"American History / United States" Essays

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Mill Take Issue Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,836 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In a speech to a group of fellow clergymen, Revered Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke about this negative opinion of the American involvement in Vietnam. He believes that the 1960s are a period of revolution because for the first time large groups of people were standing up to the government and voicing decent on large scales. King says, "We must… [read more]

Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Left unspoken in this speech was the legitimacy of the underlying ideology that made slavery an acceptable yet "peculiar institution." What was articulated, though, made it clear that the South's position was that African-Americans were inferior by nature and that slavery was the proper institution for them since it improved their character and saved their souls through their introduction to Christianity. Arguing that all men are not created equal, Stephens emphasized that, "Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. . . . Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man." Absent this fundamental ideological difference, it is reasonable to suggest that the Southern states would never have seceded in the first place, rationalized by the vice president in this speech by pointing out that "slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition." Although many modern observers might be incredulous at this type of racist rhetoric, it is clear that this was the gospel accepted by many of the member of the intended audience for this speech. Indeed, the vice president concluded that the superiority of the white race would become apparent to the entire world as the Confederacy gained legitimacy and credibility through its future successes. In this regard, Stephens' concluded that, "It is upon this [white superiority] our social fabric is firmly planted; and I cannot permit myself to doubt the ultimate success of a full recognition of this principle throughout the civilized and enlightened world."


If people today did not know better, they might come away from hearing Stephens' speech believing that the Confederacy had a decent chance at success based on their geographical holdings and natural resources, as well as the substantial population of both black and whites that made the South a contender in the international community. The vice president managed to make a good case for the Southern cause by citing these resources as well as the South's will to prosecute its interests against the North in the eventuality of war. In the final analysis, Vice President Stephens' "Cornerstone Speech" helped persuade the other four states to sign the new constitution and seal the fate of the country as it played…… [read more]

In the United States Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


He is told by several people to look into business, such as in the famous party scene where Benjamin is informed that plastics are the means to financial security. However, Ben is not interested in money or in business or in the real adult world at all, but in the satisfaction of personal desire. He is not interested in going… [read more]

U.S. Foreign Policy and the Middle East Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (956 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. Foreign Policy and the Middle East

Just as the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor forced United States into World War II, the attack on the World Trade Center during 9/11 forced the United States to find active and strategic ways to fight terrorism. With terrorism being born and bred in the Middle East every day, the United States needs to take a strong and effective stance on extremist and fundamentalist forms of terrorism. The best way for the United States to achieve this is by looking at the successful actions of its past when it comes to tricky foreign policy relations.

While many historians will attempt to compare and connect the Chinese revolution with the Russian revolution, that impulse is understandable, but misguided. "The Chinese revolutionists have, to the contrary, long despised their subjection to outside influences of Western imperialism and to what they took to be its alien culture. Their basic impulse was to liberate themselves from such outside influences. In short, China was a colonially dominated nation in a way Russia had not been" (Lifton, 171). In certain respects, one could argue that China's colonial domination was more akin to the domination that the United States, as a new nation, experienced from Britain and that the desire to achieve a certain degree of autonomy and self-determination was one of the motivating forces. Of course, it's important to keep in mind the distinction: once America achieved independence they did not attempt to transform the country into a Communist nation with strict governmental controls over the economy and land reforms. However, aspects of China's constitution after the revolution did express some of the sentiments that had been important to the United States: freedom of speech and assembly (Byrne, 76). In lieu of the consequences of the Chinese revolution, the United States should use those lessons to dictate their intentions with foreign policy today. For example, the United States should truly attempt to promote democracy in the Middle East. Additionally, the United States also used a policy of containment in the 1940s and 1950s, particularly under the leadership of Harry Truman, to block the spread of communism abroad. A clear example of this was the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as a strategic opposition to Soviet strength. There's absolutely no reason why the United States can't emulate the strategies of the past and make a stronger united front with other countries in order to fight terrorism in Iran and other Middle Eastern countries, regardless of whether the terrorism they practice be of the extremist or fundamentalist nature.

The United States should use its past actions as a guide for its future relations with the Middle East: notably the economic help it granted Japan after World War II should set a precedent for how it interacts with Iran and various Middle Eastern nations. For example, "From 1947…… [read more]

Expansion of the US 1800-1860 Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (927 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … U.S. 1800-1860

During the 1800-1860 period, the United States underwent major change and development processes. The commencement of the expansion was represented by the desire of President Jefferson to control the port in New Orleans. The port represented a door to international trade and a better position in political and economic negotiations. In this setting then, the Americans set out to negotiate with the French -- the patrons of Louisiana at that time.

Napoleon Bonaparte's response was quite positive for the Americans. In those days, the French occupants were dealing with revolts from the slaves and were engaged in addressing these problems. Additionally, to the benefit of the Americans, the slave riots increased the French's need for money and allowed the Americans to negotiate better terms for the purchase of New Orleans.

The westward expansion of the United States as such commenced with the acquisition of Louisiana. The efforts of the American administration however did not cease and focused on purchasing as many states at possible. At the turn of the eighteenth century, the United States was only comprised on thirteen states: New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, Georgia and North and South Carolina (Son of the South). Gradually however, during the following century, the country united with all of its states and formed the larger United States of America.

During the period, massive migration of populations was observed towards the west. Populations from all over Europe moved to the United States and lead to the massive increase in the country's population. In the west for instance, before the exodus commenced, a mere 7 per cent of the American population was inhabiting the region. After the population movement, 60 per cent of the American population was living in the West.

"Following the American Revolution, Americans swarmed to the West. Kentucky and Tennessee provided the beachhead for the vanguard of land-hungry settlers. After the War of 1812 subsequent waves of pioneers flowed into the Ohio River valley, the Great Lake states, the Gulf Plain, and the Mississippi River valley. Still more moved to Oregon and California in the 1840s and into Kansas by the 1850s. By the Civil War much of the territory between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic, as well as areas along the Pacific coast and in the Southwest, had been settled by the descendants of Europeans" (Bookrags.com).

The causes which led to the massive exodus of the population towards the western region of the United States are rather complex. For once, it could be argued that an important role was played by the pioneering spirit, as people moved west to start over a new life, to explore new possibilities. Then, from a more practical standpoint, it could be argued…… [read more]

United States Survive With Half Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,086 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The terms of the Compromise of 1850 were far more intricate that this small provision but what is important is that Congress again forestalled possible cessation and kept the balance of power between the slave and non-slave states.

In 1854 Congress created a new problem by passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and was intended to promote the growth of the railroad industry but the Act also included a provision allowing the settlers in those territories to make their own determination on the slavery issue. The terms of the Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850 were repealed. This led to the event known as "Bleeding Kansas" and although matters settled down shortly thereafter the residual effect was the birth of the Republican Party and increased resolve by the Abolitionists to seek a permanent end to the slavery issue. Subsequent to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, compromise no longer became an option and it was just a matter of time until the issue of slavery would lead to a civil war. The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 sealed the deal.

The Monroe Doctrine was a pronouncement by President James Monroe that established an important precedent in the early days of the history of the United States. When Monroe announced the conditions of the Doctrine the United States was not in a position to enforce them but he did send a message to the rest of the world that the young government was prepared to do so. The two primary provisions of the Doctrine were that the United States would not interfere in the internal affairs of the European nations and would honor their current holdings in the western hemisphere but that all future expansion in the west was closed.

The application of the Monroe Doctrine proved helpful in later years as the United States was able to keep Spain and England from continuing their colonization efforts in Latin America and the South American continent. It also proved helpful in justifying the use of federal troops in Mexico after the Civil War in order to intimidate the French who were attempting to establish a foothold there. Additionally, President Theodore Roosevelt used the doctrine effectively in discouraging Spain from interfering with matters in Cuba and Latin America.

Although the Monroe Doctrine has been used effectively to dissuade foreign powers from interfering in the affairs of western nations it has also been looked upon negatively. Many nations in Latin America have been critical of the doctrine and look upon it as America's attempt to establish itself as a "big brother." Resentment of America's attempt to invoke this Doctrine has been evident in the politics of a number of Latin and South American nations and led to some cold relations between the United States and these nations.

The Doctrine has also been used by some groups favoring isolation. During the periods leading up to both World Wars, anti-war groups used the tenets of the Monroe Doctrine as justification… [read more]

Role of Cotton in Shaping Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (764 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


The King Cotton diplomacy attempted to force the most powerful nation in the world, Great Britain, into the war on behalf of the Confederacy. The belief was that European powers would help break the Union blockade around the coastal areas and ports which was becoming increasingly effective. Although the Confederate coastline was never completely sealed, it did cause imports and exports in the South to drop drastically. This meant reduced funds needed for the Confederacy war efforts. Britain's economy relied heavily on the South' cotton exports; thus, the South cut-off their cotton supply with the belief that they would have to intervene to save their economy. However, the Southern states had failed to account for the bumper crops that they had exported throughout the late 1850's and in 1960, which led to an overabundance of cotton in Europe at the time of the Civil War outbreak. In addition, the British would not intervene due to their hostility towards slavery. Thus, the "cotton famine" that the Southern states were attempting to create was delayed until late 1862. When it did come, the global economy was transformed. The price of cotton soared and the British began buying cotton from other countries such as India, Egypt, and Brazil, urging these countries to increase their cotton production.

Although the South was never able to convince foreign powers to intervene against the North, cotton diplomacy did succeed in obtaining financial assistance from abroad in the form of loans, bonds, and certificates, which Confederate Treasurer Christopher G. Memminger secured with cotton (Current 1998). The Confederacy also used cotton as a bartering tool to purchase ships, weapons, and ammunition from British manufacturers. Blockade-runners who were willing to transport armaments to the Confederacy by crossing the Union blockades were paid with cotton at a rate of 300% to 500% per voyage. In response, the union increased blockaders; however, it was the Union's capturing of southern ports that was most effective in the reduction of the Confederate cotton-armaments trade. Furthermore, the successful blockades resulted in severe shortages of food and supplies in the South. The Civil War came to an end on April 9th, 1865. The Confederacy was defeated and the slave plantation system…… [read more]

United States President, George Washington Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,100 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … United States president, George Washington (in his own words) pursued the "undeviating exercise of a just, steady, and prudent national policy." That quote (found in Robert Francis Jones' book George Washington: ordinary man, extraordinarily leader) was in the context of Washington preferring to stay out of wars between various European powers. He knew the young country he was leading was "gradually recovering from the distresses in which the war left us" (Jones, p. 138) and hence he concentrated on building the nation's internal strengths rather than engage in more conflict with European powers. And while Washington was definitely a strong man, which he showed on the battlefield during the Revolutionary War, his talents "in most fields" Jones writes (202) were "relatively commonplace."

What Washington did was to "raise those talents to the level of superlative accomplishment by self-discipline… [enabling] him in turn, to pay unremitting attention to details" (Jones, p. 202). In the book, George Washington and the origins of the American presidency, Mark J. Rozell et al., the authors point out that Washington "visited every section of the country… to become acquainted with his fellow citizens and to encourage" voters to back his administration (p. 6). By visiting all the sections of the country Washington "put a personal face on government, making it less threatening," Rozell writes (p. 6). He insisted "a man in public office…is accountable for the consequences of his measures to others" (Rozell, p. 7). As to his role as head of the executive branch, Washington used his veto power twice (Rozell, p. 11). One of his most notable accomplishments was working with Congress to establish the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established the federal court system. He also signed the "Indian Intercourse Acts" (regulating commerce between Indians and the U.S.) into law.

Thomas Jefferson's America was a place where there was more political factional fighting than Jefferson had hoped for, but to his benefit Republicanism was gaining power over the Federalists. In fact, according to the Miller Center Web site link called "American President An Online Resource," Jefferson was "hostile" to a strong central government and was wary of "judicial overreach" when it came to the Supreme Court.

The White House Web site reports that after the French Revolution, Jefferson "slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey" which was very unpopular out West (www.whitehouse.gov). Jefferson's America was a place where there was a massive federal debt, and the president cut it "by a third." He also ordered the Navy to attack the Barbary pirates who had been attacking U.S. commerce in the Mediterranean, which was a bold use of military power. But his most lasting legacy in the minds of many historians was the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from the French in 1803 (www.whitehouse.gov). Meriwether Lewis -- who had been recruited by Thomas Jefferson to serve the president's personal secretary -- was chosen to lead the expedition west into the Louisiana Territory.

In time Jefferson would… [read more]

American History New Orleans Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


American History

New Orleans

The most important reason for my choice of New Orleans from this particular selection is that I have absolutely loved the city since I first visited it. It seems filled with magic, warmth and good times. This appears to be historically substantiated to some degree by Thomas N. Ingersoll's writing. Indeed, he notes that, even since its beginnings, Bourbon Street has seen many a drunken patron. In addition to the fascinating history of its beginnings, as well as Dubreuil's energetic contributions to this, I also find the end of the piece both shocking and revealing. Despite his wealth and entrepreneurial spirit, Dubreuil was a slave to the system of the time, much as society is today. Perhaps this says something about human nature, or perhaps it is a challenge: maybe we can be free if we choose freedom.

Week 7: A Midwife's Tale-Chapter 1 find the story of Martha Ballard extremely inspirational. Not only did she fulfill the role of midwife, traditionally that of a woman, but she took on many other duties as well, including those of doctor, pharmacist and wife. What makes her story unusual is not as much her workload as the fact that she so clearly and factually documented everything from illness to birth to death. The lack of emotional connection, particularly with the deaths of children and babies, makes her records all the more poignant and realistic. The beginning of this chapter struck me as unusual, as it is a direct extract from Martha's diary. With this, the author demonstrates very clearly the points made about Martha and her writing, as well as the tone she uses when keeping her records. Martha Ballard is inspirational on a number of levels: she takes on many professional and personal duties; appearing almost superhuman in dealing with a workload that would kill a lesser person. Secondly, the fact that her records survived among a body of writing that was mainly produced by men during the time shows that she was special.

Week 8: 1773

The…… [read more]

Immigration in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,929 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6



The United States is a country populated primarily by immigrants; in fact, the nation was founded by European settlers fleeing the Continent for various reasons including perceived persecution and financial opportunity. Although the vast majority of immigrants to America arrived in search of economic opportunity or personal freedom, a large number came strictly as refugees. Immigrants arriving on American… [read more]

Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,720 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Manifest Destiny

In his Preface, Frederick Merk offers an explanation of expansionism throughout history; "Expansionism," he writes, as a thesis to his book, "is usually associated with crusading ideologies" (Merk, 1963, viii). And he proceeds to give examples as he informs readers that the U.S. expansionism ("Manifest Destiny") was not some unique strategy that was only pursued by Americans. Indeed,… [read more]

Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization, and Transportation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (871 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Thus, it can be said that the industrialization helped the U.S. To receive sufficient and cheap labor force, and the immigrants to find a place of refuge and personal accomplishment.

Industrialization was also a triggering element for the evolution and development of transportation. More precisely, the railway system that was established as a result of the grants passed by the Congress to financially support these endeavors had several effects. On the one hand, it helped the development process move West, in the remote corners of the country. This was indeed justified by the increased attention the West came to get. In this sense, it is rather famous the story of the Bonanza and the mines of the West. These were considered to be a myth and many wanted to prove the truth (Wolle, 1953). This in turn encouraged the migration west hence the development of railroad transportation.

Finally, an important aspect of the development of the country was the urbanization process. This too was greatly influenced by the industrialization. Until the industrialization process there were no indications that the country side that represented America would choose to be transformed in cities. However, the appearance of wealthy people, the increase of trade exchanges, and most importantly, the increase in the number of immigrants determined people to choose urban dwellings, as opposed to rural establishments. This evolution is considered essential taking into account one example alone (Urbanization of America, n.d.). Thus, prior to the Civil War, the population of New York was of 60,000 people, by comparison to the time up to 1920 when the population reached 7, 8 million people. This image shows clearly the evolution of the urban trends in America.

Overall it can be concluded that the evolution of the United States could not have been possible without the process of industrialization. It represented the driving force for the immigration, transportation, and urbanization process which all contributed to the emergence of the United States as one of the most important actors of the end of the 19th century.


Davison, Barbara. Italian Immigration to Maryland in the Industrial Era. 1998. 13 Feb 2008. http://oriole.umd.edu/~mddlmddl/791/communities/html/italiani.html

Katers, N. "Industrialization of America 1860-1900." Associated Content. 2006. 13 Feb 2008. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/28613/industrialization_of_america_18651900.html

Rise of Industrial America, 1876-1900. Immigration to the United States. 2004. 13 Feb 2008. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/riseind/immgnts/immgrnts.html

Urbanization of America. N.d. 13 Feb 2008 http://urban.csuohio.edu/ust607text/ch12urbanamerica.pdf

Wolle, Muriel Sibell. The Bonanza Trail: Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of the West. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1953.… [read more]

Constitution of the United States of America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,713 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Constitution of the United States of America is perhaps the world's oldest written national constitution. Adopted on September 17, 1787, the Constitution is the result of a significant and heated debated between who have become known as Federalist and Anti-Federalist. It was largely due to the arguments and propaganda of these two groups that lead to the final form of… [read more]

Growing Inequality in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (958 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … United States in the aftermath of World War II experienced a growth unprecedented in world history. The rise of a strong middle class and virtual elimination of poverty showed the successes of industrialization in the post-war era. The return of veterans of war, with the aid of government grants for developing businesses and returning educational contributed the overall growth of the middle class. Massive suburban migrations reduced the crowding of cities and the virtual growth of new industries permitted unparalleled growth in job opportunity and general wealth within the United States. The economic factors that provided for growth between 1945 and 1973 were not the only factors that contributed to the building of the middle class and poverty reduction, but government policy as well. Under the leadership of Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson, massive reforms helped shift the United States to focus on the poor and underprivileged. The culmination of all of these factors led to an unparalleled era of prosperity and equality within the United States. During this period, we saw the emergence and victory of the civil rights movement, the feminist movement and a greater shift towards societal consciousness. Yet, a look at today's society shows few of the remnants of the glorious economic wealth and equality of a mere three decades ago. A look at "Nickel and Dimed" by Barbara Ehrenreich reveals the deplorable way in which a growing class of American's poor now live. There is a growing inequality within the United States that has been brought through a myriad of economic, social, and political factors.

From an economic perspective, the United States is not on a downward trend in the least. In fact, the United States is currently sitting at the peak of economic proweress, with the highest GDP and consumer spending power in American history. The growing problem is not in the growth of the economy, but rather the growing wealth gap that exists between lower, middle and upper class within the U.S. While the 1940s, 50s, 60s, and 70s were known for the emergence of a strong middle class, the last three decades have been known for the growth of the "mega rich." Currently one percent of the population accounts for fully one third of earnings within the United States. This staggering figure reflects the disparity between not just the lower and middle class, but the middle and upper class. The overall effects of this wealth gap are that the middle class has become bigger, but the average spending power of individuals within the middle class has actually decreased. The poor are becoming poorer, while the rich continue to make incredible profits.

There are several economic factors that have led to this growing situation. While during the 40s to the 70s the United States was primarily a manufacturing super-power, producing the majority of the world's processed goods, this is no…… [read more]

Abraham Lincoln Past President of United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,782 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Abraham Lincoln past president of United States of America, played a significant role during the American Civil War. He was recognized for his leadership and determination by many historians and laymen not only as American President but also the greatest American of all time. He started with little formal education but this never regarded him to be inferior among his… [read more]

Strong Interventionist and Anti-Participations Positions Across the Country Compare and Contrast These Differing Points-Of-View Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … United States foreign policy in terms of the concepts of isolationism and interventionism.

The time period covered in this research paper begins immediately after World War I until current foreign policies employed by the Bush administration.

Immediately after World War I, the United States emerged as the increasingly dominant world economy. For Woodrow Wilson, this economic dominant meant that the United States had every right to act as the sole policeman of the Western Hemisphere. Wilson argued that the United States had to shed its previous isolationist policies, where participation in international affairs was avoided. The United States therefore began its interventionist policies, and aggressively worked to expand its "zone of influence" and enhance American interests abroad.

This policy was based on Teddy Roosevelt's "big stick" foreign policy, which grew out of the Monroe Doctrine. While the Monroe Doctrine was originally intended to prevent intervention by European powers, Roosevelt's application used the same Doctrine to justify aggressive intervention by the United States. In his 1904 address to Congress, President Theodore Roosevelt codified his foreign policy, claiming that "the United States (had) the right to act unilaterally and, if necessary, preemptively, to maintain order in the Western Hemisphere."

The interventionist policy was characterized by a paternalistic attitude towards its colonies. Interventionism was also largely an offshoot of President Monroe's Manifest Destiny, in terms of its emphasis on expansionism. This emphasis therefore made the American government naturally antagonistic to any anti-colonial efforts and similar movements for self-determination.

These interventionist policies were very much in evidence at President Woodrow Wilson's decision to enter World War I. Opponents argued that this was not an American war, and the issues were internal to Europe. However, the "hawks" who defended interventionist policies countered that American interests would be harmed should non-allies gain ascendancy in Europe.

This does not mean, however, that United States foreign policy in the first half of the 20th century centered solely around force, suppression and punishment. While former imperialist powers recognized the growing might of the United States, its "big stick" policies" also resulted in growing discontent among its protectorates and possessions. The 1920s and 1930s saw sporadic anti-colonial uprisings, and sentiments against the imperialist powers soured considerably. The United States was seen as an imperialist power, intervening in the internal issues of sovereign states.

By 1928, Herbert Hoover and Democratic Party leader Franklin D. Roosevelt envisioned a new form of foreign policy. In their view, by securing "the cooperation of…… [read more]

Post-Civil War Reconstruction in 1860 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (966 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He offered amnesty to all who pledge the oath of allegiance, except for those with a post-war wealth of more than $20,000, who had to apply to him personally for pardon (Reconstruction pp). He also ordered that abandoned plantations be returned to their former owners, and sought to quickly restore political rights to the Southern states, requiring each state to draft a new constitution outlawing slavery and disavowing secession (Reconstruction pp). New state governments passed a series of acts known as black codes, which sharply restricted the rights of the newly freed slaves, and included vagrancy laws, under which blacks who were viewed as unemployed could be hired out as forced labor; apprenticing laws, under which children without proper care, as defined by the courts, could be bound out to white employers; and severe limitations on black occupations and property holding (Reconstruction pp). Dismayed, the Republican majority in Congress refused to seat the representatives sent by the Southern states (Reconstruction pp).

In 1866, over-riding Johnson's vetoes, the Freedmen's Bureau Bill was extended for another year, and the Civil rights Bills, which extended citizenship to blacks by defining all persons born in the United States as citizens (Reconstruction pp). However, Johnson clung to basic Democratic beliefs rooted in pre-Civil War vision of states' rights, weak central government, and white supremacy (Reconstruction pp).

The heart of the Reconstruction plan was laid out in two measures, the 14th Amendment, designed to protect the rights of Southern blacks and restrict the political power of former Confederates, and the Reconstruction Act, which provided for the organization of loyal governments in all former Confederate states (Reconstruction pp). Only when the state had ratified its new constitution and the 14th Amendment would the process of political reorganization be complete (Reconstruction pp). In 1869, Congress passed the 15th Amendment, providing that no citizen could be denied the right to vote on the basis of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (Reconstruction pp). The course of Reconstruction constituted a major new departure for both the South and the country as a whole, and represented a compromise carefully pieced together by competing factions in Congress rather than a total Radical victory (Reconstruction pp). In the South, there was an intense struggle over the nature of the new social order, as former slaves sought to ensure their freedom included more than token benefits, and former owners sought to preserve as many of their old privileges as possible, however, as each state conformed to the Reconstruction Act, the result was the establishment in the Southern states of new Reconstruction governments dominated by the Republican party (Reconstruction pp).

Work Cited

Civil War, American. Retrieved July 26, 2005 from:


Reconstruction (U.S. history). Retrieved July 26, 2005…… [read more]

United States Was Founded Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Additionally, the North, with its abundance of goods, saw European goods as direct competition. As a result, tariffs were placed upon imported goods; to the North the tariffs merely ensured their economic survival, but to the South they were perceived as direct payments to the North. The 1824 Tariff, in particular, came to be called the "Tariff of Abominations" by the Southerners. The Southern states asserted their power in 1832 when South Carolina nullified the Tariff of 1832. Political stances regarding nullification began to clearly draw the lines between Northern and Southern politicians.

Of more pressing concern, however, was the expansion of these competing economies. Since the South needed slaves, the government made the Missouri Compromise in 1820; which made Missouri a slave state while making Main free. In this way, the issue of slavery not only divided the Northern and Southern economies, but was used as the balancing point between Northern and Southern interests in the Federal Government. These divisions were given further geographical basis when it was agreed that states south of Missouri would be slave, while those north of the border would be free.

As long as the number of slave states equaled the number of free states, both economies could survive under a single government. But, as the Northern population grew beyond that of the South, Northern legislators took control of the House of Representatives. Out of this change, the Republican Party in the North took up the cause of complete promotion of the economic needs of the North at the expense of the South. So, when Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860, by virtue of this Northern growth, the only course of action the Southerners could take was to secede. When Lincoln refused to accept the secession, war was the direct result.


1. Henretta, James A., David Brody and Lynn Dumenil.…… [read more]

How Has September 11 -11) Changed the Nature of US Interventions? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,171 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. Foreign Policy: Pre and Post 911 term that appears repeatedly in discussions of American foreign is hegemony. Uncertainty regarding the meaning of this term led to the dictionary. The Oxford Desk Dictionary and Thesaurus, 1997 offers the fairly straightforward definition of "leadership, esp. Of one nation over another." Considering the contexts that the term was found in, another dictionary… [read more]

Leadership of the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,105 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In 2003, 83% of the people of Indonesia, the largest Muslim country in the world, held negative views of the United States (Brand, 2005). However, some report that the Indonesian press has softened its criticism since the U.S. response to their Tsunami disaster. As Rizal Mallarangeng, Director of the Freedom Institute, said on NCR, "The [U.S.] Marines on the shores of Aceh, unthinkable before the tsunami, but now we see it and we have to be grateful for it, because all they are doing -- something that has to be done, must be done." (Brand, 2005) This may be significant since in the past Indonesia has been highly critical of U.S. actions in both Afghanistan and Iraq (Gecker, 2005). However, even here there was a backlash as some felt that photographs of Indonesians struggling to get American handouts portrayed the people badly (Brand, 2005). In addition, Professor John Mearscheimer, of the University of Chicago, pointed out that while starving people will always be grateful for food, the dislike -- rage even -- toward the United States by Indonesians has been triggered not by any lack of generosity but because of actions we have taken regarding the Israeli- Palestinian conflict as well as ongoing actions in Afghanistan and Iraq. He says, " ... there are just very great limits to how much damage limitation you can do by helping Muslim victims of the tsunami (Brand, 2005).


Even our generosity can be misinterpreted on today's world stage. When the United States originally offered $15 million in relief funds, an Egyptian newspaper noted that "America's initial allocation of $15 million "is less than what America spends every minute in its war in Iraq." (Gecker, 2005)

Dobbs (2003) argues that we should not worry too much about negative opinions held by other people and other countries, because it is the inevitable result of being a powerful and influential country. He also points out that some of the negative polls reporting our unpopularity may not have been conducted in an unbiased way.

In fact, people have drawn parallels between the attacks of September 11, 2001, and the events of World War II. Just as we did after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States had to act with decisiveness regarding the threat exposed on September 11 (McFaul, 2002). The problem is that what is a right response and what is an abuse of power isn't as clear as it was in 1941, leaving room for credible criticism that when we entered Iraq, we went too far. Only time will tell how history will interpret these events.


Brand, Madeleine. 2005. "Profile: American aid effort connected to the tsunami disaster may prove to be a diplomatic opportunity for the United States in the Muslim world. NPR Special, Jan. 6.

Dobbs, Lou. 2003. "America the unloved.(a look at anti-Americanism and the role United States takes in helping foreign nations)." U.S. News & World Report, Oct. 13.

Gecker, Jocelyn. 2005. "Muslims Welcome Tsunami Aid, Mixed on… [read more]

US Constitution Amendment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … civil marriage is currently defined by state law. According to the Federalist principles underlying the creation of the union, individual states have the right to define the legal parameters of marriage: "the state is free to set limits to the circumstances in which marriage may be permitted, and judicial interpretation thereof," ("Federal Marriage Amendment" 2004). The federal government cannot offer a blanket definition of marriage. However, a proposed amendment to the Constitution of the United States: H.J. Res 56, would place universal parameters on the definition of the social institution. Also called the Federal Marriage Amendment, the proposal reads: "Marriage in the United States shall consist only of the union of a man and a woman. Neither this Constitution or the constitution of any State, nor state or federal law, shall be construed to require that marital status or the legal incidents thereof be conferred upon unmarried couples or groups," ("Federal Marriage Amendment" Section One, cited by Longley 2004). Support for H.J. Res 56 is relatively strong. Its proponents seek primarily to prevent gays and lesbians from being able to legally marry.

The current proposal for the "Amendment for Total Equality" calls for an amendment to the United States Constitution that would fundamentally replace the Federal Marriage Amendment. Like the Federal Marriage Amendment, the Amendment for Total Equality contains two clauses:

1. Marriage, with all the legal rights and benefits thereof, in the United States shall include the unions of same-sex as well as heterosexual couples.

2. Neither this constitution, nor the constitutions of any state, nor state or federal law, shall be construed to restrict conferring the legal status of marriage on same-sex couples, with all the civil rights and benefits thereof.

The Amendment for Total Equality would guarantee the rights of all citizens to the legal rights and benefits of marriage and seeks to prevent and ultimately eliminate legal discrimination against homosexuals. The Amendment for Total Equality is grounded on some of the fundamental principles already set forth in the American Constitution, including the guarantee of rights, freedoms, and privileges by all citizens of the United States. It is our belief that the Federal Marriage Amendment represents a repudiation of the rights and freedoms already granted to all citizens in the Constitution, while the Amendment for Total Equality represents a codified assurance of equal rights, civil liberty, and equal protection.

Article V of the United States Constitution sets forth the official guidelines for amendments. It reads:

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress… [read more]

United States &amp United Kingdom Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The fact is that the close ties between the United States and Great Britain are deeply rooted in common language as well as a long-running and deeply connected historical base of strongly tied economic as well as militaristic cooperation that has spanned since the era of World War II. Also the commonly held values of democracy and the inherently held beliefs in the freedom of speech, human rights as well as a very similar legal system are the ties that bind the two countries inevitably together. The ties between the two countries is based on much more than merely common values but on a deep and lasting mutual trust and mutual cooperation that a time of stress does not have the power to diminish.


"U.S. -- U.K. Appear Split on Iraq Body Power" United Press International

Hore, Peter (2003) "U.S. -- U.K. Tie Will Endure but With a Chill. Newsday Report 11-30-2003

Lister, Richard (2001) U.S. And the U.K: Special Relationship? BBC News [Online] at: http://bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1185177.htm

'U.S. -- U.K. Alliance Shows Strain (2003) United Press International Analysis 3-31-2003

Gardiner, Nile (2003) The Anglo-U.S. Special Relationship and the Coalition of the Willing. The Heritage Foundation Policy Research and Analysis #228-3002 Mar 19 [Online] at: http://www.heritage.org/Research/MiddleEast/wm228.cfm

Cornwell, Susan (1997) No Changes in the U.S. -- U.K. Relations Forseen. Denver rocky Mountain News -05-04-1997.

Book, Elizabeth (2003) National Defense Report 04-01-2003.

Gardiner (2003) "The Anglo-U.S. Special Relationship and the Coalition of the Willing" #228 Heritage Foundation Policy and Research Analysis

Cornwell (1997) "No Changes in U.S. -- U.K. Relations Seen" Denver Rocky Mountain News

Cornwell (1997) "No Changes in U.S. -- U.K. Relations Seen" Denver Rocky Mountain News

U.S. -- U.K. Discuss Future Joint Research into Lang Mines on Military Routes Defense Daily News Report Vol. 223, Issue: 59. 2004 September 23

Book (2003) National Defense… [read more]

U.S. Constitution the United States of America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (4,248 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. Constitution

The United States of America is the land of the free spirit, a land where the brave and the worthy can lead lives of their choice, free and unfettered. The government that rules this country is based on the U.S. Constitution and this is one of the oldest written constitutions ever. The U.S. Constitution was written in the… [read more]

Civil Liberties the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,469 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Later, Weddington successfully argued the case in front of the Supreme Court. On June 22, 1973, the Supreme Court struck down all state laws regarding abortion and created one new law for the entire country. In the 7-2 ruling, the Court held that "the Constitution protects a fundamental 'right to privacy,' broad enough to encompass a woman's decision whether or… [read more]

Brand Loyalty: Kenya vs. USA Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,008 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Brand Loyalty: Kenya vs. USA

The author of this brief report is to describe three different theoretical and procedural approaches that can be undertaken as it relates to a study that focuses on the differences and manifestations of consumer loyalty in a country like the United States, a developed country, and a country like Kenya, a developing country. The three main high-level choices, and thus the three different research methods to be looked at in this report, are quantitative-only designs, qualitative designs and mix-method designs. The latter is a mix between the first two with a blend of both quantitative and qualitative methodology.

Analysis of the Options

As far as the three options go, there are upsides and downsides to each. As it relates to quantitative design, a study on the Kenyans vs. The Americans and their brand loyalty would be a basic analysis of a pool of consumers and whether they stick with the same brands and, if so, to what extent. One could also look at loyalty patterns over time from a historical standpoint and at certain points in the year as well as at certain points in the economic cycle of the country. For example, treating the period of 2007 to 2009 in the United States the same as it is now or before 2007 would be foolish because there was a massive global recession during the 2007-2009 time period and the United States was in the thick of it. Similarly, applying the same general projections to both countries would be equally insipid given that Kenya and the United States are different on a multitude of cultural and financial/economic levels. Numbers can tell the story but there has to be justification to what conclusions are reached. The problem is that numbers alone often do not allow for this (Hector, 2013).

This is where a qualitative study comes in. Qualitative studies dig deeper and rely on facts and details that cannot be garnered at all times from quantitative-only research. A simple score on a range of numbers from 1 to 5 is often not enough to fully allow for the depth and breadth of analysis that is needed to obtain answers that pass the commonly held research facets of reliability and validity. Another concern is how consumers, or study participants in general for that matter, will react when they know they are being assessed. There can be a great amount of detail that is not usually garnered but the answers given may not be entirely accurate or complete (Eysenck, 2004). There are ways to mitigate this such as not asking for or retaining personally identifiable information and just limiting it rough demographic/location information and/or taking the data anonymously at the sole discretion of the person who is taking the survey. The problem with qualitative research studies is that if the data collection is not precise and done carefully, the data sample can become a muddled mess and/or the conclusions drawn will not withstand reliability or validity… [read more]

Government to Allow Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


An example of the presidential power to make executive agreements can be seen in Dames & Moore v. Regan (1981). In this particular case, Vile (2010) points out that an agreement between president Reagan and Iran was upheld or validated by the court. This according to the author effectively ratified an order that had been issued earlier on by President Carter freezing Iranian assets.

Apart from the various powers of the U.S. President that I highlight above, it can also be noted that the holder of this important office also does have other powers not mentioned herein. While presidential powers are largely constitutional, there are other powers of the president not expressly outlined in the Constitution. These powers according to Schmidt, Shelley and Bardes (2012) are referred to as inherent powers. Such powers have also been exercised by presidents in the past. For instance, President Roosevelt according to Schmidt, Shelley and Bardes (2012) "used his inherent powers to move the Japanese and Japanese-Americans living in the United States into internment camps for the duration of World War II."

It is important to note that in basic terms, the various powers and policies I have highlighted above have largely evolved with time. In some cases, the Supreme Court has issued rulings that either reinforce the powers of the president or limit them in some way. For instance, when it comes to the presidential power to pardon, the Supreme Court in Ex-Parte Grossman (1925) permitted the pardoning of characters convicted of congressional contempt (Vile, 2010). It is also important to note that in regard to the presidential powers to appoint and remove individuals from office, the Constitution while being clear on the presidential powers to appoint does not "specify who can remove officers who do not serve life terms" (Vile, 2010). However, over time, various arguments have been presented in an attempt to clear this uncertainty. For instance, while it has been argued in the past by James Madison amongst others that the president should possess removal powers, the same powers have been limited by the Supreme Court in a number of cases including Weiner v. United States (1958). This is yet another example of how the powers of the president have evolved over time.


The office of the President of the United States of America is critical given the powers granted to the occupant by the Constitution. It is however important to note that there exists various checks and balances to ensure that the president uses these powers responsibly. The president must therefore use his powers in a way that produces satisfactory results. This way, the president can be able to play a critical role towards the betterment of the nation's social, political as well as economic conditions.


Schmidt, S.W., Shelley, M.C. & Bardes, B.A. (2012). American Government and Politics Today (Brief Edition). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Sidlow, E.I. & Henschen, B. (2010). Govt, Student Edition. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Vile, J.R. (2010). A Companion to the…… [read more]

United States of Man Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Her last statement, "all Men would be tyrants if they could," is a statement that her husband; John Adams was very well-known for saying (Adams PAGE NUMBER). Her husband, John Adams at the time was a Delegate to the Second Continental Congress from Massachusetts and later President of The United States. In her powerful, and controversial voice, she demands equal rights for both men and women. John Adams reply is an answer of absurdity, he states, "As to your extraordinary Code of Laws, I cannot but laugh" (Adams PAGE NUMBER). He then relates her rebellion to other groups including children, colleges, slaves and Indians that were also rebelling and in constant demand of greater power within their own lives and the proceedings of the new, developing nation. John Adams responds with surprise that another "tribe" grew rebellious. In fact, he purposely refers to women as a 'tribe'; this term would have been directed towards Indians, in reference to them as 'savages' and 'animals'. Abigail's reply is not restrained; she tells him that women will find a way to redeem the equality they deserve as citizens of the United States. Abigail closes her letter with a quote from Alexander Pope, which elaborates her previous statement; "Charm by accepting, by submitting sway yet have our Humour most when we obey" (Adams PAGE NUMBER). She quotes in reference to how women will smile with obedience while they plan their next act of rebellion. In this, she is clearly setting a tone for the empowerment of women within the limiting establishment they were living in, and proposing that further action be taken, both by the men of American but by the very women who were being impacted by such a restrained… [read more]

Opening the US Border Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Opening the U.S. BOrder

The enforcement of the borders of the United States has been a debated subject during the Obama Administration. Whereas the current administration is engaged in a very complex process of reducing and eliminating illegal immigration, the focus of the policies should be turned in a different direction. In this sense, the United States should open up… [read more]

Immigration in the US vs. Immigration in Italy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (914 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7



A Comparison of Immigration in the U.S. And Italy

Immigration is a serious issue facing most countries in today's globalized world, and especially those that are more developed and thus present attractive locations to anyone in the world seeking to make a better life for themselves and their families. While immigration can be an important source of labor and economic growth and provide excellent cultural growth and stimulation as well, it can also present a significant burden to nations and their native populations. This has led to often changeable and highly variable immigration policies in the different nations of the world, and a comparison of two countries and the ways in which they handle immigration can provide a general understanding of the specific issues that arise as part of the immigration question. To this end, this paper will provide a brief overview of historic and current immigration policy in the United States and Italy.

US Immigration

The United States was a country entirely built on immigration, of course, with the arrival of various waves if Europeans -- some of whom were intending permanent settlement and others who planned and often achieved returns to their native countries -- supplanting the native inhabitants of North America (Spartacus 2010). This occurred with relative speed, and by the middle of the nineteenth century the new "natives" of the United States were less-than-pleased about the new arrivals form Ireland and Germany brought about by respective famine and revolution in those countries, respectively (Spartacus 2010; USCB 2010).

Current immigration laws have set specific quotas from various regions and/or countries for the number of immigrants allowed into the United States each year, and n order to become full citizens there is a naturalization process that must be gone through (USCIS 2010). A great deal of energy is also put into immigration enforcement, ensuring that natives of other countries are in the United States legally and that they do not overstay their legal welcome in the country, nor use the United States as a place either to engage in illegal activities or to hide from authorities in other countries based on their illegal activities (USICE 2010). The economic impacts of immigration and immigration enforcement are thus highly complex, with an overabundance of immigration driving down wages while at the same time vast sums of money are being spent -- at taxpayer expense -- to keep illegal immigrants out.

Italian Immigration

Italy is at once a much older and a much newer country than the United States, and its history does have a major impact on its immigration policies and the national views towards immigrants, as well. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, it was not until the nineteenth century that the various culturally-…… [read more]

Lyndon B. Johnson and His Let US Continue Speech Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,000 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Lyndon B. Johnson and his "Let us Continue" Speech

Commonly known as LBJ, Lyndon Banes Johnson (1908-1973) climbed the political ladder all the way up. First a member in the House of Representatives, then a Senator, Lyndon eventually became the 37 Vice President of the United States, serving under President John F. Kennedy. Upon the assassination of Kennedy, Lyndon was instated the country's 36th President. After this term ended, he participated in elections and won another mandate at the White House.

Johnson's agenda was focused on the creation of a better society for the American citizens. The future endeavors were organized under what is called the Great Society legislation, and referred to efforts for improving the educational system, the healthcare system, the media or the environment.

At the same time, international tensions raised from Vietnam, a country broken down in two, with the northern part of the country being communist and fighting to instate communism, and the southern part of the country fighting for freedom. Johnson feared that communist victory would impede with his internal plans, as well as denigrate the global position of the United States. He as such became decided that the U.S. should be more involved in the Vietnam War, and continually sent troops there, for the growing concern and discontent of the population. At one point, people would intone: "Hey, hey LBJ, how many kids did you kill today" (Stubbs). Deeply affected by the outcome of his actions, the President closed himself up to public, making only rare appearances. He died at the age of 64, due to a heart attack.

Upon being instated as United States President for the first time, Johnson faced a difficult task -- he would have to get through to a mourning and grieving society, still in shock from the assassination of Kennedy. Chances were the people would not pay much attention to this new president, come to replace what they have perceived as the best. Johnson was aware of the challenge and he strived to get the people on his side, by making an emotional speech, the first in his presidential career. The speech is called "Let us continue" and was held on the 27th of November 1963, five days after his appointment as United States President, and before a Joint Session of the U.S. Congress.

Johnson began his speech by referring to the sad loss of JFK, "the greatest leader of our time [who] has been struck down by the foulest deed of our time" (Johnson, 1963). He pointed out that he would give anything to not be put in the position of having become president because of the death of Kennedy. This beginning was a natural one in the given circumstances, in which people were still grieving the death of Kennedy, and not mentioning it in a speech would have been insensitive and inappropriate. So Johnson virtually capitalized on the emotions raised by the assassination of the former president. It should not be understood that he did not…… [read more]

Aliens Are Living Amongst Us Today Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (824 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Aliens are Living Amongst Us Today!

Since the mid-20th century, reports of strange-looking aliens living in the United States have been commonplace and scarcely a day goes by when a newspaper headline does not trumpet yet another sighting by reliable witnesses, including military officials, airline pilots and law enforcement officials across the country. In fact, recent surveys indicate that more than half of Americans believe that the United States has been visited by aliens (Minerd 2000:16). Skeptics continue to denounce these countless alien sightings, preferring instead to hide their heads in the sand in hopes that the whole thing is really just some bad practical joke gone astray and will blow over in the future. In this environment, it is little wonder that Americans want and need to know if they are alone in the universe, or if there are really others out there who represent a potential threat or potential salvation for mankind's woes today.

A careful and thoughtful review of the popular literature suggests that there can be no denying that aliens are already here, though. In fact, an informal search on "Google" for "aliens" results in about 40,700,000 matches. Likewise, there are more than 321,000 videos posted on YouTube concerning aliens, many of them involving aliens already living in the United States today, and the numbers continue to increase on a daily basis. Given this enormous level of public interest and growing body of evidence, how can the skeptics continue to deny the presence of these outsiders? Despite these trends, the fact remains that many Americans would prefer to ignore the issue entirely and believe what they believe no matter how convincing the evidence might be to the contrary.

What can be done now to either greet these alien outsiders as welcome guests or to repel their potential invasion? The U.S. government has certainly made every effort to treat the problem as if it did not exist, and allegations of cover-ups are rampant across the country. It is reasonable to suggest that if an alien was brought to the White House and introduced to the president himself, it would not change anything overnight. Lawmakers in Congress have also been reluctant to weigh in on this problem for fear of being regarded as some type of "whacko" by the colleagues, and more importantly, their constituents. After all, just as no policymaker wants to appear soft on the war on drugs or child pornography, it is apparent that no right-thinking Congressman…… [read more]

Immigration to the United States Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (710 words)
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Immigration to the United States

"It is no doubt very desirable that we should hold out as many inducements as possible for the worthy part of mankind to come and settle amongst us, and throw their fortunes into a common lot with ours. But why is this desirable?

Not merely to swell the catalogue of people. No, sir, it is to increase the wealth and strength of the community; and those who acquire the rights of citizenship, are not the people we are in want of ."

James Madison, Fourth President of the United States

Our founding fathers were in favor of immigration. Of that there is little question.

Most, if not all of them, believed that by increasing our numbers with immigrants who would contribute to the "strength of the community," America would become a better place. But they were just as clear that we shouldn't allow immigration en masse for the purpose of swelling our ranks, but rather to allow it for those who wished to contribute and give allegiance to America and no other. That is the reason the following became part of the Oath of Allegiance:

"I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same;"

President Theodore Roosevelt, almost a century later expressed those same words in his

very plainspoken oratory favoring immigration: "But this is predicated upon the man's becoming in very fact an American and nothing but an American. If he tries to keep segregated with men of his own origin and separated from the rest of America, then he isn't doing his part as an American."

We have all heard the phrase, "America is a melting pot." It is a melting pot whose contents mix as one to make a wonderful banquet. People from all over the…… [read more]

Reform Movements Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (326 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


United States Reform 1870-1932

The years between the Civil War and the New Deal were marked with major changes in policy, government structure, and the world at large. Though race policy was largely regressive following the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, other reform movements pushing for institutional change gained steam during this period. The struggle for women's suffrage and other rights was truly galvanized in 1848, but was put on hold during the Civil War and completely ignored by the Constitutional amendments following the war. By 1920, women's suffrage was finally established nationally.

The other major reform movements of this period were the Populist and Progressive movements. The Populists grew out of various labor and farm movements. Labor unions began to be discussed and formed during this period, though they would not gain a strong foothold until around the 1920s, following the same timeline as women's suffrage. Some elements of the Populist ideal were government or collective ownership of railroads and communication systems…… [read more]

American History Prior to the American Revolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (860 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


American History

Prior to the American Revolution, the majority of immigrants were in some state of "unfreedom," Fogelman notes. As many as three-fourths of the immigrants from Europe arrived as indentured servants, creating a complex system of intricate social hierarchies in the New World. Ideals of freedom and liberty were not as prevalent prior to the war as during and after. The Revolutionary period did indeed alter the structure of American society, and reduced the instances of indentured servitude for whites gradually. For African-Americans the gradual demise of slavery occurred with less enthusiasm, especially as the South's economy became essential to the survival of the new nation following independence.

Prior to the war, trade flowed freely across the Atlantic. Immigrants propped up the colonial labor pool too, adding substantial numbers of indentured servants to the population. Throughout the colonies but especially in the central and southern colonies, indentured servitude created and solidified social strata. However, a war transformed the colonies' biggest trading partners in the Old World into temporary enemies. Old World nations were no more the dependable, viable sources of income and labor they once were. Thus, the American Revolution changed social realities in the New World for practical as well as ideological reasons.

Moreover, the war helped to dissemble the hierarchies that had been built throughout the century preceding the Revolution. Young white male apprentices who were the source of cheap labor extricated themselves from the contracts binding them to their masters by either serving in the war or running away. The ideals of freedom and liberty that fomented the Revolution helped spur apprentices away from their social contracts. American ideals therefore reflected a burgeoning spirit, and did not echo the character of the colonies at all.

For both African and European immigrants, the social stratifications prior to the Revolution were similar. Both European indentured servants and African slaves were deprived of the freedoms and liberties championed by Americans after the Revolution. After independence, though, slavery proliferated profoundly in the South. In spite of the lip service paid to "liberty and justice for all," the Black populace in the newly formed union suffered social setbacks and did not enjoy the fruits of freedom.

Conditions for both African and European servants before the War were deplorable and harsh, Fogelman points out. The state of "unfreedom" persisted well into the late 18th century. Convicts, kidnapping victims, and redemptioners added to the overall pool of people at the lowest rungs of the colonial social ladder. The more immigrants flooded into the colonies in search of opportunity, the fewer actual opportunities for…… [read more]

American History the Book Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,298 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



And in the 1820s and 1830s, to continue the examples of how uncivil the society was at that time, the book notes that "... convicted criminals were whipped, held for limited periods in local jails ... Or executed." In prisons, asylums, and poorhouses inadequately trained staff resulted in (330) "overcrowding and the use of brutality to keep order."

Meanwhile, the reasons for the buildup to the Civil War included the fact (374) that "Southerners would not have reacted so strongly to real or imagined threats to its survival -- if an influential class of whites had not had a vital and growing economic interest ... " in slavery. On page 378, the authors write that "Some Southerners were obviously making money, and a great deal of it, using slave labor to raised cotton."

The modern economic theory presented on page 379 holds that "slavery was in fact still an economically sound institution in 1860 and showed no signs of imminent decline." Indeed, a "reexamination of planters' records using modern accounting methods shows that during the 1850s planters could normally expect an annual return of 8 to 10% on capital invested."

The downside of all that profitability over the slave trade was that yes, it helped make slaveholders wealthy, "but did the benefits trickle down to the rest of the population -- to the majority of whites who owned no slaves and to the slaves themselves?" Large slaveholders were the only segment of the population to reap huge financial rewards from slaves; "small slaveholders and non-slaveholders shared only to a limited extend in the bonanza profits of the cotton economy."

As to slave women, "they could be sexually exploited" (387), and they certainly were exploited. "Masters' control over the bodies of female slaves extended to their wombs."

The Civil War: Main Points

With the slavery issue as a main point of friction between the north and south, a compromise attempt to ward off war having failed -- and the issue of "state's rights" technically the breaking point -- the confederate army fired on Ft. Sumter on April 12, and the war was on. One problem for the south was their economy "was much less adaptable to the needs of a total war" (447). The south "depended on the outside world for most of its manufactured goods," and the Union army blockaded the Confederacy effectively. The south's president, Jefferson Davis, failed in that his "lack of leadership and initiative" hurt the economy and morale, and his "political and popular support eroded" (451).

Lincoln's strategy (457) in helping to turn the tide against the south was to free the slaves and bring the black population "into the war on the union side" (in 1863). Almost 200,000 African-Americans -- "most of them newly freed slaves" -- wound up serving as soldiers for the Union army against the south. They were segregated and in units run by white officers, and were paid less than other soldiers, still, the authors write (459), "blacks in blue'… [read more]

Patriot Act the USA Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,016 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The USA Patriot Act was passed in a hurry by the House of Representatives and the Senate in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. The Act was immediately attacked by the civil libertarians as unnecessary and violative of the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. administration and the Justice Department defend the law vehemently, considering it necessary for security reasons. This paper focuses on the criticism of the Patriot Act and the problems faced in its application. It also reviews the current public opinion about the Act.

Criticism of the Act

The leading critic of the PATRIOT Act has been the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) which has campaigned vigorously to get it overturned. Several other local and national civil liberty organizations across the country have also passed resolution against the law reflecting their disapproval. Some of the major criticisms against the Act are as follows:

Passed without Proper Scrutiny

The bill is a complex and lengthy document that makes small as well as large changes to over 15 different statutes. The short time that the bill took to be passed and signed into law indicates that it was not thoroughly discussed and several Congress members have admitted that they did not read the bill while passing it. A number of key procedural processes applicable to most proposed laws, including inter-agency review, and normal committee and hearing processes were suspended during the passage of this bill. ("EFF Analysis...," 2003)

Records Searches

Section 215 of the Act expands the government's ability to look at records on an individual's activity being held by third parties. ("Surveillance under..." 2003)

Secret Searches

Section 213 of the Act allows the government to search private property without notice to the owner. Since giving of notice to a searched person is a key component of Fourth Amendment, this provision arguably violates the Amendment.

Intelligence Searches

Section 218 expands a narrow exception to the Fourth Amendment that had been created for the collection of foreign intelligence information. Now the FBI can engage in secret searches without having to prove "probable cause" of a crime -- another violation of the Fourth Amendment requirements. (Lithwick and Turner, Part 3, 2003)

Nationwide "Pen Register" and "Trap & Trace" Warrants

The Act extends the validity of PR/TT orders issued by a judge anywhere in the United States. It also authorizes the issuance of a 'blank warrant' whereby the court issues an order and the law enforcement agency fills in the places to be searched. The ACLU calls this "a direct violation of the Fourth Amendment's explicit requirement that warrants be written particularly describing the place to be searched." ("Surveillance under..." 2003)

Lack of Judicial Review major criticism of the Patriot Act is that several parts of the law is that it does away with the provision of judicial review, which had always been a cornerstone of the U.S. Constitution. It disturbs the "checks and balances" between… [read more]

Population Distribution of the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,049 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Population distribution [...] several aspects of the United States population distribution, and how the population may change in the next five to ten years. Population distribution in the U.S. is an interesting mix, with most people living in the urban centers of the nation, but enough still living in the heartland and western arid areas to make the population diverse and spread out.

The population of the United States in mid-2004 was 293,633,000. The population distribution of the United States, in general terms, is located mainly along the coastlines, with the interior of the country being less populated than the East, West, and Gulf Coasts. In fact, the Population Research Bureau notes, "More than half the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coastal shoreline" (Editors). This also holds true with the Great Lakes region and along the Mississippi River. Population centers such as Detroit and Chicago are located along the coastlines of the Great Lakes, and centers such as Saint Louis are located along the Mississippi. Generally, distribution is heaviest East of the Mississippi, and then there is a wider gap until reaching the West Coast and desert southwest. While the population density of the U.S. is only 79 people per square mile, this statistic does not give an adequate picture of the population distribution, because there is so much of the country that is inhabitable because of terrain, inhospitality, or bodies of water. In addition, 79% of American people live in urban centers, which means only 21% live in the rural areas of the country.

The population distribution exists as it does for a number of reasons. First, there is much uninhabitable terrain in the United States, such as mountain ranges, deserts, and vast sagebrush high desert, which is difficult to live on and develop. Water is an issue in many of these areas; there simply is not enough water or rainfall to sustain growth and development. In addition, early cities grew up where travel and exporting and importing were the easiest, and this is why so many cities lie close to the coastline. Cities are dependent on trade to survive, and trade is easiest were access is also easy. Population is heaviest in the South, 35% of the entire U.S. population lives there. The Midwest has 23% of the population, the West has 22%, and the Northeast has 19% (Editors).

It is easy to see why much of the western U.S. is excluded from large populations. Travel is difficult because of long distances between areas, there are the Rocky Mountains to contend with, and much of the area is desert or high desert, so it receives little rainfall and there is little chance to exploit the area. The exceptions are cities like Las Vegas, Phoenix, Denver, and others that have access to water from aqueducts or pipelines. These areas have created oases in the desert by bringing in water from other areas. Other places, like Wyoming, which only has about 500,000 people in the… [read more]

United States Immigration Policy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,487 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The illegal aliens often send the bulk of their paychecks home to support the family members who remained behind. This means that domestic workers who could be making and spending money in this country are being deprived of that chance, and the immigrant workers are sending most of their money out of the country, so the economy will also suffer… [read more]

Region of Megalopolis (Urban Area Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,883 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As the island slowly began to be isolated, the islanders developed this into a tourist location. Nantucket is just 87 miles from the state capital, Boston. Thus Nantucket also forms part of the BosWash Megalopolis. The economy of Nantucket is now based almost entirely on tourism. (www.thegoldenbasket.com).The island has a number of beaches and also three lighthouses that contribute to the tourism industry. There are similarities and dissimilarities to the overall Megalopolis. Nantucket has been successful in the tourism industry but it does not have a large population as compared to the other cities in the megalopolis. According to the Census of 2000 the island has just 9520 inhabitants. Being close to Boston, which formed the start of the Megalopolis, Nantucket was also partly included in the Megalopolis region. But it is an island and isn't present on the mainland like the rest of the megalopolis. It does not have an industry that is based on manufacturing or trade like the other places in the nearby region.


Industrialization and spreading of cities from the core has led to the formation of the BosWash Megalopolis. The concept of Megalopolis is being applied to the Western coast of the U.S.A. And this coastal front could form another Megalopolis consisting of Vancouver, Seattle and Portland and California. Megalopolises need not be confined within national boundaries and depend more on the physical geography of the region.


Gottmann, Jean. Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1961.

J. Gottman, The Coming of the Transactional City, University of Maryland Institute for Urban Studies, 1983.

Mittleman, Earl. "An Outline of American Geography. United States Information Agency, 1995.

Basingstoke. "Megalopolis: The Giant City in History" Macmillan, 1993

Gottmann, Jean and Harper, Robert "Since Megalopolis: The Urban writings of Jean Gottmann." The John Hopkins University Press, 1990

Lecture notes U.S. And Canada: Megalopolis and Urbanism geography.unco.edu/department/faculty/DUNN/Geog%20110/Megalopolis%20and%20


http://www.goldenbasket.com / http://www.geocities.com/atlas/urb http://www.encyclopedia.com http://www.geography.about.com http://www.pe.net/~rksnow/macountynantucket.htm… [read more]

Multi Polar World Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Multi-Polar World

We are living in a world of multi-polarity and the notion of existence of superpowers is neither here nor there. Opinions have been advanced to the effect that the United States and the U.S.S.R. were the superpowers in the cold-war era. Some political commentators also asserted that the United States became an undisputed world superpower when the U.S.S.R. disintegrated in 1991. These propositions are subject to debate. As at this time there are complex economic interdependence on international stage that have been occasioned by globalization and the concept that a state can gain enough power to become a superpower is next to impossible. In fact, the notion that the United States and the U.S.S.R. were superpowers in the cold war error cannot hold because they actually heavily depended on countries in their spheres of influence. It is for fact that the United States possesses great economic clout and it has influenced the culture of many nations (Thompson, 1988).

However, the United States economy is still dependent on foreign investment. Their reliance on foreign trade has created mutual economic dependence between them and the developing world (Mansfield, 1993). The United States cannot therefore claim to be a superpower when it is not self sufficient as it still relies on the international community for its economic sustainability. Interdependence also overlaps into the spheres of diplomacy. World affairs continue to be more and more complex as developing nations innovate with a view to bettering their military might. This state of affairs has made it extremely difficult for countries like the United States to engage in foreign policy that is not acceptable to other nations. This is a testament to the fact that diplomatic and economic factors bind the globe together and no country can decide to act unilaterally lest it suffers a backlash.

After the September 11th terrorist attack the Bush Administration reverted to constructive relations with European and Asian allies to put an end to mutual recriminations over Iraq and begin working together on issues of common interest. The United States refined its diplomatic approaches as envisaged in its new diplomatic push to the six party talks on North Korea and its visible support to European Union sanctioned negotiations with Iran.

Geopolitics has slowly but surely tilted away from a world dominated by Europe and the United States to one with many regional powers but no global leader. The world economic meltdown has ushered in a new crop of economic powerhouses like Brazil, China, and India (Sachs, 2012). Brazil's economic prosperity is owed to its capability to stabilize its currency and create a stable macro-economic environment including credible monetary and fiscal policies. It has become a powerful commodity exporting country…… [read more]

Atlanta Motel v. United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



The issue before the court is to decide the constitutionality or application of Title II of the Civil Rights Act, 1964 to the case.


The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the District Court.


The Congress based the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment and its power to regulate interstate commerce under Art. I, 8, cl. 3 of the constitution.

That the Congress possessed ample power in this regard and the "commerce power" alone is sufficient for a decision in this case.

There is overwhelming evidence that discrimination in providing accommodation to Negroes by hotels and motels impedes interstate travel.

The power of the Congress to regulate commerce under the Commerce Clause is to simply determine whether the activity is commerce which concerns more than one State and has a substantial relation to national interest.

The power of the Congress to promote interstate commerce also includes power to regulate incidents of a local nature.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not deprive the Appellant of liberty or property under the Fifth Amendment since the Commerce power invoked by the Congress for the purposes of this case is specific, and authorized by the Constitution itself. The appellant has no "right" to select his guest free from government regulation.

No merit in appellant's contention of "involuntary servitude" and violation of 13th Amendment.

The Atlanta Motel concededly serves interstate travelers and the action of the Congress in adoption of the Act as applied here is…… [read more]

American Revolution History Has Shown Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,318 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Furthermore, when discussing the ongoing debate about the Senate, Berkin highlights the words of Gouverneur Morris, whose justification for the Senate included an explicit acknowledgment of the class divisions present in colonial society. Morris argued that "the rich will strive to establish their dominion and enslave the rest," and so they should be represented by the Senate, which would… [read more]

England's North American Colonies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


England did not succeed in asserting the expected control level over Spanish religious practices in New Spain. They weakly established the England Church overseeing a landscape of increasingly diverse religion. However, despite the lack of success in establishing a unified Anglican Church under the England purview, growth created a broad range of shared culture, which united different racial, ethnic, and religious believers from different churches. These groups came together forming a single Anglophone Spiritual team. The 18th Century revolution split the British Atlantic in terms of politics, but religious tie remained. This shaped faith in the Caribbean, North America, sections of West Africa and Western Europe (Seymour, 2008).


Groups that formed the urban poor included the unskilled stevedores, crewmembers, and laborers. In the 18th Century, the colonies experienced an economic recessions. These recessions made enormous impacts on England colonies. With the labor supply outstripping the demand, wages declined, and unemployment levels rose. Large and by, females in the colonies undertook traditional responsibilities; they brought up kids and took care of homes. They worked in the backcountry and in the colonies, as well as took care of livestock alongside their children and husbands. Women living in urban areas were free from doing such domestic duties as they made candles and spanned clothes; these would later be sold in the cities. These women had some time for leisure and sometime offered help to their husbands in their taverns or shops. However women abandoned their rights to property when they got married, widows and single women were allowed to inherit property under the English law (Heuman, 1993).


Bailyn, B. (2005). Atlantic History: Concept and Contours. Boston: Harvard University Press,

pp 59-140

Berlin, I. (1980). Time, Space, and the Evolution of Afro-American Society on British Mainland

North America. The American Historical Review, Vol. 85, No. 1 pp. 44-78

Cobbs E., Jon Gjerde, H, & Blum, E.J. (2011). Colonial New England and middle Colonies in British America. In Cobbs E., Jon Gjerde, H & Blum, E.J. (2011). Major Problems in American History. Cengage Learning, pp 69-90

Heuman, G. (1993). The tradition of protest in Jamaica. In Slavery in the Americas. Binder, W.

(Ed) (1993). Konigshausen & Neumann, pp 33-43

Seymour, M. (2008). Major Problems in American History: Volume 1: To 1877" The

transformation of the North Atlantic world: 1492-17-63. Westport, CT: Praeger

Smith, B. & Middleton, S. (2008). Class matters: early…… [read more]

Era Through the Great Depression Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,340 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Eastern states were also diverse in terms of population as compared to West and this also had an influence on laws regarding women's suffrage (Rodgers, 2000). However, in 1913, women in the eastern states were given the right of vote. Nineteenth Amendment was put forward, which made the right to vote as a universal right of any human being.

The Progressive Era for Business

According to Theodore Roosevelt, the industrial sector would be at risk because of the immoral actions and activities of big businesses and corporates. For this purpose, he had concentrated on penalizing and punishing those companies, who had failed to abide by the Sherman Antitrust Act. This act concentrated on tackling unethical business practices such as price fixing, interlocking directorates and price cutting (Mowry, 2001). His main target was the national railroad transportation sector, which had violated rules and regulations. For this purpose, Elkins Act of 1903 had been introduced in which shipping allowances were given to companies who had good record. However this Act failed to stop the activities of railroad organizations and large companies and therefore, the Hepburn Act was introduced in 1906. This law restricted the prices charged by the rail roads. Furthermore, Interstate Commerce Commission was given the authority to control the rates of shipping (Bruce & Nyland, 2001). Furthermore, railroad companies had to adjust their rates and give justifications for their procedures related to accounting. Furthermore, in order to prevent exploitation of employees, 8-hour duty had been assigned for all workers.

Spanish American War and United States of America

The Spanish-American War is considered to be one of the greatest wars that have changed the face of America. Historians believed that the events of the Spanish-American War allowed United States to annex territories using military. Spanish American War allowed United States of America to become a strong power and to reap benefits in terms of commerce and to improve economy (Sage, 2010). During the war, U.S. had been successful in expanding its presence in the international market and furthermore, it gained political and military power. Because of the war, America had been successful in establishing its influence in foreign territories. Political and military influence was also exerted in these territories.

Twenties and the Government

The twenties are also known as the Roaring Twenties, which is used to describe the time after the Progressive era. During this time, federal government was not actively involved in economy, business markets and activities. It was age in which jazz was developed and American society experienced new freedom. However, this period ended as the American stock market had crashed in 1929. Before the Great Depression, social disparities and inequalities were present in the American society (Mowry, 2001). Furthermore, at the time of crisis, financial relief was not awarded to groups who were living in poverty. Hoover's administration concentrated on developing a program that would allow employees to retain their jobs. However, he failed in this attempt. When Roosevelt came into power, the New Deal was proposed and… [read more]

American Culture) Thoughts on Book Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Similarly, William Appleman Williams's Empire as a Way of Life seeks to enlighten us about our true history. He describes Americans as "an imperial people who must now 'order' ourselves rather than policing and saving the world…. We must leave that imperial incubator if we are to become citizens of the real world" (106). His contention was that our imperialistic views have made us numb and caused us to create certain denials and justifications about our past. He points out that our real history has been omitted from school texts and media outlets and that this collective ignorance has infiltrated the American mindset regarding the rest of the world and our role in it.

He posits that the looking at ourselves in a universally positive light in world history is a pattern that is based in assumptions. We use these assumptions about other countries, politics, people, and ethical conduct to inform and uphold our personally held convictions and beliefs. To Williams, the "empire" is the America that operates as a feared entity throwing its power around in the world -- we observe it but feel strangely detached from it. When others in third world countries perish at our hands or our policies trample upon the natural rights of others, we may not have an overt reaction, particularly if the men in charge tell us it is being done in the name of advancing our own interests in the world. Williams offers that we do not object because there is much to be gained -- resources, better opportunities, economic control and power, and wealth. Thus, the end justifies the means.

Both readings highlight the fact that critical thinking and scholarly inquiry is required to truly understand ourselves and our history as Americans. We examine the world through a unique cultural lens -- as all world citizens do. This shapes our worldview which is representative of our societal values. As the readings help us appreciate, American worldviews can best be classified as individualistic, controlling and achievement driven. Our accomplishments help determine our relative value in our global society. What we accomplish is often times deemed more important that what we have to do to get there (Romanowski 29). There must be a more honest and comprehensive retelling of our history in order for us to better understand and improve how we operate in the world. Once that is embraced, it may become much easier to present an unbiased account of exactly who we were (and are) in the history books.


Romanowski, Michael H. "Excluding Ethical Issues From U.S. History Textbooks: 911 And The War On Terror." American Secondary Education 37.2 (2009): 26-48. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Oct. 2012.

Shaffer, Robert. "History Lessons: How Textbooks From Around The World Portray U.S. History By Dana Lindaman And Kyle Ward." Peace & Change 32.1 (2007): 114-117. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Oct. 2012.

Williams, William Appleman. "Empire as…… [read more]

African-American Immigrations African Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,281 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Whitney patented this machine in 1794, so that slave labor fueled the United States' economy through the means of its production of cotton, which was frequently sold to British textile mills that were desperate for the product to turn out finished goods.

Prior to the revolutionary war, the agricultural work that slaves performed was largely related to the plantation system itself, which allowed for a few prosperous individuals to own and work incredibly large sections of land (by driving Africans and those of African-American descent) to perform the labor. Tobacco, rice and indigo were the most profitable crops before the widespread production of cotton, and were essential to both monetary and food-substance survival to the fledgling U.S. Sugar was highly valued as well (West). Furthermore, slaves also would not only work in the fields engaged in agricultural labor, but some worked within the plantations houses as well. Such slaves were charged with the chores of cooking and cleaning, and may have been obligated to look after the children of the plantation's owner. In that respect, both the domestic and agricultural responsibility necessary for the plantation system to prosper economically was tended to by Africans and African-Americans.

In addition to propagating the plantation system which was valuable for America's participation in the triangular trade, another highly important contribution made by African-American and African immigrants in this country was the building of the railroad. The railroad system in the U.S. formally began in 1830 with the laying down of tracks between Baltimore and Ohio. However, between 1840 and 1860 nearly 30,000 miles of railroad track were laid down throughout the country, in work that was labor intensive and highly costly. Although European immigrants built a number f the tracks in the northern areas, the tracks in the southern areas were supplied almost exclusively by slave labor. The economic impact of this work performed by African-Americans should not be underestimated, either. The railroad, particularly the transcontinental railing provided by the efforts of these laborers, was able to revolutionize the American economy nearly as much as the cotton gin was able to revolutionize the southern economy. In the case of the railroad, however, the disparate areas of America, which largely included the West, were able to be settled more readily, terminal stops (such as Cincinnati and Chicago) were able to sprout up towns that could monetarily thrive due to the improved commerce, and farmers had a greater impetus to produce greater amounts of food. Assisting with the railroad efforts could quite easily be the greatest accomplishment of African-Americans.

However, even this statement becomes doubtful when one gives consideration to the historical impact of Africans and African-Americans in terms of the economic effect on the economy without the free labor gained from the backs of these people who worked exhausting hours in agricultural settings. Without the South's support it may be reasonably maintained that the triangle trade that benefitted the greater part of the world during the formative years of the U.S. would not have… [read more]

Fresia's Contention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,259 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Slavery is a mark of shame upon the United States not for its existence, because almost all nations have known slavery, but because of the extent that slavery permeated American life. For example, at the time of the Revolution, there were certain safeguards protecting slaves from heightened levels of violence by their owners; by the time of the Civil War,… [read more]

American Experience Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


American Experience

Americans pride themselves on their nation, its achievements and its fundamental philosophy of government. Yet what is commonly thought of as the "greatest nation in the world" has frequently, systematically, and continually failed large segments of its society. The Declaration of Independence outlined lofty goals of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," and yet those ideals did not apply to one-half of the entire population: women; nor did the ideals apply to African-Americans. In fact, African-Americans were legally defined as three-fifths of a human being in the United States Constitution: a literal fraction of a person. Thus, embedded within the American legal and political system were safeguards to protect the rights of an elite few over the rights of others; to promote a culture of discrimination; and to preserve an unjust and unequal social order throughout the nation.

The American Revolution helped liberate a new nation from the distant and somewhat oppressive regime of the British monarchy. However, the founding fathers were not necessarily social liberals. Thomas Jefferson believed outright that the government should be run by a select group of learned white males. Andrew Jackson opposed his view, supporting instead a more populist form of democracy. Both men impacted American politics, which in many cases has proven itself to be a government "by the people."

However, one-half of the American population was excluded fully from participating in politics at all, let alone voting. Women, regardless of their race, religion, or social class, were not considered to be full citizens of the nation. In some states, women were allowed to vote in local elections. However, in federal politics the voices of women were ignored or promptly silenced. Women did, however, work behind the scenes to help transform American society and were solidly behind the abolitionist movement. Nevertheless, feminism in America was until very recently the realm of the white and wealthy classes. The unique concerns and considerations…… [read more]

Presidents in the History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,083 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … presidents in the history of the United States, including a ranking of choices in order from one through five in a descending order of importance. There have been many memorable and excellent presidents in United States history. Picking five as the very best is a difficult and demanding problem, but five presidents do stand out above the rest… [read more]

America Was Finding Its Footing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


It was a difficult time of transition from British identity to a newly formed American identity for the colonists. Like with any revolution, it took determination and will to succeed to lead the people, especially the chosen noted figures, to embark on such an arduous task.

To conclude, the people of the era of the American Revolution were just that, revolutionary. They were radical in their sentiments and desired change. George Washington, Charles Willson Peale, and Thomas Paine inspired, led, and recorded a time of infancy for America that remains recognized today. They were and still are great men that helped birth a great nation.


Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.

This source discusses the life anf career of George Washington.

Greene, J.P., & Bailyn, B. (1967). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. American Historical Review, 11(3), 588-90. doi:10.2307/1849163

This is a journal source that discusses the reasons behind the American Revolution.

Paine, T., & Carlile, R. (1819). The political and miscellaneous works of Thomas Paine. London: Printed and published by R. Carlile.

This is a primary source that discusses Thomas Paine's life along with his works.

Paine, T., & In Conway, M.D. (1967). The writings of Thomas Paine. New York: AMS Press.

This is another Thomas Paine rimary source containing his writing.

Peale, C.W., Richardson, E.P., Hindle, B., & Miller, L.B. (1983). Charles Willson Peale and his world. New York: H.N. Abrams.

This is a primary source containing information on his life.

Washington, G. (1990). Washington's farewell address to the people of the United States. Champaign, Ill: Project…… [read more]

History in the 19th Century Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


History In the 19th Century:

It's impossible to understand the course of the United States in the 19th Century without understanding the cause and consequences of the Civil War. The United States Civil War was one of the most significant and defining incidents in the country's history. This is primarily because by the end of the conflict, many people had been wounded and killed, slavery had come to an end, and the very concept of America had been altered forever. Generally, the American Civil in the 19th Century was not only the most deadly but also the most significant event in the country's history. Unlike other major events that affected the United States, the war had significant effects that fundamentally changed the American society. Some of the major consequences of this war include changes in the role of the federal government, status of African-Americans, and the American culture. As a result, understanding the causes and consequences of the Civil War is important to understanding the course of the 19th Century United States.

Causes of the Civil War:

The causes and consequences of the American Civil War cannot be absorbed easily since it was a huge conflict originating from deep-seated forces or factors. Moreover, understanding the causes of this war is not easy because it was fought throughout the whole of the American continent. The Northern and Southern parts of the United States grew along different paths in the early history of the nation ("Causes of the Civil War," 2010). While the South was predominantly an agrarian economy, the North developed into a more industrialized economy. In addition to this, the North and South also developed along differing political beliefs and social cultures. These differences in development contributed to the emergence of disagreements on various issues such as taxes, internal improvements, tariffs, and the rights of states vs. those of federal governments.

In the beginning of the 1840s, American consciousness and lifestyle was dominated by the notion of slavery. As a result, slaves were the moral, social, economical, and political hallmark of the American society. However, as the hallmark of Southern life, slavery developed to become one of the most divisive issues in the country since its independence in 1776. Slavery contributed to the split of political parties in the United States during the 1850s and brought a sharp line among economies in the two regions of the country. Therefore, slavery became the burning issue that resulted in the disruption of the Union, a dispute that brought the war through which the Northern and Western states fought to maintain the Union. In contrast, the South region fought to develop Southern independence as a new confederation of states based on its own constitution. While there are other causes of Civil War, slavery was the main issue that contributed to the conflict.

Consequences of Civil War:

While it's the deadliest war in the history of the United States, the consequences and significance cannot be underestimated. Notably, the American Civil War came…… [read more]

Nixon Before the Presidency Military Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,094 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


To appease women, he made no public opposition to Roe v. Wade (Wicker). The Southern strategy was to appeal to the antipathy to black protests and the fight for civil rights.

Finally, Nixon broke the law when it came time for the 1972 election. Nixon violated the constitution in the Watergate scandal by accepting illegal campaign funds, sabotaging Democratic candidates, and trying to illegally silence anyone who criticized the Vietnam War (Roark). He had his reelection campaign workers break into the Democratic Party headquarters in order to spy on his political opposition George McGovern and then tried to cover up the link between the thieves and the White House. In addition to this, Nixon used the power of the White House to intimidate enemies both at home and abroad. He kept tape recordings of all conversations that took place in the Oval Office for the purpose of coercion and blackmail of high government officials. Everything he did while in office was suspected to be dubious because of what came out. Ultimately, this illegal activity was discovered and Nixon's crimes brought to light.

However, Nixon never made either a full confession or a real apology to the American people. On September 8, 1974, President Gerald Ford granted Nixon a full pardon. In response Nixon released a statement where he said:

I was wrong in not acting more decisively and more forthrightly in dealing with Watergate, particularly when it reached the stage of judicial proceedings and grew from a political scandal into a national tragedy. Nor words can describe the depth of my regret and pain at the anguish my mistakes over Watergate have caused the nation and the presidency, a nation I so deeply love, and an institution I so greatly respect (Black 990).

In the following decade and in the decades which followed, Watergate has taught the American people that they must keep an eye on their politicians and not trust them to make the right decisions through blind faith. Both Vietnam and Watergate took away the innocence of the American people in terms of their political leaders. Never again would people take the word of their leader through blind faith. It is possible that the nation might have healed but unfortunately Nixon never faced punishment for his crime which ever left a question in the minds of the people as to what machinations went on behind the scenes to protect Nixon. By pardoning Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford made it impossible for the former president to get justice for his crimes against America and left many questions unanswered forever securing in the American mind that some evils can be overlooked.

Works Cited

Black, Conrad. Richard M. Nixon: a Life in Full. New York, NY: Public Affairs. 2007. Print.

Gellman, Irwin. "The Richard Nixon Vice Presidency: Research Without the Nixon

Manuscripts." A Companion to Richard M. Nixon. Ed. Melvin Small. Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell. 2011. 102-20. Print.

Roark, J., Johnson, M., Cohen, P., Stage, S., Lawson, A., and Hartmann, S. The

American… [read more]

Civil War Represents a Decisive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


C. After this battle both sides realized that this war will not be easy or short-lasting. After this embarrassing defeat, Lincoln placed George McClellan at the command of the Army of the Potomac. "In July McClellan lead an army of Indiana and Ohio volunteers in a campaign to drive Confederate forces from western Virginia." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 149) His campaign was successful due to his victory in western Virginia.

The second war was fought between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River. In 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant led Union troops which conquered Forts Henry and Donelson from Tennessee. As a result of these victories the Confederacy was split in two. "But success proved costly; the heavy Union casualties under Grant at the Battle of Shiloh, fought on April 6-7, 1862, shocked the North." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 149)

The third conflict had the sea as a battle field. In 1861 and 1862 the North had won several important battles as a result of its campaign meant to prevent the Confederacy from getting assistance from international players.

"On April 21, 1861, just as the Civil War was getting under way, Union forces hastily abandoned the critical Norfolk Navy Yard -- after destroying most of the yard's facilities and twelve ships to prevent them from falling into rebel hands." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 149) The Confederates captured the frigate Merrimack, remodeled it and renamed it C.S.S. Virginia. On March 8 they assailed and destroyed the Union frigate Cumberland with the new Virginia. After this defeat the Union placed the Monitor to the sea. The Monitor did not have a long life, as it sank on December 31 in a storm at Cape Hatteras. "Both the Union and Confederacy quickly set about building more ironclads, which caught the eye of navies around the world, and warship design was changed forever." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 149)

By 1864 both the South and North had suffered massive loss of people, and as a result their troops were tired. "Grant's spring offensive in Virginia had led only to drawn out trench warfare at Petersburg." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 157) Sherman's army produced massive casualties in Atlanta but it was not able to conquer the city in spite of its long-lasting campaigns. Lincoln believed that the Republicans will be defeated along with the new election. In September Sherman took Atlanta, started the March to the Sea and conquered Savannah. Columbia and Charleston had the same fate as Savannah. After some short battles Lee's army accepted its defeat at Appomattox Court House. However what seemed to be a victory on Union side, soon transformed into a defeat when the Confederate John Wilkes Booth assassinated the President Lincoln. The assassination took place on April 14 at Ford's Theatre in Washington. The Civil War ended on April 26 when Johnston's army surrendered.


1. Nash, Gary B., Smith, Carter, Atlas of American History, Infobase Publishing, 2007

2. Civil War,… [read more]

American Imperialism (APA Citation) Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


In February of 1899, the Filipinos rebelled against American Imperialism in a bloody guerrilla war, but were ruthlessly suppressed by the United States. ("Platform") Also in 1899, in response to their nation's seemingly Imperialistic actions, some in the United States, including Andrew Carnegie and William James, founded the "American AntiImperialist League."

This group was dedicated to stopping American annexation of the Philippines and stated in "Platform of the American AntiImperialist league" "that the policy of imperialism is hostile to liberty and tends toward militarism." ("Platform") The Platform wanted the United States to stop all military action in the Philippines, and "concede to them the independence for which they have so long fought and which of right is theirs." ("Platform") The League then chided the American government for betraying the principles of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, denied that they had any obligation to support the government, and threatened to politically "contribute to the defeat of any persons or party that stands for the forcible subjugation of any people." ("Platform") They then went on to quote from Abraham Lincoln ending with his warning that "those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves." ("Platform") Unfortunately the League was unsuccessful in it's endeavors.

As a result of the Imperialistic policies of the late 19th century, particularly the occupation of the Philippine Islands, the United States found itself involved in a number of other interventions. As a new Asian Power, the United States found itself dragged into a conflict in 1900 known as China's "Boxer Rebellion." ("Boxer Rebellion") Later the United States was called upon to broker a peace between the Russian and the Japanese ending the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. ("Aspects of Russo-Japanese War") The spirit of Imperialism also led directly to the securing of Panama and the building of the Panama Canal. As the U.S. entered the 20th century, and was in possession of colonies in the Atlantic and the Pacific, Theodore Roosevelt took the next magical step and connected the two oceans by building the canal. And finally, the American occupation of the Philippine Islands led directly to a conflict with the Japanese; the Second World War, and the loss of millions of lives.

Reference List

"Aspect of the Russo-Japanese War" The Russo-Japanese War Research Society." Retrieved from http://www.russojapanesewar.com/aspects.pdf

Beveridge, Albert "In Support of an American Empire." Record, 56 Congress, Session I. Retrieved from http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ajb72.htm

"Platform of the American AntiImperialist League," (1913). In Frederick Bancroft (Ed.) Speeches, Correspondences, and Political Papers of Carl Schurz, vol. 6, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. Retrieved from: Internet Modern History Sourcebook. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1899antiimp.html

"The Boxer Rebellion." (2000), Small Planet Communications. Retrieved from http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/fists.html… [read more]

Globalism and the Culture Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,486 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


S. buy many more products than they need. This has not been the case, as much, in the last two years, but a poor person in the U.S. would still be considered a very rich individual anywhere else in the world (Fotopolous). People around the world see the society that Americans have created and they are either jealous about the… [read more]

American Imperialism of the 19th Century Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,314 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


American Imperialism in the 19th Century

American Imperialism 19th Century

American imperialism of the 19th century has long been a controversial subject matter. Many people believe that America had other issues that it should have been tending to, like staying home and focusing on the issues of the American people; however, there were many others who believed that America would not be able to survive without having to employ imperialist policies; industrialism, they believed, depended on imperialism, which was, for the most part, true. By the end of the nineteenth century, self-sufficient governments did not have autonomous futures. Empires controlled investments, international commerce, and they controlled loans; this means that every nation depended on another nation for something or other.

World expansion was needed in order for America to thrive and self-sustain. Raw materials were needed -- for example, sugar cane came from the Caribbean and precious gems like diamonds from Africa, silk from India, among other materials elsewhere (Davidson, DeLay, Heyrman, Lytle and Stoff 2008). America had to find resources in other areas of the world in order to keep up with industrial growth. Once countries -- such as the United States -- were dependent on industrialism, foreign trade was necessary to bring in money. The task was not an easy one as there were other world empires that had to do exactly the same thing in order to survive. Thus, it was a fight for who could get what and where. Annexation became the way to take over other nations in order to get the raw materials needed to support industrialism.

Military bases would set up along specific courses in the ocean in order to act as a deterrent to enemies as well as to defend nations from those who wanted to take over them. With so many bases out in the ocean and everyone having the same mission, there was no doubt that territory conflicts would arise (Davidson 2008). This had been going on for hundreds of years -- and some nations (like Spain) had more experience at it. Imperialism, however, was a bit newer to America, and America was more than willing to learn.

The United States was especially successful at imperialism. In less than 100 years it grew into a nation that took up a large majority of a continent. When the United States went south, there was then the idea to expand into the Caribbean (Davidson et al. 2008). However, Spain was not going to be helpful or allowing of this; Spain would fight like it always had.

America was, in a way, new to imperialism, as aforementioned. There had always been empires -- for example, the Roman Empire, one of the greatest in history -- using their power and force to take over territories, people, and cultures -- but America now had to stand up to other nations and become a worthy empire. The Navy was a major part of the plan, preparing itself to take over whatever parts of the world the… [read more]

American Exceptionalism Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,214 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


American Exceptionalism refers to allegedly exceptional social and political destiny of Americans guided by Puritanical values of the early migrants. This concept is attributed to Alexis de Tocqueville who believed that the special political nature and social history of America had given it a unique place in the destiny of nations.

"The position of the Americans is therefore quite exceptional, and it may be believed that no democratic people will ever be placed in a similar one. Their strictly Puritanical origin, their exclusively commercial habits, even the country they inhabit, which seems to divert their minds from the pursuit of science, literature, and the arts, the proximity of Europe, which allows them to neglect these pursuits without relapsing into barbarism, a thousand special causes, of which I have only been able to point out the most important, have singularly concurred to fix the mind of the American upon purely practical objects. His passions, his wants, his education, and everything about him seem to unite in drawing the native of the United States earthward; his religion alone bids him turn, from time to time, a transient and distracted glance to heaven. Let us cease, then, to view all democratic nations under the example of the American people."

There are many interpretations of the term Exceptionalism. Some are of the view that it is something aligned with the concept of Manifest Destiny and hence they fiercely argue against such a notion. Tocqueville did not however believe that exceptional destiny of America was connected with power or might. Instead after studying its history, he had come to the conclusion that America had faced a unique social and political destiny since its discovery and the concepts like liberty, individualism and laissez faire made it even more unique because it essentially showed that America had not been under monarchies or feudalism.

Economic or social destiny is however not the only thing that sets America apart from other countries. Some people argue that America is an exceptional country because of its Puritanical influence on various events. It is therefore seen as a liberator of evil- a role that America has taken seriously since earliest times. From the Civil war that abolished slavery to the First and Second World Wars where America stepped in only to protect some other nations from foreign attacks though its own waters were relatively safe. Then series of events occurred including some of the very recent wars that sealed the political destiny of America.

Puritans had a similar mission or vision in mind during their reign in England. They saw themselves as redeemers and hence tried to purify the society of its ills. "Puritan leaders such as John Winthrop were frequently described as fulfilling the promise of Moses, who in the old Testament led people out of bondage into the Promised Land" (Madsen, p. 6). The puritans believed that they had this unique destiny to meet, a promise to deliver and hence their actions originated from Puritanical values of redemption, freedom from… [read more]

American Exceptionalism Is a Concept Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,870 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


American exceptionalism is a concept that has been shrouded in controversy since the arrival of the first British pioneers and settlers. The ideal of exceptionalism was born as a result of the Puritan view that the colonialists were on a God-given mission to create a perfect community on a proverbial "hill." This began a cultural paradigm that still prevails today,… [read more]

Immigration Good or Bad Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,407 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … America, even the Native Americans, were immigrants at one point, so immigration forms the backbone of this nation, and it is good for the country to be diverse.

Argument 1 -- Native Americans immigrated here.

Colonists were immigrants, too.

Argument 2 -- Early immigration was encouraged.

America became a "melting pot."

Argument 3 -- Immigration policy began to… [read more]

U.S. History President Harry S. Truman Presided Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (686 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


U.S. History

President Harry S. Truman presided over one of the most tumultuous and eventful periods in recent American history. He took over the office of Presidency after the death of FDR in 1945 before being elected to the office for one full term. During his term, he witnessed the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the climactic end of the Second World War. Moreover, Truman engaged American troops in the Korean War and helped kick-start the Cold War that would last until Reagan's presidency in the 1980s. Truman suffered through a disagreeable Congress and although his post-war efforts were not always popular, he made more inroads into the development of late-20th century American society than perhaps any other president of the post-war years. For example, the United Nations was formed under Truman, as was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and acknowledged the creation of the state of Israel in the late 1940s.

Truman, a Democrat, was succeeded by Dwight D. Eisenhower. A popular president known in popular slogans as "We like Ike," Eisenhower was president during the heyday of the 1950s, when television and housewives became part of the popular culture. More relevant to politics, President Eisenhower devoted a significant portion of the American budget toward the development of aerospace technology in an attempt to outdo Russia in a "space race" that coincided with the Cold War and that would culminate under Kennedy's leadership in the 1960s. Similarly, Truman advocated the development of nuclear weapons in order to bolster the American image in opposition to the Soviet Union. His development of the interstate highways may have been one of Eisenhower's most notable legacies, as the 1950s marked the beginning of the American "car culture."

Democratic President John F. Kennedy may have won the 1960 election by a hair's breadth but he would become one of the most enduringly popular and iconic American leaders. The only Catholic president and a renowned social liberal, Kennedy helped to usher in a new era of American Civil Rights during which leaders like Martin Luther…… [read more]

U.S. History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,224 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The populace buys little beyond sustenance items, so the economy is not stimulated and the manufacturing plants do not hire people, thus ensuring a vicious spiraling cycle downward. Keynes suggested that the government spend at a deficit, and so Roosevelt did, through his works programs and its structured tiers of relief, recovery, and reform.

The first phase gave people immediate… [read more]

American Dream Entails That Anyone Coming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


American Dream entails that anyone coming to the United States would have unlimited and equal opportunities to accumulate and provide his or her family with wealth, or at least comfortable living conditions. For others the dream entails an improvement of whatever factors pushed them away from their home country. For some freedom from oppression of any sort is the most important issue. This fantasy of liberty and opportunity is what has attracted and will continue to attract untold amounts of immigrants to American shores, to be welcomed by the Statue of Liberty. Sadly however, the reality is far different from what is envisioned when immigrants first come to the United States.

Indeed, even for citizens originating from the United States, the American Dream is an increasingly distant and unreachable fantasy. When for example considering Robert Pear's reference to the increasing rate of poverty in the United States (in Rothenberg, 2004, p. 286), this becomes clear. According to the author, the American economy is becoming increasingly strained, and this is evident from the poor living conditions that are beginning to affect even middle-class homes. Prosperity has always been an image that formed part of the American Dream in the mind of the immigrant and the foreigner emerging from poor economic conditions in their home countries. This image is however breaking down together with the rest of the Dream.

Another aspect of the American Dream is the god-like status of a near faultless president, together with a system of politics that ensures all the freedoms and rights entailed in the Dream. Once again the reality is different. According to Pear (in Rothenberg, 2004, p. 287), neither President Bush nor the former President, Mr. Clinton, paid sufficient attention to the economy of the country to ensure that the economy remains sound. It appears then that these leaders merely close their eyes to the grim realities of the situation and perpetuate their own version of the American Dream by refusing to face reality.

The Matewan story is evident of how people are betrayed by their leaders and employers. It does also however show how people of different levels of race and class can unite to become equal partners against injustice. For the oppressed workers in the film the American Dream lay not outside in other sources, but within their own hearts and minds. It is only when they realized and acted upon this that they were able to overcome the injustice done by the mining company and others in power. In this way it is possible for the American Dream to survive, and to be accessible to everyone. A considerable effort is however necessary to achieve this effect.

The reality in terms of material wealth is however that the gap between rich and poor is not only increasing, but also evident of how the American Dream in terms of prosperity is only accessible to some. According to Julianne Malveaux for example, there is a significant difference in income level between black and white people… [read more]

Difficulty, Wealthy White American Settlers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,775 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


My fellow slaves were five transports more,

With eighteen negroes which is twenty four,

Besides four transport women in the house,

To wait upon his daughter and his spouse.

We and the negroes both alike did fare,

Of work and food we had an equal share,

And in a piece of ground called our own,

The food we eat first by ourselves is sown.

No other time to us they will allow,

But on a Sunday we the same must do,

Six days we slave for our master's good,

The seventh is to produce our homely food,

And when we a hard day's work have done,

Away unto the mill we must be gone, 'Till twelve or one o'clock a grinding corn,

And must be up by day light in the morn.

And if you get in debt with any one,

It must be paid before from thence you come,

In publick places they'll put up your name,

As every one their just demands may claim."

Thomas Jefferson realized that the concept of slavery was a problem, and one that was growing. Jefferson said, "I think a change already perceptible, since the origin of the present revolution. The spirit of the master is abating, that of the slave rising from the dust, his condition mollifying, the way I hope preparing, under the auspices of heaven, for a total emancipation, and this is disposed, in the order of events, to be with the consent of the masters, rather than by their extirpation." Jefferson knew that the plantation society would unravel, as…… [read more]

Confederation &amp Constituion Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In terms of how the federalists and anti-federalists struck the Bill of Rights and how this compared to the base Constitution itself, it is clear that while the Federalists got a lot of what they wanted in the original Constitution, the anti-federalists got what they wanted in the Bill of Rights. In terms of the latter, the Bill of Rights is a recitation and summary not of what the government must do, but rather what they cannot do. For example, they cannot deny free speech, they cannot abridge due process and they cannot limit the press, just to name a few. In addition, the tenth amendment in particular pointed to the idea that states and people would be reserved certain rights but by federal mandate rather than state assertion alone. The Bill of Rights was effective and prescient in that it was a perfect counterbalance to the federal powers claimed and enforced via the original Constitution without the Bill of Rights. The rights of both the people of the country as well as the state or even local governments were much more clearly demarcated and defined than the original Constitution alone (Archives.gov, 2014).

The above clearly shows that federalists and anti-federalists had a clear disagreement about the size and scope of the power that the federal government did or did not wield. Obviously, the anti-federalists were concerned about a federal government becoming too powerful and resembling the tyrannical government of Great Britain at the time which was manifested by the monarch and other British federal authorities being extremely dictatorial, restrictive and controlling of the colonies and member terrorities of the British Empire of that day. However, the Federalists countered that the federal government had to be much more of an "end-all, be-all" of the new nation as having things to decentralized and autonomous would lead to a disjointed nation. They asserted that while there would be limits, checks and balances on the federal government, there had to be times and places where the federal government could intercede and assert itself. Of course, these skirmishes and involvements would have to be constrained by the rule of law and the Constitution not to mention the free will of the people in terms of who was voted in and who was not. The catalyst for solving the Federalist vs. anti-Federalist dilemma was to strike a balance that protected the states and the people but also allowed the federal government to be as powerful as it needed to be to guide the country effectively.


It is clear that no single system is perfect but the ongoing continuity and staying power of the United States system and how it is not majorly changed in nearly two and a half centuries is a testament to how well-designed the system is. There were some glaring flaws at the onset including no abolition of slavery and properly striking a federal and state balance and there remain some important questions including some posed in reaction to the Great… [read more]

Habeas Corpus / GWOT Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


This may perhaps indicate that the problem of "rebellion" in Maryland was very much on Lincoln's mind -- to this day, Maryland remains the only state in the Union whose official state anthem ("Maryland, My Maryland") advocates violent overthrow of the federal government (with lyrics that refer to Abraham Lincoln himself as "despot," "tyrant," "vandal," and "Northern scum") -- especially… [read more]

Civil War in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Civil War in America

The American Civil war in that ran from 1861 to1865 was reported to be one of the most violent times in the American history. During this period, more than 700,000 men gave their lives for their country because of the war. Most people thought that the civil war ended after the military defeat of the south, unfortunately, this is not true because the war is still reported being very present in America today (McPherson, 2001). Research showed that the war was significant to the American people because it was able to resolve two major important questions which were left up in the air or unresolved by the revolution. These two major questions included;

(a) Whether America was to remain a dissolvable amalgamation of sovereign states or just an inseparable nation that has a sovereign state government (Barker, 2009).

(b) Whether the U.S., born of a declaration that all the American men were created with the rights to liberty was to continue existing as the leading slaveholding country across the world (Barker, 2009).

The Civil War in America is reported to have been caused by several issues and events. The main issue was that, the North America did not want to tolerate slavery as part of the fabric within the U.S. society, despite the fact that the political powers in Washington had planned of abolishing it during the American Civil war. Slavery in U.S. was a major burning issue which was renowned to have led to the disruption of many Unions formed. The war started as a result of rigid differences which existed between the free and the slave states above the power of national government to help in prohibiting the slavery in the various territories that had not become states. The other issue that resulted to the U.S. civil…… [read more]

Abraham Lincoln Book Review

Book Review  |  6 pages (1,865 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


As noted before, the political structures in the south did everything possible to surmount the rights that Lincoln's government had given to these people. From an economic perspective, the country as a whole would swiftly progress into industrialization, yet most freed slaves in the South found themselves in similar economic conditions to slavery under the sharecropping system. Even worse, reconstruction would last little more than 10 years. Once the militarization of the south ended, heralding the conclusion of the reconstruction, the lot of African-Americans significantly spiraled to conditions that were virtually akin to slavery with lynchings and transgressions on their newly acquired freedom commonplace in the wake of the advent of groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the Knights of the White Camelia. This newfound freedom that McPherson credits Lincoln with engendering then, certainly did not last long, suggesting that the author has greatly exaggerated its importance.

The tenuous nature of this new form of liberty which is contingent upon the support of the government is intrinsically flawed, for the simple fact that the interests of the government do not always coincide with the liberty of the people it governs it. The many African-Americans left stranded at the end of Reconstruction can certainly attest to this fact. The plethora of Native Americans who were systematically murdered and relocated from their tribal lands would almost certainly agree with this statement. Furthermore, this conception that McPherson views as positive actually contributed to the rise of imperialism, the Cold War, and the many bloody insurrections and counter insurrections that the U.S. fomented throughout South and Central America after Lincoln's efforts in the Civil War created this new form of freedom.

In retrospect, McPherson should not be questioned as to whether or not Abraham Lincoln played a central role in American history and whether or not he founded a new conception of liberty in the U.S. Yet the effects of this change are highly questionable and far from benign for a great number of people. A freedom engendered and facilitated by the government is only as good as that government itself, for better or for worse.… [read more]

Conceptions of American Freedom Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,515 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


21st century Americans fight for freedoms such as access to education, access to health care, and say over who has access to their personal information. In these ways, the idea of American freedom has changed and had always remained the same since the establishment of the country.


Democracy Web -- Comparative Studies in Freedom. 2012. The Idea of Freedom. Web, Available from: http://www.democracyweb.org/young/young1.php. [footnoteRef:3]2012 November 15. [3: ]

Maier, P. 1998. Sparring for Liberty. The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/11/01/reviews/981101.01maiert.html. 2012 November 18.

Shipley, C. 2012. Power to change -- What is True Freedom? Web, Available from: http://powertochange.com/students/truefreedom/. 2012 November 16.

Spease. 2012. What is Freedom in America. Web, Available from: http://spease.hubpages.com/hub/What-is-Freedom-in-America. 2012 November 15.

XND Magazine. 2012. American Freedom -- the idea. Web, Available from: http://www.xndmag.com/magazine.php?subaction=showfull&id=1291268240&archive=&start_from=&ucat=12&. [footnoteRef:4]2012 November 18. [4: ]… [read more]

Immigration Present and in Historical Context Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … history of immigration in the United States (U.S.) began back from17th century during the first entry of Spanish people through the south coast. According to Marshall (17, 18) since then, the United States has experienced constant inflow of newcomers every year which therefore continue to play a critical role towards economic development of the country. In the last… [read more]

Constitutional Government Creating a System Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,049 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This concept would also be very influential in the thinking of the American Founding Fathers. Some of the stipulations, such as "that the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law" directly correspond to provisions in the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the right to declare war and also to appropriate the necessary funds to raise a standing army even though the President is Commander in Chief ("English Bill of Rights 1689," Revolutionary War and Beyond, 2012). This concept of divided government was just as influential as the philosophy of John Locke, who famously proclaimed every human being's right to life, liberty, and property -- language which was directly inserted into the Declaration of Independence as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

The final Constitution gave people the right to be protected from sovereign misrule, such as the right to a grand jury and protection against double jeopardy in the form of 5th Amendment (Head 2012). However, what constitutes 'the rights of the people' has changed over the history of the United States. For example, the 14th Amendment ended slavery and thus effectively nullified provisions of the original constitution, such as the 3/5ths compromise, which counted every slave as less of a person and effectively permitted slavery. However, the 14th Amendment had implications for all Americans, not just freed slaves. Its guarantee of due process was interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to mean that the Bill of Rights applied to the states, not just to the federal government, which fundamentally shifted the power of the Constitution to create a more holistic and individualistic vision of citizenship, versus one of state's rights ("14th Amendment to the Constitution," Library of Congress, 2019).

However, not all attempts to reform the U.S. Constitution were equally as successful. The 18th Amendment put Prohibition into action banning all forms of alcohol consumption and sales. When this proved to be untenable to enforce (despite the fact that the Amendment was passed through the lengthy and cumbersome process of amending the Constitution) it was evidentially rescinded through the use of another constitutional amendment. The formulation of the Constitution and the rights of the people vs. The rights of the government is thus a continual, evolving process, not one which was decided merely when the laws of the land were written down.

Works Cited

"14the Amendment to the Constitution." Library of Congress. [19 Oct 2019].


"18th Amendment." University of Albany. [19 Oct 2019].


"English Bill of Rights 1689." Revolutionary War and Beyond. [19 Oct 2019]


Head, Tom. "Fifth Amendment." Civil Liberty. About.com. [19 Oct 2019].


"History." Magna Carta. [19 Oct 2019]. http://www.magnacarta.com/content/history

Wilson, Woodrow. "A treatise." 24 Mar 1908. [19 Oct 2019]

http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=799… [read more]

Colonial Period in America Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,324 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Colonial Period in America

What factors during the Colonial period hindered or promoted national identity? A what point did nationalism become a major influence -- why?

The national identity of the young nation was formed as time went on and it became clear that the mother country, England, was just not relevant to the needs of the colonists, and in… [read more]

American Studies One Theme Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


None of the dramatic events of the 1960s really ended the segregation and poverty of minorities in America, and violent opposition to this exploded in the Los Angeles riots of 1992. Contemporary art, poetry and music like hip-hop also expressed rage and alienation and the unequal nature of American society, just as their predecessors did over the centuries.


Perhaps nothing sums up the paradoxes and complexities of the Equality vs. Hierarchy dichotomy in American than the election of Barack Obama in 2008. In the past, his election would have been impossible, even unthinkable, since no blacks or members of other minority groups could have aspired to the presidency. Apart from John F. Kennedy in 1961-63, all the other presidents from 1789 to 2008 were white, Protestant males. In this sense, there has indeed been progress because of the civil rights movement, although the Right-wing has also mounted constant racist attacks on Obama, even questioning whether he was born in the United States. Moreover, the problems of poverty, exclusion and inequality for blacks and other minorities remain, just as they always have. Obama's tone in "A More Perfect Union" (2008) was very cool, intellectual and rational, which seems to be quite typical of his personality.

As the first black nominee of a major party for president, he had to draw in enough white voters to stay competitive with the Republicans, and Democrats had not been very successful at that since the 1960s. Obama's tone was that of both a transformational political leader but also a pragmatic candidate running for office. For this reason, he was far less emotional, impassioned and moralistic than Martin Luther King in his "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington in 1963. On the other hand, both men referred to the founding documents and principles of the United States that promised liberty and equality for all, and noted that the country had failed to fulfill these in practice, especially because blacks had suffered centuries of slavery and segregation. They expressed optimism about the nation's ability to do so and rejected the politics of violence, racism and divisiveness, whether from blacks or whites. Obama referred to economic issues far more frequently than King, however, and used the rising poverty, unemployment and inequality in America as a central issue in his campaign. He recognized that the U.S. had made progress since the 1950s and 1960s, and indeed that if it had not he would never have become the nominee of a major political party. He acknowledged the debt he owed to the entire civil rights movement, without which he would have had no opportunity to be elected president. Obama realized that this work had not yet been completed and that racism and segregation were still very real obstacles that blacks and other minorities faced in their daily lives in America. Nevertheless, he also wished to create a movement that was broader than issues of race, and that addressed social and economic justice for…… [read more]

Thomas Bender Is Qualified Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (1,037 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


America may actually not be so unique as alleged.

The second chapter logically takes off from the first by destructing our belief that America was unique in its stance of rising against one of the most powerful empires of the time (an empire on which the sun never set),and that it did so independently. Rather, it was helped by other nations (primarily France) who opposed Britain and it was one of many nations who stimulated by revolution and desires for independence to rebel against their colonization. America, therefore, Bender shows us is not as unique as thought.

It is indicative of the fact that Bender initiates the first chapter with describing the ramifications of Columbus' deed on a global scale. The discovery of America comes later but Bender's implication is that its discovery is micro and almost insignificant when compared to the larger significance of the event which was really the discovery of an ocean that created a new world:

The consequences of discovering an oceanic world shaped the history of every continent. On every continent a new world emerged, with consequences for each. The story of North America and of the United States is part of that larger, more important history, not vice versa (16)

The world now saw that there was an ocean that linked countries and connected each to the other, and that the world was holistic and whole.

It is interesting, actually, that Bender opens up with this implication for it seems to be the motif of his book: America is not one country apart from others. Rather it was formed by others, and in turn forms others. It is part of the conversation of the whole. "The ocean," as bender writes," ceased to be a barrier and became "a wide common over which men may pass in all directions" and similarly too, America, one of these oceanic countries simply served as a treading space for all directions. It interacted with, and was influenced by others in economic, agricultural, political and all ways, and was in turn affected by others who whether willfully or not came into contact with it.

Slavery, in fact, the perennial criticism of America, was developed in the specific and geographical context of the world of Atlantic slavery. There was a global slave market that was not particular to America per se and was connected with global trading in general. American history of slavery and discrimination was shaped within a context of global events and between its back-and-forth connections with the Caribbean.

American history was shaped by its geographical position and also by the political context of the time. U.S. history is no linear story of progress nor is it self-contained. We may like to think ourselves unique, but, as Bender shows "the beginnings [and, indeed, the entire history] of the United States… are the product & #8230; of many histories, several of them global in scope." (60).


Bender, T. (2006). A nation among nations.…… [read more]

Leap in the Dark: Struggle to Create the American Republic Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (1,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic

In his book, a Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic, author John Ferling wishes to explain the American Revolution, specifically the politics of the American Revolution, in such a way that the modern reader can look at Revolutionary history and see the roots of today's modern politic system. He focuses on the push-pull between the desire for a confederation and the desire for a union with a strong central government and how this tension has permeated much of American political history. He also focuses on Revolutionary leaders and how their individual personalities were critical to shaping American political process. He also looks at the interaction between pecuniary self-interest and political ideals and approaches the political process from the point-of-view that economics rather than ideal is the primary political motivator. Finally, he incorporated a theme throughout the book that American history, particularly during the Revolutionary period, was marked by these "leaps in the dark" that were led by people willing to abandon what was known in order to explore something new.

I feel like Ferling's prologue provided a very good introduction to the book and helped me identify and look for the unifying themes that he would use throughout seemingly diverse elements of the book. As a result, I found the book easy to read. I also found his language to be easily accessible. However, he did use elevated language and was obviously targeting a college-level or above audience. Given that the average American has an eighth or ninth grade reading level, this book might be considered a difficult or inaccessible read for them, which is a shame, because in the book Ferling does a very interesting job of explaining the evolution of the modern American political process.

My favorite part of the book was "Chapter Ten: Prosperous at Home, Respectable Abroad." I always had some understanding that part of the American mystique was the idea of the prosperity that seems uniquely American. After all, the idea that Americans have the ability to build prosperity and that each generation has this opportunity and are not stuck in the socio-economic class of their birth is a cornerstone of the American dream. However, I had never really considered how much debt accumulation has been a part of wealth accumulation in American history. Looking at the debts held by the federal government and the several states as a result of loans they took out to finance the Revolutionary War; one sees significant precursors to modern American economic cycles, which reflect borrowing for wars and a generally prosperous post-war period. In more modern times, the most dramatic example of this boom-bust cycle was World War II and the post-war economic boom that occurred following that war. In addition, during that chapter, Ferling discussed Jefferson's political dealings in France, which have long been of interest to me. It is interesting to see how Jefferson helped influence France's own… [read more]

Patriot ACT v. Fourth Amendment Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,129 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


For example, the relaxing of certification and justification criteria for NSLs has effectively reduced probable cause justification to merely 'relevant', shifted the authority for issuing search and seizure warrants from the judiciary to FBI field agents, and undermined the spirit of privacy protection encoded in the Fourth Amendment because private matters are increasingly conducted online. Although the information that we provide to a third party is not protected under the Fourth Amendment, the action of doing so should be according to Katz. The FBI should thus be required to obtain a warrant before learning what a private citizen is doing online, because personal computers inside homes, or a public library, are equivalent to the phone booth in Katz.

The expectation of privacy is modified by the concept of 'reasonableness' and Americans are often reminded by the news media that online activities should be considered public. The purchase of antivirus/antispyware and encryption software suggests some measure of privacy is actively being sought by the American public, but is it reasonable to expect privacy? Justice Ginsberg of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals held that it is reasonable to expect that a private citizen's every move for 24 hours or a month not be tracked and recorded without a warrant (Rosen, 2011). In addition, it would be impossible to engage in that level of surveillance without technological enhancements. Whether the U.S. Supreme Court agrees with Justice Ginsburg may be determined sometime next year, as it reviews the arrest and conviction of the alleged drug kingpin Antoine Jones after a hidden GPS device was used to track his private automobile movements for a whole month. Arguments were heard before the Supreme Court on November 8, 2011 and Justice Sotomayor asked the prosecutors how a hidden, warrantless GPS tracking device is any different than a general warrant (Totenberg, 2011, para. 9).

Even if the Patriot Act was enacted in good faith to protect Americans from terrorist attacks, the effect was to eliminate Fourth Amendment privacy protections and thus undermine the very spirit of American citizenship. The Patriot Act is therefore unconstitutional with respect to the relaxation of privacy protections.


Abramson, Larry and Godoy, Maria. (2006, Feb. 14). The Patriot Act: Key controversies. National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/news/specials/patriotact/patriotactprovisions.html

Bill of Rights Defense Committee. (2007). Resolutions and ordinances critical of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act and other laws and policies that diminish civil liberties. Retrieved from www.bordc.org/resolutions.pdf

Dilanian, Ken. (2011, Aug. 29). A key Sept. 11 legacy: More domestic surveillance. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2011/aug/29/nation/la-na-911-homeland-security-surveillance-20110830

FindLaw. (2011). U.S. Constitution: Fourth Amendment. Findlaw.com. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment04/

Garlinger, Patrick P. (2009). Privacy, free speech, and the Patriot Act: First and Fourth Amendment limits on national security letters. New York University Law Review, 84, 1105-1147.

Herman, Susan H. (2006). The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act and the submajoritarian Fourth Amendment. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 4, 67-132.

Johnson, Carrie. (2011, Oct. 26). As it turns 10, PATRIOT Act remains controversial. National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2011/10/26/141699537/as-it-turns-10-patriot-act-remains-controversial

Maclin, Tracy… [read more]

America's Intolerant History Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



American history is unfortunately a history of intolerance. As Reid, Toth, Crew & Burton (2008) point out, "ironically, the American Revolution may have established a culture and destiny of intolerance in the United States by providing a model for the use of violence to support any cause that seems honorable," (p. 7). Intolerance stems from a belief in White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) superiority to all other social and ethnic groups from African-Americans to Jews to Native Americans and Latinos. Because WASPs have enjoyed political hegemony in the United States since colonial times, they have wielded this power to maintain economic and social status in order to subjugate others.

Intolerance started before the United States was a nation, before the war of Independence. The persecution of Native Americans revealed the roots of intolerance in America. The United States built itself on a foundation of bloodshed and violence by driving the Native Americans off lands they enjoyed for hundreds or in some cases thousands of years. The "ideology of pure hatred" and attitudes of condescension and paternalism carried over into all areas of Indian policy, land use policy, and then to the WASP interactions with other non-WASP groups (Reid et al. 2008, p. 8). Those other groups include the Spanish-speaking and Native American groups of Central America and the Caribbean, which have been labeled as outsiders and stigmatized because of linguistic, ethnic, and cultural difference.

It is therefore ironic is that one of the four main values that define WASP ethnicity is "a belief in democracy that promoted equality, freedom, and individualism," (Reid et al. 2008, p. 2). WASP Americans have persecuted nearly every non-WASP group imaginable and even spread intolerance among WASPs who do not conform to certain social norms. For example, women were and to a degree still are deprived of human rights, freedoms, and liberties. The dominant culture does not tolerate homosexuality either.

Often intolerance manifests merely as social stigma or being ostracized from the mainstream community. At its more severe manifestations, intolerance may mean a systemic lack of rights and freedoms or lack of access to wealth and cultural capital. The most severe evidence of intolerance in America has been the creation and maintenance of hate groups. For example, when slavery was abolished, the spirit of racism persisted in the Ku Klux Klan. The Klan is in some cases viewed as such an integral part of Southern American society, showing how entrenched bigotry and hatred is in the United States. The idea that the United States is a Christian and white nation is one that is strangely popular.

When Asian laborers…… [read more]

People &amp Events in Pennsylvania Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … People & Events in Pennsylvania

The history of how America was founded all starts in the land of Pennsylvania, where famous events such as the creation of the Declaration of Independence was written, the creation and signing of the United States Constitution, and a host of famous people contributed to the beginnings of our great nation. Before the… [read more]

Civil Rights Movement in America the Struggle Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,291 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Civil Rights Movement in America

The struggle for the Civil Rights of the African-Americans have their roots in the slave trade era and the resulting pressure to let go the slaves in the southern states increasing every passing year during the emancipation of slaves period. The movement can be traced to as early as 1800 when Absalom Jones and several… [read more]

Westward Expansion and Settlement Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Westward Expansion represents as much an ideology as a historical pattern of migration. By the nineteenth century, the concept of Manifest Destiny had taken root in the American public consciousness. The frontier loomed as a challenge, nearly as an obligation to spread the ideological pillars upon which the new nation stood. Westward Expansion meant the proliferation of freedom, liberty, democracy and the pursuit of happiness and prosperity.

Many Americans were lured West largely by the prospect for expanded wealth and by increasing opportunities for landownership. "Attracted by the hope of economic betterment or the chance for adventure," Westward expansion represents the birth of the American Dream (Billington and Ridge p. 2). Part and parcel of the budding American Dream, land ownership could become conceived of as a right -- not just as a privilege enjoyed by wealthier Americans. With the prospect of gold, the expansion of Americans in the frontier land was inevitable.

As much as frontier consciousness has been glorified in textbooks and television Westerns, Westward expansion gave rise to some of the most tragic events in American history. The policies of exterminating or forcibly removing Native Americans from their lands can be considered genocidal in nature. Surely racist, the policies that Americans of European descent would have lingering effects on the Native populations -- and indeed the entire populace. A sense of entitlement permeates stories of Westward expansion, showing how and why the Americans of European descent had no qualms about unethical dealings with the indigenous populations upon whose land they were encroaching. The result has been not only the tragic loss of valuable cultures, languages, and civilizations but also a loss of integrity. After all, the United States was far from being a land in which all persons are created equal.

The effects of Westward expansion reverberated throughout American history, too. Gold was discovered, sure, leading to the railroad boom and the settlements that are now some of America's richest regions such as California. Yet with Westward expansion came…… [read more]

Postcolonial Geographies Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,507 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Postcolonial Geography

Post-Colonial Geography Questions

American identity has historically been forged on the idea of a singular identity which spontaneously congealed with the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. In spite of fractious racial discord, clear governmental references to the great empires which preceded it and its birth as the bastard child of several European monarchies, American solidified around an aggressively… [read more]

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