Study "American History / United States" Essays 991-1000

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Civil Rights Does the Patriot Research Paper

… Civil Rights

Does the Patriot Act Violate our Civil Rights?

When viewed through the lens of Constitutional Civil Rights, The Patriot Act is a monster. Conceived and enacted in post-9/11 hysteria, the Act systematically decimates Civil Liberties. Furthermore, despite later… [read more]

Era What Would the U.S Essay

… But Progressives were a tad deluded on this point. The Fed quickly became what it is today -- a currency devaluating monster; big business (promoted by Progressives like Teddy Roosevelt) got the "green" light on the political level, while the famous "Trust Buster" got applause for "breaking" the big corporate trusts and monopolies. (Roosevelt didn't really break up anything but rather, like the Sorcerer's Apprentice, chopped the big broomstick into a thousand smaller broomsticks -- all still marching to the drum of the same corporate entity in the end).

The Yellow Journalists got to whip up public scorn through the media. When the U.S.S. Maine blew up, the newspapermen were quick to blame it on the Spanish. The Spanish-American War followed and a new era of Imperialism was ushered in, with American forces taking their warships all the way to the Philippines. Had there been no Progressive Era, there would have been no new age of Imperialism, America would have remained isolationist, and men like famous author Mark Twain would not to have had to write some compelling arguments in support of the Anti-Imperialist League.

On the other hand, men like Upton Sinclair may not have written books like The Jungle, which raised social awareness about the deplorable conditions of the meat-packing industry at this time. Thanks to his "expose," the Food and Drug Administration was created in response to public outcry. Whether or not the FDA has been put to good use since then or merely become another tool of Big Business and Big Pharma is quite another story. Perhaps the Progressive Era should never have happened -- in spite of the numerous needs and ills of the… [read more]

Close Was Confederate Victory Essay

… [footnoteRef:4] Yet even so, McClellan's likelihood of negotiating with the Confederacy to end the war, much like his career as a general, remains an open question. While many in the North were certainly tired of the war, and expressed the sentiment that it was best to let the South go if it was so desirous of leaving, such a tremendous investment of manpower had been made, even the cautious Democratic General McClellan did not advocate wholesale withdrawal from the conflict. [3: McPherson 2002] [4: Steven E. Woodworth This Great Struggle: America's Civil War, (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011), 297]

The Confederacy hoped that if its armies could extract heavy penalties, the North would elect a candidate willing to make peace with the South, despite its undeniably greater political and military weaknesses. [footnoteRef:5] Confederate hopes of success were shattered by Sherman's successful taking of Atlanta, in a strategy that has now come to be called 'total war.' Sherman's destruction of railroads and personal property were designed to isolate the South from critical supplies. But Sherman's taking of Atlanta was far from easy. Sherman vowed to "take every life, every acre of land, every particle of property" to achieve his objective.[footnoteRef:6] Sherman's march destroyed the South economically as well as militarily. Had Sherman not taken Atlanta, Lincoln's reelection would have been in greater doubt, and put a weaker leader and negotiating partner into the seat of the presidency. It would not have been a death-knell for the North's efforts but it would have protracted the duration of the war and strained the support of the northern public to the breaking-point. [5: Woodworth 247] [6: Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 223]

Works Cited

Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.

McPherson, James M. "Could the South Have Won?" The New York Review of Books.

June 2002. [4 Aug 2012]

Woodworth, Steven E. This Great Struggle: America's… [read more]

Health and Life Research Paper

… Health and Life: Improvements in Mining Safety

Workplace injuries are one of the leading causes of fatal and non-fatal injuries in the world. However, some types of jobs and some industries have more injuries than others, simply based on the nature of the work. Though many advances have been made in the past 100 years in regard to worker safety on the job, and a whole organization (OSHA) has been built in the United States around maintaining workplace safety standards, there are still some industries that are dangerous by their very nature. Mining is one of the most dangerous work industries there is, and this is universal; whether the mine is in the United States or another country, whether safety standards are in place to protect workers or not, there are just too many variables in the mining industry that can cause accidents to happen. Sometimes these accidents are fatal, sometimes they are not, but they happen to mine workers far more often than to workers in most other industries. Because of the prevalence of mine accidents, a number of safety measures have either been proposed or introduced in recent years in an effort to improve safety for mine workers while on the job (Dhillon 2010).

Beginning with the Sago mine disaster in 2006, public concern for the safety of mine workers reached an all time high since the 1970s. There were very few mining injuries or accidents in the 1970s, due to new mining safety standards that were introduced then. From that time until 2006, the mining industry seemed fairly stable as far as safety was concerned. However, from 2000 to 2006, there were a number of mining disasters, culminating with the Sago mine disaster, that resulted in 37 deaths. These disasters lead to public demand for additional safety standards for mine workers. Congress duly passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act (MINER) in 2006. The MINER act requires many new safety measures in today's mines. These requirements are direct improvements on the deficiencies that lead to the previous disasters and the fatalities resulting from them. The new safety measures of the MINER act are meant to eliminate… [read more]

Are We Willing to Give Up Privacy for Safety or Civil Liberties? Term Paper

… ¶ … willing to give up Privacy for Safety or Civil Liberties?

"We don't choose the things we believe in; they choose us."- Lamar Burgess

In the twenty-first century one of the most vital concerns with regards to the usage of technology is privacy. As a knee jerk reaction, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) is searching for the finest of resources and proposals to make the sharing of information more organized, proper and complete. These objectives can only be attained if the privacy is intact and the security is on high alert during the process of transferring of information, to preserve its well being of the personal information of the inhabitants of our country against the newly emerging technologies. The question, hence, that rises here is this: Are civil liberties or security more important than one's private lives? The fact of the matter is that past experience has shown that one aspect is always compromised for the achievement of the other. If privacy grows to be non-existent with the application of more advanced security or civil liberties protocols, then these protocols are not really fulfilling their purpose or leading to newer security threats or civil liberties violations. The answer might be in moderation -- which is perhaps why the debate is still ongoing as not many influential individuals can choose between one over the other in the long run. This paper will aim to discuss this very question in light of the actions taken by the U.S. government in the past as well as draw in opinions and viewpoints expressed in the movie "Minority Report."


One recent movie that addresses these concerns is the Minority Report, starring Tom Cruise.… [read more]

Liberty and the Pursuit Essay

… Did the Founding Fathers properly think through the aspect of what they called "unalienable rights?" Perhaps they had, and perhaps some of them even agreed that the wording of said rights is vague. After all, they were also well aware of their own precarious situations: they believed it was their right to pursue a happiness that broke them apart from the British king, whose happiness was to subdue theirs. It was in tyranny that these Founding Fathers banded together, and perhaps this was where their idea of rights pertained to. The eradication of tyranny thereby game them the right to their lives, their liberties, and the pursuit of their own happiness.

What do these mean, indeed? Is happiness universally defined (Miners)? Craig's discussion rings sense, though how far he goes to define the three differ from what one personally believes. In all aspects of the unalienable rights, the perspective in which to view them determine the belief. As separate individuals, what manner of person will refuse to believe in one's rights to all three? Surely one, as a person, is entitled the rights by the sheer fact that one is a living, breathing, thinking human being. Yet one puts oneself amidst a world of society, and what, then, prioritizes one's life in the face of another? How does one simply "choose" whose rights are unalienable vs. someone else? How far does government law go in "protecting" the rights of one vs. The rights of the second, or the rights of the third, or the rights of the million? It is a puzzle that continues to astound and to be heavily debated, surely.


Fletcher, William A. "INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES." Northwestern University Law Review. 293-306. Northwestern University School of Law, 2010. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Apr. 2011.

Miners, Zach. "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness." U.S. News Digital Weekly 2.16 (2010): 16. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. "Declaration of Independence." The Declaration of Independence. Web. 19… [read more]

Populations in Developed and Less Developed Nations Essay

… Populations in Developed / Less Developed Nations

Developed Nations (DN) have more stable populations and grow at a much more moderate rate when compared to Less Developed Nations (LDN). DNs are predicted to grow about 3% between the years 2005 and 2050 while LDNs are predicted to grow about 52% between those two years (p. 147). This is quite a shocking fact and if the population growth goes as predicted, this means that by the year 2050, the LDN will possess over 86% of the world's people (p. 147). This will have major effects on not only the environment but also the quality of life for those living in LDNs.

What are the reasons for the differences in population growth in LDNs vs. DNs? By looking at the United States, an obvious DN, and Bangladesh, a LDN, this paper will try to point out some of the differences in social, economic, and cultural factors that may lead to higher population growth / fertility rates.

Population growth and economic development go hand in hand and they both lead to environmental issues (p. 147). One of the major problems in LDNs with high population growth rates is that there isn't enough food being produced to keep up with all of the people. This is why there have been LDNs that have experienced famine in ways that DNs would find hard to imagine.

The United States, as of 2005, had a population of 296.5 million people with about 14 births per 1000 individuals. The fertility rate for woman in the United States is about 2 children per woman per lifetime. Bangladesh, as of 2005, had a population of 144.2 million people and about 27 births per 1000 individuals -- almost double that of the United States. The total fertility rate is 3 children per woman per lifetime (p. 149).

There are social factors that need to be considered when thinking about why LDNs have higher population / versatility growth rates. One reason is that while people in DNs may… [read more]

Freedom of the Press Essay

… First Amendment

The Freedom Of The Press To Cover The War In Iraq

The following editorial was written as a protest by, Dawn Helen, CEO of City Daily News, to the President of the United States in protest of his recent press conference announcing a ban on media coverage of the Iraq War.

It is written in the U.S. Constitution that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press." U.S. Const. amend. I, art. III. It follows that, our freedom of the press is guaranteed by the First Amendment and the right of our reporters to provide media coverage to the citizens of the United States is being violated by your ban, Mr. President. Sir, we understand your concern regarding security for our troops and national security in general, however, it is our position that an outright ban on our First Amendment freedom of the press to cover the War in Iraq openly takes away the rights that we have been guaranteed by our forefathers when they drafted the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution. Because of this, Sir, we request that you lift the ban and permit press coverage of the War in Iraq. Mr. President, in conjunction with our legal department, we have researched and located several legal sources support that our First Amendment Freedom of the Press should not be abridged under these circumstances.

We use the case of Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957), to illustrate. While the decision of this case was later overruled, this case provides historical background as to how the Supreme Court has viewed governmental intrusion into our First Amendment Rights. The Court examined the issue of whether obscenity should be protected under the First Amendment and examined the broader question as to when the government should be allowed to regulate our freedom of the speech and the press. The Court reasoned, "The fundamental freedoms of speech and press have contributed greatly to the development and well-being of our free society and are indispensable to its continued growth. The door barring federal and state intrusion into this area cannot be left ajar; it must be kept tightly closed and opened only the slightest crack necessary to prevent encroachment upon more important interests."

The Court limited the government's power to regulate freedom of speech and the press in terms of obscenity. We use this case to illustrate why the government should not be permitted to limit press coverage. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the door permitting… [read more]

Contemporary Globalization Essay

… ¶ … globalization: interconnectivity and diversity. In terms of interconnectivity, globalization has made it more possible for people from different cultures to come together. Appiah's friend, for example, has a brother who lives in Japan because his wife is Japanese. He had no problem in moving to Japan, although he is from Ghana. At the same time, some of his brothers are in Spain or the United States. Maybe only some decades ago, this would have seemed impossible: people were born in some place and usually spent most of their lives in the same area. Even if they worked in the business segment, traveling would have usually been less common.

In terms of diversity, this is also an argument easy to support. The fact that somebody from Ghana is marrying somebody from Japan, despite all the cultural differences which are so obvious, means that globalization has managed to overpass the potential problems that might arise from this diversity and promote cultural diversity as a mean to bring people together rather than drive them apart.

While Appiah's article is important in bringing in examples and ideas related to the cultural impact of globalization, Jervis's article brings a political perspective to the issue of globalization, one which attempts to explain the perspective of a new, unipolar world. The unipolar world is dominated by the United States, which is the only superpower left after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. As the only superpower, the United States often finds itself in the position… [read more]

U.S. v. Kroll Essay

… U.S. versus Knoll

IRAC Analysis: United States v. Kroll. United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. 481 F.2d 884. July 10, 1973.

The central issue at stake in the United States vs. Kroll was the question of what constitutes a valid, warrantless search, specifically regarding a passenger about to board a commercial airliner who was searched by a U.S. Marshall.


When a search is conducted without a warrant, the government is required to show that the search was justified by exceptional circumstances to make the evidence admissible in court. In this case, the government attempted to meet the burden by contending, first, that the defendant had consented to the search and secondly, that the search was necessary for the safety of the passengers on board because it took place under exceptional circumstances. The government said that the defendant was assumed to be a suspected hijacker. The search was originally conduced for weapons and explosives because of the defendant's allegedly suspect status as a hijacker although only contraband narcotics in a small amount were discovered on his person, not anything incriminating regarding the defendant's suspect status as a hijacker, which was the original stated reason for the search.


On a TWA flight, the ticket seller, through a process which is not identified in the case information said that he or she found the defendant suspicious. It was feared that the defendant Kroll was a hijacker. Kroll's driver's license was recorded on his ticket, to notify the security officer at the boarding gate that the defendant fit a hijacker profile and should be searched. The metal hinges on Kroll's attache case activated the magnetometer under which the search took place. The TWA security agent instructed the defendant to place the case on table for inspection. A United States Marshal working with the TWA agent watched the search on Kroll. The Marshall became suspicious because the defendant did not open the file section in the upper part of the attache case. He approached the defendant identified himself as a United States Marshal and directed the defendant to open the file section where he observed a white business envelope that was approximately 9 1/2 inches x 4 inches.

The envelope was described as being light in weight, possessing a very small bulge, approximately 1/4-inch thick and 2 inches across, at one end of the envelope. The rest of the envelope was described as being limp and flat. The Marshal felt that the actions of the defendant regarding the file section and the envelope were 'suspicious' and asked the defendant to empty the contents of… [read more]

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