"American History / United States" Essays

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Immigration in America: 19th Century to Present Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,190 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Immigration in America: 19th Century to Present

The millions of immigrants who have come to America over the past four hundred years have made America what it is today. The immigrants who have made America their home came to find new lives and livelihoods and their hard work benefited not only themselves and their families, but their new home called… [read more]

Slavery Abolitionist vs. Fire Eaters Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,138 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Slavery Abolitionist vs. Fire Eaters

The issue of slavery has been hotly debated, with many fire eaters (pro slavery secessionists) arguing that this is an economic and legal issue that is a part of Southern culture / traditions. As they feel that many Northerners are hypocritical of Southern slave owners, who are seeking to maximize their profits as much as possible. To fully understand the pro-slavery prospective, we must examine these different views, by looking at a number of sources.

Abolition of Slavery Notes. Wide Open West, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2010

The first source, the Abolition and Slavery Notes, highlights how Southern slave owners give their slaves: food, shelter, clothes and they can openly practice Christianity. When you compare this to Northern factory owners, they provide their workers with nothing more than low wages. In many ways, one could argue that slavery is moral in comparison with abolishing it, as a social support structure is in place for many slaves. At which point, they do not have to endure the same kinds of hardships as those who are "freemen" that are working for set amount of wages.

2. Reidy, Joseph, "Introduction." From Slavery to Agrarian Capitalism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 6 -7. Print.

To corroborate these various facts, Reidy discusses how many slave owners would often compare their lives with that of: wealthy business owners, entrepreneurs and politicians in the North. Who would claim, that they are following a similar kinds of divisions on an economic level. Where, they point out that within Northern society, this group would form the elite class of social aristocrats. The different immigrants that they would have working for them; would fall in the same kind of category as slavery on economic level. With these people being viewed and treated differently in society. This is because civilization is based off of property rights. These rights apply in one way or another, in all civilized societies. Therefore, to deny the basic social relationship that exists is hypocritical, as this fundamental structure will continue no matter what.

3. Axelrod, Alan. "A Nation in Chains." The Complete Idiots Guide to American History. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books. 140 -- 141. Print.

At the same time, slavery has become a necessity that is important to the economic well being of the Southern States. The source from Alexrod, highlights how this would establish the development of cotton as the major export for the South, by discussing how the cotton gin would revolutionize the way this product would be sold. This is because the economy of the South was mainly based upon agricultural production. After the development of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney, this would become the major export for the region. As this commodity, would be sold throughout markets in: Europe and the Northern states, to make a variety of goods. As a result, this information shows the underlying hypocritical nature of the abolitionists. With their own factories using the cotton produced by Southern… [read more]

Inductive Argument Analysis Original Argument: Prompt: Abraham Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Inductive Argument Analysis

Original Argument:

Prompt: Abraham Lincoln ( 1809-1865 ) was the sixteenth president of the United States. Self-educated, Lincoln had a knack for asking the right questions about important issues, such as slavery and war, and then examining all sides of the arguments before coming to a conclusion.

Lincoln's election as president in 1860 led to the secession… [read more]

U.S. History Like Many Colonialism Stories Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


U.S. History

Like many colonialism stories, the history of the United States and its colonialism is a somewhat violent one, in which both individuals and nations collective were oppressed on the basis not only of race, but also of the drive to possess land. The effects of this can be seen not only in terms of the Native American issue and the destruction of whole nations and lifestyles, but also in terms of slavery and the African-American issue. Western expansion and its effects on slavery have an interesting history. Indeed, the slavery issue was so strongly debated between the two opposing groups -- slave owners and those who believed the practice should be abandoned -- that it was inextricably linked to the success of the expansion effort.

The process of expansionism took place throughout the United States for most of the 19th century. Slavery and territorial expansion were linked every time when expansion took place. The issue was unavoidable, and the Senate was under continual pressure to find a balance between slave states and free states in its expansion program.

North-western expansion took place as a result of negotiations, purchases and land cessions; processes that took years. Most negotiations took place with Indian tribes who were living in the territories at the time, particularly tribes such as the Cherokees and Choctaws. Some tribes ceded their rights to the land without protest, as in the case of Virginia in January 1792. It gave up the right to control the land between the boundaries of the eastern bank of the Mississippi.

This expansion was not however without violence. Some tribes refused to acknowledge U.S. sovereignty, and took to violence against the white colonists. Such battles occurred with the Miamis, the Delaware and the Shawnees. Clashes with such tribes occurred especially in Indiana and Ohio. The opposing tribes formed a Western Confederacy, led by the Miamis. The aim…… [read more]

Sensibility and the American Revolution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (645 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


She writes, "In the narrower sense, americanization involved the turning of sensibility to overtly American -- patriot, nationalistic -- ends" (Knott 2009, 105). Thus, sentimentality made the colonists open to social change, and helped develop their sense of patriotism and national pride that helped them ultimately win the Revolutionary War. She also believes it helped shape the new Republic and frame the foundations of the Constitution and Bill of Rights. She notes, "At ratification, Federalists and Anti-Federalists promoting or opposing the Constitution made sensibility and society shared ideological terrain" (Knott 2009, 200). She shows throughout the book that the idea of sensibility helped form the nation, helped frame its new laws, and helped lead to openness and frankness is a society that was not afraid to break new ground.

The author is clearly qualified to write this book, it is filled with generous footnotes that often take up a majority of the written page, illustrating the author's extensive research in developing her thesis and ideas. She uses a variety of primary and secondary sources, from print media of the day, to illustrations, journals, memoirs, texts, and more, and she offers up an idea that has not often been discussed in other histories of the Revolutionary era. Her writing is academic and yet refreshing, with passages that move her theories forward while engaging the reader's interest and attention. She shows how sensibility literally transformed the world, and helped create a radically new form of government.

In conclusion, this is a different type of history text that looks at a very diverse side of American history. It belongs on the bookshelf of any serious student of American history, and anyone interested in the foundations of the Revolutionary War and the United States. The author makes it clear why she supports her thesis, and backs up her beliefs with her research and reasoning, and it makes for a very good read.


Knott,…… [read more]

History of Free Blacks Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,740 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


History Of Free Blacks as Compared to Slaves in the Late Antebellum South

A common aphorism states that history is written by the victors, making it clear that disadvantaged or misused groups rarely have an opportunity to shape written histories. That was certainly the case for American history, which neglected the stories of black Americans until a few decades ago.… [read more]

American Foreign Policy Between 1890 and 1930 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (670 words)
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¶ … American history [...] American foreign policy in the period between 1890 and 1930. America had a strong foreign policy between 1890 and 1930, and it was largely built on isolationism and neutrality. They did not enter World War I until over two years after it began, and they attempted to bargain for peace in the region before they entered the war.

When this era of modern America began, the Progressives were in power, and they supported women's rights, globalization, modernization, and industrialization through democratic principles. All of this sent a progressive message to the world that showed America was ready to tackle the 20th century and be a global player. However, they also opposed labor reform laws and were indifferent toward minorities, especially blacks, sending another message about how the government treated minorities here at home.

This was also a period of the New Manifest Destiny, where America began to actively seek out new territory, such as Samoa, the Philippines, and Hawaii. Some saw this as imperialist activity, while others saw it as a way to gain a new population and land at the same time. In Europe, squabbles broke out about who retained the right to rule over Samoa, and Europeans were getting nervous about rising American power. Another historian writes, "At the turn of the century, Europeans expressed concern over the future United States role in world affairs. Their concern had its source in the obvious capacity of American industry to flood the markets of Europe (Varg, 1971, p. 211). America had come out on top in the Spanish-American War, and Europe was evolving into what would become World War I, where America intended not to get involved. Many of these decisions were entirely about American self-interest, and when they did get involved in World War I, it was because of the growing American threat from Germany, and the failure of Germany to agree to peace, rather than any altruistic ideas. The government was threatened by a possible alliance of Germany,…… [read more]

History Between 1800 and 1850 Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (616 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … history between 1800 and 1850, and how it affected Indians, Blacks, Whites, and Mexicans. Eighteen-hundred through 1850 was a crucial time in American history. The fledgling nation was going through the painful process of defining itself, creating a workable government and refining it, and learning how to function as a democracy.

This was also a time when America was expanding its borders. The Lewis and Clark Expedition in the early part of the century identified land all the way to the Pacific Ocean, and with the Louisiana Purchase, the United States doubled in size. People were moving west, and as they moved, they displaced the Native Americans along the way. The polices about the Natives at the time were mainly to round them up and herd them to reservations farther and farther west, and farther from their native lands. Treaties were often broken, hostilities broke out between the settlers and the Natives, and the Natives were consistently subjugated and abused. This was the time of the Trail of Tears and many other Indian removals, and a low point in Native history.

The War with Mexico also added territory from Texas to California during this time, and the Native Mexicans living in the area underwent tremendous changes. California especially was largely Mexican, until the rush to find gold in California occurred in 1848-9, and their lifestyle went from Mexican authority over broad ranchos and towns, to the sudden spurt of growth that occurred in Northern California when gold was discovered. Thus, this was a period of great expansionism and growth in the nation's size and population. Many Mexicans resented the intrusion and the loss of their territory to the United States.

This was also the time when many Americans began to call out for an end to slavery, and the government attempted to regulate and control slavery.…… [read more]

Theodore Roosevelt New Nationalism Speech Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (646 words)
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Roosevelt New Nationalism

Roosevelt's New Nationalism: Then and Today

Following a bloody civil war and a gradual economic recovery, the United States would enter industrialization with stability and strong leadership. Thus, beginning its first period of sheer expansionism, particularly given the vast stretches of land which lay before it in the west, the United States would take on the 19th century with a newly aggressive outward orientation which bespoke its origins as a colony of the similarly oriented British Kingdom.

Outward expansion would begin earnest and in permanency with the words and actions of President Roosevelt, who during a speech in 1910, would put forth a statement on America's role and responsibility to the world that very much resonates with American leaders today.

Much as America's new brand of imperialism gravitated outward from the policies of Theodore Roosevelt, so too would this be the case with a brand of New Nationalism, which the powerful central leader coined in the speech. This would correlate philosophically with the actuality of New Imperialism, which assumed as its rationale that which Nationalism posited. Particularly, it was argued that the United States had achieved constitutionally, ideologically and economically, the superior way of life for the future of nations. Through the premise of a strong central government and a sweeping global authority, it was argued that the United States was in the unique position to help elevate the 'third world.' Particularly, this ideology would be fueled by the premise that industry and business leaders were to be seen as the self-regulating powers of the future, with the government taking responsibility primarily to simply protect laborers, women and children from the overbearing authority of corporate power. In its disposition toward corporate deregulation as a path to realizing international American greatness, this would help to set in motion many of the cultural shifts that have forged the cross-section of industrialists and nationalists constituting the modern Republican Party.

By philosophical premise, President…… [read more]

Theodore Roosevelt Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,918 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Theodore Roosevelt: An American for a New Age

Few Americans have so profoundly influenced the modern era as Theodore Roosevelt. Statesman and cultural crusader, the twenty-sixth president of the United States brought issues of race, conservation, and American power to the forefront of public discussion. Roosevelt was both a product of his times and a sign of things to come.… [read more]

What Factors Lay Behind the Coming of the American Civil War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,129 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


American History - Civil War


The American Civil War was a watershed event in the history of the nascent America, but contemporary historians focus almost exclusively on slavery as its only root cause. Undoubtedly, slavery played a very significant role in the developing antagonism between the northern and southern American states, but at least two other factors were equally responsible for the deterioration of interstate relations that ultimately led to war.

Namely, the fundamental issue of state sovereignty against the growing authority of the federal government and the very different life style and political and economic bases of life in the southern states as compared with those that shaped life in the North (Hartshorne 2005).

The Role of Slavery as a Root Cause of the American Civil War:

In many respects, the outbreak of the American Civil war was attributable directly to the invention of the cotton engine (or "gin") by Eli Whitney toward the end of the 18th century. Prior to that, cotton production was so unprofitable that American slavery might very well have been phased out long before 1861 for purely economic reasons (Hartshorne 2005).

American cotton grew in two specific varieties known as black seed cotton and green seed cotton, with very different economic value. Black seed cotton fibers were long and relatively easy to separate by hand from their seeds; green seed cotton on the other hand, produced much shorter, stickier fibers that were so difficult and painstakingly slow to hand separate that the maximum possible output could probably not have supported the high cost of procuring and transporting African slaves to the American continent, notwithstanding the fundamental moral issues militating against the institution of slavery in the first place. Black seed cotton grew only in the coastal southern states; the inland states were limited to growing green seed cotton, exclusively. When Whitney introduced his cotton gin, it transformed the profitability of growing green seed cotton practically overnight by increasing the amount of cotton fiber that could be separated from seed by several factors of ten (Lakwete 2004). The immediate result was a dramatic increase in cotton production and in the number of southern plantations eager to fill the needs of the rapidly growing textile industry, both on the American continent as well as in European countries, such as Britain, in particular. By the time the serious conflict began brewing between the North and South that would eventually lead to the Civil War, slavery had become absolutely indispensable to the economy and way of life throughout the southern cotton-producing states.

While slavery was not exclusive to the southern states, it was never an important factor in the northern states, primarily because their economies relied on industrial manufacturing rather than agricultural production. Unskilled slave labor is (aside from the moral issues of human enslavement) perfectly suitable for agricultural harvesting; by comparison, modernized industry requires more highly skilled labor for which slavery is not particularly helpful (Lakwete 2004). Just… [read more]

Interpretive Narrative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,627 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Civil War in American history. Specifically it will contain an analysis of James M. McPherson's Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction regarding the question "Was Slavery the primary cause of the Civil War?" Many scholars point to numerous reasons from the economy to rapid growth as the main causes of the American Civil War. However, many… [read more]

Deborah Sampson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,894 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Deborah Sampson Gannet -- American feminist and patriot

Deborah Sampson Gannett is the first American woman known to have impersonated a man for the purpose of serving in the colonial army during the American Revolutionary War. The contributions of female figures such as Deborah Sampson Gannett have often remained ignored or unrecognized in contemporary accounts of colonial history, despite their… [read more]

Cities Suburbs and Exburbs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,368 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


American Cities

Just as American cities are symbols of the amalgamation and blending of cultures within our society, they are also symbols of the limitations of this image for accounting for the vast amount of inequality in the United States. Of course, the United States is a nation of unprecedented diversity; there is a wide variety of races, ethnicities, cultures, and even languages. However, this diverse mixture has never been particularly homogeneous. The United States, since its earliest beginnings as a British colony was deliberately designed to keep some portions of society separated from others. The most obvious early example is slavery in the southern states; yet even in the North, segregation was the norm. And today, many of the northern cities remain, though perhaps the most diverse cities in America, also many of the most heterogeneously divided -- Detroit, New York, Milwaukee, and Chicago are among these cities.

Yet, perhaps to a greater extent than any other period in American history, the nineteenth century shaped the cultural, economic, and political landscape of the United States profoundly. Fundamentally, this stemmed from the growth of the nation's economic system, from a collection of largely disparate locales on this vast continent, into a highly interconnected system: "The nineteenth century saw the creation of an integrated economy in the United States, an economy that bound city and country into a powerful national and international market that forever altered human relationships to the American land," (Cronon xiv). Technological, governmental, and ideological transformations made the nineteenth century span the gap between the modern world and the ancient world. Essentially, it was during the nineteenth century that an increasing number of people began to move away from rural farming communities and into the city. This was made possible by the vast distances that goods and foods could be transported. In other words, cities were able to be supported by larger areas of land because these new modes of transportation could supply people's needs with greater efficiency. The move to the city was also fostered by what came to be known as the Industrial Revolution. This revolution began in cloth factories in England, but soon spread throughout Europe and the Americas, and altered the manner in which many previously home made goods were produced. Businessmen discovered that they could increase production and lower costs by setting up massive plants by which products could be manufactured far more quickly. This generated far more urban jobs, thus contributing greatly to the swelling western cities.

Still, the mechanization of farming -- and the overall move of American people into the cities -- resulted in the enormous industry of bringing food goods to city-dwellers on a scale never seen before in human history. In Chicago, massive meat-packing plants became a symbol of both the advantages and disadvantages of organizing a society -- and cities -- around the conception of mass-production-based capitalism: "The stench of the Chicago River and the insidiously invisible substances that might make their way into a package of… [read more]

Scholars Say That Because the Framers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (989 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … scholars say that because the framers of the U.S. Constitution were a relatively group of white men, many of whom had been educated at the country's best schools and were from some of the best families, the document produced was biased in various ways. For example, in 1987 Justice Thurgood Marshall said that the Constitution was "defective from the start," that its first words -- "We the People" -- excluded "the majority of American citizens," because it left out blacks and women. Regardless of whether or not one agrees with this sentiment, it is true that equal rights for "all" has been a concern throughout U.S. history. It can easily be said that the decade of the 1960s was one of the most momentous, since major anti-discrimination laws were passed to clarify the rights of all people.

Howard Zinn in A People's History of the United States says, "The black revolt of the 1950s and 1960s -- North and South -- came as a surprise. But perhaps it should not have" (443). Repressed individuals cannot forget their slavery and continued humiliation, segregation and even lynching over the decades. For example, notes Zinn, the 14th and 15th Amendments of the Constitution gave the President rights to completely wipe out discrimination, but no President used these rights (449).

Small actions were made over time. Truman, four months before the presidential election of 1948, issued an executive order asking that the armed forces, segregated in World War II, institute policies of racial equality "as soon as possible." It took over a decade to complete the desegregation in the military (Zinn 448).

In 1944 the Swedish researcher Gunnar Myrdal received a grant of $300,000, a huge sum of money at that time, to examine American democratic politics. His book, An American Dilemma, concluded that "the masses are impervious to rational argument." He proved by statistics that America was too deeply a racist country for the wrongs of the blacks ever to be put right by Congressional action and points to the Supreme Court to step in where democracy failed and apply "the spirit of the Reconstruction Amedments" to end segregation (Johnson 952). Even today, many people say that the book had a profound impact on the thinking of the times.

In 1954, explains Johnson, "many American liberals had been dismayed by the fact that despite emancipation, and despite the 15th Amendment, guaranteeing all citizens the right to vote, blacks had failed to participate fully in American political life, especially in those states where they were most numerous, and the black community remained poor, badly educated, downtrodden and supine" (952).

Myrdal's book became, according to Johnson (952), "the bible of Thurgod Marshall, then head of the National Association of the Advancement of Colored People Legal Defense and Education Fund."

The result, says Johnson, "was perhaps the most important single Supreme Court decision in American history, Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, where the Court on May…… [read more]

Hypocrisy in the Declaration of Independence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,428 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



The Declaration of Independence: Hypocrisy and Irony

While the Declaration of Independence is one of the most famous and important documents in American history, something within the document is awry. In fact, some things are not as self-evident as they may seem in the document.

Leaders like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin are celebrated for their efforts in creating… [read more]

Secession Was a Serious Response to Fundamental Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,492 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Secession was a serious response to fundamental disagreements over the interpretation of the Constitution and the role of the federal government of the United States. Slavery was the core issue that brought these disagreements to light. Although states' rights and sectionalism played major roles in the decision to cede from the Union, the South would most likely have used any… [read more]

Andrew Jackson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (908 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Andrew Jackson

In retrospect, the period of American history from 1820 to 1850 is commonly known as The Age of Jackson because of the far reaching effect that one man, Andrew Jackson had on the American economy, transportation system, domestic policy, and many other key areas. In this paper, the policies and viewpoints of Jackson will be examined within the context of the areas of his most far reaching impact, as well as the possibility that the events that Jackson is credited with facilitating may or may not have taken place regardless of who occupied the White House during this pivotal historic period.

The Spoils System and Nullification

Two actions that are attributed to Andrew Jackson are significant not only because of the events that they put into motion, but also because they demonstrate the power that Jackson wielded during "his age" as it has come to be known. The first of these, The Spoils System, was a system that Jackson used to reward his political supporters and punish his political adversaries simultaneously. Simply put, The Spoils System rewards members of the political party of the winning candidate with jobs and special favors and intentionally withholds such benefits from the opposing party members (Ryan, 1996). Jackson wielded the Spoils System like a magic wand to reward friends and a club to inflict pain on enemies, and in some cases, this system still exists today, albeit secretly.

Nullification, like Spoils, was a popular political and economic tool of Jackson's, which basically granted the power to nullify, or reject unfavorable tariffs, especially in the production of goods by slave labor (Silbey, 1973).

Nullification was one of the state's rights issues that ultimately led to the succession of the Southern United States, and the Civil war, and in some instances, on issues of state's rights in the modern age, the reverberations of nullification are often heard.

The Bank of the United States

Andrew Jackson, as was typical for him, flexed his political muscle in the affairs of the American economy, as shown in his handling of The Bank of the United States. In one of the most far reaching actions of Jackson's second term as president, he refused to renew the charter of The Bank of the United States, resulting in a withdrawl of federal funds from that bank, thereby weakening the entire American banking system, lowering faith in the American economy both domestically and internationally, and some claim leading to the economic woes that would befall the nation in years to come (Sharp, 1970).

Jackson's veto of the measures to renew The Bank of the United States stemmed from his longtime mistrust of the commercial banking system, his fierce support of states' rights, and his desire…… [read more]

Historical Perspective of Social Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,546 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Social Work

The objective of this work is to trace and critically evaluate the relationship of social work to social justice through the lens of the fact that social work has a record of inclusion or exclusion of oppressed or marginalized groups. This work will explore this through a contemporary social work practice issue.

In understanding the historical… [read more]

American Imperialism Reform World War and the Twenties Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (929 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


American History

The Forces Shaping American Domestic and Foreign Policy: 1890-1928

The latter half of the 19th century was rife with social and economic changes that would shape the development of American domestic and foreign policy between 1890 and 1928. The policies that would be created were drafted at the confluence of a variety of events. These included the lasting effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction, industrialization, demographic growth, imperialism, and statism. Combined, these factors contributed to the creation of U.S. foreign and domestic policy that was much more proactive and intrusive by 1928 than it had been in 1890.

The social changes that occurred in the wake of the Civil War during the Reconstruction Era are well-documented. Newly emancipated slaves changed social and economic conditions in the South, their freedom crippling a plantation-based agricultural economy. At the same time, however, industrialization was taking powerful hold in the North -- particularly the Northeast. By 1894, the United States had been transformed from a former British holding into the largest manufacturing nation in the world (Johnson 531).

Fueling this industrial growth was an influx of new workers. After the Civil War, the U.S. population stood at about 39 million, with half of those people still living in rural communities. However, by World War I, natural population growth had swollen the nation's population to 100 million, more than 70% of whom now lived in urban areas. Added to that was an incredible influx of immigrants during this period. Between 1890 and 1914 alone, 15 million immigrants arrived on U.S. shores looking for work and to put down roots (Johnson 513-514).

Socially, the United States was in a transition period during the late 19th century as the ideals of Populism flourished and then gave way to Progressivism. The former lasted roughly from 1880 until 1900 and represented the last hurrah of the U.S.' agricultural economy, stressing farmers' ideals. Dissimilarly, Progressivism was driven by educated urban intellectuals who brought new socialist values to American policy during that era (Johnson 607). At the same time, the U.S. -- like so many other nations -- became gripped by imperialist sensibilities. The people and their politicians came to believe that American control should be extended to territorial holdings beyond the lower contiguous states and territories (Johnson 609). As with the already mentioned changes, this facilitated significant changes in domestic and foreign policy.

Overall the tendency in foreign and domestic policy changes was toward extension of the role and authority of the U.S. government at home and abroad. Domestically, policies shifted toward increased statism. Under Woodrow Wilson in particular the U.S. government acquired significant new powers that allowed it to act with greater influence on American soil. The passage of a Constitutional Amendment authorizing an income tax on all Americans cemented…… [read more]

FDR and WWII Involvement American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Majority rule is not, however, a perfect form of governance, and Roosevelt was certainly aware of the danger to the United States which would be posed by a strong, victorious Germany (which was reinforced by Japan).

Factors influencing Roosevelt to respond with military force to the Japanese threat include Japan's geographic proximity to the United States. The physical threat from Germany and Italy, European nations, was much less immediate than that posed by Japan, a Pacific nation with proximity to Hawaii and the West Coast. The attack on Pearl Harbor most definitely proved these fears to be true, showing that from the Pacific, the Japanese could attack the United States soil.

Ideological factors were also a factor in weighing the threat from a Nazi/Axis victory; Roosevelt knew that a victorious, Nazi-affiliated Japan would be not only a physical threat to the U.S. But an opponent to democracy as a whole; the fascism propagated by the Nazi powers possibly frightened Roosevelt more than the immediate physical threat from Japan, as it posed a threat not just to the physical well-being of the United States but to its very core values and existence.

Much has been made about the "open door" to China and business interests in the Far East weighing into the decision to enter WWII. In a political sense, protecting democracy assuredly were more important to Roosevelt than business interests and the potential for monetary profit -- as such, even if the idea of protecting China in the Far East was a slight factor in deciding to declare war on Japan, it did not outweigh the unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor or Roosevelt's intentions of helping the Allies in the interest of protecting democracy worldwide, and, subsequently, protecting the American way of life.… [read more]

American Constitution: A Living Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The clause I now read is as plainly written in the Constitution as any other of its provisions: No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall in consequence of any law or regulation therein be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due."

This point of law is not to declaim Douglass' attempt to rally support for the cause of ending slavery by any rhetorical means necessary, nor is it to deny that the current American Constitution, with its equal rights protections, does protect the rights of all citizens, regardless of race. However, now, with the luxury of history it is important to remember truly how far our nation has come, not only socially, but also legally and politically as well.

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. Available in full text online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer new2?id=DouMybo.sgm& images=images/modeng& data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed& tag=public& part=6& division=div2[29 Jan 2005].

Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address: Monday, March 4, 1861." From Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs, U.S.G.P.O., 1989. Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/124/. [29 Jan 2005].

Madison, James. "Federalist No. 10." The Federalist Papers. Available in full text online (http://www.thisnation.com/library/books/federalist/10.html) [29 Jan 2005].

"The United States Constitution." Available in full text online http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html. [29 Jan 2005].… [read more]

Period Between 1820 and 1840 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,433 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … American history between the years of 1820 and 1840. This period of time was just after what historians have labeled as the Era of Good Feelings because the nation had been consumed with the recovery of the War of 1812 which lead to a truly nationalistic sense of values and togetherness. Not to be out done, the period… [read more]

Amending the Constitution to Allow Foreign Born American Citizens to Run for President Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,435 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Arnold Schwarzenegger has his "Terminator" eyes on the American presidency. The Governor of California recently campaigned with President Bush, and he told 60 Minutes reporter Morley Safer that he would "absolutely" consider running -- if he could. Arnold is prevented from even running for the office of Presidency because of Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the… [read more]

Chattel Slavery and Race Relations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,838 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Slavery and Race Relations

Slavery was inconsistent with the ideals incorporated in the Constitution and yet it was allowed by the founding fathers because they wanted to preserve the Union at all costs. We must here understand that it is absolutely impossible for a country or any institution to operate with conflicting values. Slavery was an abominable practice, which should… [read more]

United States Presidents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The others were the annexation of Hawaii and Cuba, which he opposed. Had he annexed these two island nations, the Spanish-American War might have been averted, but Cleveland was not an expansionist, he felt the most compelling American problems were closer to home, rather than abroad. Cleveland handled foreign policy much more effectively than McKinley did, because he did not involve the U.S. In conflicts that did not affect them, and he did not make the United States look like a bully. His stand on Venezuela showed he could be strong, but his policy also showed he was not interested in taking over countries at the expense of their people and wishes. His foreign policy was more skillful because it was more involved with major issues in the world, rather than American imperialistic advances.


Author not Available. "Biography of William McKinley." WhiteHouse.gov. 2004. 24 May 2004. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wm25.html

Author not Available. "Foreign Affairs Under Cleveland." U-S-History.com. 2002. 24 May 2004. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h796.html… [read more]

Sentiment, Enhanced by Analysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Turner's evidence supports his points by then going into detail regarding his assertions, and citing evidence of other historians and statesmen as part of his arguments. For example, when he discusses America's lessening dependence on England, he cites the Governor of South Carolina and his assessment of the South's initial dependence on England for food and drink, and the growing dependence on American markets to supply their daily needs. Thus, Turner continually backs up his own thesis with the interpretations of other historians, experts, and citizens, thereby reinforcing his arguments and his ideas.

Turner's final package is quite convincing. His assessment of the American westward expansion as a vital part of our history is undeniable. He asserts, "The growth of nationalism and the evolution of American political institutions were dependent on the advance of the frontier," and he continually maintains that slavery was an important incident in American history, but westward expansion had affects that are far more lasting. Land was the most defining factor in our growth and success maintains, and he goes on to cite several pertinent examples of land purchase, legislation, and reform that had long-term affects on the nation, including the instrumental Louisiana Purchase. Turner's final analysis is convincing because it is clear he is a knowledgeable and thoughtful historian who has given much deliberation to his final conclusions. In addition, it is difficult to argue with his conclusions, because they are so logically thought out, and so thoughtfully presented. For example, he asserts, "But the most important effect of the frontier has been in the promotion of democracy here and in Europe. As has been indicated the frontier is productive of individualism."

Clearly, the westward expansion of the United States did foster an individualism and independence that did not exist in Europe, and fostered our own growing sense of free will and democracy. The American West has always been a land where pioneers could build a new life for themselves, and this strength, determination, and individualism has not only continued to foster an independent spirit in our people, it has created a nation who is always thirsty for new adventures, and holds an undeniable place in the world's history.


Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online].

San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. 1893. The Significance of the Frontier in American History [online]. San Diego, CA: University of San Diego; available at http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/civ/turner.html;Internet; accessed 20 March 2004.… [read more]

Civil War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (948 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The South made a critical mistake with this cash crop. During the midst of the war, the Davis government deliberately did all in its power to make this crop useless. They reduced their planting, burning some of the bales they had on hand, and discouraged shipments abroad (Current, 1983, p. 25). They also sold much of this harvested crop to the North for any profit they could obtain. The South found it very difficult to fund this expensive war. The Confederacy requisitioned funds from the individual states. The Confederacy had to fund the war by paper currency. By 1864, the confederacy issued $1.5 billion in paper currency. Unlike the union, the confederacy had no uniform currency system. This produced chaos. The result was an enormous inflation of 9,000% increase in prices (Brinkley 392).

In terms of strategy and leadership, the North also had an advantage. Strategically, the North's posture was one of aggression. The South's posture was one of defense. (Zebrowski, 1999, p. 225) The North was helped by Lincoln's Union policy. Lincoln wanted to preserve the Union and he would let nothing get in his way of doing this. (Brinkley, 1991, p. 382). On the other hand, President Davis made one crucial mistake: he failed to create an effective central command system. (Brinkley, 1991, 397).

In 1864, Lincoln made Ulysses S. Grant general in chief of all the Union armies. Grant, though not a master strategist, effectively used the North's great advantage in troops and material resources to overwhelm the South. He was not afraid to absorb massive casualties as long as he was inflicting similar or greater casualties on his opponents. Confederacy's President Davis, who unlike Lincoln was a trained professional solider; but he was not an impressive as leader. Lincoln made changes in five generals within one year because they could not give him decisive victories. Davis on the other hand, did possess better over all soldiers. But could not overcome the disadvantages faced by his South to lead them to victory. Most southerners thought that if they could just wear the Union down they could win. This goal was not very fulfilling, the North had to many resources to be worn down by the South.

The Civil War was a grueling time for both the Union and the Confederacy. The victor was easily detected from the beginning. The North with its overpowering economy profited from the war. The need for war materials supplied many citizens with jobs.


Brinkley, A. (1991). American history: a survey (8th ed.), New York, McGraw-Hill.

Commager, H.S., & Bruun, E. (2000). The Civil War archive: the history of the Civil War in documents, New York, Black Dog & Leventhal: Distributed by Workman Pub. Co.

Current, R.N. (1983). American history: a survey (6th ed.), New York, Knopf.

Donovan, T.H. (2002). The…… [read more]

American Civil War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


He looks like a good man (and I believe there is much in looks)" (Lowenfels 81-82). According to accounts, both men conducted themselves like gentlemen at the surrender, and were very respectful of one another. One man was a "loser," and one man was a "winner," but both men had dignity and earned the respect of those who watched the surrender. "General Grant now stepped down from the porch, and, moving toward him, saluted him by raising his hat. He was followed in this act of courtesy by all our officers present; Lee raised his hat respectfully, and rode off to break the sad news to the brave fellows whom he had so long commanded" (Surrender).

I believe the event would have changed me for the better, because of the way the two men conducted themselves, and because the meeting itself was so important. It is not often one is able to witness an important event such as this, and it could not help but change the lives of all those who witnessed it. In addition, seeing both sides conduct themselves with such distinction and respect would have made an important impression on any who witnessed the signing. As Norton notes, "Grant treated his viral with respect and paroled the defeated troops" (Norton 295). It would have been very easy for Grant to hold Lee personally accountable for all the Union deaths, and treat him as a prisoner of war, along with his men, but Grant did not, and became the better man because of it.

Finally, the surrender at Appomattox is still haunting today, which is another reason I would like to have witnessed the event first hand. Today, the courthouse and surrounding area is a National Historic Park - reminding visitors forever of the momentous events that took place there almost 140 years ago. There are some events in history that stand out above others, and this was one of them. Some of these events are tragic, making people always remember where they were when they occurred, such as JFK's assassination, or the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Others are historic, such as Neil Armstrong's first steps on the moon. In either case, the events transcend time and history, as does the signing of the surrender at Appomattox. It was a pivotal turning point in history, when the story of the nation could have swung either way. A vengeful and angry northern surrender could have driven the country even further apart. As it was, these two men managed to begin to heal the gaping wound afflicting the country. Their strength made the country strong, and gave everyone time to catch their breath and begin to rebuild. The North and South had both suffered greatly during the war, and now, it was time to get on with the business of living. Grant and Lee made it possible to see the world getting back to normal, as they conducted the surrender with so much class and caring. I certainly… [read more]

Military Narrative of the American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,995 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Revolutionary War completely disrupted life for many American women, a life that was already quite difficult at the time, given the demands of running a household, as James Martin Kirby makes clear in his essay from First Generations. (165) Many women followed their husbands to war to become camp followers and suffered some of the same privation that the soldiers did. Or, Patriot women stayed at home to run their family business and manage their homes alone.

Some women even dressed as men and fought in the war. Even those women who chose to become camp followers were recognized as part of the military. They received only half rations, half of the already meager portion reserved for soldiers. These women also often earned pay for the invaluable services they provided as cooks, nurses and laundresses.

Women who did not become as actively involved in the military effort also suffered. Colonial boycotts of British goods increased the necessity of home manufacturing. Spinning became a necessity and a kind of political protest, in defiance of British economic policy. However, Royalist, as opposed to Patriot women, because they did not have the same outlets for personal independence as did Patriot women, perhaps suffered even more. Although Royalist women did gain greater access to British goods, because of their location in the Colonies they still had to suffer much of the effects of the Colonial boycott of English goods. This made the running of their households just as difficult. However, they did not have the same sense that their deprivation was for a cause they believed in.

Regardless, the War for American Independence did not, famously, result in the political independence of American women. Despite the fact that wartime, as it was occur subsequently in other periods of American history, brought about a greater equality of the sexes (even of the first American women serving, albeit illegally, in combat) women were not granted equal rights with men after the war. Although women may have sacrificed and suffered like their male compatriots, traditional notions of gender remained strong enough that the multifaceted nature of their contribution, encompassing both military as well as domestic responsibilities, was either ignored or feminized.

Perhaps the forgetting of the misery of the Patriot soldiers in Revolutionary America and the ignoring of the role of women in Revolutionary America can be paralleled. Both demonstrate how a country during peacetime, after a time of war, often chooses to smooth over the disruption in social roles that such conflict can cause. A grateful new nation was not grateful enough to extend pensions to its weary soldiers until many were dead, nor did it extent equal rights to women until well into the 20th century.

Works Cited

Martin, James Kirby (Ed.). Ordinary Courage: The Revolutionary War Adventures of Joseph Plumb Martin. Second Edition.…… [read more]

American National Crisis of the 70S Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … National Crisis of the U.S. in the 70s

What important political events and economic factors contributed to the sense of national crisis that permeated the U.S. for much of the 1970s? Why, given America's history since the end of the World War II, was this perceived crisis such a shock to so many Americans?

The economy of the United States of America was suffering serious drawbacks after the Vietnam War. For the first time, the U.S. faced unfamiliar prospects of a shrinking economy, and the citizens were becoming increasingly disenfranchised. Some of the common problems on the streets included lack of fuel, soaring inflation and record unemployment, among a myriad of other issues (Elco U.S. History, n.d.). The lack of fuel was aggravated by international trends in the oil industry. There was a global shortage too. This scenario led to inflated gas prices. These issues affected a number of nations in Europe too. The scenario is what gave birth to stagflation. This is a term that was commonly used to refer to a coincidence of inlfation and recession. In perspective, the crisis triggered oil prices in the U.S. to take a skyward trajectory; with a sudden increase from 35 cents per gallon at the beginning of the 70s to over 90 cents in less than 10 years. The oil embargo was lifted in 1974, but the country kept reeling with the effects for the better part of the century (Elco U.S. History, n.d.). There were many reasons why the economic problems lasted longer that they should have. Some highlights of the changing trends that sunk the economy further include: the ever rising property prices, lack of employment, inflated car prices and more. A lot of investors shied away from the bank system because they had no confidence in it. There were no structures to arrest the degenerating state of affairs. It was, even, more disturbing to note that no one was even willing to take up the leadership of the federal government. So, in essence, there was no one in charge of anything to rescue the country from the economic crisis. There are three primary reasons that led to the persistence of the problem (Elco U.S. History, n.d.)

1 The state government did not have anyone to preside over efforts to forestall the declining economy until the 80s when Paul Volcker stepped in as the chairperson of the Federal Reserve and set up stringent measures that began to aid the economy.

2 The economic policies of the sixties were simply bad and incompatible with the situation in the 70s. The policy makers were up against bad luck too.

3 It was hard to believe that the recess was fluctuating as opposed to the premise…… [read more]

Assassination of Jf Kennedy Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


III. The last significant event preceding the turning point was the Vietnam War. Kennedy's inspiration behind becoming a member of the Southern Vietnamese war initiatives was simple: containing the spread of communism (Zelizer, 2012).

All these events led to his assassination. The decisions he created as President were not easy and were very extensive. In doing so, he earned many opponents. Theorists of assassination recommend a bigger conspiracy to his killing. Their concepts are not factual, but offer intriguing thought.

What subsequent event or events were dependent on the action of the turning point; also, what possible event or events became impossible because the turning point occurred?

Individuals who have lived long enough in history have witnessed radical shifts relating to the death of JF Kennedy. It is the rapidly declining regard for laws, governing bodies and people serving in high offices. The young and charming David Kennedy, despite his misfortunes, was considered as a strong, motivating and visionary leader. Upon his death, his successor, Lyndon Johnson, did not have the same personality and air about him. Johnson involved The United States in the Vietnam War, and the political backlash kept him from seeking a second term in office. Richard Nixon, the next president, had to step down in shame after lying to cover up his knowledge of the tawdry event called Watergate (Zelizer, 2012).

The current United States Government has reached a state of mediocrity that imperils its position as the top nation on the globe. Government debts have been accumulating in the last fifty years. These debts threaten the country's role as the prominent economic force and the top military force on the globe. Political figures are incapable or reluctant to deal with the financial problems that affect medical care, economic stability, and retirement benefits. It is evident that confidence in leadership is dwindling with time. As such, the U.S. would need many years and a new stage of proficiency to remove the effect of recent years. Half a century later, the leadership of this great country is in a sad condition. Problems of debts, migrants, social breakdown and gender politics confront Americans (Zelizer, 2012). Moreover, no one in leadership can bring a clear proactive approach of steering the U.S. into a stable and a promising future.


Zelizer, B. (2012). Covering the body: The Kennedy assassination, the media, and the shaping of collective memory. Chicago u.a: Univ. Of…… [read more]

Progress Is a Nice Word Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This war tore our country apart, and is primarily remembered as the northern and southern people, facing off to preserve their ideas regarding the issue of race. The northern states wanted to abolish slavery, as they were against the evil of keeping another human in bondage. They also wanted to move toward a more fair system of labor. The Southern states wanted to hold on to their slave labor, keep their lives of privilege, and their white supremacist attitudes. Not directly stated in the movie, but obvious to the viewer, is the regions' discriminatory racial hierarchy. White people held all of the power in the region, and black people were the powerless, illiterate slaves.

After the famous southern General Robert E. Lee surrendered in April 1865, the Civil War ended and the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution was passed, officially ending slavery. During the period that followed, referred to as the "Reconstruction Era," the federal government passed a series of laws that were aimed at giving the former male slaves the rights to own property and the right to vote. Still, true equality remained elusive to the African- Americans during this time period, as "one by one, all-white Democratic parties "redeemed" state governments from Republicanism and ended what they called "black rule," instituting devices to disenfranchise black men, such as requiring voters to demonstrate literacy, to pay exorbitant poll taxes, or to prove that their grandfathers had been voters."[footnoteRef:1] These laws would later evolve into "Jim Crowe" laws which were passed in the southern states effectively as a form of legalized segregation… [read more]

Barack Obama in Political Time Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,373 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Barack Obama in Political Time

Renowned expert named Stephen Skowronek's visions have basically changed our accepting of the American position. His "political time" thesis has been chiefly powerful, enlightening how presidents would be able to calculate with the work of their precursors, position their power within current political actions, and being able to assert their power in the… [read more]

Corrections/Police Intelligence the Moral, Legal Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,241 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


This is yet another reason why the United States should abstain from the use of assassination as a tool of statecraft.

The United States has experienced far too many assassinations and therefore, far too many traumas, due to the use of assassinations of public figures with political prowess. The United States, neither any other country, really has the right to… [read more]

Secondary Sources in the Book Not Fit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Secondary Sources

In the book Not Fit for our Society: Immigration and Nativism in America by Peter Schrag, the author's main goal appears to critically examine the phenomenon of immigration in the United States. The main point appears to be that, although the country is known as "a nation of immigrants," new immigrants to the country are almost invariable regarded with xenophobic suspicion and treated as a type of almost "evil" that exists to rob the country of what the current native-born nation considers its purely American nature. In other words, whenever new immigrants appear on the country's borders, citizens and leaders alike attempt to allow in only those elements they consider to be conducive to maintaining what is considered American culture. By considering this from a historical viewpoint, the author makes the point that, although every generation of immigration regulators have considered newly arrived immigrants with the same level of suspicion, doubt, xenophobia and even racism, none of their fears proved true in the long-term. The author admirably reaches this goal by an extensive and objective description of the immigration phenomenon, with each chapter focusing on a particular period of American history. This creates a thorough view of the situation and its various related issues, problems, and concerns held by collective Americans at each time period. Interestingly, many of these concerns were the same or at least similar throughout history, regardless of specific time period or moral standing of the day.

The PowerPoint presentation, in contrast to Schrag's book, does not provide the specific goals and objectives of the chapter in list form. The brief nature of the document as well as the fact that it focuses on only one chapter makes it difficult to provide as much detail as Schrag does in his lengthy work. Nevertheless, some guidance is provided by the Overview and Chapter Questions sections. These provide a sense of the direction the document will take, although it does not indicate a central thesis point. The main purpose of the chapter appears to be a discussion of progressivism, its development, and the challenges it faced during its development. The best an analyst can therefore do is to determine whether the questions have been addressed in a logical and clear fashion. When going through the items in the presentation, it was found that, especially in the initial slides, the information was somewhat confusing, not immediately connecting the link between the "Muckrakers," child labor photos, and progressivism. A slide explaining this link would have been somewhat helpful. The later slides, however, provide clear and consistent information that also clarified some of the earlier slides. The sequence, however, was not completely logical and would require reading the entire chapter. The presentation, therefore, would be more useful for the purpose of study or revision than for initial information gathering.

In terms of evidence and proof, Peter Schrag begins his book…… [read more]

Boston Massacre Brutal Murder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,104 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Although British government did tried to support their situation through printed literature but a live example of a solider opening fire on people is more provoking than any printed media[footnoteRef:17]. Another argument can be given that if self-defense was necessary and there was no other way of protecting themselves, the soldiers could have just injured the attackers by shooting them in the legs or arms. [17: Agresto, John, "Art and Historical Truth: The Boston Massacre." Journal of Communication, 29, no. 4 (1979).]

However, counter to that argument, it can be suggested that the series of events has to be evaluated. It was only eight soldiers who were being threatened by a mass much greater in numbers. Secondly, they were being attacked not only with sticks which also have a tendency of causing a physical injury but with heavy metallic instruments. Only after the attack made with the help of club, the gunfire was opened in panic since the soldiers were expecting more attacks. Where another argument may appear that the individuals killed were not armed, it is important to note that the fire opened did not target anyone. It was an un-aimed series of gunshots which was attempted with the intent of dispersing the crowd but resulted in casualties. Most probably, the individuals who passed away in Boston Massacre were standing in the vicinity of the soldiers which caused them to face death[footnoteRef:18]. [18: Adam, Johns & Butterfield, L.H. (Ed). Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, vol. 2. (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 1962):5-16.]

Here, the intention is to evaluate if the Boston Massacre was a result of self-defense or provoked violence. The elements related to the aftermaths do not fall under the category of this discussion. Same goes for the acquittal and minor sentences of the soldiers although the lenient sentences further instigated the public and the course of actions later on, lead to the revolutionary war. The soldiers may have initiated the gun fires in self-defense but defying senior's orders is still a crime requiring serious repercussions.

Boston Massacre was an event which changed the face of Western world. Separation of colonists from British America is considered as a result of death of seven civilians which took place as a result of Boston Massacre. Considerable debate has been made through literature to evaluate if the event was based on self-defense or provoked violence. However, careful analysis reveals that the initiation in gun fire was a result of threat caused to the lives of British army men by the colonists' crowd which was several times greater in number. Careful evaluation also reveals that attempts such as ringing the church bell, were made to turn a perfectly harmless quarrel into a serious life threatening situation. Boston Massacre is surely a foundation of American Revolutionary War but the credit goes more to the biased judgments passed in the trials related to this event.


Agresto, John, "Art and Historical Truth: The Boston Massacre." Journal of Communication, 29,… [read more]

Red White and Black Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Lopez's main argument is that racial categories as valid units of measurement had to be legally constructed and were not germane to early American society. Through his examination of court opinions regarding race, Lopez shows how these legal opinions combine with other elements of the nation's legal apparatus, e.g. law enforcement and immigration, to create new racial categories. Lopez is careful to point out that "…law is not a monolith. Rather, law encompasses a set of institutions, actors, and ideas that are independent…" (Lopez, 1996, p. 80).

Lopez argues that Law constructs racial definitions first through coercion, as through the example of segregation and miscegenation laws. (Lopez, 1996, p. 82). Second, law constructs racial definitions through ideology, as shown through immigration laws excluding Asians. (Lopez, 1996, p. 87-89). Lopez does a very good job of supporting his arguments by citing legal opinions and laws. His writing style is extremely dense, but that may be a result of the massive, chaotic legal apparatus which he is attempting to explain.

Like Nash's interpretation, Lopez's arguments here have important implications for the study of race relations because it casts doubt on basic, commonly held assumptions about our early American ancestors' respective understandings of race. Lopez reinforces Nash's suggestion that our understanding of race differ drastically from those of our ancestors. Lopez does so by questioning the very fidelity of the racial categories that we now take for granted. Thus, Nash's interpretation of race relations during this period has proven to be a great impetus and primer for later scholars of race relations.


Nash's study is useful for those studying race relations as well as those studying early American history. It is useful for students of race relations because it provides a valuable background into the early history and development of race relations as well as giving a masterly overview of the scholarship in this area. It is useful for students of early American history because it gives a much different view of sensibilities during this period, especially those regarding race, class, and culture.


Nash, Gary B. Red, White, and Black: the Peoples of Early America. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1974. Print.

Washburn, Wilcomb E.. "Review: Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early America by Gary B. Nash" Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Aug., 1975), pp. 400-401. Print.

Haney-Lo-pez, Ian.…… [read more]

Civil War of Northern Aggression Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,317 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Where the possibility existed that the Southern and Northern states would have continued their own set of ideas and the debacle would not have began in the first place, it was the theory of States' rights which stirred the heat between Northern and Southern states. The northern states were the advocates of civil rights and believed that everyone is equal before law with no existence of slavery. This was the reason why Free soil party came into existence. It was also generally accepted that every state has its own set of rights. But the question arose whether these rights could be practiced by the citizens who had left the states. The Southern states argued that the citizens of every states had a right to take property anywhere in the U.S. And the propriety rights would remain theirs. Had this demand been accepted, the citizens of Southern states would have been allowed to take their slaves anywhere and they would have remained their property. The very idea raised many questions about the legislations prevailing in the Northern states. This regime not only opposed abolition of slavery but also caused discrimination between the citizens of Southern and Northern states threatening the idea of Free states and territories.

Another argument presented by South was related to the right of every state to secede from the Union. The idea of secession was rejected by the federal government headed by Buchanan and the proposal of unified federal government was presented on the basis that the Confederates, Southern heritage advocates were using the notion of states' rights for ambiguous purposes which involved achievements of goals rather than following the principles.

The main war began when the Confederate forces initiated the firing of the shots on U.S. military installation in 1861[footnoteRef:2]. As a result of this violence, Lincoln was forced to give an answer to this aggression. Therefore, the Union states were made to contribute in the formation of volunteer army. During 1861-1862, the Southern army faced defeat at various battlefields. It is important to note that the primary goal of President Lincoln was to save the Union. However, it was later in 1862, when Lincoln presented the Emancipation Proclamation[footnoteRef:3]. This purpose of this proclamation was to declare the end of slavery as a primary war goal. Many historians argue that the war of Northern states lacked the ethical grounds; therefore this proclamation was an effort to give a just picture to the violence by Northern states. [2: McPherson, "Battle Cry of Freedom," 266.] [3: Ibid, 890.]

In four years time, the Confederates had faced defeat at Gettysburg, Mississippi River after the Battle of Shiloh and the Siege of Vicksburg. During this time, many historic leaders appeared in U.S. Union army such as Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and George Meade. As a result of this aggressive march in many directions by Northern armies, the Southern army surrendered in 1865 to Grant.

Historians have argued that since history is always written by the winner after the… [read more]

National Park Dry Tortuga Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (775 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Fortification Jefferson is huge for its barrier of the U.S. Inlet Coast and moreover for its part all through the Civil War (Hamilton, pp. 46-50).

All through the Civil War and consequent years, Fortress Jefferson moreover served as a military jail that kept Union miscreants, and four men tied to the 1865 dispatching of President Abraham Lincoln. Near the proposed are the remains of the Officers' Quarters and Troopers' Encampment finished in 1870, two magazines constructed at a certain time amidst 1863 and 1872, the 1825 Arrangement Key Beacon, the restored free wheeler heater, and the cell of Dr. Samuel Mudd. The Fortification Jefferson keeps on standing as a note of the huge deliberations of the United States to secure its seaside areas.


On landing in Dry Tortugas National Park, tourists are swayed to see the introduction project at the Fortification Jefferson guest focus before starting their tour of the military post and surrounding islands. Guests can delight in the important locales and the instinctive view of the aforementioned seven islands by kayaking, living like Daniel Boone, snorkeling, fowl viewing, throwing a baited hook out there, and taking officer-advanced or self-guided tours (Herndon, pp. 78-80).

Not every last trace of the islands is open to general society, and confinements requisition all outside exercises. Living like Daniel Boone is confined past Enclosure Key, and guests can just swim and snorkel in designated zones of Loggerhead Key. Guests wishing to kayak into Arrangement Key might as well have a grant, and boaters ought to check lineups and regulations for mooring and docking at Enclosure Key. Casting a line out there limitations in addition apply within Dry Tortugas National Park, and business throwing a baited hook out there, stick throwing a baited hook out there, and taking conch or lobster are wrongful.

Works Cited

Hamilton, M. National Park Service Dry Tortugas National Park, Oxford University Press vol 2 (2009) pp. 46-50

Herndon, D. Trips: Florida's Dry Tortugas National Park." National Geographic Adventure Publications. Retrieved 26 August 2012 vol 5 (2011) pp. 78-80

James, S. Five-Year Annual Recreation Visits Report. Public Use Statistic Office, National Park Service Retrieved 2012-03-06 (2005) pp. 231-234

Macpherson, J. Listing of acreage as…… [read more]

Bilingual Education an Cultural Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Bilingual Education

An Overview of the Cultural Experience of Chinese Immigrants

The Chinese experience in America is one marked by a combination of opportunity and oppression. Perhaps more than many other immigrant groups less distinguishable by physical features, Chinese were subjected to a wide-ranging and sustained discrimination upon their arrival here en masse in the mid 19th century and onward.… [read more]

Pox Americana the Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775 82 Book Review

Book Review  |  3 pages (1,109 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82

, offered me an insight into a subject that I was not aware of prior to reading this story. The story chronicles how a virulent and aggressive style of smallpox played a significant role in the outcome of the Revolutionary War and how it affected several of the War's major campaigns. Due to my prior exposure to this matter, I had known that there was a smallpox outbreak during the years that the Revolutionary War took place but through the writings of the author, Elizabeth a. Fenn, I learned that smallpox was a much serious problem for Revolutionary America than has previously been discussed.

The effect of smallpox on Europe has been extensively discussed but its effect in America has been largely ignored

. Ms. Fenn, however, points out that little attention has been afforded the subject in American history books. Although the author does not expressly state the reason for this lack of exposure she does seem to create the inference that because the disease was most prevalent among the Native Americans that the colonists were less than enthusiastic to broadcast its presence to the rest of the world. Smallpox among the Native Americans was one of the leading causes of death and played a major part in wiping out a significant portion of the Native population. Unlike the Europeans who settled in the colonies and had developed some immunity to the effects of the smallpox virus, the Native Americans had never been exposed to the disease before the arrival of the Europeans and were, therefore, particularly susceptible to its effects.

Fenn did an excellent job of explaining how smallpox affected the conduct of the Revolutionary War but she also details how smallpox had been a consideration for several hundred years in American society. In regard to the Revolutionary War itself, Fenn gives George Washington considerable credit for protecting the Colonial Army from being decimated by the effects of smallpox by taking the time to have his men inoculated against smallpox. By doing so, Washington was able to save countless number of lives not only among his army but also among the local population that had contact with his forces.

One of the more interesting aspects of Fenn's work is her attention to the detail in how smallpox affected American society and how it developed on the continent. She spends a great deal of time describing how the disease spread across the continent and clearly highlights that there was a human presence on the continent beyond the borders of the original thirteen colonies at the time of the Revolution. In doing so, she is able to pinpoint how the disease was able to be spread from the eastern shores of the continent westward based on the activities of the Native Americans who were trading with the colonists and the colonizing efforts of other European nations other than England. Through these contacts, smallpox was spread throughout the North American continent… [read more]

Gilded Age Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,066 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The reform they ushered in became known as the Progressive Movement and recast the role of government for the modern state within the industrial world.

The Progressive Movement

The Progressive Movement was an effort to cure many of the ills of American society that had developed during the great spurt of industrial growth in the last quarter of the 19th century. The frontier had been tamed, great cities and businesses developed, and an overseas empire established, but not all citizens shared in the new wealth, prestige, and optimism.

The Progressive Movement encompassed a wide range of economic, political, social and moral reforms including efforts to outlaw the sale of alcohol, regulate child labor and sweatshops, scientifically manage natural resources, restrict immigration and breakdown and regulate trusts.

At the beginning of the twentieth century muckraking journalists were calling attention to the exploitation of child labor, corruption of city governments, and the ruthless business practices employed by businessmen such as John D. Rockefeller. Locally Progressives worked to suppress red-light districts expand high school education, construct playgrounds and replace political machines with a more efficient system of municipal governments. At the state level minimum wage laws for women workers, industrial accident insurance, restricted child labor, and improved working conditions in factories were enacted. At the federal level Congress passed laws establishing federal regulation of the meat-packing, drug, and railroad industries, and strengthened anti-trust laws. It also lowered the tariff, established federal control over the banking system, and enacted legislation to improve working condition. Four constitutional amendments were adopted during the Progressive Movement, which authorized an income tax, provided for the direct election of senators, extended the vote to women, and prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.

The Progressive Movement was rooted in the belief that man was capable of improving the lot of all within society and was a rejection of Social Darwinism. The movement rejected the church as the driving force for change and strove to remove corruption and undue government influence from government, include more people more directly in the political process, and task the government to play a role in solving social problems and establishing fairness in economic matters.

Presidents of this era include Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson. Roosevelt initiatives included the square deal, progress reforms to compete with foreign nations, the Hepburn Act, the establishment of consumer protections, and increased power in the executive branch. Taft believed high tariffs limited competition. He supported the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, the Children's Bureau and the Bureau of Mines. Wilson believed in freedom of the economy. He reduced tariffs to increase competition and quality of goods and supported the Federal Reserve Act, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act.

Works Cited

"The Gilded Age." Shmoop.com. (NDI). 3 March 2012. < http://www.shmoop.com/>

"Learn About the Progressive Era." Digital History. (2012). 3 March 2012.

"The Progressive Movement." United States History: Ideas and Movements, 19th Century. (NDI). 4 March 2012. [read more]

American in the New Millennium Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Another major aspect of the new millennium is related to the way in which the United States will manage to play its role in the political scene especially the international political scene. It is already common knowledge that the state of affairs that was in place twenty years ago is no longer valid. At this point, some of the strongest actors on the international scene are China, South East Asian countries, among others. The poles of power have changed significantly and are largely determined by the economic power of the state. More precisely, "China's extraordinary economic growth and active diplomacy are already transforming East Asia, and future decades will see even greater increases in Chinese power and influence. But exactly how this drama will play out is an open question." (Ikenberry, 2008) At this moment it is rather difficult to ascertain the degree in which China will become the next most important country in the world, However, the Chinese structure and political system is built in such a manner that it can eventually influence the way in which the international affairs are conducted.

Overall, it can be concluded that the United States is at this point in history under the pressure of preforming but, at the same time, it provides all the assets to overcome the challenges faced by innovation and the passing of time. However, unlike the beginning of the 20th century, the world is in a strict co dependence, and in order for the United States to strive, it needs a general environment of cooperation, at all levels: political, economic, social, and technological.


Gans, Herbert. "The Age of the Superfluous Worker." The opinion pages. The New York Times. November 24, 2011. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/25/opinion/the-age-of-the-superfluous-worker.html?ref=unitedstateseconomy

Ikenberry, John. "The rise of China and the future of the West: can the liberal system survive?" Foreign Affairs, January -- February 2008, available at http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/63042/g-john-ikenberry/the-rise-of-china-and-the-future-of-the-west… [read more]

Impact of the National Guard Due to the National Defense Act of 1916 Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,606 words)
Style: Turabian  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


National Guard and the National Defense Act of 1916

The impact of the reserve component military forces in the United States has been significant over the years, and continues to be a vital part of American defense and homeland security. The reserves also provide valuable support when there are natural disasters and other emergencies in the U.S. that call for… [read more]

Domestic Unification and National Sectionalism in 1800s America Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … 1800s and explain the simultaneous dichotomy of domestic unification and national sectionalism. The will give examples of both and explain their domestic and international implications.

While the United States enjoyed a tremendous period of domestic unification in the early 19th century, this unification was more in the way of cultural and technological unification. As the North industrialized and the West was being settled, the same industrial revolution brought about the invention of the cotton farming. This labor-intensive crop needed to be harvested by hand. In response to the growing demands of textile factories in Britain and the Northeastern U.S., efforts to plant and harvest cotton went forward with great enthusiasm. While slavery worked well in cotton agriculture, it was not suited to the increasingly technological base that under girded the rest of American agriculture and industry where there was resistance to the spread of slavery out of the old South and into the West. Slavery was dying out in the North and in the West. In addition, the old system of chattel slavery conflicted with the new system of wage labor which was becoming the basis for the industrial revolution, though compromises such as Clay's "Omnibus Bill" of 1850 paper over these differences temporarily (Maier, Smith, Keyssar & Kevles, 2005, 417). With these factors in the background, the South became increasingly isolated from the rapidly developing rest of the nation, accentuating differences that would lead eventually to open conflict (ibid, 419-20).

The acquisition of Texas especially accelerated this looming sectional conflict over slavery. The acquisition of the territory of Texas and later the acquisition of new land in the rest of the West due to the Mexican War opened up land to the spread of slavery where its penetration had not been possible before. This threatened to…… [read more]

Peculiar Institution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (626 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Peculiar Institution

The South and its Peculiar Institution

American history is at points the product of converging innovation and exploitation. In many instances, the growth and development of the American power as it stands today would occur at the expense of its participants. Examples of this are recurrent in the text by Maier et al. (2006), which reflects at numerous instances on the relationship between invention, expansion and, for many, oppression. This dynamic would most certainly serve to characterize the 'peculiar institution' known as slavery. For centuries, in fact, this would be the lifeblood of the southern economy, with plantation owners and farm operators laying claim to a labor economy without wage expenses.

How this system came to be, Maier et al. assert, is a complex matter owing to the international slave trade and the differing cultural development of the North and South United States. First and foremost, while the Northern New England states often played the role of broker in the slave triangle, the preponderance of plantations in the emergent southern colonies would make this the primary destination of those exported from Africa and the West Indies. Warmer climates and rainier seasons along with a great volume of arable terrain made the south inherently better suited to the rural development which the slave trade ultimately helped to facilitate.

And because the text by Maier et al. is contextualized by the impact of invention on the history of America, it bears noting that several play a direct role in the growth and continuity of this peculiar institution. First and foremost would be the methods of stationary farming which would evolve first with Native Americans and thereafter with the first settlers in the United States. Finding ways to use farmlands that were sustainable would drive economic growth for the first centuries of colonization. Therefore, the litany of contributions which Maier et al. describe as…… [read more]

Technological Advancement the Evolution Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,450 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


First, the settlement of the Oregon boundary had just been settled in 1846 and the U.S. had just acquired some territory for Mexico. Second, in addition to stressing the need for exploration, Whitney was able to whet Congress' appetite for gold, literally, for in 1849, gold was discovered in California. By 1853, Congress had already appropriated enough funds to begin… [read more]

Language in the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,418 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


NRC Language in the United States

Language diversity is a hot-button issue in today's modern political climate. English-only proponents have a variety of reasons for suggesting that English become the single official language of the United States. Some of these reasons are legitimate, such as ensuring that all Americans have an unfettered ability to communicate with one another, while some… [read more]

Amending the U.S. Constitution Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,504 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … United States' Constitution

The steps a the federal level that must be taken through Congress -- combined with the complicated steps that must be taken by the states -- make it very difficult for the U.S. To amend its Constitution. Why did the founders make it so problematic to add to the existing amendments to the Constitution? What… [read more]

Immigration Policy Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (591 words)
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Immigration Policy

Typically, American textbooks refer to the United States as a "Nation of Immigrants," and use this as a paradigm of successful integration over the past 200 plus years of peoples coming from all over the world to become part of a new nation. There were peaks and valleys regarding immigration policy in the United States however, prior to 1900 over 35 million came from Europe, the Orient, and Africa -- some willingly, others brought as slaves or workers. In 1921, though, Congress passed an Emergency Quota Act, followed by another Immigration Act of 1924. This primarily restricted Southern and Eastern Europe immigrants which, at the time, were seen as a tax upon society rather than a positive. In 1965, Congress abolished the quota system based on national origin, and by making the policies more equitable, a new immigration wave from non-European nations began. Between 1965 and 1970, immigration doubled; then again between 1970 and 1990 also doubled. President Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990, which increased legal immigration by around 40%. In the 21st century, 2000 to 2005, nearly 8 million new immigration arrived, about 1/2 illegally, but more than any other 5-year period in the history of the United States (Canelos, 2008; Immigration Surge Called Highest Ever, 2005).

Almost all scholars agree that the new era of mass immigration post-1960 dramaticaly changed America, increasing its diversity and robustness. It changed the way American education worked (ESL, bilingual programs), the demographic and socio-economic breakdown of political spheres, and even the way that the workplace was organized and accepted civil rights and established laws dealing with diversity.

The new immigrant and second generations are a significant presence in cultural affairs, in neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces in almost every urban area of the United…… [read more]

Plantation and Factory Rules: United Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Because the emerging differences made the southerners feel abandoned by the system on which they based their economy on.

Plantation vs. Factory Life: In 1789, when the first mill was established no one realized it was going to be a hell hole for the people. slavery was the most common the mid-1800's where the slaves from the south tried to make sense of the unjust treatment they received by making the workers from north insecure about their working conditions, claiming that the northerners had a worst lives as compared to the south. Northern rejected this notion to keep their face, but in reality it was exactly what was happening. Factory workers felt injustice because of the comfortable way as compared to them, the southerners were treated with. Northerners were mostly fatigued because of the long hours they had to put in their work and sometimes consecutive days in length, leaving them with no time to have a family live and a social standing (Eaton, 1966).

However, in the south, since plantations were established even before factories, sometimes entire generations were seen growing up, getting married and raising children at the same plantation. These slaves spend more time with their family and children because they used to work with them, this is where the conflict started that led to the civil war, where slaves at the end of the day did get to see and spend time with their families, and factory workers did not have the luxury to do so (Charles. 1993). Where working in a factory meant professional growth and better wages with the added point that workers were not subjected to extensive torture like the slaves of the south were; yet the workers felt blessed to at least catch some hours of rest to keep them standing at work. While in the south, plantations promised comfortable living quarters and disciplined routine and the family life, discrimination was in abundance due to the African slave population.

With every rule broken, the slaves were subjected to extreme torture which included mutilation, whips and sometimes murder. These conflicting and very diverse scenarios grew so big that a Civil War started in the U.S. which to a large extent threatened the possibility of separation of this great country that it is today (Andrew. 2006).


The truth of the matter is that by using slaves for plantation work, the southern economy did bloom and came in direct competition with the fast growing northern industrialized movement. Where slavery appears to be the most inhumane method for work, factory workers were being treated as machines in their own respect. Viewed in context of racism and unjust work requirements, the ownership of factories and plantations did more than just prove the U.S. with the economic boom that it required, it also separated its citizens to the point where they went against each other in the name of humanity.


Clement Eaton. 1966. A history Of The Old South (Macmillian)

Clement Eaton. 1962. The Civilization Of… [read more]

Louisiana Purchase (MLA Citation) Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


bobsuniverse.com/BWAH/03-Jefferson/18202418a.pdf ]

Jefferson ordered Livingston to try to acquire the port in order to ensure the United States' free access to the ocean trade from the Mississippi River. The importance Jefferson placed upon this endeavor was demonstrated when he wrote "Every eye in the U.S. is now fixed on this affair of Louisiana. Perhaps nothing since the revolutionary war has produced more uneasy sensations through the body of the nation…"[footnoteRef:4] American trade down the Mississippi had been interrupted in the past and Americans wanted to ensure this never happened again. Even some members of Congress agreed that New Orleans was a potential danger to American trade and had authorized the executive branch "to commence with more effect a negotiation with the French and Spanish governments relative to the purchase from them of the island of New Orleans and the provinces of East and West Florida."[footnoteRef:5] [4: Ibid.] [5: Cerami]

Soon after negotiations opened, it became apparent that the French wanted to sell more than just the port of New Orleans, they wanted to sell the entire Louisiana Territory for 100 million francs (slightly less that 20 million dollars). Robert Livingston made his views of this offer, which was greater in scope than his original instructions, known in a letter to Madison when he stated "We shall do all we can to cheapen the purchase; but my sentiment is that we shall buy,"[footnoteRef:6] And this sentiment was echoed by the president when he wrote to John Dickinson on Aug 9th 1803, "The acquisition of New Orleans would of itself have been a great thing, as it would have ensured to our Western brethren the means of exporting their produce…"[footnoteRef:7] but Jefferson went on to reveal a secondary purpose… [read more]

Political Geography Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … formation of the various states of the United States are complex and have changed over the course of time. For instance, the reasons for the shape and size of the original thirteen states differ substantially from the rationale supporting the formation of the western states. The purpose of this paper will be to attempt to address these differences… [read more]

Reconstruction 1863-1877 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,343 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


American History

The Defeated South

The confederacy was confronted by the defeat set upon them. This was a time to come to grips with the idea of a democracy and what it meant. Now was a time of uncertainty, no one was quite sure of how the now defeated states of the Confederacy would blend cohesively into the union preserving… [read more]

Reconstruction and the Gilded Age Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,107 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Gilded Age of the United States

The era immediately following the Civil War has been described as the Gilded Age of United States history. There are several apt reasons for this moniker. Technological and scientific advancements during this time created a tremendous improvement in the nation's standard of living. Transportation innovations brought the people of country much closer together physically.… [read more]

Founding Brothers by Joseph Ellis Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,099 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Founding Brothers by Joseph Ellis

"Founding Brothers" by Joseph Ellis

Numerous writers have turned their attention to the period of the Declaration of Independence while searching for inspiration, and while some have produced modest texts, others have succeeded in retelling the story with great accuracy and in a reader-friendly approach.

Joseph J. Ellis's book "Founding Brothers: Revolutionary Generation" does not just have its plot focused on the 1776 document, as it concentrates on telling the stories of almost all of the key individuals involved in writing and issuing the document, and in those who played an essential role in the founding of the United States.

Abigail Adams, John Adams, Aaron Burr, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington are all unique in character, but they are all united through the fact that they largely contributed to one of the freest and most influential nations on the planet. When developing the book, Ellis used significant documents and letters, so as to provide his readers with a thorough account regarding the founding of America.

All of the chapters in the book are opened through a small event that is meant to show the public the tension present in the states during the period. Chapter three, "The Silence," begins by depicting an episode in 1790 in which the congress is being delivered a letter from behalf of the Pennsylvania Quakers (who were then a small group), insisting that slave trade should be ended. However, the Quakers did not refer to the damaging effects which the institution of slavery had on the nation as a whole. It is probable that they were perfectly aware that slavery could not be fought easily, but that it could only be ended through a succession of events, each working against the establishment. Obviously, ending the African slave trade would surely have a beneficial effect on the American community.

One of the consequence of stopping the trade business would have been that slave-owners would no longer have the power to replace their subordinates whenever they wished, as the value of slaves would go up and with it their living conditions, as their masters would realize that they could not work a slave to death, given the fact that they such an act would only end in their loss, both economically and morally.

In spite of the fact that the Quakers brought numerous arguments to support their demand, congress was perfectly aware that a large part of America's economy depended on the slave trade, thus meaning that the deficit would be devastating for the country. In order to suppress the motion and prevent it from coming to a vote, congress performed various trickeries and succeeded in their endeavor. Even influential people, such as Benjamin Franklin, got actively involved in fighting slavery and even came in charge of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. However, their power was limited and Franklin was quickly subdued and persuaded to drop his actions. The House of Senate stopped all demands related to… [read more]

Immigration Policy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,081 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Immigration Laws

The Immigration Act of 1965 was, in effect, a repeal of the restrictive laws that had been passed previously in the United States, in particular the "Johnson-Reed Act" (also known as the "National Origins Act") of 1924. The Immigration Act of 1965 was also more than just another bill in Congress; it was emotionally and politically linked to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, when the country was in a more progressive mood and President Lyndon Johnson was using the legacy of assassinated president John F. Kennedy as momentum to get civil rights-related legislation passed. To gain a full understanding the significance of the Immigration Act of 1965, one needs first to look at the National Origins Act ("Johnson-Reed Act) of 1924, and the history of immigrations policies in the U.S.

The United States Department of State (www.state.gov) published a review of the Immigration Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act) in federal web pages; the report explains that the Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants based on a "national origins quota" system. The law created a policy wherein if a person from Germany, say, wished to obtain a visa, that visa was based on the number of German immigrants already in the United States. Only a number of Germans up to 2% of the existing population of German-Americans were permitted each year. If there were 200,000 German immigrants already living in the U.S., then 4,000 new German immigrants would be given visas to come into the U.S.

The legislation also "completely excluded immigrants from Asia," the Department of State explains. An earlier immigration law in 1917 put in place "restrictive" measures that included literacy tests that required immigrants who were older than 16 to prove they could read (in any language). Also the tax that immigrants had to pay upon entering the U.S. was raised in 1917. The fact that Japanese immigrants were not welcome into the U.S. "offended" many Japanese people; and though the Japanese government protested the exclusion of their people the law remained on the books and indeed it resulted in "an increase in existing tensions" between Japan and America (www.state.gov). The number of immigrants welcomed into the U.S. after the 1924 Act (http://historymatters.gmu.edu) from: Iceland (100); Spain (131); Egypt (100); England and Northern Ireland (34,007); Switzerland (2,081); Norway (6,453). So a person can do the math to figure out pretty closely what the number of immigrants from those countries were already in the U.S. At that time.

Meanwhile, President Lyndon Johnson signed The Immigration Act of 1965 into law on October 3 while he stood beneath the Statue of Liberty, Johnson stated that signing the bill into law "…corrects a cruel and enduring wrong in the conduct of the American nation" (www.america.gov). Not all Democrats in Congress were willing to go along with Johnson in1965; for example, Senator Sam J. Ervin argued that the existing immigration law was not discriminatory but was instead "like… [read more]

Argument for the Declaration of Independence the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,394 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Declaration of Indepdence the United States

The American Declaration of Independence came as a solution to people wanting to get rid of their oppressors by declaring their autonomy. In spite of the fact that the document had been initially intended to put an end to British control over the colonies, the people signing the document realized that the paper had been their chance to create a democratic country. The Declaration of Independence related to mostly everything that the colonists wanted their country to represent. The document is basically responsible for a large number of laws presently existing in the U.S.

Thomas Jefferson had written the paper having in mind the taking away of the thirteen colonies from under the command of King George III. The colonist had virtually written an explanation motivating why it had been vital for the colonies to become autonomous. In spite of its importance in the later years, the people living contemporary to its issuing did not pay great attention to it, considering it to be nothing more than a simple document that would be forgotten, just as the British rule over the colonies would.

In an attempt recuperate from the crisis experienced in their fight with the French, the British decided to exploit their thirteen colonies to full potential. The main reason for the distress experienced by the colonists had been that King George III had imposed inhumane taxes on the colonies from the American continent. The colonists lobbied for democracy and for self-governing, so that they would escape the British tyranny.

The Declaration was to present the public with simple elements that would lead to them becoming aware of reality, and, of the fact that they could no longer live under British domination. The Declaration directly addresses the idea that it is not possible for a government to rule without having the permission of those over whom he governs. The Declaration gave proof relating to the wrongdoings performed by the British government and claimed that, in response to these, the colonies would become free states.

The first two paragraphs written by Jefferson directly refer to what democracy signifies for the Americans. Even with the fact that it had been written under stress, the declaration has served as a basis to a great number of law documents consequently written by U.S. authorities. Its importance grew notably over the years, reaching a point when several countries had referred to it when attempting to install a solid democracy within their borders.

The Declaration of Independence as it is known today is not how it had initially been written by Jefferson, as the independence committee had made several modifications before deciding to publish it. However, the members of the independence committee could not help from leaving a great part of the two paragraphs, with Jefferson's words being more than exceptional. It appears, however, that Jefferson had partly exaggerated when referring to the crimes done by the British to the colonists. The final form of the Declaration… [read more]

Soviet Afghan War Conflict Analysis Thesis

Thesis  |  18 pages (5,116 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Soviet-Afgan War Conflict Analysis


The objective of this work is to analyze the Soviet-Afghan War that lasted from 1978 to 1989. At focus in this study is that in this particular conflict the capable Soviet military invaded a powerless Afghanistan in support of the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan in their battle against… [read more]

U.S. Civil War Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … U.S. Civil War

Discuss how and why Southern devotion to a system of slave labor retarded modernization in the South.

The reason for the South's failure to industrialize, ironically, can be traced to the North -- specifically in the person of one Northern man, the engineer Eli Whitney. "As Eli Whitney left New England and headed South in… [read more]

War of Tripoli Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,129 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … war of Tripoli

As a young republic, America fought a war with the Barbary pirates who plied the waters of the Mediterranean in early nineteenth century. The Tripolitan war which took place between 1801 and 1805 opposed American and North African forces. The African states were the Sultanate of Morocco, and the Regencies of Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli… [read more]

Illegal Immigration There Can Be No Question Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,313 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Illegal Immigration

There can be no question that illegal immigration is a serious problem in the modern United States. The current wave of undocumented immigrants places a burden on America's social resources, and also creates a very real risk that dangerous aliens are hidden with the masses of innocuous aliens that illegally cross the borders each day. Various people have proposed a wide variety of solutions to this problem, ranging from building a physical barrier between the United States and Mexico to the active and vigorous deportation of all illegal immigrants. However, this position seems somewhat un-American. Instead of fighting illegal immigration with a physical wall, America should find a way to compromise. By banning immigrants from crossing the border, deporting the ones that are already in the U.S., and not allowing pre-existing illegal immigrants the opportunity to obtain citizenship, America is creating a bigger catastrophe than the one created by the current illegal immigration boon. Allowing people of other nationalities to become Americans is not inherently bad; after all, every American citizen's ancestry consists of immigrants. More so than any other country, America is a country of immigrants, a land of opportunity with a history of welcoming people from a broad variety of backgrounds. As a result, America is a mosaic of different cultures, including food, languages, customs, and religions; this mosaic would not exist without immigration. However, many modern Americans seem to believe that the United States should no longer be a land of opportunity, but that the U.S. should strictly limit immigration and actively and stringently enforce immigration laws. Though those that oppose illegal immigration are against illegal immigrants from any ethnic background, the main targets of their efforts are immigrants from Mexico, and those from Latin America, Central America, and South America who use Mexico as a gateway to the United States.

However, blocking these immigrants by building walls and creating other physical barrier to immigration is not an appropriate solution. Instead, the proposed wall and its already-completed parts have led to some severe problems. First, the rate of immigrant deaths due to people making increasingly-difficult illegal border crossings has increased.

Second, the wall is prohibitively expensive. Third, the proposed wall does not cover the entire border, leaving gaps where illegal immigrants can continue to cross; even in places the wall does cover, immigrants have found ways to cross the border. For all of these reasons, the United States should abandon its plans to build a wall between the United States and Mexico.

The most serious consequence of the border wall and stricter scrutiny of illegal immigrants is that illegal immigration has become more dangerous. Prior to the proposals to build the border wall, the U.S.-Mexico border was experiencing unprecedented levels of legal and illegal immigration and trade. Illegal immigration from Mexico has not always been a problem. Until 1964, "the Bracero Program allowed Mexican guest workers to work legally in the United States." (Orrenius). However, when this program ended, illegal immigration from Mexico began to… [read more]

Colossus: The Rise and Fall Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,025 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire, by Niall Ferguson. Specifically it will discuss the question, "At the end of the book, Ferguson writes, 'I believe the world needs an effective liberal empire and that the United States is the best candidate for the job' (p. 301). Do you agree with him in this? Why or… [read more]

John F. Kennedy and George W. Bush Jr Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,235 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


JFK and President Bush

Matter of Perception

John F. Kennedy stands as one of the nation's great orators of all time. In contrast, President Bush is known for his bumbling speeches, uttering phrases such as mixing up perseverance and preservation, subliminate when he means subliminal, or his famous, "I know how hard it is for you to put food on… [read more]

Progressive Era Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (730 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Era can be considered to represent one of the most important moments in the history of the United States. It marked the beginning of the modernization process in America and at the same time the start of the organization of the state following its independence. The actions undertaken during this time affected all aspects of the society, from politics to the social sphere which has been affected the most.

The beginning of the Progressive Era came as a result of the endless disputes in terms of political and economic outcomes which resulted following the end of the Civil War. In this sense, the North having won the battle with the South engaged in an era of massive development as a result of the industrial revolution (Jenkins, 1997). However this development soon led to the increase in the way in which wealth and opportunities were being shared and distributed. In this sense, a certain clear distinction between the wealthy and the poor was created. This in turn led to the social discrepancies that became a common situation in the final years of the 19th century America.

On this background, the Progressive Era came as a solution that would address the inequalities and the social issues that became a serious problem in the U.S. Thus, "the Progressive Era (roughly, 1901-1921) was the beginning, in the United States, of the growth in the role of government in the 20th-century. During this era, and its prelude (1887-1901), the American people saw the beginnings of federal regulation of business through the regulatory commissions and antitrust laws, the income tax system that we have today, federal food and drug regulation, the Federal Reserve Board, and government conservation" (Browne, n.d.). Therefore it can be said that the period represented a period of increased governmental activity as well as social empowerment.

In terms of the economic practices, the monopoly was the key word to fight against (Warde, 1957). It represented the enemy for a proper evolution of the economic base. At the same time, an increased state control would have allowed more financial resources as well as an increased state attribution.

One of the most important ideas related to Progressivism was…… [read more]

Internal Problems America Had During the War of 1812 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (335 words)
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American History

War of 1812

The war was unpopular with many Americans because of many different reasons. First, the war was largely unplanned, and American was not prepared. They didn't have enough supplies or money to pay the men, and they suffered as a result. The Americans suffered defeats, (even the burning of Washington, D.C.), and the British blockaded American ports, which brought the American economy to a standstill. Imports and exports were essentially halted, and merchants were facing bankruptcy. Of course, the people were not happy about this, and as the war dragged on, it became increasingly unpopular.

In addition, before the war, British naval power was the superior naval power in the world, and the French, after a defeat at British hands, stopped trading with Britain, and asked most other European countries to stop, as well. Thus, the majority of Great Britain's trade was with the United States before the war, and there were few other avenues open to the U.S., with European ports blockaded.…… [read more]

Extraordinary Rendition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (6,889 words)
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Extraordinary Rendition

The Costs of Extraordinary Rendition

On September 6, 2006, President Bush openly admitted that the CIA, under his authorization, had been operating secret detention centers at sites abroad for the previous five years (Elsea & Kim, 2007). Suspected terrorists, including anyone else suspected of having relevant information, were covertly transferred to these sites and then interrogated under pressure… [read more]

Jesse James Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (370 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Jesse James is perhaps the most notorious outlaw in the history of the United States of America. He first rose to prominence in the years following the Civil War as the result of his involvement in a bank robbery in 1869, during the course of which he shot and killed the bank cashier, erroneously believing him to be the militia officer who had shot "Bloody Bill" Anderson, a famous gang leader, during the Civil War. As James asserted this to be an act of revenge, he made it into the newspapers.

A sympathetic journalist by the name of John Newman Edwards, who was promoting the return of Confederacy in Missouri during the period, began to promote Jesse James as the ultimate American hero, a lone rebel attempting to single-handedly defy the imposition of Reconstruction on Missouri and the American south. James and his band of rebels persisted in robbing banks all over the American south and Midwest. He would also rob fairs and trains, often hamming it up for the crowd, contributing significantly to his own celebrity in the media.

Detective Allan Pinkerton went on…… [read more]

Foreign Relations in His Book Merrill Reinterprets Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (667 words)
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Foreign Relations

In his book Merrill reinterprets the history of United States foreign policy decisions through the viewpoint of a specific, American ideology. According to Merrill, a central ideology has driven and shaped American foreign policy since the time of the nation's founding, including its decision to enter into the Revolutionary War. This driving American ideology is based on a general conception of the country having a national mission to serve to the world. Further, this ideology has grown to focus on racial classifications of other individuals and a general hostility towards social revolutionary movements.

Merrill's ideas on foreign policy development are unique in that, unlike most theories, Merrill argues that an American Way drives our diplomatic decisions. The majority of studies and works published on this topic, such as those found in the anthology entitled Major Problems in American Foreign Relations Volume II, have explained the Untied States' approach to the world through concepts of material interests or matters of self-defense. However, when reading and studying both concepts, it becomes clear that Merrill makes a compelling argument.

According to Merrill's theory, all American foreign policy decisions have been controlled by a shared ideology that can be broken down into three basic components. First, there is the general consensus of America's vision of national greatness. Second, there is the American tendency to view the world's diverse populations through a race or culture-based hierarchy.

Third and finally, there is a general feeling of both disappointment and horror associated with the failed revolutions around the world that occurred during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Merrill's argument that the foreign policy of the United States is driven by our classifications of race and the effects of failed revolutions is a more difficult argument to accept. Although it seems that much of America's foreign policy and diplomatic/use of force is aimed at non-white, undemocratic societies that are politically unstable, the question is whether these actions are based on race, culture and revolution, as Merrill suggests, or on…… [read more]

Approval of the Constitution Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,574 words)
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¶ … approval of the constitution of the United States, as per which the establishment of the union of states took place, which was to be monitored by the federal system of governance, therefore have been considerable arguments regarding the nature of the union, and the limitations and extent of the powers, privileges, duties, and responsibilities which have been granted… [read more]

America's Rise to World Power Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


America's rise to world power during the Gilded Age (1877-1914) and the nature of the Civil Rights movement in the United States following World War II (1945-1969).

Discuss America's rise to world power during the Gilded Age (1877-1914). Include commentary on relevant leading personalities, issues, and events. In your opinion, did American imperialism contradict the principles in the Declaration of Independence? Explain.

America is a nation founded upon the principles of constitutional democracy -- even though it has often contradicted those principles in its practice. The Declaration of Independence does not merely endorse the ideals of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness for all human beings, but the right of self-determination in governance, and the right of the people to free itself from a tyrannical sovereign. When a government is no longer for the people and by the people it is no longer a legitimate government, according to the Declaration. Imperialism, which means dictating the government of other nations, directly contradicts the principle of national and personal self-determination.

Even before the development of America into a world power during the Gilded Age, the right of self-determination had really come to mean, in actual American practice, the right of white Americans to land, not the right of native tribes to their historical territories. The Gilded Age oversaw the rise of America's industrial power and expansion of its territorial outreach into the West through the technological innovation of rail roads which allowed for a more integrated transportation infrastructure within America's borders. The Gilded Age also was an age in which American influence extended into the Pacific, when America annexed what would become the 50th state of Hawaii in 1898.

But the era's most significant foreign policy development was America's expanded use…… [read more]

Economics of Slavery Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (657 words)
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Economics of Slavery

The outstanding economic characteristics of Southern states' agriculture in the pre-civil war period was the direct result of its reliance on slave labor force, an economic reality which would remain unparalleled not only in the history of the South, but in that of the United States. The efficiency of slave economy could be defined as "a comparison of the return from the use of this form of capital-Negro slaves-with the returns being earned on other capital assets at the time" (Conrad, Meyer: 96). Slaves were recruited as an inexpensive source of labor but they also became important capital in the American economy because slave transactions were taxed which was an invaluable source of tax revenue for local and state governments. Enslaved Africans were legally a form of property and had, like any other commodity, owners. Individually and collectively, they were frequently used as collateral in all kinds of transactions such as securing loans or purchasing additional slaves and/or land. Also, the value of slaves was used by their owners to pay off debts, and was included in the value of an estate when sold (Dodson). As the cotton plantation economy expanded throughout the southern region, banks and financial houses in New York supplied the loan capital and/or investment capital to purchase land and slaves (Dodson). During the colonial period in the United States, tobacco was the dominant slave-produced commodity which greatly relied on enslaved Africans brought into the U.S. In the period prior to the American Revolution (Dodson). As a result of the American Revolution Virginia and Maryland lost their main European tobacco markets; moreover, the global future of slavery in America was threatened as most of the northern states abolished it, and even Virginia debated abolition in the Virginia Assembly (Dodson). The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 meant a revival of slavery in the U.S. And determined a geographical shift of the slave economy from the upper to the lower South. The…… [read more]

5th Amendment the History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,809 words)
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5th Amendment

The History of the 5th Amendment

Almost everyone has heard of the 5th Amendment to the United States Constitution. It is part of the Bill of Rights and most of what it says came originally from the Magna Carte in 1512. It is designed to protect a person from self-incrimination in that a person can 'respectfully decline to… [read more]

Dual in the Sun by John Brant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Dual in the Sun by John Brant

There's a lot more to life than sports and athletic competition in the name of glory. But when a sports-focused individual is on a roll and has either achieved fame, money, and championship level victories - or is in hot pursuit of those goals - most other aspects of that person's life and… [read more]

Apollo Program and President John F. Kennedy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,722 words)
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John F. Kennedy and the Apollo Program

Among other things, the 1960's will probably be remembered most prominently for its culmination in the moon landing, successfully achieved by the United States of America. Often hidden from public view is the political intrigue and innuendo accompanying such large, prestigious projects. President John F. Kennedy, the American president at the time, played… [read more]

Top Five Presidents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,043 words)
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Presidents in My Opinion

My choice of the top five U.S. Presidents ranked in descending order of importance is: Thomas Jefferson, Ronald Reagan, Dwight Eisenhower, Franklin Roosevelt, and George H.W. Bush. Since ranking of Presidents is always a subjective call, I am aware that this list may differ substantially from most others'; however, I shall try my best to justify… [read more]

Illegal Immigrants in the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,196 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … illegal immigrants in the U.S. And the possibility of legalizing their status. The article shows: how illegal immigration is currently being dealt with, the views of people on the issue and the flexibility being exhibited by the government. The author makes it clear that while illegal immigration has always been a problem for the country and most people… [read more]

Immigration Late 1890 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,778 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Immigration Late 1890's

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, as America became known as The Land of Opportunity' at the time of 'The Rise of Industrial America' immigration peaked between 1870 and 1900. Immigrants from all over the world came to the United State during this time. China, Germany, Ireland, and England, to name a few, all contributed to… [read more]

European Countries Have Absorbed Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,061 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


While Europeans bought Walkmans and VCR's, they incorporated these items into their European lifestyle (281). The arrival of these American products did not turn their users into Americans. Individuals' culture is not that simple. The worst fears of European critics -- that the United States' cultural attributes would come to overpower existing cultures in Europe -- simply did not become reality (281). In many cases, American products were adapted by their European users. European cities built shopping centers (292) and suburbs where residents could own their own homes (197-198), but the cities maintained their distinctive European flavors. European manufacturers at first adopted the United States' efficiency models, but then went further and redesigned factories in ways that gave workers more responsibilities and downplayed the assembly-line aspect of such tasks as building cars (295). They took American factory culture and improved on it, in the process transforming it to something that suited their society better.

While the concept of supermarkets moved in some degree to Europe, again the concept was redesigned to suit the location. Supermarkets tended to be small neighborhood stores without huge parking lots and did not put the small butchers and bakers out of business. The supermarkets added to the shopping options in Europe but did not supplant old shopping patterns (296). American companies adjusted their products to European taste. For instance, Kelloggs put dark, sugared raisins in American Raisin Bran, but golden, unsugared ones for the European market. Europeans did not like green Fruit Loops, so they were removed for European packaging (297).

Nevertheless, the American influence on other countries should not be diminished. In the 1990's, over 50% of McDonald's income came from foreign countries (303). Some American concepts did not translate well to Europe. Euro-Disney struggled at first, partly because Paris has a winter not present in either southern California or central Florida. But in addition, European vacation practices differed: Europeans tended to take long vacations, sometimes as long as a month, rather than the shorter 4 -- 5 day trips often preferred by Americans. Europeans tended to be more rigid about their schedules, causing bottlenecks for park admission and meals. In addition, Disney followed its policy of no alcohol on the premises to the dismay of Europeans accustomed to having a beer or glass of wine with a meal (311). So while it may have at first looked as if Euro-Disney was attempting to force Americanism on the French, in reality, such tactics simply didn't work. Disney had to adjust in major ways in order to make a success of Euro-Disney.

Pell's book takes a long and careful look at the interchange of cultures between the United States and Western Europe, and presents a picture that is far more complex than whether, for instance, the French might have been affronted to see a McDonald's in the heart of Paris. Instead, the author shows an inexorable process of influence flowing at least to some degree, both ways. In retrospect the reader should not be surprised… [read more]

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