted by later Whigs and Republicans like Henry Clay and Abraham Lincoln.

Washington's character was complex, and certainly evolved greatly over time. He was a young, aggressive, self-made man, more of a child of the frontier and western expansion than is commonly realized, and made his early reputation as a soldier fighting the French and Native Americans. In this sense, he could even be compared to later Southern planter presidents like Andrew Jackson, although over time he turned against slavery and the agrarian, plantation interests in favor of Hamilton's Northern policy of protectionism, industrialization and state-directed economic development. He attempted to set a moral example by freeing his slaves in his will, even if he lacked the power to emancipate them everywhere. These Whig-Federalist-Hamiltonian policies set him apart from the entire Democratic policy ideology of Thomas Jefferson, so heavily based on agriculture, states rights, decentralization and western expansion to maintain the agrarian character of American society. If Washington had once supported all of… [read more]


Westward Expansion the Idea Essay

… Westward Expansion

The idea of expansion to the Western United States has always been a subject of great interest to the colonials of the 1800s. Even past presidents -- including Thomas Jefferson -- were particularly keen on a westward vision, one most Americans believed to be their manifest destiny. With the acquisition of most of the lands west of the colonial United States, this manifest destiny came into fruition, though it did bring about a tension between the Northern and Southern states of the nation. Slavery became a heavy issue within the addition of the new states (a result of the Wilmot Proviso bill previously passed by Congress), and the tensions would run high, culminating into a Civil War within the country.

The Compromise of 1850 was an important factor in this North and South tension. After the close of the Mexican War in 1848, Texas was annexed to the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ("Compromise"). Henry Clay, then-President of the United States, had signed for the annexation, though border disputes during the time cost him the next election, and John W. Taylor was sworn in to replace him. Meanwhile, on the far west, citizens began to pour into California, and an application to be entered as an official state into the United States was granted in 1849 (Taylor).

The acquisitions of such territories would not have been such a problem if not for the Wilmot Proviso, which was written up and passed in 1846. The bill's major proposition dealt with the extension of slavery on the lands acquired from Mexico in the war and on further lands annexed in the future. The Wilmot Proviso disallowed the spreading of slavery in Texas. When California petitioned for its annexation, the state was also affected by the Wilmot Proviso. Thus both Texas and California were to be added into the United States as free states.

California and Texas being admitted into…… [read more]


Civil War Timeline 1619 the Origins Essay

… ¶ … Civil War Timeline

1619 the Origins of Slavery in the United States

While indentured servants had always been part of the colonies, slavery came to the future United States when English settlers purchased 20 African indentured servants from… [read more]


Ronald Reagan Research Paper

… Ronald Reagan

The Younger Years

Ronald Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in the small town of Tampico, Illinois. His parents were John Jack Reagan and Nelle Wilson Reagan. Like a lot of other kids growing up in the Midwest after the turn of the century, Ronald was of mainly Irish descent. His father was a strong Irish-American shoe salesman and his mother was of Scottish-Irish descent. Ronald went by the name Dutch during most of his childhood for the reason that he disliked his given name and, according to tale, for the reason that Jack had said that his son looked like a fat little Dutchman when he was born. Dutch had one brother named Neil (Early Life: 1911 -- 1932, 2010).

During Ronald's earlier years, his family moved many times all over Illinois, living in Tampico, Chicago, Galesburg, Monmouth, and finally Dixon where the family finally settled when Ronald was nine years old. Because of the regular moves, Dutch didn't make a lot of, if any, enduring relationships. As an alternative, he turned to his family for companionship, as did the rest of the family. As a consequence, the four family members became a tightly knit unit. The family was so close and well-known with each other that by the time Ronald and his brother where in high school, they had taken to referring to their parents by their first names. Prior to moving to Dixon, Dutch was also quite a withdrawn boy. He liked playing calmly by himself with his toys. He particularly liked reading books having to do with natural history. He later recollected that as a child he had read his favorite book on wolves so many times that later on, he could still narrate the entire book word for word. He complemented these books with a tiny collection of mounted butterflies that had been given to him (Early Life: 1911 -- 1932, 2010).

The Hollywood Years

After finishing college, Ronald found employment as a sports broadcaster, ultimately for Chicago Cubs baseball games, sharpening his play-by-play imagery to a highest association with his widespread audience. While in Los Angeles he took someone's recommendation and thrived in obtaining an acting agreement at Warner Brother's motion pictures studio. When the war started in 1941, Reagan was thirty years old. He enlisted in the Army as a second lieutenant and finished as a captain on duty in California, an adjutant and personnel officer at Fort Roach, a movie studio utilized by the military. Working with civilians assigned to Fort Roach, Reagan first learned about government (Ronald Reagan in Hollywood, 2010).

Reagan was obtaining dislike for big government, but at the end of the war he described himself as a New Dealer to the center. He did not trust big business. From a family that understood in just and honest behavior towards blacks, he was distressed by racism. At the end of the war there were a lot of new veterans' groups that sprung up across the nation… [read more]


Declaration of Independence Essay

… Declaration of Independence

The issuing of the Declaration of Independence marked the last part of British dominion over American colonies. This came as a result of a series of events which convinced Americans that they are better off being independent, and, that if they want to be free both physically and mentally they need to be separate from the British.

The path that led to the Declaration of Independence was laid in 1760, when George III became King of England. Once the French power was eliminated, in 1763, the Americans become more trustful their own forces. Because of the war spending, Parliament needed to raise taxes on the revenue of the colonies. and, as a result, the Stamp Act was born-on March 22, 1765. This legislation irritated the colonies, and most of them sent representatives to a congress in New York on October 19, 1765. It was disputed because of its unconstitutional character and Americans expressed their disagreement with the concepts it put across. Only nine colonies came to represent the Americans in the Stamp Act and eventually came to form the first federal government in the United States. On March 18, 1766, the legislation concerning the taxes on the Americans' revenue -- the Stamp Act-was canceled. The colonists said that if this legislation continued to be applied, it "would be attended with much inconveniency, and may be productive of consequences greatly detrimental to the commercial interests of these kingdoms" (Dumbauld 4). The Act proclaimed that the British have power over the colonies, and that the colonies can't vote or make orders. The implication of the colonies in Parliament was considered null, due to the unquestionable power of the British.

Charles Townshend proposed a series of decrees in which he claimed that it was essential for Americans to have their tax on income increased. He said that through this program the salaries of judges and governors can be raised so they can be independent of colonial law. Another purpose of his laws was to improve the trade industry. Corresponding with Charles' laws, the New York province needed to be penalized because it did not act in accordance with the Quartering Act of 1765. Although the Stamp Act was revoked, Charles considered that the British Parliament had all the rights to…… [read more]


Pull Factor and Push Factor for Chinese Who Immigration to U.S. From 1970s to 2000 Research Paper

… Chinese Immigrant

Chinese Immigration to the United States: 1970-2000

The United States' stance towards Chinese immigration has a very checkered history, with a great dependence on the labor provided by Chinese immigrants in the nineteenth century and yet with harsh reactionary quotas limiting Asian immigration in the latter part of that century. During World War II, though primarily Japanese individuals were forcibly interned in federal "camps," general anti-Asian sentiments rose throughout the country, leading to increased difficulties both for those trying to immigrate from Asia to the United States and for those individuals and families that managed to make it through. China's own political and historical course during the twentieth century also limited immigration form this country, as the socialist and totalitarian regime that still dominates Chinese society and government strictly limits migration quotas out of the country.

In 1965, however, the United States passed the Immigration and Naturalization Act, which finally eliminated the discriminatory nineteenth-century quotas that favored European immigrants over Asians (Chen 2010). This caused a major upswing in the number of Chinese immigrants throughout the 1970s, which was also a period whne the Chinese government was showing increased liberalization, as well (Chen 2010; Li & Lee 2005). In some ways, however, this increased liberalization in China had a negative effect on immigration to the United States; while it had always been the destination of choice for legal and illegal Chinese immigrants, more liberalization meant more choices, and may Chinese began emigrating to other countries during the 1970s as well as the United States (Li & Lee 2005).

The same basic trend in Chinese immigration continued in the 1980s, and as the economy was fairly decent during this decade and Chinese liberalization continued, legal immigration picked up. A major problem during this decade, however, was the smuggling of illegal Chinese immigrants into the United States (Kyle & Koslowski…… [read more]


Inaugural Addresses Wilson and Eisenhower Woodrow Essay

… Inaugural Addresses

Wilson and Eisenhower

Woodrow Wilson and Dwight D. Eisenhower have proven to be two of the few unanimously respected presidents in the modern era. Both led the country at a time when the country was being compelled to take on a greater role in international affairs. Their inaugural addresses illustrate their understanding of the country's role. Wilson's address envisions the outside world as distant and benevolent while Eisenhower's address envisions the outside world as insidious and fast approaching.

Wilson's Inaugural Address

Wilson is clearly attempting to establish protections for the common man in the face of exploitation by the corporate/government cartel, observing that "The great Government we loved has too often been made use of for private and selfish purposes, and those who used it had forgotten the people." These forgotten people were the faceless "constituent parts" of the American Industrial machine, of Big Trusts, which had dominated American government since the end of the Civil War.

Before proceeding with the rest of the address, Wilson makes sure to illustrate the damage which corporate interests was causing in the U.S. He criticizes "A tariff which cuts us off from our proper part in the commerce of the world, violates the just principles of taxation… a banking and currency system & #8230; perfectly adapted to concentrating cash and restricting credits; an industrial system which…holds capital in leading strings, restricts the liberties and…opportunities of labor, and exploits without renewing or conserving the natural resources of the country." Every element of Wilson's description was a direct indictment on the wealthy few industrialists who dominated the U.S.

Wilson emphasized that American industrial success had come at a great cost to the laborers who created it. He emphasized "the human cost, the cost of lives snuffed out, of energies overtaxed and broken, the fearful physical and spiritual cost to the men and women and children upon whom the dead weight and burden of it all has fallen stressed that "Wilson revisits the Machine metaphor throughout the speech, imploring that "Society must see to it that it does not itself crush or weaken or damage its own constituent parts."

In explaining his solutions, Wilson did not revert to his former persona of the stately professor, but of a firebrand preacher. He framed his goals as a moral imperative, explaining that it is "Our duty is to cleanse, to reconsider, to restore, to correct the evil without impairing the good…" However, he was careful to temper these convictions with more rational inducements, clarifying that "These are matters of justice," "not pity." Wilson also attempts to temper the strong anti-business tone of his speech, pointing out the benefits his policies will have on industry: "Sanitary laws, pure food laws, and laws determining conditions of labor which individuals are powerless to determine for themselves are intimate parts of the very business of justice and legal efficiency."

Eisenhower's Address

Eisenhower's address attempted to mobilize the country's efforts, with some vaguely foreign, insidious threat to civilization, as if the… [read more]


Thomas Jefferson and His View of Education Research Paper

… Jefferson Education

The Influence of Personal Biography on National Policy: The Life of Thomas Jefferson and His Views on Education

Thomas Jefferson is most famously remembered for his role in drafting the Declaration of Independence, a document that was essential… [read more]


Bacon Rebellion Essay

… Bacon Rebellion has been considered for many years to be one of the first elements of what would later become known as the American Revolution. Even though this event took place in 1676, for decades it has been viewed as… [read more]


Jeffersonian Republicans Book Report

… Jeffersonians

Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, and one of the most influential of the founding fathers, promoting the ideas of republicanism in the new United States. He was a political philosopher, and knew many intellectuals from Britain and France. He favored the individual rights of states, and hoped for a limited federal government, separation of church and state, and saw the idea of a strong central government as tyranny. He was quite an intellectual; a statesman, architect, inventory, archaeologist, in fact, so learned that during a speech John F. Kennedy gave for the 1962 Nobel Prize Winners, Kennedy remarked, "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together at the White House -- with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone" (Kennedy, p. 347; Hayes, 2008).

Jefferson believed in open trade and communication with Britain, France, and saw the United State's emergence into the world of social, cultural, and economic affairs to be critical in the development of the new republic. Jefferson was far more agrarian than industrial, even commenting, "I hope we shall… crush in its birth the aristocracy of our moneyed corporations, which dare already to challenge our government to a trial of strength and id defiance to the laws of our country" ("Favorite Jefferson Quotes.") He was a leader in developing republicanism in America, and wanted a civic virtue to replace the British system, in which he believed Hamilton and Adams' strong central government emulated. Economically, he was strongly opposed to the Bank of the United States, calling it more dangerous than a standing army. He did believe in individual rights, and that these rights (in homage to…… [read more]


Manifest Destiny in the Past and Present Term Paper

… Manifest Destiny in the Past and Present

There once was a time when the United States was very different from how it is like today -- once, it was smaller than Massachusetts Bay. Once, Hawaii and Guam were not part… [read more]


Lincoln Douglas Debates Essay

… Lincoln-Douglas debates came out of the senatorial campaign of 1858 between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas. Lincoln and Douglas debated issues such as the growth of slavery, the power of states to have power over slavery within their own boundaries, and whether or not the Dred Scott decision (the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling that a slave was not a human being and therefore was not permitted to sue for his freedom) was a shrewd decision. Lincoln, of course, was against slavery and opposed the growth of slavery to other states in the Union, but Douglas believed in popular sovereignty (the power of each state to be able to determine its own laws and policies). The debates also discussed Democratic and Republican party politics as well as the future of the United States, however, the debates were obviously focusing on one issue alone: slavery.

Lincoln believed that the Union was divided on the topic of slavery, which it was; slavery was allowed in some places and not allowed in others. "Slavery was a legal institution in fourteen states in the Union. It was a repulsive system, but it was also powerful" (Guelzo 10). Lincoln thought that either the Union needed to allow slavery everywhere in the Union -- or nowhere in the Union. Douglas, however, did not agree with Lincoln on this subject. Douglas brought up the fact that the country had been divided for seventy years already and asked Lincoln why after so many years it could not stay the same. Because of the great size of the United States, Douglas believed that what might be right for area of the country may not be right for another area. For example, because the South had cotton, slaves were more necessary than in the North where cotton plantations did not exist.

The Dred Scott decision was also emphasized during the debates. Lincoln opposed the Dred Scott decision as it took away the rights for blacks to enjoy citizenship. Douglas was wholly against black citizenship, however, claiming that the government was made by white people…… [read more]

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