"Anatomy / Physiology" Essays

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Anatomy and Physiology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Such thyroid hormones are transported throughout the body within serum that is bound to carrier proteins, with an exceedingly small percentage existing as a free hormone within the body. Essentially, the thyroid uses hormones to both regulate the body's metabolic rate and heat production; it works in raising the number of receptors in blood vessels in a manner that aids in the regulation of blood pressure and additionally promotes tissue growth.

In viewing the ability for TH to affect the body via passage through the thyroid, it enters a cell and attaches to receptor sites in various locations. Within the cytoplasm, it connects mainly with the mitochondria present in an area, where it helps to control cellular metabolism through a process called oxidative phosphorolation (Steinberg 3). During this process, the mitochondria present use oxygen to generate energy and heat is released as a byproduct of the reaction that takes place. It is in this manner that the thyroid plays a significant role in controlling the body temperature and food metabolism -- both rooted in its role in stimulating the activity of mitochondria present within the body.

In situations where thyroid hormones are not able to successfully act within the context of the body, the capacity for medical issues to arise from such an absence in hormone distribution escalates significantly. For instance, as synthesis and secretion of the thyroid hormones depend on the presence of iodine and tyrosine as well as the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system, any interruption of this development, as occurring with premature delivery, results in inadequate production of thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxine, which can lead to a variety of physiologic conditions within the body (Kirsten 12).

As seen, this tiny gland located within the body plays a much larger role than one could ever imagine upon first glance. The capacity for every cell within the human body to be affected by such a gland is an aspect of the thyroid that is essential to better understand research surrounding this particular gland along with the health issues an under-performing or over-performing thyroid may have on the body's metabolism and other aspects of the body's daily functions.

Works Cited

Anraku, Tsubasa, Nakao, Nobuhiru, Ono, Hiroko, and Yamamura, Takashi. "Thyrotobin

in the Pars Tuberalis Triggers Photoperiodic Response." 2008. Nature, 452(7185): pp. 317-324.. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Ayoub, Macram, Christie, Benjamin, Duggan, Daniel and Herndon, Mark. "Thyroid

Abscess: Case Report and Review of the Literature." 2007. The American Surgeon, 73(7): pp. 725-729. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Fleseriu, Maria and Skugor Mario. "Anatomy and Physiology of the Thyroid Gland." Ed.

William D. Carey. Current Clinical Medicine, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Elsevier. Print.

Kirsten, D. "The Thyroid Gland: Physiology and Pathophysiology." 2000. Neonatal

Network, 19(8): pp. 11-26. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Mareib, Elain. Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7th ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson.

Print.

Steinberg, Michelle. "The Thyroid Gland: Anatomy and Physiology," Web.…… [read more]


Heart Identify the Basic Anatomy and Physiology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Heart

Identify the basic anatomy and physiology of the heart- the human heart is actually a muscular organ that serves to pump blood through the body (circulation). It is divided into four main chambers -- the two upper are the left and right atria, the two bottom the left and right ventricle. The septum, or a thick wall of muscle, separates the right and the left side of the heart. In normal function, with each contraction (beat) of the heart, the right ventricle pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left ventricle, which then pumps into the body. The heart is powered by electrical energy from the sinoatrial node which transfers the energy into the ventricles . Normally about the size of a fist, the human heart averages between 250-250 grams. It is enclosed in a protective sac that protects the heart, anchors its surrounding structures and prevents the overfilling of blood. The cycle of moving oxygenated blood into the tissues, releasing the oxygen, then returning to the lungs to be reoxygenated is called the circulatory process (MacDonald, 2009).

Identify indication for ECG -- Electrocardiography is a system in which the electrical impulses from the heart are measured by attaching amplifying sensors to the skin in different positions on the body to measure cardiac activity as the blood is pumped throughout the body. Indications for ECG are numerous: regular check-up and review; heart murmurs; seizures, perceived cardiac dysrhythmia, symptoms of infarction (numbness, fainting, pain in the chest) (Your Heart's Electrical System, 2009).

Describe electrode position for 12 leads ECG equipment -- Ten Electrodes are used for a 12-node ECG. These are placed according to the following table:

Electrode Label (U.S.A.)

Electrode Placement

RA

Right Arm, avoid thick muscle

LA

Let Arm, avoid thick muscle

RL

Right leg, lateral calf

LL

Left leg

V1

Fourth intercostal space, between ribs 4/5, to right of sternum

V2

Fifth intercostal space, between ribs 4/5, to left of sternum

V3

Between leads V2and 4

V4

In the fifth intercostal space, between ribs 5/6

V5

Horizontally, between V4, but in the anterior axillary line

V6

Horizontally, between V4 and 5 in the midaxillary line

(Source: AHA Diagnostic ECG Placement, n.d.)

Describe nursing interventions to ensure correct ECG recording -- Ensure the patient is…… [read more]


Anatomy and Physiology Organ Systems Are "Composed Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (925 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Anatomy and Physiology

Organ systems are "composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function," (Carpi 1999). Among the most important organ systems in the body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, senses and endocrine systems. None of these systems are any more important than any other, as all are crucial for the harmonious functioning of the human body.

The integumentary organ system consists of the skin and its related parts including follicles and hair as well as the sebaceous glands. The skin is the largest organ of the body, and comprises up to 15% of total body weight. Underlying tissues including fat can be considered part of the integumentary system.

Both the skeletal and muscular system enable bodily movement. The skeletal system provides the form and structural support for that movement, while the muscular system provides the "pulling power for us to move around," ("Muscular System" n.d.). Muscles and bones are physically connected, making the muscular and skeletal systems literally inseparable.

The nervous system is among the more complex in the body because it can potentially control most of the other organ systems in the body. The nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord and its cells are highly specialized. Input from sensory organs and from the skin is transmitted via the nervous system. In fact, the sensory system "is a part of nervous system consisting of sensory receptors that receive stimuli from internal and external environment, neural pathways that conduct this information to brain and parts of brain that processes this information," ("Sensory Systems" n.d.). The endocrine system also works in tandem with the nervous system to send messages throughout the body. Via various glands in the body, the endocrine system specializes in chemical and hormonal regulation.

2. The nervous system controls many other organ systems and functions in the body and is therefore central to the organism's survival. Moreover, the nervous system is like a control center for the other organ systems in the body, facilitating communication between them. The nervous system accomplishes its tasks via a network of specialized cells and organs such as the brain.

The brain works in tandem with the spinal cord to send messages throughout the body. The nervous system is aided by the endocrine system, which produces chemicals like hormones used to send messages to various organs and body parts. However, the nervous system also uses electrical impulses to help carry chemicals like those secreted by the endocrine system. The nervous system could not function properly without the endocrine system, and vice-versa.

Smooth muscles are the main part of the muscular system that is controlled by the nervous system. Part of the autonomic, or independent, nervous system, the smooth muscle system helps to regulate those bodily…… [read more]


Integumentary System Physiology Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,438 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

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Integumentary System

Physiology

The integumentary system is made up of the skin, hair, nails, and associated glands. The system protects the body from the external environment and its many harmful materials. The integumentary system is essential in order for the body to maintain homeostasis. The skin provides the first defense that a person's immune system has. The integumentary system works… [read more]


Questions Concerning the Study Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (614 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Questions Concerning the Study of Anatomy
1. Pretend that you don't know anything about the various functions
that bone performs. How might the visible anatomy (or physical nature) of
bones help you identify their function? What is this principle called?
Generally speaking, one can make assumptions about the manner in
which a bone functions based on its shape, its size, its location in the
body and an array of other characteristics including proximity to certain
joints or muscle masses. This principle is referred to as morphology and
allows the observer to make certain deductions concerning functionality.
The shape, position and category of bone (often determinable by observable
physical features) may be used to presume that it conducts certain
functions and has certain roles for the locomotion or support of the body
system.

2. Imagine that you have become dehydrated, and therefore, quite thirsty.
What is the probable stimulus in this scenario, what is your likely
response, and does it represent a positive or negative feedback
mechanism and why?
Dehydration generally occurs due to a lack of water in the body. A
probable stimulus to dehydration may be an engagement in a physical
activity which has caused significant sweating and, therefore, the
expulsion of body moisture, without replenishment by way of drinking. The
likely response by the body is to induce dizziness, nausea, headaches and
the sensation of dryness. These are negative feedback mechanisms which, in
response to the presence of an imbalance in the body's regulation of its
systems, has instigated a number of bodily experiences which are intended
to return the body to its full normal and working condition. Naturally,
these are also conditions which, where possible, will incline the
individual to seek out water or another source of hydration as a way to
reverse the unpleasant effects of dehydration.

3. Define homeostasis and briefly describe…… [read more]


Anatomy Major Cavities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

For example, if a person is born with AABB, then the person has the darkest coloration, as all the genes are dominant and has no genes for lightness. If that person marries a person with likewise genes, the resulting offspring will lose the ability to be white. Likewise, a person with aabb, is married to a person with similar genes, the offspring produced will have the lightest possible coloration. The ability to produce sufficient melanin is lost in this case. (The origin of races)

6. Bones of the axial and appendicular skleton:

The skeleton is made of bone and cartilage. There are two major divisions to the skeleton: the axial and the appendicular. The axial skeleton has bones that make-up the body's center of gravity and the appendicular skeleton have bones that make-up the appendages. (Human anatomy and physiology)

7. Three types of Joints:

Bones cannot work alone and need support from the joints and the muscles. Muscles pull the joints thereby permitting us to move. Some joints open and close like a hinge like knees and elbows, while others permit for more complex movement - a shoulder or hip joint, for instance, allows for backward, forward, sideways, and rotating movement. Three types of joints are: Fibrous joints do not move. An example would be the dome of the skull. Cartilaginous joints move partially, and an example would be the cartilage in the spine. Synovial joint indicates which are freely movable like the hip, shoulders etc. (Bones, Muscles and Joints)

8. Muscle Tone:

Muscles always have tone. Our muscles are not limp, but there are some linked cross-bridges that keep them somewhat tight. The isotonic contractions are ones when your muscles in fact condense. Thus isotonic refers to a muscle has the same tone all through its movement. The muscle preserves tone and do not get saggy while shortening. The isometric contractions are ones when our muscles do not shorten. Isometric means same length. If you tighten your muscle but do not allow it condenses, the muscle retains its same length. (Types of Contractions)

9. Nerve impulse transmission by Neuron:

The nervous system gets sensory information from millions of sensory receptors that sense changes inside and outside of the body. The sensory stimulus is changed to a nerve impulse by a sensory neuron, which passes on the nerve impulse to the central nervous system. By the help of electrical nerve impulses, the information passes through the nervous system very fast. If the stimulation from a nerve impulse is stopped, the muscle tissue will relax or the… [read more]


Anatomy of the Kidney University of Michigan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (586 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Anatomy of the Kidney

University of Michigan IllustrationThe function of the human kidneys (which are located in the back of the abdomen and are each close to the size of an average fist) is essentially to filter the blood by removing the waste products from the blood. Since all the blood in the human body passes through the kidneys several times each day, the function of the kidneys as a filtering agent is absolutely vital to good human health. Besides filtering the blood, the kidneys regulate the levels of water fluids. In the process of filtering the blood the kidneys actually create urine which, once filtered out of the blood, is collected in the kidney's pelvis. From there the urine drains into tubes called the ureters and into the bladder where they can be voided. As shown in the illustration, the blood flows into the kidneys through the renal artery and from there waste products and unneeded water are filtered out by the nephrons; blood that has been cleaned by the kidneys flows back into the bloodstream through the Renal vein.

Nephrons

Nephrons are microscopic filters that do the cleaning of the blood; there are about a million of nephrons and they actually produce a person's urine

Each nephron is a "long tubule, or extremely fine tube," about 30-55 mm (1.2 -- 2.2 inches) long; at one end "the tube is closed, expanded, and folded into a double-walled cuplike structure called the renal corpuscular capsule" (Encyclopedia Britannica). The illustration (of a Nephron) to the left points to: 1) Glomerulous (a cluster of microscopic capillaries; blood flows into and away from the glomerulus, part of the filtering process); 2) efferent arteriole; 3) bowman's capsule; 4) proximal convoluted tubule; (the cells that line the PCT…… [read more]


Muscular System and Exercise Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Muscular System and Exercise

The muscular system in an integral component of the human body. Muscular tissue movement within the system is caused by the contraction of muscle fibers within the body. Movement is caused by the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through a variety of processes. Muscle tissue is categorized into three types including skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Furthermore, these tissues are categorized as voluntary and involuntary muscles. 1(p39) Through proper care and exercise, muscles can strengthen or weaken.

Anatomy and Physiology

Skeletal muscle tissue, also referred to as striated or voluntary muscle tissue, composes 40% to 50% of the body's weight and is called striated muscle due to its striated composition, visible when analyzed under a microscope.1(p126) the contractions of this muscle tissue are voluntary and are controlled by the individual. Organs are compose primarily from muscle cells and connective tissue. Most skeletal muscles in the body extend from one bone to another across joints. The three components of skeletal muscle are the origin at which it is attached through a tendon to the bone that remains stationary when movement is applied to the joint, the insertion that is the point that is attached to the bone that moves when the muscle is contracted, and the main body of the muscle. 1(p126) Muscle contracted will only occur is the stimulus applied to the muscle reaches the threshold. Once the muscle is stimulated by the threshold stimulus, the muscle will contract completely; different muscles are controlled by different motor units with respective unique threshold stimulus levels.1(p127)

Contractions produced within muscles can be divided into three types: twitches and titanic, isotonic, and isometric. While twitch contractions do not play significant roles in muscle contraction, titanic contractions are defined as sustained and steady contractions that are produced through stimuli attacking a muscle in rapid succession.1(p127) Isotonic contractions produce movement at a joint by shortening the muscle and causing the muscular insertion point to move towards the point of origin. Most by movements are caused by isotonic contractions. 1(p127) Unlike isotonic contractions, isometric contractions do not cause movement in the body, though an increase in tension within the muscle can be detected. 1(p127)

In the human body, muscles control movement, posture, and heat production. Movement is produced through the contraction of muscles, usually through the coordinated efforts of a muscle group. Posture within the body is maintained through tonic contraction which restricts the number of muscle fibers that shorten at a time. Good posture reduces strain on the body's muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones. Inadequate posture may lead to fatigue, caused by repeated muscular stimulation without adequate rest, and/or deformities.1(p127)

Cardiac muscle makes up a large portion of the heart. Cardiac muscle is characterized by intercalated disks and the muscle cells branch frequently. The unified nature of cardiac muscle cells allow for the heart to contract efficiently. 1(p126)

Smooth muscle, also known as visceral, non-striated, or involuntary muscle, appears smooth when analyzed under microscopic conditions. These type of muscle tissue… [read more]


Functioning Understanding of Medical Terminology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,092 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Oro mouth. The oral cavity is the other name for the mouth.

Orchido testicle. Orchidectomy is removal of a testicle.

Osse-, Osteo bone. Osteoporosis is porosity of bone.

Oto ear. Otosclerosis is the formation of bone in the ear.Otomycosis-fungal infection in ear

P

Patho disease. Pathogens are agents which cause disease.

Peps digestion. Pepsin is an enzyme found in the digestive system.

Phago eat. Phagocytes are cells (cyto-) which eat foreign material.

Philo love, to have an affinity for.

Phleb vein. Phlebitis is inflammation of the veins.

Phren diaphragm. Phrenic refers to a diaphragm.

Pla/Pli

Fill, fufill; re-plicate, placate.

many - as in polysyllable, or a word with lots of syllables.

Pneumo lung. Pneumonia is a disease of the lungs.

Pre

before; as in prefix, predator

Pro-to, for; prodigal, profane, prognosis, prong.

Pulmo lung.

Pur theoretical, intentional; purify, purport, purge.

Pyo pus. Pyruria is pus in the urine.

Q

Qui pacific, calm, lethargy, heavenly; quiescent, quibble, quietude.

Quint fifth; quintessential, quitessence.

Quo insignificance; quorum, quotidian.

R

Ra reciprocity of cycle; raconteur, rabid, ravine.

Rai

Assemble, garb; as in raiment t (clothing), rail (dress in complaint)

Ram

extend outward; rampart, ramify

Re

From; reactionary, realm, reaper.

Reg instituted; regulatory, regimen.

Ren kidney. Renal artery supplies blood to the kidney.

Rhin nose. Rhinoplasty is a nose job.

S

Sacchar

Sugar

Sacr

saucer or sacred bone

Sagitt

arrow or arrow-like

Sangu

blood

Sarc

fleshy

Sartor

patcher

Scab

to itch

Scaph

skiff or boat shaped

Scapul

shoulder blade

Scirrh

hard

Scler

hardening yellow fat

Scoli

crookied or twisted

-scope

to view or examine

-scopy

to examine or view

Scor

darkness

Scrot

sc or pouch

Scurvy

to scratch

Se

oriented to the self; secrete (release from the self), sedate (quiet self)

Seb

oil

Secreto

separating or to separate

Sect

to cut

Scler hard. Atherosclerosis is hardening of the arteries.

Semi

half

Semin

seed or seed producer

Sept

partion

Septi

seventh

Somn

sleep

-spasm

contraction

Sperm

sperm

Stasis stand still. Homeostasis is the process of maintaining constant conditions within the body.

Stri line; striate, stricture, strident.

Strict

drawing or binding

Sty

raised

Su after; as in suffix.

Super

above or upon

Supinat

to throw backward

Suture

sewing together

Syco

fig or fig-like

Sym

together

Sub-under, lower; subliminal, subordinate, submissive.

T

Thromb clot, lump. Thrombosis refers to a clot in the heart or blood vessel.

Tri three, as in tricycle, trident.

Trich hair. Trichosis is a disease of the hair.

Tu

under advise or protection; tutelage, tutelary, turpitude

Ty substantive; typhoon, tyranny, tyro.

U

Ul-ultimate

-um singular.

Um-

heated; umbrage.

Un-

negativity; unreasonable, undone.

W

Wheal

round or cicle

Whitlow

white flow

X

Xanth

yellow

Xen

strange or foreign

Xero

dry

V

Va-

Indicative of hierarchy in relation to the greater; vassal, vaunt

Vas vessel, duct. Vas deferens is the vessel which carries sperm from the epididymus.

Veg-

Relating to vegetation; vegetarian, vegan.

Ven-

Coming (into), venue (a place into which things come), venture (coming into a risk), vendor (coming into goods) venire.

Ver-truth; veracity, veracious, verbatim… [read more]


Heart Disease Relationship Between Cardiac Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,253 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

Essential parts of the heart are capillaries, arterioles and venous, which aids the functions of the heart. The capillaries have thin layers of walls, which functions mainly in the exchange of gas, it dissolves gas, aids in getting nutrients and discharge of waste products between the blood and its surrounding tissues (Martini & Nath, 2009). The heart is located in… [read more]


Neuroscience and Human Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  20 pages (5,856 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

In contrast, motor neurons transmit action potentials from the central nervous system toward the periphery (Seeley et al., 2005).

Neurons and their Electrical Activity

The nervous system is composed of millions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are the parenchyma of the nervous system which performs every function of the nervous system from simple sensory functions to complex thinking and… [read more]


Anatomy Affects Human Culture Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (666 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Another fairly important aspect of human anatomy that is intrinsically related to human behavior is cognition. From an anatomical perspective, humans have large brains. The brains in people are certainly larger than that of most animals, with some notable exceptions. However, the size and the intricacy of the human brain plays a very crucial aspect in the sort of intellectual capacity that people have been endowed with. Because people have large brains (certainly as compared to most of the other animal and insect kingdom), they are imbued with an intellectual capacity that enables them to transcend mere physical desire and its needs and to pursue various facets of intellectual pursuits. In fact, one of the theories regarding the large size of human brains posits the viewpoint that, "the evolution of the human brain was driven by our increasingly complex social relationships" (Balter).

Due in part to the size of their brains, many animals simply live from one instinct to the next -- looking to feed, pass waste, obtain shelter, etc. Humans, however, have brain sizes that are large enough and developed enough so that they can easily accomplish all of these basic objectives, and devote their brain power to intellectual pursuits such as the writing of research papers, the memorization of poetry, the composition of song lyrics, and other facets of life. This sort of intellectual behavior -- such as the capacity to write -- helps to make man distinct from virtually all other forms of life, and is indelibly linked to the anatomical size and function of his brain.

Works Cited

Balter, Michael. "Why Are Our Brains So Ridiculously Big?" www.slate.com. 2012. Web. http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/human_evolution/2012/10/human_brain_size_social_groups_led_to_the_evolution_of_large_brains.html

Johnson, Kimball. "How the Lungs and Respiratory System Work." www.webmd.com. 2012. Web. http://www.webmd.com/lung/how-we-breathe… [read more]


Human Behavior, Physiology and Freedom Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,063 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Though the afore mentioned examples may seem extreme, they are important to consider in the analysis of behavior. Ultimately, some control does serve a purpose.

By nature, human beings are blessed with the mental capacity, absent of disorders such as schizophrenia and retardation for example, to choose between right and wrong. However we are also, as the result of the environment in which we are brought up in and worldly events subject to changing behavior at a moments notice due to eventful circumstances. Having some level of control, such as laws and regulations, allow us to live our lives and make choices under an umbrella of safety. Granted, in some cases the choices and level of control are extreme. In the U.S. For example, most individuals are accustomed to having a level of freedom that is equivalent to doing what they want when they want as long as they abide by the law. In other countries however, such as in the Middle East, women are subjected to covering themselves and following strict orders of discipline and submissiveness. These "worldly" controls ultimately lead to different behavioral patterns in men and women in each culture. The appropriateness of each behavior has, thus far been determined by the people that are elected or take over as leaders of the country.

How effect would cultural design be as an objective? To what extent does anyone want to monitor and dictate the behavior and daily activities of all the people in the world? This question is perhaps the most complex to be addressed in this article. Cultural design and genetic coding, cloning human beings, all of these factors seem to be the wave of the future. It is feasible that many years out scientists will propose a means of producing a homogenous culture that behaves in the same manner. A cultural group of people with an identical or similar physiological make up, with the same genes and nutrients, may in fact behave similarly. But again, the question of environment comes into play.

Environment plays a tremendous role in the behavior of individuals. People brought up in the United States are generally accustomed to a great many more "freedoms" than individuals from more controlled cultures. Does this make other cultures bad? How would we as a society, as a world, develop a cultural design?

Ultimately, cultural designing could not occur unless there was agreement across the board about the means by which humans should be born, genetically programmed, fed and environmentally influenced.

Cultural design is likely an objective of more socialist or communist societies that embrace the idea of having a lot of control over the behavior of their populations. This statement is not however, meant to state that these ideas are wrong

Simply, this essay argues the point that human beings are too complex to impose too much control or cultural design upon. The characteristics of human behavior are the result of complex physiological and environmental functions. If the world were comprised of a few… [read more]


Exercise Science & Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (750 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

De Humanis Corporis Fabrica by Vesalius "can only be compared with Hippocrates in stature and importance" in the field of medicine, according to Vesalius, Humanist. (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Vesalius had studied Cicero and Celsus, among the ancient writers, and so he knew that the ancients had dissected human bodies. (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Vesalius believed that anatomy:

should be recalled from the dead, so that if it did not achieve with us a greater perfection that at any other place or time among the old teachers of anatomy, it might at least reach such a point that one could with confidence assert that our modern science of anatomy was equal to that of old (ancient Greek) (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Although Leonardo had created drawings by doing exactly as the ancients had done, they had not been published in book form, and therefore were not generally available to physicians, and Vesalius' work was. So, Vesalius is credited not only with producing such a book, but making the information about the construction of the human body and its workings generally available.

But, as important as Vesalius was to the science of anatomy, without which there could be no exercise science, Leonardo was the key, and:

the invention of a method of recording observations through revealing drawings, an invention made by the great universal artists of the turn of the fifteenth century, deserves to rank with the invention of the telescope and the microscope in the seventeenth century and of the camera in the nineteenth. (Randall 119)

It is reasonable to rank the work of both Leonardo and Vesalius with the invention of the microscope and camera. Their investigations into how human bodies actually work, right down to the individual nerves and capillaries, made exercise science, with was further expanded after the microscope and camera were invented, not only possible but valuable to understanding and enhancing human life.

Works Cited

Randall, John Herman. The School of Padua and the Emergence of Modern Science. Padua, Italy: 1961.

Renaissance Man: Leonardo. 2003. Museum of Science. 2 October 2003. http://www.mos.org/leonardo/bio.html

Vesalius, the Humanist. 2003. University of Virginia, Health Sciences Library. 2 October 2003.…… [read more]


Healthy Heart vs. Coronary Disease Human Pathology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Healthy Heart vs. Coronary Disease

Human pathology typically has associated abnormal physiological conditions. Further understanding the physiological differences between healthy and diseased hearts is critical for diagnosis, treatment and future research. Coronary artery disease, according to Shirato and Swan, is the leading cause of death in women, killing more women than all forms of cancer combined. This paper will discuss the normal physiology of a healthy heart and then compare it to a heart suffering from coronary artery disease. These physiological differences will be connected to the normal anatomy of a healthy heart and the pathological condition of coronary disease.

Physiological Condition of a Healthy Heart:

In a healthy heart, the coronary blood flow provides the oxygen supply for the body. This myocardial oxygen automatically increases, in a healthy heart, from a resting level to a maximum level. This difference between the resting flow and maximal coronary flow is known as coronary flow reserve (CFR). This increased demand can result from exercise, neurohormones, or pharmacological stimuli. According to Kera et al., there are three primary resistance components to blood flow. These include: the epicardial vessel, small arterioles and arteries and the intramyocardial capillary system. In a healthy heart, there is only minimal resistance in the epicardial vessel and arteries that have a diameter of >400µm. Coronary resistance occurs, in a healthy heart, in the small arteries and arterioles.

Physiological Condition of Coronary Disease:

Kera et al. note that one of the primary physiological conditions of coronary disease is a change in coronary flow and pressure. This imbalance between the supply and demand of myocardial oxygen can lead to myocardial ischemia. Plaque build up inside the arteries, narrows the arteries, restricting oxygenated blood flow to the heart. This increased pressure within the arteries is present at any flow rate; however, it is most significant during times of increased need for myocardial oxygen.

Connection Between Normal Anatomy of a Healthy Heart and Coronary Disease:

In a normal, healthy heart oxygenated…… [read more]


Henry Gray Anatomist Author Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (934 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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The book was particularly useful as a result of the fact that readers could use both its writings and its illustrations in their endeavor to learn more concerning the human body. Gray's collaboration with Carter resulted in one of the best known books written in regard to anatomy. Mid-Victorian London saw two ambitious young men as they struggled to set the basis for their careers in a society that would appreciate their abilities. The manuscript was completed in approximately three years, from the moment when Carter and Gray first met at Saint George's Hospital.

The medical world acknowledged Gray's abilities as an anatomist and many in the field considered that he was likely to have a thriving career in the domain as a consequence of his intellect. His book made it possible for him to be recognized for his talent and influenced those in charge of Saint George's Hospital to present him with a job as Assistant Surgeon in the institution. In spite of this, the fact that Gray was concerned in infectious diseases at the time and in how they affected the body from an anatomical point-of-view led to his death at 34. He chose to study this field through analyzing his dying nephew and ended up getting smallpox.

The fact that Gray managed to enter a world of experienced individual at a young age demonstrates that he was different from the masses and that he was capable of performing great things in the field of medicine. His book was continuously published ever since 1858, the year when it first got out. It is probable to be the best-known medical manuscript in all of history, considering its history and the fact that it is present in almost all medical communities. Most medicine students are likely to be familiar with "Gray's Anatomy" and it is generally recognized as providing them with information that is essential for their development as doctors. It is certainly difficult to think about anatomy in general before "Gray's Anatomy" was written.

Gray's work has made it possible for medical students today to relate to a standard text that can assist them in their field of work. His contribution to the medical world is certainly inestimable, especially given that he can virtually be considered responsible for the millions of lives that were saved as a consequence of the fact that doctors were familiar with his texts.

Works cited:

Gray, Henry, "Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of medicine and surgery," Churchill Livingstone, 1995.

Hayes, Bill, "The anatomist: a true story of Gray's anatomy," Ballantine Books, 2008.

Leonard, C.H. And Gray, Henry, "The Concise Gray's Anatomy," Cosimo, Inc., 2005.

Richardson, Ruth, "Mr.…… [read more]


Physiology & the Orange Essay

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Next, my mind skips to Morocco where I washed my hands in orange-scented water before eating in the traditional fashion of shared trays of food taken up in the fingers and skillfully -- or in my case, not so skillfully -- popped into the mouth. I remember that I brought home a small vial of the orange oil; it still sits on a shelf where I see it when I pass and think simultaneously of the excitement of the trip and the many small places and manners in this culture that create an oasis for the mind. My academic orientation inserts itself here, and I remember that aromas are associated with long-term memory and emotions, apparently since the olfactory system appears to be linked to the hippocampus and the limbic system.

After this brief, but very rich mental detour, I return to the task of opening and tasting the orange. Taking apart the orange segments is messy work, particularly since I cannot see what I am doing. I am conscious of the sticky juice running along the sides of my hands and beginning to soak into the cloth napkin that I had the foresight to place on my lap. I finally allow myself to taste the orange. It does not disappoint. This is a sweet and juicy orange. I remember that when I selected the orange -- with my eyes open -- I was guided by some family lore that a smooth skinned orange tends to be juicier than an orange with a thick and rough skin. I have very little data to back up this notion, but in this instance, it seems to be a probable association. At this point, I recognize that my cerebrum (particularly the occipital lobes and the parietal lobes) is imposing judgments on my sensory experiences, tending to prefer patterns and wrapping up the experience in a packet for later reference.

References

Calvert, G., Spence, C. And Stein, B.E. (2004). The handbook of multisensory processes. Retrieved books.google.com/books?isbn=0262033216

Frackowiak, R.S.J. (2004). Human brain function. Retreived books.google.com/books?isbn=0122648412

Guthrie, D.M. (1990). Higher order sensory processing. Retrieved books.google.com/books?isbn=0719028043

Mukundan, C.R. (20087). Brain experience: neuroexperiential perspectives of brain-mind. Retrieved books.google.com/books?isbn=8126908173… [read more]


Fishes to Frogs: Respiratory Adaptation Research Paper

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References

Farmer, Colleen G. (1997). Did lungs and the intracardiac shunt evolve to oxygenate the heart in vertebrates? Paleobiology, 23(3), 358-372. The author offers evidence to support her theory that hypoxic aquatic conditions caused cutaneous respiration-dependent fishes to evolve lungs, in order to oxygenate cardiac tissue.

Farmer, Colleen G. (1999). Evolution of the vertebrate cardio-pulmonary system. Annual Review in Physiology, 61, 573-592. Building upon her earlier scholarship concerning respiratory system evolution from fish to amphibians, Farmer expands her thesis by suggesting that the evolution of lungs enabled the myocardium to benefit from the increase supply of oxygen made available through vascularization.

Gargaglioni, Luciane H. And Milsom, William K. (2007). Control of breathing in anuran amphibians. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 147, 665-684. The authors provide a comprehensive review of what is known about ventilation anatomy and control in the best studied amphibians. Particular attention is paid to central nervous system control.

Janis, C.M. And Keller, J.C. (2001). Modes of ventilation in early tetrapods: Costal aspiration as a key feature of amniotes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 46(2), 137-170. The authors argue for an alternative theory that suggests the evolution of dry skin came after the emergence of costal ventilation, thereby reducing the need for cutaneous respiration and enabling habitation of dry niches.

Meyer, Axel and Wilson, Allan C. (1990). Origin of tetrapods inferred from the mitochondrial DNA affiliation to lungfish. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 31, 359-364. Given the controversy over the possible ancestral relationship between lungfish, amphibians, and fish in terms of respiration, with lungfish representing an evolutionary intermediate, the mitochondrial DNA sequence is compared between these three in an effort to resolve this controversy at the molecular level.

Nilsson, G.E., Hobbs, J-P. A., Ostlund-Nilsson, S., and Munday, P.L. (2007). Hypoxia tolerance and air-breathing ability correlate with habitat preference in coral-dwelling fishes. Coral Reefs, 26, 241-248. The authors examined the respiratory abilities of coral-dwelling fish species and discovered a high level of tolerance for hypoxic conditions. Together with their air-breathing ability, these fish can make use of a wider range of niches, including nighttime hypoxic conditions at deep depths and within coral that becomes exposed to the air for hours at a time.

Perry Steven F., Wilson, Richard J.A., Straus, Christian, Harris, Michael B., and Remmers, John E. (2001). Which came first, the lung or the breath? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 129, 37-47. These authors examined the fossil evidence for indications that gills, air sacks, and lungs emerged in that order, as many evolutionary scientist believe. Their analysis provides additional support for this theory.

Taylor, E.W., Leite, C.A.C., Mckenzie, D.J., and Wang, T. (2010). Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and…… [read more]


Cardiac Cycle: Diastole and Systole Research Paper

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" (Chute, 2012, p.1) Capillaries are walls that are comprised by "thin tunica interna, one cell thick" and are reported to allow "only a single RBC to pass at a time." (Chute, 2012, p.1) Capillaries have percytes located on the outer surface, which serve to provide stability to their walls. There are reported to be three structural types of capillaries… [read more]


Spinal Movement: Anatomy - Dance Anatomy/Kinesiology Essay

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Anatomy: Dance Anatomy/Kinesiology -- Spinal Movement

Dance Anatomy -- the Spine

The Role of Gravity in Standing Movements of the Spine

Concept 3.1: Gravity plays a crucial role in muscle and spinal movements. It holds the spine in its precarious position when one is standing upright, and will also make it fall in the desired direction whenever there is movement. The role of gravity in three common movements has been discussed in the subsequent sections.

Gravity and Forward Flexion

Explain the muscle contraction you are feeling, and how abdominal and spinal sensors operate in this movement

Spinal flexion occurs when the sagittal plane is bent forward, bringing together the anterior surfaces of the trunk and the vertebrae (XXX 108). A perfect example of a forward flexion is when someone places one hand on the abdomen and the other on the lumbar spine, and then rolls down slowly towards the floor (XXX 110). The tension felt in the muscles in this case is a direct action of gravity -- the pelvis tilts against the force of gravity acting on the spine, and this causes the left and right external obliques and the rectus obdiminis to all work together against the action of gravity to control the spinal flexion, as the transverse abdominis pulls the wall of the abdomen inward (XXX 108). The tension results from the opposing action of all these forces.

ii) Gravity and Spinal Extension

Explain the influence of gravity with this movement and how it affects muscle use

Spinal extension is the process by which the sagittal plane returns to a position of backward bending from a position of flexion (XXX 109). Concentrically, the spinal movement is against gravitational action; and since the force of gravity is considerably strong, the spinal extensors as well as the deep posterior and the semispinalis muscle groups move in to facilitate extension by acting against gravity. They work in different ways - the spinal extensors, particularly the erector spinae, provide the force necessary to drive the full extension of the spine, whereas the deep posterior group act by adjusting inter-vertebrae motion, thereby stabilizing the spine (XXX 109). The spinal extensors will, in essence, work concentrically in seeking to restore the torso back to a position of backward bending after a spinal flexion (XXX 110). In cases, however, where there is a hyperextension of the spine, the spinal extensors will work eccentrically (in the same direction as gravity) to restore the torso back to a vertical position

iii) Spinal Lateral Flexion

Spinal lateral flexion occurs when the frontal plane is moved to the side (XXX 110). It can either be left lateral flexion or right lateral flexion, depending on the direction to which the upper spine bends relative to the lower part (XXX 110). Left lateral flexion occurs when the surfaces on the left side of the vertebrae are approximated, and vice versa. Conversely, left lateral flexion can be said to occur when the spine is returned to anatomical position from a position… [read more]


Genu Recurvatum: Anatomy and Biomechanics of Genu Recurvatum in Dancers Research Paper

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Anatomy and Biomechanics of Genu Recurvatum in Dancers

In the world of dance, flexibility and grace may be everything, but they both come at a price. Dancers are continually predisposed to muscle injuries and imbalances due to the repetitive motions associated with dance routines. They have often utilized these dysfunctions to perform aesthetically beautiful and highly trained movements - one… [read more]


Origins of Anatomical Names Term Paper

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Origins of Anatomical Names:

Anatomy is defined as the study of structure which is derived from a Greek word and means to cut. It was first discovered and practiced over in Alexandria, Egypt with one of the greatest anatomy teachers being Herophilus. Herophilus was also one of the first anatomists to dissect both animals and humans. With much of his work being so influential, other anatomists sought after his work for the purposes of learning.

An example of this people was Galen, dubbed the Prince of Physicians, whose work went on for 1500 years with no one questioning him. Later on, Vesalius, known as the Reformer of Anatomy, questioned Galen's work and proceeded to analyze it. The greatest anatomist of all time, Leornado da Vinci, dissected bodies and became intrigued with the structure and function of man. Leornado also believed that balancing the humorous would be possible by pulling blood out of a body.

The classic work on the subject of Anatomy of the Human Body was by Henry Gray. He is credited for publishing an English-language human anatomy textbook known as Henry Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body (or in short Gray's Anatomy). First published under the title Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical in the United Kingdom in 1858, and the book was also published in the United States the following year. Gray contracted smallpox from his dying nephew and died at the age of 34, while studying the anatomical effects of infectious diseases. His death was shortly after the publication of the 1860 second edition and his work on his was continued by others culminating in the publication of the 39th British edition on November 24, 2004. According to Henry Gray's research, the human body is divided into five major regions which are the head, neck, trunk (chest and abdominal regions), upper extremity and lower extremity (Dawn252, 2009).

More learning than judgment has been displayed in tracing the history of the origin of anatomy. The oldest anatomical exposition in existence is an Egyptian papyrus believed to have been written around 1600 BC. The paper shows that the heart, vessels, kidneys, liver, spleen, urethras and bladder were recognized with the blood-vessels coming from the heart. The exposition also describes other vessels with some carrying air and other mucus; while the breath of life is carried by two vessels to the right ear are said to carry and the breath of death by two vessels to the left ear ("History of Anatomy," n.d.).

The cultivation of anatomical knowledge been attributed to Hippocrates who thought to be the creator of the science of anatomy. However, of all the works credited to Hippocrates, only of them are genuine because most of them were written by subsequent authors of the same name. Hippocrates of notions on the structure of the human body was superficial and erroneous apart from his notions on osteology which were somewhat accurate. Aristotle, who was born 384 years before the Christian era, composed several works on anatomy most of… [read more]


Electromyography Biopac Exercise Discussion Term Paper

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Electromyography BIOPAC Exercise Discussion

This discussion of the electromyography exercise will begin by first describing and discussing the exercise that was preformed. The results and corresponding data will then be contrasted with the original hypothesis. In this instance, the hypothesis created before initiating the experiment was shown to be supported by the data collected. Furthermore, the discussion will relate this exercise to other experiments that have been recently performed by members of the academic community in the field of medical research.

Experiment

The data collection in this laboratory exercise relied solely on the BIOPAC computer-based data acquisition and analysis system. This system includes all of the necessary equipment to detect electrical signals that are emitted by the skeletal muscular system. The sophistication of this equipment allows these signals to be recorded at the surface of the skin as opposed to other more intrusive methods of electrical detection in the human body. Another benefit this particular setup is that there is no need for calibration, the device automatically calibrates it sensors and the data recorded is automatically uploaded into the accompanying software.

This exercise was divided into two separate parts. In the first part, the test subject was asked to perform a routine of fist clenching, one hand at a time. When performing this routine, the device simultaneously recorded the electrical signals produced by the subject's body during these movements. The higher the number the device recorded equated to the greater amount of motor unit recruitment the subjects arm exhibited. The data was then sent to the software program for analysis.

In the second phase of this exercise, another variable was introduced to the experiment. An attachment to equipment, called a hand dynamometer, was added that recorded the force produced by the subjects arm during muscle contraction. Furthermore, the time frame that it took the clenched muscles to become fatigued was also recorded by equipment and automatically entered into the software program. These data was then analyzed to compare the differences in the electrical signals produced by both the dominant and non-dominant arms.

The hypothesis stated before performing the exercises predicted that the dominant arm would perform with greater electromyogram (EMG) readings while the subjects performed the physical tasks required of them. It also predicted that the dominant arm would be able to sustain muscle contraction for a greater amount of time than the non-dominant arm before reaching the point of muscle fatigue. The data collected supported both predictions of the hypothesis. The dominant hand, which can be intuitively considered the stronger of the two hands, was able to exert greater levels of electrical signals, greater force upon the hand dynamometer, and also required a greater amount of time before reaching a fatigued state.

The underlying physiology of the arm that further illustrates the chemical and mechanical processes that occurred during this experiment will also be described. The primary function of human muscles is to contract; thus giving the individual the ability to perform various movements and allow them a vast… [read more]


Anatomy and Physiology Term Paper

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¶ … journey begins as we enter the human body through the mouth and are masticated by teeth as we are mixed with saliva that will help us move along our journey through the digestive system to the circulatory system, and finally our exit through the urinary system. Please note the different types of teeth present: as we move from the center of the mouth to the back not that there are two sets of incisors, a set of canines, the premolar and first and second molars.

The mucosal substance that surrounds us is salivary amylase. This mucosal coating allows for smooth passage through the esophagus into the stomach. Below us is located the tongue with the hard and soft palates located directly above. Before we descend into the pharynx, take a look at the uvula hanging from the soft palate. As we pass through the pharynx, we connect to the esophagus which will take us the rest of the way to the stomach. The esophagus is approximately 10 inches long and will push us down through the upper abdominal cavity into the stomach. As we enter the stomach into the fundus, the cardiac sphincter will close behind us in order to prevent food from being reintroduced into the esophagus once the stomach contracts. As the stomach contracts, food mixes with gastric juices and is broken down into chyme. These stomach contractions, known as peristalsis, will propel us down the digestive tract. The lining that covers the stomach walls contains thousands of gastric glands that secrete gastric juice and hydrochloric acid into the stomach. Partial digestion will occur as we are held in the stomach by the pyloric sphincter and before we descend into the small intestine. We will rest in the stomach for approximately three hours before we continue our journey through the pyloric sphincter and into the first portion of the small intestine

As we pass through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine, note the similar mucosal membrane that covers the intestinal walls. The intestinal glands contained in the walls secrete intestinal digestive juice which will further aid in digestion. Also note the corrugated appearance of the intestinal lining. These circular folds are called plicae and are covered with villi. Notice the small brush-like cells covering the villi? These are called microvilli. These microvilli and villi help to absorb nutrients as we pass through the digestive system. Most of the digestion on our tour will occur in the duodenum. As we pass through the duodenum you will notice two ducts that empty pancreatic digestive juices and bile into the intestine. As we approach the ileum and reach the end of the small intestine we will take a detour to the circulatory system through the kidney.

On this second part of our journey, we pass through the ileum lumen to the simple columnular cells of the villi to the villi's interstitial fluid. From here we will pass through to the ileum's capillaries to the venules and through the… [read more]


Stress This Is a Guideline and Template Essay

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Stress

This is a guideline and template. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

The physiology of stress refers to the changes to the body which occur during and after a "hostile" environment is incurred. Blood is diverted from the less vital organs to the ones more vital to survival. The heart rate increases. Blood pressure will increase.Rate of breathing will increase. Glycogen, stored in the liver and tissues, will be broken down to acquire more glucose for the body. These symptoms vary based on whether the stress is instantaneous -- an immediate threat -- or chronic and long-lasting. The hypothalamus and pituitary glands release ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). This "excites" the adrenal gland to release a steroid hormone called cortisol. This can be dangerous. If cortisol is allowed to remain at a high level over long periods, chronic stress is the result (Lioe, 2009). Insomnia and physical pain can also be a result of long-term stress. Finally, stress can even weaken the immune system and decrease its ability to detect agents that may infect the body.

Psychology of Stress

Some effects of stress can be less subtle…… [read more]


Lungs What Are the Lungs? Term Paper

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Lungs

What are the lungs?

The lungs form a part of the respiratory system. It is situated inside the rib cage in the chamber of the chest. The lungs are spongy, light, large, round and inflatable organ that performs the function of supplying oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide from the blood. Lungs are a pair of huge soft organs… [read more]


Kidneys and How They Function Term Paper

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¶ … Kidneys and How They Function

One of the most important functions of the kidneys - though not the only key function - is to provide an effective filtering device for the blood in the human body, through which about 200 quarts of blood flow on a daily basis, according to the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse… [read more]


Skeletal System Purpose and Functions Term Paper

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Skeletal System

Purpose and Functions

The skeletal system is fundamental to survival itself (Think Quest 1999). It keeps the body in shape. It protects vital organs, like the heart, the brain and the lungs, and enables the body to move. It consists of the spine, the ribs, the hands and feet, the hips and legs, the arms and the joints (ThinkQuest).

The spine serves as the central support of the body (ThinkQuest 1999). It consists of vertebrae and cartilages, which hold the bones together. The ribs form the thoracic case, which helps protect the chest. It is connected to the sternum, which makes them more flexible. Flexibility is necessary for breathing. The rib cage consists of 12 vertebrae, 24 ribs and a breastbone. It protects the heart and the lungs from falls, knocks and bumps (ThinkQuest).

The hands and feet are flexible because of their functions (ThinkQuest 1999). The bones in the toes are shorter and fatter than the bones in the fingers. These toe bones help balance the two feet. The hips and legs help keep the body in an upright position and in the movement it makes. The hips and legs support much of the body's weight. The arms are just as flexible because of their many functions. And the joints are used for bending, swiveling, stretching, pivoting and pointing (ThinkQuest).

Bones and How the Skeletal System Works

Bones provide the structure for standing erect and protect the soft or delicate inner parts of the body (Discovery Kids 2000). The skull consists of fused bones. It is on top of the body and acts like a protective helmet of the brain. The bones, or the vertebrae, in the spinal column surround it. The spine or spinal column consists of a complex group of nerves, which protect the heart and lungs in the rib cage. A newborn has more than 300 bones, but these fuse together as a person grows old so that an adult has only 206 (Discovery Kids).

Movements are made possible by bones and muscles (Discovery Kids 2000). Muscles and joints pull on the bones. Muscles are attached to bones, so that when muscles contract, the bones to which they are attached act as levers. They make body parts move. Joints, on the other hand, provide flexible connections between bones. There are joints in the knees, in the neck and the shoulders. Joints in the knees work like hinges of doors, moving the body back and forth. Joints in the neck enable the bones to pivot when the head turns. Shoulder joints enable the arms to move up to 360 degrees like the head of a shower (Discovery Kids).

Bones are made up of a hard substance, which makes them strong (Discovery Kids 2000). They also consist of living cells, which help them grow and repair themselves. Blood is also needed by the bone cells to keep them alive. Blood brings food and oxygen and removes waste matter from the cells. At the center of many… [read more]


Renaissance the Trend in Medicine Term Paper

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¶ … Renaissance

The trend in medicine varies accordingly on the each era. Its development was in leaps and bounds as the ruling way of thinking in a specific time period dictates the approach of healers and physicians to diseases and illnesses. The approach in healing a certain disease or condition varies from one epoch to another and mirrors the… [read more]


Create and Curate Essay

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Anatomy is the branch of biology and medicine that is the study of the structure of living things. It is divided into gross (or macroscopic) and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that are relatively obvious to the naked eye; and microscopic those that require artificial assistance from microscopes, etc. Microscopic anatomy often focuses on cellular… [read more]


Structure of the Nervous System Research Paper

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Physiology

Structure of the Nervous System

The Nervous System is the most complex and extremely ordered of the various systems which make up the human body. It is the system concerned with the association and incorporation of a variety of bodily process and the responses and alterations of the organism to its surroundings. The nervous system as a whole comprises… [read more]


Animals Thermoregulation Term Paper

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However, this balance is not maintained, and a horse's sweat is more concentrated in electrolytes. If there is not a minimum electrolyte replacement, a horse can suffer from ailments such as kidney impairment, cardiac arrhythmias, and poor tissue perfusion.

Heat Exhaustion and Olympic Horses

In 1992, at the Barcelona Olympic games, several horses suffered from heat exhaustion, which lead to… [read more]


Integumentary System Term Paper

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Deeper within the skin than heat and cold receptors are Meissner's corpuscles, which are especially common in the tips of the fingers and lips, and are very sensitive to touch. Pacinian corpuscles respond to pressure.

The metabolism of Vitamin D, a vitamin essential for proper bone growth and normal cell growth, is yet another important function of the skin (Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology). When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet rays in sunlight, a form of cholesterol is eventually transformed into Vitamin D Vitamin D is the only vitamin that can be produced by the body.

Last, but certainly not least, the integumentary system helps the body dispose of certain waste materials (Owens, 1996). The fluid from the blood stream enables waste produced by the integumentary system to be excreted through sebum, a substance produced by the sebaceous glands in the dermis (thick inner layer of skin). Sebum is a mixture of fatty acids, triglycerides, waxes, cholesterol and cellular debris produced by the synthesis of fat globules. Fat globules, called lipoproteins bind to certain amino acids in order to transport them to target cells. Ionized salts (sodium and potassium) are also excreted through the eccrine sweat glands located in the dermis. Sodium and potassium are necessary for conduction of electrical current through the body.

In summary, as the largest organ of the body, skin provides benefits proportionate to its size. The integumentary system components, skin, glands and receptors, act as a barrier to protect the body from the outside world and function to regulate body temperature, produce Vitamin D and help to eliminate waste products.

Bibliography

Integumentary system. Retrieved February 12, 2005 from Web site: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookINTEGUSYS.html

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. Retrieved February 12, 2005 from Web site: http://connection.lww.com/Products/braun/documents/PDFs/Ch04-Part2.pdf

Owens, S. (1996, Winter). The integumentary system. Perspectives. Retrieved February 12, 2005 from Web site: http://scmhr.org/articles/article2.php

The integumentary system (skin). Retrieved February 12, 2005 from Web site: http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm5.htm#function… [read more]


Nervous and Digestive Systems Term Paper

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Some reptiles, such as lizards or snakes, swallow their prey whole, which led to a specific adaptation of the salivary glands. Some of these contain enzymes which help moisten the prey for swallowing. On the other hand, especially for venomous snakes, some of the salivary glands have in time transformed into venom glands and seldom play a role in the actual digestive process. In the case of such reptiles, the upper and lower jaws are mobile in order to increase the dimension of the oral cavity through which the pray has to pass

The esophagus is longer in the case of reptiles that swallow the prey without masticating it. In the case of crocodiles or turtles, for example, the requirement of a long esophagus is no longer necessary. The peristaltic movement helps move the prey towards the stomach, which is generally a j-shaped organ.

The stomach provides the main digestion location in the case of almost all the reptiles, which is quite similar to what happens in the case of higher vertebrates. In the case of reptiles such as snakes or lizards, the food arrives practically whole in the stomach, although it has been shown that the enzymes do work their way as the food is passed downwards to the stomach. The stomach in the case of such reptiles contains a lot of enzymes, but also a high concentration of acids, most notably concentrated hydrochloric acid. In the case of crocodiles or tortoises, the food is already masticated and practically turned into much smaller and easier to digest pieces.

The food then passes into the small intestine, with the three main regions, the duodenum, the ileum, and jejunum

. The liver and the pancreas are also part of the digestive system and participate in the digestion process.

The birds and the reptiles are the only vertebrates to have the cloacae chamber, the removal system of the body. As a complex accessory, the cloacae performs three different functions, each represented in a different compartment.

The coprodaeum is where the faeces is discharged, "the urodaeum receives the urogenital tract ducts, while the proctodaeum acts as a common collecting area prior to evacuation"

Bibliography

1. Adaptive Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System of the Lizard. On the Internet at http://137.222.110.150/calnet/irish_cal/exotics/reptiles/lizards/digestive%20system.html

2. Digestive System of Snakes Class Reptilia Order Squamata. On the Internet at http://campus.murraystate.edu/academic/faculty/terry.derting/cva_atlases/Stephsnake/snakepage3.htm

3. Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.

4. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=38471& query=brain& ct=eb

Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=38471& query=brain& ct=eb

Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.

Ibid.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=38474

Ibid.

Adaptive Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System of the Lizard. On the Internet at http://137.222.110.150/calnet/irish_cal/exotics/reptiles/lizards/digestive%20system.html

Digestive System of Snakes Class Reptilia Order Squamata. On the Internet… [read more]


Function of Homeostasis in Human Term Paper

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Sweat glands form sweat that pulls out heat from the body to evaporate it. Urinary is whereby kidneys eliminates urine that is a mixture of urea, salts, and water. Thus kidney is an organ essential to body homeostasis. (Unit IV Homeostasis) Many physiological parameters, like blood glucose and body temperature, are exactly controlled by a homeostatic mechanism. Control of a… [read more]


Nervous System With Help of Muscles and Skeletal Systems and Skin Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,137 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Burned on Stove

BIOLOGY SCENARIO: HAND BURNED ON HOT STOVE

The scenario given is a hand burned on a hot stove as relating to the nervous system, muscle and skeletal systems and the skin. Nervous responses and associated system interactions will be explained.

SCENARIO

You have just placed your hand on a hot surface (for example a stove top).this work will tell a story that illustrates how the heat if felt, the movement of the hand from the heat and then the checking of the hand for injury.

OVERVIEW OF BURNS AS PER MEDICAL CLASSIFICATION

Even brief heat applied to the skin of more than 120 degrees Fahrenheit will cause damage to the cells in the human skin. First degree burns are exhibited by the skin becoming red however, only the epidermis, or the top layer of the skin is affected and will quickly heal with some skill peeling. One type of such burn is a sun burn. The Second degree burns cause deeper damage to the skill with blisters and dermis will generally recover without scarring.

In the case of a third degree burn the full layers of skin are affected and will appear white or charred and very deep burns will leave bones and muscles exposed needing specialized treatment and possibly grafting of skin to prevent scarring. These are the three burn types that might be dealt with in this scenario however only in some extreme accidental hand on the stove scenario would a third degree or even second degree burn be applicable.

I. THE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SKIN

Gaining a comprehension of the anatomy and physiology of the skin is required. The skin is "a bilayer organ with many protection functions essential for survival. The outer epidermal layer provides critical barrier functions and is composed of an outer layer of dead cells and keratin, which present a barrier to bacterial and environmental toxins. The basal epidermal cells supply the source of new epidermal cells. The undulating surface of the epidermis, called rete pegs, increases adherence of the epidermis to the dermis via the basement membrane." (Desanti, 2005) The illustration below in Figure One displays the functions of the skin or the skin's anatomy.

SKIN'S ANATOMY AND FUNCTION

Source: Desanti (2005)

II. THE EPIDERMIS AND DERMIS

The following lists the protection factors of the skin layers:

Epidermis - Protection from desiccation; bacterial entry, toxins, as well as fluid balance (prevents excess evaporative loss; Neurosensory; and Social-Interactive. (Ibid); and Dermis - Protection from trauma (due to elasticity and durability properties of the dermis); Fluid balance through regulation of skin blood flow; Thermoregulation through control of skin blood flow; Growth factors for epidermal replication and dermal repair. (Ibid)

III. SKIN HOT AND COLD RECEPTORS

In the case where the individual lays their hand upon a hot stove eye the instantaneous reaction of the individual's hand is to recoil from the heat. The skin has built in sensors to warn when something in contact with the skin… [read more]


Quality of Life Among Tawau Research Paper

Research Paper  |  25 pages (8,383 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

On the other hand, the tibia has two sockets (slightly cup-shaped) to meet the femoral condyles. A healthy knee alignment has femoral condyles that rest evenly on the tibia as well as applying evenly to both sides. However, knee deformity could lead to asymmetrical force distributions. A valgus (knock-kneed) deformity occurs when the knees closer together than normal. These deformities… [read more]


Integumentary Skeletal System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,028 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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¶ … Nervous Systems

The central nervous system is composed of the spinal cord and the brain. Along with these specific structures, the central nervous system also encompasses the neural tissue, blood vessels, and the connective tissue that surround these structures for protection (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). It is the job of the central nervous system to integrate, process, and coordinate sensory data into motor commands. The central nervous system receives the information that the body needs in order to execute a motor movement, and then signals are sent out commanding the body to perform these specific movements (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). The sensory data received can be in relation to conditions on the outside or the inside of the body. The control of muscles is regulated by the central nervous system in order to react to situations where the human body can be in danger. For example, if a person steps on a tack that hurts the foot, a person's natural reflex would be to remove the foot immediately from the source of pain. It is the central nervous system that sends the signals to the brain that make the body move the foot away from the tack.

The central nervous system is made up the higher functioning structures of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain structures can be further broken down to include the brain stem, such as the medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellum and the mesencephalon, diencephalon, and the cerebrum (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 456). These are all structures that allow humans to attain their unique features. They regulate behavior, emotions, and feelings. These structures are constantly being innervated by nerve cells that come from the spinal cord (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 452). Both the spinal cord and the brain are covered by meninges that assist in the process of sensory processing and in the protection of the brain and spinal cord. These meninges are the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. The layers provide the blood and the nutrients for the central nervous system. They are also responsible for the creation of the cerebral spinal fluid which is critical to the survival of the brain and the spinal cord (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 420 & 454).

The peripheral nervous system is composed of the neural tissue outside of the central nervous system. The purpose of the peripheral nervous system is to deliver the sensory information to the central nervous system, and from the central nervous system (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). The peripheral nervous system sends the motor commands directly to the peripheral tissues and other systems. The nerve fibers that compose the peripheral nervous system carry these signals which will then lead to an actual action on the part of the body (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). There are two divisions: the afferent division and the efferent division. The afferent division of the peripheral nervous system brings signals or sensory information to the central nervous system from the receptors… [read more]


Dry Needling Cover Letter Department Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  12 pages (3,480 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30

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This could clarify why latent trigger points might not induce impulsive pain. As soon as these inadequate synapses happen to be sensitized, referred pain would likely follow (Mense, 2008).

Latent trigger factors can easily turn out to be active trigger points. Simply because of elevated synaptic effectiveness within the dorsal horn, these trigger points might begin showcasing spontaneous pain. It… [read more]


Melatonin & the Pineal Gland Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Reports of Clinical 1, Clinical 2, or Clinical 3 randomized clinical trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohorts, case series, registry data as well as narrative and systematic reviews." (2004) Buscemi et al. (2004) states that the data "were extracted from all reports of studies that were included in the review using a standardized Data Extraction Form." (Buscemi, et al., 2004)… [read more]


Biology an Inconvenient Truth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,767 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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a) Human males reproductive organs are comprised of the penis and testicles. The latter sends sperm through the penis and into the female. The female reproductive system is comprised of the ovaries, uterus, and vagina. Eggs are released through the fallopian tubes into the uterus where they may be fertilized by the sperm from the male.

b) Males produce sperm in the testicles only after they reach puberty. Women release eggs from the ovaries into the uterus once a month. If the egg is fertilized then it will grow into a baby. If not, the egg will drop off and be removed from the system via menstruation.

c) The sperm must pass from the testicles. It begins in the seminiferous tubules, goes into the epididymus, vas deferens, and ejaculatory duct. It then passes into the urethra and finally into the penis. The female egg begins in the ovary, pass through the fallopian tube and then into the uterus.

20. a) What is teratogen, and b) what stages of development in most susceptible to harm and why?

a) Teratogen is any agent which can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus

b) Teratogens are most dangerous during early pregnancy

21. What happens during the three stages of the birth process?

a) Onset of contractions; ends when cervix is fully dilated

b) Begins when cervix is fully dilated and ends with the birth of the baby

c) Begins with the birth of the baby and ends with separation and delivery of the placenta

Works Cited:

An Inconvenient Truth [video…… [read more]


Gastrointestinal & Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,173 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7

SAMPLE TEXT:

There are three different phenomena that have been observed during this interdigestive period. The first of these phenomena is motor activity in which "peristole and tonal and hunger contractions supplant peristalsis" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The second phenomenon includes a "lessoning in secretory velocity and a reduction of the tritatable acidity to less than half of that seen in the digestive phase" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The third phenomenon is an "alteration in the status of the stomach and duodenum during this period" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). Interdigestive secretion follows the patterns of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC); this pattern occurs every 60-120 minutes (Pandol 2011). Interdigestive activity begins with gallbladder contraction and when the Oddi sphincter relaxes; during the interdigestive phase, gallbladder volume decreases by 30%-35% (Magee 1987). After this gallbladder activity, "the motility of the stomach, the volume of its secretion, and the secretion of pepsin all increase (Magee 1987). This interdigestive activity helps to clear out the stomach and small intestine of debris, and bacteria, between meals.

Interdigestive gastric blood flow activity has been studied extensively, albeit in canine subjects. These studies have found that during interdigestive periods, gastric blood flow would both rise and fall in conjunction with interdigestive motor activity. For example, peristaltic contractions during interdigestive periods would cause blood flow to increase then decrease rapidly. It was also found that in 23% of the test subjects, cyclical blood flow would increase before contractions began (Naruse, Takagi, Kato, & Ozaki 1992). Furthermore, gastric blood flow peaks coincided with pepsin peaks. It was found that gastric blood flow undergoes a series of rapid changes that coincide with periodic motor and secretory activity during interdigestive periods (Naruse, et al. 1992).

Both the digestive system and cardiovascular system work in conjunction in order to introduce and disseminate nutrients, hormones, and eliminate wastes from the human body. While food is introduced into the body through the mouth and processed, broken-down, and passed into the cardiovascular system by the digestive system, it is the cardiovascular system that transports these nutrients, hormones, and other supplements throughout the body by pumping blood to and from the heart and to the rest of the body. Separately, the digestive system helps to introduce and provide a steady flow of food that will be broken down to provide energy and various nutrients to the body, whereas the cardiovascular system will ensure that blood, hormones, and other nutrients are consistently provided to other parts of the body. Furthermore, a healthy blood supply to the digestive system will ensure that the cells will not become weak and/or die.

References:

Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/salivary.html

Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011, http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041

Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm

Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University… [read more]


Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,683 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

The ganglion cells are what constitute the intrinsic photosensitive response in the visualizing system. In the retina, the normal photoreceptive cells are of two types, the rod and cone [6]. The functioning of the rod is similar to that of specialized neurons converting the visual stimuli in the form of photons into chemical and electrical stimuli that the central nervous… [read more]


Classification or Division Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,002 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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In the microscopic capillaries blood performs its ultimate function of transporting nutrients and other essential materials. Waste products are also removed (Gray).

The lymphatic system functions as a defense system against invading microorganisms and disease in much the same way that various military divisions act jointly and yet separately in order to defend a sovereign country. Their duties might differ, but the overall goal for each division is the same.

While the elimination of accumulated wastes might seem to be the least important of functions, it is actually perhaps among the most important and is a task that is jointly accomplished by a variety of organs. The lungs in the respiratory system excrete some waste products including carbon dioxide and excessive water. The skin also rids the body of wastes through the sweat glands. The liver and intestines excrete bile pigments that are a by-product of ongoing destruction or assimilation of red blood cells. The major task of excretion, however, belongs to the urinary system. If this system fails none of the other systems will be able to duplicate its function regardless of how extreme the joint effort might be (Seer's).

The same can be said for each of the other systems in the body. The skeletal system provides a structure for the human body, the digestive system provides the system's operating fuel, the endocrine system provides chemical messengers that influence growth, development, and metabolic activities, the heart provides the circulation of blood through all systems. Yet, if one of the systems stops functioning, all systems are affected, and sometimes irreversibly.

Even a child understands that without the functions of the heart, life will be brought to a sudden and abrupt end. But the same is true for any of the other systems although their affect upon the life of the individual might not appear as suddenly as the affects created by the heart. Without the urinary system, the blood cannot be cleansed of wastes, the heart is taxed and its functions jeopardized. Without the endocrine system, cellular communication cannot be maintained and the body's militia-like defense system cannot be adequately activated. Without the organ of the skin the body cannot be adequately protected and the kidneys will cease functioning. Without the digestive system, proper nutrients cannot be supplied to each system.

In looking at the various systems that function both jointly and separately within the body, the perfection of the combined efforts is nothing short of miraculous. It is no wonder that the classification, separation and combined efforts of the human body has been used as the model after which societies, governments and their militia have been formed.

Works Cited

Gardner, William. "Human Body." World Book Encyclopedia. Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. 1969.

Gray, Henry, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. "Gray's Anatomy." 1974. Running Press.

Seer's Training Website. Training Modules - anatomy and physiology. August, 2002. 10/04/02 http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit1_1_body_structure.html… [read more]


Physiological Effects of Endurance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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When this happens, the lungs are able to slow and down and the heart does not need to work as hard to supply the extra needed oxygen. It is these physical changes that allow endurance training to decrease a person's risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes (3). These are the benefits of endurance training that have a long-term lasting… [read more]


Androstenedione in the Major League Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,582 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Some users experience dramatic mood swings. Anxiety, irritability, aggressiveness, and impulsiveness may occur. (Colgan, 1996)

Most nutritional supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Because androstenedione have been categorized as nutritional supplements, they have also not been closely evaluated. Although the manufacturer of a nutritional supplement must provide sufficient information (in FDA-specified format) about the composition of the product, manufacturers and distributors do not need to register with FDA or get FDA approval. Some investigations of supplements have shown that the actual ingredients are not in the amount they claim to be. (Schnirring, 1998)

In conclusion therefore, it would seem that the risks far outweigh the benefits that one would get from androstenedione.

Bibliography

Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.

Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.

Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.

Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)

Bhasin, S., et al. "The Effects of Supraphysiologic Doses of Testosterone on Muscle Size and Strength in Normal Men." N. Engl J. Med. 1 (1996): 1-7.

Mahesh, V.B., and R.B. Greenblatt. "The in Vivo Conversion of Dehydroepiandrosterone and Androstenedione to Testosterone in the Human." Acta Endocrinology 41 (1962): 400-6.

King, D.S., et al. "Effect of Oral Androstenedione on Serum Testosterone and Adaptations to Resistance Training in Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial."…… [read more]


Understanding Treatments for Elevated Blood Ammonia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,568 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

And, too, the assignment encouraged a review of drug therapies designed to assist with the production of an alternative to urea, which gave rise to the concept of a compound that would be released by the hydrosome as it worked to break down proteins. Fantastical though it was, the assignment did cause me to think about aspects of cellular functioning -- and particularly about the functioning of organelles that I otherwise would not have so fully addressed.

Works Cited:

Batshaw ML, MacArthur RB, Tuchman M. Alternative pathway therapy for urea cycle disorders: twenty years later. Journal of Pediatrics. 2001; 138: S46-55.

Haberle J, Boddaert N, Burlina A, Chakrapani A, Dixon M, Huemer M, Karall D, Martinelli D, Crespo PS, Santer R, Servais A, Valayannopoulos V, Lindner M, Rubio V, and Dionisi-Vici C. "Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders." Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2012: 7, 32. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-32. PMC 3488504. PMID 22642880 Retrieved http://www.ojrd.com/content/7/1/32

Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry - Interactive Animations. John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Inc. 2002. Retrieved http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm

Prasad S, Dhiman RK, Duseja A, Chawla YK, Sharma A, Agarwal R. "Lactulose improves cognitive functions and health-related quality of life in patients with cirrhosis who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy." Hepatology 2007: 45 (3): 549 -- 59.

Sharma BC, Sharma P, Agrawal A, and Sari SK. "Secondary Prophylaxis Of Hepatic Encephalopathy: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial…… [read more]


Magnetic Resonance System on Patients Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

The physical effects are classified by Hurlbert (2000) as below:

Paraparesis: A slight degree of paralysis affecting the lower extremities

Paraplegia: Complete paralysis of both lower extremities and usually the lower trunk. The upper extremities are not involved.

Quadriparesis: Partial paralysis of all four limbs (arms, legs)

Quadriplegia (or Tetraplegia): Complete paralysis of all four limbs

Paresis: Partial paralysis

Paralysis: Partial or complete loss of motor function

Paresthesias: Abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling.

Bearing similarities in the conditions experienced in the brain and spine injury patients, the response given tend to be similar. The care is both psychological and physical. They are meant assist the patients regain the use of their psychological and physical capabilities.

Response strategies/management of brain injury patients

The patient can undergo externally induced stepping movements applied, especially the paraplegia patients. This can bring about rhythmic locomotion like response.

Patients can also undergo upper extremity reconstructive surgery which involves utilization of unaffected but nonessential muscle to provide a lost function in another part of the body.

Functional neuromuscular stimulation can also be used as a response strategy. This involves electrical stimulation of intact peripheral nerves which can bring about contraction in muscles paralyzed by upper motor neuron injury. Stimulation can be achieved by implanted electrodes. Such stimulation can be useful for exercise and for function.

Psychological adjustment is influenced by how patients are treated during the rehabilitation stage. First response may be made with the individual soon after a spinal chord injury or in the early days of hospitalization. Working with patients at this early stage ought to initially be slow, restricted to building a relationship and gathering information. It is critical to provide as much reassurance and respect as is important.

Krause and Rohe, (1998) recommend the following as ways of managing psychological depression that may result from injury of the brain or the spine;

Recognize the symptoms and organize a prompt referral to an experienced mental health clinician, such as a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist to determine the severity of the symptoms. Persistent symptoms may require more specialized treatment and a revised diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Depression.

Let patients know that these are commonly experienced after a traumatic and life threatening event, and a normal re action to such a stressful situation.

Encourage the person to talk about what they are experiencing with family and friends. Discussion may help reduce any negative appraisals of his/her reaction during the experience.

Zejdlik (1992) suggests that "social support will be critical for helping the individual cope after a trauma has occurred. It may be necessary to identify potential sources of support and facilitate support from others like partners, family, friends, work colleagues, peer support."

Brain and spine injury patients show identical conditions physically and psychologically so care should be accorded to them to assist them cope with life. It is paramount to note that anyone can be a victim of brain or spinal injury hence inalienable assistance as discussed above should be accorded.

References… [read more]


Psychological Effects of Chronic Stress Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,831 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress

Personality

Stress can cause both physical and physiological affects on a person. Prolonged chronic stress has been shown to cause a number of different illnesses and problems. There have been many studies done that have researched the effects of stress on the mind and body. The causes of stress and the effects that it has… [read more]


Role of Manipulative Thrust Techniques in the Management of Low Back Pain Data Analysis Chapter

Data Analysis Chapter  |  7 pages (3,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Manipulative Thrust Techniques in Lower Back Pain

Manipulative thrust techniques are used by osteopaths and chiropractors to make adjustments in the lower spinal region of the lower back and other joints in the body. Osteopaths call it adjustments and chiropractors refer to it as manipulation but the techniques are basically the same. Osteopaths use their hands as examining tools to… [read more]


Calcium Neuro the Role Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

Calcium Neuro

The Role of Calcium in Neurotransmission

Calcium channels and calcium ions, due largely to the significant positive charge of calcium ions (Ca++), have been demonstrated by empirical evidence that began mounting decades ago to be highly important in neurotransmission at the chemical synapses (Katz & Miledi, 1968; Dodge & Rahamimoff, 1967; Augustine & Charlton, 1986). At chemical synapses, changes in calcium ion concentration within and external to the terminal axon membrane create significant action potentials, and the concentration's degrees of variance demonstrate a non-linear impact on action potential that increases on an exponential scale (Katz & Miledi, 1968; Augustine & Charlton, 1986; Dodge & Rahamimoff, 1967). This paper will summarize and review three articles three article that discuss the importance of calcium ions in neurotransmission and especially in their presynaptic placement and functioning.

Katz and Miledi (1968) conducted a series of experiments using from neuromuscular structures and demonstrated quite clearly the role that calcium plays in the production of neural impulses and resultant muscular action. Through these experiments, Katz and Miledi (1968) showed that manipulating the intervals between neural impulses and thus altering the amount of time calcium ions were held in suspension to create depolarization had a significant impact on the degree of neural activation and ultimate muscular movement. For example, increasing the amount of time in which depolarization occurred by a simple factor of two, increased muscular movement fifty fold (Katz & Miledi, 1968). Their experiments demonstrated the high degree to which calcium facilitates and sets parameters for neural functioning (Katz & Miledi, 1968).

Slightly earlier research into the role of calcium in frog neuromuscular junction's function was…… [read more]


Digestive and Absorptive and Transport Mechanisms Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,173 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

SAMPLE TEXT:

Digestive System

Understanding the Mechanisms of the Digestive System

All of the workings of the muscles, nerves, and in fact all of the organs and systems of the human body depend upon energy and nutrients for their continued operation. This energy and the vast majority of nutrients are pulled directly from the food that is ingested, making the operation of this system vital to the survival and success of the individual as a whole. The digestive system works in a manner that is fairly direct in some aspects, and yet the system as a whole is highly complex and requires multiple steps and the involvement of many direct and peripheral organs in order to efficiently achieve its purpose. Essentially, the digestive system is concerned with ingesting food items, breaking them down into usable nutritive components, absorbing these components so that they can be shipped around the body to where they are needed, and ultimately expelling any unused portion of the ingested food along with certain other waste materials/digestive by products.

This entire process begins in the mouth, where several things occur to begin the digestive process. First, the jaw and teeth are used to mechanically break down the food, creating smaller pieces that become a sort of mush due to the secretion of saliva and mucous (NGS 2010). An enzyme in saliva, salivary amylase, begins to break down a type of carbohydrate known as starches, which changes them from polysaccharides to disaccharides, and is a form of chemical (as opposed to mechanical) digestion (Discovery 2000). The mucous secretion helps to hold the chewed food in a given mouthful into a ball, which eases the food's journey on the it's next step through the digestive process -- the esophagus.

No real digestion or absorption occurs in the esophagus, but it is still an essential part of the digestive system and can be used to illustrate and explain one of the most basic functions that the digestive system performs -- the movement of food through the body. Most of the large, hollow organs that make up the primary part of the digestive system have smooth muscles in their linings that allow for alternating contractions and relaxations, which effectively moves food through these organs in its various stages of digestion (Enchanted Learning 2010). The esophagus does nothing but move food in this manner, taking it from the mouth and pushing it through a series of well-timed contractions and relaxations that occur in a wave-like motion down the length of this tube to the stomach (NDDIC 2008). This is the reason it is still possible to swallow upside down -- gravity isn't doing the work, the esophagus is.

It is in the stomach that digestion really begins in full force, though this consists more of the breaking down of food rather than the actual absorption of nutrients. The acid mixture that exists in the stomach is highly corrosive and turns food from a still largely solid state to a more liquid and homogenous mass… [read more]


Neuroscience Hormones and the Nervous Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (558 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

At times, the manner in which things are accomplished seems almost arbitrary due to the complexity of the body's operations. That is, the many different individual hormonal mechanisms and the complexity of their interactions with the electrical triggers sent by the nervous system seem to have occurred almost through happenstance. A more direct and consistent system for creating responses and achieving certain functions would make more sense, it would seem, yet the body has evolved specifically to coordinate and successfully manipulate a range of chemical and electrical messengers instead. I'm sure that a more in-depth study of the endocrine and nervous systems and their interactions than what is supplied in the text (and the brief supplemental online research that I engaged in) would make these processes seem far more elegant and fine-tuned, but it still amazes me that some seemingly basic functions can require so much complexity to be brought to fruition.

The extent of the influence of the endocrine system on the human body is also amazing. The sheer number of different hormones that exist and their highly specialized purpose (with very general and far-reaching effects) is a fascinating feature of the human body. The fact that the administering of naturally occurring hormones as artificial therapies can actually cause major risks as side effects is also intriguing. Hormones are something that are vital to many processes affecting our growth, health, and happiness, yet the slightest imbalance in the natural amounts of these hormones can have a very adverse effect. I suppose this is proof that there really can be too much of a good thing.… [read more]


Interrelatedness of Diseases Thesis

Thesis  |  14 pages (4,055 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

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Interrelatedness of Diseases

GRIM CAUSES, GRIM CONSEQUENCES

Type-2 Diabetes

Also called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, this is a chronic condition in the body's metabolism of sugar or glucose (Mayo Clinic Staff 2009). The body resists the effects or insulin or does not produce enough of it to maintain a normal glucose level. Glucose is the body's main source of fuel… [read more]


Assessing and Managing Patients With Musculoskeletal Conditions Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (843 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Judge, N.L. (2007). "Assessing and managing patients with musculoskeletal conditions," Nursing standard, 22(1)

The musculoskeletal system is one of the most extensive in the human body, performing many of the basic functions necessary to a functional life and comprising the majority of the human body's mass (Judge 2007). Made up of the bones, muscles, and joints, the musculoskeletal system provides the maintenance of body shape, supports and protects other systems and structures within the body, allows for movement -- including breathing, stores calcium and phosphate, and produces essential blood cells (Judge 2007). Of course, each of the vital functions performed by the musculoskeletal system is also susceptible to degeneration and disease, leading to a variety of symptom presentations. In her 2007 Nursing standards article, Nicola L. Judge provides an excellent overview of the anatomy, functions, and various common diseases and presentations of the musculoskeletal system, allowing the working nurse to more efficiently diagnose and treat patients who present with musculoskeletal conditions.

The three elements of the musculoskeletal system -- bones, joints, and muscles -- are highly interconnected and interrelated in the body, both in function and in direct physical structure. The underlying physical cause of a disease, then, often results in symptoms affecting each component of the musculoskeletal system. In her explanation of various diseases and the methods for assessing patients with musculoskeletal complaints, Judge does not often point out this relationship explicitly. Instead, by using rather broad but to-the-point descriptions of some of the more common conditions arising within the musculoskeletal system, an understanding of the entire system and the possible presented symptoms is allowed to emerge gradually.

This is certainly the case with the first condition listed by the author, osteoarthritis. Affecting an estimated eighty-five percent of the population at some point in their lives, this condition is marked by a reduction in joint tissue, leading to the eventual exposure of bone and a lack of articular cartilage, which cause pain, reduced mobility in the affected joints, and thus reduced functional ability (Judge 2007). This information is presented succinctly and clearly in the article, followed by the standard diagnostic procedure (a simple X-ray of the affected joint) (Judge 2007). It seems to have been the author's intent with this article to eliminate any interpretation in favor of a comprehensive (though not exhaustive) understanding of the simple facts surrounding common musculoskeletal diseases and complaints, which has surprisingly little or no detrimental effect on the article's overall readability.

There is also a heavy emphasis on the functionality of the…… [read more]


Skin Blood Flow in Human Adult Thermoregulation How and Why it Works Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  25 pages (6,746 words)
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Skin Blood Flow

Thermoregulation is the regulation of temperature. More concretely it is the maintenance of a particular temperature of the living body. Organisms that do not have thermoregulation and protective functions would have been eliminated through natural selection. There are various strategies that the body uses to control temperature (Lim et al., 2008). These strategies are also utilized to… [read more]


Specific Nerves and Muscles Thesis

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Stepping Up One Step and Reaching Up

After making a conscious decision to step up one step, the brain starts working on autopilot. A message (via electrical impulse) is sent from the cerebellum -- which handles such practiced movements as stepping up -- down the spinal cord and along the correct periphery nerves to the leg muscles (pbs.org). Chemical transmitters in the spaces or synapses between nerve cells allow for the electrical impulse to be rapidly transmitted, to the point that action feels almost instantaneous with thought (pbs.org). This is still only the most basic process involved in stepping, however; though the interplay of the neurotransmitters is somewhat complex between nerves, it basically consists of certain positively and negatively charged atoms or ions -- especially sodium, calcium, and potassium -- moving in and out of the nerve cell membranes, creating an imbalance in charge that results in an electric current (Freudenrich 2009). When this electrical impulse hits the muscles it is targeting, things get a lot more complicated.

At the neuromuscular junction, the small gap (synapse) between the end of the motor neuron and the muscle fiber, a process similar to that which occurs between nerve cells takes place. A chemical neurotransmitter travels from the nerve cell to receptors on the muscle, where it binds and starts a reaction across the entire muscle tissue, creating an action potential in the muscle by releasing other chemical messengers that find their way into the individual cells of the muscle fiber through the T-tubules (Freudenrich 2009). In this way, a mixture of interrelated electric and chemical signals are need to transmit the impule for movement from the brain, through the nerve cells, and into the actual muscle tissue. Even in the muscle tissue, however, the line between a chemical and electric reaction is a rather thin one. The processes are too linked together in the ways they work on the human body to be considered separately -- but more on that later.

So far, the process as described could be referring to any muscle movement. There are of course very specific muscles, with specific actions, that are used when stepping up one step. The bones that must be moved are first the femur, the major bone of the thigh that attaches to the hip with a ball-and-socket joint, which in turn will draw up the tibia and fibula (the bones of the lower leg) (Cluett 2009). The muscle that accomplishes this is he quadriceps, which runs along the front of the thigh and draws it up (raising the knee and rotating the femur forward and up in the hip socket) when it contracts; though the tibia and fibula are involved in the raising of the leg, they and the calf muscles to which they are attached do not really perform any work. In raising the body up on the step, however, the calf muscles would tighten, as would the hamstring (which works in opposition to the quadriceps) in order to hold the leg… [read more]


Body Cavities Research Proposal

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¶ … Human Body Cavity

The internal human body cavity is the central mass of human anatomy and contains all the major organs. The upper region is incased within a skeletal cage growing out of the spinal column designed to protect the most important organs that are critical for life. The rib cage surrounds the two lobes of the lungs and the heart that lies in-between

them just slightly to the left of the spine (Iazzetti & Rigutti, 2007). Immediately below the rib cage, the stomach lies close to the middle of the central mass flanked by the liver occupying the right side of the major cavity and the much smaller spleen on the other side of the stomach. Two kidneys lie below the liver and spleen and toward the rear of the torso (Iazzetti & Rigutti, 2007).

The rest of the space in body cavity is taken up by approximately fifteen feet of small intestine and three or four feet of large intestine. The…… [read more]


Functions of the Skeletal System Essay

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¶ … Functions of the Skeletal System

When one thinks about the skeletal system, the function of support is the first thing that comes to mind. However, the skeletal system serves other functions as well. It supplies a place for muscles to attach to allow for movement. It serves to protect the soft tissue from harm. It serves as a storage reservoir for minerals. It is also the place where hemopoeisis takes occurs. The following will explore these five important functions in greater detail.

The first function of the skeletal system is to provide support for the body. Without our skeletal system, we would be little more blobs of tissue on the ground. The purpose of support is the most obvious function of the skeletal system. The skeletal system also allows us to move. Muscles attach to bones, much like a set of pulleys to help us move our skeletal system. This complex system allows us to move and perform the many tasks that comprise our daily lives.

The skeletal system also protects soft tissues. The skeleton is divided into tow major sections. The upper portion is called the axial skeleton and consists of the skull, spinal column, ribs, breastbone, and hyoid bone. The lower portion is called the appendicular skeleton and includes the upper extremities, lower extremities, hips, and pelvis. Without the skeleton vital organs would be vulnerable.

Minerals that are necessary for a number of other functions are stored in the bones such as calcium and phosphorus. The skeletal system helps to regulate release of these substances into the blood system, assuring that a future supply is available when needed. The skeletal system is also important in hemopoeisis, the production of blood cells.

The skeletal system serves many functions other than support. It is an important part of the chemical reactions that make up the human anatomy. As one can see, the skeletal system performs many vital functions within the body.

Scenario Analysis

Julie is mountain climbing with a group of friends when she slips, falls, and bumps the left side of her head on a rock. She gets up slowly, and is dazed but otherwise appears unhurt. She feels able to proceed, and the climb continues. An hour later, Julie gets a severe headache and experiences a ringing in her ears. She starts having trouble speaking, and soon loses consciousness. Before medical personnel can reach the scene, Julie dies. What was the likely cause of the death?

The most likely cause of death was a concussion caused by the blow to the head. Julie exhibits one of the key first signs of a concussive blow; she is dazed when she gets up. Her slow movement is another sign that the blow was not as minor as she thought. Concussions are graded according to severity. A grade 0 shows only a headache and difficulty concentrating. A grade 1 shows a dazed feeling lasting less than a minute. Grade 2 concussion symptoms last much longer and include cloudy senses.… [read more]


Vitruvian Man Thesis

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Vitruvian Man

The concept of the Vitruvian Man has its origins not with Leonardo da Vinci, as many may belief, given the fact that his name is usually associated with the famous image of the Vitruvian Man, but with a Roman architect, Marcus Vitruvius, who published a treatise on architecture in 1 BCE, referred to as De Architectura. The concept of the Vitruvian Man is presented in Book III, where Marcus Vitruvius points out that "in the members of a temple there ought to be the greatest harmony in the symmetrical relations of the different parts to the general magnitude of the whole," continuing throughout the subsequent paragraph in showing that the proportions of man are scientifically determined and related one with the other.

Vitruvius, as a true Pythagorean, interested in figures and numbers, the relationship between these and how they affect one's existence, used the proportions between the different parts of the body as a mean of designing and constructing temples during the Roman times and in proposing a human model approach to temple construction, with this model being believed to be a true expression of perfection during his time.

The justification that Vitruvius used to explain this perfection was related to the two geometric forms believed to be perfect during Antiquity: the square and the circle. In Vitruvius's explanations, a human individual could perfectly fit into both these two shapes, with his legs and arms outstretched. This gave a perfect explanation for why the human body was perfectly proportioned.

The Renaissance period brought about a return to some of the values and perceptions of the Antiquity, as individuals, coming out of the Middle Ages, began to rediscover the values of the past. This is how Leonardo da Vinci, a true man of the Renaissance, with diverse interests going from painting to medicine and to anatomy, including human proportions, as well as architectural proportions, discovered the Vitruvian Man, as it was included in the architecture books by Vitruvius.

The idea of architectural proportions, as related to the human body, were translated by Leonardo da Vinci into the drawing of the Vitruvian Man, aimed at becoming and showing the perfection of man. He puts into drawing the proportions mentioned in Vitruvius's book De Architectura, notably in book 3, chapter I, 2nd paragraph: "The human body that the face from the chin to the top of the forehead and the roots of the hair is a tenth part; also the palm of the hand from the wrist to the top of the middle finger is as much; the head from the chin to the crown, an eighth part; from the top of the breast with the bottom of the neck to the roots of the hair, a sixth part." The paragraph continues in a similar manner providing the appropriate proportions between each of the human body parts.

The sensation of movement comes from the fact that the individual is projected both in the circle and the square, which also creates an… [read more]


Finding Errors Research Proposal

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¶ … NPR Health and Science special on All Things Considered entitled "Summer Science: Studying Mosquitoes and Corn" is addressed to a general audience. Scientific jargon is understandably avoided in the segment on corn because most listeners only want and need to learn about the general concepts behind corn biology, physiology, and reproduction. However, in the process of oversimplifying corn physiology and reproduction, the farmer speaking to NPR made a few key errors. Using the term "ears" for the female corn inflorescences is understandable, and using the common term "silks" for what are essentially elongated stigmas on the female inflorescences makes sense when the radio audience is NPR listeners without a background in plant physiology. Unfortunately, both the farmer and the interviewer confuse the silk with the tassel: when in fact the former is the pollen receptor, or stigma, on the female plant whereas the tassel is the male inflorescence, or cluster of flowers. The tassel (male inflorescence) contains pollen grains that fertilize the silks (stigmas), which are on…… [read more]


History of Radiology Thesis

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History Of Radiology

The field of radiology has drastically changed since the discovery of x-rays. Today radiology is not just limited as a diagnostics tool but interventional radiology is the forefront treatment for many serious diseases. Today's radiologists are not relegated to diagnostic roles but are actively involved in caregiving.

Radiology has evolved a long way since the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm roentgen back in 1895. Today, the field of radiology is a comprehensive medical specialty which is not just limited to diagnostic imaging using x-rays, ultrasound, MRI, etc., but also constitutes interventional treatment methods such as angiography, angioplasty, radio frequency ablation, embolization etc. Particularly, in the treatment of vascular diseases and cancer, interventional radiology has become an effective and minimally invasive therapeutic approach. A brief history would help us get better insight into the timeline and the developments of new and important diagnostic and therapeutic tools in the field of radiology.

X-rays and Fluoroscopy

Wilhelm roentgen, the German physicist, discovered x-rays in 1895 creating what would be a revolution in medicine. Highly recognized for his achievement, the scientist was duly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1905 for his startling discovery, which was to be the precursor to modern medical diagnostic tools. It took not much time to understand the usefulness and the applications of x-rays to medical and other scientific domains. X-ray was one of the very first non-invasive tools that allowed a physician to look inside the human body without opening it. Soon after this discovery of x-rays followed the development of fluoroscopes and Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the designer of the first commercial fluoroscope using calcium tungstate as the florescent material. In 1896 it is reported that Edison and his workers had to screen more than 1800 chemical substances before arriving at calcium tungstate as the ideal material. [Otto Glassner, pg.236] in 1913, the Coolidge hot cathode tube became a standard x-ray vacuum tube with improvements over the original Crookes tube. Radiographic films appeared in 1918 replacing the previously used glass medium. However, the early radiologists were exposed to dangerous overdoses and many fatalities occurred due to occupational radiation. Only much later in the 1950's, with the development of x-ray image intensifiers and television camera did fluoroscopists find it safer as they could observe the images from a different room without the risk of exposure. [Christensen, pg. 166]

CT Scanners Ultrasound and MRI

Next major development in radiology was the invention of the CT Scanner by the British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield in the year 1972. The CT scanner employs x-rays to generate images from multiple angles and then uses the computer to produce a cross sectional image which greatly improves the diagnostics. Modern whole body CT scanners are faster, use low radiation and produce high resolution cross sectional images. The 1980's saw yet another revolution in medical diagnostics with the invention of the MRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as opposed to CT scans does not use x-rays but magnetism. [Peterborough and Stamford Hospitals NHS Foundation… [read more]


Human Brain Is a Unique Creation Term Paper

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Human brain is a unique creation - it is wonderfully made to enable us to think, plan, move, see, speak, hear, taste, smell and imagine. It is the central organ of sensation, thought and the true seat of intelligence. The brain is responsible for the major functions of the body in order to survive. It is the one in charged of controlling the body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and breathing. The human brain accepts and processes information through our senses - seeing, smelling, hearing, touching, and tasting. Even our capacity to handle physical motion when we do our daily activities is controlled by our brain. It dictates the parameter the way we talk, walk, sit, run, and perform other locomotors. It also has coordinating and regulating functions that allow us to use our logic, provide reasoning, experience emotions, and even to dream.

Specifically, the functions of the human brain include the Limbic System, Sensory System (Visual System, Olfactory System, Gustatory System, Auditory System, and Somatosensory System), Motor System, and Associative System. According to the Discovery Channel, it is the "genes that dictate the basic structure of the brain's network" (September, 2007).

The average human brain weighs about three pounds. At birth, the human brain weighs less than a pound. Studies show that the human brain is composed of roughly around 100 billion neurons, which are linked to as many as 10,000 other neurons. The Neuroglia, which is also known as the "nerve glue," is a type of brain cells that "guide neurons during fetal development" (Enchanted Learning). As a child grows, the number of cell remains relatively stable, but the cells grow in size and the number of connections increases. The same thing with our capacity for learning - it is greatest when we are young, and as we grow older, it diminishes. The human brain reaches its full size at about 6 years of age.

The human brain, just like the brain of all animals, is composed of different parts such as the brain stem, cerebellum, hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and the cerebrum. These are further classified into major internal and major external parts. The major internal parts of the human brain are Cingulate Sulcus, Corpus Callosum, Diencephalon, Anterior Commissure, Temporal Lobe, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla, and Cerebellum. On the other hand, the major external parts of the human brain are Frontal Lobe, Pareital Lobe, temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Brain Stem, and Cerebellum.

Of the many complex functions of the human brain that we have mentioned above, have you ever imagine, how our brain looks like? A fresh, living human brain is actually very soft, jelly-like and deep red. It does not become firm and grey until it has been preserved with various chemicals. It is about the size of a small head of cauliflower. The human brain takes up 1% of the body weight. Almost 20% of the oxygen in the body and 20% of the blood flow is consumed by our brain. It begins to die in… [read more]


Cardiovascular System Functions Term Paper

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Cardiovascular System

Functions of the Cardiovascular System

Food substances, transported by the blood, include: amino acids, fatty acids, mineral salts and vitamins from a person's intestines to the cells of his/her body.

Waste substances, transported by the blood, for produced by cells during their normal metabolism. The primary ones include carbon dioxide, water and urea. The blood transports these waste… [read more]


Elements and Buffer Systems Term Paper

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Buffer Systems in the Body

Understanding Buffer Systems in the Body

The body of an adult human consists approximately 60% water. Water within the body is divided into that which is contained within cellular walls and that which is located outside of the cellular walls. Water located inside of the cellular walls is referred to as intercellular fluid (ICF) and… [read more]


Ivan Pavlov in "Lecture Xxiii Term Paper

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Ivan Pavlov

In "Lecture XXIII," Ivan Pavlov describes several experiments conducted on dogs, and how these could help to elucidate a variety of psychological conditions and their concomitant physiological symptoms. Firstly, Pavlov distinguishes between two conditions in dogs that produce pathological disturbance; these are the excitatory and the inhibitory processes. In comparing the results of his experiments to conditions found in human beings, Pavlov concludes that these processes are also responsible for nervous and psychic disturbances in human beings. Specifically, strong and weak stimuli were used to determine the reaction in dogs. These were varied according to the specific cortical constitution of the dogs.

Pavlov's experiments are useful in terms of the light they shed on human neurotic and psychological conditions. Indeed, his work set the precedent for future experiments to help humanity in its advances to understand various conditions not only of the human brain, but of the entire physiology. The link that Pavlov attempts to make between human and animal has paved the way for further experimentation such as those on primates.

Pavlov's choice of dogs for his hypothesis relating to the link between human and animal conditioning is interesting. Dogs are very simple psychological creatures as compared to human beings. The more logical choice for experimental animals would probably have been primates, as commonly accepted today. His reasoning regarding the human-animal link in terms of experimentation however does make sense. Furthermore his logical and consistent methodology appears to be scientifically sound.

Another issue that Pavlov raises is hypnotism, comparing the accepted form of animal hypnotism during the time of his writing with that of human beings. Once again, he draws interesting parallels between the effect of various stimuli between human beings and a relatively simple animal such as the dog. After a description of animal hypnotism with the help of repetitive movement,…… [read more]


Stem Cell Stems Cells Term Paper

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Stem Cell

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because of their ability to replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell makes… [read more]


Acclimatization Ascending to Higher Altitudes Requires Term Paper

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Acclimatization

Ascending to higher altitudes requires the body to make several compensatory changes. This process is known as acclimatization, and it involves various physiological systems adapting to lower levels of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). There are acute responses to altitude changes that can be observed immediately, as well as more complex responses that can be observed among people experiencing… [read more]


Form Follows Function in Forensics Biology Essay

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MACROBUTTON DoFieldClick [Student's Last Name]

MACROBUTTON DoFieldClick

MACROBUTTON DoFieldClick [Instructor's Name]

MACROBUTTON DoFieldClick [Course Title]

How Can we Tell if a Human Skeleton is Male or Female without the Pelvis?

Evolution has determined that males and females develop using different genetic mechanisms which influence the action of hormones on the body. Females primarily produce estrogen, and in smaller amounts, testosterone. Testosterone is a hormone that makes things grow bigger; in men testosterone is produced on the order of 10 times more than in women. Testosterone, in men, is the major hormone involved in the sexual development of the testes and prostate. It also causes men to grow bigger muscles (Baum and Crespi). The human skeleton also develops as part of the hormone growth-mediated process, with men developing larger skeletons, ostensibly to carry the additional muscles needed for survival and protection of the female and offspring. Females tend to have smaller skeletons more suited to childbearing and childrearing (Liu, Sartor and Nader).

In mammals there are two genders, male and female. Males provide one half of the genetic material through their sperm, and females provide the other needed half of the human genetic material in their eggs. Together, life begins. Males of mammal species do not carry young; that is, they do not become pregnant. Females carry the fertilized embryo to maturity, resulting in live birth of an infant. The female body is evolutionarily designed for this role, having wider pelvic bones to support the growing baby in utero (Silva, Botelho and Prado). The ability to tell females from males when only skeletal material is present can be done by examining the pelvic bones. Female pelvic bones are wider, more horizontally placed, and broader. Male pelvic bones are more vertical, narrower, and less broad. However when the pelvic bones are not present for analysis, other skeletal clues must be ascertained to determine gender (Kim, Sung and Song).

Other parts of the human skeleton can refer to the gender of the person, though the pelvic bones are the best indicator. The skull can also be used to differentiate between genders. The skull of males is generally larger than that of females. The chin tends to be more square in males than females. The brow ridges are larger and broader, and the mastoid projections behind the ears tend to be larger in males. Due to the increased muscle mass of males, there is also a more defined muscle attachment ridge on the back of the skull where neck muscles would attach. Conversely in females the chin is narrower, the skull is smaller, orbital ridges are sharper and narrower, the forehead has a more vertical angle, mastoid processes are smaller, and muscle attachment ridges are less pronounced on the back/base of the skull (Silva, Botelho and Prado).

Other features that tend to differentiate…… [read more]


Endocrine System to Include Dwarfism Gigantism and Addison's Disease Book Report

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Diseases

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system comprises eight chief glands all through the body. These glands produce hormones. Hormones are chemical couriers. They move through the bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work gradually and influence body processes from head to toe. These include:

Growth and advance

Metabolism including digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and sustaining body temperature

Sexual… [read more]


Tissue Aging and the Body System Essay

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Tissue Maturation: Body System Effects

On the cellular level, the body groups similar organisms to create tissues. Such cellular tissues do not perform in isolation, but collectively, they perform a specialized function, building a larger living organism called the human body. The human body contains four types of tissues: muscular, epithelial, nervous, and connective. Accordingly, at least two different types… [read more]


Impact of Neurotransmitters on Physical and Mental Behavior Essay

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Psychology

Impact of Neurotransmitters on Physical and Mental Behavior

Neurotransmitters are free floating chemicals that are located in the brain. They transmit signals in the synapse controlling a lot of a person's physical and mental behavior. There are four major neurotransmitters: 1) Dopamine, 2) Acetylcholine, 3) Norepinephrine and 4) Serotonin. These chemicals allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses. They are also found at the axon endings of motor neurons, where they motivate the muscle fibers. And they and their close relatives are formed by some glands such as the pituitary and the adrenal glands (Carlson, 2011).

Dopamine

Dopamine is a vital neurotransmitter that controls several key functions in the brain, such as motor output, motivation and reward, learning and memory, and endocrine regulation. Dopamine does not mediate fast synaptic transmission, but rather adjusts it by triggering slow-acting effects by way of the activation of dopamine receptors (Rondo, Hageman & Van Craenenbroeck, 2010). The dopamine system is important in: behavioral switching, incorporation of emotive to motor behaviors, the four F's of appetitive behaviors like feeding, fighting, fleeing and sexual behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and extra pyramidal (extra-motor) control (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).

Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter formed by neurons referred to as cholinergic neurons. In the peripheral nervous system acetylcholine plays a role in skeletal muscle movement, as well as in the regulation of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. In the central nervous system acetylcholine is thought to be involved in learning, memory, and mood.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl coenzyme A by way of the action of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and becomes packaged into membrane-bound vesicles. After the appearance of a nerve signal at the termination of an axon, the vesicles combine with the cell membrane, causing the discharge of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. For the nerve signal to carry on, acetylcholine must disperse to another nearby neuron or muscle cell, where it will bind and make active a receptor protein (Acetylcholine, 2011).

The acetylcholine…… [read more]


Massage Therapy Term Paper

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Massage Therapy

This report aims to describe how massage can be used to affect changes in the Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindle cells. It has taken mankind many thousands of years to get a true grasp of the human body's complexities and not surprisingly, science has still not completely unraveled all of the body's inert mysteries. However, we humans are getting closer to understand the intricate functions of our bodies. For example, one modern discovery has helped us make vast strides in the study of anatomy. The relationship between the Peripheral Nervous System which consists of the cranial and spinal nerves and the Central Nervous System which consists of the brain and spinal chord have been discovered to be the body's mechanism for maintaining musculoskeletal integrity by utilizing sensory and motor neurons. Massage has been used as a therapeutic technique by physical therapists for many years but, until recently, there has been little scientific proof that the effect of massage is actually a form of muscle relaxation or stimulation. Thus, recent research has suggested that certain types of massage can inhibit the activity of a muscle's spinal motor neurons.

Massage therapists should be aware that certain techniques for stretching muscles like kneading may cause activity in the massaged muscle. The Golgi tendon organs are a proprioceptive sensory nerve endings embedded among the fibers of a tendon and muscles. The Golgi tendon organs become activated when a tendon is contracted through muscle manipulation. "Stimulus for Golgi tendon organs is mechanical deformation generally in the form of a muscle contraction originally thought to be high threshold receptors very sensitive to actively generated muscle force." (HHP, 2004) In other words, if a massage therapist was to change the length of the muscle through manipulation, that action would increase tension on the muscle because the Golgi tendon organs would become active. Golgi tendon organs therefore are receptors that in part prevent excessive stress to joints by acting as reflex inhibitors.

Like the Golgi tendon organs, muscle spindle cells are sensory organs where proprioceptive neuron fibers terminate in muscles and therefore are the body's way of delivering…… [read more]


Muscular System Function of Action Term Paper

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They are arranged spatially into sarcomeres. Thin filaments run between and parallel to the thick filaments within the A band. It is this placement that allows for the sliding filament model.

18. Location of active sites? Location of ATPase?

ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free… [read more]


Characteristic of Human Body Decomposition Over Time in Various Settings Term Paper

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¶ … Human Body Decomposition Over Time in Various Settings

Characteristics of Human Body Decomposition Over Time in Various Settings

The branch of science that investigates the decomposition process of the human body is known as Taphonomy, which encompasses the study of phenomena such as biostratinomy, decomposition, diagenesis, and epibiont encrustation. (Decomposition: Wilipedia) A definition of the term 'decomposition' describes… [read more]


Cell Term Paper

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Brain Cells

Distinguish between the following cell types: NEURON, OLIGODENDROCYTE and ASTROCYTE.

The brain has a number of different cells present within its composition responsible for different functions. If we were to distinguish between cells found in the brain the following characteristics would have to be studied.

NEURON: Neurons are cells that act as messengers receiving electro-chemical signals from the neuro system and conduct them to the brain. There can be various types of neurons depending on their length which can vary from 4 microns (.004 mm) to 100 microns (.1 mm) in diameter. Their length can be from a millimeter to several feet long. The neuron when viewed can be seen to contain a cell body with receivers in the form of branches called dendrites [similar to tentacles in shape]. Then there is a projection called an axon that conducts the actual nerve signal at the end of which the axon terminal transmits it along a gap within the cell called the synapse. [Enchanted Learning.com, 2005] Thus, to identify these cells the researcher would have to ensure the presence of an axon and dendrites.

OLIGODENDROCYTE: These…… [read more]


Homeostasis: An Analysis of Energy Term Paper

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Homeostasis: An Analysis of Energy Homeostasis in the Body

The ability of the human body to maintain a homeostatic state at any point in time depends on a number of factors. Homeostasis generally refers to the ability of an organism, including a human to maintain a certain state of equilibrium. This is achieved through minute physiological processes that occur on a day-to-day basis (Cone, 2001). There are some studies which suggest that energy is stored in the body as a mechanism for adjusting or re-establishing a state of homeostasis in the body, which may or may not be a predetermined state based on genetics and other individual factors (Schwartz, Woods, Seeley, Barsh, Baskin & Leibel, 2003). The subject of energy homeostasis with regard to human physiology is discussed in greater detail below.

Literature Review: Energy Homeostasis

Energy homeostasis can be defined as the state of equilibrium where the body is not only producing an adequate level of energy to function, but where the metabolism is working synergistically with the rest of the body to burn and store nutrients as needed (Cone, 2001). This is an ongoing process that occurs as human beings feed and hydrate themselves day in and out. Energy homeostasis is affected by a number of factors, including how much exercise and how much sleep one gets during the course of a given day (Cone, 2001). If for example a person sleeps excessively, in theory they will disrupt the natural state of equilibrium in the body, potentially causing even more sleepiness (contrary to what one might think, that an individual might feel more rested).

Cone (2001) cites physiological experiments conducted that show that energy stored in fat tissue is actually "homeostatically controlled by the hypothalamus" and notes that the brain adjusts for excess fat and attempts to establish homeostasis in the body by adjusting metabolism and hunger, which in theory will drive someone back to a preset weight (p. 565). Using the same theory one can conclude that the body will make adjustments when someone loses too much weight in order to re-establish a homeostatically comfortable state. That state at which someone is physiologically in homeostasis seems to be at least in some respects genetically controlled (Cone, 2001). There is research being conducted to determine whether or not one can alter the state in which the body is predisposed to 'maintain' (Schwartz, Woods, Seeley, Barsh, Baskin & Leibel, 2003).

In a similar study conducted by Schwartz, Woods, Seeley, Barsh, Baskin & Leibel (2003) the idea that energy homeostasis is "inherently biased toward weight gain" is explored. The researchers attempt to describe a model of energy homeostasis that explains neural pathways utilized to control energy balance. The authors suggest that individuals who lose weight will constantly have to attempt to maintain their weight loss over time, as the body sees losing weight in some situations as an attempt to disrupt the natural homeostasis of the body. This is particularly true of individuals whose weight loss results in a weight… [read more]


Frog Term Paper

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If we have a look at the vertebral columns in frogs, the first bone is the atlas. This is the only cervical bone we will see in a frog, as the next seven are abdominal and there two additional lower vertebrae

. One of the characteristics of the atlas bone, as a cervical bone, is the fact that it has… [read more]


MI Case Study: Myocardial Infarction Term Paper

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Although the heart will retain a scar, many people go on to lead quite normal lives after recuperation. Try to take it easy, and rest assured that Paul will be taken care of to the best of our ability."

Question 3: When you analyzed his ECG, you referred to several different leads, such as lead I. What are leads?

Leads are the Electrodes that are typically attached to the chest, neck, arms, and legs to record the pathway of electrical impulses through the heart muscle. The results of this can tell us how the heart is functioning, and can also pinpoint specific problems.

Question 4: Why is it possible to record an ECG on the body surface without direct access to the heart?

Within the body, there is a natural electrical system. This causes the heart to pump at regular intervals to the various parts of the body. Because this is an electrical process, we can get the electrical "map" or picture of what is going on by measuring the way that electrical impulses are conducted through various parts of the body including the chest, arms and legs. Much as one can see if a car battery is working properly by measuring the voltage through the wires, the body can conduct electricity in a predictable way. The ECG allows us to get this information from the body surface and then allow physicians to interpret this information for possible abnormalities (WebMD, 2005).

Question 5: What effect would the injection of isotonic saline have on Paul's extracellular fluid volume? On his intracellular fluid volume? On his total body osmolarity?

Venous administration of isotonic saline would expand Paul's extracellular fluid volume. However, because it does not change extracellular sodium concentration, it does not change intracellular volume (Kohan, 2005). Thus, Paul's total body osmorality is unchanged.

When Paul arrived at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center emergency room, one of the first tasks was to determine he had actually had a heart attack. Paul's vital signs (pulse and breathing rates, blood pressure, temperature) were taken. A resident physician drew blood for enzyme assays to determine the level of cardiac enzymes in Paul's blood.

When heart muscle cells die, they release various enzymes that serve as markers of a heart attack. I addition, a second tube of blood was sent for an assay of its troponin I level.

Question 6: Some of the enzymes that are used as markers for heart attacks are… [read more]

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