Study "American History / United States" Essays 56-110

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History of the United States Reaction Paper

… ¶ … history of the United States without acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the civil rights movement. From the beginning of United States history, the fate of blacks, in general, and their respective civil rights have been a disputed issue. In nearly every election throughout the history of the republic, race has been a central issue in some form but the change that has occurred in the country relative to the rights of blacks has occurred as a result of the attitudes of national elite, comprised of educated whites, instead of a response to the pressures of the majority (Dye, 2011). If the civil rights movement would have waited for the white majority in the United States to take action relative the civil rights of blacks, chances are that blacks would still be waiting for any change. The advancements that have occurred in civil rights in America have been the result of the actions of the elite and their ability to influence public policy. Once public policy was changed the white majority reacted and adopted their behavior accordingly.

The change in public policy and the attitudes of the white majority toward civil rights has been a slow and arduous journey and there have been ups and downs in the process. From the period immediately following the end of the American Revolution, the enactment of the U.S. Constitution, and the years leading up to the Civil War the nation endured one compromise after another in an attempt to satisfy the white majority in regard to the rights of American blacks. The Civil War was largely fought over the issue of slavery and brought into focus the civil rights of blacks. Reconstruction after the War brought a promise of major change but within a few years a new compromise was reached which resulted in the election of Rutherford Hayes and the end of any further attempt to transform the civil rights of blacks for almost eighty years.

Some minor advances were made by blacks and their efforts to advance their civil rights as they forced the issue of segregation. Various groups were organized such as the NAACP and the Urban League in an effort to provide organized opposition to the discrimination and segregation that blacks continued to endure in America. The most significant advance in the civil rights'…… [read more]


Technology Contributes to US End of Isolation Period Term Paper

… ¶ … American Isolationism

End of U.S. Isolation

The End of American Isolationism

George Washington, in his farewell address in 1796, warned future Americans that "the great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, [but] to have with them as little political connection as possible." (Washington 1796) The father of the country knew that trade was the key to American economic stability and prosperity, but warned that increased trade with overseas nations can often lead to political entanglements with those nations. Washington wanted the "best of both worlds," an America that traded with all nations but had political entanglements with none. While this may have been a possibility when the United States was a small, primarily agricultural nation, the development of industrialization would make international political entanglements impossible.

Throughout the 19th century the United States of America was successful in expanding it's productivity and international trade, while managing to simultaneously maintain it's political isolationism. Instead of involving itself in international affairs, America concentrated on it's "manifest destiny;" the idea that America was destined to expand territorially across the continent. However, as the both the American frontier and the 19th century came to a close, the United States of America began to look out toward the rest of the world for both the expansion of trade as well as political influence. It was the new technological advancements of the American Industrial Revolution that spurred the need for the expansion of American trade and caused the United States to end a century of isolationism and embark on a policy of increased international influence and power.

For much of the 19th century the United States was primarily an agricultural nation, and Americans found overseas markets for their agricultural produce. The continual advance of technological inventions such as Eli Whitney's cotton gin, John Deere's steel plow, or Cyrus McCormick's reaper increased the output of American agriculture. ("A History of American Agriculture:1800") Along with the creation of a number of canals and the invention of the Railroad, these technological innovations allowed Americans to slowly expand westward, across the continent, to the Pacific Ocean. However, by the late 1800's, Americans had settled the West, and needed an outlet for the ever increasing industrial production.

The American Industrial Revolution can be attributed to the 19th century entrepreneurs who "invested aggressively to develop the nation's vast resources." (Barney, 2006, p. 149) One of those vast resources was iron, which could be made into steel.…… [read more]


Italian Immigration to the US Term Paper

… Italian Immigration Late 19th to Early 20th Century

Italian Immigration to the U.S.

During the latter part of the 19th century and the first part of the 20th century, the United States experienced a mass influx of Italian migration. Between… [read more]


American History Federal Government Post Civil War Term Paper

… American History

Federal Government Post Civil War

Many things may have led to the federal government's increasing gain in power and influence in the years following the American Civil War. The purpose of the American Revolution was to break free of the monarchy of England so that each state could gain more autonomy. The problem with this is that there may have been too many differences between the states with some favoring such acts as slavery and some wanting to abolish slavery. Under the constitution, the federal government was created to serve the states. However, in the years after the American Civil War, the federal government has gained more power than the states.

A major political outcome of the American Civil War was that the Thirteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution was passed which abolished slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment granted United States citizenship to those born within the country. These two amendments were detrimental to the south because the slaves were the ones that performed all of the labor to make the slave owners wealthy. With the abolishment of slavery, this meant that slave owners could no longer force the slaves to work for free. Also, the slaves were not even considered human by many, so granting full legal citizenship of those that were born in the United States was another source of trouble for many. These two amendments snowballed into the Fifteenth Amendment which gave African-American men the right to vote. According to Foner, states failing to enfranchise black men lost some of their seats in Congress (2008).

A social impact that the American Civil War has had is that although one of its outcomes was the freedom of African-American slaves, it drove an even bigger wedge between blacks and whites of this country. Even though they were considered free, African-Americans were still treated by many whites as less than human. But because of the amendments mentioned earlier, many former slaves now had rights that they never could have imagined having before. Access to these rights did not come easy, but through the years the African-American's social position in the United States…… [read more]


Causes of the United States Civil War Essay

… Civil War

The American Civil War: Causes and Repercussions

Although today for most Americans the existence of a united union is taken for granted, this was not the case for most of the antebellum period. In 1832, South Carolina even… [read more]


American Revolution 1763-1783 and Jacksonian Democracy 1824-1848 Term Paper

… American History

As a generalization, it is my opinion based on the readings that the colonists who settled in the "new world" - most of them having immigrated from England to escape religious persecution or to start a new life - gradually became weary of being dictated to by a distant king. As to specifics, one of the main causes of the American Revolution was the British attempt to raise a lot of money from the colonists to keep their empire going. The British did this fundraising through various taxes, starting with the Sugar Act. According to the text (Faragher, et al. 2000) on page 148, the Sugar Act not only placed a "prohibitive duty" (tax) on sugar imports, it also regulated American shipping, and in effect slapped controls on a new country that wanted to be free to trade with whatever countries they wanted to.

The Stamp Act in 1765 was a further intrusion into American commerce, and in fact it seemed designed to but restrictions on printers, insurance companies, lawyers and other colonists, Faragher writes on page 148. Next came the Declaratory Act (1766) which basically "asserted the authority of Parliament" to hold power over the colonies. The Townshend Revenue Act of 1767 and the Tea Act 1773 put more pressure on the colonies to help put money into British coffers.

Finally, the "Intolerable Acts" of 1774 were designed to "punish Massachusetts" and angered the colonists perhaps more than any other act the British had placed on the colonists. On of the Intolerable Acts (called the "Coercive Acts" in England) - the "Massachusetts Government Act" - made it illegal to have any town meetings except once a year, unless the British-appointed governor approved. Town meetings were a vital part of the movement to resist British oppression, so when a law was passed that attempted to prevent the people meeting to discuss their political future, that angered the colonists.

Would I have signed the Declaration of Independence? Yes, certainly. But I would have taken Thomas Jefferson's side and insisted that slavery be addressed in the document. How can you say "...all men are created equal" and yet overlook the fact that thousands of people were being held as slaves, to help colonists grow their crops and strengthen their economy?…… [read more]


American History Term Paper

… American History

The objective of this work is to answer the question asking whether or not it was necessary to change the Articles of Confederation? Examined will be the factors that led to the drafting of the Constitution. The region represented will be identified as well as priorities notes along with noting concerns. Expressed will be the compromises that would be acceptable in order to preserve the union.

The United States of America was formed over time, through shared experiences and step-by-step working and focusing toward the Constitution. Many considerations, concerns, and viewpoints as well as opinions, standards and beliefs were that which formulated first the Articles of Confederation and ultimately the U.S. Constitution. When considering that which led to the changing of the Articles of Confederation one must consider that change from many perspectives. The Articles gave the government very little powers and no jurisdiction over the citizens in the country. No authority to tax the citizens was given but instead revenue generation was upon the shoulders of the individual states at the government's request. Laws were difficult to change under this forum and the agreement of all thirteen states was a requirement if amendments were to be made to the governing Articles.

Essay: Viewpoint of Virginia (Jamestown) Citizen

The rebellions shaking each of the 13 states and the country at large as well are overshadowed by the fact that the government as a whole is under threat to be usurped by individual states. However, the rebellions wracking individual states threaten the country at large. It is known that not all states are holding up their end of revenue generation. Trade is wild and uncontrolled. The laws that need to be changed cannot be changed under this structure of government.

Who can dare state that the Articles of Confederation are all that this country needs for find cohesiveness, for surely this country is coming apart from within. The citizens of Virginia remember the original dream of what this country would be. The winter of near starvation after a long journey across the waters to claim this land runs in the Virginian's blood.

While all of the proposals for the new agreement are failing in some aspect, and indeed are short of being the perfect plan of action, surely there exists some such agreement that if abided by will serve better toward preserving that which was so hard-won and which required so much be sacrificed in pursuit of. The issue has arisen in relation to the number of votes assigned to each state. This issue is naturally of real concern to those in smaller and less populated states. However, it is fortunate that the 'Great Compromise' has been attained whereby each of the states receives one delegate for each 40,000 citizens as of July 5, 1887, under the direction of the special committee.

American History

Essay Questions

Objective Two

The objective of this work is to consider the fact that the framers of the Constitution left out entire groups of… [read more]


German Immigration Term Paper

… Clearly, they could influence the political process if they voted as a block (Spencer 150). Germans usually became involved in politics to protect their own land holdings and lifestyle, but as they continued to hold office, they made more changes politically, and continued to influences the lives and culture of everyone in Pennsylvania. In later years, the Germans moved into what is known as the "German triangle" in the Midwest, made up of the cities of Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Milwaukee (Editors). Germans are still extremely influential in politics today, and their participation in the early political development of the United States helped form a democracy that was open to everyone, despite their birthplace or heritage.

As is apparent, Germans have been immigrating to the United States for centuries, and their participation in our culture and society has influenced our lives in many ways. John Jacob Astor, one of the wealthiest men in American history, migrated to America from Germany before he amassed his fortune and created a vast empire of real estate holdings. It was a German woman, Margaretha Meyer Schurz, who created the first kindergarten in America. Many Germans brought their knowledge and skills with them when they immigrated, and one of these men was Augustus Busch, who created the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association in his new home of St. Louis, which became one of the largest beer brewers in the United States. Many Germans became beer brewers in America because of their roots in brewing in their homeland. Others included Pabst and Miller. Germans also brought many other foods with them, and introduced them to the American people. Sauerkraut, sausages, (such as Bratwurst and Knackwurst), beer, pretzels, schnitzel, noodles, German potato salad, and much more are commonplace in many restaurants. Most large cities have at least one German restaurant, and Amish foods are becoming increasingly popular in America. German food is hearty and wholesome, and most people enjoy many German influenced foods every week without even realizing it. German folk art and craftwork is also extremely prevalent in American society. From the stylized folk art with its recognizable tulips, vines, and birds to the sturdy woodworking and colorful patchwork quilts that represent the Amish country of Pennsylvania, German crafts are common in the United States, and they had their beginnings in the immigration from Germany in the 18th and 19th centuries (Wittke 8). It is clear that Germans have influenced American society and culture in a variety of ways, from food to education and business acumen.

In conclusion, when Germans came to America they brought a new and vivid culture with them. They were extremely determined to hold on to their heritage even as they created new lives for themselves in a New World. As one author noted, "Thus in the process of their struggle for success, they helped create a new, diverse, competitive America and -- without becoming less German -- became 'Americanized' by their adaptation to their new land"

Spencer 12). These diverse people brought new… [read more]


American History 1600-1877 Essay

… They are Eli Whitney, John Brown, and Judah P. Benjamin.

Eli Whitney is usually regarded as a great industrial innovator, although during his lifetime he was mostly a failure financially. He is known for two great innovations, and it is… [read more]


Comparing Manifest Destiny and the Louisiana Purchase Essay

… America failed to gain any significant Canadian territory but did end the Indian raids into the Midwest territory (Kennedy & Cohen, 2013). The war ended with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, which reestablished diplomatic relations between the two countries and returned borders to their original lines before the war. The war did not quell the American desire for territories. An early proponent of this notion was John Quincy Adams. He was an integral part in the Treaty of 1818, formalizing the U.S.-Canada border and creating a joint governorship of the Oregon territory. Adams was also responsible for the purchase of Florida from Spain, by signing the Transcontinental Treaty in 1819. Finally, he was the architect of Monroe Doctrine of 1823, forbidding Europe from any further attempts of colonizing the Western Hemisphere (Kennedy & Cohen, 2013). It can be argued that Manifest Destiny and the Monroe Doctrine go hand in hand. In order to effectively enforce the Monroe Doctrine, the United States needed to expand its borders. Manifest Destiny influenced other decisions in American history. Manifest Destiny was an important factor several military conflicts such as the Mexican-American War in 1846, the annexation of Texas, and to an extent the Spanish-American War and the annexation of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico (Howe, 2009).

The idea of American imperialism and superiority propelled America as it acquired new lands. This notion that America needed to expand its borders is what makes Manifest Destiny analogous with the Louisiana Purchase. The Louisiana Purchase marks the beginning of the United States formulating a grand future for the country. Manifest Destiny acts on this plan and moves it forward. This idea is still present today. America sees itself as the promoter and protector of democracy around the world. The United States still goes to war in order to protect freedom, establish democratic governments, and further American interests. The present day form of Manifest Destiny is more subtle, there is no longer a need to expand our borders but there is certainly a belief in American superiority and spreading the ideology of freedom and democracy. The advent of technology and media has done more to spread American ideas and culture than an army invasion. Movies, television shows, and music are the new tools to implement Manifest Destiny.

The Louisiana Purchase and Manifest Destiny are events that propelled the American self-esteem. Thomas Jefferson knew the new nation needed territory to expand and wanted to provide territory for American citizens to farm. He saw the beginning of an emerging great nation. Manifest Destiny is the embodiment of Thomas Jefferson's vision. It was an idea that swept the nation during the 19th century and while changed, is still around today. The idea that America is the protector of freedom and the leader of the "Free World" is originates from Manifest Destiny. The annexation of Texas, the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War, all events that expanded the American empire and driven by the idea of American Exceptionalism. Today, we are… [read more]


World War II Life on the Home Front Term Paper

… World War II -- Life on the Homefront

As World War II was beginning to emerge, the world was being reshaped. The war began in 1939 and ended in 1945 with more than fifty countries at war (PBS). All of… [read more]


Theodore Roosevelt and His Conservation Research Paper

… Consequently, eighteen monuments were personally designated by Roosevelt out of which 4 are national parks at present times (Sheffield 89).

Roosevelt, however, was not contented with the setting aside of land to serve the purpose of providing enjoyment and recreational activities to the American citizens. Thus, he shifted his focus towards the forests in the country which were being rapidly consumed by the American population. Therefore, due to his constant recommendation, the United States Forest Service was established by the Congress. The honesty and dedication behind Roosevelt's conservation efforts is evident from the fact that "by the end of his presidency, Roosevelt's administration had created over forty-two million acres of national forest land, to be managed for the common good by the U.S. government" (Sheffield 89). It can be said that this approach of treating the civic land as a resource to be supervised instead of exploitation proved to be the core of Roosevelt's policy regarding conservation and preservation of the natural resources (Sheffield 89).

In addition to the above-mentioned efforts, Roosevelt also committed himself to preserve the natural sumptuousness and dignity of the national parks. Moreover, he made the expansion of the system sure for protecting the endangered areas. He also supervised the establishment of fifty-one wildlife refuges national forests, numbering one hundred and fifty (Powell). In addition to all the mentioned efforts to conserve the natural resources of the country, Roosevelt also made efforts to manage "the interconnected streams and rivers that depended on the "great sponge" upstream" (Gurney 61) in a scientific manner.

Roosevelt's administration can thus be considered as the best when it comes to conservation efforts as under his excellent supervision, there was more or less one hundred and thirty million acres of land that grew under the forest system. Taken together, the federal protection was made bigger to 230 million acres of land under his administration. Moreover, in 1907, the Inland Waterways Commission was appointed by the nature-loving president. In 1908, he also appointed National Conservation Commission in 1908. The major purposes of the two mentioned appointments were "to inventory the existing natural resources of the nation, especially forests and rivers, and make recommendations for managing them for the public bene-t" (Gurney 61). Even though the opponents of Roosevelt in Congress made endeavors to put a halt to the foundation of such commissions, they were foiled by President Roosevelt when he asked for the nonfederal money to be used for the printing and distribution of the reports (Gurney 61).

Conclusion

By using the power and authority of his presidency, Theodore Roosevelt was communicative enough to design a conservational model based on the intrinsic worth of civilization, partisanship, and public morals. It is not surprising to see that the American public places him in high regard by calling him the Good Roosevelt. It is exceedingly important for the American nation to stop judging the country's leaders keeping in mind their good things. It wouldn't be fair to judge the personality and speeches of Roosevelt. To… [read more]


Second Reconstructions Term Paper

… This was much less than the $35 billion cost of "an unjust, evil war in Vietnam," which King wanted to end (King 1967). Yet he also opposed violence and insisted that the riots in Watts in 1965 and in Detroit… [read more]


Top 5 Presidents Term Paper

… ¶ … top 5 presidents of the U.S.: 1789-1864

This is my list prioritized according to ranking order:

George Washington

Thomas Jefferson

Abraham Lincoln

Theodore Roosevelt

John Adams

I rated them thus according to their particular activity that I considered important.

George Washington

As the dominant politician and military leader and warrior who fought for the new United States despite surmounting odds and little support and as presider over the writing of the Constitution that drafted the new nation, I believe that Washington has founding place as premier president of those years.

He was unanimously elected to be president and managed to hold together his nation in beginning of the first few tottering years keeping them from being involved in the wars raging throughout Europe.

Washington's enduring actions included helping o establish a strong, well-financed national government as well as winning acclaim for America from international nations and suppressing rebellion. He also established the ethos of much or our government, as it is known today, such as the implementation of a cabinet system and the delivering of an inaugural address.

Rating Washington as 1 is a criteria that is shared by most Americans, since he is known as the "Father of this Country" Much of his image has been converted from original military leader into a moral symbol of the new republic, particularly since Washington, time and again, refused to exploit his military reputation for political power (Schwartz, 1983)

2. Thomas Jefferson

Education makes the country. Jefferson instituted that free elementary schools were to be provided to all citizens and that a university education, funded by public taxes, would be provided for a select few who would, consequently go on to use their education in order to contribute to the state. The university would not only accommodate a select group of poor students but would also accommodate those who could afford to pay.

Jefferson was the positive epitome of the new democratic government in that he endeavored to level differences between rich and poor. Jefferson, creator of the America's constitution that famously promised freedom and equality to all, attempted to destroy anything that stood in the way of that freedom. Opponent of the slaves trade, he also formed the national bank and purchased the vast Louisiana territory from France. It seems to me that his greatest action is standardization and leveling of the American education system, where he enabled the poor to receive the same educational opportunities that the wealthy enjoyed.

3. Abraham Lincoln

Revered as a rag to riches story (although I am skeptical about that), I see Lincoln's importance as lying in the fact that he fought for and introduced the Civil War that attempted to repeal racial differences and injustice that was existent in the country and left to abolishing of the slave trade. Lincoln successfully led his country through military, moral and constitutional crisis; with the country split in two -- one faction battling the other -- he successfully accomplished union at war's end. Finally, he… [read more]


United States Were Fraught With Danger Essay

… ¶ … United States were fraught with danger and problems. From colonization to how women were treated to slavery, there were many issues that were faced. Over time, many things changed and developed. However, during that period in history where… [read more]


Immigration the United States Is a Land Term Paper

… Immigration

The United States is a land of immigrants. The first waves of immigrants killed or encroached on the land of the indigenous people. Some American immigrants were forcibly moved as slaves from Africa. The 19th century bore witness to the first era of "mass migration," during which some 15 million European immigrants moved to the United States (Diner 2008). A policy of Manifest Destiny enabled Westward expansion that allowed for such tremendous and rapid population growth. The Industrial Age also necessitated population growth, to meet the needs of a growing labor market. Patterns of immigration changed over time. For example, Asian immigrants arrived in droves to the West coast of the United States in the late 19th century. Until then, most immigrants to the United States except for African slaves hailed from Europe. Racial discrimination has consistently been a part of the American immigration experience. African slaves experienced the brunt of discrimination, even after abolition. However, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 showed that anti-Asian sentiment would also become a hallmark of the American immigration experience. Around the turn of the last century, mass migrations of southern and eastern Europeans also altered the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural character of the country. Discrimination against groups like the Jews and Irish became commonplace. By the late 20th century, immigration patterns shifted once again as Southeast Asians claimed refugee status in the aftermath of the Vietnam War. Increasing numbers of Central Americans and Caribbean immigrants, many of whom were also seeking political asylum, entered the United States. The immigrant experience in the United States has been shaped by two seemly divergent but related issues: discrimination and the American Dream.

Immigration has altered American demographics over the course of the country's development. In fact, population growth in the United States depends in part on immigrants. The following chart shows how immigration patterns have changed, and how current levels of mass migration "vastly exceeds traditional levels," (Colorado Alliance for Immigration Reform 2010). The Center for Immigration Studies points out that the first great wave of immigrants arrived around the time of the First World War, from between 1900 to 1920. By 1924, Americans were becoming overwhelmed by the changing demographics of the nation and Congress created the country's first border control (Center for Immigration Studies). During World War Two, new immigrants fleeing the war in Eastern Europe were prohibited entry, as were East Asians ("A Historical Look at U.S. Immigration Policy" 1995).

The current outcry against "illegal immigrants" is an extension of the prejudice that has pervaded the American immigration experience. There is nothing qualitatively different about the immigration patterns of the 21st century vs. The 17th. When the nation was first formed, "the only immigration restrictions at this time were on criminals and public charges," (Vellos 1997). Immigration was viewed as a means to bolster the labor market, make industrialization more profitable, and enable the extraction of natural resources throughout the nation. Especially after slavery was abolished after the Civil War, the need… [read more]


Significant Influences During the Early National Period Essay

… ¶ … National Period

American history technically begins in the east in the English colonies and it then spread gradually westward, only reaching the Appalachian Mountains by the end of the colonial period. According to this perspective, the "seeds" of the United States first appeared with the English colonists in 1607 at Jamestown in Virginia, and then followed in 1620 by "the Pilgrims" at Plymouth in New England (Taylor 2002, x). The small colonial cast (as the earlier Spanish and French settlements were pretty much irrelevant except as enemies) is compromised of the people who would create American colonial history, as it wasn't until the United States invaded the "West" during the early nineteenth century that the West would also become a part of the United States. Alaska and Hawaii wouldn't become a part of the United States' national history until the end of the nineteenth century (2002, x).

The early Spanish and French colonizers neglected the mid-Atlantic seaboard, which is an important aspect to consider when contemplating what the United States would become. Because of their neglect of this region, the mid-Atlantic seaboard was open to English colonization during the 1580s. This area they simply called Virginia, named to honor their queen, Elizabeth I, a supposed virgin. Between the years of 1580 and 1620, the English name Virginia the entire area of coast between Florida and Acadia (Taylor 2002, 118). The English at first searched for gold mines on land and Spanish ships with treasures by sea -- sort of "get rich quick" tactics, but these tactics failed and they were forced to come up with ways that were more low and laborious when it came to making their livings. Thus, they began to harvest their plantation. By 1616, the colonists discovered a prime commodity in tobacco, "which permitted an explosive growth in population, territory, and wealth" (2002, 118).

Middleton (2002, 115) states in his book, Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776, by 1660, the colonists were exporting tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo and other dyes back to England. In October of 1660, English Parliament passed a new act, which excluded foreign traders by only allowing vessels owned and three-quarters manned by Englishmen to enter English colonial ports (2002, 115). This meant that all the aforementioned goods had to go back to England before being shipped elsewhere -- there they would be taxed and therefore denied any competitive advantage. These measures were only beneficial to England, however, the large mercantile marine was being established in the colonial states and it gave work to thousands of men. This provided the source for major naval power, which would become important as the century went on -- and we see its early influences today in our own naval power.

The Great Awakening is another period of time -- during the 1730s and the 1740s -- where there was a decreasing emphasis on the importance of church doctrine and instead there was a greater emphasis put on the individual and his or her… [read more]


U.S. Immigration Into the United States Essay

… U.S. Immigration

Immigration into the United States: Ongoing Controversy in the Political and Public Spheres

Immigration has always been a controversial issue in the United States, even before this nation was formed on the North American continent. Different groups of… [read more]


US Decision to Enter World War I Term Paper

… World War I, like all wars tend to, had a devastating effect on all the parties involved. The War in question began in Europe, resulting from a dispute between just two countries. The rest of Europe became involved through various… [read more]


Was the 20th Century a Renaissance Period for the United States? Term Paper

… Accounting-History

Was the 20th Century a Renaissance Period

This is a paper about American in the 20th Century. There are six references used for this paper.

The United States and Europe saw a number of changes during the 20th Century. It is interesting to compare the two in terms of science and technology, religion, politics and economics, leisure time, the roles of women, art, music and literature, and fashion.

Science and Technology

There are "three broad innovations which the 20th century will be remembered for: unprecedented means to save, prolong and enhance life; unprecedented means to destroy life, including for the first time putting global civilization at risk; and unprecedented insights into the nature of humans and the Universe (Sagan, 1996)."

During the 20th century, "advances in science and technology played key roles in the two world wars and in space exploration (Kohlstedt, 2004)." Industrialized nations in Europe and the United States gave "unprecedented support to advancing systematic inquiry and, in many cases, privileged experimental and quantitative research. Some of the most outstanding discoveries of the 20th century include radio and television, laser and fiber optics, nuclear technologies, genetic research, and geological plate tectonics (Kohlstedt, 2004)."

Technology is responsible for prolonging many individual's lives. In 1901, the "life expectancy in the United States and Western Europe was about 45 years, while today it is approaching 80 years, a little more for women, a little less for men (Sagan, 1996)."

Religion, Politics, and Economics

The religious, political, and economic arenas were also filled with changes. Religion underwent changes in both the United States and Europe during the 20th century. The United States had been predominantly Protestant prior to the early 1900s, however with the influx of immigrants came a large Catholic population. In Europe, thousands of Jews were persecuted for their religious beliefs.

In the "post-war period, leadership shifted in the world, especially to America and Europe. Post-war leaders such as British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and United States President Harry Truman continued to have an impact in the world, but their rule became much collectively oriented through international organizations and power blocs and the creation of military pacts (Asmar, 1999)."

In 1945, Britain had an "elected labor government, which resulted in an emphasis on domestic issues, and the creation of the welfare state (Asmar, 1999)." The United States found its leadership role increased when the Marshall plan involved it in the post-war reconstruction of Europe.

There were alliances forged with Europe during the 1950s, which began with Franklin Roosevelt. He, Harry Truman, and Dwight Eisenhower were "part of a political, social and military machine that reflected America's rise to world prominence (Asmar, 1999)."

In the 1960s, the United States began to lose some of its power, due to incidences such as the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Vietnam War. However, Europe had recovered from World War II, and "slowly began to put its footprints on the world arena. Germany still suffering from the shame of Nazism, plunged itself into an… [read more]


American History Term Paper

… If he negatively affected history, it was with his lack of action on trade embargos with Britain and France, which many feel ultimately led to the War of 1812 under James Madison's presidency. "But the embargo failed to produce the desired result, and the subsequent war with England was 'Mr. Madison's War' only because Jefferson did not push the issue in 1809 when, left to their own direction, Congress repealed the embargo without substituting war" (Spragens 37).

JAMES MADISON

James Madison was the first president to preside over a full-fledged war, when problems with the British escalated into the War of 1812. Most of his two terms in office were spent dealing with the war and its after-effects on America. During his administration, the British captured Washington D.C. And burned the Capitol building and the White House.

President James Madison was the only President to face enemy gunfire while in office and the first and only President to exercise actively his authority as commander-in-chief.

On August 19, 1814, General Robert Ross, in command of British regulars, and Admiral George Cockburn, commanding the Marines, landed at Benedict, Md., on the Patuxent River. They started a forty-mile march to Washington, D.C. Five days later, at Bladensburg, Md., they encountered and routed the militia and marines under General William Henry Winder, who fled to Georgetown after a losing battle. President James Madison on August 25 assumed command of Commodore Joshua Barney's battery, known as "Barney's Battery," stationed a half-mile north of Bladensburg, Md., to forestall the capture of Washington by the British (Kane 39).

While Madison's administration saw the ravages of war, it also saw the build-up of American manufacturing in New England, and the development of many of the resources of the country.

The war of 1812, like other wars, was followed in time by an economic depression, but this depression was far less severe than it would have been had the shipping trade been allowed to expand to the full extent which England's preoccupation with war made possible (Smith 328).

If there was a negative impact of Madison's presidency, it was the ravages of war that helped decimate our nation's capital, and his lack of inspiration as a leader and diplomat. "As always throughout his life, he was regarded as a learned and agreeable person, but not as an inspiring leader" (Smith 330).

JAMES MONROE

James Monroe also served two terms as President. During his time in office, he helped created the standardized American flag, authorized the construction of the Erie Canal, and created the Monroe Doctrine, which stipulated that America was not open to colonization by any other nation (Kane 45). "James Monroe was so popular during his first term, 1817-1821, that an 'era of good feeling' swept the nation. All of the 232 electors, with only one exception, voted for Monroe for a second term" (Kane 43). His popularity waned slightly during his second term, but remained high with the American people. "After two highly successful terms as President… [read more]


Conservative American Presidents Term Paper

… A comment from conservative Republican Representative Newt Gingrich of Georgia, quoted December 27, 1984, in the "Christian Science Monitor" by historian Allan J. Lichtman, who wrote: The near extinction of liberal Republicans has not united the party, only shifted rivalries to the right. Without Reagan to pull the Republicans together the question is when will the GOP's moderate, conservative and radical right factions begin squabbling over the post-Reagan succession (Dansker 212).

The similarities between the terms of early presidents like Harding shows how differently each president reacts to and manage the many emergencies and issues that arise. Each man faced fiscal crisis, world issues, and internal staff struggles and scandals, yet one rose above them, and the other succumbed to them. The office of the presidency is a highly visible and powerful office. The men that take on the job are as varied as the issues they will face, and some are much more suited to keep America a strong global force than others.

Works Cited

Anderson, Dennis M. "Ronald Reagan." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 563-578.

Dansker, Emil. "William Howard Taft." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 211-234.

Editors. "Warren G. Harding." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/WH/WH_In_Brief.htm

Editors. "Ronald Reagan: Impact and Legacy." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/RR/RR_Impact_and_Legacy.htm

Florig, Dennis. The Power of Presidential Ideologies. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1992.

Jennings, David H. "Warren Gamaliel Harding." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 267-292.

Rejai, Mostafa, Kay Phillips, and Warren L. Mason. Demythologizing an Elite: American Presidents in Empirical,…… [read more]


First Two Decades of the 20th Century Essay

… ¶ … 20th Century

The United States, which began the 20th Century in relatively quiet self-involvement, expanded its role in the world throughout that Century. Notably commencing during the pivotal decades of 1900-1920, America turned its attention to the world stage. Through official actions of the United States and internal/external forces, the United States developed into the restless giant that would dominate the globe in the late 20th Century.

The First Two Decades Were Pivotal in the 20th Century

The first two decades of the 20th Century were pivotal for the United States. During those decades, America underwent revolutionary developments at home and abroad. The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt, for example, helped create an aggressive stance to foreign policy beginning in the early 20th Century but maintained and developed by America for the balance of that Century and beyond. In 1904, Roosevelt's proposed Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was the United States' first officially aggressive stance as policeman of the western hemisphere.[footnoteRef:1] the effects of this Corollary marked an official change in U.S. attitude about the globe and our Country's position in it. In addition, the World War I years saw considerable political interplay, orientations and motivations within the United States and on the world stage. The United States contributed greatly to the Allied victory in World War I through: the use of convoys in league with the British[footnoteRef:2]; financial assistance[footnoteRef:3], with its attendant negotiations, mistrust and tensions; and, of course, militarily.[footnoteRef:4] Meanwhile, America's home front was occupied with chronic problems of union struggles, class struggles, agricultural overproduction and xenophobia.[footnoteRef:5] as these few examples illustrate, during the first two decades of the 20th Century, the United States emerged as a significant world power. [1: John Milton Cooper, Jr. Pivotal Decades: The United States, 1900-1920. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1990, p. 50.] [2: Ibid., pp. 275-6.] [3: Ibid., p. 276.] [4: Ibid.] [5: Ibid., pp. 302, 306.]

b. America was a Restless Giant by the End of the 20th Century

By the conclusion of the 20th Century, the United States was a restless giant. The 20th Century began relatively quietly for the United States. However, through its dramatic entrance on the world stage, a series of wars and a slew of technological…… [read more]


Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration Term Paper

… The Southern colonies which depended on slavery for agriculture were unwilling to take part in founding a new country which would endanger their economy and so slavery was set aside to be dealt with at a later date. If it were not, then the southern delegates refused to vote in favor of independence, in which case there would have not been enough favorable votes. It was a harsh blow to those who saw the unfairness of slavery and the hypocrisy of declaring all men equal when they were creating a country where not all human beings would be treated equally. Although Thomas Jefferson was angered by this omission, he understood that freedom was of the greatest importance and that this needed to be achieved first of all (Ellis 50). It is also ironic that Jefferson felt so strongly about this when he was himself a slave owner and continued to own slaves until he died, not even freeing his slaves in his will. Jefferson had only provided freedom in his lifetime to one slave, Sally Hemmings with whom Jefferson had several illegitimate children who were themselves some of his slaves. The issue of slavery would have to be dealt with eventually but this was not the time. Slavery was finally abolished approximately a century later through the Emancipation Proclamation of sixteenth President Abraham Lincoln.

The Declaration of Independence is one of the most important documents ever written. Not only did it lay the groundwork for the founding of the United States of America, it laid down the principles of a democratic nation. The document would be looked to time and again both within the country and without to inspire all oppressed people. Thomas Jefferson's draft of the declaration did not go unchanged, but his importance to its construction and therefore to world history is undeniable.

Works Cited

Ellis, Joseph J. American Creation: Triumphs and Tragedies in the Founding of the Republic.

Alfred A. Knopf, 2007. Print.

Ferling, John E. A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic. New York,

NY: Oxford UP, 2003. Print.

Hazelton, John H. The Declaration of Independence: Its History. New York, NY: Da Capo,

1970. Print.

Maier, Pauline. American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence. New York, NY:

Knopf, 1997. Print.

Peterson,…… [read more]


Statue of Liberty Research Paper

… The opening of an immigration museum took place in 1990. The unique feature offered in this museum is that it offers a number of immigrant arrivals' records in the computers in the form of online content ("Ellis Island").

In actual fact, it was a French lawyer, Edouard de Laboulaye, who gave the original idea of the creation of a freedom-symbolized monument. He was a true admirer of United States' President, Abraham Lincoln. The idea splurged out during a dinner party where Laboulaye gave the suggestion of building a statue for symbolizing liberty and independence. Thus, it was due to this idea that the Statue of Liberty was built and is now the most renowned freedom emblem in the United States of America. The statue has another meaning as well that is of real significance. It stands there as a greeting to millions of people who come to seek a better quality of life on American land. Thus, it can be said that this statue is the symbol of new opportunities and prospects for strangers. However, it is serving as the representation of freedom for all members of the society. It can be said that it guarantees the constitutional declaration of independence (Maybury).

One of the basic characteristic of this statue is that its crown has seven points that represent the seven continents and seven seas of the world. Thus, any place on the Earth could have been chosen by the authorities to erect the statue. Suez in Egypt was thought of as the first place to erect the statue. However, French preferred the American land as the right place for the statue. If its original name is considered, the word "Enlightening" carries imperative meaning (Maybury). As far as the torch in the lifted hand is concerned, it gives the assurance "that when the principles of liberty are understood and protected, the result is a prosperous civilization" (Maybury). Thus, liberty is symbolized as the main source of affluence, richness and success (Maybury).

To cut a long story short, the Statue of Liberty was a gift to the Americans from French who thanked the former to help them learn the principles on which liberty is based. At the present moment, the Ellis Island Foundation is endeavoring hard for the restoration of the Statue of Liberty. They are doing so by planning a number of construction projects. Such steps could be really helpful in the accomplishment of the refurbishment and explanation of the principles of liberty represented by the Statue of Liberty. One of the main things to remember here is that such monuments symbolize the true mind set of the nations (Maybury). The Statue of Liberty also holds a prominent place as an imitation object in the American and global cultures.

In short, the Statue of Liberty can be regarded as the most renowned world's monuments. The Statue is being visited by millions and millions of people annually and thus is a major tourist attraction. Its image is also been by innumerable… [read more]


Mill Take Issue Essay

… In a speech to a group of fellow clergymen, Revered Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke about this negative opinion of the American involvement in Vietnam. He believes that the 1960s are a period of revolution because for the first time… [read more]


Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens Essay

… "

Left unspoken in this speech was the legitimacy of the underlying ideology that made slavery an acceptable yet "peculiar institution." What was articulated, though, made it clear that the South's position was that African-Americans were inferior by nature and that slavery was the proper institution for them since it improved their character and saved their souls through their introduction to Christianity. Arguing that all men are not created equal, Stephens emphasized that, "Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. . . . Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man." Absent this fundamental ideological difference, it is reasonable to suggest that the Southern states would never have seceded in the first place, rationalized by the vice president in this speech by pointing out that "slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition." Although many modern observers might be incredulous at this type of racist rhetoric, it is clear that this was the gospel accepted by many of the member of the intended audience for this speech. Indeed, the vice president concluded that the superiority of the white race would become apparent to the entire world as the Confederacy gained legitimacy and credibility through its future successes. In this regard, Stephens' concluded that, "It is upon this [white superiority] our social fabric is firmly planted; and I cannot permit myself to doubt the ultimate success of a full recognition of this principle throughout the civilized and enlightened world."

Conclusion

If people today did not know better, they might come away from hearing Stephens' speech believing that the Confederacy had a decent chance at success based on their geographical holdings and natural resources, as well as the substantial population of both black and whites that made the South a contender in the international community. The vice president managed to make a good case for the Southern cause by citing these resources as well as the South's will to prosecute its interests against the North in the eventuality of war. In the final analysis, Vice President Stephens' "Cornerstone Speech" helped persuade the other four states to sign the new constitution and seal the fate of the country as it played…… [read more]


In the United States Research Paper

… He is told by several people to look into business, such as in the famous party scene where Benjamin is informed that plastics are the means to financial security. However, Ben is not interested in money or in business or… [read more]


U.S. Foreign Policy and the Middle East Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Policy and the Middle East

Just as the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor forced United States into World War II, the attack on the World Trade Center during 9/11 forced the United States to find active and strategic ways to fight terrorism. With terrorism being born and bred in the Middle East every day, the United States needs to take a strong and effective stance on extremist and fundamentalist forms of terrorism. The best way for the United States to achieve this is by looking at the successful actions of its past when it comes to tricky foreign policy relations.

While many historians will attempt to compare and connect the Chinese revolution with the Russian revolution, that impulse is understandable, but misguided. "The Chinese revolutionists have, to the contrary, long despised their subjection to outside influences of Western imperialism and to what they took to be its alien culture. Their basic impulse was to liberate themselves from such outside influences. In short, China was a colonially dominated nation in a way Russia had not been" (Lifton, 171). In certain respects, one could argue that China's colonial domination was more akin to the domination that the United States, as a new nation, experienced from Britain and that the desire to achieve a certain degree of autonomy and self-determination was one of the motivating forces. Of course, it's important to keep in mind the distinction: once America achieved independence they did not attempt to transform the country into a Communist nation with strict governmental controls over the economy and land reforms. However, aspects of China's constitution after the revolution did express some of the sentiments that had been important to the United States: freedom of speech and assembly (Byrne, 76). In lieu of the consequences of the Chinese revolution, the United States should use those lessons to dictate their intentions with foreign policy today. For example, the United States should truly attempt to promote democracy in the Middle East. Additionally, the United States also used a policy of containment in the 1940s and 1950s, particularly under the leadership of Harry Truman, to block the spread of communism abroad. A clear example of this was the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as a strategic opposition to Soviet strength. There's absolutely no reason why the United States can't emulate the strategies of the past and make a stronger united front with other countries in order to fight terrorism in Iran and other Middle Eastern countries, regardless of whether the terrorism they practice be of the extremist or fundamentalist nature.

The United States should use its past actions as a guide for its future relations with the Middle East: notably the economic help it granted Japan after World War II should set a precedent for how it interacts with Iran and various Middle Eastern nations. For example, "From 1947…… [read more]


Expansion of the US 1800-1860 Essay

… ¶ … U.S. 1800-1860

During the 1800-1860 period, the United States underwent major change and development processes. The commencement of the expansion was represented by the desire of President Jefferson to control the port in New Orleans. The port represented a door to international trade and a better position in political and economic negotiations. In this setting then, the Americans set out to negotiate with the French -- the patrons of Louisiana at that time.

Napoleon Bonaparte's response was quite positive for the Americans. In those days, the French occupants were dealing with revolts from the slaves and were engaged in addressing these problems. Additionally, to the benefit of the Americans, the slave riots increased the French's need for money and allowed the Americans to negotiate better terms for the purchase of New Orleans.

The westward expansion of the United States as such commenced with the acquisition of Louisiana. The efforts of the American administration however did not cease and focused on purchasing as many states at possible. At the turn of the eighteenth century, the United States was only comprised on thirteen states: New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, Georgia and North and South Carolina (Son of the South). Gradually however, during the following century, the country united with all of its states and formed the larger United States of America.

During the period, massive migration of populations was observed towards the west. Populations from all over Europe moved to the United States and lead to the massive increase in the country's population. In the west for instance, before the exodus commenced, a mere 7 per cent of the American population was inhabiting the region. After the population movement, 60 per cent of the American population was living in the West.

"Following the American Revolution, Americans swarmed to the West. Kentucky and Tennessee provided the beachhead for the vanguard of land-hungry settlers. After the War of 1812 subsequent waves of pioneers flowed into the Ohio River valley, the Great Lake states, the Gulf Plain, and the Mississippi River valley. Still more moved to Oregon and California in the 1840s and into Kansas by the 1850s. By the Civil War much of the territory between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic, as well as areas along the Pacific coast and in the Southwest, had been settled by the descendants of Europeans" (Bookrags.com).

The causes which led to the massive exodus of the population towards the western region of the United States are rather complex. For once, it could be argued that an important role was played by the pioneering spirit, as people moved west to start over a new life, to explore new possibilities. Then, from a more practical standpoint, it could be argued…… [read more]


United States Survive With Half Essay

… The terms of the Compromise of 1850 were far more intricate that this small provision but what is important is that Congress again forestalled possible cessation and kept the balance of power between the slave and non-slave states.

In 1854 Congress created a new problem by passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and was intended to promote the growth of the railroad industry but the Act also included a provision allowing the settlers in those territories to make their own determination on the slavery issue. The terms of the Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850 were repealed. This led to the event known as "Bleeding Kansas" and although matters settled down shortly thereafter the residual effect was the birth of the Republican Party and increased resolve by the Abolitionists to seek a permanent end to the slavery issue. Subsequent to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, compromise no longer became an option and it was just a matter of time until the issue of slavery would lead to a civil war. The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 sealed the deal.

The Monroe Doctrine was a pronouncement by President James Monroe that established an important precedent in the early days of the history of the United States. When Monroe announced the conditions of the Doctrine the United States was not in a position to enforce them but he did send a message to the rest of the world that the young government was prepared to do so. The two primary provisions of the Doctrine were that the United States would not interfere in the internal affairs of the European nations and would honor their current holdings in the western hemisphere but that all future expansion in the west was closed.

The application of the Monroe Doctrine proved helpful in later years as the United States was able to keep Spain and England from continuing their colonization efforts in Latin America and the South American continent. It also proved helpful in justifying the use of federal troops in Mexico after the Civil War in order to intimidate the French who were attempting to establish a foothold there. Additionally, President Theodore Roosevelt used the doctrine effectively in discouraging Spain from interfering with matters in Cuba and Latin America.

Although the Monroe Doctrine has been used effectively to dissuade foreign powers from interfering in the affairs of western nations it has also been looked upon negatively. Many nations in Latin America have been critical of the doctrine and look upon it as America's attempt to establish itself as a "big brother." Resentment of America's attempt to invoke this Doctrine has been evident in the politics of a number of Latin and South American nations and led to some cold relations between the United States and these nations.

The Doctrine has also been used by some groups favoring isolation. During the periods leading up to both World Wars, anti-war groups used the tenets of the Monroe Doctrine as justification… [read more]


Role of Cotton in Shaping Term Paper

… The King Cotton diplomacy attempted to force the most powerful nation in the world, Great Britain, into the war on behalf of the Confederacy. The belief was that European powers would help break the Union blockade around the coastal areas and ports which was becoming increasingly effective. Although the Confederate coastline was never completely sealed, it did cause imports and exports in the South to drop drastically. This meant reduced funds needed for the Confederacy war efforts. Britain's economy relied heavily on the South' cotton exports; thus, the South cut-off their cotton supply with the belief that they would have to intervene to save their economy. However, the Southern states had failed to account for the bumper crops that they had exported throughout the late 1850's and in 1960, which led to an overabundance of cotton in Europe at the time of the Civil War outbreak. In addition, the British would not intervene due to their hostility towards slavery. Thus, the "cotton famine" that the Southern states were attempting to create was delayed until late 1862. When it did come, the global economy was transformed. The price of cotton soared and the British began buying cotton from other countries such as India, Egypt, and Brazil, urging these countries to increase their cotton production.

Although the South was never able to convince foreign powers to intervene against the North, cotton diplomacy did succeed in obtaining financial assistance from abroad in the form of loans, bonds, and certificates, which Confederate Treasurer Christopher G. Memminger secured with cotton (Current 1998). The Confederacy also used cotton as a bartering tool to purchase ships, weapons, and ammunition from British manufacturers. Blockade-runners who were willing to transport armaments to the Confederacy by crossing the Union blockades were paid with cotton at a rate of 300% to 500% per voyage. In response, the union increased blockaders; however, it was the Union's capturing of southern ports that was most effective in the reduction of the Confederate cotton-armaments trade. Furthermore, the successful blockades resulted in severe shortages of food and supplies in the South. The Civil War came to an end on April 9th, 1865. The Confederacy was defeated and the slave plantation system…… [read more]


United States President, George Washington Essay

… ¶ … United States president, George Washington (in his own words) pursued the "undeviating exercise of a just, steady, and prudent national policy." That quote (found in Robert Francis Jones' book George Washington: ordinary man, extraordinarily leader) was in the context of Washington preferring to stay out of wars between various European powers. He knew the young country he was leading was "gradually recovering from the distresses in which the war left us" (Jones, p. 138) and hence he concentrated on building the nation's internal strengths rather than engage in more conflict with European powers. And while Washington was definitely a strong man, which he showed on the battlefield during the Revolutionary War, his talents "in most fields" Jones writes (202) were "relatively commonplace."

What Washington did was to "raise those talents to the level of superlative accomplishment by self-discipline… [enabling] him in turn, to pay unremitting attention to details" (Jones, p. 202). In the book, George Washington and the origins of the American presidency, Mark J. Rozell et al., the authors point out that Washington "visited every section of the country… to become acquainted with his fellow citizens and to encourage" voters to back his administration (p. 6). By visiting all the sections of the country Washington "put a personal face on government, making it less threatening," Rozell writes (p. 6). He insisted "a man in public office…is accountable for the consequences of his measures to others" (Rozell, p. 7). As to his role as head of the executive branch, Washington used his veto power twice (Rozell, p. 11). One of his most notable accomplishments was working with Congress to establish the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established the federal court system. He also signed the "Indian Intercourse Acts" (regulating commerce between Indians and the U.S.) into law.

Thomas Jefferson's America was a place where there was more political factional fighting than Jefferson had hoped for, but to his benefit Republicanism was gaining power over the Federalists. In fact, according to the Miller Center Web site link called "American President An Online Resource," Jefferson was "hostile" to a strong central government and was wary of "judicial overreach" when it came to the Supreme Court.

The White House Web site reports that after the French Revolution, Jefferson "slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey" which was very unpopular out West (www.whitehouse.gov). Jefferson's America was a place where there was a massive federal debt, and the president cut it "by a third." He also ordered the Navy to attack the Barbary pirates who had been attacking U.S. commerce in the Mediterranean, which was a bold use of military power. But his most lasting legacy in the minds of many historians was the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from the French in 1803 (www.whitehouse.gov). Meriwether Lewis -- who had been recruited by Thomas Jefferson to serve the president's personal secretary -- was chosen to lead the expedition west into the Louisiana Territory.

In time Jefferson would… [read more]


American History New Orleans Research Proposal

… American History

New Orleans

The most important reason for my choice of New Orleans from this particular selection is that I have absolutely loved the city since I first visited it. It seems filled with magic, warmth and good times. This appears to be historically substantiated to some degree by Thomas N. Ingersoll's writing. Indeed, he notes that, even since its beginnings, Bourbon Street has seen many a drunken patron. In addition to the fascinating history of its beginnings, as well as Dubreuil's energetic contributions to this, I also find the end of the piece both shocking and revealing. Despite his wealth and entrepreneurial spirit, Dubreuil was a slave to the system of the time, much as society is today. Perhaps this says something about human nature, or perhaps it is a challenge: maybe we can be free if we choose freedom.

Week 7: A Midwife's Tale-Chapter 1 find the story of Martha Ballard extremely inspirational. Not only did she fulfill the role of midwife, traditionally that of a woman, but she took on many other duties as well, including those of doctor, pharmacist and wife. What makes her story unusual is not as much her workload as the fact that she so clearly and factually documented everything from illness to birth to death. The lack of emotional connection, particularly with the deaths of children and babies, makes her records all the more poignant and realistic. The beginning of this chapter struck me as unusual, as it is a direct extract from Martha's diary. With this, the author demonstrates very clearly the points made about Martha and her writing, as well as the tone she uses when keeping her records. Martha Ballard is inspirational on a number of levels: she takes on many professional and personal duties; appearing almost superhuman in dealing with a workload that would kill a lesser person. Secondly, the fact that her records survived among a body of writing that was mainly produced by men during the time shows that she was special.

Week 8: 1773

The…… [read more]


Immigration in America Term Paper

… Immigration

The United States is a country populated primarily by immigrants; in fact, the nation was founded by European settlers fleeing the Continent for various reasons including perceived persecution and financial opportunity. Although the vast majority of immigrants to America… [read more]


Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History Term Paper

… Manifest Destiny

In his Preface, Frederick Merk offers an explanation of expansionism throughout history; "Expansionism," he writes, as a thesis to his book, "is usually associated with crusading ideologies" (Merk, 1963, viii). And he proceeds to give examples as he… [read more]


Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization, and Transportation Research Paper

… Thus, it can be said that the industrialization helped the U.S. To receive sufficient and cheap labor force, and the immigrants to find a place of refuge and personal accomplishment.

Industrialization was also a triggering element for the evolution and development of transportation. More precisely, the railway system that was established as a result of the grants passed by the Congress to financially support these endeavors had several effects. On the one hand, it helped the development process move West, in the remote corners of the country. This was indeed justified by the increased attention the West came to get. In this sense, it is rather famous the story of the Bonanza and the mines of the West. These were considered to be a myth and many wanted to prove the truth (Wolle, 1953). This in turn encouraged the migration west hence the development of railroad transportation.

Finally, an important aspect of the development of the country was the urbanization process. This too was greatly influenced by the industrialization. Until the industrialization process there were no indications that the country side that represented America would choose to be transformed in cities. However, the appearance of wealthy people, the increase of trade exchanges, and most importantly, the increase in the number of immigrants determined people to choose urban dwellings, as opposed to rural establishments. This evolution is considered essential taking into account one example alone (Urbanization of America, n.d.). Thus, prior to the Civil War, the population of New York was of 60,000 people, by comparison to the time up to 1920 when the population reached 7, 8 million people. This image shows clearly the evolution of the urban trends in America.

Overall it can be concluded that the evolution of the United States could not have been possible without the process of industrialization. It represented the driving force for the immigration, transportation, and urbanization process which all contributed to the emergence of the United States as one of the most important actors of the end of the 19th century.

Bibliography

Davison, Barbara. Italian Immigration to Maryland in the Industrial Era. 1998. 13 Feb 2008. http://oriole.umd.edu/~mddlmddl/791/communities/html/italiani.html

Katers, N. "Industrialization of America 1860-1900." Associated Content. 2006. 13 Feb 2008. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/28613/industrialization_of_america_18651900.html

Rise of Industrial America, 1876-1900. Immigration to the United States. 2004. 13 Feb 2008. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/riseind/immgnts/immgrnts.html

Urbanization of America. N.d. 13 Feb 2008 http://urban.csuohio.edu/ust607text/ch12urbanamerica.pdf

Wolle, Muriel Sibell. The Bonanza Trail: Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of the West. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1953.… [read more]


Constitution of the United States of America Term Paper

… Constitution of the United States of America is perhaps the world's oldest written national constitution. Adopted on September 17, 1787, the Constitution is the result of a significant and heated debated between who have become known as Federalist and Anti-Federalist.… [read more]


Growing Inequality in America Term Paper

… ¶ … United States in the aftermath of World War II experienced a growth unprecedented in world history. The rise of a strong middle class and virtual elimination of poverty showed the successes of industrialization in the post-war era. The return of veterans of war, with the aid of government grants for developing businesses and returning educational contributed the overall growth of the middle class. Massive suburban migrations reduced the crowding of cities and the virtual growth of new industries permitted unparalleled growth in job opportunity and general wealth within the United States. The economic factors that provided for growth between 1945 and 1973 were not the only factors that contributed to the building of the middle class and poverty reduction, but government policy as well. Under the leadership of Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson, massive reforms helped shift the United States to focus on the poor and underprivileged. The culmination of all of these factors led to an unparalleled era of prosperity and equality within the United States. During this period, we saw the emergence and victory of the civil rights movement, the feminist movement and a greater shift towards societal consciousness. Yet, a look at today's society shows few of the remnants of the glorious economic wealth and equality of a mere three decades ago. A look at "Nickel and Dimed" by Barbara Ehrenreich reveals the deplorable way in which a growing class of American's poor now live. There is a growing inequality within the United States that has been brought through a myriad of economic, social, and political factors.

From an economic perspective, the United States is not on a downward trend in the least. In fact, the United States is currently sitting at the peak of economic proweress, with the highest GDP and consumer spending power in American history. The growing problem is not in the growth of the economy, but rather the growing wealth gap that exists between lower, middle and upper class within the U.S. While the 1940s, 50s, 60s, and 70s were known for the emergence of a strong middle class, the last three decades have been known for the growth of the "mega rich." Currently one percent of the population accounts for fully one third of earnings within the United States. This staggering figure reflects the disparity between not just the lower and middle class, but the middle and upper class. The overall effects of this wealth gap are that the middle class has become bigger, but the average spending power of individuals within the middle class has actually decreased. The poor are becoming poorer, while the rich continue to make incredible profits.

There are several economic factors that have led to this growing situation. While during the 40s to the 70s the United States was primarily a manufacturing super-power, producing the majority of the world's processed goods, this is no…… [read more]


Abraham Lincoln Past President of United States Term Paper

… Abraham Lincoln past president of United States of America, played a significant role during the American Civil War. He was recognized for his leadership and determination by many historians and laymen not only as American President but also the greatest… [read more]


Strong Interventionist and Anti-Participations Positions Across the Country Compare and Contrast These Differing Points-Of-View Term Paper

… ¶ … United States foreign policy in terms of the concepts of isolationism and interventionism.

The time period covered in this research paper begins immediately after World War I until current foreign policies employed by the Bush administration.

Immediately after World War I, the United States emerged as the increasingly dominant world economy. For Woodrow Wilson, this economic dominant meant that the United States had every right to act as the sole policeman of the Western Hemisphere. Wilson argued that the United States had to shed its previous isolationist policies, where participation in international affairs was avoided. The United States therefore began its interventionist policies, and aggressively worked to expand its "zone of influence" and enhance American interests abroad.

This policy was based on Teddy Roosevelt's "big stick" foreign policy, which grew out of the Monroe Doctrine. While the Monroe Doctrine was originally intended to prevent intervention by European powers, Roosevelt's application used the same Doctrine to justify aggressive intervention by the United States. In his 1904 address to Congress, President Theodore Roosevelt codified his foreign policy, claiming that "the United States (had) the right to act unilaterally and, if necessary, preemptively, to maintain order in the Western Hemisphere."

The interventionist policy was characterized by a paternalistic attitude towards its colonies. Interventionism was also largely an offshoot of President Monroe's Manifest Destiny, in terms of its emphasis on expansionism. This emphasis therefore made the American government naturally antagonistic to any anti-colonial efforts and similar movements for self-determination.

These interventionist policies were very much in evidence at President Woodrow Wilson's decision to enter World War I. Opponents argued that this was not an American war, and the issues were internal to Europe. However, the "hawks" who defended interventionist policies countered that American interests would be harmed should non-allies gain ascendancy in Europe.

This does not mean, however, that United States foreign policy in the first half of the 20th century centered solely around force, suppression and punishment. While former imperialist powers recognized the growing might of the United States, its "big stick" policies" also resulted in growing discontent among its protectorates and possessions. The 1920s and 1930s saw sporadic anti-colonial uprisings, and sentiments against the imperialist powers soured considerably. The United States was seen as an imperialist power, intervening in the internal issues of sovereign states.

By 1928, Herbert Hoover and Democratic Party leader Franklin D. Roosevelt envisioned a new form of foreign policy. In their view, by securing "the cooperation of…… [read more]


Post-Civil War Reconstruction in 1860 Term Paper

… He offered amnesty to all who pledge the oath of allegiance, except for those with a post-war wealth of more than $20,000, who had to apply to him personally for pardon (Reconstruction pp). He also ordered that abandoned plantations be returned to their former owners, and sought to quickly restore political rights to the Southern states, requiring each state to draft a new constitution outlawing slavery and disavowing secession (Reconstruction pp). New state governments passed a series of acts known as black codes, which sharply restricted the rights of the newly freed slaves, and included vagrancy laws, under which blacks who were viewed as unemployed could be hired out as forced labor; apprenticing laws, under which children without proper care, as defined by the courts, could be bound out to white employers; and severe limitations on black occupations and property holding (Reconstruction pp). Dismayed, the Republican majority in Congress refused to seat the representatives sent by the Southern states (Reconstruction pp).

In 1866, over-riding Johnson's vetoes, the Freedmen's Bureau Bill was extended for another year, and the Civil rights Bills, which extended citizenship to blacks by defining all persons born in the United States as citizens (Reconstruction pp). However, Johnson clung to basic Democratic beliefs rooted in pre-Civil War vision of states' rights, weak central government, and white supremacy (Reconstruction pp).

The heart of the Reconstruction plan was laid out in two measures, the 14th Amendment, designed to protect the rights of Southern blacks and restrict the political power of former Confederates, and the Reconstruction Act, which provided for the organization of loyal governments in all former Confederate states (Reconstruction pp). Only when the state had ratified its new constitution and the 14th Amendment would the process of political reorganization be complete (Reconstruction pp). In 1869, Congress passed the 15th Amendment, providing that no citizen could be denied the right to vote on the basis of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (Reconstruction pp). The course of Reconstruction constituted a major new departure for both the South and the country as a whole, and represented a compromise carefully pieced together by competing factions in Congress rather than a total Radical victory (Reconstruction pp). In the South, there was an intense struggle over the nature of the new social order, as former slaves sought to ensure their freedom included more than token benefits, and former owners sought to preserve as many of their old privileges as possible, however, as each state conformed to the Reconstruction Act, the result was the establishment in the Southern states of new Reconstruction governments dominated by the Republican party (Reconstruction pp).

Work Cited

Civil War, American. Retrieved July 26, 2005 from:

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567354_18/Civil_War.html#p228

Reconstruction (U.S. history). Retrieved July 26, 2005…… [read more]


United States Was Founded Term Paper

… Additionally, the North, with its abundance of goods, saw European goods as direct competition. As a result, tariffs were placed upon imported goods; to the North the tariffs merely ensured their economic survival, but to the South they were perceived as direct payments to the North. The 1824 Tariff, in particular, came to be called the "Tariff of Abominations" by the Southerners. The Southern states asserted their power in 1832 when South Carolina nullified the Tariff of 1832. Political stances regarding nullification began to clearly draw the lines between Northern and Southern politicians.

Of more pressing concern, however, was the expansion of these competing economies. Since the South needed slaves, the government made the Missouri Compromise in 1820; which made Missouri a slave state while making Main free. In this way, the issue of slavery not only divided the Northern and Southern economies, but was used as the balancing point between Northern and Southern interests in the Federal Government. These divisions were given further geographical basis when it was agreed that states south of Missouri would be slave, while those north of the border would be free.

As long as the number of slave states equaled the number of free states, both economies could survive under a single government. But, as the Northern population grew beyond that of the South, Northern legislators took control of the House of Representatives. Out of this change, the Republican Party in the North took up the cause of complete promotion of the economic needs of the North at the expense of the South. So, when Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860, by virtue of this Northern growth, the only course of action the Southerners could take was to secede. When Lincoln refused to accept the secession, war was the direct result.

Source:

1. Henretta, James A., David Brody and Lynn Dumenil.…… [read more]


How Has September 11 -11) Changed the Nature of US Interventions? Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Policy: Pre and Post 911 term that appears repeatedly in discussions of American foreign is hegemony. Uncertainty regarding the meaning of this term led to the dictionary. The Oxford Desk Dictionary and Thesaurus, 1997 offers the fairly straightforward… [read more]


Leadership of the United States Term Paper

… In 2003, 83% of the people of Indonesia, the largest Muslim country in the world, held negative views of the United States (Brand, 2005). However, some report that the Indonesian press has softened its criticism since the U.S. response to their Tsunami disaster. As Rizal Mallarangeng, Director of the Freedom Institute, said on NCR, "The [U.S.] Marines on the shores of Aceh, unthinkable before the tsunami, but now we see it and we have to be grateful for it, because all they are doing -- something that has to be done, must be done." (Brand, 2005) This may be significant since in the past Indonesia has been highly critical of U.S. actions in both Afghanistan and Iraq (Gecker, 2005). However, even here there was a backlash as some felt that photographs of Indonesians struggling to get American handouts portrayed the people badly (Brand, 2005). In addition, Professor John Mearscheimer, of the University of Chicago, pointed out that while starving people will always be grateful for food, the dislike -- rage even -- toward the United States by Indonesians has been triggered not by any lack of generosity but because of actions we have taken regarding the Israeli- Palestinian conflict as well as ongoing actions in Afghanistan and Iraq. He says, " ... there are just very great limits to how much damage limitation you can do by helping Muslim victims of the tsunami (Brand, 2005).

CONCLUSION

Even our generosity can be misinterpreted on today's world stage. When the United States originally offered $15 million in relief funds, an Egyptian newspaper noted that "America's initial allocation of $15 million "is less than what America spends every minute in its war in Iraq." (Gecker, 2005)

Dobbs (2003) argues that we should not worry too much about negative opinions held by other people and other countries, because it is the inevitable result of being a powerful and influential country. He also points out that some of the negative polls reporting our unpopularity may not have been conducted in an unbiased way.

In fact, people have drawn parallels between the attacks of September 11, 2001, and the events of World War II. Just as we did after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States had to act with decisiveness regarding the threat exposed on September 11 (McFaul, 2002). The problem is that what is a right response and what is an abuse of power isn't as clear as it was in 1941, leaving room for credible criticism that when we entered Iraq, we went too far. Only time will tell how history will interpret these events.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brand, Madeleine. 2005. "Profile: American aid effort connected to the tsunami disaster may prove to be a diplomatic opportunity for the United States in the Muslim world. NPR Special, Jan. 6.

Dobbs, Lou. 2003. "America the unloved.(a look at anti-Americanism and the role United States takes in helping foreign nations)." U.S. News & World Report, Oct. 13.

Gecker, Jocelyn. 2005. "Muslims Welcome Tsunami Aid, Mixed on… [read more]


US Constitution Amendment Term Paper

… ¶ … civil marriage is currently defined by state law. According to the Federalist principles underlying the creation of the union, individual states have the right to define the legal parameters of marriage: "the state is free to set limits to the circumstances in which marriage may be permitted, and judicial interpretation thereof," ("Federal Marriage Amendment" 2004). The federal government cannot offer a blanket definition of marriage. However, a proposed amendment to the Constitution of the United States: H.J. Res 56, would place universal parameters on the definition of the social institution. Also called the Federal Marriage Amendment, the proposal reads: "Marriage in the United States shall consist only of the union of a man and a woman. Neither this Constitution or the constitution of any State, nor state or federal law, shall be construed to require that marital status or the legal incidents thereof be conferred upon unmarried couples or groups," ("Federal Marriage Amendment" Section One, cited by Longley 2004). Support for H.J. Res 56 is relatively strong. Its proponents seek primarily to prevent gays and lesbians from being able to legally marry.

The current proposal for the "Amendment for Total Equality" calls for an amendment to the United States Constitution that would fundamentally replace the Federal Marriage Amendment. Like the Federal Marriage Amendment, the Amendment for Total Equality contains two clauses:

1. Marriage, with all the legal rights and benefits thereof, in the United States shall include the unions of same-sex as well as heterosexual couples.

2. Neither this constitution, nor the constitutions of any state, nor state or federal law, shall be construed to restrict conferring the legal status of marriage on same-sex couples, with all the civil rights and benefits thereof.

The Amendment for Total Equality would guarantee the rights of all citizens to the legal rights and benefits of marriage and seeks to prevent and ultimately eliminate legal discrimination against homosexuals. The Amendment for Total Equality is grounded on some of the fundamental principles already set forth in the American Constitution, including the guarantee of rights, freedoms, and privileges by all citizens of the United States. It is our belief that the Federal Marriage Amendment represents a repudiation of the rights and freedoms already granted to all citizens in the Constitution, while the Amendment for Total Equality represents a codified assurance of equal rights, civil liberty, and equal protection.

Article V of the United States Constitution sets forth the official guidelines for amendments. It reads:

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress… [read more]


United States and United Kingdom Term Paper

… The fact is that the close ties between the United States and Great Britain are deeply rooted in common language as well as a long-running and deeply connected historical base of strongly tied economic as well as militaristic cooperation that has spanned since the era of World War II. Also the commonly held values of democracy and the inherently held beliefs in the freedom of speech, human rights as well as a very similar legal system are the ties that bind the two countries inevitably together. The ties between the two countries is based on much more than merely common values but on a deep and lasting mutual trust and mutual cooperation that a time of stress does not have the power to diminish.

Bibliography:

"U.S. -- U.K. Appear Split on Iraq Body Power" United Press International

Hore, Peter (2003) "U.S. -- U.K. Tie Will Endure but With a Chill. Newsday Report 11-30-2003

Lister, Richard (2001) U.S. And the U.K: Special Relationship? BBC News [Online] at: http://bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1185177.htm

'U.S. -- U.K. Alliance Shows Strain (2003) United Press International Analysis 3-31-2003

Gardiner, Nile (2003) The Anglo-U.S. Special Relationship and the Coalition of the Willing. The Heritage Foundation Policy Research and Analysis #228-3002 Mar 19 [Online] at: http://www.heritage.org/Research/MiddleEast/wm228.cfm

Cornwell, Susan (1997) No Changes in the U.S. -- U.K. Relations Forseen. Denver rocky Mountain News -05-04-1997.

Book, Elizabeth (2003) National Defense Report 04-01-2003.

Gardiner (2003) "The Anglo-U.S. Special Relationship and the Coalition of the Willing" #228 Heritage Foundation Policy and Research Analysis

Cornwell (1997) "No Changes in U.S. -- U.K. Relations Seen" Denver Rocky Mountain News

Cornwell (1997) "No Changes in U.S. -- U.K. Relations Seen" Denver Rocky Mountain News

U.S. -- U.K. Discuss Future Joint Research into Lang Mines on Military Routes Defense Daily News Report Vol. 223, Issue: 59. 2004 September 23

Book (2003) National Defense… [read more]


U.S. Constitution the United States of America Term Paper

… U.S. Constitution

The United States of America is the land of the free spirit, a land where the brave and the worthy can lead lives of their choice, free and unfettered. The government that rules this country is based on… [read more]


Civil Liberties the United States Term Paper

… Later, Weddington successfully argued the case in front of the Supreme Court. On June 22, 1973, the Supreme Court struck down all state laws regarding abortion and created one new law for the entire country. In the 7-2 ruling, the… [read more]


Brand Loyalty: Kenya vs. USA Research Proposal

… ¶ … Brand Loyalty: Kenya vs. USA

The author of this brief report is to describe three different theoretical and procedural approaches that can be undertaken as it relates to a study that focuses on the differences and manifestations of consumer loyalty in a country like the United States, a developed country, and a country like Kenya, a developing country. The three main high-level choices, and thus the three different research methods to be looked at in this report, are quantitative-only designs, qualitative designs and mix-method designs. The latter is a mix between the first two with a blend of both quantitative and qualitative methodology.

Analysis of the Options

As far as the three options go, there are upsides and downsides to each. As it relates to quantitative design, a study on the Kenyans vs. The Americans and their brand loyalty would be a basic analysis of a pool of consumers and whether they stick with the same brands and, if so, to what extent. One could also look at loyalty patterns over time from a historical standpoint and at certain points in the year as well as at certain points in the economic cycle of the country. For example, treating the period of 2007 to 2009 in the United States the same as it is now or before 2007 would be foolish because there was a massive global recession during the 2007-2009 time period and the United States was in the thick of it. Similarly, applying the same general projections to both countries would be equally insipid given that Kenya and the United States are different on a multitude of cultural and financial/economic levels. Numbers can tell the story but there has to be justification to what conclusions are reached. The problem is that numbers alone often do not allow for this (Hector, 2013).

This is where a qualitative study comes in. Qualitative studies dig deeper and rely on facts and details that cannot be garnered at all times from quantitative-only research. A simple score on a range of numbers from 1 to 5 is often not enough to fully allow for the depth and breadth of analysis that is needed to obtain answers that pass the commonly held research facets of reliability and validity. Another concern is how consumers, or study participants in general for that matter, will react when they know they are being assessed. There can be a great amount of detail that is not usually garnered but the answers given may not be entirely accurate or complete (Eysenck, 2004). There are ways to mitigate this such as not asking for or retaining personally identifiable information and just limiting it rough demographic/location information and/or taking the data anonymously at the sole discretion of the person who is taking the survey. The problem with qualitative research studies is that if the data collection is not precise and done carefully, the data sample can become a muddled mess and/or the conclusions drawn will not withstand reliability or validity… [read more]


Government to Allow Essay

… An example of the presidential power to make executive agreements can be seen in Dames & Moore v. Regan (1981). In this particular case, Vile (2010) points out that an agreement between president Reagan and Iran was upheld or validated by the court. This according to the author effectively ratified an order that had been issued earlier on by President Carter freezing Iranian assets.

Apart from the various powers of the U.S. President that I highlight above, it can also be noted that the holder of this important office also does have other powers not mentioned herein. While presidential powers are largely constitutional, there are other powers of the president not expressly outlined in the Constitution. These powers according to Schmidt, Shelley and Bardes (2012) are referred to as inherent powers. Such powers have also been exercised by presidents in the past. For instance, President Roosevelt according to Schmidt, Shelley and Bardes (2012) "used his inherent powers to move the Japanese and Japanese-Americans living in the United States into internment camps for the duration of World War II."

It is important to note that in basic terms, the various powers and policies I have highlighted above have largely evolved with time. In some cases, the Supreme Court has issued rulings that either reinforce the powers of the president or limit them in some way. For instance, when it comes to the presidential power to pardon, the Supreme Court in Ex-Parte Grossman (1925) permitted the pardoning of characters convicted of congressional contempt (Vile, 2010). It is also important to note that in regard to the presidential powers to appoint and remove individuals from office, the Constitution while being clear on the presidential powers to appoint does not "specify who can remove officers who do not serve life terms" (Vile, 2010). However, over time, various arguments have been presented in an attempt to clear this uncertainty. For instance, while it has been argued in the past by James Madison amongst others that the president should possess removal powers, the same powers have been limited by the Supreme Court in a number of cases including Weiner v. United States (1958). This is yet another example of how the powers of the president have evolved over time.

Conclusion

The office of the President of the United States of America is critical given the powers granted to the occupant by the Constitution. It is however important to note that there exists various checks and balances to ensure that the president uses these powers responsibly. The president must therefore use his powers in a way that produces satisfactory results. This way, the president can be able to play a critical role towards the betterment of the nation's social, political as well as economic conditions.

References

Schmidt, S.W., Shelley, M.C. & Bardes, B.A. (2012). American Government and Politics Today (Brief Edition). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Sidlow, E.I. & Henschen, B. (2010). Govt, Student Edition. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Vile, J.R. (2010). A Companion to the…… [read more]


United States of Man Book Report

… Her last statement, "all Men would be tyrants if they could," is a statement that her husband; John Adams was very well-known for saying (Adams PAGE NUMBER). Her husband, John Adams at the time was a Delegate to the Second Continental Congress from Massachusetts and later President of The United States. In her powerful, and controversial voice, she demands equal rights for both men and women. John Adams reply is an answer of absurdity, he states, "As to your extraordinary Code of Laws, I cannot but laugh" (Adams PAGE NUMBER). He then relates her rebellion to other groups including children, colleges, slaves and Indians that were also rebelling and in constant demand of greater power within their own lives and the proceedings of the new, developing nation. John Adams responds with surprise that another "tribe" grew rebellious. In fact, he purposely refers to women as a 'tribe'; this term would have been directed towards Indians, in reference to them as 'savages' and 'animals'. Abigail's reply is not restrained; she tells him that women will find a way to redeem the equality they deserve as citizens of the United States. Abigail closes her letter with a quote from Alexander Pope, which elaborates her previous statement; "Charm by accepting, by submitting sway yet have our Humour most when we obey" (Adams PAGE NUMBER). She quotes in reference to how women will smile with obedience while they plan their next act of rebellion. In this, she is clearly setting a tone for the empowerment of women within the limiting establishment they were living in, and proposing that further action be taken, both by the men of American but by the very women who were being impacted by such a restrained… [read more]


Opening the US Border Research Paper

… Opening the U.S. BOrder

The enforcement of the borders of the United States has been a debated subject during the Obama Administration. Whereas the current administration is engaged in a very complex process of reducing and eliminating illegal immigration, the… [read more]


Immigration in the US vs. Immigration in Italy Research Paper

… Immigration

A Comparison of Immigration in the U.S. And Italy

Immigration is a serious issue facing most countries in today's globalized world, and especially those that are more developed and thus present attractive locations to anyone in the world seeking to make a better life for themselves and their families. While immigration can be an important source of labor and economic growth and provide excellent cultural growth and stimulation as well, it can also present a significant burden to nations and their native populations. This has led to often changeable and highly variable immigration policies in the different nations of the world, and a comparison of two countries and the ways in which they handle immigration can provide a general understanding of the specific issues that arise as part of the immigration question. To this end, this paper will provide a brief overview of historic and current immigration policy in the United States and Italy.

US Immigration

The United States was a country entirely built on immigration, of course, with the arrival of various waves if Europeans -- some of whom were intending permanent settlement and others who planned and often achieved returns to their native countries -- supplanting the native inhabitants of North America (Spartacus 2010). This occurred with relative speed, and by the middle of the nineteenth century the new "natives" of the United States were less-than-pleased about the new arrivals form Ireland and Germany brought about by respective famine and revolution in those countries, respectively (Spartacus 2010; USCB 2010).

Current immigration laws have set specific quotas from various regions and/or countries for the number of immigrants allowed into the United States each year, and n order to become full citizens there is a naturalization process that must be gone through (USCIS 2010). A great deal of energy is also put into immigration enforcement, ensuring that natives of other countries are in the United States legally and that they do not overstay their legal welcome in the country, nor use the United States as a place either to engage in illegal activities or to hide from authorities in other countries based on their illegal activities (USICE 2010). The economic impacts of immigration and immigration enforcement are thus highly complex, with an overabundance of immigration driving down wages while at the same time vast sums of money are being spent -- at taxpayer expense -- to keep illegal immigrants out.

Italian Immigration

Italy is at once a much older and a much newer country than the United States, and its history does have a major impact on its immigration policies and the national views towards immigrants, as well. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, it was not until the nineteenth century that the various culturally-…… [read more]


Lyndon B. Johnson and His Let US Continue Speech Research Paper

… Lyndon B. Johnson and his "Let us Continue" Speech

Commonly known as LBJ, Lyndon Banes Johnson (1908-1973) climbed the political ladder all the way up. First a member in the House of Representatives, then a Senator, Lyndon eventually became the 37 Vice President of the United States, serving under President John F. Kennedy. Upon the assassination of Kennedy, Lyndon was instated the country's 36th President. After this term ended, he participated in elections and won another mandate at the White House.

Johnson's agenda was focused on the creation of a better society for the American citizens. The future endeavors were organized under what is called the Great Society legislation, and referred to efforts for improving the educational system, the healthcare system, the media or the environment.

At the same time, international tensions raised from Vietnam, a country broken down in two, with the northern part of the country being communist and fighting to instate communism, and the southern part of the country fighting for freedom. Johnson feared that communist victory would impede with his internal plans, as well as denigrate the global position of the United States. He as such became decided that the U.S. should be more involved in the Vietnam War, and continually sent troops there, for the growing concern and discontent of the population. At one point, people would intone: "Hey, hey LBJ, how many kids did you kill today" (Stubbs). Deeply affected by the outcome of his actions, the President closed himself up to public, making only rare appearances. He died at the age of 64, due to a heart attack.

Upon being instated as United States President for the first time, Johnson faced a difficult task -- he would have to get through to a mourning and grieving society, still in shock from the assassination of Kennedy. Chances were the people would not pay much attention to this new president, come to replace what they have perceived as the best. Johnson was aware of the challenge and he strived to get the people on his side, by making an emotional speech, the first in his presidential career. The speech is called "Let us continue" and was held on the 27th of November 1963, five days after his appointment as United States President, and before a Joint Session of the U.S. Congress.

Johnson began his speech by referring to the sad loss of JFK, "the greatest leader of our time [who] has been struck down by the foulest deed of our time" (Johnson, 1963). He pointed out that he would give anything to not be put in the position of having become president because of the death of Kennedy. This beginning was a natural one in the given circumstances, in which people were still grieving the death of Kennedy, and not mentioning it in a speech would have been insensitive and inappropriate. So Johnson virtually capitalized on the emotions raised by the assassination of the former president. It should not be understood that he did not…… [read more]

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