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Anatomy and Physiology Essay

… Such thyroid hormones are transported throughout the body within serum that is bound to carrier proteins, with an exceedingly small percentage existing as a free hormone within the body. Essentially, the thyroid uses hormones to both regulate the body's metabolic rate and heat production; it works in raising the number of receptors in blood vessels in a manner that aids in the regulation of blood pressure and additionally promotes tissue growth.

In viewing the ability for TH to affect the body via passage through the thyroid, it enters a cell and attaches to receptor sites in various locations. Within the cytoplasm, it connects mainly with the mitochondria present in an area, where it helps to control cellular metabolism through a process called oxidative phosphorolation (Steinberg 3). During this process, the mitochondria present use oxygen to generate energy and heat is released as a byproduct of the reaction that takes place. It is in this manner that the thyroid plays a significant role in controlling the body temperature and food metabolism -- both rooted in its role in stimulating the activity of mitochondria present within the body.

In situations where thyroid hormones are not able to successfully act within the context of the body, the capacity for medical issues to arise from such an absence in hormone distribution escalates significantly. For instance, as synthesis and secretion of the thyroid hormones depend on the presence of iodine and tyrosine as well as the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system, any interruption of this development, as occurring with premature delivery, results in inadequate production of thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxine, which can lead to a variety of physiologic conditions within the body (Kirsten 12).

As seen, this tiny gland located within the body plays a much larger role than one could ever imagine upon first glance. The capacity for every cell within the human body to be affected by such a gland is an aspect of the thyroid that is essential to better understand research surrounding this particular gland along with the health issues an under-performing or over-performing thyroid may have on the body's metabolism and other aspects of the body's daily functions.

Works Cited

Anraku, Tsubasa, Nakao, Nobuhiru, Ono, Hiroko, and Yamamura, Takashi. "Thyrotobin

in the Pars Tuberalis Triggers Photoperiodic Response." 2008. Nature, 452(7185): pp. 317-324.. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Ayoub, Macram, Christie, Benjamin, Duggan, Daniel and Herndon, Mark. "Thyroid

Abscess: Case Report and Review of the Literature." 2007. The American Surgeon, 73(7): pp. 725-729. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Fleseriu, Maria and Skugor Mario. "Anatomy and Physiology of the Thyroid Gland." Ed.

William D. Carey. Current Clinical Medicine, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Elsevier. Print.

Kirsten, D. "The Thyroid Gland: Physiology and Pathophysiology." 2000. Neonatal

Network, 19(8): pp. 11-26. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Mareib, Elain. Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7th ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson.


Steinberg, Michelle. "The Thyroid Gland: Anatomy and Physiology," Web.…… [read more]

Heart Identify the Basic Anatomy and Physiology Essay

… Heart

Identify the basic anatomy and physiology of the heart- the human heart is actually a muscular organ that serves to pump blood through the body (circulation). It is divided into four main chambers -- the two upper are the left and right atria, the two bottom the left and right ventricle. The septum, or a thick wall of muscle, separates the right and the left side of the heart. In normal function, with each contraction (beat) of the heart, the right ventricle pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left ventricle, which then pumps into the body. The heart is powered by electrical energy from the sinoatrial node which transfers the energy into the ventricles . Normally about the size of a fist, the human heart averages between 250-250 grams. It is enclosed in a protective sac that protects the heart, anchors its surrounding structures and prevents the overfilling of blood. The cycle of moving oxygenated blood into the tissues, releasing the oxygen, then returning to the lungs to be reoxygenated is called the circulatory process (MacDonald, 2009).

Identify indication for ECG -- Electrocardiography is a system in which the electrical impulses from the heart are measured by attaching amplifying sensors to the skin in different positions on the body to measure cardiac activity as the blood is pumped throughout the body. Indications for ECG are numerous: regular check-up and review; heart murmurs; seizures, perceived cardiac dysrhythmia, symptoms of infarction (numbness, fainting, pain in the chest) (Your Heart's Electrical System, 2009).

Describe electrode position for 12 leads ECG equipment -- Ten Electrodes are used for a 12-node ECG. These are placed according to the following table:

Electrode Label (U.S.A.)

Electrode Placement


Right Arm, avoid thick muscle


Let Arm, avoid thick muscle


Right leg, lateral calf


Left leg


Fourth intercostal space, between ribs 4/5, to right of sternum


Fifth intercostal space, between ribs 4/5, to left of sternum


Between leads V2and 4


In the fifth intercostal space, between ribs 5/6


Horizontally, between V4, but in the anterior axillary line


Horizontally, between V4 and 5 in the midaxillary line

(Source: AHA Diagnostic ECG Placement, n.d.)

Describe nursing interventions to ensure correct ECG recording -- Ensure the patient is…… [read more]

Anatomy and Physiology Organ Systems Are "Composed Essay

… Anatomy and Physiology

Organ systems are "composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function," (Carpi 1999). Among the most important organ systems in the body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, senses and endocrine systems. None of these systems are any more important than any other, as all are crucial for the harmonious functioning of the human body.

The integumentary organ system consists of the skin and its related parts including follicles and hair as well as the sebaceous glands. The skin is the largest organ of the body, and comprises up to 15% of total body weight. Underlying tissues including fat can be considered part of the integumentary system.

Both the skeletal and muscular system enable bodily movement. The skeletal system provides the form and structural support for that movement, while the muscular system provides the "pulling power for us to move around," ("Muscular System" n.d.). Muscles and bones are physically connected, making the muscular and skeletal systems literally inseparable.

The nervous system is among the more complex in the body because it can potentially control most of the other organ systems in the body. The nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord and its cells are highly specialized. Input from sensory organs and from the skin is transmitted via the nervous system. In fact, the sensory system "is a part of nervous system consisting of sensory receptors that receive stimuli from internal and external environment, neural pathways that conduct this information to brain and parts of brain that processes this information," ("Sensory Systems" n.d.). The endocrine system also works in tandem with the nervous system to send messages throughout the body. Via various glands in the body, the endocrine system specializes in chemical and hormonal regulation.

2. The nervous system controls many other organ systems and functions in the body and is therefore central to the organism's survival. Moreover, the nervous system is like a control center for the other organ systems in the body, facilitating communication between them. The nervous system accomplishes its tasks via a network of specialized cells and organs such as the brain.

The brain works in tandem with the spinal cord to send messages throughout the body. The nervous system is aided by the endocrine system, which produces chemicals like hormones used to send messages to various organs and body parts. However, the nervous system also uses electrical impulses to help carry chemicals like those secreted by the endocrine system. The nervous system could not function properly without the endocrine system, and vice-versa.

Smooth muscles are the main part of the muscular system that is controlled by the nervous system. Part of the autonomic, or independent, nervous system, the smooth muscle system helps to regulate those bodily…… [read more]

Anatomy of the Kidney University of Michigan Term Paper

… Anatomy of the Kidney

University of Michigan IllustrationThe function of the human kidneys (which are located in the back of the abdomen and are each close to the size of an average fist) is essentially to filter the blood by removing the waste products from the blood. Since all the blood in the human body passes through the kidneys several times each day, the function of the kidneys as a filtering agent is absolutely vital to good human health. Besides filtering the blood, the kidneys regulate the levels of water fluids. In the process of filtering the blood the kidneys actually create urine which, once filtered out of the blood, is collected in the kidney's pelvis. From there the urine drains into tubes called the ureters and into the bladder where they can be voided. As shown in the illustration, the blood flows into the kidneys through the renal artery and from there waste products and unneeded water are filtered out by the nephrons; blood that has been cleaned by the kidneys flows back into the bloodstream through the Renal vein.


Nephrons are microscopic filters that do the cleaning of the blood; there are about a million of nephrons and they actually produce a person's urine

Each nephron is a "long tubule, or extremely fine tube," about 30-55 mm (1.2 -- 2.2 inches) long; at one end "the tube is closed, expanded, and folded into a double-walled cuplike structure called the renal corpuscular capsule" (Encyclopedia Britannica). The illustration (of a Nephron) to the left points to: 1) Glomerulous (a cluster of microscopic capillaries; blood flows into and away from the glomerulus, part of the filtering process); 2) efferent arteriole; 3) bowman's capsule; 4) proximal convoluted tubule; (the cells that line the PCT…… [read more]

Integumentary System Physiology Thesis

… Integumentary System


The integumentary system is made up of the skin, hair, nails, and associated glands. The system protects the body from the external environment and its many harmful materials. The integumentary system is essential in order for the… [read more]

Questions Concerning the Study Term Paper

… Questions Concerning the Study of Anatomy
1. Pretend that you don't know anything about the various functions
that bone performs. How might the visible anatomy (or physical nature) of
bones help you identify their function? What is this principle called?
Generally speaking, one can make assumptions about the manner in
which a bone functions based on its shape, its size, its location in the
body and an array of other characteristics including proximity to certain
joints or muscle masses. This principle is referred to as morphology and
allows the observer to make certain deductions concerning functionality.
The shape, position and category of bone (often determinable by observable
physical features) may be used to presume that it conducts certain
functions and has certain roles for the locomotion or support of the body

2. Imagine that you have become dehydrated, and therefore, quite thirsty.
What is the probable stimulus in this scenario, what is your likely
response, and does it represent a positive or negative feedback
mechanism and why?
Dehydration generally occurs due to a lack of water in the body. A
probable stimulus to dehydration may be an engagement in a physical
activity which has caused significant sweating and, therefore, the
expulsion of body moisture, without replenishment by way of drinking. The
likely response by the body is to induce dizziness, nausea, headaches and
the sensation of dryness. These are negative feedback mechanisms which, in
response to the presence of an imbalance in the body's regulation of its
systems, has instigated a number of bodily experiences which are intended
to return the body to its full normal and working condition. Naturally,
these are also conditions which, where possible, will incline the
individual to seek out water or another source of hydration as a way to
reverse the unpleasant effects of dehydration.

3. Define homeostasis and briefly describe…… [read more]

Anatomy Major Cavities Term Paper

… For example, if a person is born with AABB, then the person has the darkest coloration, as all the genes are dominant and has no genes for lightness. If that person marries a person with likewise genes, the resulting offspring will lose the ability to be white. Likewise, a person with aabb, is married to a person with similar genes, the offspring produced will have the lightest possible coloration. The ability to produce sufficient melanin is lost in this case. (The origin of races)

6. Bones of the axial and appendicular skleton:

The skeleton is made of bone and cartilage. There are two major divisions to the skeleton: the axial and the appendicular. The axial skeleton has bones that make-up the body's center of gravity and the appendicular skeleton have bones that make-up the appendages. (Human anatomy and physiology)

7. Three types of Joints:

Bones cannot work alone and need support from the joints and the muscles. Muscles pull the joints thereby permitting us to move. Some joints open and close like a hinge like knees and elbows, while others permit for more complex movement - a shoulder or hip joint, for instance, allows for backward, forward, sideways, and rotating movement. Three types of joints are: Fibrous joints do not move. An example would be the dome of the skull. Cartilaginous joints move partially, and an example would be the cartilage in the spine. Synovial joint indicates which are freely movable like the hip, shoulders etc. (Bones, Muscles and Joints)

8. Muscle Tone:

Muscles always have tone. Our muscles are not limp, but there are some linked cross-bridges that keep them somewhat tight. The isotonic contractions are ones when your muscles in fact condense. Thus isotonic refers to a muscle has the same tone all through its movement. The muscle preserves tone and do not get saggy while shortening. The isometric contractions are ones when our muscles do not shorten. Isometric means same length. If you tighten your muscle but do not allow it condenses, the muscle retains its same length. (Types of Contractions)

9. Nerve impulse transmission by Neuron:

The nervous system gets sensory information from millions of sensory receptors that sense changes inside and outside of the body. The sensory stimulus is changed to a nerve impulse by a sensory neuron, which passes on the nerve impulse to the central nervous system. By the help of electrical nerve impulses, the information passes through the nervous system very fast. If the stimulation from a nerve impulse is stopped, the muscle tissue will relax or the… [read more]

Anatomy Affects Human Culture Essay

… Another fairly important aspect of human anatomy that is intrinsically related to human behavior is cognition. From an anatomical perspective, humans have large brains. The brains in people are certainly larger than that of most animals, with some notable exceptions. However, the size and the intricacy of the human brain plays a very crucial aspect in the sort of intellectual capacity that people have been endowed with. Because people have large brains (certainly as compared to most of the other animal and insect kingdom), they are imbued with an intellectual capacity that enables them to transcend mere physical desire and its needs and to pursue various facets of intellectual pursuits. In fact, one of the theories regarding the large size of human brains posits the viewpoint that, "the evolution of the human brain was driven by our increasingly complex social relationships" (Balter).

Due in part to the size of their brains, many animals simply live from one instinct to the next -- looking to feed, pass waste, obtain shelter, etc. Humans, however, have brain sizes that are large enough and developed enough so that they can easily accomplish all of these basic objectives, and devote their brain power to intellectual pursuits such as the writing of research papers, the memorization of poetry, the composition of song lyrics, and other facets of life. This sort of intellectual behavior -- such as the capacity to write -- helps to make man distinct from virtually all other forms of life, and is indelibly linked to the anatomical size and function of his brain.

Works Cited

Balter, Michael. "Why Are Our Brains So Ridiculously Big?" 2012. Web.

Johnson, Kimball. "How the Lungs and Respiratory System Work." 2012. Web.… [read more]

Heart Disease Relationship Between Cardiac Research Paper

… Essential parts of the heart are capillaries, arterioles and venous, which aids the functions of the heart. The capillaries have thin layers of walls, which functions mainly in the exchange of gas, it dissolves gas, aids in getting nutrients and… [read more]

Muscular System and Exercise Essay

… Muscular System and Exercise

The muscular system in an integral component of the human body. Muscular tissue movement within the system is caused by the contraction of muscle fibers within the body. Movement is caused by the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through a variety of processes. Muscle tissue is categorized into three types including skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Furthermore, these tissues are categorized as voluntary and involuntary muscles. 1(p39) Through proper care and exercise, muscles can strengthen or weaken.

Anatomy and Physiology

Skeletal muscle tissue, also referred to as striated or voluntary muscle tissue, composes 40% to 50% of the body's weight and is called striated muscle due to its striated composition, visible when analyzed under a microscope.1(p126) the contractions of this muscle tissue are voluntary and are controlled by the individual. Organs are compose primarily from muscle cells and connective tissue. Most skeletal muscles in the body extend from one bone to another across joints. The three components of skeletal muscle are the origin at which it is attached through a tendon to the bone that remains stationary when movement is applied to the joint, the insertion that is the point that is attached to the bone that moves when the muscle is contracted, and the main body of the muscle. 1(p126) Muscle contracted will only occur is the stimulus applied to the muscle reaches the threshold. Once the muscle is stimulated by the threshold stimulus, the muscle will contract completely; different muscles are controlled by different motor units with respective unique threshold stimulus levels.1(p127)

Contractions produced within muscles can be divided into three types: twitches and titanic, isotonic, and isometric. While twitch contractions do not play significant roles in muscle contraction, titanic contractions are defined as sustained and steady contractions that are produced through stimuli attacking a muscle in rapid succession.1(p127) Isotonic contractions produce movement at a joint by shortening the muscle and causing the muscular insertion point to move towards the point of origin. Most by movements are caused by isotonic contractions. 1(p127) Unlike isotonic contractions, isometric contractions do not cause movement in the body, though an increase in tension within the muscle can be detected. 1(p127)

In the human body, muscles control movement, posture, and heat production. Movement is produced through the contraction of muscles, usually through the coordinated efforts of a muscle group. Posture within the body is maintained through tonic contraction which restricts the number of muscle fibers that shorten at a time. Good posture reduces strain on the body's muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones. Inadequate posture may lead to fatigue, caused by repeated muscular stimulation without adequate rest, and/or deformities.1(p127)

Cardiac muscle makes up a large portion of the heart. Cardiac muscle is characterized by intercalated disks and the muscle cells branch frequently. The unified nature of cardiac muscle cells allow for the heart to contract efficiently. 1(p126)

Smooth muscle, also known as visceral, non-striated, or involuntary muscle, appears smooth when analyzed under microscopic conditions. These type of muscle tissue… [read more]

Neuroscience and Human Development Research Paper

… In contrast, motor neurons transmit action potentials from the central nervous system toward the periphery (Seeley et al., 2005).

Neurons and their Electrical Activity

The nervous system is composed of millions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are the parenchyma… [read more]

Functioning Understanding of Medical Terminology Term Paper

… Oro mouth. The oral cavity is the other name for the mouth.

Orchido testicle. Orchidectomy is removal of a testicle.

Osse-, Osteo bone. Osteoporosis is porosity of bone.

Oto ear. Otosclerosis is the formation of bone in the ear.Otomycosis-fungal infection in ear


Patho disease. Pathogens are agents which cause disease.

Peps digestion. Pepsin is an enzyme found in the digestive system.

Phago eat. Phagocytes are cells (cyto-) which eat foreign material.

Philo love, to have an affinity for.

Phleb vein. Phlebitis is inflammation of the veins.

Phren diaphragm. Phrenic refers to a diaphragm.


Fill, fufill; re-plicate, placate.

many - as in polysyllable, or a word with lots of syllables.

Pneumo lung. Pneumonia is a disease of the lungs.


before; as in prefix, predator

Pro-to, for; prodigal, profane, prognosis, prong.

Pulmo lung.

Pur theoretical, intentional; purify, purport, purge.

Pyo pus. Pyruria is pus in the urine.


Qui pacific, calm, lethargy, heavenly; quiescent, quibble, quietude.

Quint fifth; quintessential, quitessence.

Quo insignificance; quorum, quotidian.


Ra reciprocity of cycle; raconteur, rabid, ravine.


Assemble, garb; as in raiment t (clothing), rail (dress in complaint)


extend outward; rampart, ramify


From; reactionary, realm, reaper.

Reg instituted; regulatory, regimen.

Ren kidney. Renal artery supplies blood to the kidney.

Rhin nose. Rhinoplasty is a nose job.





saucer or sacred bone


arrow or arrow-like








to itch


skiff or boat shaped


shoulder blade




hardening yellow fat


crookied or twisted


to view or examine


to examine or view




sc or pouch


to scratch


oriented to the self; secrete (release from the self), sedate (quiet self)




separating or to separate


to cut

Scler hard. Atherosclerosis is hardening of the arteries.




seed or seed producer











Stasis stand still. Homeostasis is the process of maintaining constant conditions within the body.

Stri line; striate, stricture, strident.


drawing or binding



Su after; as in suffix.


above or upon


to throw backward


sewing together


fig or fig-like



Sub-under, lower; subliminal, subordinate, submissive.


Thromb clot, lump. Thrombosis refers to a clot in the heart or blood vessel.

Tri three, as in tricycle, trident.

Trich hair. Trichosis is a disease of the hair.


under advise or protection; tutelage, tutelary, turpitude

Ty substantive; typhoon, tyranny, tyro.



-um singular.


heated; umbrage.


negativity; unreasonable, undone.



round or cicle


white flow





strange or foreign





Indicative of hierarchy in relation to the greater; vassal, vaunt

Vas vessel, duct. Vas deferens is the vessel which carries sperm from the epididymus.


Relating to vegetation; vegetarian, vegan.


Coming (into), venue (a place into which things come), venture (coming into a risk), vendor (coming into goods) venire.

Ver-truth; veracity, veracious, verbatim… [read more]

Exercise Science and Term Paper

… De Humanis Corporis Fabrica by Vesalius "can only be compared with Hippocrates in stature and importance" in the field of medicine, according to Vesalius, Humanist. (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Vesalius had studied Cicero and Celsus, among the ancient writers, and so he knew that the ancients had dissected human bodies. (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Vesalius believed that anatomy:

should be recalled from the dead, so that if it did not achieve with us a greater perfection that at any other place or time among the old teachers of anatomy, it might at least reach such a point that one could with confidence assert that our modern science of anatomy was equal to that of old (ancient Greek) (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Although Leonardo had created drawings by doing exactly as the ancients had done, they had not been published in book form, and therefore were not generally available to physicians, and Vesalius' work was. So, Vesalius is credited not only with producing such a book, but making the information about the construction of the human body and its workings generally available.

But, as important as Vesalius was to the science of anatomy, without which there could be no exercise science, Leonardo was the key, and:

the invention of a method of recording observations through revealing drawings, an invention made by the great universal artists of the turn of the fifteenth century, deserves to rank with the invention of the telescope and the microscope in the seventeenth century and of the camera in the nineteenth. (Randall 119)

It is reasonable to rank the work of both Leonardo and Vesalius with the invention of the microscope and camera. Their investigations into how human bodies actually work, right down to the individual nerves and capillaries, made exercise science, with was further expanded after the microscope and camera were invented, not only possible but valuable to understanding and enhancing human life.

Works Cited

Randall, John Herman. The School of Padua and the Emergence of Modern Science. Padua, Italy: 1961.

Renaissance Man: Leonardo. 2003. Museum of Science. 2 October 2003.

Vesalius, the Humanist. 2003. University of Virginia, Health Sciences Library. 2 October 2003.…… [read more]

Human Behavior, Physiology and Freedom Term Paper

… Though the afore mentioned examples may seem extreme, they are important to consider in the analysis of behavior. Ultimately, some control does serve a purpose.

By nature, human beings are blessed with the mental capacity, absent of disorders such as schizophrenia and retardation for example, to choose between right and wrong. However we are also, as the result of the environment in which we are brought up in and worldly events subject to changing behavior at a moments notice due to eventful circumstances. Having some level of control, such as laws and regulations, allow us to live our lives and make choices under an umbrella of safety. Granted, in some cases the choices and level of control are extreme. In the U.S. For example, most individuals are accustomed to having a level of freedom that is equivalent to doing what they want when they want as long as they abide by the law. In other countries however, such as in the Middle East, women are subjected to covering themselves and following strict orders of discipline and submissiveness. These "worldly" controls ultimately lead to different behavioral patterns in men and women in each culture. The appropriateness of each behavior has, thus far been determined by the people that are elected or take over as leaders of the country.

How effect would cultural design be as an objective? To what extent does anyone want to monitor and dictate the behavior and daily activities of all the people in the world? This question is perhaps the most complex to be addressed in this article. Cultural design and genetic coding, cloning human beings, all of these factors seem to be the wave of the future. It is feasible that many years out scientists will propose a means of producing a homogenous culture that behaves in the same manner. A cultural group of people with an identical or similar physiological make up, with the same genes and nutrients, may in fact behave similarly. But again, the question of environment comes into play.

Environment plays a tremendous role in the behavior of individuals. People brought up in the United States are generally accustomed to a great many more "freedoms" than individuals from more controlled cultures. Does this make other cultures bad? How would we as a society, as a world, develop a cultural design?

Ultimately, cultural designing could not occur unless there was agreement across the board about the means by which humans should be born, genetically programmed, fed and environmentally influenced.

Cultural design is likely an objective of more socialist or communist societies that embrace the idea of having a lot of control over the behavior of their populations. This statement is not however, meant to state that these ideas are wrong

Simply, this essay argues the point that human beings are too complex to impose too much control or cultural design upon. The characteristics of human behavior are the result of complex physiological and environmental functions. If the world were comprised of a few… [read more]

Genu Recurvatum: Anatomy and Biomechanics of Genu Recurvatum in Dancers Research Paper

… Anatomy and Biomechanics of Genu Recurvatum in Dancers

In the world of dance, flexibility and grace may be everything, but they both come at a price. Dancers are continually predisposed to muscle injuries and imbalances due to the repetitive motions… [read more]

Spinal Movement: Anatomy - Dance Anatomy/Kinesiology Essay

… Anatomy: Dance Anatomy/Kinesiology -- Spinal Movement

Dance Anatomy -- the Spine

The Role of Gravity in Standing Movements of the Spine

Concept 3.1: Gravity plays a crucial role in muscle and spinal movements. It holds the spine in its precarious position when one is standing upright, and will also make it fall in the desired direction whenever there is movement. The role of gravity in three common movements has been discussed in the subsequent sections.

Gravity and Forward Flexion

Explain the muscle contraction you are feeling, and how abdominal and spinal sensors operate in this movement

Spinal flexion occurs when the sagittal plane is bent forward, bringing together the anterior surfaces of the trunk and the vertebrae (XXX 108). A perfect example of a forward flexion is when someone places one hand on the abdomen and the other on the lumbar spine, and then rolls down slowly towards the floor (XXX 110). The tension felt in the muscles in this case is a direct action of gravity -- the pelvis tilts against the force of gravity acting on the spine, and this causes the left and right external obliques and the rectus obdiminis to all work together against the action of gravity to control the spinal flexion, as the transverse abdominis pulls the wall of the abdomen inward (XXX 108). The tension results from the opposing action of all these forces.

ii) Gravity and Spinal Extension

Explain the influence of gravity with this movement and how it affects muscle use

Spinal extension is the process by which the sagittal plane returns to a position of backward bending from a position of flexion (XXX 109). Concentrically, the spinal movement is against gravitational action; and since the force of gravity is considerably strong, the spinal extensors as well as the deep posterior and the semispinalis muscle groups move in to facilitate extension by acting against gravity. They work in different ways - the spinal extensors, particularly the erector spinae, provide the force necessary to drive the full extension of the spine, whereas the deep posterior group act by adjusting inter-vertebrae motion, thereby stabilizing the spine (XXX 109). The spinal extensors will, in essence, work concentrically in seeking to restore the torso back to a position of backward bending after a spinal flexion (XXX 110). In cases, however, where there is a hyperextension of the spine, the spinal extensors will work eccentrically (in the same direction as gravity) to restore the torso back to a vertical position

iii) Spinal Lateral Flexion

Spinal lateral flexion occurs when the frontal plane is moved to the side (XXX 110). It can either be left lateral flexion or right lateral flexion, depending on the direction to which the upper spine bends relative to the lower part (XXX 110). Left lateral flexion occurs when the surfaces on the left side of the vertebrae are approximated, and vice versa. Conversely, left lateral flexion can be said to occur when the spine is returned to anatomical position from a position… [read more]

Fishes to Frogs: Respiratory Adaptation Research Paper

… References

Farmer, Colleen G. (1997). Did lungs and the intracardiac shunt evolve to oxygenate the heart in vertebrates? Paleobiology, 23(3), 358-372. The author offers evidence to support her theory that hypoxic aquatic conditions caused cutaneous respiration-dependent fishes to evolve lungs, in order to oxygenate cardiac tissue.

Farmer, Colleen G. (1999). Evolution of the vertebrate cardio-pulmonary system. Annual Review in Physiology, 61, 573-592. Building upon her earlier scholarship concerning respiratory system evolution from fish to amphibians, Farmer expands her thesis by suggesting that the evolution of lungs enabled the myocardium to benefit from the increase supply of oxygen made available through vascularization.

Gargaglioni, Luciane H. And Milsom, William K. (2007). Control of breathing in anuran amphibians. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 147, 665-684. The authors provide a comprehensive review of what is known about ventilation anatomy and control in the best studied amphibians. Particular attention is paid to central nervous system control.

Janis, C.M. And Keller, J.C. (2001). Modes of ventilation in early tetrapods: Costal aspiration as a key feature of amniotes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 46(2), 137-170. The authors argue for an alternative theory that suggests the evolution of dry skin came after the emergence of costal ventilation, thereby reducing the need for cutaneous respiration and enabling habitation of dry niches.

Meyer, Axel and Wilson, Allan C. (1990). Origin of tetrapods inferred from the mitochondrial DNA affiliation to lungfish. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 31, 359-364. Given the controversy over the possible ancestral relationship between lungfish, amphibians, and fish in terms of respiration, with lungfish representing an evolutionary intermediate, the mitochondrial DNA sequence is compared between these three in an effort to resolve this controversy at the molecular level.

Nilsson, G.E., Hobbs, J-P. A., Ostlund-Nilsson, S., and Munday, P.L. (2007). Hypoxia tolerance and air-breathing ability correlate with habitat preference in coral-dwelling fishes. Coral Reefs, 26, 241-248. The authors examined the respiratory abilities of coral-dwelling fish species and discovered a high level of tolerance for hypoxic conditions. Together with their air-breathing ability, these fish can make use of a wider range of niches, including nighttime hypoxic conditions at deep depths and within coral that becomes exposed to the air for hours at a time.

Perry Steven F., Wilson, Richard J.A., Straus, Christian, Harris, Michael B., and Remmers, John E. (2001). Which came first, the lung or the breath? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 129, 37-47. These authors examined the fossil evidence for indications that gills, air sacks, and lungs emerged in that order, as many evolutionary scientist believe. Their analysis provides additional support for this theory.

Taylor, E.W., Leite, C.A.C., Mckenzie, D.J., and Wang, T. (2010). Control of respiration in fish, amphibians and…… [read more]

Cardiac Cycle: Diastole and Systole Research Paper

… " (Chute, 2012, p.1) Capillaries are walls that are comprised by "thin tunica interna, one cell thick" and are reported to allow "only a single RBC to pass at a time." (Chute, 2012, p.1) Capillaries have percytes located on the… [read more]

Physiology and the Orange Essay

… Next, my mind skips to Morocco where I washed my hands in orange-scented water before eating in the traditional fashion of shared trays of food taken up in the fingers and skillfully -- or in my case, not so skillfully -- popped into the mouth. I remember that I brought home a small vial of the orange oil; it still sits on a shelf where I see it when I pass and think simultaneously of the excitement of the trip and the many small places and manners in this culture that create an oasis for the mind. My academic orientation inserts itself here, and I remember that aromas are associated with long-term memory and emotions, apparently since the olfactory system appears to be linked to the hippocampus and the limbic system.

After this brief, but very rich mental detour, I return to the task of opening and tasting the orange. Taking apart the orange segments is messy work, particularly since I cannot see what I am doing. I am conscious of the sticky juice running along the sides of my hands and beginning to soak into the cloth napkin that I had the foresight to place on my lap. I finally allow myself to taste the orange. It does not disappoint. This is a sweet and juicy orange. I remember that when I selected the orange -- with my eyes open -- I was guided by some family lore that a smooth skinned orange tends to be juicier than an orange with a thick and rough skin. I have very little data to back up this notion, but in this instance, it seems to be a probable association. At this point, I recognize that my cerebrum (particularly the occipital lobes and the parietal lobes) is imposing judgments on my sensory experiences, tending to prefer patterns and wrapping up the experience in a packet for later reference.


Calvert, G., Spence, C. And Stein, B.E. (2004). The handbook of multisensory processes. Retrieved

Frackowiak, R.S.J. (2004). Human brain function. Retreived

Guthrie, D.M. (1990). Higher order sensory processing. Retrieved

Mukundan, C.R. (20087). Brain experience: neuroexperiential perspectives of brain-mind. Retrieved… [read more]

Henry Gray Anatomist Author Essay

… The book was particularly useful as a result of the fact that readers could use both its writings and its illustrations in their endeavor to learn more concerning the human body. Gray's collaboration with Carter resulted in one of the best known books written in regard to anatomy. Mid-Victorian London saw two ambitious young men as they struggled to set the basis for their careers in a society that would appreciate their abilities. The manuscript was completed in approximately three years, from the moment when Carter and Gray first met at Saint George's Hospital.

The medical world acknowledged Gray's abilities as an anatomist and many in the field considered that he was likely to have a thriving career in the domain as a consequence of his intellect. His book made it possible for him to be recognized for his talent and influenced those in charge of Saint George's Hospital to present him with a job as Assistant Surgeon in the institution. In spite of this, the fact that Gray was concerned in infectious diseases at the time and in how they affected the body from an anatomical point-of-view led to his death at 34. He chose to study this field through analyzing his dying nephew and ended up getting smallpox.

The fact that Gray managed to enter a world of experienced individual at a young age demonstrates that he was different from the masses and that he was capable of performing great things in the field of medicine. His book was continuously published ever since 1858, the year when it first got out. It is probable to be the best-known medical manuscript in all of history, considering its history and the fact that it is present in almost all medical communities. Most medicine students are likely to be familiar with "Gray's Anatomy" and it is generally recognized as providing them with information that is essential for their development as doctors. It is certainly difficult to think about anatomy in general before "Gray's Anatomy" was written.

Gray's work has made it possible for medical students today to relate to a standard text that can assist them in their field of work. His contribution to the medical world is certainly inestimable, especially given that he can virtually be considered responsible for the millions of lives that were saved as a consequence of the fact that doctors were familiar with his texts.

Works cited:

Gray, Henry, "Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of medicine and surgery," Churchill Livingstone, 1995.

Hayes, Bill, "The anatomist: a true story of Gray's anatomy," Ballantine Books, 2008.

Leonard, C.H. And Gray, Henry, "The Concise Gray's Anatomy," Cosimo, Inc., 2005.

Richardson, Ruth, "Mr.…… [read more]

Healthy Heart vs. Coronary Disease Human Pathology Research Paper

… Healthy Heart vs. Coronary Disease

Human pathology typically has associated abnormal physiological conditions. Further understanding the physiological differences between healthy and diseased hearts is critical for diagnosis, treatment and future research. Coronary artery disease, according to Shirato and Swan, is the leading cause of death in women, killing more women than all forms of cancer combined. This paper will discuss the normal physiology of a healthy heart and then compare it to a heart suffering from coronary artery disease. These physiological differences will be connected to the normal anatomy of a healthy heart and the pathological condition of coronary disease.

Physiological Condition of a Healthy Heart:

In a healthy heart, the coronary blood flow provides the oxygen supply for the body. This myocardial oxygen automatically increases, in a healthy heart, from a resting level to a maximum level. This difference between the resting flow and maximal coronary flow is known as coronary flow reserve (CFR). This increased demand can result from exercise, neurohormones, or pharmacological stimuli. According to Kera et al., there are three primary resistance components to blood flow. These include: the epicardial vessel, small arterioles and arteries and the intramyocardial capillary system. In a healthy heart, there is only minimal resistance in the epicardial vessel and arteries that have a diameter of >400µm. Coronary resistance occurs, in a healthy heart, in the small arteries and arterioles.

Physiological Condition of Coronary Disease:

Kera et al. note that one of the primary physiological conditions of coronary disease is a change in coronary flow and pressure. This imbalance between the supply and demand of myocardial oxygen can lead to myocardial ischemia. Plaque build up inside the arteries, narrows the arteries, restricting oxygenated blood flow to the heart. This increased pressure within the arteries is present at any flow rate; however, it is most significant during times of increased need for myocardial oxygen.

Connection Between Normal Anatomy of a Healthy Heart and Coronary Disease:

In a normal, healthy heart oxygenated…… [read more]

Understanding Treatments for Elevated Blood Ammonia Research Paper

… And, too, the assignment encouraged a review of drug therapies designed to assist with the production of an alternative to urea, which gave rise to the concept of a compound that would be released by the hydrosome as it worked to break down proteins. Fantastical though it was, the assignment did cause me to think about aspects of cellular functioning -- and particularly about the functioning of organelles that I otherwise would not have so fully addressed.

Works Cited:

Batshaw ML, MacArthur RB, Tuchman M. Alternative pathway therapy for urea cycle disorders: twenty years later. Journal of Pediatrics. 2001; 138: S46-55.

Haberle J, Boddaert N, Burlina A, Chakrapani A, Dixon M, Huemer M, Karall D, Martinelli D, Crespo PS, Santer R, Servais A, Valayannopoulos V, Lindner M, Rubio V, and Dionisi-Vici C. "Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders." Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2012: 7, 32. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-32. PMC 3488504. PMID 22642880 Retrieved

Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry - Interactive Animations. John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Inc. 2002. Retrieved

Prasad S, Dhiman RK, Duseja A, Chawla YK, Sharma A, Agarwal R. "Lactulose improves cognitive functions and health-related quality of life in patients with cirrhosis who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy." Hepatology 2007: 45 (3): 549 -- 59.

Sharma BC, Sharma P, Agrawal A, and Sari SK. "Secondary Prophylaxis Of Hepatic Encephalopathy: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial…… [read more]

Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Research Paper

… The ganglion cells are what constitute the intrinsic photosensitive response in the visualizing system. In the retina, the normal photoreceptive cells are of two types, the rod and cone [6]. The functioning of the rod is similar to that of… [read more]

Integumentary Skeletal System Term Paper

… ¶ … Nervous Systems

The central nervous system is composed of the spinal cord and the brain. Along with these specific structures, the central nervous system also encompasses the neural tissue, blood vessels, and the connective tissue that surround these structures for protection (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). It is the job of the central nervous system to integrate, process, and coordinate sensory data into motor commands. The central nervous system receives the information that the body needs in order to execute a motor movement, and then signals are sent out commanding the body to perform these specific movements (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). The sensory data received can be in relation to conditions on the outside or the inside of the body. The control of muscles is regulated by the central nervous system in order to react to situations where the human body can be in danger. For example, if a person steps on a tack that hurts the foot, a person's natural reflex would be to remove the foot immediately from the source of pain. It is the central nervous system that sends the signals to the brain that make the body move the foot away from the tack.

The central nervous system is made up the higher functioning structures of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain structures can be further broken down to include the brain stem, such as the medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellum and the mesencephalon, diencephalon, and the cerebrum (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 456). These are all structures that allow humans to attain their unique features. They regulate behavior, emotions, and feelings. These structures are constantly being innervated by nerve cells that come from the spinal cord (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 452). Both the spinal cord and the brain are covered by meninges that assist in the process of sensory processing and in the protection of the brain and spinal cord. These meninges are the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater. The layers provide the blood and the nutrients for the central nervous system. They are also responsible for the creation of the cerebral spinal fluid which is critical to the survival of the brain and the spinal cord (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 420 & 454).

The peripheral nervous system is composed of the neural tissue outside of the central nervous system. The purpose of the peripheral nervous system is to deliver the sensory information to the central nervous system, and from the central nervous system (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). The peripheral nervous system sends the motor commands directly to the peripheral tissues and other systems. The nerve fibers that compose the peripheral nervous system carry these signals which will then lead to an actual action on the part of the body (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). There are two divisions: the afferent division and the efferent division. The afferent division of the peripheral nervous system brings signals or sensory information to the central nervous system from the receptors… [read more]

Quality of Life Among Tawau Research Paper

… On the other hand, the tibia has two sockets (slightly cup-shaped) to meet the femoral condyles. A healthy knee alignment has femoral condyles that rest evenly on the tibia as well as applying evenly to both sides. However, knee deformity… [read more]

Dry Needling Cover Letter Department Peer-Reviewed Journal

… This could clarify why latent trigger points might not induce impulsive pain. As soon as these inadequate synapses happen to be sensitized, referred pain would likely follow (Mense, 2008).

Latent trigger factors can easily turn out to be active trigger… [read more]

Melatonin and the Pineal Gland Research Paper

… Reports of Clinical 1, Clinical 2, or Clinical 3 randomized clinical trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohorts, case series, registry data as well as narrative and systematic reviews." (2004) Buscemi et al. (2004) states that the data "were extracted from… [read more]

Biology an Inconvenient Truth Term Paper

… a) Human males reproductive organs are comprised of the penis and testicles. The latter sends sperm through the penis and into the female. The female reproductive system is comprised of the ovaries, uterus, and vagina. Eggs are released through the fallopian tubes into the uterus where they may be fertilized by the sperm from the male.

b) Males produce sperm in the testicles only after they reach puberty. Women release eggs from the ovaries into the uterus once a month. If the egg is fertilized then it will grow into a baby. If not, the egg will drop off and be removed from the system via menstruation.

c) The sperm must pass from the testicles. It begins in the seminiferous tubules, goes into the epididymus, vas deferens, and ejaculatory duct. It then passes into the urethra and finally into the penis. The female egg begins in the ovary, pass through the fallopian tube and then into the uterus.

20. a) What is teratogen, and b) what stages of development in most susceptible to harm and why?

a) Teratogen is any agent which can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus

b) Teratogens are most dangerous during early pregnancy

21. What happens during the three stages of the birth process?

a) Onset of contractions; ends when cervix is fully dilated

b) Begins when cervix is fully dilated and ends with the birth of the baby

c) Begins with the birth of the baby and ends with separation and delivery of the placenta

Works Cited:

An Inconvenient Truth [video…… [read more]

Structure of the Nervous System Research Paper

… Physiology

Structure of the Nervous System

The Nervous System is the most complex and extremely ordered of the various systems which make up the human body. It is the system concerned with the association and incorporation of a variety of… [read more]

Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans Essay

… There are three different phenomena that have been observed during this interdigestive period. The first of these phenomena is motor activity in which "peristole and tonal and hunger contractions supplant peristalsis" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The second phenomenon includes a "lessoning in secretory velocity and a reduction of the tritatable acidity to less than half of that seen in the digestive phase" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The third phenomenon is an "alteration in the status of the stomach and duodenum during this period" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). Interdigestive secretion follows the patterns of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC); this pattern occurs every 60-120 minutes (Pandol 2011). Interdigestive activity begins with gallbladder contraction and when the Oddi sphincter relaxes; during the interdigestive phase, gallbladder volume decreases by 30%-35% (Magee 1987). After this gallbladder activity, "the motility of the stomach, the volume of its secretion, and the secretion of pepsin all increase (Magee 1987). This interdigestive activity helps to clear out the stomach and small intestine of debris, and bacteria, between meals.

Interdigestive gastric blood flow activity has been studied extensively, albeit in canine subjects. These studies have found that during interdigestive periods, gastric blood flow would both rise and fall in conjunction with interdigestive motor activity. For example, peristaltic contractions during interdigestive periods would cause blood flow to increase then decrease rapidly. It was also found that in 23% of the test subjects, cyclical blood flow would increase before contractions began (Naruse, Takagi, Kato, & Ozaki 1992). Furthermore, gastric blood flow peaks coincided with pepsin peaks. It was found that gastric blood flow undergoes a series of rapid changes that coincide with periodic motor and secretory activity during interdigestive periods (Naruse, et al. 1992).

Both the digestive system and cardiovascular system work in conjunction in order to introduce and disseminate nutrients, hormones, and eliminate wastes from the human body. While food is introduced into the body through the mouth and processed, broken-down, and passed into the cardiovascular system by the digestive system, it is the cardiovascular system that transports these nutrients, hormones, and other supplements throughout the body by pumping blood to and from the heart and to the rest of the body. Separately, the digestive system helps to introduce and provide a steady flow of food that will be broken down to provide energy and various nutrients to the body, whereas the cardiovascular system will ensure that blood, hormones, and other nutrients are consistently provided to other parts of the body. Furthermore, a healthy blood supply to the digestive system will ensure that the cells will not become weak and/or die.


Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011,

Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011,

Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011,

Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University… [read more]

Create and Curate Essay

… Anatomy is the branch of biology and medicine that is the study of the structure of living things. It is divided into gross (or macroscopic) and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that are relatively obvious… [read more]

Anatomy and Physiology Term Paper

… ¶ … journey begins as we enter the human body through the mouth and are masticated by teeth as we are mixed with saliva that will help us move along our journey through the digestive system to the circulatory system, and finally our exit through the urinary system. Please note the different types of teeth present: as we move from the center of the mouth to the back not that there are two sets of incisors, a set of canines, the premolar and first and second molars.

The mucosal substance that surrounds us is salivary amylase. This mucosal coating allows for smooth passage through the esophagus into the stomach. Below us is located the tongue with the hard and soft palates located directly above. Before we descend into the pharynx, take a look at the uvula hanging from the soft palate. As we pass through the pharynx, we connect to the esophagus which will take us the rest of the way to the stomach. The esophagus is approximately 10 inches long and will push us down through the upper abdominal cavity into the stomach. As we enter the stomach into the fundus, the cardiac sphincter will close behind us in order to prevent food from being reintroduced into the esophagus once the stomach contracts. As the stomach contracts, food mixes with gastric juices and is broken down into chyme. These stomach contractions, known as peristalsis, will propel us down the digestive tract. The lining that covers the stomach walls contains thousands of gastric glands that secrete gastric juice and hydrochloric acid into the stomach. Partial digestion will occur as we are held in the stomach by the pyloric sphincter and before we descend into the small intestine. We will rest in the stomach for approximately three hours before we continue our journey through the pyloric sphincter and into the first portion of the small intestine

As we pass through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine, note the similar mucosal membrane that covers the intestinal walls. The intestinal glands contained in the walls secrete intestinal digestive juice which will further aid in digestion. Also note the corrugated appearance of the intestinal lining. These circular folds are called plicae and are covered with villi. Notice the small brush-like cells covering the villi? These are called microvilli. These microvilli and villi help to absorb nutrients as we pass through the digestive system. Most of the digestion on our tour will occur in the duodenum. As we pass through the duodenum you will notice two ducts that empty pancreatic digestive juices and bile into the intestine. As we approach the ileum and reach the end of the small intestine we will take a detour to the circulatory system through the kidney.

On this second part of our journey, we pass through the ileum lumen to the simple columnular cells of the villi to the villi's interstitial fluid. From here we will pass through to the ileum's capillaries to the venules and through the… [read more]

Electromyography Biopac Exercise Discussion Term Paper

… Electromyography BIOPAC Exercise Discussion

This discussion of the electromyography exercise will begin by first describing and discussing the exercise that was preformed. The results and corresponding data will then be contrasted with the original hypothesis. In this instance, the hypothesis created before initiating the experiment was shown to be supported by the data collected. Furthermore, the discussion will relate this exercise to other experiments that have been recently performed by members of the academic community in the field of medical research.


The data collection in this laboratory exercise relied solely on the BIOPAC computer-based data acquisition and analysis system. This system includes all of the necessary equipment to detect electrical signals that are emitted by the skeletal muscular system. The sophistication of this equipment allows these signals to be recorded at the surface of the skin as opposed to other more intrusive methods of electrical detection in the human body. Another benefit this particular setup is that there is no need for calibration, the device automatically calibrates it sensors and the data recorded is automatically uploaded into the accompanying software.

This exercise was divided into two separate parts. In the first part, the test subject was asked to perform a routine of fist clenching, one hand at a time. When performing this routine, the device simultaneously recorded the electrical signals produced by the subject's body during these movements. The higher the number the device recorded equated to the greater amount of motor unit recruitment the subjects arm exhibited. The data was then sent to the software program for analysis.

In the second phase of this exercise, another variable was introduced to the experiment. An attachment to equipment, called a hand dynamometer, was added that recorded the force produced by the subjects arm during muscle contraction. Furthermore, the time frame that it took the clenched muscles to become fatigued was also recorded by equipment and automatically entered into the software program. These data was then analyzed to compare the differences in the electrical signals produced by both the dominant and non-dominant arms.

The hypothesis stated before performing the exercises predicted that the dominant arm would perform with greater electromyogram (EMG) readings while the subjects performed the physical tasks required of them. It also predicted that the dominant arm would be able to sustain muscle contraction for a greater amount of time than the non-dominant arm before reaching the point of muscle fatigue. The data collected supported both predictions of the hypothesis. The dominant hand, which can be intuitively considered the stronger of the two hands, was able to exert greater levels of electrical signals, greater force upon the hand dynamometer, and also required a greater amount of time before reaching a fatigued state.

The underlying physiology of the arm that further illustrates the chemical and mechanical processes that occurred during this experiment will also be described. The primary function of human muscles is to contract; thus giving the individual the ability to perform various movements and allow them a vast… [read more]

Origins of Anatomical Names Term Paper

… Origins of Anatomical Names:

Anatomy is defined as the study of structure which is derived from a Greek word and means to cut. It was first discovered and practiced over in Alexandria, Egypt with one of the greatest anatomy teachers being Herophilus. Herophilus was also one of the first anatomists to dissect both animals and humans. With much of his work being so influential, other anatomists sought after his work for the purposes of learning.

An example of this people was Galen, dubbed the Prince of Physicians, whose work went on for 1500 years with no one questioning him. Later on, Vesalius, known as the Reformer of Anatomy, questioned Galen's work and proceeded to analyze it. The greatest anatomist of all time, Leornado da Vinci, dissected bodies and became intrigued with the structure and function of man. Leornado also believed that balancing the humorous would be possible by pulling blood out of a body.

The classic work on the subject of Anatomy of the Human Body was by Henry Gray. He is credited for publishing an English-language human anatomy textbook known as Henry Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body (or in short Gray's Anatomy). First published under the title Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical in the United Kingdom in 1858, and the book was also published in the United States the following year. Gray contracted smallpox from his dying nephew and died at the age of 34, while studying the anatomical effects of infectious diseases. His death was shortly after the publication of the 1860 second edition and his work on his was continued by others culminating in the publication of the 39th British edition on November 24, 2004. According to Henry Gray's research, the human body is divided into five major regions which are the head, neck, trunk (chest and abdominal regions), upper extremity and lower extremity (Dawn252, 2009).

More learning than judgment has been displayed in tracing the history of the origin of anatomy. The oldest anatomical exposition in existence is an Egyptian papyrus believed to have been written around 1600 BC. The paper shows that the heart, vessels, kidneys, liver, spleen, urethras and bladder were recognized with the blood-vessels coming from the heart. The exposition also describes other vessels with some carrying air and other mucus; while the breath of life is carried by two vessels to the right ear are said to carry and the breath of death by two vessels to the left ear ("History of Anatomy," n.d.).

The cultivation of anatomical knowledge been attributed to Hippocrates who thought to be the creator of the science of anatomy. However, of all the works credited to Hippocrates, only of them are genuine because most of them were written by subsequent authors of the same name. Hippocrates of notions on the structure of the human body was superficial and erroneous apart from his notions on osteology which were somewhat accurate. Aristotle, who was born 384 years before the Christian era, composed several works on anatomy most of… [read more]

Stress This Is a Guideline and Template Essay

… Stress

This is a guideline and template. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

The physiology of stress refers to the changes to the body which occur during and after a "hostile" environment is incurred. Blood is diverted from the less vital organs to the ones more vital to survival. The heart rate increases. Blood pressure will increase.Rate of breathing will increase. Glycogen, stored in the liver and tissues, will be broken down to acquire more glucose for the body. These symptoms vary based on whether the stress is instantaneous -- an immediate threat -- or chronic and long-lasting. The hypothalamus and pituitary glands release ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). This "excites" the adrenal gland to release a steroid hormone called cortisol. This can be dangerous. If cortisol is allowed to remain at a high level over long periods, chronic stress is the result (Lioe, 2009). Insomnia and physical pain can also be a result of long-term stress. Finally, stress can even weaken the immune system and decrease its ability to detect agents that may infect the body.

Psychology of Stress

Some effects of stress can be less subtle…… [read more]

Lungs What Are the Lungs? Term Paper

… Lungs

What are the lungs?

The lungs form a part of the respiratory system. It is situated inside the rib cage in the chamber of the chest. The lungs are spongy, light, large, round and inflatable organ that performs the… [read more]

Kidneys and How They Function Term Paper

… ¶ … Kidneys and How They Function

One of the most important functions of the kidneys - though not the only key function - is to provide an effective filtering device for the blood in the human body, through which… [read more]

Skeletal System Purpose and Functions Term Paper

… Skeletal System

Purpose and Functions

The skeletal system is fundamental to survival itself (Think Quest 1999). It keeps the body in shape. It protects vital organs, like the heart, the brain and the lungs, and enables the body to move. It consists of the spine, the ribs, the hands and feet, the hips and legs, the arms and the joints (ThinkQuest).

The spine serves as the central support of the body (ThinkQuest 1999). It consists of vertebrae and cartilages, which hold the bones together. The ribs form the thoracic case, which helps protect the chest. It is connected to the sternum, which makes them more flexible. Flexibility is necessary for breathing. The rib cage consists of 12 vertebrae, 24 ribs and a breastbone. It protects the heart and the lungs from falls, knocks and bumps (ThinkQuest).

The hands and feet are flexible because of their functions (ThinkQuest 1999). The bones in the toes are shorter and fatter than the bones in the fingers. These toe bones help balance the two feet. The hips and legs help keep the body in an upright position and in the movement it makes. The hips and legs support much of the body's weight. The arms are just as flexible because of their many functions. And the joints are used for bending, swiveling, stretching, pivoting and pointing (ThinkQuest).

Bones and How the Skeletal System Works

Bones provide the structure for standing erect and protect the soft or delicate inner parts of the body (Discovery Kids 2000). The skull consists of fused bones. It is on top of the body and acts like a protective helmet of the brain. The bones, or the vertebrae, in the spinal column surround it. The spine or spinal column consists of a complex group of nerves, which protect the heart and lungs in the rib cage. A newborn has more than 300 bones, but these fuse together as a person grows old so that an adult has only 206 (Discovery Kids).

Movements are made possible by bones and muscles (Discovery Kids 2000). Muscles and joints pull on the bones. Muscles are attached to bones, so that when muscles contract, the bones to which they are attached act as levers. They make body parts move. Joints, on the other hand, provide flexible connections between bones. There are joints in the knees, in the neck and the shoulders. Joints in the knees work like hinges of doors, moving the body back and forth. Joints in the neck enable the bones to pivot when the head turns. Shoulder joints enable the arms to move up to 360 degrees like the head of a shower (Discovery Kids).

Bones are made up of a hard substance, which makes them strong (Discovery Kids 2000). They also consist of living cells, which help them grow and repair themselves. Blood is also needed by the bone cells to keep them alive. Blood brings food and oxygen and removes waste matter from the cells. At the center of many… [read more]

Renaissance the Trend in Medicine Term Paper

… ¶ … Renaissance

The trend in medicine varies accordingly on the each era. Its development was in leaps and bounds as the ruling way of thinking in a specific time period dictates the approach of healers and physicians to diseases… [read more]

Nervous System With Help of Muscles and Skeletal Systems and Skin Term Paper

… ¶ … Burned on Stove


The scenario given is a hand burned on a hot stove as relating to the nervous system, muscle and skeletal systems and the skin. Nervous responses and associated system interactions will be explained.


You have just placed your hand on a hot surface (for example a stove top).this work will tell a story that illustrates how the heat if felt, the movement of the hand from the heat and then the checking of the hand for injury.


Even brief heat applied to the skin of more than 120 degrees Fahrenheit will cause damage to the cells in the human skin. First degree burns are exhibited by the skin becoming red however, only the epidermis, or the top layer of the skin is affected and will quickly heal with some skill peeling. One type of such burn is a sun burn. The Second degree burns cause deeper damage to the skill with blisters and dermis will generally recover without scarring.

In the case of a third degree burn the full layers of skin are affected and will appear white or charred and very deep burns will leave bones and muscles exposed needing specialized treatment and possibly grafting of skin to prevent scarring. These are the three burn types that might be dealt with in this scenario however only in some extreme accidental hand on the stove scenario would a third degree or even second degree burn be applicable.


Gaining a comprehension of the anatomy and physiology of the skin is required. The skin is "a bilayer organ with many protection functions essential for survival. The outer epidermal layer provides critical barrier functions and is composed of an outer layer of dead cells and keratin, which present a barrier to bacterial and environmental toxins. The basal epidermal cells supply the source of new epidermal cells. The undulating surface of the epidermis, called rete pegs, increases adherence of the epidermis to the dermis via the basement membrane." (Desanti, 2005) The illustration below in Figure One displays the functions of the skin or the skin's anatomy.


Source: Desanti (2005)


The following lists the protection factors of the skin layers:

Epidermis - Protection from desiccation; bacterial entry, toxins, as well as fluid balance (prevents excess evaporative loss; Neurosensory; and Social-Interactive. (Ibid); and Dermis - Protection from trauma (due to elasticity and durability properties of the dermis); Fluid balance through regulation of skin blood flow; Thermoregulation through control of skin blood flow; Growth factors for epidermal replication and dermal repair. (Ibid)


In the case where the individual lays their hand upon a hot stove eye the instantaneous reaction of the individual's hand is to recoil from the heat. The skin has built in sensors to warn when something in contact with the skin… [read more]

Function of Homeostasis in Human Term Paper

… Sweat glands form sweat that pulls out heat from the body to evaporate it. Urinary is whereby kidneys eliminates urine that is a mixture of urea, salts, and water. Thus kidney is an organ essential to body homeostasis. (Unit IV… [read more]

Nervous and Digestive Systems Term Paper

… Some reptiles, such as lizards or snakes, swallow their prey whole, which led to a specific adaptation of the salivary glands. Some of these contain enzymes which help moisten the prey for swallowing. On the other hand, especially for venomous snakes, some of the salivary glands have in time transformed into venom glands and seldom play a role in the actual digestive process. In the case of such reptiles, the upper and lower jaws are mobile in order to increase the dimension of the oral cavity through which the pray has to pass

The esophagus is longer in the case of reptiles that swallow the prey without masticating it. In the case of crocodiles or turtles, for example, the requirement of a long esophagus is no longer necessary. The peristaltic movement helps move the prey towards the stomach, which is generally a j-shaped organ.

The stomach provides the main digestion location in the case of almost all the reptiles, which is quite similar to what happens in the case of higher vertebrates. In the case of reptiles such as snakes or lizards, the food arrives practically whole in the stomach, although it has been shown that the enzymes do work their way as the food is passed downwards to the stomach. The stomach in the case of such reptiles contains a lot of enzymes, but also a high concentration of acids, most notably concentrated hydrochloric acid. In the case of crocodiles or tortoises, the food is already masticated and practically turned into much smaller and easier to digest pieces.

The food then passes into the small intestine, with the three main regions, the duodenum, the ileum, and jejunum

. The liver and the pancreas are also part of the digestive system and participate in the digestion process.

The birds and the reptiles are the only vertebrates to have the cloacae chamber, the removal system of the body. As a complex accessory, the cloacae performs three different functions, each represented in a different compartment.

The coprodaeum is where the faeces is discharged, "the urodaeum receives the urogenital tract ducts, while the proctodaeum acts as a common collecting area prior to evacuation"


1. Adaptive Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System of the Lizard. On the Internet at

2. Digestive System of Snakes Class Reptilia Order Squamata. On the Internet at

3. Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.

4. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at query=brain& ct=eb

Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at query=brain& ct=eb

Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.


Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at


Adaptive Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System of the Lizard. On the Internet at

Digestive System of Snakes Class Reptilia Order Squamata. On the Internet… [read more]

Integumentary System Term Paper

… Deeper within the skin than heat and cold receptors are Meissner's corpuscles, which are especially common in the tips of the fingers and lips, and are very sensitive to touch. Pacinian corpuscles respond to pressure.

The metabolism of Vitamin D, a vitamin essential for proper bone growth and normal cell growth, is yet another important function of the skin (Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology). When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet rays in sunlight, a form of cholesterol is eventually transformed into Vitamin D Vitamin D is the only vitamin that can be produced by the body.

Last, but certainly not least, the integumentary system helps the body dispose of certain waste materials (Owens, 1996). The fluid from the blood stream enables waste produced by the integumentary system to be excreted through sebum, a substance produced by the sebaceous glands in the dermis (thick inner layer of skin). Sebum is a mixture of fatty acids, triglycerides, waxes, cholesterol and cellular debris produced by the synthesis of fat globules. Fat globules, called lipoproteins bind to certain amino acids in order to transport them to target cells. Ionized salts (sodium and potassium) are also excreted through the eccrine sweat glands located in the dermis. Sodium and potassium are necessary for conduction of electrical current through the body.

In summary, as the largest organ of the body, skin provides benefits proportionate to its size. The integumentary system components, skin, glands and receptors, act as a barrier to protect the body from the outside world and function to regulate body temperature, produce Vitamin D and help to eliminate waste products.


Integumentary system. Retrieved February 12, 2005 from Web site:

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. Retrieved February 12, 2005 from Web site:

Owens, S. (1996, Winter). The integumentary system. Perspectives. Retrieved February 12, 2005 from Web site:

The integumentary system (skin). Retrieved February 12, 2005 from Web site:… [read more]

Animals Thermoregulation Term Paper

… However, this balance is not maintained, and a horse's sweat is more concentrated in electrolytes. If there is not a minimum electrolyte replacement, a horse can suffer from ailments such as kidney impairment, cardiac arrhythmias, and poor tissue perfusion.

Heat… [read more]

Androstenedione in the Major League Term Paper

… Some users experience dramatic mood swings. Anxiety, irritability, aggressiveness, and impulsiveness may occur. (Colgan, 1996)

Most nutritional supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Because androstenedione have been categorized as nutritional supplements, they have also not been closely evaluated. Although the manufacturer of a nutritional supplement must provide sufficient information (in FDA-specified format) about the composition of the product, manufacturers and distributors do not need to register with FDA or get FDA approval. Some investigations of supplements have shown that the actual ingredients are not in the amount they claim to be. (Schnirring, 1998)

In conclusion therefore, it would seem that the risks far outweigh the benefits that one would get from androstenedione.


Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.

Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.

Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.

Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)

Bhasin, S., et al. "The Effects of Supraphysiologic Doses of Testosterone on Muscle Size and Strength in Normal Men." N. Engl J. Med. 1 (1996): 1-7.

Mahesh, V.B., and R.B. Greenblatt. "The in Vivo Conversion of Dehydroepiandrosterone and Androstenedione to Testosterone in the Human." Acta Endocrinology 41 (1962): 400-6.

King, D.S., et al. "Effect of Oral Androstenedione on Serum Testosterone and Adaptations to Resistance Training in Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial."…… [read more]

Physiological Effects of Endurance Term Paper

… When this happens, the lungs are able to slow and down and the heart does not need to work as hard to supply the extra needed oxygen. It is these physical changes that allow endurance training to decrease a person's… [read more]

Classification or Division Essay

… In the microscopic capillaries blood performs its ultimate function of transporting nutrients and other essential materials. Waste products are also removed (Gray).

The lymphatic system functions as a defense system against invading microorganisms and disease in much the same way that various military divisions act jointly and yet separately in order to defend a sovereign country. Their duties might differ, but the overall goal for each division is the same.

While the elimination of accumulated wastes might seem to be the least important of functions, it is actually perhaps among the most important and is a task that is jointly accomplished by a variety of organs. The lungs in the respiratory system excrete some waste products including carbon dioxide and excessive water. The skin also rids the body of wastes through the sweat glands. The liver and intestines excrete bile pigments that are a by-product of ongoing destruction or assimilation of red blood cells. The major task of excretion, however, belongs to the urinary system. If this system fails none of the other systems will be able to duplicate its function regardless of how extreme the joint effort might be (Seer's).

The same can be said for each of the other systems in the body. The skeletal system provides a structure for the human body, the digestive system provides the system's operating fuel, the endocrine system provides chemical messengers that influence growth, development, and metabolic activities, the heart provides the circulation of blood through all systems. Yet, if one of the systems stops functioning, all systems are affected, and sometimes irreversibly.

Even a child understands that without the functions of the heart, life will be brought to a sudden and abrupt end. But the same is true for any of the other systems although their affect upon the life of the individual might not appear as suddenly as the affects created by the heart. Without the urinary system, the blood cannot be cleansed of wastes, the heart is taxed and its functions jeopardized. Without the endocrine system, cellular communication cannot be maintained and the body's militia-like defense system cannot be adequately activated. Without the organ of the skin the body cannot be adequately protected and the kidneys will cease functioning. Without the digestive system, proper nutrients cannot be supplied to each system.

In looking at the various systems that function both jointly and separately within the body, the perfection of the combined efforts is nothing short of miraculous. It is no wonder that the classification, separation and combined efforts of the human body has been used as the model after which societies, governments and their militia have been formed.

Works Cited

Gardner, William. "Human Body." World Book Encyclopedia. Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. 1969.

Gray, Henry, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. "Gray's Anatomy." 1974. Running Press.

Seer's Training Website. Training Modules - anatomy and physiology. August, 2002. 10/04/02… [read more]

Conscious Relaxation Essay


Life coaching

Mind-body medicine

According to the article "The physiology of mind-body interactions: The stress response and the relaxation response" by Jacobs (2001) there are key differences between alternative and mind-body medicine, although the two are often elided together in the public's imagination. Mind-body medicine stresses the link between mental, affective states and physical health. Alternative treatments, like acupuncture, in contrast, treat the body, although in a different way than conventional Western medicine prescribes. Mind-body medicine is empirically validated in studies such as those which demonstrate a placebo effect for drugs: the mental state of the sufferer can affect the mind and vice versa. Mind-body medicine can also be used as a complimentary technique with conventional Western medicine with no adverse effects.

This mind-body connection can be seen in the body's physical response to stress, as denoted in the textbook in Chapter 4: The six access skills of relaxation. When someone is stressed, he or she curls up, hunches over, and cannot respond effectively to the outside world. This is an understandable flight-or-fight response -- we are literally preparing our bodies to flee, if necessary (33-32). One effective technique to deal with this phenomenon, however, is 'letting go' consciously, or tensing up and then relaxing all of the muscles of the body. This is different from stretching like yoga, another alternative therapy. Yoga is more of a form of 'exercise' which must be performed standing. Yoga is also more diffuse in terms of its focus on posture, versus conscious relaxation which focuses on body parts in a singular fashion. In yoga, the relief from tension is relatively slow in its pace of release while if performed deliberately, tensing and letting go of the body…… [read more]

Anatomical Position Term Paper

… It is easy to see now how important an understanding of the anatomical position is, when referring to the results of radiology scans. When the assistant has a strong grasp of the names of the planes, he or she can communicate with the physician about scans and their results. Otherwise, there could be egregious medical errors, in miscommunicating about the parts of the body ranging from anterior and posterior to actual organs.

When teaching the trainee about the abdominal quadrants, I would emphasize how simple it is to remember upper right, lower right, upper left, and lower left. There are common abbreviations used for these four quadrants in medical documents. Right upper quadrant is RUQ, Left upper quadrant is LUQ, left lower quadrant is LLQ, and right lower quadrant is RLQ. These abbreviations are important to understand when reading the patient's documents and communicating with the members of the medical team. Facing the patient in anatomical position, I could show the trainee that organs like the liver and gallbladder are in the right upper quadrant, whereas the left adrenals and kidney are in the left upper quadrant. In the left lower quadrant, we have the sigmoid colon, and left part of the female sexual organs. In the right lower quadrant we can see the right side of the female sexual organs as well as a section of the ascending colon. These quadrants are important because they signify the location of the body's vital organs, make diagnoses and documentation accurate, and help us to allow the patient to communicate such things as pain or discomfort.


"Anatomical Position," (n.d). Retrieved online:

Zapawa, J.E. & Alcantra, A.L. (n.d.). Radiologic anatomy. Retrieved online:… [read more]

Application Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Research Paper

… Disorders of the Veins and Arteries

Chronic venous insufficiency and the deep venous thrombosis fall within the most common medical issues that the adult population is vulnerable to. These disorders have very common symptoms but mostly those symptoms are mistakenly diagnosed for a different medical problem. Earlier these disorders were thought to be of a simple nature but recent researches have shown that the cellular and molecular aspects of these disorders show 'complex multifactorial processes are reflecting both systemic abnormalities of connective tissue synthesis and cellular inflammatory reaction.' (Chieh-Min Fan, 2005).

Pathaphysiology of CVI and DVT

It is believed that the chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the veins occurs primarily because of the weakness of the vein walls. A regular normal vein includes compliance providing elastic fibers, strength providing collagen matrix, and three layers of smooth muscle that aid in controlling the tone of the vein. In most cases it is understood that the muscle layers' distortion and disruption leads to the proliferation of the collagen matrix. The more the infected area, the more are the disrupted muscle layers, leaving the collagen matrix and the elastic layers vulnerable. As a result of this alteration, the veins lose contractility and result in vessel dilation whilst responding to the hypertension in the veins.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the clotting of blood in the veins. The parts mostly affected are the thigh and the calf veins in the popliteal vein, iliofemoral vein, and the femoral vein. However, DVT can also occur in arms. The occurrence of DVT in the veins is primarily due to a tissue factor. This factor resultantly converts prothrombin into thrombin, which consequently is followed by the deposition of fibrin. The fibrin and the red blood cells combined, deposit themselves on the endothelium, a wall lining of the blood vessels whose purpose itself is to stop blood clotting (Lopez JA, 2009). This deposition mostly initiates in the valves of the vein. The blood pattern flow in the veins cause the oxygen concentration levels in the blood to fall. Thus, the blood clot begins to grow inside the veins, causing DVT.

Difference between venous and arterial thrombosis

A thrombosis can be understood as a blood clot that occurs in the blood vessels. As identified, venous thrombosis occurs in the veins and is mostly commonly found in the calf and the thigh veins. Arterial thrombosis, however, is the…… [read more]

Cardiovascular System Allows Humans Term Paper

… Because Scientific American is meant for average readers, the article does not contain any difficult-to-understand words, nor does it encompass a complete explanation of how the physiology of the cardiovascular system works. Instead, the information is easy to understand and is explained enough to grasp onto the main ideas. Details are scarce and the names of all the scientists involved in the projects have been omitted. The secondary source is also presented in a more opinionated format. There are quotes from reactions of the individuals who are both involved and/or excited about the scientific findings. The pictures shown are also very vague and are presented as aesthetic appeal instead of for informative purposes.

Unlike Scientific American that presents information in a more common language format, the academic journal Nature does not do the same. Instead, their target audience is a more educated one. Therefore, the words and terms used throughout the article are more technical and complicated. The research article goes into the exact details of who, what, when, where, and how the research information was conducted and attained. The article also explains the physiological aspects of heart regeneration that was not even mentioned in Scientific American (2012). The layout is much less appealing and is more preoccupied with the presentation of the information than whether it will look appealing enough to catch people's attention. The images in the primary source are actual images of the research project. Graphs, tables, and microscopic images are presented as proof that their experiments truly showed what they are claiming it did. Most importantly, the primary source is intended to provide information to those who will know what to look for. An average person would not be able to grasp onto the rich content in the journal article because they lack in educational background to do so. However, anyone will be able to pick up Scientific American (2012) and understand the study's purpose and conclusion.


Smith, K. (2012) Heart Cells Can Be Coaxed to Regenerate at Low Rates. Scientific American.

Eulalio, A., Mano, M., Dal Ferro, M., Zentilin, L., Sinagra, G.,Zacchigna, S., & Giacca, M. (2012). Functional…… [read more]

Tennis the Number of Movements Essay

… The knee is extended at the knee joint by using the quadriceps femora's muscle. After that, there is rotation of the shoulder laterally and would reach where the ball is coming from. The player will make use of both the external and internal oblique. The movement of the joint would be abduction followed by rotation.


After the arm has been abducted and contact with the ball has been made, the arm would be swung on the shoulder joint. There would be adduction of the body along with somewhat extension on the elbow joint. The shoulder joint would rotate medially as well. In this act, the main sets of muscles that come in action include the lattismus, pectorialis, triceps, deltoid and the bicep muscles.

In general, the one hand backstroke movement makes use of the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee and wrist joint. The hip joint comes in play when the play goes back and forth and makes stepping motions. While this joint comes into play, there is movement done by the gluteus and the muscles of the thigh and legs. The knee joint is made is used to carry out flexion and extension. These joints and movements on the knee joint are carried out when the person is merely running in the court.


Bahamonde, R. (1992). - information and education for coaches - Producing an 'Explosive' Forehand & Backhand. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 31 Jan 2013].

Giangarra, C.E., Conroy, B. Jobe, F.W., et al. (1993). Electromyographic and cinematographic analysis of elbow function in tennis players using a single and double-handed backhand strokes. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 21(3),394-399.

Groppel, J. (1992). High tech tennis. Champaign, IL: Leisure Press

Hay, J. (1993). The biomechanics of sports techniques. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

Morris, M., Jobe, F., Perry. J, et al. (1989). Electromyography analysis of elbow function in tennis players. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 17(2), 241-247.

Snell, R. (2008). Clinical Anatomy by Regions. 8th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lipincott Williams & Wilkins.… [read more]

Muscles Involved in the Backhand Essay

… The back side of the fore arm contracts near the biceps while the elbow moves in a reverse movement from that of the forehand. A well orchestrated back hand stroke is a combination of external rotation of a bent arm and horizontal rotation. The elbow is tucked against the player's side then the arm is bent at the elbow as the player holds the forearm away from their body at waist level. The forearm is supposed to be at a right angle with the biceps while the hand needs to be positioned in front of the elbow. The elbow is then kept firm and the forearm together with the hand moves to the left making an arc shape.

The Origins, Stage and Insertions of Each Muscles Involved

Action Shot




(Two Handed)

Push Off





Truck Rotation



Spinal Erectors

Swing (Non Dominant Side)


Anterior Deltoid

Internal Shoulder Rotators

Swing (Dominant Side)

Posterior & Middle Deltoids

Middle Trapezius


External Shoulder Rotators


Serratus Anterior



Push Off





Truck Rotation



Spinal Erectors


Posterior & Middle Deltoids

Middle Trapezius


External Shoulder Rotators


Serratus Anterior

The muscles of the legs that play a distinct part in the action should also be included.

The first part of the investigation should be to define the action, and what each of the body parts is doing at each point in time.… [read more]

Biology of the Mind: The Endocrine System Term Paper

… ¶ … Biology of the Mind: The Endocrine System

The biology of the mind is complex, with several different systems impacting how the mind functions. One of those systems is the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of hormone-producing and secreting glands. Hormones are "chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs (Reiser and Kemp, p.1). Hormones are responsible for controlling a number of the body's activities, including growth, sexual development, sexual function, and reproduction. The glands release hormones into the bloodstream, where the hormones then interact with one or more organs to impact body functioning.

I chose the endocrine system because I believe it is one of the more overlooked systems in the body. Given that hormones have such a significant impact on so many bodily functions; it seems as if their importance is often overlooked. Even after studying the endocrine system, I still did not truly understand how important it was to overall body functioning, including psychological functioning, until reading a friend's Facebook post the other night. This friend, an older woman in her late 30s, had experienced significant mental health issues from around the time that she hit puberty. She was diagnosed bipolar while she was in her late teens and had been on medication to stabilize her moods since that time. However, she had not had any significant symptom reduction from the medication. In addition to her mental health issues, she also had reproductive health issues, including polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, and other menstrual disorders. She was able to conceive but her daughter was born premature and, after the birth of her doctor, she suffered a pretty significant case of post-partum depression. While it did not reach the level of an official post-partum psychosis diagnosis, it was well outside of the range of normal "baby blues." She reported that the more medical professionals she saw for her various issues, the more they dismissed her complaints as part of her mental illness. Not until her early 30s did she find a doctor who sat down and listened to all of her symptoms and decided to test her thyroid. They found that her thyroid hormones were well-below average. After adjusting her thyroid, they discovered that she had been misdiagnosed as bipolar and took her off of the bipolar medication. Currently, she is on medication for depression and synthetic thyroid hormone and reports that she is functioning much better than she ever has in her life. Reading her story, and the comments to her post by her friends in an online thyroid support group, while trying to decide on a topic for this paper made me realize that I needed to write about the endocrine system. Who knows how many people out there have been wrongly diagnosed with mental disorders when the cause is hormonal? Perhaps more importantly, how many people are needlessly suffering when relief may be easily attainable?

Many people think of hormones in a strictly sexual sense, without… [read more]

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