Study "American History / United States" Essays 111-165

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Aliens Are Living Amongst Us Today Essay

… Aliens are Living Amongst Us Today!

Since the mid-20th century, reports of strange-looking aliens living in the United States have been commonplace and scarcely a day goes by when a newspaper headline does not trumpet yet another sighting by reliable witnesses, including military officials, airline pilots and law enforcement officials across the country. In fact, recent surveys indicate that more than half of Americans believe that the United States has been visited by aliens (Minerd 2000:16). Skeptics continue to denounce these countless alien sightings, preferring instead to hide their heads in the sand in hopes that the whole thing is really just some bad practical joke gone astray and will blow over in the future. In this environment, it is little wonder that Americans want and need to know if they are alone in the universe, or if there are really others out there who represent a potential threat or potential salvation for mankind's woes today.

A careful and thoughtful review of the popular literature suggests that there can be no denying that aliens are already here, though. In fact, an informal search on "Google" for "aliens" results in about 40,700,000 matches. Likewise, there are more than 321,000 videos posted on YouTube concerning aliens, many of them involving aliens already living in the United States today, and the numbers continue to increase on a daily basis. Given this enormous level of public interest and growing body of evidence, how can the skeptics continue to deny the presence of these outsiders? Despite these trends, the fact remains that many Americans would prefer to ignore the issue entirely and believe what they believe no matter how convincing the evidence might be to the contrary.

What can be done now to either greet these alien outsiders as welcome guests or to repel their potential invasion? The U.S. government has certainly made every effort to treat the problem as if it did not exist, and allegations of cover-ups are rampant across the country. It is reasonable to suggest that if an alien was brought to the White House and introduced to the president himself, it would not change anything overnight. Lawmakers in Congress have also been reluctant to weigh in on this problem for fear of being regarded as some type of "whacko" by the colleagues, and more importantly, their constituents. After all, just as no policymaker wants to appear soft on the war on drugs or child pornography, it is apparent that no right-thinking Congressman… [read more]

Immigration to the United States Essay

… Immigration to the United States

"It is no doubt very desirable that we should hold out as many inducements as possible for the worthy part of mankind to come and settle amongst us, and throw their fortunes into a common lot with ours. But why is this desirable?

Not merely to swell the catalogue of people. No, sir, it is to increase the wealth and strength of the community; and those who acquire the rights of citizenship, are not the people we are in want of ."

James Madison, Fourth President of the United States

Our founding fathers were in favor of immigration. Of that there is little question.

Most, if not all of them, believed that by increasing our numbers with immigrants who would contribute to the "strength of the community," America would become a better place. But they were just as clear that we shouldn't allow immigration en masse for the purpose of swelling our ranks, but rather to allow it for those who wished to contribute and give allegiance to America and no other. That is the reason the following became part of the Oath of Allegiance:

"I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same;"

President Theodore Roosevelt, almost a century later expressed those same words in his

very plainspoken oratory favoring immigration: "But this is predicated upon the man's becoming in very fact an American and nothing but an American. If he tries to keep segregated with men of his own origin and separated from the rest of America, then he isn't doing his part as an American."

We have all heard the phrase, "America is a melting pot." It is a melting pot whose contents mix as one to make a wonderful banquet. People from all over the… [read more]

Reform Movements Essay

… United States Reform 1870-1932

The years between the Civil War and the New Deal were marked with major changes in policy, government structure, and the world at large. Though race policy was largely regressive following the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, other reform movements pushing for institutional change gained steam during this period. The struggle for women's suffrage and other rights was truly galvanized in 1848, but was put on hold during the Civil War and completely ignored by the Constitutional amendments following the war. By 1920, women's suffrage was finally established nationally.

The other major reform movements of this period were the Populist and Progressive movements. The Populists grew out of various labor and farm movements. Labor unions began to be discussed and formed during this period, though they would not gain a strong foothold until around the 1920s, following the same timeline as women's suffrage. Some elements of the Populist ideal were government or collective ownership of railroads and communication systems… [read more]

American History Prior to the American Revolution Term Paper

… American History

Prior to the American Revolution, the majority of immigrants were in some state of "unfreedom," Fogelman notes. As many as three-fourths of the immigrants from Europe arrived as indentured servants, creating a complex system of intricate social hierarchies in the New World. Ideals of freedom and liberty were not as prevalent prior to the war as during and after. The Revolutionary period did indeed alter the structure of American society, and reduced the instances of indentured servitude for whites gradually. For African-Americans the gradual demise of slavery occurred with less enthusiasm, especially as the South's economy became essential to the survival of the new nation following independence.

Prior to the war, trade flowed freely across the Atlantic. Immigrants propped up the colonial labor pool too, adding substantial numbers of indentured servants to the population. Throughout the colonies but especially in the central and southern colonies, indentured servitude created and solidified social strata. However, a war transformed the colonies' biggest trading partners in the Old World into temporary enemies. Old World nations were no more the dependable, viable sources of income and labor they once were. Thus, the American Revolution changed social realities in the New World for practical as well as ideological reasons.

Moreover, the war helped to dissemble the hierarchies that had been built throughout the century preceding the Revolution. Young white male apprentices who were the source of cheap labor extricated themselves from the contracts binding them to their masters by either serving in the war or running away. The ideals of freedom and liberty that fomented the Revolution helped spur apprentices away from their social contracts. American ideals therefore reflected a burgeoning spirit, and did not echo the character of the colonies at all.

For both African and European immigrants, the social stratifications prior to the Revolution were similar. Both European indentured servants and African slaves were deprived of the freedoms and liberties championed by Americans after the Revolution. After independence, though, slavery proliferated profoundly in the South. In spite of the lip service paid to "liberty and justice for all," the Black populace in the newly formed union suffered social setbacks and did not enjoy the fruits of freedom.

Conditions for both African and European servants before the War were deplorable and harsh, Fogelman points out. The state of "unfreedom" persisted well into the late 18th century. Convicts, kidnapping victims, and redemptioners added to the overall pool of people at the lowest rungs of the colonial social ladder. The more immigrants flooded into the colonies in search of opportunity, the fewer actual opportunities for… [read more]

American History the Book Term Paper

… "

And in the 1820s and 1830s, to continue the examples of how uncivil the society was at that time, the book notes that "... convicted criminals were whipped, held for limited periods in local jails ... Or executed." In… [read more]

Patriot Act the USA Term Paper

… ¶ … PATRIOT Act

The USA Patriot Act was passed in a hurry by the House of Representatives and the Senate in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on October… [read more]

Population Distribution of the United States Term Paper

… ¶ … Population distribution [...] several aspects of the United States population distribution, and how the population may change in the next five to ten years. Population distribution in the U.S. is an interesting mix, with most people living in… [read more]

United States Immigration Policy Term Paper

… The illegal aliens often send the bulk of their paychecks home to support the family members who remained behind. This means that domestic workers who could be making and spending money in this country are being deprived of that chance,… [read more]

Region of Megalopolis (Urban Area Term Paper

… As the island slowly began to be isolated, the islanders developed this into a tourist location. Nantucket is just 87 miles from the state capital, Boston. Thus Nantucket also forms part of the BosWash Megalopolis. The economy of Nantucket is now based almost entirely on tourism. ( island has a number of beaches and also three lighthouses that contribute to the tourism industry. There are similarities and dissimilarities to the overall Megalopolis. Nantucket has been successful in the tourism industry but it does not have a large population as compared to the other cities in the megalopolis. According to the Census of 2000 the island has just 9520 inhabitants. Being close to Boston, which formed the start of the Megalopolis, Nantucket was also partly included in the Megalopolis region. But it is an island and isn't present on the mainland like the rest of the megalopolis. It does not have an industry that is based on manufacturing or trade like the other places in the nearby region.


Industrialization and spreading of cities from the core has led to the formation of the BosWash Megalopolis. The concept of Megalopolis is being applied to the Western coast of the U.S.A. And this coastal front could form another Megalopolis consisting of Vancouver, Seattle and Portland and California. Megalopolises need not be confined within national boundaries and depend more on the physical geography of the region.


Gottmann, Jean. Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1961.

J. Gottman, The Coming of the Transactional City, University of Maryland Institute for Urban Studies, 1983.

Mittleman, Earl. "An Outline of American Geography. United States Information Agency, 1995.

Basingstoke. "Megalopolis: The Giant City in History" Macmillan, 1993

Gottmann, Jean and Harper, Robert "Since Megalopolis: The Urban writings of Jean Gottmann." The John Hopkins University Press, 1990

Lecture notes U.S. And Canada: Megalopolis and Urbanism

Urbanism.doc / [read more]

Multi Polar World Essay

… Multi-Polar World

We are living in a world of multi-polarity and the notion of existence of superpowers is neither here nor there. Opinions have been advanced to the effect that the United States and the U.S.S.R. were the superpowers in the cold-war era. Some political commentators also asserted that the United States became an undisputed world superpower when the U.S.S.R. disintegrated in 1991. These propositions are subject to debate. As at this time there are complex economic interdependence on international stage that have been occasioned by globalization and the concept that a state can gain enough power to become a superpower is next to impossible. In fact, the notion that the United States and the U.S.S.R. were superpowers in the cold war error cannot hold because they actually heavily depended on countries in their spheres of influence. It is for fact that the United States possesses great economic clout and it has influenced the culture of many nations (Thompson, 1988).

However, the United States economy is still dependent on foreign investment. Their reliance on foreign trade has created mutual economic dependence between them and the developing world (Mansfield, 1993). The United States cannot therefore claim to be a superpower when it is not self sufficient as it still relies on the international community for its economic sustainability. Interdependence also overlaps into the spheres of diplomacy. World affairs continue to be more and more complex as developing nations innovate with a view to bettering their military might. This state of affairs has made it extremely difficult for countries like the United States to engage in foreign policy that is not acceptable to other nations. This is a testament to the fact that diplomatic and economic factors bind the globe together and no country can decide to act unilaterally lest it suffers a backlash.

After the September 11th terrorist attack the Bush Administration reverted to constructive relations with European and Asian allies to put an end to mutual recriminations over Iraq and begin working together on issues of common interest. The United States refined its diplomatic approaches as envisaged in its new diplomatic push to the six party talks on North Korea and its visible support to European Union sanctioned negotiations with Iran.

Geopolitics has slowly but surely tilted away from a world dominated by Europe and the United States to one with many regional powers but no global leader. The world economic meltdown has ushered in a new crop of economic powerhouses like Brazil, China, and India (Sachs, 2012). Brazil's economic prosperity is owed to its capability to stabilize its currency and create a stable macro-economic environment including credible monetary and fiscal policies. It has become a powerful commodity exporting country… [read more]

Atlanta Motel v. United States Term Paper

… Issue

The issue before the court is to decide the constitutionality or application of Title II of the Civil Rights Act, 1964 to the case.


The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the District Court.


The Congress based the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment and its power to regulate interstate commerce under Art. I, 8, cl. 3 of the constitution.

That the Congress possessed ample power in this regard and the "commerce power" alone is sufficient for a decision in this case.

There is overwhelming evidence that discrimination in providing accommodation to Negroes by hotels and motels impedes interstate travel.

The power of the Congress to regulate commerce under the Commerce Clause is to simply determine whether the activity is commerce which concerns more than one State and has a substantial relation to national interest.

The power of the Congress to promote interstate commerce also includes power to regulate incidents of a local nature.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not deprive the Appellant of liberty or property under the Fifth Amendment since the Commerce power invoked by the Congress for the purposes of this case is specific, and authorized by the Constitution itself. The appellant has no "right" to select his guest free from government regulation.

No merit in appellant's contention of "involuntary servitude" and violation of 13th Amendment.

The Atlanta Motel concededly serves interstate travelers and the action of the Congress in adoption of the Act as applied here is… [read more]

American Revolution History Has Shown Term Paper

… 50).

Furthermore, when discussing the ongoing debate about the Senate, Berkin highlights the words of Gouverneur Morris, whose justification for the Senate included an explicit acknowledgment of the class divisions present in colonial society. Morris argued that "the rich will… [read more]

England's North American Colonies Research Paper

… England did not succeed in asserting the expected control level over Spanish religious practices in New Spain. They weakly established the England Church overseeing a landscape of increasingly diverse religion. However, despite the lack of success in establishing a unified Anglican Church under the England purview, growth created a broad range of shared culture, which united different racial, ethnic, and religious believers from different churches. These groups came together forming a single Anglophone Spiritual team. The 18th Century revolution split the British Atlantic in terms of politics, but religious tie remained. This shaped faith in the Caribbean, North America, sections of West Africa and Western Europe (Seymour, 2008).


Groups that formed the urban poor included the unskilled stevedores, crewmembers, and laborers. In the 18th Century, the colonies experienced an economic recessions. These recessions made enormous impacts on England colonies. With the labor supply outstripping the demand, wages declined, and unemployment levels rose. Large and by, females in the colonies undertook traditional responsibilities; they brought up kids and took care of homes. They worked in the backcountry and in the colonies, as well as took care of livestock alongside their children and husbands. Women living in urban areas were free from doing such domestic duties as they made candles and spanned clothes; these would later be sold in the cities. These women had some time for leisure and sometime offered help to their husbands in their taverns or shops. However women abandoned their rights to property when they got married, widows and single women were allowed to inherit property under the English law (Heuman, 1993).


Bailyn, B. (2005). Atlantic History: Concept and Contours. Boston: Harvard University Press,

pp 59-140

Berlin, I. (1980). Time, Space, and the Evolution of Afro-American Society on British Mainland

North America. The American Historical Review, Vol. 85, No. 1 pp. 44-78

Cobbs E., Jon Gjerde, H, & Blum, E.J. (2011). Colonial New England and middle Colonies in British America. In Cobbs E., Jon Gjerde, H & Blum, E.J. (2011). Major Problems in American History. Cengage Learning, pp 69-90

Heuman, G. (1993). The tradition of protest in Jamaica. In Slavery in the Americas. Binder, W.

(Ed) (1993). Konigshausen & Neumann, pp 33-43

Seymour, M. (2008). Major Problems in American History: Volume 1: To 1877" The

transformation of the North Atlantic world: 1492-17-63. Westport, CT: Praeger

Smith, B. & Middleton, S. (2008). Class matters: early… [read more]

Era Through the Great Depression Essay

… Eastern states were also diverse in terms of population as compared to West and this also had an influence on laws regarding women's suffrage (Rodgers, 2000). However, in 1913, women in the eastern states were given the right of vote. Nineteenth Amendment was put forward, which made the right to vote as a universal right of any human being.

The Progressive Era for Business

According to Theodore Roosevelt, the industrial sector would be at risk because of the immoral actions and activities of big businesses and corporates. For this purpose, he had concentrated on penalizing and punishing those companies, who had failed to abide by the Sherman Antitrust Act. This act concentrated on tackling unethical business practices such as price fixing, interlocking directorates and price cutting (Mowry, 2001). His main target was the national railroad transportation sector, which had violated rules and regulations. For this purpose, Elkins Act of 1903 had been introduced in which shipping allowances were given to companies who had good record. However this Act failed to stop the activities of railroad organizations and large companies and therefore, the Hepburn Act was introduced in 1906. This law restricted the prices charged by the rail roads. Furthermore, Interstate Commerce Commission was given the authority to control the rates of shipping (Bruce & Nyland, 2001). Furthermore, railroad companies had to adjust their rates and give justifications for their procedures related to accounting. Furthermore, in order to prevent exploitation of employees, 8-hour duty had been assigned for all workers.

Spanish American War and United States of America

The Spanish-American War is considered to be one of the greatest wars that have changed the face of America. Historians believed that the events of the Spanish-American War allowed United States to annex territories using military. Spanish American War allowed United States of America to become a strong power and to reap benefits in terms of commerce and to improve economy (Sage, 2010). During the war, U.S. had been successful in expanding its presence in the international market and furthermore, it gained political and military power. Because of the war, America had been successful in establishing its influence in foreign territories. Political and military influence was also exerted in these territories.

Twenties and the Government

The twenties are also known as the Roaring Twenties, which is used to describe the time after the Progressive era. During this time, federal government was not actively involved in economy, business markets and activities. It was age in which jazz was developed and American society experienced new freedom. However, this period ended as the American stock market had crashed in 1929. Before the Great Depression, social disparities and inequalities were present in the American society (Mowry, 2001). Furthermore, at the time of crisis, financial relief was not awarded to groups who were living in poverty. Hoover's administration concentrated on developing a program that would allow employees to retain their jobs. However, he failed in this attempt. When Roosevelt came into power, the New Deal was proposed and… [read more]

American Culture) Thoughts on Book Essay

… Similarly, William Appleman Williams's Empire as a Way of Life seeks to enlighten us about our true history. He describes Americans as "an imperial people who must now 'order' ourselves rather than policing and saving the world…. We must leave that imperial incubator if we are to become citizens of the real world" (106). His contention was that our imperialistic views have made us numb and caused us to create certain denials and justifications about our past. He points out that our real history has been omitted from school texts and media outlets and that this collective ignorance has infiltrated the American mindset regarding the rest of the world and our role in it.

He posits that the looking at ourselves in a universally positive light in world history is a pattern that is based in assumptions. We use these assumptions about other countries, politics, people, and ethical conduct to inform and uphold our personally held convictions and beliefs. To Williams, the "empire" is the America that operates as a feared entity throwing its power around in the world -- we observe it but feel strangely detached from it. When others in third world countries perish at our hands or our policies trample upon the natural rights of others, we may not have an overt reaction, particularly if the men in charge tell us it is being done in the name of advancing our own interests in the world. Williams offers that we do not object because there is much to be gained -- resources, better opportunities, economic control and power, and wealth. Thus, the end justifies the means.

Both readings highlight the fact that critical thinking and scholarly inquiry is required to truly understand ourselves and our history as Americans. We examine the world through a unique cultural lens -- as all world citizens do. This shapes our worldview which is representative of our societal values. As the readings help us appreciate, American worldviews can best be classified as individualistic, controlling and achievement driven. Our accomplishments help determine our relative value in our global society. What we accomplish is often times deemed more important that what we have to do to get there (Romanowski 29). There must be a more honest and comprehensive retelling of our history in order for us to better understand and improve how we operate in the world. Once that is embraced, it may become much easier to present an unbiased account of exactly who we were (and are) in the history books.


Romanowski, Michael H. "Excluding Ethical Issues From U.S. History Textbooks: 911 And The War On Terror." American Secondary Education 37.2 (2009): 26-48. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Oct. 2012.

Shaffer, Robert. "History Lessons: How Textbooks From Around The World Portray U.S. History By Dana Lindaman And Kyle Ward." Peace & Change 32.1 (2007): 114-117. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Oct. 2012.

Williams, William Appleman. "Empire as… [read more]

African-American Immigrations African Research Paper

… Whitney patented this machine in 1794, so that slave labor fueled the United States' economy through the means of its production of cotton, which was frequently sold to British textile mills that were desperate for the product to turn out… [read more]

Fresia's Contention Term Paper

… Slavery is a mark of shame upon the United States not for its existence, because almost all nations have known slavery, but because of the extent that slavery permeated American life. For example, at the time of the Revolution, there… [read more]

American Experience Term Paper

… American Experience

Americans pride themselves on their nation, its achievements and its fundamental philosophy of government. Yet what is commonly thought of as the "greatest nation in the world" has frequently, systematically, and continually failed large segments of its society. The Declaration of Independence outlined lofty goals of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," and yet those ideals did not apply to one-half of the entire population: women; nor did the ideals apply to African-Americans. In fact, African-Americans were legally defined as three-fifths of a human being in the United States Constitution: a literal fraction of a person. Thus, embedded within the American legal and political system were safeguards to protect the rights of an elite few over the rights of others; to promote a culture of discrimination; and to preserve an unjust and unequal social order throughout the nation.

The American Revolution helped liberate a new nation from the distant and somewhat oppressive regime of the British monarchy. However, the founding fathers were not necessarily social liberals. Thomas Jefferson believed outright that the government should be run by a select group of learned white males. Andrew Jackson opposed his view, supporting instead a more populist form of democracy. Both men impacted American politics, which in many cases has proven itself to be a government "by the people."

However, one-half of the American population was excluded fully from participating in politics at all, let alone voting. Women, regardless of their race, religion, or social class, were not considered to be full citizens of the nation. In some states, women were allowed to vote in local elections. However, in federal politics the voices of women were ignored or promptly silenced. Women did, however, work behind the scenes to help transform American society and were solidly behind the abolitionist movement. Nevertheless, feminism in America was until very recently the realm of the white and wealthy classes. The unique concerns and considerations… [read more]

Presidents in the History Term Paper

… ¶ … presidents in the history of the United States, including a ranking of choices in order from one through five in a descending order of importance. There have been many memorable and excellent presidents in United States history. Picking… [read more]

America Was Finding Its Footing Term Paper

… It was a difficult time of transition from British identity to a newly formed American identity for the colonists. Like with any revolution, it took determination and will to succeed to lead the people, especially the chosen noted figures, to embark on such an arduous task.

To conclude, the people of the era of the American Revolution were just that, revolutionary. They were radical in their sentiments and desired change. George Washington, Charles Willson Peale, and Thomas Paine inspired, led, and recorded a time of infancy for America that remains recognized today. They were and still are great men that helped birth a great nation.


Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.

This source discusses the life anf career of George Washington.

Greene, J.P., & Bailyn, B. (1967). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. American Historical Review, 11(3), 588-90. doi:10.2307/1849163

This is a journal source that discusses the reasons behind the American Revolution.

Paine, T., & Carlile, R. (1819). The political and miscellaneous works of Thomas Paine. London: Printed and published by R. Carlile.

This is a primary source that discusses Thomas Paine's life along with his works.

Paine, T., & In Conway, M.D. (1967). The writings of Thomas Paine. New York: AMS Press.

This is another Thomas Paine rimary source containing his writing.

Peale, C.W., Richardson, E.P., Hindle, B., & Miller, L.B. (1983). Charles Willson Peale and his world. New York: H.N. Abrams.

This is a primary source containing information on his life.

Washington, G. (1990). Washington's farewell address to the people of the United States. Champaign, Ill: Project… [read more]

History in the 19th Century Essay

… History In the 19th Century:

It's impossible to understand the course of the United States in the 19th Century without understanding the cause and consequences of the Civil War. The United States Civil War was one of the most significant and defining incidents in the country's history. This is primarily because by the end of the conflict, many people had been wounded and killed, slavery had come to an end, and the very concept of America had been altered forever. Generally, the American Civil in the 19th Century was not only the most deadly but also the most significant event in the country's history. Unlike other major events that affected the United States, the war had significant effects that fundamentally changed the American society. Some of the major consequences of this war include changes in the role of the federal government, status of African-Americans, and the American culture. As a result, understanding the causes and consequences of the Civil War is important to understanding the course of the 19th Century United States.

Causes of the Civil War:

The causes and consequences of the American Civil War cannot be absorbed easily since it was a huge conflict originating from deep-seated forces or factors. Moreover, understanding the causes of this war is not easy because it was fought throughout the whole of the American continent. The Northern and Southern parts of the United States grew along different paths in the early history of the nation ("Causes of the Civil War," 2010). While the South was predominantly an agrarian economy, the North developed into a more industrialized economy. In addition to this, the North and South also developed along differing political beliefs and social cultures. These differences in development contributed to the emergence of disagreements on various issues such as taxes, internal improvements, tariffs, and the rights of states vs. those of federal governments.

In the beginning of the 1840s, American consciousness and lifestyle was dominated by the notion of slavery. As a result, slaves were the moral, social, economical, and political hallmark of the American society. However, as the hallmark of Southern life, slavery developed to become one of the most divisive issues in the country since its independence in 1776. Slavery contributed to the split of political parties in the United States during the 1850s and brought a sharp line among economies in the two regions of the country. Therefore, slavery became the burning issue that resulted in the disruption of the Union, a dispute that brought the war through which the Northern and Western states fought to maintain the Union. In contrast, the South region fought to develop Southern independence as a new confederation of states based on its own constitution. While there are other causes of Civil War, slavery was the main issue that contributed to the conflict.

Consequences of Civil War:

While it's the deadliest war in the history of the United States, the consequences and significance cannot be underestimated. Notably, the American Civil War came… [read more]

Nixon Before the Presidency Military Research Paper

… To appease women, he made no public opposition to Roe v. Wade (Wicker). The Southern strategy was to appeal to the antipathy to black protests and the fight for civil rights.

Finally, Nixon broke the law when it came time for the 1972 election. Nixon violated the constitution in the Watergate scandal by accepting illegal campaign funds, sabotaging Democratic candidates, and trying to illegally silence anyone who criticized the Vietnam War (Roark). He had his reelection campaign workers break into the Democratic Party headquarters in order to spy on his political opposition George McGovern and then tried to cover up the link between the thieves and the White House. In addition to this, Nixon used the power of the White House to intimidate enemies both at home and abroad. He kept tape recordings of all conversations that took place in the Oval Office for the purpose of coercion and blackmail of high government officials. Everything he did while in office was suspected to be dubious because of what came out. Ultimately, this illegal activity was discovered and Nixon's crimes brought to light.

However, Nixon never made either a full confession or a real apology to the American people. On September 8, 1974, President Gerald Ford granted Nixon a full pardon. In response Nixon released a statement where he said:

I was wrong in not acting more decisively and more forthrightly in dealing with Watergate, particularly when it reached the stage of judicial proceedings and grew from a political scandal into a national tragedy. Nor words can describe the depth of my regret and pain at the anguish my mistakes over Watergate have caused the nation and the presidency, a nation I so deeply love, and an institution I so greatly respect (Black 990).

In the following decade and in the decades which followed, Watergate has taught the American people that they must keep an eye on their politicians and not trust them to make the right decisions through blind faith. Both Vietnam and Watergate took away the innocence of the American people in terms of their political leaders. Never again would people take the word of their leader through blind faith. It is possible that the nation might have healed but unfortunately Nixon never faced punishment for his crime which ever left a question in the minds of the people as to what machinations went on behind the scenes to protect Nixon. By pardoning Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford made it impossible for the former president to get justice for his crimes against America and left many questions unanswered forever securing in the American mind that some evils can be overlooked.

Works Cited

Black, Conrad. Richard M. Nixon: a Life in Full. New York, NY: Public Affairs. 2007. Print.

Gellman, Irwin. "The Richard Nixon Vice Presidency: Research Without the Nixon

Manuscripts." A Companion to Richard M. Nixon. Ed. Melvin Small. Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell. 2011. 102-20. Print.

Roark, J., Johnson, M., Cohen, P., Stage, S., Lawson, A., and Hartmann, S. The

American… [read more]

Civil War Represents a Decisive Term Paper

… C. After this battle both sides realized that this war will not be easy or short-lasting. After this embarrassing defeat, Lincoln placed George McClellan at the command of the Army of the Potomac. "In July McClellan lead an army of Indiana and Ohio volunteers in a campaign to drive Confederate forces from western Virginia." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 149) His campaign was successful due to his victory in western Virginia.

The second war was fought between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River. In 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant led Union troops which conquered Forts Henry and Donelson from Tennessee. As a result of these victories the Confederacy was split in two. "But success proved costly; the heavy Union casualties under Grant at the Battle of Shiloh, fought on April 6-7, 1862, shocked the North." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 149)

The third conflict had the sea as a battle field. In 1861 and 1862 the North had won several important battles as a result of its campaign meant to prevent the Confederacy from getting assistance from international players.

"On April 21, 1861, just as the Civil War was getting under way, Union forces hastily abandoned the critical Norfolk Navy Yard -- after destroying most of the yard's facilities and twelve ships to prevent them from falling into rebel hands." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 149) The Confederates captured the frigate Merrimack, remodeled it and renamed it C.S.S. Virginia. On March 8 they assailed and destroyed the Union frigate Cumberland with the new Virginia. After this defeat the Union placed the Monitor to the sea. The Monitor did not have a long life, as it sank on December 31 in a storm at Cape Hatteras. "Both the Union and Confederacy quickly set about building more ironclads, which caught the eye of navies around the world, and warship design was changed forever." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 149)

By 1864 both the South and North had suffered massive loss of people, and as a result their troops were tired. "Grant's spring offensive in Virginia had led only to drawn out trench warfare at Petersburg." (Gary B. Nash, Carter Smith, page 157) Sherman's army produced massive casualties in Atlanta but it was not able to conquer the city in spite of its long-lasting campaigns. Lincoln believed that the Republicans will be defeated along with the new election. In September Sherman took Atlanta, started the March to the Sea and conquered Savannah. Columbia and Charleston had the same fate as Savannah. After some short battles Lee's army accepted its defeat at Appomattox Court House. However what seemed to be a victory on Union side, soon transformed into a defeat when the Confederate John Wilkes Booth assassinated the President Lincoln. The assassination took place on April 14 at Ford's Theatre in Washington. The Civil War ended on April 26 when Johnston's army surrendered.


1. Nash, Gary B., Smith, Carter, Atlas of American History, Infobase Publishing, 2007

2. Civil War,… [read more]

American Imperialism (APA Citation) Research Paper

… In February of 1899, the Filipinos rebelled against American Imperialism in a bloody guerrilla war, but were ruthlessly suppressed by the United States. ("Platform") Also in 1899, in response to their nation's seemingly Imperialistic actions, some in the United States, including Andrew Carnegie and William James, founded the "American AntiImperialist League."

This group was dedicated to stopping American annexation of the Philippines and stated in "Platform of the American AntiImperialist league" "that the policy of imperialism is hostile to liberty and tends toward militarism." ("Platform") The Platform wanted the United States to stop all military action in the Philippines, and "concede to them the independence for which they have so long fought and which of right is theirs." ("Platform") The League then chided the American government for betraying the principles of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, denied that they had any obligation to support the government, and threatened to politically "contribute to the defeat of any persons or party that stands for the forcible subjugation of any people." ("Platform") They then went on to quote from Abraham Lincoln ending with his warning that "those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves." ("Platform") Unfortunately the League was unsuccessful in it's endeavors.

As a result of the Imperialistic policies of the late 19th century, particularly the occupation of the Philippine Islands, the United States found itself involved in a number of other interventions. As a new Asian Power, the United States found itself dragged into a conflict in 1900 known as China's "Boxer Rebellion." ("Boxer Rebellion") Later the United States was called upon to broker a peace between the Russian and the Japanese ending the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. ("Aspects of Russo-Japanese War") The spirit of Imperialism also led directly to the securing of Panama and the building of the Panama Canal. As the U.S. entered the 20th century, and was in possession of colonies in the Atlantic and the Pacific, Theodore Roosevelt took the next magical step and connected the two oceans by building the canal. And finally, the American occupation of the Philippine Islands led directly to a conflict with the Japanese; the Second World War, and the loss of millions of lives.

Reference List

"Aspect of the Russo-Japanese War" The Russo-Japanese War Research Society." Retrieved from

Beveridge, Albert "In Support of an American Empire." Record, 56 Congress, Session I. Retrieved from

"Platform of the American AntiImperialist League," (1913). In Frederick Bancroft (Ed.) Speeches, Correspondences, and Political Papers of Carl Schurz, vol. 6, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. Retrieved from: Internet Modern History Sourcebook.

"The Boxer Rebellion." (2000), Small Planet Communications. Retrieved from [read more]

Globalism and the Culture Research Paper

… S. buy many more products than they need. This has not been the case, as much, in the last two years, but a poor person in the U.S. would still be considered a very rich individual anywhere else in the… [read more]

American Imperialism of the 19th Century Essay

… American Imperialism in the 19th Century

American Imperialism 19th Century

American imperialism of the 19th century has long been a controversial subject matter. Many people believe that America had other issues that it should have been tending to, like staying… [read more]

American Exceptionalism Essay

… American Exceptionalism refers to allegedly exceptional social and political destiny of Americans guided by Puritanical values of the early migrants. This concept is attributed to Alexis de Tocqueville who believed that the special political nature and social history of America… [read more]

American Exceptionalism Is a Concept Thesis

… American exceptionalism is a concept that has been shrouded in controversy since the arrival of the first British pioneers and settlers. The ideal of exceptionalism was born as a result of the Puritan view that the colonialists were on a… [read more]

Immigration Good or Bad Research Proposal

… ¶ … America, even the Native Americans, were immigrants at one point, so immigration forms the backbone of this nation, and it is good for the country to be diverse.

Argument 1 -- Native Americans immigrated here.

Colonists were immigrants,… [read more]

U.S. History President Harry S. Truman Presided Term Paper

… U.S. History

President Harry S. Truman presided over one of the most tumultuous and eventful periods in recent American history. He took over the office of Presidency after the death of FDR in 1945 before being elected to the office for one full term. During his term, he witnessed the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the climactic end of the Second World War. Moreover, Truman engaged American troops in the Korean War and helped kick-start the Cold War that would last until Reagan's presidency in the 1980s. Truman suffered through a disagreeable Congress and although his post-war efforts were not always popular, he made more inroads into the development of late-20th century American society than perhaps any other president of the post-war years. For example, the United Nations was formed under Truman, as was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and acknowledged the creation of the state of Israel in the late 1940s.

Truman, a Democrat, was succeeded by Dwight D. Eisenhower. A popular president known in popular slogans as "We like Ike," Eisenhower was president during the heyday of the 1950s, when television and housewives became part of the popular culture. More relevant to politics, President Eisenhower devoted a significant portion of the American budget toward the development of aerospace technology in an attempt to outdo Russia in a "space race" that coincided with the Cold War and that would culminate under Kennedy's leadership in the 1960s. Similarly, Truman advocated the development of nuclear weapons in order to bolster the American image in opposition to the Soviet Union. His development of the interstate highways may have been one of Eisenhower's most notable legacies, as the 1950s marked the beginning of the American "car culture."

Democratic President John F. Kennedy may have won the 1960 election by a hair's breadth but he would become one of the most enduringly popular and iconic American leaders. The only Catholic president and a renowned social liberal, Kennedy helped to usher in a new era of American Civil Rights during which leaders like Martin Luther… [read more]

U.S. History Term Paper

… The populace buys little beyond sustenance items, so the economy is not stimulated and the manufacturing plants do not hire people, thus ensuring a vicious spiraling cycle downward. Keynes suggested that the government spend at a deficit, and so Roosevelt… [read more]

American Dream Entails That Anyone Coming Term Paper

… American Dream entails that anyone coming to the United States would have unlimited and equal opportunities to accumulate and provide his or her family with wealth, or at least comfortable living conditions. For others the dream entails an improvement of… [read more]

Difficulty, Wealthy White American Settlers Term Paper

… My fellow slaves were five transports more,

With eighteen negroes which is twenty four,

Besides four transport women in the house,

To wait upon his daughter and his spouse.

We and the negroes both alike did fare,

Of work and food we had an equal share,

And in a piece of ground called our own,

The food we eat first by ourselves is sown.

No other time to us they will allow,

But on a Sunday we the same must do,

Six days we slave for our master's good,

The seventh is to produce our homely food,

And when we a hard day's work have done,

Away unto the mill we must be gone, 'Till twelve or one o'clock a grinding corn,

And must be up by day light in the morn.

And if you get in debt with any one,

It must be paid before from thence you come,

In publick places they'll put up your name,

As every one their just demands may claim."

Thomas Jefferson realized that the concept of slavery was a problem, and one that was growing. Jefferson said, "I think a change already perceptible, since the origin of the present revolution. The spirit of the master is abating, that of the slave rising from the dust, his condition mollifying, the way I hope preparing, under the auspices of heaven, for a total emancipation, and this is disposed, in the order of events, to be with the consent of the masters, rather than by their extirpation." Jefferson knew that the plantation society would unravel, as… [read more]

Confederation and Constituion Essay

… In terms of how the federalists and anti-federalists struck the Bill of Rights and how this compared to the base Constitution itself, it is clear that while the Federalists got a lot of what they wanted in the original Constitution, the anti-federalists got what they wanted in the Bill of Rights. In terms of the latter, the Bill of Rights is a recitation and summary not of what the government must do, but rather what they cannot do. For example, they cannot deny free speech, they cannot abridge due process and they cannot limit the press, just to name a few. In addition, the tenth amendment in particular pointed to the idea that states and people would be reserved certain rights but by federal mandate rather than state assertion alone. The Bill of Rights was effective and prescient in that it was a perfect counterbalance to the federal powers claimed and enforced via the original Constitution without the Bill of Rights. The rights of both the people of the country as well as the state or even local governments were much more clearly demarcated and defined than the original Constitution alone (, 2014).

The above clearly shows that federalists and anti-federalists had a clear disagreement about the size and scope of the power that the federal government did or did not wield. Obviously, the anti-federalists were concerned about a federal government becoming too powerful and resembling the tyrannical government of Great Britain at the time which was manifested by the monarch and other British federal authorities being extremely dictatorial, restrictive and controlling of the colonies and member terrorities of the British Empire of that day. However, the Federalists countered that the federal government had to be much more of an "end-all, be-all" of the new nation as having things to decentralized and autonomous would lead to a disjointed nation. They asserted that while there would be limits, checks and balances on the federal government, there had to be times and places where the federal government could intercede and assert itself. Of course, these skirmishes and involvements would have to be constrained by the rule of law and the Constitution not to mention the free will of the people in terms of who was voted in and who was not. The catalyst for solving the Federalist vs. anti-Federalist dilemma was to strike a balance that protected the states and the people but also allowed the federal government to be as powerful as it needed to be to guide the country effectively.


It is clear that no single system is perfect but the ongoing continuity and staying power of the United States system and how it is not majorly changed in nearly two and a half centuries is a testament to how well-designed the system is. There were some glaring flaws at the onset including no abolition of slavery and properly striking a federal and state balance and there remain some important questions including some posed in reaction to the Great… [read more]

Habeas Corpus / GWOT Essay

… This may perhaps indicate that the problem of "rebellion" in Maryland was very much on Lincoln's mind -- to this day, Maryland remains the only state in the Union whose official state anthem ("Maryland, My Maryland") advocates violent overthrow of… [read more]

Civil War in America Term Paper

… Civil War in America

The American Civil war in that ran from 1861 to1865 was reported to be one of the most violent times in the American history. During this period, more than 700,000 men gave their lives for their country because of the war. Most people thought that the civil war ended after the military defeat of the south, unfortunately, this is not true because the war is still reported being very present in America today (McPherson, 2001). Research showed that the war was significant to the American people because it was able to resolve two major important questions which were left up in the air or unresolved by the revolution. These two major questions included;

(a) Whether America was to remain a dissolvable amalgamation of sovereign states or just an inseparable nation that has a sovereign state government (Barker, 2009).

(b) Whether the U.S., born of a declaration that all the American men were created with the rights to liberty was to continue existing as the leading slaveholding country across the world (Barker, 2009).

The Civil War in America is reported to have been caused by several issues and events. The main issue was that, the North America did not want to tolerate slavery as part of the fabric within the U.S. society, despite the fact that the political powers in Washington had planned of abolishing it during the American Civil war. Slavery in U.S. was a major burning issue which was renowned to have led to the disruption of many Unions formed. The war started as a result of rigid differences which existed between the free and the slave states above the power of national government to help in prohibiting the slavery in the various territories that had not become states. The other issue that resulted to the U.S. civil… [read more]

Abraham Lincoln Book Review

… As noted before, the political structures in the south did everything possible to surmount the rights that Lincoln's government had given to these people. From an economic perspective, the country as a whole would swiftly progress into industrialization, yet most freed slaves in the South found themselves in similar economic conditions to slavery under the sharecropping system. Even worse, reconstruction would last little more than 10 years. Once the militarization of the south ended, heralding the conclusion of the reconstruction, the lot of African-Americans significantly spiraled to conditions that were virtually akin to slavery with lynchings and transgressions on their newly acquired freedom commonplace in the wake of the advent of groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the Knights of the White Camelia. This newfound freedom that McPherson credits Lincoln with engendering then, certainly did not last long, suggesting that the author has greatly exaggerated its importance.

The tenuous nature of this new form of liberty which is contingent upon the support of the government is intrinsically flawed, for the simple fact that the interests of the government do not always coincide with the liberty of the people it governs it. The many African-Americans left stranded at the end of Reconstruction can certainly attest to this fact. The plethora of Native Americans who were systematically murdered and relocated from their tribal lands would almost certainly agree with this statement. Furthermore, this conception that McPherson views as positive actually contributed to the rise of imperialism, the Cold War, and the many bloody insurrections and counter insurrections that the U.S. fomented throughout South and Central America after Lincoln's efforts in the Civil War created this new form of freedom.

In retrospect, McPherson should not be questioned as to whether or not Abraham Lincoln played a central role in American history and whether or not he founded a new conception of liberty in the U.S. Yet the effects of this change are highly questionable and far from benign for a great number of people. A freedom engendered and facilitated by the government is only as good as that government itself, for better or for worse. [read more]

Conceptions of American Freedom Essay

… 21st century Americans fight for freedoms such as access to education, access to health care, and say over who has access to their personal information. In these ways, the idea of American freedom has changed and had always remained the same since the establishment of the country.


Democracy Web -- Comparative Studies in Freedom. 2012. The Idea of Freedom. Web, Available from: [footnoteRef:3]2012 November 15. [3: ]

Maier, P. 1998. Sparring for Liberty. The New York Times, Web, Available from: 2012 November 18.

Shipley, C. 2012. Power to change -- What is True Freedom? Web, Available from: 2012 November 16.

Spease. 2012. What is Freedom in America. Web, Available from: 2012 November 15.

XND Magazine. 2012. American Freedom -- the idea. Web, Available from: [footnoteRef:4]2012 November 18. [4: ] [read more]

Immigration Present and in Historical Context Term Paper

… ¶ … history of immigration in the United States (U.S.) began back from17th century during the first entry of Spanish people through the south coast. According to Marshall (17, 18) since then, the United States has experienced constant inflow of… [read more]

Constitutional Government Creating a System Essay

… This concept would also be very influential in the thinking of the American Founding Fathers. Some of the stipulations, such as "that the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law" directly correspond to provisions in the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the right to declare war and also to appropriate the necessary funds to raise a standing army even though the President is Commander in Chief ("English Bill of Rights 1689," Revolutionary War and Beyond, 2012). This concept of divided government was just as influential as the philosophy of John Locke, who famously proclaimed every human being's right to life, liberty, and property -- language which was directly inserted into the Declaration of Independence as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

The final Constitution gave people the right to be protected from sovereign misrule, such as the right to a grand jury and protection against double jeopardy in the form of 5th Amendment (Head 2012). However, what constitutes 'the rights of the people' has changed over the history of the United States. For example, the 14th Amendment ended slavery and thus effectively nullified provisions of the original constitution, such as the 3/5ths compromise, which counted every slave as less of a person and effectively permitted slavery. However, the 14th Amendment had implications for all Americans, not just freed slaves. Its guarantee of due process was interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to mean that the Bill of Rights applied to the states, not just to the federal government, which fundamentally shifted the power of the Constitution to create a more holistic and individualistic vision of citizenship, versus one of state's rights ("14th Amendment to the Constitution," Library of Congress, 2019).

However, not all attempts to reform the U.S. Constitution were equally as successful. The 18th Amendment put Prohibition into action banning all forms of alcohol consumption and sales. When this proved to be untenable to enforce (despite the fact that the Amendment was passed through the lengthy and cumbersome process of amending the Constitution) it was evidentially rescinded through the use of another constitutional amendment. The formulation of the Constitution and the rights of the people vs. The rights of the government is thus a continual, evolving process, not one which was decided merely when the laws of the land were written down.

Works Cited

"14the Amendment to the Constitution." Library of Congress. [19 Oct 2019].

"18th Amendment." University of Albany. [19 Oct 2019].

"English Bill of Rights 1689." Revolutionary War and Beyond. [19 Oct 2019]

Head, Tom. "Fifth Amendment." Civil Liberty. [19 Oct 2019].

"History." Magna Carta. [19 Oct 2019].

Wilson, Woodrow. "A treatise." 24 Mar 1908. [19 Oct 2019] [read more]

Colonial Period in America Essay

… Colonial Period in America

What factors during the Colonial period hindered or promoted national identity? A what point did nationalism become a major influence -- why?

The national identity of the young nation was formed as time went on and… [read more]

American Studies One Theme Thesis

… None of the dramatic events of the 1960s really ended the segregation and poverty of minorities in America, and violent opposition to this exploded in the Los Angeles riots of 1992. Contemporary art, poetry and music like hip-hop also expressed rage and alienation and the unequal nature of American society, just as their predecessors did over the centuries.


Perhaps nothing sums up the paradoxes and complexities of the Equality vs. Hierarchy dichotomy in American than the election of Barack Obama in 2008. In the past, his election would have been impossible, even unthinkable, since no blacks or members of other minority groups could have aspired to the presidency. Apart from John F. Kennedy in 1961-63, all the other presidents from 1789 to 2008 were white, Protestant males. In this sense, there has indeed been progress because of the civil rights movement, although the Right-wing has also mounted constant racist attacks on Obama, even questioning whether he was born in the United States. Moreover, the problems of poverty, exclusion and inequality for blacks and other minorities remain, just as they always have. Obama's tone in "A More Perfect Union" (2008) was very cool, intellectual and rational, which seems to be quite typical of his personality.

As the first black nominee of a major party for president, he had to draw in enough white voters to stay competitive with the Republicans, and Democrats had not been very successful at that since the 1960s. Obama's tone was that of both a transformational political leader but also a pragmatic candidate running for office. For this reason, he was far less emotional, impassioned and moralistic than Martin Luther King in his "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington in 1963. On the other hand, both men referred to the founding documents and principles of the United States that promised liberty and equality for all, and noted that the country had failed to fulfill these in practice, especially because blacks had suffered centuries of slavery and segregation. They expressed optimism about the nation's ability to do so and rejected the politics of violence, racism and divisiveness, whether from blacks or whites. Obama referred to economic issues far more frequently than King, however, and used the rising poverty, unemployment and inequality in America as a central issue in his campaign. He recognized that the U.S. had made progress since the 1950s and 1960s, and indeed that if it had not he would never have become the nominee of a major political party. He acknowledged the debt he owed to the entire civil rights movement, without which he would have had no opportunity to be elected president. Obama realized that this work had not yet been completed and that racism and segregation were still very real obstacles that blacks and other minorities faced in their daily lives in America. Nevertheless, he also wished to create a movement that was broader than issues of race, and that addressed social and economic justice for… [read more]

Thomas Bender Is Qualified Book Review

… America may actually not be so unique as alleged.

The second chapter logically takes off from the first by destructing our belief that America was unique in its stance of rising against one of the most powerful empires of the time (an empire on which the sun never set),and that it did so independently. Rather, it was helped by other nations (primarily France) who opposed Britain and it was one of many nations who stimulated by revolution and desires for independence to rebel against their colonization. America, therefore, Bender shows us is not as unique as thought.

It is indicative of the fact that Bender initiates the first chapter with describing the ramifications of Columbus' deed on a global scale. The discovery of America comes later but Bender's implication is that its discovery is micro and almost insignificant when compared to the larger significance of the event which was really the discovery of an ocean that created a new world:

The consequences of discovering an oceanic world shaped the history of every continent. On every continent a new world emerged, with consequences for each. The story of North America and of the United States is part of that larger, more important history, not vice versa (16)

The world now saw that there was an ocean that linked countries and connected each to the other, and that the world was holistic and whole.

It is interesting, actually, that Bender opens up with this implication for it seems to be the motif of his book: America is not one country apart from others. Rather it was formed by others, and in turn forms others. It is part of the conversation of the whole. "The ocean," as bender writes," ceased to be a barrier and became "a wide common over which men may pass in all directions" and similarly too, America, one of these oceanic countries simply served as a treading space for all directions. It interacted with, and was influenced by others in economic, agricultural, political and all ways, and was in turn affected by others who whether willfully or not came into contact with it.

Slavery, in fact, the perennial criticism of America, was developed in the specific and geographical context of the world of Atlantic slavery. There was a global slave market that was not particular to America per se and was connected with global trading in general. American history of slavery and discrimination was shaped within a context of global events and between its back-and-forth connections with the Caribbean.

American history was shaped by its geographical position and also by the political context of the time. U.S. history is no linear story of progress nor is it self-contained. We may like to think ourselves unique, but, as Bender shows "the beginnings [and, indeed, the entire history] of the United States… are the product & #8230; of many histories, several of them global in scope." (60).


Bender, T. (2006). A nation among nations.… [read more]

Leap in the Dark: Struggle to Create the American Republic Book Report

… ¶ … Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic

In his book, a Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic, author John Ferling wishes to explain the American Revolution, specifically the politics… [read more]

Patriot ACT v. Fourth Amendment Essay

… For example, the relaxing of certification and justification criteria for NSLs has effectively reduced probable cause justification to merely 'relevant', shifted the authority for issuing search and seizure warrants from the judiciary to FBI field agents, and undermined the spirit of privacy protection encoded in the Fourth Amendment because private matters are increasingly conducted online. Although the information that we provide to a third party is not protected under the Fourth Amendment, the action of doing so should be according to Katz. The FBI should thus be required to obtain a warrant before learning what a private citizen is doing online, because personal computers inside homes, or a public library, are equivalent to the phone booth in Katz.

The expectation of privacy is modified by the concept of 'reasonableness' and Americans are often reminded by the news media that online activities should be considered public. The purchase of antivirus/antispyware and encryption software suggests some measure of privacy is actively being sought by the American public, but is it reasonable to expect privacy? Justice Ginsberg of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals held that it is reasonable to expect that a private citizen's every move for 24 hours or a month not be tracked and recorded without a warrant (Rosen, 2011). In addition, it would be impossible to engage in that level of surveillance without technological enhancements. Whether the U.S. Supreme Court agrees with Justice Ginsburg may be determined sometime next year, as it reviews the arrest and conviction of the alleged drug kingpin Antoine Jones after a hidden GPS device was used to track his private automobile movements for a whole month. Arguments were heard before the Supreme Court on November 8, 2011 and Justice Sotomayor asked the prosecutors how a hidden, warrantless GPS tracking device is any different than a general warrant (Totenberg, 2011, para. 9).

Even if the Patriot Act was enacted in good faith to protect Americans from terrorist attacks, the effect was to eliminate Fourth Amendment privacy protections and thus undermine the very spirit of American citizenship. The Patriot Act is therefore unconstitutional with respect to the relaxation of privacy protections.


Abramson, Larry and Godoy, Maria. (2006, Feb. 14). The Patriot Act: Key controversies. National Public Radio. Retrieved from

Bill of Rights Defense Committee. (2007). Resolutions and ordinances critical of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act and other laws and policies that diminish civil liberties. Retrieved from

Dilanian, Ken. (2011, Aug. 29). A key Sept. 11 legacy: More domestic surveillance. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from

FindLaw. (2011). U.S. Constitution: Fourth Amendment. Retrieved from

Garlinger, Patrick P. (2009). Privacy, free speech, and the Patriot Act: First and Fourth Amendment limits on national security letters. New York University Law Review, 84, 1105-1147.

Herman, Susan H. (2006). The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act and the submajoritarian Fourth Amendment. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 4, 67-132.

Johnson, Carrie. (2011, Oct. 26). As it turns 10, PATRIOT Act remains controversial. National Public Radio. Retrieved from

Maclin, Tracy… [read more]

America's Intolerant History Essay

… Intolerance

American history is unfortunately a history of intolerance. As Reid, Toth, Crew & Burton (2008) point out, "ironically, the American Revolution may have established a culture and destiny of intolerance in the United States by providing a model for the use of violence to support any cause that seems honorable," (p. 7). Intolerance stems from a belief in White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) superiority to all other social and ethnic groups from African-Americans to Jews to Native Americans and Latinos. Because WASPs have enjoyed political hegemony in the United States since colonial times, they have wielded this power to maintain economic and social status in order to subjugate others.

Intolerance started before the United States was a nation, before the war of Independence. The persecution of Native Americans revealed the roots of intolerance in America. The United States built itself on a foundation of bloodshed and violence by driving the Native Americans off lands they enjoyed for hundreds or in some cases thousands of years. The "ideology of pure hatred" and attitudes of condescension and paternalism carried over into all areas of Indian policy, land use policy, and then to the WASP interactions with other non-WASP groups (Reid et al. 2008, p. 8). Those other groups include the Spanish-speaking and Native American groups of Central America and the Caribbean, which have been labeled as outsiders and stigmatized because of linguistic, ethnic, and cultural difference.

It is therefore ironic is that one of the four main values that define WASP ethnicity is "a belief in democracy that promoted equality, freedom, and individualism," (Reid et al. 2008, p. 2). WASP Americans have persecuted nearly every non-WASP group imaginable and even spread intolerance among WASPs who do not conform to certain social norms. For example, women were and to a degree still are deprived of human rights, freedoms, and liberties. The dominant culture does not tolerate homosexuality either.

Often intolerance manifests merely as social stigma or being ostracized from the mainstream community. At its more severe manifestations, intolerance may mean a systemic lack of rights and freedoms or lack of access to wealth and cultural capital. The most severe evidence of intolerance in America has been the creation and maintenance of hate groups. For example, when slavery was abolished, the spirit of racism persisted in the Ku Klux Klan. The Klan is in some cases viewed as such an integral part of Southern American society, showing how entrenched bigotry and hatred is in the United States. The idea that the United States is a Christian and white nation is one that is strangely popular.

When Asian laborers… [read more]

People and Events in Pennsylvania Term Paper

… ¶ … People & Events in Pennsylvania

The history of how America was founded all starts in the land of Pennsylvania, where famous events such as the creation of the Declaration of Independence was written, the creation and signing of… [read more]

Civil Rights Movement in America the Struggle Term Paper

… Civil Rights Movement in America

The struggle for the Civil Rights of the African-Americans have their roots in the slave trade era and the resulting pressure to let go the slaves in the southern states increasing every passing year during… [read more]

Westward Expansion and Settlement Essay

… Westward Expansion represents as much an ideology as a historical pattern of migration. By the nineteenth century, the concept of Manifest Destiny had taken root in the American public consciousness. The frontier loomed as a challenge, nearly as an obligation to spread the ideological pillars upon which the new nation stood. Westward Expansion meant the proliferation of freedom, liberty, democracy and the pursuit of happiness and prosperity.

Many Americans were lured West largely by the prospect for expanded wealth and by increasing opportunities for landownership. "Attracted by the hope of economic betterment or the chance for adventure," Westward expansion represents the birth of the American Dream (Billington and Ridge p. 2). Part and parcel of the budding American Dream, land ownership could become conceived of as a right -- not just as a privilege enjoyed by wealthier Americans. With the prospect of gold, the expansion of Americans in the frontier land was inevitable.

As much as frontier consciousness has been glorified in textbooks and television Westerns, Westward expansion gave rise to some of the most tragic events in American history. The policies of exterminating or forcibly removing Native Americans from their lands can be considered genocidal in nature. Surely racist, the policies that Americans of European descent would have lingering effects on the Native populations -- and indeed the entire populace. A sense of entitlement permeates stories of Westward expansion, showing how and why the Americans of European descent had no qualms about unethical dealings with the indigenous populations upon whose land they were encroaching. The result has been not only the tragic loss of valuable cultures, languages, and civilizations but also a loss of integrity. After all, the United States was far from being a land in which all persons are created equal.

The effects of Westward expansion reverberated throughout American history, too. Gold was discovered, sure, leading to the railroad boom and the settlements that are now some of America's richest regions such as California. Yet with Westward expansion came… [read more]

Postcolonial Geographies Essay

… Postcolonial Geography

Post-Colonial Geography Questions

American identity has historically been forged on the idea of a singular identity which spontaneously congealed with the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. In spite of fractious racial discord, clear governmental references to the great… [read more]

Immigration in America: 19th Century to Present Essay

… Immigration in America: 19th Century to Present

The millions of immigrants who have come to America over the past four hundred years have made America what it is today. The immigrants who have made America their home came to find… [read more]

Slavery Abolitionist vs. Fire Eaters Research Paper

… Slavery Abolitionist vs. Fire Eaters

The issue of slavery has been hotly debated, with many fire eaters (pro slavery secessionists) arguing that this is an economic and legal issue that is a part of Southern culture / traditions. As they… [read more]

Inductive Argument Analysis Original Argument: Prompt: Abraham Essay

… Inductive Argument Analysis

Original Argument:

Prompt: Abraham Lincoln ( 1809-1865 ) was the sixteenth president of the United States. Self-educated, Lincoln had a knack for asking the right questions about important issues, such as slavery and war, and then examining… [read more]

U.S. History Like Many Colonialism Stories Essay

… U.S. History

Like many colonialism stories, the history of the United States and its colonialism is a somewhat violent one, in which both individuals and nations collective were oppressed on the basis not only of race, but also of the drive to possess land. The effects of this can be seen not only in terms of the Native American issue and the destruction of whole nations and lifestyles, but also in terms of slavery and the African-American issue. Western expansion and its effects on slavery have an interesting history. Indeed, the slavery issue was so strongly debated between the two opposing groups -- slave owners and those who believed the practice should be abandoned -- that it was inextricably linked to the success of the expansion effort.

The process of expansionism took place throughout the United States for most of the 19th century. Slavery and territorial expansion were linked every time when expansion took place. The issue was unavoidable, and the Senate was under continual pressure to find a balance between slave states and free states in its expansion program.

North-western expansion took place as a result of negotiations, purchases and land cessions; processes that took years. Most negotiations took place with Indian tribes who were living in the territories at the time, particularly tribes such as the Cherokees and Choctaws. Some tribes ceded their rights to the land without protest, as in the case of Virginia in January 1792. It gave up the right to control the land between the boundaries of the eastern bank of the Mississippi.

This expansion was not however without violence. Some tribes refused to acknowledge U.S. sovereignty, and took to violence against the white colonists. Such battles occurred with the Miamis, the Delaware and the Shawnees. Clashes with such tribes occurred especially in Indiana and Ohio. The opposing tribes formed a Western Confederacy, led by the Miamis. The aim… [read more]

Sensibility and the American Revolution Term Paper

… She writes, "In the narrower sense, americanization involved the turning of sensibility to overtly American -- patriot, nationalistic -- ends" (Knott 2009, 105). Thus, sentimentality made the colonists open to social change, and helped develop their sense of patriotism and national pride that helped them ultimately win the Revolutionary War. She also believes it helped shape the new Republic and frame the foundations of the Constitution and Bill of Rights. She notes, "At ratification, Federalists and Anti-Federalists promoting or opposing the Constitution made sensibility and society shared ideological terrain" (Knott 2009, 200). She shows throughout the book that the idea of sensibility helped form the nation, helped frame its new laws, and helped lead to openness and frankness is a society that was not afraid to break new ground.

The author is clearly qualified to write this book, it is filled with generous footnotes that often take up a majority of the written page, illustrating the author's extensive research in developing her thesis and ideas. She uses a variety of primary and secondary sources, from print media of the day, to illustrations, journals, memoirs, texts, and more, and she offers up an idea that has not often been discussed in other histories of the Revolutionary era. Her writing is academic and yet refreshing, with passages that move her theories forward while engaging the reader's interest and attention. She shows how sensibility literally transformed the world, and helped create a radically new form of government.

In conclusion, this is a different type of history text that looks at a very diverse side of American history. It belongs on the bookshelf of any serious student of American history, and anyone interested in the foundations of the Revolutionary War and the United States. The author makes it clear why she supports her thesis, and backs up her beliefs with her research and reasoning, and it makes for a very good read.


Knott,… [read more]

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