"American History / United States" Essays

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Scholars Say That Because the Framers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … scholars say that because the framers of the U.S. Constitution were a relatively group of white men, many of whom had been educated at the country's best schools and were from some of the best families, the document produced was biased in various ways. For example, in 1987 Justice Thurgood Marshall said that the Constitution was "defective from the start," that its first words -- "We the People" -- excluded "the majority of American citizens," because it left out blacks and women. Regardless of whether or not one agrees with this sentiment, it is true that equal rights for "all" has been a concern throughout U.S. history. It can easily be said that the decade of the 1960s was one of the most momentous, since major anti-discrimination laws were passed to clarify the rights of all people.

Howard Zinn in A People's History of the United States says, "The black revolt of the 1950s and 1960s -- North and South -- came as a surprise. But perhaps it should not have" (443). Repressed individuals cannot forget their slavery and continued humiliation, segregation and even lynching over the decades. For example, notes Zinn, the 14th and 15th Amendments of the Constitution gave the President rights to completely wipe out discrimination, but no President used these rights (449).

Small actions were made over time. Truman, four months before the presidential election of 1948, issued an executive order asking that the armed forces, segregated in World War II, institute policies of racial equality "as soon as possible." It took over a decade to complete the desegregation in the military (Zinn 448).

In 1944 the Swedish researcher Gunnar Myrdal received a grant of $300,000, a huge sum of money at that time, to examine American democratic politics. His book, An American Dilemma, concluded that "the masses are impervious to rational argument." He proved by statistics that America was too deeply a racist country for the wrongs of the blacks ever to be put right by Congressional action and points to the Supreme Court to step in where democracy failed and apply "the spirit of the Reconstruction Amedments" to end segregation (Johnson 952). Even today, many people say that the book had a profound impact on the thinking of the times.

In 1954, explains Johnson, "many American liberals had been dismayed by the fact that despite emancipation, and despite the 15th Amendment, guaranteeing all citizens the right to vote, blacks had failed to participate fully in American political life, especially in those states where they were most numerous, and the black community remained poor, badly educated, downtrodden and supine" (952).

Myrdal's book became, according to Johnson (952), "the bible of Thurgod Marshall, then head of the National Association of the Advancement of Colored People Legal Defense and Education Fund."

The result, says Johnson, "was perhaps the most important single Supreme Court decision in American history, Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, where the Court on May…… [read more]

Hypocrisy in the Declaration of Independence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,428 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



The Declaration of Independence: Hypocrisy and Irony

While the Declaration of Independence is one of the most famous and important documents in American history, something within the document is awry. In fact, some things are not as self-evident as they may seem in the document.

Leaders like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin are celebrated for their efforts in creating… [read more]

Secession Was a Serious Response to Fundamental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Secession was a serious response to fundamental disagreements over the interpretation of the Constitution and the role of the federal government of the United States. Slavery was the core issue that brought these disagreements to light. Although states' rights and sectionalism played major roles in the decision to cede from the Union, the South would most likely have used any… [read more]

Andrew Jackson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Andrew Jackson

In retrospect, the period of American history from 1820 to 1850 is commonly known as The Age of Jackson because of the far reaching effect that one man, Andrew Jackson had on the American economy, transportation system, domestic policy, and many other key areas. In this paper, the policies and viewpoints of Jackson will be examined within the context of the areas of his most far reaching impact, as well as the possibility that the events that Jackson is credited with facilitating may or may not have taken place regardless of who occupied the White House during this pivotal historic period.

The Spoils System and Nullification

Two actions that are attributed to Andrew Jackson are significant not only because of the events that they put into motion, but also because they demonstrate the power that Jackson wielded during "his age" as it has come to be known. The first of these, The Spoils System, was a system that Jackson used to reward his political supporters and punish his political adversaries simultaneously. Simply put, The Spoils System rewards members of the political party of the winning candidate with jobs and special favors and intentionally withholds such benefits from the opposing party members (Ryan, 1996). Jackson wielded the Spoils System like a magic wand to reward friends and a club to inflict pain on enemies, and in some cases, this system still exists today, albeit secretly.

Nullification, like Spoils, was a popular political and economic tool of Jackson's, which basically granted the power to nullify, or reject unfavorable tariffs, especially in the production of goods by slave labor (Silbey, 1973).

Nullification was one of the state's rights issues that ultimately led to the succession of the Southern United States, and the Civil war, and in some instances, on issues of state's rights in the modern age, the reverberations of nullification are often heard.

The Bank of the United States

Andrew Jackson, as was typical for him, flexed his political muscle in the affairs of the American economy, as shown in his handling of The Bank of the United States. In one of the most far reaching actions of Jackson's second term as president, he refused to renew the charter of The Bank of the United States, resulting in a withdrawl of federal funds from that bank, thereby weakening the entire American banking system, lowering faith in the American economy both domestically and internationally, and some claim leading to the economic woes that would befall the nation in years to come (Sharp, 1970).

Jackson's veto of the measures to renew The Bank of the United States stemmed from his longtime mistrust of the commercial banking system, his fierce support of states' rights, and his desire…… [read more]

America's Intolerant History Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



American history is unfortunately a history of intolerance. As Reid, Toth, Crew & Burton (2008) point out, "ironically, the American Revolution may have established a culture and destiny of intolerance in the United States by providing a model for the use of violence to support any cause that seems honorable," (p. 7). Intolerance stems from a belief in White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) superiority to all other social and ethnic groups from African-Americans to Jews to Native Americans and Latinos. Because WASPs have enjoyed political hegemony in the United States since colonial times, they have wielded this power to maintain economic and social status in order to subjugate others.

Intolerance started before the United States was a nation, before the war of Independence. The persecution of Native Americans revealed the roots of intolerance in America. The United States built itself on a foundation of bloodshed and violence by driving the Native Americans off lands they enjoyed for hundreds or in some cases thousands of years. The "ideology of pure hatred" and attitudes of condescension and paternalism carried over into all areas of Indian policy, land use policy, and then to the WASP interactions with other non-WASP groups (Reid et al. 2008, p. 8). Those other groups include the Spanish-speaking and Native American groups of Central America and the Caribbean, which have been labeled as outsiders and stigmatized because of linguistic, ethnic, and cultural difference.

It is therefore ironic is that one of the four main values that define WASP ethnicity is "a belief in democracy that promoted equality, freedom, and individualism," (Reid et al. 2008, p. 2). WASP Americans have persecuted nearly every non-WASP group imaginable and even spread intolerance among WASPs who do not conform to certain social norms. For example, women were and to a degree still are deprived of human rights, freedoms, and liberties. The dominant culture does not tolerate homosexuality either.

Often intolerance manifests merely as social stigma or being ostracized from the mainstream community. At its more severe manifestations, intolerance may mean a systemic lack of rights and freedoms or lack of access to wealth and cultural capital. The most severe evidence of intolerance in America has been the creation and maintenance of hate groups. For example, when slavery was abolished, the spirit of racism persisted in the Ku Klux Klan. The Klan is in some cases viewed as such an integral part of Southern American society, showing how entrenched bigotry and hatred is in the United States. The idea that the United States is a Christian and white nation is one that is strangely popular.

When Asian laborers…… [read more]

Leap in the Dark: Struggle to Create the American Republic Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (1,080 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic

In his book, a Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic, author John Ferling wishes to explain the American Revolution, specifically the politics of the American Revolution, in such a way that the modern reader can look at Revolutionary history and see the roots of today's modern politic system. He focuses on the push-pull between the desire for a confederation and the desire for a union with a strong central government and how this tension has permeated much of American political history. He also focuses on Revolutionary leaders and how their individual personalities were critical to shaping American political process. He also looks at the interaction between pecuniary self-interest and political ideals and approaches the political process from the point-of-view that economics rather than ideal is the primary political motivator. Finally, he incorporated a theme throughout the book that American history, particularly during the Revolutionary period, was marked by these "leaps in the dark" that were led by people willing to abandon what was known in order to explore something new.

I feel like Ferling's prologue provided a very good introduction to the book and helped me identify and look for the unifying themes that he would use throughout seemingly diverse elements of the book. As a result, I found the book easy to read. I also found his language to be easily accessible. However, he did use elevated language and was obviously targeting a college-level or above audience. Given that the average American has an eighth or ninth grade reading level, this book might be considered a difficult or inaccessible read for them, which is a shame, because in the book Ferling does a very interesting job of explaining the evolution of the modern American political process.

My favorite part of the book was "Chapter Ten: Prosperous at Home, Respectable Abroad." I always had some understanding that part of the American mystique was the idea of the prosperity that seems uniquely American. After all, the idea that Americans have the ability to build prosperity and that each generation has this opportunity and are not stuck in the socio-economic class of their birth is a cornerstone of the American dream. However, I had never really considered how much debt accumulation has been a part of wealth accumulation in American history. Looking at the debts held by the federal government and the several states as a result of loans they took out to finance the Revolutionary War; one sees significant precursors to modern American economic cycles, which reflect borrowing for wars and a generally prosperous post-war period. In more modern times, the most dramatic example of this boom-bust cycle was World War II and the post-war economic boom that occurred following that war. In addition, during that chapter, Ferling discussed Jefferson's political dealings in France, which have long been of interest to me. It is interesting to see how Jefferson helped influence France's own… [read more]

Chattel Slavery and Race Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,838 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Slavery and Race Relations

Slavery was inconsistent with the ideals incorporated in the Constitution and yet it was allowed by the founding fathers because they wanted to preserve the Union at all costs. We must here understand that it is absolutely impossible for a country or any institution to operate with conflicting values. Slavery was an abominable practice, which should… [read more]

Amending the Constitution to Allow Foreign Born American Citizens to Run for President Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,435 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Arnold Schwarzenegger has his "Terminator" eyes on the American presidency. The Governor of California recently campaigned with President Bush, and he told 60 Minutes reporter Morley Safer that he would "absolutely" consider running -- if he could. Arnold is prevented from even running for the office of Presidency because of Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the… [read more]

Period Between 1820 and 1840 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … American history between the years of 1820 and 1840. This period of time was just after what historians have labeled as the Era of Good Feelings because the nation had been consumed with the recovery of the War of 1812 which lead to a truly nationalistic sense of values and togetherness. Not to be out done, the period… [read more]

American Constitution: A Living Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The clause I now read is as plainly written in the Constitution as any other of its provisions: No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall in consequence of any law or regulation therein be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due."

This point of law is not to declaim Douglass' attempt to rally support for the cause of ending slavery by any rhetorical means necessary, nor is it to deny that the current American Constitution, with its equal rights protections, does protect the rights of all citizens, regardless of race. However, now, with the luxury of history it is important to remember truly how far our nation has come, not only socially, but also legally and politically as well.

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. Available in full text online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer new2?id=DouMybo.sgm& images=images/modeng& data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed& tag=public& part=6& division=div2[29 Jan 2005].

Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address: Monday, March 4, 1861." From Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs, U.S.G.P.O., 1989. Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/124/. [29 Jan 2005].

Madison, James. "Federalist No. 10." The Federalist Papers. Available in full text online (http://www.thisnation.com/library/books/federalist/10.html) [29 Jan 2005].

"The United States Constitution." Available in full text online http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html. [29 Jan 2005].… [read more]

Colonial Period in America Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,324 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Colonial Period in America

What factors during the Colonial period hindered or promoted national identity? A what point did nationalism become a major influence -- why?

The national identity of the young nation was formed as time went on and it became clear that the mother country, England, was just not relevant to the needs of the colonists, and in… [read more]

FDR and WWII Involvement American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Majority rule is not, however, a perfect form of governance, and Roosevelt was certainly aware of the danger to the United States which would be posed by a strong, victorious Germany (which was reinforced by Japan).

Factors influencing Roosevelt to respond with military force to the Japanese threat include Japan's geographic proximity to the United States. The physical threat from Germany and Italy, European nations, was much less immediate than that posed by Japan, a Pacific nation with proximity to Hawaii and the West Coast. The attack on Pearl Harbor most definitely proved these fears to be true, showing that from the Pacific, the Japanese could attack the United States soil.

Ideological factors were also a factor in weighing the threat from a Nazi/Axis victory; Roosevelt knew that a victorious, Nazi-affiliated Japan would be not only a physical threat to the U.S. But an opponent to democracy as a whole; the fascism propagated by the Nazi powers possibly frightened Roosevelt more than the immediate physical threat from Japan, as it posed a threat not just to the physical well-being of the United States but to its very core values and existence.

Much has been made about the "open door" to China and business interests in the Far East weighing into the decision to enter WWII. In a political sense, protecting democracy assuredly were more important to Roosevelt than business interests and the potential for monetary profit -- as such, even if the idea of protecting China in the Far East was a slight factor in deciding to declare war on Japan, it did not outweigh the unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor or Roosevelt's intentions of helping the Allies in the interest of protecting democracy worldwide, and, subsequently, protecting the American way of life.… [read more]

American Imperialism Reform World War and the Twenties Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


American History

The Forces Shaping American Domestic and Foreign Policy: 1890-1928

The latter half of the 19th century was rife with social and economic changes that would shape the development of American domestic and foreign policy between 1890 and 1928. The policies that would be created were drafted at the confluence of a variety of events. These included the lasting effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction, industrialization, demographic growth, imperialism, and statism. Combined, these factors contributed to the creation of U.S. foreign and domestic policy that was much more proactive and intrusive by 1928 than it had been in 1890.

The social changes that occurred in the wake of the Civil War during the Reconstruction Era are well-documented. Newly emancipated slaves changed social and economic conditions in the South, their freedom crippling a plantation-based agricultural economy. At the same time, however, industrialization was taking powerful hold in the North -- particularly the Northeast. By 1894, the United States had been transformed from a former British holding into the largest manufacturing nation in the world (Johnson 531).

Fueling this industrial growth was an influx of new workers. After the Civil War, the U.S. population stood at about 39 million, with half of those people still living in rural communities. However, by World War I, natural population growth had swollen the nation's population to 100 million, more than 70% of whom now lived in urban areas. Added to that was an incredible influx of immigrants during this period. Between 1890 and 1914 alone, 15 million immigrants arrived on U.S. shores looking for work and to put down roots (Johnson 513-514).

Socially, the United States was in a transition period during the late 19th century as the ideals of Populism flourished and then gave way to Progressivism. The former lasted roughly from 1880 until 1900 and represented the last hurrah of the U.S.' agricultural economy, stressing farmers' ideals. Dissimilarly, Progressivism was driven by educated urban intellectuals who brought new socialist values to American policy during that era (Johnson 607). At the same time, the U.S. -- like so many other nations -- became gripped by imperialist sensibilities. The people and their politicians came to believe that American control should be extended to territorial holdings beyond the lower contiguous states and territories (Johnson 609). As with the already mentioned changes, this facilitated significant changes in domestic and foreign policy.

Overall the tendency in foreign and domestic policy changes was toward extension of the role and authority of the U.S. government at home and abroad. Domestically, policies shifted toward increased statism. Under Woodrow Wilson in particular the U.S. government acquired significant new powers that allowed it to act with greater influence on American soil. The passage of a Constitutional Amendment authorizing an income tax on all Americans cemented…… [read more]

Historical Perspective of Social Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,546 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Social Work

The objective of this work is to trace and critically evaluate the relationship of social work to social justice through the lens of the fact that social work has a record of inclusion or exclusion of oppressed or marginalized groups. This work will explore this through a contemporary social work practice issue.

In understanding the historical… [read more]

Immigration Present and in Historical Context Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … history of immigration in the United States (U.S.) began back from17th century during the first entry of Spanish people through the south coast. According to Marshall (17, 18) since then, the United States has experienced constant inflow of newcomers every year which therefore continue to play a critical role towards economic development of the country. In the last… [read more]

Abraham Lincoln Book Review

Book Review  |  6 pages (1,865 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


As noted before, the political structures in the south did everything possible to surmount the rights that Lincoln's government had given to these people. From an economic perspective, the country as a whole would swiftly progress into industrialization, yet most freed slaves in the South found themselves in similar economic conditions to slavery under the sharecropping system. Even worse, reconstruction would last little more than 10 years. Once the militarization of the south ended, heralding the conclusion of the reconstruction, the lot of African-Americans significantly spiraled to conditions that were virtually akin to slavery with lynchings and transgressions on their newly acquired freedom commonplace in the wake of the advent of groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the Knights of the White Camelia. This newfound freedom that McPherson credits Lincoln with engendering then, certainly did not last long, suggesting that the author has greatly exaggerated its importance.

The tenuous nature of this new form of liberty which is contingent upon the support of the government is intrinsically flawed, for the simple fact that the interests of the government do not always coincide with the liberty of the people it governs it. The many African-Americans left stranded at the end of Reconstruction can certainly attest to this fact. The plethora of Native Americans who were systematically murdered and relocated from their tribal lands would almost certainly agree with this statement. Furthermore, this conception that McPherson views as positive actually contributed to the rise of imperialism, the Cold War, and the many bloody insurrections and counter insurrections that the U.S. fomented throughout South and Central America after Lincoln's efforts in the Civil War created this new form of freedom.

In retrospect, McPherson should not be questioned as to whether or not Abraham Lincoln played a central role in American history and whether or not he founded a new conception of liberty in the U.S. Yet the effects of this change are highly questionable and far from benign for a great number of people. A freedom engendered and facilitated by the government is only as good as that government itself, for better or for worse.… [read more]

Conceptions of American Freedom Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,515 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


21st century Americans fight for freedoms such as access to education, access to health care, and say over who has access to their personal information. In these ways, the idea of American freedom has changed and had always remained the same since the establishment of the country.


Democracy Web -- Comparative Studies in Freedom. 2012. The Idea of Freedom. Web, Available from: http://www.democracyweb.org/young/young1.php. [footnoteRef:3]2012 November 15. [3: ]

Maier, P. 1998. Sparring for Liberty. The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/11/01/reviews/981101.01maiert.html. 2012 November 18.

Shipley, C. 2012. Power to change -- What is True Freedom? Web, Available from: http://powertochange.com/students/truefreedom/. 2012 November 16.

Spease. 2012. What is Freedom in America. Web, Available from: http://spease.hubpages.com/hub/What-is-Freedom-in-America. 2012 November 15.

XND Magazine. 2012. American Freedom -- the idea. Web, Available from: http://www.xndmag.com/magazine.php?subaction=showfull&id=1291268240&archive=&start_from=&ucat=12&. [footnoteRef:4]2012 November 18. [4: ]… [read more]

Constitutional Government Creating a System Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,049 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This concept would also be very influential in the thinking of the American Founding Fathers. Some of the stipulations, such as "that the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law" directly correspond to provisions in the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the right to declare war and also to appropriate the necessary funds to raise a standing army even though the President is Commander in Chief ("English Bill of Rights 1689," Revolutionary War and Beyond, 2012). This concept of divided government was just as influential as the philosophy of John Locke, who famously proclaimed every human being's right to life, liberty, and property -- language which was directly inserted into the Declaration of Independence as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

The final Constitution gave people the right to be protected from sovereign misrule, such as the right to a grand jury and protection against double jeopardy in the form of 5th Amendment (Head 2012). However, what constitutes 'the rights of the people' has changed over the history of the United States. For example, the 14th Amendment ended slavery and thus effectively nullified provisions of the original constitution, such as the 3/5ths compromise, which counted every slave as less of a person and effectively permitted slavery. However, the 14th Amendment had implications for all Americans, not just freed slaves. Its guarantee of due process was interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to mean that the Bill of Rights applied to the states, not just to the federal government, which fundamentally shifted the power of the Constitution to create a more holistic and individualistic vision of citizenship, versus one of state's rights ("14th Amendment to the Constitution," Library of Congress, 2019).

However, not all attempts to reform the U.S. Constitution were equally as successful. The 18th Amendment put Prohibition into action banning all forms of alcohol consumption and sales. When this proved to be untenable to enforce (despite the fact that the Amendment was passed through the lengthy and cumbersome process of amending the Constitution) it was evidentially rescinded through the use of another constitutional amendment. The formulation of the Constitution and the rights of the people vs. The rights of the government is thus a continual, evolving process, not one which was decided merely when the laws of the land were written down.

Works Cited

"14the Amendment to the Constitution." Library of Congress. [19 Oct 2019].


"18th Amendment." University of Albany. [19 Oct 2019].


"English Bill of Rights 1689." Revolutionary War and Beyond. [19 Oct 2019]


Head, Tom. "Fifth Amendment." Civil Liberty. About.com. [19 Oct 2019].


"History." Magna Carta. [19 Oct 2019]. http://www.magnacarta.com/content/history

Wilson, Woodrow. "A treatise." 24 Mar 1908. [19 Oct 2019]

http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=799… [read more]

American Studies One Theme Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


None of the dramatic events of the 1960s really ended the segregation and poverty of minorities in America, and violent opposition to this exploded in the Los Angeles riots of 1992. Contemporary art, poetry and music like hip-hop also expressed rage and alienation and the unequal nature of American society, just as their predecessors did over the centuries.


Perhaps nothing sums up the paradoxes and complexities of the Equality vs. Hierarchy dichotomy in American than the election of Barack Obama in 2008. In the past, his election would have been impossible, even unthinkable, since no blacks or members of other minority groups could have aspired to the presidency. Apart from John F. Kennedy in 1961-63, all the other presidents from 1789 to 2008 were white, Protestant males. In this sense, there has indeed been progress because of the civil rights movement, although the Right-wing has also mounted constant racist attacks on Obama, even questioning whether he was born in the United States. Moreover, the problems of poverty, exclusion and inequality for blacks and other minorities remain, just as they always have. Obama's tone in "A More Perfect Union" (2008) was very cool, intellectual and rational, which seems to be quite typical of his personality.

As the first black nominee of a major party for president, he had to draw in enough white voters to stay competitive with the Republicans, and Democrats had not been very successful at that since the 1960s. Obama's tone was that of both a transformational political leader but also a pragmatic candidate running for office. For this reason, he was far less emotional, impassioned and moralistic than Martin Luther King in his "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington in 1963. On the other hand, both men referred to the founding documents and principles of the United States that promised liberty and equality for all, and noted that the country had failed to fulfill these in practice, especially because blacks had suffered centuries of slavery and segregation. They expressed optimism about the nation's ability to do so and rejected the politics of violence, racism and divisiveness, whether from blacks or whites. Obama referred to economic issues far more frequently than King, however, and used the rising poverty, unemployment and inequality in America as a central issue in his campaign. He recognized that the U.S. had made progress since the 1950s and 1960s, and indeed that if it had not he would never have become the nominee of a major political party. He acknowledged the debt he owed to the entire civil rights movement, without which he would have had no opportunity to be elected president. Obama realized that this work had not yet been completed and that racism and segregation were still very real obstacles that blacks and other minorities faced in their daily lives in America. Nevertheless, he also wished to create a movement that was broader than issues of race, and that addressed social and economic justice for…… [read more]

Thomas Bender Is Qualified Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (1,037 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


America may actually not be so unique as alleged.

The second chapter logically takes off from the first by destructing our belief that America was unique in its stance of rising against one of the most powerful empires of the time (an empire on which the sun never set),and that it did so independently. Rather, it was helped by other nations (primarily France) who opposed Britain and it was one of many nations who stimulated by revolution and desires for independence to rebel against their colonization. America, therefore, Bender shows us is not as unique as thought.

It is indicative of the fact that Bender initiates the first chapter with describing the ramifications of Columbus' deed on a global scale. The discovery of America comes later but Bender's implication is that its discovery is micro and almost insignificant when compared to the larger significance of the event which was really the discovery of an ocean that created a new world:

The consequences of discovering an oceanic world shaped the history of every continent. On every continent a new world emerged, with consequences for each. The story of North America and of the United States is part of that larger, more important history, not vice versa (16)

The world now saw that there was an ocean that linked countries and connected each to the other, and that the world was holistic and whole.

It is interesting, actually, that Bender opens up with this implication for it seems to be the motif of his book: America is not one country apart from others. Rather it was formed by others, and in turn forms others. It is part of the conversation of the whole. "The ocean," as bender writes," ceased to be a barrier and became "a wide common over which men may pass in all directions" and similarly too, America, one of these oceanic countries simply served as a treading space for all directions. It interacted with, and was influenced by others in economic, agricultural, political and all ways, and was in turn affected by others who whether willfully or not came into contact with it.

Slavery, in fact, the perennial criticism of America, was developed in the specific and geographical context of the world of Atlantic slavery. There was a global slave market that was not particular to America per se and was connected with global trading in general. American history of slavery and discrimination was shaped within a context of global events and between its back-and-forth connections with the Caribbean.

American history was shaped by its geographical position and also by the political context of the time. U.S. history is no linear story of progress nor is it self-contained. We may like to think ourselves unique, but, as Bender shows "the beginnings [and, indeed, the entire history] of the United States… are the product & #8230; of many histories, several of them global in scope." (60).


Bender, T. (2006). A nation among nations.…… [read more]

Patriot ACT v. Fourth Amendment Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,129 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


For example, the relaxing of certification and justification criteria for NSLs has effectively reduced probable cause justification to merely 'relevant', shifted the authority for issuing search and seizure warrants from the judiciary to FBI field agents, and undermined the spirit of privacy protection encoded in the Fourth Amendment because private matters are increasingly conducted online. Although the information that we provide to a third party is not protected under the Fourth Amendment, the action of doing so should be according to Katz. The FBI should thus be required to obtain a warrant before learning what a private citizen is doing online, because personal computers inside homes, or a public library, are equivalent to the phone booth in Katz.

The expectation of privacy is modified by the concept of 'reasonableness' and Americans are often reminded by the news media that online activities should be considered public. The purchase of antivirus/antispyware and encryption software suggests some measure of privacy is actively being sought by the American public, but is it reasonable to expect privacy? Justice Ginsberg of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals held that it is reasonable to expect that a private citizen's every move for 24 hours or a month not be tracked and recorded without a warrant (Rosen, 2011). In addition, it would be impossible to engage in that level of surveillance without technological enhancements. Whether the U.S. Supreme Court agrees with Justice Ginsburg may be determined sometime next year, as it reviews the arrest and conviction of the alleged drug kingpin Antoine Jones after a hidden GPS device was used to track his private automobile movements for a whole month. Arguments were heard before the Supreme Court on November 8, 2011 and Justice Sotomayor asked the prosecutors how a hidden, warrantless GPS tracking device is any different than a general warrant (Totenberg, 2011, para. 9).

Even if the Patriot Act was enacted in good faith to protect Americans from terrorist attacks, the effect was to eliminate Fourth Amendment privacy protections and thus undermine the very spirit of American citizenship. The Patriot Act is therefore unconstitutional with respect to the relaxation of privacy protections.


Abramson, Larry and Godoy, Maria. (2006, Feb. 14). The Patriot Act: Key controversies. National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/news/specials/patriotact/patriotactprovisions.html

Bill of Rights Defense Committee. (2007). Resolutions and ordinances critical of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act and other laws and policies that diminish civil liberties. Retrieved from www.bordc.org/resolutions.pdf

Dilanian, Ken. (2011, Aug. 29). A key Sept. 11 legacy: More domestic surveillance. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2011/aug/29/nation/la-na-911-homeland-security-surveillance-20110830

FindLaw. (2011). U.S. Constitution: Fourth Amendment. Findlaw.com. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment04/

Garlinger, Patrick P. (2009). Privacy, free speech, and the Patriot Act: First and Fourth Amendment limits on national security letters. New York University Law Review, 84, 1105-1147.

Herman, Susan H. (2006). The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act and the submajoritarian Fourth Amendment. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 4, 67-132.

Johnson, Carrie. (2011, Oct. 26). As it turns 10, PATRIOT Act remains controversial. National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2011/10/26/141699537/as-it-turns-10-patriot-act-remains-controversial

Maclin, Tracy… [read more]

People &amp Events in Pennsylvania Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … People & Events in Pennsylvania

The history of how America was founded all starts in the land of Pennsylvania, where famous events such as the creation of the Declaration of Independence was written, the creation and signing of the United States Constitution, and a host of famous people contributed to the beginnings of our great nation. Before the… [read more]

Military Narrative of the American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Revolutionary War completely disrupted life for many American women, a life that was already quite difficult at the time, given the demands of running a household, as James Martin Kirby makes clear in his essay from First Generations. (165) Many women followed their husbands to war to become camp followers and suffered some of the same privation that the soldiers did. Or, Patriot women stayed at home to run their family business and manage their homes alone.

Some women even dressed as men and fought in the war. Even those women who chose to become camp followers were recognized as part of the military. They received only half rations, half of the already meager portion reserved for soldiers. These women also often earned pay for the invaluable services they provided as cooks, nurses and laundresses.

Women who did not become as actively involved in the military effort also suffered. Colonial boycotts of British goods increased the necessity of home manufacturing. Spinning became a necessity and a kind of political protest, in defiance of British economic policy. However, Royalist, as opposed to Patriot women, because they did not have the same outlets for personal independence as did Patriot women, perhaps suffered even more. Although Royalist women did gain greater access to British goods, because of their location in the Colonies they still had to suffer much of the effects of the Colonial boycott of English goods. This made the running of their households just as difficult. However, they did not have the same sense that their deprivation was for a cause they believed in.

Regardless, the War for American Independence did not, famously, result in the political independence of American women. Despite the fact that wartime, as it was occur subsequently in other periods of American history, brought about a greater equality of the sexes (even of the first American women serving, albeit illegally, in combat) women were not granted equal rights with men after the war. Although women may have sacrificed and suffered like their male compatriots, traditional notions of gender remained strong enough that the multifaceted nature of their contribution, encompassing both military as well as domestic responsibilities, was either ignored or feminized.

Perhaps the forgetting of the misery of the Patriot soldiers in Revolutionary America and the ignoring of the role of women in Revolutionary America can be paralleled. Both demonstrate how a country during peacetime, after a time of war, often chooses to smooth over the disruption in social roles that such conflict can cause. A grateful new nation was not grateful enough to extend pensions to its weary soldiers until many were dead, nor did it extent equal rights to women until well into the 20th century.

Works Cited

Martin, James Kirby (Ed.). Ordinary Courage: The Revolutionary War Adventures of Joseph Plumb Martin. Second Edition.…… [read more]

American Civil War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He looks like a good man (and I believe there is much in looks)" (Lowenfels 81-82). According to accounts, both men conducted themselves like gentlemen at the surrender, and were very respectful of one another. One man was a "loser," and one man was a "winner," but both men had dignity and earned the respect of those who watched the surrender. "General Grant now stepped down from the porch, and, moving toward him, saluted him by raising his hat. He was followed in this act of courtesy by all our officers present; Lee raised his hat respectfully, and rode off to break the sad news to the brave fellows whom he had so long commanded" (Surrender).

I believe the event would have changed me for the better, because of the way the two men conducted themselves, and because the meeting itself was so important. It is not often one is able to witness an important event such as this, and it could not help but change the lives of all those who witnessed it. In addition, seeing both sides conduct themselves with such distinction and respect would have made an important impression on any who witnessed the signing. As Norton notes, "Grant treated his viral with respect and paroled the defeated troops" (Norton 295). It would have been very easy for Grant to hold Lee personally accountable for all the Union deaths, and treat him as a prisoner of war, along with his men, but Grant did not, and became the better man because of it.

Finally, the surrender at Appomattox is still haunting today, which is another reason I would like to have witnessed the event first hand. Today, the courthouse and surrounding area is a National Historic Park - reminding visitors forever of the momentous events that took place there almost 140 years ago. There are some events in history that stand out above others, and this was one of them. Some of these events are tragic, making people always remember where they were when they occurred, such as JFK's assassination, or the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Others are historic, such as Neil Armstrong's first steps on the moon. In either case, the events transcend time and history, as does the signing of the surrender at Appomattox. It was a pivotal turning point in history, when the story of the nation could have swung either way. A vengeful and angry northern surrender could have driven the country even further apart. As it was, these two men managed to begin to heal the gaping wound afflicting the country. Their strength made the country strong, and gave everyone time to catch their breath and begin to rebuild. The North and South had both suffered greatly during the war, and now, it was time to get on with the business of living. Grant and Lee made it possible to see the world getting back to normal, as they conducted the surrender with so much class and caring. I certainly… [read more]

Civil War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (948 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The South made a critical mistake with this cash crop. During the midst of the war, the Davis government deliberately did all in its power to make this crop useless. They reduced their planting, burning some of the bales they had on hand, and discouraged shipments abroad (Current, 1983, p. 25). They also sold much of this harvested crop to the North for any profit they could obtain. The South found it very difficult to fund this expensive war. The Confederacy requisitioned funds from the individual states. The Confederacy had to fund the war by paper currency. By 1864, the confederacy issued $1.5 billion in paper currency. Unlike the union, the confederacy had no uniform currency system. This produced chaos. The result was an enormous inflation of 9,000% increase in prices (Brinkley 392).

In terms of strategy and leadership, the North also had an advantage. Strategically, the North's posture was one of aggression. The South's posture was one of defense. (Zebrowski, 1999, p. 225) The North was helped by Lincoln's Union policy. Lincoln wanted to preserve the Union and he would let nothing get in his way of doing this. (Brinkley, 1991, p. 382). On the other hand, President Davis made one crucial mistake: he failed to create an effective central command system. (Brinkley, 1991, 397).

In 1864, Lincoln made Ulysses S. Grant general in chief of all the Union armies. Grant, though not a master strategist, effectively used the North's great advantage in troops and material resources to overwhelm the South. He was not afraid to absorb massive casualties as long as he was inflicting similar or greater casualties on his opponents. Confederacy's President Davis, who unlike Lincoln was a trained professional solider; but he was not an impressive as leader. Lincoln made changes in five generals within one year because they could not give him decisive victories. Davis on the other hand, did possess better over all soldiers. But could not overcome the disadvantages faced by his South to lead them to victory. Most southerners thought that if they could just wear the Union down they could win. This goal was not very fulfilling, the North had to many resources to be worn down by the South.

The Civil War was a grueling time for both the Union and the Confederacy. The victor was easily detected from the beginning. The North with its overpowering economy profited from the war. The need for war materials supplied many citizens with jobs.


Brinkley, A. (1991). American history: a survey (8th ed.), New York, McGraw-Hill.

Commager, H.S., & Bruun, E. (2000). The Civil War archive: the history of the Civil War in documents, New York, Black Dog & Leventhal: Distributed by Workman Pub. Co.

Current, R.N. (1983). American history: a survey (6th ed.), New York, Knopf.

Donovan, T.H. (2002). The…… [read more]

Sentiment, Enhanced by Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Turner's evidence supports his points by then going into detail regarding his assertions, and citing evidence of other historians and statesmen as part of his arguments. For example, when he discusses America's lessening dependence on England, he cites the Governor of South Carolina and his assessment of the South's initial dependence on England for food and drink, and the growing dependence on American markets to supply their daily needs. Thus, Turner continually backs up his own thesis with the interpretations of other historians, experts, and citizens, thereby reinforcing his arguments and his ideas.

Turner's final package is quite convincing. His assessment of the American westward expansion as a vital part of our history is undeniable. He asserts, "The growth of nationalism and the evolution of American political institutions were dependent on the advance of the frontier," and he continually maintains that slavery was an important incident in American history, but westward expansion had affects that are far more lasting. Land was the most defining factor in our growth and success maintains, and he goes on to cite several pertinent examples of land purchase, legislation, and reform that had long-term affects on the nation, including the instrumental Louisiana Purchase. Turner's final analysis is convincing because it is clear he is a knowledgeable and thoughtful historian who has given much deliberation to his final conclusions. In addition, it is difficult to argue with his conclusions, because they are so logically thought out, and so thoughtfully presented. For example, he asserts, "But the most important effect of the frontier has been in the promotion of democracy here and in Europe. As has been indicated the frontier is productive of individualism."

Clearly, the westward expansion of the United States did foster an individualism and independence that did not exist in Europe, and fostered our own growing sense of free will and democracy. The American West has always been a land where pioneers could build a new life for themselves, and this strength, determination, and individualism has not only continued to foster an independent spirit in our people, it has created a nation who is always thirsty for new adventures, and holds an undeniable place in the world's history.


Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online].

San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online]. San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.… [read more]

United States Presidents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The others were the annexation of Hawaii and Cuba, which he opposed. Had he annexed these two island nations, the Spanish-American War might have been averted, but Cleveland was not an expansionist, he felt the most compelling American problems were closer to home, rather than abroad. Cleveland handled foreign policy much more effectively than McKinley did, because he did not involve the U.S. In conflicts that did not affect them, and he did not make the United States look like a bully. His stand on Venezuela showed he could be strong, but his policy also showed he was not interested in taking over countries at the expense of their people and wishes. His foreign policy was more skillful because it was more involved with major issues in the world, rather than American imperialistic advances.


Author not Available. "Biography of William McKinley." WhiteHouse.gov. 2004. 24 May 2004. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wm25.html

Author not Available. "Foreign Affairs Under Cleveland." U-S-History.com. 2002. 24 May 2004. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h796.html… [read more]

Civil War in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Civil War in America

The American Civil war in that ran from 1861 to1865 was reported to be one of the most violent times in the American history. During this period, more than 700,000 men gave their lives for their country because of the war. Most people thought that the civil war ended after the military defeat of the south, unfortunately, this is not true because the war is still reported being very present in America today (McPherson, 2001). Research showed that the war was significant to the American people because it was able to resolve two major important questions which were left up in the air or unresolved by the revolution. These two major questions included;

(a) Whether America was to remain a dissolvable amalgamation of sovereign states or just an inseparable nation that has a sovereign state government (Barker, 2009).

(b) Whether the U.S., born of a declaration that all the American men were created with the rights to liberty was to continue existing as the leading slaveholding country across the world (Barker, 2009).

The Civil War in America is reported to have been caused by several issues and events. The main issue was that, the North America did not want to tolerate slavery as part of the fabric within the U.S. society, despite the fact that the political powers in Washington had planned of abolishing it during the American Civil war. Slavery in U.S. was a major burning issue which was renowned to have led to the disruption of many Unions formed. The war started as a result of rigid differences which existed between the free and the slave states above the power of national government to help in prohibiting the slavery in the various territories that had not become states. The other issue that resulted to the U.S. civil…… [read more]

Habeas Corpus / GWOT Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


This may perhaps indicate that the problem of "rebellion" in Maryland was very much on Lincoln's mind -- to this day, Maryland remains the only state in the Union whose official state anthem ("Maryland, My Maryland") advocates violent overthrow of the federal government (with lyrics that refer to Abraham Lincoln himself as "despot," "tyrant," "vandal," and "Northern scum") -- especially… [read more]

Confederation &amp Constituion Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


In terms of how the federalists and anti-federalists struck the Bill of Rights and how this compared to the base Constitution itself, it is clear that while the Federalists got a lot of what they wanted in the original Constitution, the anti-federalists got what they wanted in the Bill of Rights. In terms of the latter, the Bill of Rights is a recitation and summary not of what the government must do, but rather what they cannot do. For example, they cannot deny free speech, they cannot abridge due process and they cannot limit the press, just to name a few. In addition, the tenth amendment in particular pointed to the idea that states and people would be reserved certain rights but by federal mandate rather than state assertion alone. The Bill of Rights was effective and prescient in that it was a perfect counterbalance to the federal powers claimed and enforced via the original Constitution without the Bill of Rights. The rights of both the people of the country as well as the state or even local governments were much more clearly demarcated and defined than the original Constitution alone (Archives.gov, 2014).

The above clearly shows that federalists and anti-federalists had a clear disagreement about the size and scope of the power that the federal government did or did not wield. Obviously, the anti-federalists were concerned about a federal government becoming too powerful and resembling the tyrannical government of Great Britain at the time which was manifested by the monarch and other British federal authorities being extremely dictatorial, restrictive and controlling of the colonies and member terrorities of the British Empire of that day. However, the Federalists countered that the federal government had to be much more of an "end-all, be-all" of the new nation as having things to decentralized and autonomous would lead to a disjointed nation. They asserted that while there would be limits, checks and balances on the federal government, there had to be times and places where the federal government could intercede and assert itself. Of course, these skirmishes and involvements would have to be constrained by the rule of law and the Constitution not to mention the free will of the people in terms of who was voted in and who was not. The catalyst for solving the Federalist vs. anti-Federalist dilemma was to strike a balance that protected the states and the people but also allowed the federal government to be as powerful as it needed to be to guide the country effectively.


It is clear that no single system is perfect but the ongoing continuity and staying power of the United States system and how it is not majorly changed in nearly two and a half centuries is a testament to how well-designed the system is. There were some glaring flaws at the onset including no abolition of slavery and properly striking a federal and state balance and there remain some important questions including some posed in reaction to the Great… [read more]

Political Geography Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … formation of the various states of the United States are complex and have changed over the course of time. For instance, the reasons for the shape and size of the original thirteen states differ substantially from the rationale supporting the formation of the western states. The purpose of this paper will be to attempt to address these differences… [read more]

Reconstruction 1863-1877 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


American History

The Defeated South

The confederacy was confronted by the defeat set upon them. This was a time to come to grips with the idea of a democracy and what it meant. Now was a time of uncertainty, no one was quite sure of how the now defeated states of the Confederacy would blend cohesively into the union preserving… [read more]

Reconstruction and the Gilded Age Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,107 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Gilded Age of the United States

The era immediately following the Civil War has been described as the Gilded Age of United States history. There are several apt reasons for this moniker. Technological and scientific advancements during this time created a tremendous improvement in the nation's standard of living. Transportation innovations brought the people of country much closer together physically.… [read more]

Founding Brothers by Joseph Ellis Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,099 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Founding Brothers by Joseph Ellis

"Founding Brothers" by Joseph Ellis

Numerous writers have turned their attention to the period of the Declaration of Independence while searching for inspiration, and while some have produced modest texts, others have succeeded in retelling the story with great accuracy and in a reader-friendly approach.

Joseph J. Ellis's book "Founding Brothers: Revolutionary Generation" does not just have its plot focused on the 1776 document, as it concentrates on telling the stories of almost all of the key individuals involved in writing and issuing the document, and in those who played an essential role in the founding of the United States.

Abigail Adams, John Adams, Aaron Burr, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington are all unique in character, but they are all united through the fact that they largely contributed to one of the freest and most influential nations on the planet. When developing the book, Ellis used significant documents and letters, so as to provide his readers with a thorough account regarding the founding of America.

All of the chapters in the book are opened through a small event that is meant to show the public the tension present in the states during the period. Chapter three, "The Silence," begins by depicting an episode in 1790 in which the congress is being delivered a letter from behalf of the Pennsylvania Quakers (who were then a small group), insisting that slave trade should be ended. However, the Quakers did not refer to the damaging effects which the institution of slavery had on the nation as a whole. It is probable that they were perfectly aware that slavery could not be fought easily, but that it could only be ended through a succession of events, each working against the establishment. Obviously, ending the African slave trade would surely have a beneficial effect on the American community.

One of the consequence of stopping the trade business would have been that slave-owners would no longer have the power to replace their subordinates whenever they wished, as the value of slaves would go up and with it their living conditions, as their masters would realize that they could not work a slave to death, given the fact that they such an act would only end in their loss, both economically and morally.

In spite of the fact that the Quakers brought numerous arguments to support their demand, congress was perfectly aware that a large part of America's economy depended on the slave trade, thus meaning that the deficit would be devastating for the country. In order to suppress the motion and prevent it from coming to a vote, congress performed various trickeries and succeeded in their endeavor. Even influential people, such as Benjamin Franklin, got actively involved in fighting slavery and even came in charge of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. However, their power was limited and Franklin was quickly subdued and persuaded to drop his actions. The House of Senate stopped all demands related to… [read more]

Immigration Policy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,081 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Immigration Laws

The Immigration Act of 1965 was, in effect, a repeal of the restrictive laws that had been passed previously in the United States, in particular the "Johnson-Reed Act" (also known as the "National Origins Act") of 1924. The Immigration Act of 1965 was also more than just another bill in Congress; it was emotionally and politically linked to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, when the country was in a more progressive mood and President Lyndon Johnson was using the legacy of assassinated president John F. Kennedy as momentum to get civil rights-related legislation passed. To gain a full understanding the significance of the Immigration Act of 1965, one needs first to look at the National Origins Act ("Johnson-Reed Act) of 1924, and the history of immigrations policies in the U.S.

The United States Department of State (www.state.gov) published a review of the Immigration Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act) in federal web pages; the report explains that the Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants based on a "national origins quota" system. The law created a policy wherein if a person from Germany, say, wished to obtain a visa, that visa was based on the number of German immigrants already in the United States. Only a number of Germans up to 2% of the existing population of German-Americans were permitted each year. If there were 200,000 German immigrants already living in the U.S., then 4,000 new German immigrants would be given visas to come into the U.S.

The legislation also "completely excluded immigrants from Asia," the Department of State explains. An earlier immigration law in 1917 put in place "restrictive" measures that included literacy tests that required immigrants who were older than 16 to prove they could read (in any language). Also the tax that immigrants had to pay upon entering the U.S. was raised in 1917. The fact that Japanese immigrants were not welcome into the U.S. "offended" many Japanese people; and though the Japanese government protested the exclusion of their people the law remained on the books and indeed it resulted in "an increase in existing tensions" between Japan and America (www.state.gov). The number of immigrants welcomed into the U.S. after the 1924 Act (http://historymatters.gmu.edu) from: Iceland (100); Spain (131); Egypt (100); England and Northern Ireland (34,007); Switzerland (2,081); Norway (6,453). So a person can do the math to figure out pretty closely what the number of immigrants from those countries were already in the U.S. At that time.

Meanwhile, President Lyndon Johnson signed The Immigration Act of 1965 into law on October 3 while he stood beneath the Statue of Liberty, Johnson stated that signing the bill into law "…corrects a cruel and enduring wrong in the conduct of the American nation" (www.america.gov). Not all Democrats in Congress were willing to go along with Johnson in1965; for example, Senator Sam J. Ervin argued that the existing immigration law was not discriminatory but was instead "like… [read more]

Argument for the Declaration of Independence the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,394 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Declaration of Indepdence the United States

The American Declaration of Independence came as a solution to people wanting to get rid of their oppressors by declaring their autonomy. In spite of the fact that the document had been initially intended to put an end to British control over the colonies, the people signing the document realized that the paper had been their chance to create a democratic country. The Declaration of Independence related to mostly everything that the colonists wanted their country to represent. The document is basically responsible for a large number of laws presently existing in the U.S.

Thomas Jefferson had written the paper having in mind the taking away of the thirteen colonies from under the command of King George III. The colonist had virtually written an explanation motivating why it had been vital for the colonies to become autonomous. In spite of its importance in the later years, the people living contemporary to its issuing did not pay great attention to it, considering it to be nothing more than a simple document that would be forgotten, just as the British rule over the colonies would.

In an attempt recuperate from the crisis experienced in their fight with the French, the British decided to exploit their thirteen colonies to full potential. The main reason for the distress experienced by the colonists had been that King George III had imposed inhumane taxes on the colonies from the American continent. The colonists lobbied for democracy and for self-governing, so that they would escape the British tyranny.

The Declaration was to present the public with simple elements that would lead to them becoming aware of reality, and, of the fact that they could no longer live under British domination. The Declaration directly addresses the idea that it is not possible for a government to rule without having the permission of those over whom he governs. The Declaration gave proof relating to the wrongdoings performed by the British government and claimed that, in response to these, the colonies would become free states.

The first two paragraphs written by Jefferson directly refer to what democracy signifies for the Americans. Even with the fact that it had been written under stress, the declaration has served as a basis to a great number of law documents consequently written by U.S. authorities. Its importance grew notably over the years, reaching a point when several countries had referred to it when attempting to install a solid democracy within their borders.

The Declaration of Independence as it is known today is not how it had initially been written by Jefferson, as the independence committee had made several modifications before deciding to publish it. However, the members of the independence committee could not help from leaving a great part of the two paragraphs, with Jefferson's words being more than exceptional. It appears, however, that Jefferson had partly exaggerated when referring to the crimes done by the British to the colonists. The final form of the Declaration… [read more]

Soviet Afghan War Conflict Analysis Thesis

Thesis  |  18 pages (5,116 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Soviet-Afgan War Conflict Analysis


The objective of this work is to analyze the Soviet-Afghan War that lasted from 1978 to 1989. At focus in this study is that in this particular conflict the capable Soviet military invaded a powerless Afghanistan in support of the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan in their battle against… [read more]

U.S. Civil War Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … U.S. Civil War

Discuss how and why Southern devotion to a system of slave labor retarded modernization in the South.

The reason for the South's failure to industrialize, ironically, can be traced to the North -- specifically in the person of one Northern man, the engineer Eli Whitney. "As Eli Whitney left New England and headed South in… [read more]

War of Tripoli Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,129 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … war of Tripoli

As a young republic, America fought a war with the Barbary pirates who plied the waters of the Mediterranean in early nineteenth century. The Tripolitan war which took place between 1801 and 1805 opposed American and North African forces. The African states were the Sultanate of Morocco, and the Regencies of Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli… [read more]

Illegal Immigration There Can Be No Question Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,313 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Illegal Immigration

There can be no question that illegal immigration is a serious problem in the modern United States. The current wave of undocumented immigrants places a burden on America's social resources, and also creates a very real risk that dangerous aliens are hidden with the masses of innocuous aliens that illegally cross the borders each day. Various people have proposed a wide variety of solutions to this problem, ranging from building a physical barrier between the United States and Mexico to the active and vigorous deportation of all illegal immigrants. However, this position seems somewhat un-American. Instead of fighting illegal immigration with a physical wall, America should find a way to compromise. By banning immigrants from crossing the border, deporting the ones that are already in the U.S., and not allowing pre-existing illegal immigrants the opportunity to obtain citizenship, America is creating a bigger catastrophe than the one created by the current illegal immigration boon. Allowing people of other nationalities to become Americans is not inherently bad; after all, every American citizen's ancestry consists of immigrants. More so than any other country, America is a country of immigrants, a land of opportunity with a history of welcoming people from a broad variety of backgrounds. As a result, America is a mosaic of different cultures, including food, languages, customs, and religions; this mosaic would not exist without immigration. However, many modern Americans seem to believe that the United States should no longer be a land of opportunity, but that the U.S. should strictly limit immigration and actively and stringently enforce immigration laws. Though those that oppose illegal immigration are against illegal immigrants from any ethnic background, the main targets of their efforts are immigrants from Mexico, and those from Latin America, Central America, and South America who use Mexico as a gateway to the United States.

However, blocking these immigrants by building walls and creating other physical barrier to immigration is not an appropriate solution. Instead, the proposed wall and its already-completed parts have led to some severe problems. First, the rate of immigrant deaths due to people making increasingly-difficult illegal border crossings has increased.

Second, the wall is prohibitively expensive. Third, the proposed wall does not cover the entire border, leaving gaps where illegal immigrants can continue to cross; even in places the wall does cover, immigrants have found ways to cross the border. For all of these reasons, the United States should abandon its plans to build a wall between the United States and Mexico.

The most serious consequence of the border wall and stricter scrutiny of illegal immigrants is that illegal immigration has become more dangerous. Prior to the proposals to build the border wall, the U.S.-Mexico border was experiencing unprecedented levels of legal and illegal immigration and trade. Illegal immigration from Mexico has not always been a problem. Until 1964, "the Bracero Program allowed Mexican guest workers to work legally in the United States." (Orrenius). However, when this program ended, illegal immigration from Mexico began to… [read more]

John F. Kennedy and George W. Bush Jr Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,235 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


JFK and President Bush

Matter of Perception

John F. Kennedy stands as one of the nation's great orators of all time. In contrast, President Bush is known for his bumbling speeches, uttering phrases such as mixing up perseverance and preservation, subliminate when he means subliminal, or his famous, "I know how hard it is for you to put food on… [read more]

Progressive Era Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (730 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Era can be considered to represent one of the most important moments in the history of the United States. It marked the beginning of the modernization process in America and at the same time the start of the organization of the state following its independence. The actions undertaken during this time affected all aspects of the society, from politics to the social sphere which has been affected the most.

The beginning of the Progressive Era came as a result of the endless disputes in terms of political and economic outcomes which resulted following the end of the Civil War. In this sense, the North having won the battle with the South engaged in an era of massive development as a result of the industrial revolution (Jenkins, 1997). However this development soon led to the increase in the way in which wealth and opportunities were being shared and distributed. In this sense, a certain clear distinction between the wealthy and the poor was created. This in turn led to the social discrepancies that became a common situation in the final years of the 19th century America.

On this background, the Progressive Era came as a solution that would address the inequalities and the social issues that became a serious problem in the U.S. Thus, "the Progressive Era (roughly, 1901-1921) was the beginning, in the United States, of the growth in the role of government in the 20th-century. During this era, and its prelude (1887-1901), the American people saw the beginnings of federal regulation of business through the regulatory commissions and antitrust laws, the income tax system that we have today, federal food and drug regulation, the Federal Reserve Board, and government conservation" (Browne, n.d.). Therefore it can be said that the period represented a period of increased governmental activity as well as social empowerment.

In terms of the economic practices, the monopoly was the key word to fight against (Warde, 1957). It represented the enemy for a proper evolution of the economic base. At the same time, an increased state control would have allowed more financial resources as well as an increased state attribution.

One of the most important ideas related to Progressivism was…… [read more]

Internal Problems America Had During the War of 1812 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


American History

War of 1812

The war was unpopular with many Americans because of many different reasons. First, the war was largely unplanned, and American was not prepared. They didn't have enough supplies or money to pay the men, and they suffered as a result. The Americans suffered defeats, (even the burning of Washington, D.C.), and the British blockaded American ports, which brought the American economy to a standstill. Imports and exports were essentially halted, and merchants were facing bankruptcy. Of course, the people were not happy about this, and as the war dragged on, it became increasingly unpopular.

In addition, before the war, British naval power was the superior naval power in the world, and the French, after a defeat at British hands, stopped trading with Britain, and asked most other European countries to stop, as well. Thus, the majority of Great Britain's trade was with the United States before the war, and there were few other avenues open to the U.S., with European ports blockaded.…… [read more]

Extraordinary Rendition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (6,889 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Extraordinary Rendition

The Costs of Extraordinary Rendition

On September 6, 2006, President Bush openly admitted that the CIA, under his authorization, had been operating secret detention centers at sites abroad for the previous five years (Elsea & Kim, 2007). Suspected terrorists, including anyone else suspected of having relevant information, were covertly transferred to these sites and then interrogated under pressure… [read more]

Jesse James Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Jesse James is perhaps the most notorious outlaw in the history of the United States of America. He first rose to prominence in the years following the Civil War as the result of his involvement in a bank robbery in 1869, during the course of which he shot and killed the bank cashier, erroneously believing him to be the militia officer who had shot "Bloody Bill" Anderson, a famous gang leader, during the Civil War. As James asserted this to be an act of revenge, he made it into the newspapers.

A sympathetic journalist by the name of John Newman Edwards, who was promoting the return of Confederacy in Missouri during the period, began to promote Jesse James as the ultimate American hero, a lone rebel attempting to single-handedly defy the imposition of Reconstruction on Missouri and the American south. James and his band of rebels persisted in robbing banks all over the American south and Midwest. He would also rob fairs and trains, often hamming it up for the crowd, contributing significantly to his own celebrity in the media.

Detective Allan Pinkerton went on…… [read more]

Foreign Relations in His Book Merrill Reinterprets Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (667 words)
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Foreign Relations

In his book Merrill reinterprets the history of United States foreign policy decisions through the viewpoint of a specific, American ideology. According to Merrill, a central ideology has driven and shaped American foreign policy since the time of the nation's founding, including its decision to enter into the Revolutionary War. This driving American ideology is based on a general conception of the country having a national mission to serve to the world. Further, this ideology has grown to focus on racial classifications of other individuals and a general hostility towards social revolutionary movements.

Merrill's ideas on foreign policy development are unique in that, unlike most theories, Merrill argues that an American Way drives our diplomatic decisions. The majority of studies and works published on this topic, such as those found in the anthology entitled Major Problems in American Foreign Relations Volume II, have explained the Untied States' approach to the world through concepts of material interests or matters of self-defense. However, when reading and studying both concepts, it becomes clear that Merrill makes a compelling argument.

According to Merrill's theory, all American foreign policy decisions have been controlled by a shared ideology that can be broken down into three basic components. First, there is the general consensus of America's vision of national greatness. Second, there is the American tendency to view the world's diverse populations through a race or culture-based hierarchy.

Third and finally, there is a general feeling of both disappointment and horror associated with the failed revolutions around the world that occurred during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Merrill's argument that the foreign policy of the United States is driven by our classifications of race and the effects of failed revolutions is a more difficult argument to accept. Although it seems that much of America's foreign policy and diplomatic/use of force is aimed at non-white, undemocratic societies that are politically unstable, the question is whether these actions are based on race, culture and revolution, as Merrill suggests, or on…… [read more]

Approval of the Constitution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,574 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … approval of the constitution of the United States, as per which the establishment of the union of states took place, which was to be monitored by the federal system of governance, therefore have been considerable arguments regarding the nature of the union, and the limitations and extent of the powers, privileges, duties, and responsibilities which have been granted… [read more]

America's Rise to World Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


America's rise to world power during the Gilded Age (1877-1914) and the nature of the Civil Rights movement in the United States following World War II (1945-1969).

Discuss America's rise to world power during the Gilded Age (1877-1914). Include commentary on relevant leading personalities, issues, and events. In your opinion, did American imperialism contradict the principles in the Declaration of Independence? Explain.

America is a nation founded upon the principles of constitutional democracy -- even though it has often contradicted those principles in its practice. The Declaration of Independence does not merely endorse the ideals of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness for all human beings, but the right of self-determination in governance, and the right of the people to free itself from a tyrannical sovereign. When a government is no longer for the people and by the people it is no longer a legitimate government, according to the Declaration. Imperialism, which means dictating the government of other nations, directly contradicts the principle of national and personal self-determination.

Even before the development of America into a world power during the Gilded Age, the right of self-determination had really come to mean, in actual American practice, the right of white Americans to land, not the right of native tribes to their historical territories. The Gilded Age oversaw the rise of America's industrial power and expansion of its territorial outreach into the West through the technological innovation of rail roads which allowed for a more integrated transportation infrastructure within America's borders. The Gilded Age also was an age in which American influence extended into the Pacific, when America annexed what would become the 50th state of Hawaii in 1898.

But the era's most significant foreign policy development was America's expanded use…… [read more]

Economics of Slavery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (657 words)
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Economics of Slavery

The outstanding economic characteristics of Southern states' agriculture in the pre-civil war period was the direct result of its reliance on slave labor force, an economic reality which would remain unparalleled not only in the history of the South, but in that of the United States. The efficiency of slave economy could be defined as "a comparison of the return from the use of this form of capital-Negro slaves-with the returns being earned on other capital assets at the time" (Conrad, Meyer: 96). Slaves were recruited as an inexpensive source of labor but they also became important capital in the American economy because slave transactions were taxed which was an invaluable source of tax revenue for local and state governments. Enslaved Africans were legally a form of property and had, like any other commodity, owners. Individually and collectively, they were frequently used as collateral in all kinds of transactions such as securing loans or purchasing additional slaves and/or land. Also, the value of slaves was used by their owners to pay off debts, and was included in the value of an estate when sold (Dodson). As the cotton plantation economy expanded throughout the southern region, banks and financial houses in New York supplied the loan capital and/or investment capital to purchase land and slaves (Dodson). During the colonial period in the United States, tobacco was the dominant slave-produced commodity which greatly relied on enslaved Africans brought into the U.S. In the period prior to the American Revolution (Dodson). As a result of the American Revolution Virginia and Maryland lost their main European tobacco markets; moreover, the global future of slavery in America was threatened as most of the northern states abolished it, and even Virginia debated abolition in the Virginia Assembly (Dodson). The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 meant a revival of slavery in the U.S. And determined a geographical shift of the slave economy from the upper to the lower South. The…… [read more]

5th Amendment the History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,809 words)
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5th Amendment

The History of the 5th Amendment

Almost everyone has heard of the 5th Amendment to the United States Constitution. It is part of the Bill of Rights and most of what it says came originally from the Magna Carte in 1512. It is designed to protect a person from self-incrimination in that a person can 'respectfully decline to… [read more]

Apollo Program and President John F. Kennedy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,722 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


John F. Kennedy and the Apollo Program

Among other things, the 1960's will probably be remembered most prominently for its culmination in the moon landing, successfully achieved by the United States of America. Often hidden from public view is the political intrigue and innuendo accompanying such large, prestigious projects. President John F. Kennedy, the American president at the time, played… [read more]

Top Five Presidents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,043 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Presidents in My Opinion

My choice of the top five U.S. Presidents ranked in descending order of importance is: Thomas Jefferson, Ronald Reagan, Dwight Eisenhower, Franklin Roosevelt, and George H.W. Bush. Since ranking of Presidents is always a subjective call, I am aware that this list may differ substantially from most others'; however, I shall try my best to justify… [read more]

Illegal Immigrants in the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,196 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … illegal immigrants in the U.S. And the possibility of legalizing their status. The article shows: how illegal immigration is currently being dealt with, the views of people on the issue and the flexibility being exhibited by the government. The author makes it clear that while illegal immigration has always been a problem for the country and most people… [read more]

Immigration Late 1890 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,778 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Immigration Late 1890's

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, as America became known as The Land of Opportunity' at the time of 'The Rise of Industrial America' immigration peaked between 1870 and 1900. Immigrants from all over the world came to the United State during this time. China, Germany, Ireland, and England, to name a few, all contributed to… [read more]

Immigration Policy Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Immigration Policy

Typically, American textbooks refer to the United States as a "Nation of Immigrants," and use this as a paradigm of successful integration over the past 200 plus years of peoples coming from all over the world to become part of a new nation. There were peaks and valleys regarding immigration policy in the United States however, prior to 1900 over 35 million came from Europe, the Orient, and Africa -- some willingly, others brought as slaves or workers. In 1921, though, Congress passed an Emergency Quota Act, followed by another Immigration Act of 1924. This primarily restricted Southern and Eastern Europe immigrants which, at the time, were seen as a tax upon society rather than a positive. In 1965, Congress abolished the quota system based on national origin, and by making the policies more equitable, a new immigration wave from non-European nations began. Between 1965 and 1970, immigration doubled; then again between 1970 and 1990 also doubled. President Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990, which increased legal immigration by around 40%. In the 21st century, 2000 to 2005, nearly 8 million new immigration arrived, about 1/2 illegally, but more than any other 5-year period in the history of the United States (Canelos, 2008; Immigration Surge Called Highest Ever, 2005).

Almost all scholars agree that the new era of mass immigration post-1960 dramaticaly changed America, increasing its diversity and robustness. It changed the way American education worked (ESL, bilingual programs), the demographic and socio-economic breakdown of political spheres, and even the way that the workplace was organized and accepted civil rights and established laws dealing with diversity.

The new immigrant and second generations are a significant presence in cultural affairs, in neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces in almost every urban area of the United…… [read more]

Amending the U.S. Constitution Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,504 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … United States' Constitution

The steps a the federal level that must be taken through Congress -- combined with the complicated steps that must be taken by the states -- make it very difficult for the U.S. To amend its Constitution. Why did the founders make it so problematic to add to the existing amendments to the Constitution? What… [read more]

Language in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,418 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


NRC Language in the United States

Language diversity is a hot-button issue in today's modern political climate. English-only proponents have a variety of reasons for suggesting that English become the single official language of the United States. Some of these reasons are legitimate, such as ensuring that all Americans have an unfettered ability to communicate with one another, while some… [read more]

Peculiar Institution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Peculiar Institution

The South and its Peculiar Institution

American history is at points the product of converging innovation and exploitation. In many instances, the growth and development of the American power as it stands today would occur at the expense of its participants. Examples of this are recurrent in the text by Maier et al. (2006), which reflects at numerous instances on the relationship between invention, expansion and, for many, oppression. This dynamic would most certainly serve to characterize the 'peculiar institution' known as slavery. For centuries, in fact, this would be the lifeblood of the southern economy, with plantation owners and farm operators laying claim to a labor economy without wage expenses.

How this system came to be, Maier et al. assert, is a complex matter owing to the international slave trade and the differing cultural development of the North and South United States. First and foremost, while the Northern New England states often played the role of broker in the slave triangle, the preponderance of plantations in the emergent southern colonies would make this the primary destination of those exported from Africa and the West Indies. Warmer climates and rainier seasons along with a great volume of arable terrain made the south inherently better suited to the rural development which the slave trade ultimately helped to facilitate.

And because the text by Maier et al. is contextualized by the impact of invention on the history of America, it bears noting that several play a direct role in the growth and continuity of this peculiar institution. First and foremost would be the methods of stationary farming which would evolve first with Native Americans and thereafter with the first settlers in the United States. Finding ways to use farmlands that were sustainable would drive economic growth for the first centuries of colonization. Therefore, the litany of contributions which Maier et al. describe as…… [read more]

Domestic Unification and National Sectionalism in 1800s America Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … 1800s and explain the simultaneous dichotomy of domestic unification and national sectionalism. The will give examples of both and explain their domestic and international implications.

While the United States enjoyed a tremendous period of domestic unification in the early 19th century, this unification was more in the way of cultural and technological unification. As the North industrialized and the West was being settled, the same industrial revolution brought about the invention of the cotton farming. This labor-intensive crop needed to be harvested by hand. In response to the growing demands of textile factories in Britain and the Northeastern U.S., efforts to plant and harvest cotton went forward with great enthusiasm. While slavery worked well in cotton agriculture, it was not suited to the increasingly technological base that under girded the rest of American agriculture and industry where there was resistance to the spread of slavery out of the old South and into the West. Slavery was dying out in the North and in the West. In addition, the old system of chattel slavery conflicted with the new system of wage labor which was becoming the basis for the industrial revolution, though compromises such as Clay's "Omnibus Bill" of 1850 paper over these differences temporarily (Maier, Smith, Keyssar & Kevles, 2005, 417). With these factors in the background, the South became increasingly isolated from the rapidly developing rest of the nation, accentuating differences that would lead eventually to open conflict (ibid, 419-20).

The acquisition of Texas especially accelerated this looming sectional conflict over slavery. The acquisition of the territory of Texas and later the acquisition of new land in the rest of the West due to the Mexican War opened up land to the spread of slavery where its penetration had not been possible before. This threatened to…… [read more]

Impact of the National Guard Due to the National Defense Act of 1916 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,606 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


National Guard and the National Defense Act of 1916

The impact of the reserve component military forces in the United States has been significant over the years, and continues to be a vital part of American defense and homeland security. The reserves also provide valuable support when there are natural disasters and other emergencies in the U.S. that call for… [read more]

American in the New Millennium Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Another major aspect of the new millennium is related to the way in which the United States will manage to play its role in the political scene especially the international political scene. It is already common knowledge that the state of affairs that was in place twenty years ago is no longer valid. At this point, some of the strongest actors on the international scene are China, South East Asian countries, among others. The poles of power have changed significantly and are largely determined by the economic power of the state. More precisely, "China's extraordinary economic growth and active diplomacy are already transforming East Asia, and future decades will see even greater increases in Chinese power and influence. But exactly how this drama will play out is an open question." (Ikenberry, 2008) At this moment it is rather difficult to ascertain the degree in which China will become the next most important country in the world, However, the Chinese structure and political system is built in such a manner that it can eventually influence the way in which the international affairs are conducted.

Overall, it can be concluded that the United States is at this point in history under the pressure of preforming but, at the same time, it provides all the assets to overcome the challenges faced by innovation and the passing of time. However, unlike the beginning of the 20th century, the world is in a strict co dependence, and in order for the United States to strive, it needs a general environment of cooperation, at all levels: political, economic, social, and technological.


Gans, Herbert. "The Age of the Superfluous Worker." The opinion pages. The New York Times. November 24, 2011. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/25/opinion/the-age-of-the-superfluous-worker.html?ref=unitedstateseconomy

Ikenberry, John. "The rise of China and the future of the West: can the liberal system survive?" Foreign Affairs, January -- February 2008, available at http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/63042/g-john-ikenberry/the-rise-of-china-and-the-future-of-the-west… [read more]

Pox Americana the Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775 82 Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (1,109 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82

, offered me an insight into a subject that I was not aware of prior to reading this story. The story chronicles how a virulent and aggressive style of smallpox played a significant role in the outcome of the Revolutionary War and how it affected several of the War's major campaigns. Due to my prior exposure to this matter, I had known that there was a smallpox outbreak during the years that the Revolutionary War took place but through the writings of the author, Elizabeth a. Fenn, I learned that smallpox was a much serious problem for Revolutionary America than has previously been discussed.

The effect of smallpox on Europe has been extensively discussed but its effect in America has been largely ignored

. Ms. Fenn, however, points out that little attention has been afforded the subject in American history books. Although the author does not expressly state the reason for this lack of exposure she does seem to create the inference that because the disease was most prevalent among the Native Americans that the colonists were less than enthusiastic to broadcast its presence to the rest of the world. Smallpox among the Native Americans was one of the leading causes of death and played a major part in wiping out a significant portion of the Native population. Unlike the Europeans who settled in the colonies and had developed some immunity to the effects of the smallpox virus, the Native Americans had never been exposed to the disease before the arrival of the Europeans and were, therefore, particularly susceptible to its effects.

Fenn did an excellent job of explaining how smallpox affected the conduct of the Revolutionary War but she also details how smallpox had been a consideration for several hundred years in American society. In regard to the Revolutionary War itself, Fenn gives George Washington considerable credit for protecting the Colonial Army from being decimated by the effects of smallpox by taking the time to have his men inoculated against smallpox. By doing so, Washington was able to save countless number of lives not only among his army but also among the local population that had contact with his forces.

One of the more interesting aspects of Fenn's work is her attention to the detail in how smallpox affected American society and how it developed on the continent. She spends a great deal of time describing how the disease spread across the continent and clearly highlights that there was a human presence on the continent beyond the borders of the original thirteen colonies at the time of the Revolution. In doing so, she is able to pinpoint how the disease was able to be spread from the eastern shores of the continent westward based on the activities of the Native Americans who were trading with the colonists and the colonizing efforts of other European nations other than England. Through these contacts, smallpox was spread throughout the North American continent… [read more]

Bilingual Education an Cultural Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Bilingual Education

An Overview of the Cultural Experience of Chinese Immigrants

The Chinese experience in America is one marked by a combination of opportunity and oppression. Perhaps more than many other immigrant groups less distinguishable by physical features, Chinese were subjected to a wide-ranging and sustained discrimination upon their arrival here en masse in the mid 19th century and onward.… [read more]

African-American Suffrage Rights Up to 1877 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,316 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … U.S. Constitution made no actual comment or mention on the suffrage and voting rights and these were left to the States's jurisdiction. This meant that the enslaved African-American population did not have any rights in this sense and, further more, there were additional restrictions to voting rights, including income and property. The right to vote could not be achieved by the African-American population, since, in 1857, the Supreme Court had ruled on the famous Dred Scott case, deciding that "that no State can, by any act or law of its own, passed since the adoption of the constitution, introduce a new member into the political community created by the constitution of the United States" and, as such, that no African-American could obtain and detain citizenship of the United States.

Following the logical fact that no one who was not citizen of the United States could have fundamental rights, such as the right to vote (that by the Civil War were extended to all White males), the suffrage question for the Black population was never in question until during the Civil War.

However, the Emancipation Proclamation (1863) and the approval by the Congress of the Thirteenth Amendment (1865), both of which abolished slavery, marked a new phase for the African-American community on their way to achieving the right to vote. The Thirteenth Amendment, outlawing slavery, was ratified on December 18, 1865 and laid the path for action in 1866.

Indeed, in February 1866, Frederick Douglas and a delegation of African-Americans met with Lincoln's successor, President Andrew Johnson, to argument the Black's right to vote. Albeit the President's opposition, the delegation had given a clear signal from the Black community and the Congress took notice by passing the Civil Rights Act in April 1866. Vetoed by President Johnson at first, who stated that "the bill in effect proposes a discrimination against large numbers of intelligent, worthy, and patriotic foreigners, and in favor of the Negro, to whom, after long years of bondage, the avenues to freedom and intelligence have just now been suddenly opened," the Act was passed.

The Act states that "all persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power (...) are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States; and such citizens shall have the same right, in every State and Territory in the United States." Although this Act guaranteed the same rights to the Black population as the White population already had, here including the right to vote, and despite the fact that the Fourteenth Amendment marked this in the Constitution, there was more to be done towards actually receiving suffrage.

First, the Congress gave the right of vote to black citizens in the District of Columbia, although President Johnson had again vetoed the decision. However, the right to vote at national level for the African-American population was only acknowledged with the approval and subsequent ratification of the Fifteenth Constitutional Amendment, in 1869.

Brief and to the point, the Fifteenth Amendment… [read more]

Governing Elite Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,839 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Governing Elite

The Power Elite

Some believe that the United States has never replaced its governing elite with non-elite. They allege that membership in the government is only open to those that acquire wealth and property and who accept the national consensus about private enterprise, limited government, and individualism. They further maintain that revolutionary change has never occurred in America's… [read more]

Political Science - Federal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Political Science - Federal

Political Science

In what ways did the events of 9/11 and the measures taken as a result of the tragedy affect the way in which America viewed itself in terms of its own might, its ability to secure its own citizens and detect new kinds of enemies?

Prior to the bloody and vicious attacks against the… [read more]

Historical Event 1765-1880 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,720 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Louisiana Purchase / Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803

There are numerous events and trends that contributed to the development and growth of the United States. However, the Louisiana Purchase along with the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 opened the door for the nation's expansion and utilization of the industrial era.

The Louisiana Purchase is often described as the… [read more]

United States Steel Industry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


American producers have lacked the consolidation other countries have as the American supply starts to dwindle, more plants close and blue collar towns die. It make the situation worse, the United States started importing cheap steel from countries not to mention new trade law agreements imposed by Bush. All of these changes has left the American Steel Industry rebounding.

SWOT Assessment


The United States Steel Industry has an established infrastructure, centuries old that includes a tight labor union. The nation is also at war and need of steel to build planes, weapons and transportation systems in Iraq. American steel has a global reputation and the technology to enhance a global marketplace.


In recent years, there has been a reduction in the Steelworkers union and towns relying on the industry have disappeared. As a result, morale is low. Also better management of supply is needed to compete on the global scale.


Endless opportunities are available when thinking in the multi-national mind set. The United States has a reputation of helping other countries build and rebuild, these relationships are opportunities for global expansion. Aiding in conflicts across the global will also act to stimulate new possible avenues of demand.


Threats consist of foreign competition from not only European countries but also China. These countries are able to produce better steel faster and at a cheaper production rate.


As with most businesses today, success relies on creative marketing of strengths and new opportunities. There is the trend to look globally and implement new technologies to better the quality of the product.


This paper examined the United States Steel Industry and its current status on the world market. First, this paper looked at briefly the history of the Steel Industry. Second, this paper provided an overview of how the industry is doing currently. Third, the paragraphs above included a SWOT Assessment of the Steel Industry. This means that the industry's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats and trends were evaluated. This allows for members of the industry to have a better understanding of where the steel product stands and how to better implement strategies to improve the situation.

Works Cited

Gordon, J.S. (2004). The Reader's Companion to American History: Iron and Steel Industry. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Smith, V. (2005, June 29). Steel Industry shrinks, brings profits, pain and pondering. The Miami Herald.com. Retrieved June 29, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://


SWOT Analysis. Retrieved…… [read more]

President of the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,878 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He was not a politician, and he did not like politics. However, he understood the nuances of government, both domestic and foreign, and he worked hard to make America a world power and expand her boundaries. However, he was not astute politically. He made enemies, including influential and popular Andrew Jackson, and because of his liberal stand on a variety of issues, he made enemies in Congress. His reign as president was certainly not one of the most successful of the White House, but his tenure as a politician and statesman leaves a great legacy behind. As the Editors at American President note, "He served nine consecutive terms in the House of Representatives, earning the nickname 'Old Man Eloquent' because of his extraordinary speeches in opposition to slavery" (Editors). He was a remarkably astute man who sometimes blundered politically.

History has not always been kind to Mr. Adams. First, he was the son of one of the founders of the nation and signers of the Declaration of Independence -- John Adams. He had large shoes to fill. Historian and biographer Lipsky notes, "As Brooks Adams asserts, 'John Quincy Adams was not only a complex man, who stood at least a generation ahead of his time [in his theory of the purpose and function of government], but he was a scientist of the first force'" (Lipsky 4). He was a wise and able man who was not always a wise and able leader. He had high hopes for his administration, but did not accomplish everything he set out to. However, when he died, the American people literally lined the railroad tracks from Washington, D.C. To Boston when his body traveled home (Howe 444). He was one of America's most interesting, if unsung, leaders.


Editors. "John Quincy Adams." AmericanPresident.org. 2005. 23 Sept. 2005.

< http://www.americanpresident.org/history/johnquincyadams/

Howe, John R. "John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, A Private Life." Journal of Southern History. Volume: 67, Issue: 2, 2001, pg. 444.

Lipsky, George A. John Quincy Adams: His Theory and Ideas. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1950.

Maier, Timothy W. "The Tales of Two Presidential Sons." Insight on the News, Volume: 17, Issue: 9, March 5, 2001, pg 14.

Seward,…… [read more]

Immigration Heterogeneity and a Vibrant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,408 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


A second wave of immigrants, peaking between 1900 and 1924 included the Ellis Island groups from Central, South, and Eastern Europe. Different languages, religions, and cultural practices distinguished the second wave immigrants from earlier immigrants. Finally, the third wave of immigrants, which continues today, includes populations from Asia, Africa, and South America.

Immigrant experiences differed depending on country of origin… [read more]

European Countries Have Absorbed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,061 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


While Europeans bought Walkmans and VCR's, they incorporated these items into their European lifestyle (281). The arrival of these American products did not turn their users into Americans. Individuals' culture is not that simple. The worst fears of European critics -- that the United States' cultural attributes would come to overpower existing cultures in Europe -- simply did not become reality (281). In many cases, American products were adapted by their European users. European cities built shopping centers (292) and suburbs where residents could own their own homes (197-198), but the cities maintained their distinctive European flavors. European manufacturers at first adopted the United States' efficiency models, but then went further and redesigned factories in ways that gave workers more responsibilities and downplayed the assembly-line aspect of such tasks as building cars (295). They took American factory culture and improved on it, in the process transforming it to something that suited their society better.

While the concept of supermarkets moved in some degree to Europe, again the concept was redesigned to suit the location. Supermarkets tended to be small neighborhood stores without huge parking lots and did not put the small butchers and bakers out of business. The supermarkets added to the shopping options in Europe but did not supplant old shopping patterns (296). American companies adjusted their products to European taste. For instance, Kelloggs put dark, sugared raisins in American Raisin Bran, but golden, unsugared ones for the European market. Europeans did not like green Fruit Loops, so they were removed for European packaging (297).

Nevertheless, the American influence on other countries should not be diminished. In the 1990's, over 50% of McDonald's income came from foreign countries (303). Some American concepts did not translate well to Europe. Euro-Disney struggled at first, partly because Paris has a winter not present in either southern California or central Florida. But in addition, European vacation practices differed: Europeans tended to take long vacations, sometimes as long as a month, rather than the shorter 4 -- 5 day trips often preferred by Americans. Europeans tended to be more rigid about their schedules, causing bottlenecks for park admission and meals. In addition, Disney followed its policy of no alcohol on the premises to the dismay of Europeans accustomed to having a beer or glass of wine with a meal (311). So while it may have at first looked as if Euro-Disney was attempting to force Americanism on the French, in reality, such tactics simply didn't work. Disney had to adjust in major ways in order to make a success of Euro-Disney.

Pell's book takes a long and careful look at the interchange of cultures between the United States and Western Europe, and presents a picture that is far more complex than whether, for instance, the French might have been affronted to see a McDonald's in the heart of Paris. Instead, the author shows an inexorable process of influence flowing at least to some degree, both ways. In retrospect the reader should not be surprised… [read more]

New Deal Repercussions for America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


From that point on, the two sectors became, and remain (for better or worse) much more integrally connected than anytime before the 1930's.

Americans as a whole first began to lose faith in their government when, after the October 29, 1929 stock market crash, then-President Herbert Hoover blithely referred to the crash as "a passing incident in our national lives"("The Great Depression"). Hoover's individualistic bent and 'trickle down' economics were the wrong medicine at the wrong time for a country in acute economic (and psychological) agony, with so many of its people frightened, terrified in fact, about the future. Herbert Hoover encouraged American businessmen to wait out what he felt certain would be just a bad (and brief) economic patch, and patiently let 'trickle down' economics work, instead of laying-off workers.

Average men and women could no longer even feed their families or secure anymore the basic necessities of life. Such widespread national misery led to FDR's election, by a landslide, in 1932, and to Hoover's dramatic defeat. Almost immediately, Roosevelt, as the new President, began pushing federal government toward a new, far more interventionist role. Roosevelt urged Congress to quickly pass the Emergency Banking Relief Act that would re-stabilize tottering U.S. banks. On March 9, 1933, it did so. That, however, was a mere prelude to Roosevelt's extensive New Deal legislation that slowly pulled the country out of the depression in the years leading up to World War II.

For better or for worse, then, America's public and private sectors would never be quite as independent from one another again; and average Americans' relationship to their federal government would never again be the same. That is how the Great Depression, and Franklin D. Roosevelt's resulting New Deal, forever changed the relationship between the public…… [read more]

Dual in the Sun by John Brant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dual in the Sun by John Brant

There's a lot more to life than sports and athletic competition in the name of glory. But when a sports-focused individual is on a roll and has either achieved fame, money, and championship level victories - or is in hot pursuit of those goals - most other aspects of that person's life and… [read more]

Colossus: The Rise and Fall Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,025 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire, by Niall Ferguson. Specifically it will discuss the question, "At the end of the book, Ferguson writes, 'I believe the world needs an effective liberal empire and that the United States is the best candidate for the job' (p. 301). Do you agree with him in this? Why or… [read more]

Red White and Black Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Lopez's main argument is that racial categories as valid units of measurement had to be legally constructed and were not germane to early American society. Through his examination of court opinions regarding race, Lopez shows how these legal opinions combine with other elements of the nation's legal apparatus, e.g. law enforcement and immigration, to create new racial categories. Lopez is careful to point out that "…law is not a monolith. Rather, law encompasses a set of institutions, actors, and ideas that are independent…" (Lopez, 1996, p. 80).

Lopez argues that Law constructs racial definitions first through coercion, as through the example of segregation and miscegenation laws. (Lopez, 1996, p. 82). Second, law constructs racial definitions through ideology, as shown through immigration laws excluding Asians. (Lopez, 1996, p. 87-89). Lopez does a very good job of supporting his arguments by citing legal opinions and laws. His writing style is extremely dense, but that may be a result of the massive, chaotic legal apparatus which he is attempting to explain.

Like Nash's interpretation, Lopez's arguments here have important implications for the study of race relations because it casts doubt on basic, commonly held assumptions about our early American ancestors' respective understandings of race. Lopez reinforces Nash's suggestion that our understanding of race differ drastically from those of our ancestors. Lopez does so by questioning the very fidelity of the racial categories that we now take for granted. Thus, Nash's interpretation of race relations during this period has proven to be a great impetus and primer for later scholars of race relations.


Nash's study is useful for those studying race relations as well as those studying early American history. It is useful for students of race relations because it provides a valuable background into the early history and development of race relations as well as giving a masterly overview of the scholarship in this area. It is useful for students of early American history because it gives a much different view of sensibilities during this period, especially those regarding race, class, and culture.


Nash, Gary B. Red, White, and Black: the Peoples of Early America. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1974. Print.

Washburn, Wilcomb E.. "Review: Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early America by Gary B. Nash" Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Aug., 1975), pp. 400-401. Print.

Haney-Lo-pez, Ian.…… [read more]

Secondary Sources in the Book Not Fit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Secondary Sources

In the book Not Fit for our Society: Immigration and Nativism in America by Peter Schrag, the author's main goal appears to critically examine the phenomenon of immigration in the United States. The main point appears to be that, although the country is known as "a nation of immigrants," new immigrants to the country are almost invariable regarded with xenophobic suspicion and treated as a type of almost "evil" that exists to rob the country of what the current native-born nation considers its purely American nature. In other words, whenever new immigrants appear on the country's borders, citizens and leaders alike attempt to allow in only those elements they consider to be conducive to maintaining what is considered American culture. By considering this from a historical viewpoint, the author makes the point that, although every generation of immigration regulators have considered newly arrived immigrants with the same level of suspicion, doubt, xenophobia and even racism, none of their fears proved true in the long-term. The author admirably reaches this goal by an extensive and objective description of the immigration phenomenon, with each chapter focusing on a particular period of American history. This creates a thorough view of the situation and its various related issues, problems, and concerns held by collective Americans at each time period. Interestingly, many of these concerns were the same or at least similar throughout history, regardless of specific time period or moral standing of the day.

The PowerPoint presentation, in contrast to Schrag's book, does not provide the specific goals and objectives of the chapter in list form. The brief nature of the document as well as the fact that it focuses on only one chapter makes it difficult to provide as much detail as Schrag does in his lengthy work. Nevertheless, some guidance is provided by the Overview and Chapter Questions sections. These provide a sense of the direction the document will take, although it does not indicate a central thesis point. The main purpose of the chapter appears to be a discussion of progressivism, its development, and the challenges it faced during its development. The best an analyst can therefore do is to determine whether the questions have been addressed in a logical and clear fashion. When going through the items in the presentation, it was found that, especially in the initial slides, the information was somewhat confusing, not immediately connecting the link between the "Muckrakers," child labor photos, and progressivism. A slide explaining this link would have been somewhat helpful. The later slides, however, provide clear and consistent information that also clarified some of the earlier slides. The sequence, however, was not completely logical and would require reading the entire chapter. The presentation, therefore, would be more useful for the purpose of study or revision than for initial information gathering.

In terms of evidence and proof, Peter Schrag begins his book…… [read more]

Barack Obama in Political Time Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,373 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Barack Obama in Political Time

Renowned expert named Stephen Skowronek's visions have basically changed our accepting of the American position. His "political time" thesis has been chiefly powerful, enlightening how presidents would be able to calculate with the work of their precursors, position their power within current political actions, and being able to assert their power in the… [read more]

Corrections/Police Intelligence the Moral, Legal Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,241 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


This is yet another reason why the United States should abstain from the use of assassination as a tool of statecraft.

The United States has experienced far too many assassinations and therefore, far too many traumas, due to the use of assassinations of public figures with political prowess. The United States, neither any other country, really has the right to… [read more]

Boston Massacre Brutal Murder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,104 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Although British government did tried to support their situation through printed literature but a live example of a solider opening fire on people is more provoking than any printed media[footnoteRef:17]. Another argument can be given that if self-defense was necessary and there was no other way of protecting themselves, the soldiers could have just injured the attackers by shooting them in the legs or arms. [17: Agresto, John, "Art and Historical Truth: The Boston Massacre." Journal of Communication, 29, no. 4 (1979).]

However, counter to that argument, it can be suggested that the series of events has to be evaluated. It was only eight soldiers who were being threatened by a mass much greater in numbers. Secondly, they were being attacked not only with sticks which also have a tendency of causing a physical injury but with heavy metallic instruments. Only after the attack made with the help of club, the gunfire was opened in panic since the soldiers were expecting more attacks. Where another argument may appear that the individuals killed were not armed, it is important to note that the fire opened did not target anyone. It was an un-aimed series of gunshots which was attempted with the intent of dispersing the crowd but resulted in casualties. Most probably, the individuals who passed away in Boston Massacre were standing in the vicinity of the soldiers which caused them to face death[footnoteRef:18]. [18: Adam, Johns & Butterfield, L.H. (Ed). Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, vol. 2. (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 1962):5-16.]

Here, the intention is to evaluate if the Boston Massacre was a result of self-defense or provoked violence. The elements related to the aftermaths do not fall under the category of this discussion. Same goes for the acquittal and minor sentences of the soldiers although the lenient sentences further instigated the public and the course of actions later on, lead to the revolutionary war. The soldiers may have initiated the gun fires in self-defense but defying senior's orders is still a crime requiring serious repercussions.

Boston Massacre was an event which changed the face of Western world. Separation of colonists from British America is considered as a result of death of seven civilians which took place as a result of Boston Massacre. Considerable debate has been made through literature to evaluate if the event was based on self-defense or provoked violence. However, careful analysis reveals that the initiation in gun fire was a result of threat caused to the lives of British army men by the colonists' crowd which was several times greater in number. Careful evaluation also reveals that attempts such as ringing the church bell, were made to turn a perfectly harmless quarrel into a serious life threatening situation. Boston Massacre is surely a foundation of American Revolutionary War but the credit goes more to the biased judgments passed in the trials related to this event.


Agresto, John, "Art and Historical Truth: The Boston Massacre." Journal of Communication, 29,… [read more]

Civil War of Northern Aggression Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Where the possibility existed that the Southern and Northern states would have continued their own set of ideas and the debacle would not have began in the first place, it was the theory of States' rights which stirred the heat between Northern and Southern states. The northern states were the advocates of civil rights and believed that everyone is equal before law with no existence of slavery. This was the reason why Free soil party came into existence. It was also generally accepted that every state has its own set of rights. But the question arose whether these rights could be practiced by the citizens who had left the states. The Southern states argued that the citizens of every states had a right to take property anywhere in the U.S. And the propriety rights would remain theirs. Had this demand been accepted, the citizens of Southern states would have been allowed to take their slaves anywhere and they would have remained their property. The very idea raised many questions about the legislations prevailing in the Northern states. This regime not only opposed abolition of slavery but also caused discrimination between the citizens of Southern and Northern states threatening the idea of Free states and territories.

Another argument presented by South was related to the right of every state to secede from the Union. The idea of secession was rejected by the federal government headed by Buchanan and the proposal of unified federal government was presented on the basis that the Confederates, Southern heritage advocates were using the notion of states' rights for ambiguous purposes which involved achievements of goals rather than following the principles.

The main war began when the Confederate forces initiated the firing of the shots on U.S. military installation in 1861[footnoteRef:2]. As a result of this violence, Lincoln was forced to give an answer to this aggression. Therefore, the Union states were made to contribute in the formation of volunteer army. During 1861-1862, the Southern army faced defeat at various battlefields. It is important to note that the primary goal of President Lincoln was to save the Union. However, it was later in 1862, when Lincoln presented the Emancipation Proclamation[footnoteRef:3]. This purpose of this proclamation was to declare the end of slavery as a primary war goal. Many historians argue that the war of Northern states lacked the ethical grounds; therefore this proclamation was an effort to give a just picture to the violence by Northern states. [2: McPherson, "Battle Cry of Freedom," 266.] [3: Ibid, 890.]

In four years time, the Confederates had faced defeat at Gettysburg, Mississippi River after the Battle of Shiloh and the Siege of Vicksburg. During this time, many historic leaders appeared in U.S. Union army such as Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and George Meade. As a result of this aggressive march in many directions by Northern armies, the Southern army surrendered in 1865 to Grant.

Historians have argued that since history is always written by the winner after the… [read more]

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