"Anatomy / Physiology" Essays

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History of Radiology Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


History Of Radiology

The field of radiology has drastically changed since the discovery of x-rays. Today radiology is not just limited as a diagnostics tool but interventional radiology is the forefront treatment for many serious diseases. Today's radiologists are not relegated to diagnostic roles but are actively involved in caregiving.

Radiology has evolved a long way since the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm roentgen back in 1895. Today, the field of radiology is a comprehensive medical specialty which is not just limited to diagnostic imaging using x-rays, ultrasound, MRI, etc., but also constitutes interventional treatment methods such as angiography, angioplasty, radio frequency ablation, embolization etc. Particularly, in the treatment of vascular diseases and cancer, interventional radiology has become an effective and minimally invasive therapeutic approach. A brief history would help us get better insight into the timeline and the developments of new and important diagnostic and therapeutic tools in the field of radiology.

X-rays and Fluoroscopy

Wilhelm roentgen, the German physicist, discovered x-rays in 1895 creating what would be a revolution in medicine. Highly recognized for his achievement, the scientist was duly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1905 for his startling discovery, which was to be the precursor to modern medical diagnostic tools. It took not much time to understand the usefulness and the applications of x-rays to medical and other scientific domains. X-ray was one of the very first non-invasive tools that allowed a physician to look inside the human body without opening it. Soon after this discovery of x-rays followed the development of fluoroscopes and Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the designer of the first commercial fluoroscope using calcium tungstate as the florescent material. In 1896 it is reported that Edison and his workers had to screen more than 1800 chemical substances before arriving at calcium tungstate as the ideal material. [Otto Glassner, pg.236] in 1913, the Coolidge hot cathode tube became a standard x-ray vacuum tube with improvements over the original Crookes tube. Radiographic films appeared in 1918 replacing the previously used glass medium. However, the early radiologists were exposed to dangerous overdoses and many fatalities occurred due to occupational radiation. Only much later in the 1950's, with the development of x-ray image intensifiers and television camera did fluoroscopists find it safer as they could observe the images from a different room without the risk of exposure. [Christensen, pg. 166]

CT Scanners Ultrasound and MRI

Next major development in radiology was the invention of the CT Scanner by the British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield in the year 1972. The CT scanner employs x-rays to generate images from multiple angles and then uses the computer to produce a cross sectional image which greatly improves the diagnostics. Modern whole body CT scanners are faster, use low radiation and produce high resolution cross sectional images. The 1980's saw yet another revolution in medical diagnostics with the invention of the MRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as opposed to CT scans does not use x-rays but magnetism. [Peterborough and Stamford Hospitals NHS Foundation… [read more]

Human Brain Is a Unique Creation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,378 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Human brain is a unique creation - it is wonderfully made to enable us to think, plan, move, see, speak, hear, taste, smell and imagine. It is the central organ of sensation, thought and the true seat of intelligence. The brain is responsible for the major functions of the body in order to survive. It is the one in charged of controlling the body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and breathing. The human brain accepts and processes information through our senses - seeing, smelling, hearing, touching, and tasting. Even our capacity to handle physical motion when we do our daily activities is controlled by our brain. It dictates the parameter the way we talk, walk, sit, run, and perform other locomotors. It also has coordinating and regulating functions that allow us to use our logic, provide reasoning, experience emotions, and even to dream.

Specifically, the functions of the human brain include the Limbic System, Sensory System (Visual System, Olfactory System, Gustatory System, Auditory System, and Somatosensory System), Motor System, and Associative System. According to the Discovery Channel, it is the "genes that dictate the basic structure of the brain's network" (September, 2007).

The average human brain weighs about three pounds. At birth, the human brain weighs less than a pound. Studies show that the human brain is composed of roughly around 100 billion neurons, which are linked to as many as 10,000 other neurons. The Neuroglia, which is also known as the "nerve glue," is a type of brain cells that "guide neurons during fetal development" (Enchanted Learning). As a child grows, the number of cell remains relatively stable, but the cells grow in size and the number of connections increases. The same thing with our capacity for learning - it is greatest when we are young, and as we grow older, it diminishes. The human brain reaches its full size at about 6 years of age.

The human brain, just like the brain of all animals, is composed of different parts such as the brain stem, cerebellum, hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and the cerebrum. These are further classified into major internal and major external parts. The major internal parts of the human brain are Cingulate Sulcus, Corpus Callosum, Diencephalon, Anterior Commissure, Temporal Lobe, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla, and Cerebellum. On the other hand, the major external parts of the human brain are Frontal Lobe, Pareital Lobe, temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Brain Stem, and Cerebellum.

Of the many complex functions of the human brain that we have mentioned above, have you ever imagine, how our brain looks like? A fresh, living human brain is actually very soft, jelly-like and deep red. It does not become firm and grey until it has been preserved with various chemicals. It is about the size of a small head of cauliflower. The human brain takes up 1% of the body weight. Almost 20% of the oxygen in the body and 20% of the blood flow is consumed by our brain. It begins to die in… [read more]

Cardiovascular System Functions Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,784 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Cardiovascular System

Functions of the Cardiovascular System

Food substances, transported by the blood, include: amino acids, fatty acids, mineral salts and vitamins from a person's intestines to the cells of his/her body.

Waste substances, transported by the blood, for produced by cells during their normal metabolism. The primary ones include carbon dioxide, water and urea. The blood transports these waste… [read more]

Elements and Buffer Systems Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,495 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Buffer Systems in the Body

Understanding Buffer Systems in the Body

The body of an adult human consists approximately 60% water. Water within the body is divided into that which is contained within cellular walls and that which is located outside of the cellular walls. Water located inside of the cellular walls is referred to as intercellular fluid (ICF) and… [read more]

Ivan Pavlov in "Lecture Xxiii Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Ivan Pavlov

In "Lecture XXIII," Ivan Pavlov describes several experiments conducted on dogs, and how these could help to elucidate a variety of psychological conditions and their concomitant physiological symptoms. Firstly, Pavlov distinguishes between two conditions in dogs that produce pathological disturbance; these are the excitatory and the inhibitory processes. In comparing the results of his experiments to conditions found in human beings, Pavlov concludes that these processes are also responsible for nervous and psychic disturbances in human beings. Specifically, strong and weak stimuli were used to determine the reaction in dogs. These were varied according to the specific cortical constitution of the dogs.

Pavlov's experiments are useful in terms of the light they shed on human neurotic and psychological conditions. Indeed, his work set the precedent for future experiments to help humanity in its advances to understand various conditions not only of the human brain, but of the entire physiology. The link that Pavlov attempts to make between human and animal has paved the way for further experimentation such as those on primates.

Pavlov's choice of dogs for his hypothesis relating to the link between human and animal conditioning is interesting. Dogs are very simple psychological creatures as compared to human beings. The more logical choice for experimental animals would probably have been primates, as commonly accepted today. His reasoning regarding the human-animal link in terms of experimentation however does make sense. Furthermore his logical and consistent methodology appears to be scientifically sound.

Another issue that Pavlov raises is hypnotism, comparing the accepted form of animal hypnotism during the time of his writing with that of human beings. Once again, he draws interesting parallels between the effect of various stimuli between human beings and a relatively simple animal such as the dog. After a description of animal hypnotism with the help of repetitive movement,…… [read more]

Stem Cell Stems Cells Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,836 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Stem Cell

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because of their ability to replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell makes… [read more]

Acclimatization Ascending to Higher Altitudes Requires Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,766 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Ascending to higher altitudes requires the body to make several compensatory changes. This process is known as acclimatization, and it involves various physiological systems adapting to lower levels of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). There are acute responses to altitude changes that can be observed immediately, as well as more complex responses that can be observed among people experiencing… [read more]

MI: Myocardial Infarction Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Although the heart will retain a scar, many people go on to lead quite normal lives after recuperation. Try to take it easy, and rest assured that Paul will be taken care of to the best of our ability."

Question 3: When you analyzed his ECG, you referred to several different leads, such as lead I. What are leads?

Leads are the Electrodes that are typically attached to the chest, neck, arms, and legs to record the pathway of electrical impulses through the heart muscle. The results of this can tell us how the heart is functioning, and can also pinpoint specific problems.

Question 4: Why is it possible to record an ECG on the body surface without direct access to the heart?

Within the body, there is a natural electrical system. This causes the heart to pump at regular intervals to the various parts of the body. Because this is an electrical process, we can get the electrical "map" or picture of what is going on by measuring the way that electrical impulses are conducted through various parts of the body including the chest, arms and legs. Much as one can see if a car battery is working properly by measuring the voltage through the wires, the body can conduct electricity in a predictable way. The ECG allows us to get this information from the body surface and then allow physicians to interpret this information for possible abnormalities (WebMD, 2005).

Question 5: What effect would the injection of isotonic saline have on Paul's extracellular fluid volume? On his intracellular fluid volume? On his total body osmolarity?

Venous administration of isotonic saline would expand Paul's extracellular fluid volume. However, because it does not change extracellular sodium concentration, it does not change intracellular volume (Kohan, 2005). Thus, Paul's total body osmorality is unchanged.

When Paul arrived at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center emergency room, one of the first tasks was to determine he had actually had a heart attack. Paul's vital signs (pulse and breathing rates, blood pressure, temperature) were taken. A resident physician drew blood for enzyme assays to determine the level of cardiac enzymes in Paul's blood.

When heart muscle cells die, they release various enzymes that serve as markers of a heart attack. I addition, a second tube of blood was sent for an assay of its troponin I level.

Question 6: Some of the enzymes that are used as markers for heart attacks are… [read more]

Frog Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,497 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


If we have a look at the vertebral columns in frogs, the first bone is the atlas. This is the only cervical bone we will see in a frog, as the next seven are abdominal and there two additional lower vertebrae

. One of the characteristics of the atlas bone, as a cervical bone, is the fact that it has… [read more]

Homeostasis: An Analysis of Energy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,177 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Homeostasis: An Analysis of Energy Homeostasis in the Body

The ability of the human body to maintain a homeostatic state at any point in time depends on a number of factors. Homeostasis generally refers to the ability of an organism, including a human to maintain a certain state of equilibrium. This is achieved through minute physiological processes that occur on a day-to-day basis (Cone, 2001). There are some studies which suggest that energy is stored in the body as a mechanism for adjusting or re-establishing a state of homeostasis in the body, which may or may not be a predetermined state based on genetics and other individual factors (Schwartz, Woods, Seeley, Barsh, Baskin & Leibel, 2003). The subject of energy homeostasis with regard to human physiology is discussed in greater detail below.

Literature Review: Energy Homeostasis

Energy homeostasis can be defined as the state of equilibrium where the body is not only producing an adequate level of energy to function, but where the metabolism is working synergistically with the rest of the body to burn and store nutrients as needed (Cone, 2001). This is an ongoing process that occurs as human beings feed and hydrate themselves day in and out. Energy homeostasis is affected by a number of factors, including how much exercise and how much sleep one gets during the course of a given day (Cone, 2001). If for example a person sleeps excessively, in theory they will disrupt the natural state of equilibrium in the body, potentially causing even more sleepiness (contrary to what one might think, that an individual might feel more rested).

Cone (2001) cites physiological experiments conducted that show that energy stored in fat tissue is actually "homeostatically controlled by the hypothalamus" and notes that the brain adjusts for excess fat and attempts to establish homeostasis in the body by adjusting metabolism and hunger, which in theory will drive someone back to a preset weight (p. 565). Using the same theory one can conclude that the body will make adjustments when someone loses too much weight in order to re-establish a homeostatically comfortable state. That state at which someone is physiologically in homeostasis seems to be at least in some respects genetically controlled (Cone, 2001). There is research being conducted to determine whether or not one can alter the state in which the body is predisposed to 'maintain' (Schwartz, Woods, Seeley, Barsh, Baskin & Leibel, 2003).

In a similar study conducted by Schwartz, Woods, Seeley, Barsh, Baskin & Leibel (2003) the idea that energy homeostasis is "inherently biased toward weight gain" is explored. The researchers attempt to describe a model of energy homeostasis that explains neural pathways utilized to control energy balance. The authors suggest that individuals who lose weight will constantly have to attempt to maintain their weight loss over time, as the body sees losing weight in some situations as an attempt to disrupt the natural homeostasis of the body. This is particularly true of individuals whose weight loss results in a weight… [read more]

Cell Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Brain Cells

Distinguish between the following cell types: NEURON, OLIGODENDROCYTE and ASTROCYTE.

The brain has a number of different cells present within its composition responsible for different functions. If we were to distinguish between cells found in the brain the following characteristics would have to be studied.

NEURON: Neurons are cells that act as messengers receiving electro-chemical signals from the neuro system and conduct them to the brain. There can be various types of neurons depending on their length which can vary from 4 microns (.004 mm) to 100 microns (.1 mm) in diameter. Their length can be from a millimeter to several feet long. The neuron when viewed can be seen to contain a cell body with receivers in the form of branches called dendrites [similar to tentacles in shape]. Then there is a projection called an axon that conducts the actual nerve signal at the end of which the axon terminal transmits it along a gap within the cell called the synapse. [Enchanted Learning.com, 2005] Thus, to identify these cells the researcher would have to ensure the presence of an axon and dendrites.

OLIGODENDROCYTE: These…… [read more]

Characteristic of Human Body Decomposition Over Time in Various Settings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Human Body Decomposition Over Time in Various Settings

Characteristics of Human Body Decomposition Over Time in Various Settings

The branch of science that investigates the decomposition process of the human body is known as Taphonomy, which encompasses the study of phenomena such as biostratinomy, decomposition, diagenesis, and epibiont encrustation. (Decomposition: Wilipedia) A definition of the term 'decomposition' describes… [read more]

Muscular System Function of Action Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,821 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


They are arranged spatially into sarcomeres. Thin filaments run between and parallel to the thick filaments within the A band. It is this placement that allows for the sliding filament model.

18. Location of active sites? Location of ATPase?

ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free… [read more]

Positron Emission Tomography (Pet) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,676 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


How Positron Emission Tomography Works.

The detection of the annihilation of radiation by the radiation detectors used in PET is the basis of the operation. Such detectors operate on the principle of "coincidence detection"; here, the external detection and localization of a positron emitter inside the brain takes advantage of the fact that the two annihilation photons travel in opposite… [read more]

Massage Therapy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (706 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Massage Therapy

This report aims to describe how massage can be used to affect changes in the Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindle cells. It has taken mankind many thousands of years to get a true grasp of the human body's complexities and not surprisingly, science has still not completely unraveled all of the body's inert mysteries. However, we humans are getting closer to understand the intricate functions of our bodies. For example, one modern discovery has helped us make vast strides in the study of anatomy. The relationship between the Peripheral Nervous System which consists of the cranial and spinal nerves and the Central Nervous System which consists of the brain and spinal chord have been discovered to be the body's mechanism for maintaining musculoskeletal integrity by utilizing sensory and motor neurons. Massage has been used as a therapeutic technique by physical therapists for many years but, until recently, there has been little scientific proof that the effect of massage is actually a form of muscle relaxation or stimulation. Thus, recent research has suggested that certain types of massage can inhibit the activity of a muscle's spinal motor neurons.

Massage therapists should be aware that certain techniques for stretching muscles like kneading may cause activity in the massaged muscle. The Golgi tendon organs are a proprioceptive sensory nerve endings embedded among the fibers of a tendon and muscles. The Golgi tendon organs become activated when a tendon is contracted through muscle manipulation. "Stimulus for Golgi tendon organs is mechanical deformation generally in the form of a muscle contraction originally thought to be high threshold receptors very sensitive to actively generated muscle force." (HHP, 2004) In other words, if a massage therapist was to change the length of the muscle through manipulation, that action would increase tension on the muscle because the Golgi tendon organs would become active. Golgi tendon organs therefore are receptors that in part prevent excessive stress to joints by acting as reflex inhibitors.

Like the Golgi tendon organs, muscle spindle cells are sensory organs where proprioceptive neuron fibers terminate in muscles and therefore are the body's way of delivering…… [read more]

Body and the Function Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Take for example the homeostatic function of maintaining pH. This is also referred to as the acid- base function and has the obvious role of keeping a certain proportion of acid and base within our bodies. If, for example, a too high concentration of acid is present in the body, this may be damaged (as is the case, for example, of a high concentration of acid in the stomach, which leads to ulcer).

Other homeostatic functions are body temperature, blood pressure and sugar levels. I have already mentioned and briefly described the body temperature function. The two latter follow the same principle. Let's take blood pressure. A high blood pressure can lead to vascular accidents, while a reduced blood pressure may mean that some areas of the body are not well irrigated. The optimal parameters must be reached for the body to function efficiently.

We have to imagine that homeostasis and the homeostatic functions are among the most complex functions our body performs. Indeed, it means not only noticing when some of the parameters are not respected, but also reacting accordingly and correcting the deviations.


1. The excretory system. On the Internet at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEXCRET.html

2. Nakineshny, Steve. Introduction to Physiology 1: Levels of Organization. 2004. On the Internet at http://www.eblaforum.org/library/biology/intphysio01.html

3. http://www.courseworkbank.co.uk/coursework/explain_is_meant_by_term_homeostasis_2472/

Nakineshny, Steve. Introduction to Physiology 1: Levels of Organization. 2004. On the Internet at http://www.eblaforum.org/library/biology/intphysio01.html

The excretory system. On the Internet at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEXCRET.html… [read more]

Computed Tomography, More Commonly Know Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,585 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The technologist is also able to see and hear the patient, and if necessary will communicate with the patient over an intercom.

Several computers are used to control the entire CaT system (Imaginis.com, 2004). The main computer that oversees the operation of the entire system is called the "host computer." There is also a dedicated computer that reconstructs the "raw… [read more]

Analyzing the Rheumatoid Arthritis Issue Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (713 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Rheumatoid Arthritis

The most widely occurring autoimmune inflammatory form of arthritis among adults is rheumatoid arthritis. It significantly affects the ability of performance of everyday activities, including domestic and work tasks, and HR-QOL (health-related quality of life), as well as increases mortality risks (Singh et al., 2016; Clements, 2011). The condition is progressive, chronic, and autoimmune in nature, and linked to systemic, articular, and extra-articular effects. Rheumatoid arthritis reportedly impacts 0.51% of developed countries' adult populations. While some patients suffer from minor self-limited illness, a number of patients undergo joint destruction, multiple co-morbidities, and serious physical disability. Mortality rates more than double among rheumatoid-arthritic patients, as compared to general population; this gap seems to be broadening. This review aims at summarizing rheumatoid arthritis' complex pathobiology as presently understood, emphasizing the impacts of major systemic- as well as articular- level immune modulators (Choy, 2012).


While the precise cause of rheumatoid arthritis is still unknown, latest findings indicate that a genetic base exists for development of the disease. Over 80% of rheumatoid arthritis patients carry HLA-DRB1*04 cluster epitope, and those who possess two alleles of HLA-DRB1*04 are at greater risk of contracting nodular disease, undergoing joint destruction-related surgery, and involvement of major organ. Rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology involves numerous immune modulators (effector cells and cytokines) and signaling pathways. Immune modulators' complex interaction is what causes joint damage, starting from the synovial membrane. Aside from joint symptoms, a number of patients experience systemic or extra-articular symptoms, or both. The greatest contributor to damage of cartilage among people with rheumatoid arthritis is hyperplastic synovium (Choy, 2012).

Greater understanding of rheumatoid arthritis pathobiology has resulted in the creation of biological agents, which target multiple immune mediators that involve themselves in the illness process. But while biological agents show promise, they do possess some limitations. For instance, pathophysiological response hierarchy is not clear. As multiple immune mediators are known to work together during disease process, what must be the first target -- a cytokine, B cells, or T cells is the question that arises (Choy, 2012; Burmester, Feist & Dorner, 2014).


Analyses across genomes make it evident that the…… [read more]

Importance of Movement Knowledge and Its Link to Culture Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,182 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Kinetic Dynamics or Vitality

Related Quotation/s and page numbers

"Bringing out the somatic, or felt, dimensions of movement opens the way for an examination ofkinetic vitality as an overlooked aspect of embodied knowledge." (page 85)

"Basing my discussion on the potential for movement knowledge inherent in embodiment, I find that cultural patterns of kinetic vitality emerge as the "ghost," to borrow Lesley Stern's tenn, in all gesture." (page 85)

"Critically, I am suggesting that a concept of gesture requires not only association with movement's kinetic qualities of vitality but also an accounting of the way the sensations of kinetic vitality are socially structured, transformed, and mediated." (page 103)

Summary of Concept/Idea

Kinetic dynamics, or kinetic vitality in particular, as something that influences the shapes of human movement has not received the attention it deserves as a form of knowledge and a philosophy in itself (Sklar, 2008). Every individual's natural tendency to express a thought or feeling possesses vital qualities, which represent his distinct cultural way of expressing such a thought or feeling. This expression is commonly perceived as gesture. Mark Johnson suggested that gesture relates closely with human movement. The link extends to what seems un-expressed or hidden but which is nonetheless alive and vital although subdued or suppressed. One can interpret such hidden but vital thought or feeling as a ghost, as it remains implicit or suggested (Sklar).

But whether gesture is verbalized or mechanically exhibited, whether it is socially pronounced in bodily but unconscious form, or eventually yields its meaning after undergoing transformations, gesture remains vital and a dependable and meaningful representation of one's culture (Sklar, 2008). The seeming lack of movement, or stillness, in itself possesses the qualities of vitality. The way one sits or stands quietly or simply poses still delivers a message, which is essentially reveals the person's culture, his perceptions and what he feels, thinks and what he is (Sklar).

4. Interpretation

Sklar (2008, 1991) explores and delineates the realm of kinesthesia, which refers to the sensation or strain or movement of muscles, tendons or joints. He refines his focus on kinetic vitality and deplores the lack of attention and interest in it. He points to the wealth of meaning in this field. Everything a person does always carries a message, consciously or unconsciously expressed. Bodily movements are not merely biological executions intended to accomplish a purpose, no matter how basic or brief. People of different cultures perform even the most fundamental or briefest movements differently. This is why it is important to know and understand as much as we can about what bodily movements (Sklar)

Sklar (2008, 1991) elucidates his point on gesture as intimately connected to human movement. A serious study of culture will not pass off the insinuations of gesture. It is not a mere reflex. In its most basic form, a gesture reveals something about how the person feels or thinks about what he does at the moment. He goes as far as stating that even non-motion or… [read more]

Ways That Joints Within the Skeleton Operate Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,857 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Human skeleton is an integral part of the human body. It acts as the frame just like the beams and supports of a house keep the house together. It also provides the structure for veins and muscles, just like the stake of a tomato plant provides the structure for the plant to climb up. However, just as a house can… [read more]

Medicine: Sports Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (662 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Knee Hyperextension on a Dancer's Posture, Alignment, and Technique

Maintaining a good posture is key for any dancer who wishes to display beautiful dance movements. Often times, people use the terms 'posture' and 'alignment' interchangeably. However, alignment is more than just posture. It is how the axes of the various bones line up against the rest of the body. Maintaining a good posture will almost certainly mean having the correct alignment, and hence, being able to move freely, with a lower risk of injury. Basically, when the bones line up properly, shear stress is maintained on the ligaments and the body is able to keep its balance without putting undue pressure on the outer parts of the joint and the shoulder. The port de bras and arms are able to move freely, allowing the dancer to execute aesthetically pleasing lines, especially in arabesque. Moreover, the dancer is able to dance for longer periods because they can breathe easily as with minimal pressure on the shoulders and the diaphragm; and the lungs are able have more room for expansion and contraction. Proper alignment is achieved when the spine is aligned in such a way that the back is straight, the natural curve at the base is maintained, and the knees, hipbones, and shoulders are all in line.

Evidently, alignment is crucial for good dancing; however, there are a number of errors that inhibit one's ability to instill proper posture and alignment. One of these errors is hyper extending the knee. Hyper-extension is the process by which the knee curves behind the calf and thigh muscles extend beyond what is considered "the natural range of motion" (Chuckrow). Whereas some dancers are born with a naturally hyper-extended knee (referred to as genu-recurvatum in medicine), some develop it within the course of their dancing career (McCormack 5). Dance groups will often prefer dancers with hyper-extended knees not only because these make the lines look nicer, but also because they are thought to have…… [read more]

Fundamentals of Psychology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (656 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Adults pass traits down to their children from one generation to another through transmitting genes. Genes however do not provide an accurate direction on how a child will behave but rather map up the potential outcomes. Genes direct the occurrence of some inherited physical characteristics such as hair color, height and so on. However there are some behaviors which can be inherited such as anxiety, depression, smoking, and intelligence and so on. The inheritance of these genes which produce these behavior tendencies does not guarantee that these behaviors will actually occur in an individual. These genes affect the development of the nervous and endocrine system and how they operate which in turn influences the likelihood of the occurrence of a certain behavior under certain circumstances (Powell, 2014).

An individual's behavior is determined by the environment and the social influences of the environment which they live in. An individual that lives around a violent environment will end up developing violent behaviors. This is because they learn from what is around them and hence their behavior is determined by what they see around them each day (Powell, 2014).

I believe that nurture provides a stronger behavior on an individual than nature. This is because what is around an individual greatly impacts how they end up being. This is because the environment has a strong impact on people and people to go by what is the norm within the environment. People are easily influenced by peers and one can move from being a simple quiet individual to a talkative person due to the fact that the people he or she lives around are also talkative.


Farr, G. (2002). The Nervous System - Advanced Version / What is the Nervous System?. Become healthy now. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from http://www.becomehealthynow.com/article/bodynervousadvanced/826

Powell, K. (2014). Nature vs. Nurture . about parenting. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from http://genealogy.about.com/cs/geneticgenealogy/a/nature_nurture.htm… [read more]

How Skeletal and Muscular Systems Work Together Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Notably, the blood needs calcium so that the nervous system can send signals, for blood to clot, and for contraction of muscles for movement. In essence, the muscles in the body link with the nervous system and permit initiation of movement through nerve signals that are sent to and from the brain. Notably, the skeletal muscles are connected to the bones and work with the connective tissue in various joints in the body to enable body movements. The connective tissue plays a crucial role in structural support for the body.

Given that the skeletal systems and the muscular systems support each other and are inter-linked, an injury to either of the systems has an instant impact on the other. Moreover, an imbalance or weakness in any component of each of the systems not only produces a strain or injury to the connective tissue but can also result in damages to the bone. Such direct damages to the bone affect body movements and sustenance of life because of their impact on the effective functioning of the skeletal and muscular systems. Similarly, torn or strained muscles can contribute to imbalances within or weaknesses on the muscle and eventually exert additional strain on the connective tissue in attempt to compensate for the problem. The resultant torn or strained connective tissue can in turn cause imbalances in the muscle and cause significant changes in the joint structure, which is likely to lead to arthritis.

Skeletal and muscular systems are essentially important and crucial body parts or systems that perform basic functions to enable body movements. These systems are intertwined and part of the complex network of symbiotic systems of the human body. Generally, these systems work together as the body's framework as well as for providing structural support that enables movement and sustain life.


Turley, S.M. (2011). Medical language (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education


Washington, B. (2010, September 26). How the Skeletal and Muscular Systems Work Together.

Retrieved June…… [read more]

Major Organ Systems: Pituitary Gland Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (592 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Uterus and breasts

Stimulates contraction of the uterus to assist in childbirth, and increases prostaglandin production, which heighten contractions further; stimulates breasts to produce milk during nursing, and regulates the flow of the produced milk.

Referred to as the 'love hormone' because of its chemical messenger role in promoting human behaviors, including mother-infant bonding, anxiety, trust, recognition, and sexual arousal.

(Source: Turley, 2011; Davies 2007)


Davies, J. (2007). Essentials of Medical Terminology (3rd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.

Turley, S. (2011). Medical Language: Immerse Yourself (2nd ed.).…… [read more]

Stressed Memories (APA Citation) Journal

Journal  |  2 pages (599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This happens through a number of physiological processes beginning with the dilation of the pupils; allowing for an abundance of information to be sent to the brain for processing. However, this information overload is then filtered through the ventral visual stream eliminating irrelevant information. Through modifications of the hippocampus region of the brain the remaining information is processed and remembered. In other words, increases in stress levels cause a hyper-vigilant state in which an excess of information is obtained. This information is then filtered through a number of processes in the brain and eventually only the relevant information is remembered.

The researchers sought to discover the means by which people remember better during stressful conditions. Subjects for the test were exposed to both neutral and stressful states and shown a number of pictures. A day later they were asked to remember the pictures and it was discovered that they remembered better the ones they were shown during the stressful times. During the test their brains were scanned by a fMRI, which detailed the activity in the different areas of the brain and from this information they were able to draw conclusions as to the physiological affects of stress on memory. They discovered that stress caused a state of hyper-vigilance in the sensory processing of the brain, as well as an increase in the filtering processes. In the end the researchers assert that "this reduction of task irrelevant ambient noise, in combination with a stress-hormone-induced optimal state for neural plasticity may explain why stressful events attain a privileged position in memory." (Henckens, p.10117)


Henchens, Marloes, et al. (2009). "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects

Memory Formation in Humans." Journal of Neuroscience 29(32), 10111-10119.…… [read more]

Miguel Nicolelis a Monkey Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


With these methods, it has been found that it takes about half a second for a command from the brain to result in the movement of limbs.

As an example of the applications of such research is a Monkey called Aurora, who has been taught to play computer games with a joystick.

Ten years ago, she was also taught to control a robotic arm to play the same game just using her thought processes.

Aurora could also move a robot on the other side of the planet with just her thought processes.

Later, this research was extended by means of a virtual avatar that primates could control with their thinking. This included sensory information transmitted back to the brain by touch.

The implications of the research are highly important in terms of research to help people with neurological damage move again.


In applying the video to the course, I think the most important idea in this video is the one that Miguel Nicolelis ends with: Nothing is impossible. He points out that, before great technological advances are made, there are always those who consider the particular advance as "impossible." He names the moon landing as one of these cases. Controlling robotic limbs with one's mind was also considered impossible at its first proposal when researching all the things Aurora could do with her mind. In business and in life it is important to recognize that the impossible is simply a "possible" to which sufficient energy and thought must yet be applied.

For me personally, I will make what Mr. Nicolelis said about the impossible my personal mantra. It is only by recognizing possibilities that one can advance and achieve success.… [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Artificial Brain the Brain Primarily Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (780 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Cognitive Psychology

Artificial brain

The brain primarily consists of three major parts; the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain. Each of these parts have specialized functions as well as characteristics that enable them to perform the specialized functions. As a surgeon given the grants to design an artificial brain, there are various functions that I will ensure are changed in each section and will be highlighted below after every discussion of the purpose and function of each of these parts of the brain.

The forebrain is also referred to as prosencephalon and is the largest part of the brain. This is further separated into the lower diencephalon and the upper telencephalon. It is in this section of the brain that most voluntary and involuntary motor control, the cognition, language as well as emotions are controlled. The forebrain being the most exposed on the head with most risks to physical trauma being from the front would be fitted with a protective cartilage that would further minimize the impact of such physical trauma from the front apart from the cranium.

The lower diencephalon is made up of parts like the pretectum, prethalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, thalamus and subthalamus making this section responsible for automatic nervous system that regulates temperature and sleep. It also deals with the control of hormones that regulate metabolism. It is also responsible for equilibrium, controlling eye movements and respiratory control. The function of hearing, salivating, chewing food, hearing are as well controlled here. As a surgeon, this part will be modified in order to restrain the production of the digestion hormone so that people would not fall hungry more often. The part that controls hearing would be made also to have a wider range of reception than is now since there are lower sounds that cannot be heard yet important to the human beings.

The upper telencephalon is made up of the cerebrum hence this is the most complex part of the central nervous system. It is here that personality is controlled, as well as the memory and cognitive ability of man. Reasoning, concentration and abstract thinking takes place here. The control of motor function takes place here too and defects in this part are what may result in Parkinson's disease as well as Huntington's disease. During the construction of the artificial brain, I will ensure that this part…… [read more]

Cultural Observation in Any Culture Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,013 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is illustrating how body enclosures are different based upon cultural / individual tastes, style and regional factors. (Katiyar, 2009) ("The Classification System of Dress," 2013) (Eicher, 2008)

Describe how the form or style of the dress practice or ensemble relates to the body underneath. Consider why the body has the shape it does; identify climactic, hereditary or nutritional forces at work. Are there special physical needs or considerations? Is the body a canvas or an armature for dress?

In general, the sari is designed to accentuate certain body types. The most notable include: ectomorphs, endomorphs and a combination. An ectomorph is someone who is thinner and has an athletic style of appearance. In this case, the sari is worn to illustrate the shoulder or possibly the mid section. This is used to identify climatic, hereditary and nutritional forces through demonstrating how this person is subject to more physical activities. They live in warmer and more tropical climate (such as: the South or Western parts of India). At the same time, they are receiving the right amounts of nutrition. This is taking into account these special needs and making the body into a canvas for the dress. (Katiyar, 2009) ("The Three Somatotypes," 2013) (Eicher, 2008)

An endomorph is when someone is naturally bigger and they will have a much larger body type. This does not necessarily mean that they are overweight. Instead, it is highlighting how they will have larger amounts of fat and muscle. When someone is wearing a sari, it is used to show that they are from a family with a hereditary history of being heavier, from more arid climates and having access to better forms of nutrition. In this case, the special needs and considerations are from having the clothing fit more loosely. This is designed to make the body an armature for the dress. (Katiyar, 2009) ("The Three Somatotypes," 2013) (Eicher, 2008)

The combination of body types is when someone can easily be able to gain or lose weight. In general, they will more than likely have larger amounts of body fat in their waist and hips. This is showing how these individuals can be from the Northern to Central parts of India. It is highlighting hereditary factors through illustrating that they may be from backgrounds where there are better nutritional needs. This is accomplished by having greater amounts of access to meats and other fatty foods. In this aspect, the body can be used as canvas or an armature. This is based upon the special physical needs, which can lead to the individual showing off more of their body. At the same time, they may have the sari fit loser around their waist. However, this will depend upon the size of the person. (Katiyar, 2009) ("The Three Somatotypes," 2013) (Eicher, 2008)


The Classification System of Dress. (2013).

The Three Somatotypes. (2013). University of Houston. Retrieved from: http://www.uh.edu/fitness/comm_educators/3_somatotypesNEW.htm

Eicher, J. (2008). The Visible Self:…… [read more]

Image Enhancement Techniques Research Shows Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When it is bright, it gives the picture a lot more contrast and also more details unlike the negative images where there is not much detail.

Many individuals like this technique because the brightness of a dark image can effortlessly be augmented by putting in a constant to gray value of the entire pixel. Research about this enhancement, shows that… [read more]

First Aid to Injuries Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (743 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


First Aid to Injuries

There are basic skills and knowledge relating to first aid that Aron Ralston used while he was trapped in the Blue John Canyon a Slot Canyon for 127 hours when a rock fell on his hand squeezing it against the wall of the canyon hence making it impossible to pull out.

One of the first aid skills that he used was to apply a makeshift tourniquet on his arm to constrict the blood vessels and control bleeding. He then snapped the two bones close to the wrist and used the utility knife he had to cut through the flesh and free himself. The tourniquet helped in controlling the excessive bleeding after cutting through the skin and muscles.

Though in shock, Aron knew that being strong and staying still was a precursor to slowing down the heartbeat rate hence reduction in the metabolism of the body and knew that for him to conserve maximum energy within him, he had to stay as still as possible particularly during the day when the heat wears out the energy in the body. He mostly tried to sit against the opposite wall and have maximum rest as could be possible.

Aron had to amputate his arm at last and this he kept as the last option and not a priority. This is an indication that in first aid, there are those options that are resorted into as a last measure and not as the first priority. This was after realizing that his arm had formed gangrene and was a potential cause for further infection to the upper part of the arms. The most significant aspect of the amputation of the arms that he did himself was the fact that he avoided open wounds that could result in bleeding and snapped the two bones first before he cut through the skin and the muscles.

While attempting to detach himself from the rock by amputating his arm at first, he suffered lacerations from the short blade knife though he never succeeded in doing so. The best he did was to stop the bleeding by applying pressure on the lacerations for long enough to stop the bleeding.

Once his arm was crushed by the rock,…… [read more]

Biology Explain How Enzymes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (752 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Typically, the Cori cycle involves anaerobic glycolysis and lactate releasing into the bloodstream and subsequently the liver. A person with mitochondrial disease may experience elevated lactic acid levels in the blood due to an inefficient or ineffective Cori cycle (United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation, n.d.).

B2. Explain where in the citric acid cycle a hypothetical defect of an enzyme could occur that prevents an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in response to an increased energy need and how the products of the citric acid cycle are converted into ATP.

If an enzyme is defective in the sense that it prevents an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in spite of there being an increased need for energy in the body, then it would account for symptoms like muscular weakness and fatigue. The citric acid cycle is one of the most important metabolic cycles in the human body. During the citric acid cycle, most of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed for energy is produced ("Citric Acid Cycle Summary"). Converting products of the citric acid cycle, such as carbon compounds and fatty acids, into ATP, involves a complex process of metabolism. Also known as the Krebs cycle, the citric acid cycle is the most fundamental of food-related metabolism. All inputs to the body such as fats, protein, and carbohydrates, can be converted into ATP in the cells via electron transport. Oxidation is the cornerstone of the process by which the products of the citric acid cycle are converted into ATP. The point in the citric acid cycle in which a hypothetical defect of an enzyme, like those that cause mitochondrial disease, occurs would be glycogenesis.


Breakspear Medical Group (n.d.). Fructose metabolism -- acumen. Retrieved online: http://www.breakspearmedical.com/files/documents/fructosemetabolism230910_AM_.pdf

"Citric Acid Cycle Summary." Retrieved online: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/612citricsum.html

"Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and other Energy-Releasing Pathways," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect12.htm

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation (n.d.). What is mitochondrial disease? Retrieved online: http://www.umdf.org/site/c.8qKOJ0MvF7LUG/b.7934627/k.3711/What_is_Mitochondrial_Disease.htm… [read more]

Wakefulness and Sleep Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (854 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … evolution have enabled blind mole rats to synchronize their SCN activity to light, even though they cannot see well enough to make any use of the light?

The SCN is a way that mammals are able to synch light and visual images from the retina to the brain. However, most of the input to this path is not initiated from simple retinal receptors. This must mean that light and light intensity is not all that is being communicated, since there are a number of animals that are "blind" based on their environment and evolution. For instance, blind mole rats do not have eye muscles or a lens to focus and they have less than 1% of the number of optic nerves in other comparable species. It appears, though, that the reason blind animals can synchronize their SCN activity to light is because they need certain chemicals that are produced in their brains by the presence of light, even though they cannot see. These chemicals are necessary for the survival of the species; some even speculate that it protects the rats from cancer. Even if the rats do not receive direct light input, they can reset their circadian rhythms through changes in light intensity so they know the best time to be underground, to eat, avoid predation and survive. The ability to reset to an appropriate circadian rhythm is also helpful in protecting the species during seasonal changes (e.g. less light in winter, more in summer), and to trigger hormones for reproduction at the optimum time.

2. If you travel across several time zones to the east and want to use melatonin to help reset your circadian rhythm, at what time of day should you take it? What if you travel west?

Melatonin is hormone that is released by the pineal gland that influences the circadian and circandnural rhythms. Typically, the pineal gland secrets melatonin at night to make us feel tired. When we travel, we do not automatically reset our rhythms for a few days, until our body gets used to the new time zone and pattern of light and dark. It appears that melatonin secretion begins about 2-3 hours prior to sleep, thus people who want to use melatonin to reset their sleep/wake cycle should take a tablet about 2 hours before they wish to start their sleep cycle. The hormone resets the biological clock based on receptors in the SCN. If a person wants to fall asleep earlier, they should take a moderate dose of melatonin in the later afternoon. It does not…… [read more]

Jaguars, Cheetahs, and Other Great Cats Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (675 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … jaguars, cheetahs, and other great cats to have mostly slow-twitch, non-fatiguing muscles in their legs or mostly fast-twitch, quickly fatiguing muscles? What kinds of animals might have mostly the opposite kind of muscles?

One of the issues with evolution is that it favors behaviors and physiological changes that are conducive to survival of the species. If a mutation causes something negative, then there are fewer of that species to produce and over time, that mutation causes the need for another adaptation. In terms of muscle development, in mammals and humans there are fast-twitch fibers and slow twitch fibers. The fast-twice have fast contractions and tire quickly, but provide quick bursts of energy. Slow-Twitch fibers have fewer contractions and do not tire easily. Mammals rely on slow-twitch fibers for non-strenous activities, but for activities that are survival essential or require quickness, the fast-twitch muscles are used. Animals that do not need prolonged speed, but have protection like spines, skin poisons, or armor would not need to use fast-twitch muscles since their survival depends on other adaptations. Predators like the great cats would need mostly fast-twitch muscles to outrun and capture prey (Kalat, p. 234).

Part 2 -Human infants are at first limited to gross movements of the trunk, arms, and legs. The ability to move one finger at a time matures gradually over at least the first year. What hypothesis would you suggest about which brain areas controlling movement mature early and which areas mature later?

Human infants are quite dependent on parenting for a longer portion of their lives than many other mammals. Development of functions is likely controlled by need and what the infant must be able to do at different stages of their lives in order to survive. The first things infants need to do is to be able to feed, so their gross-motor functions would be tuned to that behavior. Then, they need to be able to track visual items, grasp objects, and learn balance so they can walk. Since the first…… [read more]

Doctor Determine Treatment Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,091 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


To help the doctor determine where the defect might have occurred:

1. Explain what would happen to the amount of energy available to a cell if the entire Cori cycle occurred and remained within that single cell (i.e., a muscle cell).

The Cori cycle refers to the metabolic pathway where lactate created by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles flows to the liver and is converted to glucose, which once again is absorbed by the muscles and is converted back to lactate.

The other half of the Cori cycle occurs where, instead of lactate produced by anaerobic fermentation massing UP inside the muscle cells, the lactate is transferred to the liver where gluconeogenesis occurs. Gluconeogenesis converts lactate into glucose (is supplied to the muscles through the bloodstream) by converting the glucose first into pyruvate. The Cori cycle needs multiple cells for its effectiveness. If it were limited / confined to one cell, the entire process would fail.

2. Construct a dynamic diagram to show the doctor why the citric acid cycle is central to aerobic metabolism.

Note: A dynamic diagram should be clearly labeled and include arrows to show movement and interactions.

The citric acid cycle is the first stage in metabolism which consists of removing high-energy electrons from carbon fuels (left). Those electrons then generate a steep proton high (middle), which creates adenosine triphosphate (ATP )(right). The two together (the entire process / synthesis) creates aerobic metabolism (Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002)).

3. Explain where in the citric acid cycle a hypothetical defect of an enzyme could occur that prevents an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in response to an increased energy need and how the products of the citric acid cycle are converted into ATP.

The citric acid cycle generates electrons from carbon fuels. ATP is created by the citric acid cycle extracting the electrons from the coenzyme CoA and using these electrons to create and synthesize NADH and FADH2.

electrons released in the reoxidation of NADH and FADH2 flow through a series of membrane proteins which then flow through the ATP pathway to produce ATP from ADP and from the non-organic phosphate. The hypothetical defect of the enzyme would come about in electrons released by NADH and FADH2.( Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002)

4. Explain the role of coenzyme Q10 in ATP synthesis as part of the electron transport chain.

Coenzyme Q. carries the electrons to the cytochrome bc1 pathway which also breaks down enzymes into fructose and energy via metabolism and generates 95% of the body's energy in the form of ATP. Since the molecule can exist in both a completely reduced and oxidized form, it can perform both functions simultaneously. (Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford)


Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002) Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: WH Freeman

Cross NC, de Franchis R, Sebastio G, et al. (1990). Molecular analysis of aldolase B. genes in hereditary fructose intolerance. Lancet 335 (8685): 306 -- 9

Huntington's Disease… [read more]

Atropine Pharmacokinetics and Pharmodynamics Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Atropine Pharmacokinetics

Atropine has many different uses for individuals, because of its great effect on the body. Although the direct effect and the length of time that it takes for atropine to function differs according to how the drug is administered, the basis is very similar. To begin, once the drug has been administered, its target is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. These receptors function by receiving acetylcholine in order for the parasympathetic system to function correctly. However, once atropine is in the body, it is a competitive antagonist for these muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). The antagonist is a molecule in atropine that inhibits the agonists' (in this case the agonist is acetylcholine) actions by preventing acetylcholine from binding to the active site and initiating the conformational change necessary for its targets to be initiated. After atropine binds to the receptor, it is reversibly bound, so it does not stabilize the conformational change on the receptor, so no activation actually occurs. Because of this, the receptors are occupied, but no action is taking place because acetylcholine cannot bind and cause the targeted action. This leads to a build-up of acetylcholine in the body system (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). After binding, atropine diffuses into the cell and eventually into the bloodstream. This most directly affects the vagus nerve which is the primary cranial nerve in charge of the parasympathetic system. Blocking the acetylcholine from binding, which is what atropine is essentially doing, will then promote a variety of effects on an individual's body that are the complete opposite of what the vagus nerve would have initially started. Atropine will vasodilate the blood vessels, increase the electroconductivity of the AV node, and as a result, do what it is supposed to: increase heart rate in individuals. The digestive system will also be slowed down as the main ingredient for the "rest and digest" process of the parasympathetic system will be missing (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). Without any acetylcholine receptors available…… [read more]

Prescription, Nonprescription and Herbal Medicines Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,992 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The effect of certain drugs on the enzymes in the liver must also be taken into consideration. Different sorts of drugs have a range of affects of the Cytochrome enzymes that exist in the liver. The drugs either induct or inhibit their performance these enzymes in the process of catalyzing other drugs. The effects of such activities are of particular… [read more]

Drug Action Pharmacokinetics Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,301 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Up to 80% of salicylic acid metabolized in the liver. Conjunction with glycine leads to the formation of Salicyl Uric acid and it forms a glucorinide with Glucoronic acid. Salicylic acid is mainly excreted by the kidneys as salicyluric acid but also as salicylic phenol (about 10%), free salicylic acid (also about 10%), and five percent as acyl glucuronides.

Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drug actions. There are four levels of drug action; molecular, cellular, tissue, and system. Molecular targets for drugs are commonly receptors, ion channels, enzymes, and transport carrier molecules. Hormone and neurotransmitter receptors are very important molecular targets for drug actions. These are very selective and often the drug actions are also selective. These actions can be: (1) agonists that bind do a hormone and neurotransmitter receptor can mimic the effects of endogenous ligands; (2) antagonists that bind to the receptor but do not mimic -- interfere with agonist binding (competitive, noncompetitive, reversible, and irreversible antagonism); (3) partial agonists bind with receptors only partially; and (4) inverse agonists which stop productive independent reactivity of the receptor.

Ion channels are proteins in the transmembrane. When these are open they allow selective passage of specific ions via a specific configuration of the channel. Ion channels occur in four different states: (1) rested (here the channel is closed but stimulation can open it); (2) activated (open); (3) inactivated (closed and stimulation will not open it); and (4) transitioned between states.

Enzymes are important for regulatory and metabolic pathways. There are great many enzymes in cells and the bodily fluids of these are potential targets for drugs. Drugs either mimic enzyme substrate or inhibit enzyme activity. The drug action of enzymes occurs on the ligand -- recognition sites. For example, acetylcholinesterase degrades acetylcholine. There are two components to the substrate -- recognition site. Acetylcholine interaction with the site leads to acetylcholine hydrolysed choline and acetate. Some cholinester analogues can also bind to the site inhibiting hydrolysis of endogenous acetylcholine.

Transport molecules regulate cell contents using carrier molecules to facilitate passage of ions and molecules.

Cellular targets for drugs include molecular targets for drug action link to cellular response components (enzymes, ion channels, and so forth). This is accomplished via the transduction (second messenger systems). Receptors are classified according to the components they are linked to and include: (A) Receptor -- operated channels that are molecular targets and after ligand -- binding can have a role in transduction; (B) G -- protein -- linked receptors which are transduction components linked to a super -- family of receptors; (C) receptors that are enzymes such as Tyrosine kinases and Guanylyl cyclase; and (D) DNA linked receptors which are intracellular receptors that can interact with DNA.

Tissue and symptom targets for drugs are intimately linked and their mechanism is difficult to determine. Examples of tissue targets for drugs include the heart, lungs, and the autonomic nervous system.

Aspirin acts by the irreversible inhibition of the enzyme COX (cyclo-oxgenase). This… [read more]

Env Design Anthropometry Physical Characteristics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Impact of winter coats on drivers)

2. For Standing Personnel

Center of gravity

Zone of convenient reach

Design of Work Surfaces

Horizontal work surfaces

Normal Area: "Area that can be conveniently reached with a sweep of the forearm while the upper arm hangs in a natural position to the side" (p. 432).

Maximum Area: "Area that could be reached by extending arm from shoulder" (p. 432)

Work Surface Height = height of upper surface measured from floor

Seated work surface height and arm posture (elbows at 90 degrees)

Seated work surface height and thigh clearance (accommodate thighs of largest user)

General Principles for Seated Work Surfaces

1. If possible, make it adjustable

2 Work surface level places working height at elbow height

3. Adequate thigh clearance

Standing work surface = similar principles (design for largest user; take into account elbow height)

General Principles of Seat Design

1. Promote lumbar lordosis (naturally concave shape); kyphotic (convex -- bad!)

2. Minimize disk pressure (unsupported sitting can create pressure)

3. Minimize static loading of back muscles (allow back to recline)

4. Reduce postural fixity (sitting in one position for long time)

**provide for easy adjustability -- can increase productivity in workplace! But must be easy to adjust

Guidelines for Making Adjustable Furniture

1. Controls are easy to reach

2. Labels, directions are easy to understand

3. Controls easy to locate, interpret

4 Tools not necessary

5. Controls provide immediate feedback

6. Logical, consistent controls

7. Few motions to use the controls

8. Adjustments require one hand only

General Chair Factors

Seat height, seat slope

Seat depth, seat width

Contouring and cushioning

Seat back parameters (angle at min. 90-105 deg, up to 120 deg preferable)

Seat back width (12 in lumbar)

Seat back height

Lumbar support

Specific Seat Types and Design

Computer workstation -- reduce postural fixity

Multipurpose chairs

Chairs for reading, resting

Video Display…… [read more]

Zoology Relics of Human Evolution Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,111 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


But the big toe in humans can only really be used for balance while walking upright or standing.

Coccyx. These fused vertebrae are all that is left of the tail that most mammals still use for balance and communication. Tails are not needed in humans because they walk upright and spend less time in trees than their primates.

Paranasal sinuses. These nasal sinuses may help to capture bacteria and viruses as they are lined with mucus. The also make the head lighter and to warm and moisten the air we breathe. The sinuses of our early ancestors may have helped with survival if they were lined with odor receptors that gave a heightened sense of smell.


Fireflies. Lightening bugs or fireflies are known for their crepuscular use of bioluminescence to attract mates or prey. The bioluminescence produced by fireflies is a cold light that does not have any ultraviolet or infrared frequencies. The light is produced chemically and the color may be perceived as yellow, pale red, or green. The wavelengths of the light range from 510 to 670 nanometers.

Anglerfish. The anglerfish that live in the bathypelagic zone emit light from their escas that serves to attract prey. The bioluminescence is produced through symbiosis with bacteria. The exact mechanism by which the bacteria enter the escas is not known. Notably, the bacteria population can become very dense as they multiply within the esca. As a result, the light emitted from them can be a very bright glow.

Latia neritoides. Latia neritoides is a small freshwater snail or limpet that occurs only in streams in New Zealand. As an aquatic gastropod mollusk, it is a member of the family Latiidae. This snail is bioluminescent and phosphorescent and its light-emitting system is believed to be unique. It is the only freshwater gastropod that emits light and the mechanism, and the structures of the luciferin and luciferase, are not entirely clear.

Squid. The Taningia Danae is a squid that has gigantic yellow photophores on the end of its two arms. These are the largest light-producing organs known to exist on any animal. The photophores are lemon-colored and about the size of lemons. Since the photophores have a black membrane that functions like an eyelid, and can be opened and closed, the photophores can be flashed at will.

Extinct Animals

Steller's sea cow. The Steller's sea cow or Hydrodamalis gigas was a large herbivorous marine animal of the order Sirenia. Its closest living relatives are the manatees and the dugong. The sea cow was abundant throughout the North Pacific, but because it was such a slow-moving animal, it was hunted to extinction within 27 years. It was first described by Georg Wilhelm Steller, an expedition naturalist, in 1741. An average weight was about 8 to 10 tons. It looked much like a large seal but had two forelimbs, a whale-like fluke, no actual teeth (just flat wide bony plates top and bottom), thick and black skin, with a head small in proportion… [read more]

Pathophysiology Musculoskeletal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … alterations which can occur in the musculoskeletal structures of the foot and lower legs. Essentially, metatarsus adductus is a foot deformity that is caused by the development impaired by an infant's position in its mother's womb. The delicate bones in the foot are bent inwards towards the infant's body (Carroll, 2008). There are a number of positional issues that can cause the condition, but include a breech position for extended periods of time. Moreover, a hereditary condition known as ogliohydramnios, where the mother fails to produce a sufficient amount of amniotic fluid causes the deformity. This can cause the infant to suffer from developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) as well. Equinovarus deformity is a type of club foot, where the foot is also bent inwards towards the body. There are three types of equinovarus deformities, positional equinovarus, idiopathic congenital equinovarus, and teratologic equinovarus. These feature a combination of equinus deformity which is a "plantar flexion of the foot in which the heel is lower than the toes" and valgus deformity, the "eversion and abduction of the heel and forefoot" (Carroll, 2008, p 1622). These are often caused by genetic disorders. The idiopathic equinovarus deformation in newborns often occurs more in males and is a type of clubfoot which can be treated with both surgery and use of braces. Teratologic equinovarus has neuromuscular or syndromic causes such as arthrogryposis and osteochondrodusplasia. Finally, pes planus is a type of flat foot, rather than club foot like the others discussed. This is often a condition passed down within the family and is essentially when the arch of the foot collapses. Most flay feet cases in children will eventually develop healthy arches with the development of healthy muscle, tendon, and bones.…… [read more]

Kai Hung Fung Artwork Instrument Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,897 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Limitations of Using Human Body over Alternative Mediums

It is not an easy job to use human body as an interactive instrument in ads as it sometimes might not explains the idea behind the ads. The human body might mislead from the actual ideas as people get distracted by the human body and not paying attention to the actual theme behind the ads that is why it is very difficult to use the human body as a communication instrument. However Fung has used human body in such a way that the onlooker is not led to a misguided direction and the basic theme of the art remains vividly perceptible to him.

Fung's use of human body as an interactive instrument works most of the times but not necessarily always. When it comes to people, their lives, emotions, dreams and desires; it is easy and best to use human body. However when it comes to objects other than living, use of human body is limited as human body cannot use as an object for the ads. The models are full of emotions, feelings and desires so it is not possible to relate them with objects as the objects do not have feelings and emotions (Beck 1987). In his artwork, Fung has never deviated from the use of human body.

One school of thought is against the idea that humans are the best interactive instruments used for relating to the audience. The reason behind is that the particular group of people believe that sometimes people are least interested about other people's feelings. However when emotions, feelings, care and sharing are shown to them in other creatures like animals; it makes them feel for their own species. So yes, human body as an interactive instrument has some limitations.


Beck. 1987. "Art and Communication." Accessed October 21, 2012 http://www.san.beck.org/Life18-Art.html

Fung. 2006. "Artwork Using 3D Computed Tomography: Extending Radiology into the Realm of Visual Art." Leonardo 39:187-191. Accessed October 21, 2012. doi:10.1162/leon.2006.39.3.187.

Fung. 2006. "The rainbow technique: an innovative approach to the artistic presentation of 3D" computed tomography." Leonardo 39:101-103. Accessed October 22, 2012.

Gajitz. 2011. "Scientific Scans Show Natural Art Inside of Human Bodies." Accessed October 21, 2012. http://gajitz.com/scientific-scans-show-natural-art-inside-of-human-bodies/

Griggs. 2009. "Window on the body: CT scans become art." Accessed October 21, 2012. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17411-window-on-the-body-ct-scans-become-art.html

Lester. 2007. "Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge 2007." Science 317:1858…… [read more]

Herniated Disc Spinal Disc Herniation Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,161 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


al. 2005).

Location and Position- Symptoms are typically experienced on only one side of the body and generally in the lumbar region. Typically, less than 4% of the cases occur in the thoracic area. The position of the hernia also depends on the manner in which it affects other discs. Cervical herniations occur most often between the fifth and sixth or sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae (C5/6 or C6/7). Lumbar disc herniations occur in the lower back, usually between the 4/5 lumbar region or between the 5th lumbar and sacrum. The sciatic nerve is the most common to be affected, causing burning pain that radiates intensely. Similarly, if the femoral nerve is involved, the patient might experience additional numbness and even a burning feeling in legs and hips (Postacchini; Baldwin, et.al., 2011).

Diagnosis and Modality -- Diagnosis is usually made when patients complain of certain symptoms and location of the injury. Typically, imaging studies are needed to confirm or rule out other issues like tumors, lesions, or metastases (Baldwin).

Radiographic Issues- Six types of imaging studies are available when herniated discs are suspected, depending again on location, severity of pain, reported cause, and/or patient's age and lifestyle:

X-Ray -- X-Rays are limited in their ability to image any soft tissue, but can rule out tumors, infections or fractures.

CAT -- Computed Tomography shows the shape and size of the spinal canal and structures, including soft tissue. Depending on the herniation site, it is still sometimes difficult to completely see the affected area.

MRI -- Magnetic resonance images shows the spinal cord, nerves and surrounding areas at a higher resolution than a CAT scan. It is usually the image of choice for most herniated disc evaluations.

Myelogram -- This is an x-ray of the spinal canal after the patient is given a contrasting injection. This reveals displacement of the contrast material and can find tumors, spurs or herniated discs.

Nerve Conduction or EMG -- Nerve conduction studies introduce an electrical current that is measured as it travels on a nerve root, which shows whether there is actual ongoing nerve damage.

TMS - Transcranial Magnetic Simulations measure the time needed for neural impulses to move up and down the spine. It aids in assessing healing or areas of damage (Wilmink, 2009).

Treatment- Treatment is dependent upon severity of injury and area(s) affected. It can range from non-surgical methods (anti-inflammatories or pain medication) combined with stretching and exercising; physical therapy (massage, traction or electrical stimulation); steroid injections; weight control and body mechanics; spinal manipulation, to surgery as a last resort. Surgery can dissolve the disc, remove portions of the disc or rupture, fuse discs or replace them. Surgical goals, though, have risks for additional nerve damage, and include relief of pain, nerve compression, and the patient's ability to return to normal function (Mayo Clinic).


Herniated Disc. (2012) MedlinePlus. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov


Baldwin, J., et.al., (2011). Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disk Disorders. Medscape Reference.

Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/827016-overview

Ernst, C., et.al. (2005). Prevalence of Annual… [read more]

Export Import Company Consider Organization Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The stiffening and thickening occurring throughout the body can also cause changes in blood pressure. "Receptors called baroreceptors monitor the blood pressure and make changes to help maintain a fairly constant blood pressure when a person changes positions or activities. The baroreceptors become less sensitive with aging" (Dugdale 2010). Some older people experience low blood pressure on standing, due to an imbalance with their baroreceptors. Conversely, some older patients experience hypertension or high blood pressure because of the thickening and stiffening of the heart walls and other components of the cardiovascular system. The heart must work harder due to aging and other arteries will also thicken and stiffen.

The nature of the blood also changes with age. The aging body contains less body water than a younger body, causing a decrease in overall blood volume. When red blood cells decrease (measured as a decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels), the individual may feel fatigued more easily. White blood cells which play a role in immune resistance "decrease in their number and ability to fight off bacteria. This reduces the ability to resist infection" (Dugdale 2010).

When working out, older people have a lower target maximum heart rate than younger people due to on average their 25% reduction in maximum cardiac output ("Cardiovascular system," AAHF, 2012). However, many of the changes due to age can be effectively counterbalanced with an appropriate diet and regular exercise. An older, conditioned person is often more easily able to work out and is in better condition than an untrained younger person. It is also important to note that not all individuals experience cardiac symptoms with equal severity as they age. Diet, exercise, genetics, and environment all play a role in the degree to which aging affects the cardiovascular system in a manner scientists are still attempting to fully understand.

Works Cited

"Cardiovascular system." American Academy of Health and Fitness. AAHF. [28 Sept 2012]


Dugdale, David C. "Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels." Medline Plus Encyclopedia,

2010. [28 Sept 2012] http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/004006.htm… [read more]

Steroids -- Cause and Effect Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,087 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Steroids -- Cause and Effect

The cause in terms of why people -- especially those involved in athletic competition -- would take a drug as dangerous as anabolic steroids is easy to understand: athletes want an edge, they want to have a body that is more powerful and can propel them to victory, winning, and personal pride. The effects of anabolic steroids in the short-term can seem positive for the user; however, in the long run the effects of anabolic steroids are highly negative, and this paper brings to light the reasons why steroids are dangerous and can lead to serious physical and mental problems for the individual.

What are steroids? What are the different types of steroids?

First it should be established that not all steroids have negative impacts on people. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) point out that when treating "Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA)," medical doctors use "corticosteroids" to create more red blood cells. DBA is a medical problem that occurs when the body's hemoglobin -- which produces red blood cells (red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body) -- is not producing a sufficient number of red blood cells. Treating the DBA patient with corticosteroids usually helps create more red blood cells within two to three weeks, the CDC explains. There are side effects associated with the use of corticosteroids, the CDC points out, and those include high blood pressure, upset stomach, sleeping problems, irritability, "…increased fat on the face…upper back and belly" and an increased risk of pneumonia, "thrush (white coating in the mouth) and other infections" (CDC).

When it comes to anabolic steroids, there are also side effects, but they are far more intense and serious than corticosteroids. What are anabolic steroids? The National Institute on Drug Abuse describes anabolic steroids as "…synthetic substances similar to the male sex hormone testosterone" (NIDA). They can be taken orally or injected into the body and are referred to as "juice," or "gym candy," "pumpers" and "stackers" (NIDA). There was a study conducted in 2010 by the NIDA that showed: a) less than half of one percent of 8th graders have used anabolic steroids; b) 1% of 10th graders have used anabolic steroids; c) and 1.5% of high school seniors have used / abused anabolic steroids (NIDA).

Anabolic steroids are actually mimicking the male sex hormones that are called androgens, according to psychology professor Lindsay Sutton with Vanderbilt University. Anabolic steroids are synthetically produced to act as testosterone, the male hormone that is also present in women (to a lesser degree of course), according to Sutton, who explains that the original purpose for the development of anabolic steroids was not to help athletes cheat but to treat symptoms such as "hypogonadism," when testes are not producing enough testosterone "…for normal growth, development and sexual functioning…[and also for] impotency, HIV and other infectious diseases" (Sutton, 2012, p. 3).

Through laboratory experimentation scientists learned that anabolic steroids "…facilitate the growth of skeletal muscles," which is why body builders and… [read more]

Lymphatic System Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (595 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The body has over 300 nodes filtering foreign elements. As unknown and unhealthy materials are captured by the nodes, each person's unique white blood cells move in to destroy them and keep the body healthy.

There are select white blood cells that make special disease-fighting proteins which kill off diseased and infected cells. There are others that help quarantine germs in the body and kill them before they have a chance to spread infection or disease. Because of this valuable protection, any type of disorder of the lymphatic system has the power to prevent the body from being able to defend itself against infection and sickness and can ultimately lower the function of the immune system and contaminate the circulatory system (Brown, 2005). The lymphatic process not only protects the human body, but also allows cells in the body to function at their best.

There are certain steps that can be taken to keep the lymphatic system operating efficiently. The lymphatic system depends on a constant supply of fluid, so drinking at least eight glasses of filtered water each day is recommended. Preservatives, artificial sweeteners, excess sugar, chemicals and processed foods all put strain on the lymphatic system. Organic fruits and vegetables, whole grain and natural foods are better choices because they can supply the lymphatic system with crucial vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytonutrients. The chlorophyll in green vegetables is especially helpful to the lymphatic system. Healthy fats found in walnuts, flax seeds, peanuts, and avocados are beneficial, as is regular exercise and massage which keep lymph fluids moving. Deep breathing also invites oxygen into the body which helps remove unwanted material and toxins.


Brown, P. (2005). Lymphatic system: Unlocking the drains.…… [read more]

Environment Influences the Body Plan Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (646 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The bilateral sea urchins of the Early Jurassic period had an anus positioned near the end of the body and when engaged in locomotive activity, kept the anus oriented rearward. The slimming of the bilateral sea urchin body shape is believed to have facilitated digging into the sand for food because less sand had to be moved, and the rearward pointing anus more sanitary.

A recent study carefully examined the behavior of the bilateral sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina and found evidence suggesting that the bilaterality facilitates defense (Yoshimura and Motokawa, 2010). Sea urchins use several strategies to avoid predation, including moving only during the night to avoid attracting attention. Sea urchins also elaborate spines. A. crassispina, in accordance with their bilateral symmetry, have body regions with shorter and longer spines. After observing the behavior of A. crassispina in the laboratory and in the field, it was noticed that the shorter spins were kept away from open waters and towards structures that provided barriers against predation. In addition, A. crassispina preferred to rest in the corners at the top of the water tank, rather than the bottom corners. Since A. crassispina prefer shallow tidal pools in the field, the authors interpreted this as indicating the primary predator threat is from the water column, rather than from above the water surface.


The environmental forces that have driven the evolutionary emergence of bilateral symmetry are believed to be related to the use of locomotion to find food. Essential to this process is the development of a nervous system capable of sensing food and driving motor activity. Recent research also suggests that bilaterality could be facilitating defensive strategies.


Martindale, Mark Q. And Henry, Jonathan Q. (1998). The development of radial and biradial symmetry: The evolution of bilaterality. American Zoologist, 38, 672-684.

Yoshimura, Kazuya and Motokawa, Tatsuo. (2010). Bilaterality in the regular sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina is related to efficient defense not to…… [read more]

Physics of Swimming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Pressure drag as a result of the body moving, between the upper part and lower part of the body while swimming reduces the pace of a swimmer. The turbulence along the body can only be minimized by the ridges made along the suit. Similarly, such suits are made to cover all parts of the body with the exception of feet and arms to minimize water drag. Such full body swimsuits aids in reduction of muscle fatigue, as the moving parts of the body will only require minimum energy to propel the swimmer.

Swim suits are made of very smooth surfaces as rough surface lower swimmer's movement in water as it increases the opposing force between swimmer and water (Gibo, T., 2). In addition, some suits are made slightly thicker to increase the buoyancy while in water. Smooth surfaces have less frictional drag to water as compared to rough surfaces. This minimizes the frictional drag while swimming, and the effort required when swimming is minimized, as the ability to float is higher and will require less energy.

During competitions, some swimsuits have been banned due to unfair advantage. Different suits have an advantage over others, making swimming measurement impact grater to others. Thickness of suits has been specified to be 1mm thick. This is to reduce the advantage of buoyancy to other swimmers who instead would have used less force to float, such as the LZR Razor swimmers is said to have added buoyancy. Swimming suits are set not to extend the ankles or shoulders. Full body suits minimize water drag, which is an added advantage to those who have. Standardized swimming suits hence are recommended without extended shoulders and ankles.

For competitions, specified swimming suits are recommended, and no competitor is allowed to tailor make for him/herself. This ensures that the modifications made are universal to all. Competitors are allowed only one suit during competition, which they use till the end of competition unless otherwise.


Swimming is a sport that has evolved over a long period. It has undergone several technological improvements and advancement to improve its competition. Improvements in swimming field have been focused on the improvement of the suits with the application of physics and the modern technology, such as shaving of hair or wearing smooth swimming caps, which reduces the friction drag of water. Upon improving such measures, competitions have ensured fair advantage to all swimming competitors this will be achieved by standardizing all swimwear. Swimming suits are worn by anyone during swimming, no matter the age, size or gender.

Works Cited

Haphaestus, B. Swimsuits. Balton. Haphaestus books publisher, 2011.

Koff, T.,Kovich, E.D. And McPhillips, K. The Physics of Swimming. London: UNC chapea hill publisher, 2004.

Lucer, B. And Bleulgohlke, C. Masters Swim Suit. Meyer and Meyer…… [read more]

Embryonic Stem Cell Research Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (4,073 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


71). And while the concerns citizens have about science and its "implications" are not new, the hE's cell research -- and all its implications -- has provided the chance for these above-mentioned concerns to "coalesce around a new, scientific field (Hyun, 71).

Number two on Hyun's synthesis of the main objections to embryonic stem cell research: those in opposition to… [read more]

Human Health and the Mind-Body Connection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,467 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Human Health and the Mind-Body Connection

In some respects, the human mind and body are separate entities, particularly in connection with the types of ailments to which each is vulnerable and the diagnoses and treatment of those ailments. Generally, medical issues affecting the body manifest themselves in symptoms that are observable or otherwise detectable through the five senses. By contrast,… [read more]

Galectin 1 In the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Human Cancer Cachexia Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  14 pages (4,060 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 70


Galectin-1 in the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Human Cancer Cachexia

The modern oncology can control cancer progression leading to chronic treatments. In the absence of controls, patients reach a state slowly wasting. Orexigenic drugs (corticosteroids, megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, etc.) (Conlisk et al. p1051) Can increase appetite and alleviate anorexia and weight loss. We observe a parallel decrease… [read more]

Biology Invertebrates: Echinodermata Phyla Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Each would have a unique function. The morphology of the tapeworm allows it to feed off its host.

Phylum Nematoda

6a. How does the number of body cavities of nematodes compare with that of flatworms?

Flatworms have no body cavities. Nematodes have one.

b. What are the advantages of a digestive tract having a separate entrance and exit?

This allows specialization zones within the digestive tract.

c. Female Ascaris are more numerous than males. Why might this be adaptive?

There might be more females so that the creature could reproduce at higher rates.

7. How would you describe the motion of a nematode?

The motion of nematodes is caused by contraction and relaxing of muscles. It can move forward by extension but not much sideways.

8a. The cuticle of Ascaris is flaky and tough. What might be an adaptive advantage of a thick and tough cuticle?

The thick, tough cuticle would protect the creature from predators more easily than a thin one.

b. Where do the internal organ of Ascaris attach to the body wall?

The stomach and up into the intestines

c. How does the diameter of the female reproductive tract change?

It opens to the extieror

d. Are any sensory organs evident in Ascaris? Why would this be adaptive?

They have bristles around the mouth and chemosensory. This tells them when they are near a food source.

Class Hirudinea

8e. How could production of a packet-like spermatophore contribute to the evolutionary success of leeches in their environment?

The packet-like spermatophore makes reproduction more likely in watery environments where the sperm could otherwise be destroyed.

9. List three or four characteristics… [read more]

Scientific Explantation of the Brain Maclean and the Three Brain Robert Bly Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Brain and the Three Brain

A Scientific Explanation:

The Brain by Paul MacLean and "The Three Brain" by Robert Bly

The brain is one of the most complex and one of the least understood organs of the body. Throughout history, it has served as basis for wonderment, and with the beginning of the study of psychology as a science in the 1870's, it became the focus of a decades-long pondering that continues today, in the same field. The brain has been explain, dissected, and re-explained many times, yet nobody knows how it works to a certainty. The paragraphs below will explain scientifically two views of the brain, one by Paul MacLean and one by Robert Bly.

Paul MacLean's model of the brain, called the Triune Brain, includes the corpus callosum, the cerebrum, the limbic system, the reptilian complex, the cerebellum and the brain stem as central components of the organ. MacLean further suggests that the brain is actually three brains in one and each "layer" has been established as a result of an evolutionary need. The three layers are the reptilian (R) complex, the limbic system and the neocortex. Furthermore, MacLean contends that they all have different functions but that they also interact.

In MacLean's model, the R-complex is responsible for actual physical survival and is composed of the brain stem and cerebellum. The limbic system is the "second" brain, and it houses emotions. This part includes the amygdala and the hippocampus, the latter of which is responsible for long-term memories. The limbic system is further described as having evolved in primal activities mainly related to food and sex. Lastly, the neocortex constitutes almost the entire human brain and is the "outer" portion. This part makes language, speech and writing possible and is also responsible for most of our thinking.

In "The Three Brain" by Robert Bly, the reader is presented with another view of the…… [read more]

Brain and Behavior Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (699 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Neurons are the initiators of all human activity, emotion, and cognition. The neural input goes down the dendritic neuron until it reaches the axon terminal, where other neurons transport it from the synapse. Action is commenced by the firing of an action potential (i.e. nerve impulse) that causes a neuron to dash down the dendrite. Neurons communicate via chemical messages called neurotransmitters that transmit the neuron and push it along from one axon to another enticing them to cross synapses whilst doing so. Sometimes the neurotransmitters impede the neurons from crossing over the synapse by inhibiting the receiving cell. At other times they excite the neuron and receptor allowing the receptor to welcome the neuron and to facilitate its passage. Neural activity is farther enhanced and regulated by other chemicals called neuropeptides. The brain, it has recently been discovered, works according to the principle of neuroplasticity, namely, it can 'rewire' itself and modify according to experience and environment.

Neuroscientists divide the nervous system into the central nervous system (CNS) comprising the main part of the brain and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of spine and brain stem. The PNS includes the somatic (voluntary) and the autonomic (instinctive) nervous systems. Most of the computing (actions, emotions, decisions) is carried out by the CNS. The PNS carried sensory information to and from the brain via the brain stem and spine. Instinctive bodily processes are regulated by the autonomic nervous system in a dual process of sympathetic branch (i.e. reactive) and parasympathetic (i.e. quelling) as exemplified in the 'fight and flight response' where fear may cause an instinctive (sympathetic) reaction, instantly after subdued by the parasympathetic rejoinder.

Neuroscientists study the brain for various reasons not least to investigate the causes and brain regions of behavior as well as to better comprehend and cure pathological disease. Brain research is conducted through various forms of imagery (e.g. CT, PET, or fMRI), through simple studies / observations, or though lesioning.

The human brain, otherwise known as the cerebral cortex, is divided into left and right hemispheres connected by the corpus colluseum. Each hemisphere…… [read more]

Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,734 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


These are the different modes of conventional PPV, non-conventional PPV, and inhaled medical gases. There are many available modes of conventional PPV for the ICU to alter airway pressure. But because infants and children are sensitive to alterations, non-conventional approaches are resorted to. The most common are high-frequency jet ventilation or HFJV and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation or HFOV. HFJV provides… [read more]

Stress Management -- Body Scan Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (554 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Generally, I have found that it is possible to use these techniques to reverse my physiological reaction to external stressors.

Response to the Scan

My principal response to the body scan was surprise at the realization of how much my reaction to stress is expressed in my body and how much my conscious attempts to change some of those natural responses can help me reverse that stress response. In particular, I discovered that controlling my breathing is the single most important factor and that it allows me to control the other physiological responses as well.

Isomorphic Stress Management Technique

I learned that the stress management techniques that are most helpful to me are those that pertain to advance visualization and situational preparedness. In general, the more familiar I am with what to expect, the less stressful the situation is for me. Therefore, I can minimize my stress level by researching situations to ascertain as much information as possible before I experience them. Similarly, I have discovered that time management is equally important for managing stress. When I am rushed, my stress level always increases, regardless of other factors. Therefore, my approach to stress management is to obtain as much information (such as driving or walking directions, applicable rules, and the type of physical layout involved) as possible. I also make sure to leave as much of a time cushion as possible so that even an unanticipated delay cannot trigger my stress response. In combination, those techniques, together with prior visualization of unfamiliar situations helps me reduce my stress response substantially, even in circumstances that ordinarily provoke my physiological…… [read more]

Prolotherapy Proliferation Therapy Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



A) Tendons and ligaments are comprised of what kind of tissue?

Tendons, which connect muscles to bones, and ligaments, which connect bones to other bones, are comprised of dense fibrous connective tissue containing many collagen fibers that are tightly packed together.

B) Why is it that damage to these tissues (as well as cartilage) have a difficult time healing after damage?

Damage to these tissues is difficult to heal because of a lack of blood supply. The inflammatory response, which promotes healing, can also be impeded with the use of anti-inflammatory medications.

C) Using the information in Chapter 6 and other places in the text, explain the process of inflammation? What initiated the process? What Cells come into the area to help prevent Infection? What do these cells do? How do they come in? This may depend on the severity of the damage to the tissue- for example; the process may be different depending on whether blood vessels are damaged. What other types of cells come into the area? What do these cells secrete to help repair the damaged tissue? What eventually replaces the damaged tissue? Is it new tissue or something else?

When tissue is damaged, either due to injury or infection, the damaged tissue initiates the inflammatory response, a non-specific defense. Signs of inflammation include heat, redness, swelling, and pain. Damaged tissue and mast cells release chemicals which signal the bone marrow to release white blood cells into the bloodstream. Additionally, histamine is released which relaxes the smooth muscle and arterioles which supply blood to tissue capillaries. This allows for increased blood flow to the area, resulting in heat and redness. Histamine also increases permeability of the capillaries. This allows nutrients and oxygen to enter the damaged tissue to promote healing; however, this is also what causes pain and swelling.

Stimulated by chemicals released by the damaged tissue, white blood cells (neutrophils and monocytes) travel to the site of the injury. Neutrophils are phagocytic, meaning they promote healing by engulfing pathogens and destroying them with hydrolytic enzymes. As they enter the tissues,…… [read more]

Earthworm Dissection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (659 words)
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Earthworm Dissection

Phylum Annelida is comprised of a group of animals referred to as segmented worms. They are can be found universally in terrestrial, marine and fresh water environments. They can range from a few millimeters to several meters in length. Annelids can be differentiated from other invertebrates based on their external structure. These include lengthy cylindrical bodies composed of several segments of the same kind, lack of appendages, antennas or prominent head part. There are 3 major Annelid groups -- Oligochaeta, Hirudinidea and Polychaeta. The first two are terrestrial and associated with earthworms and leaches respectively. The last one is marine in nature ("Annelida: Worms," n.d.)

Earthworms have front and back ends, better acknowledged as the anterior and posterior. The first posterior section is called its mouth which has a cushioning of flesh called prostomium. This is used to block the mouth entrance when the anterior contracts. While hunting for food, the prostomium extends out and ingests particles ("Composting Worms," n.d.).

The anterior cross section of the gizzard of an earthworm consists of the oral cavity part of its digestive system. This includes the mouth and the Pharynx. The mouth is used to ingest soil and serves as a way of locomotion. This is assisted by the pharynx where the pharyngeal muscles are utilized in the sucking action. Those substances are then passed onto the oesophagus. The digestive tube has a nerve cord underneath it which broadens into a large cerebral ganglion ("Earthworm," n.d.).

The earthworm does not have a heart per se. However they have organs called aortic arches which show functional and structural similarity with the human heart. It has 5 of these and can be related to the 4 chambers in the human heart. A gland in between each arch facilitates calcium digestion. The arches and gland put together makes up less than 5% of their total body length. They are found enfolded around the oesophagus, behind the ganglion. An earthworm needs all 5 of…… [read more]

Neurobiology Binocular Vision Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (532 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Binocular Vision

One of the most significant achievements made in the evolution of certain mammals is binocular vision, which allows for much greater precision, depth perception, and non-movement-based differentiation of objects when compared to monocular vision (Howard & Rogers, 1995). Part of this development has to do with the physical structures of the skull and specifically the placements of the eyes, which lead to a coordination of visual fields that simply does not occur in monocular vision, but there is also a great deal of responsibility for this phenomenon found in the internal structures of the eye, the parts of the nervous system connecting the eye to the brain, and alterations in the visual processing centers of the brain (Howard & Rogers, 1995). The timing of transmissions from the two eyes of binocular versioned organisms is a matter of great interest and importance.

Information from both eyes is ultimately communicated to a single area and often to a single cell used for processing the information and sending it further along towards the brain for ongoing analysis and processing (Howard & Rogers, 1995). The fact that there are not two separate pathways to the visual areas of the brain for the transmission of light information taken in by the two eyes and translated into neural impulses means that there must be another mechanism by which the information received and transmitted by each eye is differentiated. The timing by which the ganglia at the end of the retinal neurons receive chemical messengers from each eye determines how the brain will eventually interpret these signals and create binocular…… [read more]

Physical Science Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (614 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



New imaging technology enables an "unprecedented" glimpse into the brain, notes Rebecca Boyle (2010). In an article for Popular Science magazine, Boyle (2010) offers a brief video clip of a mouse's cortex to show what the new brain imaging technoloy can do. Called array tomography, the imaging technology has the potential to dramatically increase understanding of how electrical signals are sent throughout the brain of any organism, including humans. Array tomography presents "a map of every synapse's position in the cortex, with colors corresponding to different synaptic types," (Boyle 2010). The technology is relatively straightforward in principle: high-resolution photographs of nano-thin layers of the brain are strung together to create a three-dimensional image. To obtain the color differentiation, stains are used. The stains are antibodies that "match 17 synapse-related proteins," (Boyle 2010). The resulting glow provides the stunning visual imagery that can help neuroscientists better understand the inner landscape of the human brain. Array tomography combines the best principles of high-resolution digital photography with the fundamental principles of neuroscience. Therefore, array tomography represents the interface between physical and biological science.

Neuroscience is itself the bridge between the purely physical and the life sciences. The brain carriers electrical impulses and can be viewed as a series of switches and networks, not dissimilar from the Internet. An individual synapse is "like a microprocessor" that has "both memory-storage" and "information-processing elements," according to one neuroscientist (cited by Boyle 2010). Synapses are not simply "on/off" switches that either send or do not send signals, usually in the form of chemicals or hormones. Any one synapse may be capable of making up to a thousand different decisions, making the brain far more complex for traditional imaging technology. The brain is more like outer space than it is alike to any other organ of the body. Discovering how the brain works is…… [read more]

Comparison Between Human Circulatory System and Oyster Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  5 pages (1,722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Human Circulatory System and Oyster Circulatory System

15, November, 2010

There are two main types of circulatory systems, open and closed. Some Phylum Mollusca have a closed circulatory system, like humans, but not all do. Molluscas live in the fresh water and under the sea (this group includes oysters, octopus and squid). Like fish, Phylum Mollusca do not… [read more]

Calcium the Importance Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (678 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The Importance of Calcium in the Human Body

It is difficult to decide which elements are the "most important" in the human body, as many different elements are essential to survival. The problem is not really made any easier when carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen -- the four elements that comprise organic compounds -- are removed, because many of the other elements that are found in the human body to lesser degrees still serve vital functions, and without any number of them life and the functions that sustain human action would cease. Still, if pressed to identify one of the most vital of these lesser elements, calcium would certainly make the short list. Calcium serves a variety of functions within the body that make it absolutely essential to performing certain actions and for basic survival, and is the most abundant mineral in most complex animal organisms (Essential Vitamins Guide 2010). The reasons why calcium is so important will be detailed in the following paragraphs.

The most well-known of calcium's function, used to get children around the globe to drink their milk and marketed to seniors in various forms due to the degradations of aging, is in forming the bones of the body. Ninety-nine percent of all the calcium found in a human body is in the bones and the teeth, and this elements is the primary constituent of these features (EVG 2010; MedlinePlus 2010). Without calcium, the body would have no shape, and furthermore would be unable to perform any of the standard activities that are so easily performed thanks to our skeletal structure -- sitting, standing, walking, talking, and even breathing (not to mention a host of other activities) are all wholly dependent on our bones (EVG 2010; Food Mineral 2010). The body's skeleton also ensures that there is room for soft-tissue organs to function as they are supposed to, and provides a great deal of protection from injury to the inner body, as well (MedlinePlus 2010).

It is not only in the skeleton and the teeth…… [read more]

How Are Regenerative Therapies Beginning to Rebuild and Restore Function to Injured Body Parts? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,403 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Regenerative Therapies

Though the media attention paid to stem cell research has waned somewhat in the face of economic crises and other political issues, the medical innovation that holds the promise to repair damages spinal cords, provide custom-made organs for transplantation, and cure any number of diseases remains an exciting and controversial topic in the worlds of medicine and of… [read more]

Resqpod in Cardiac Arrest Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,845 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


ResQPOD in Cardiac Arrest


The ResQPOD is an impedance threshold device which regulates thoracic pressure on demand during hypotension. This device effectively increases vital organ perfusion in the instance of a variety of arrhythmias even those associated with a very poor prognosis (Cooper & Cooper, 2008). The ResQPOD can effective, safely, and beneficially be incorporated into the training of… [read more]

Marfan's Syndrome Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,574 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Marfan syndromme is a multisystem disease with variable genotypic and phenotypic appearance. There is overlap in clinical presentation with other multisystem diseases that often may lead to misdiagnosis. Consequently because of its diverse clinical features diagnosis is challenging and necessitates a multidisplinary approach. Genetic counselling is costly, involves a lot of time consumption and does not offer a solution for… [read more]

Masculinity Gender and Symbolism in the Film Pumping Iron Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (3,014 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Masculinity, Gender, and Symbolism in the film, "Pumping Iron

Pumping Iron: Displays of masculinity and femininity in the bodybuilding world

Long before Arnold Schwarzenegger symbolized budgetary restraint in California, he was the symbol of what constituted the ultimate in physical fitness. Early in his political career the film star headed the President's Commission on Physical Fitness and Sports. However, Schwarzenegger… [read more]

Anabolic Steroids Ergogenic Aids Are Devices, Drugs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Anabolic Steroids

Ergogenic aids are devices, drugs, procedures and other substances that are constantly used to increase energy level in an individual and increase his/her performance. Mostly these substances are used by sports persons who want results but instead of facing the other competitors on fair grounds they stimulate their muscles so that their metabolism does not work normally and… [read more]

Strains Versus Sprains Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,130 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Strains vs. Sprains

Strains occur when there are injuries that involve muscles or tendons. They take place when the muscle is tore, twisted, or pulled. Strains are a severe type of injury that is a consequence of overstretching or over tightening. Pain, weakness, and muscle spasms are often the symptoms that are felt after a strain transpires. Sprains take place when there are injuries that involve the ligaments. They take place when there is a stretch or tear of a ligament. Sprains are a severe type of injury that is a consequence from distress such as a fall or outside force that shifts the nearby joint away from its normal position. Sprains can vary from a mild ligament stretch to a total tear. Bruising, swelling, instability, and painful movement are usual symptoms that one feels after a sprain happens (Strain vs. Sprain, 2010).

A physician will classify sprains and strains according to harshness. A Grade I or mild sprain or strain happens when there is stretching or minor tearing of a ligament or muscle. A Grade II or moderate sprain or strain is a ligament or muscle that is partly torn but still unbroken. A Grade III or severe sprain or strain happens when the ligament or muscle is completely torn apart. When this happens there is usually joint instability. Grade I injuries typically heal quickly with rest, ice, compression, and elevation. Therapeutic exercise can also help restore power and flexibility. Grade II injuries are treated the same but they often require restriction of the injured area in order to facilitate healing. Grade III sprains and strains typically require restriction and perhaps surgery I order to get function back. The key to mending is an early assessment by a medical professional. Once the injury has occurred and its severity determined, the physician will devise a treatment plan (Sprain vs. Strain, n.d.).

After a sprain or a strain it is important not to use the part of the body that's hurt. This would mean that one would not be able to walk on a hurt ankle or use a hurt arm. It can sometimes be hard to tell if something is sprained or broken, so it's often a good idea to see a doctor. In some cases, one might need to go to the emergency department. A doctor will look at the injury in order to determine what is going on. They will lightly touch the area, look at the color, feel it to see if the skin is warm or cold, and look for swelling. In some instances, the doctor will order an X-ray in order to see if the bone is broken. If it is determined that it is just sprained, the doctor will have the patient wear a splint or temporary cast in order to support and guard the injured area. In order to reduce swelling and provide support the injury may be wrapped with an elastic bandage. If it is truly a strain, the doctor will… [read more]

Thyroid "Hot Spots" Incidentally Detected Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,832 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The FDG-PET scan indicated improved bone marrow uptake and a left cervical hot spot. FNAC of an hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe pointed to papillary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was carried out. The diagnosis of a PTC was ascertained. Even though small, measuring 13 mm in diameter, there was attack via the thyroid capsule in the strap muscles. Anemia… [read more]

Cardiovascular Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (530 words)
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Cardiovascular Case Study

hypertension: chronic elevated blood pressure diuretic: a substance/drug that causes the kidneys to engage in increased activity, causing more frequent urination/less fluid retention electrocardiogram: a measurement of the electrical activity in a heart, to test for problems/ensure stability myocardial infarction: "heart attack;" the blood vessels to the heart become blocked, and the heart ceases functioning/is greatly debilitated bypass surgery: involves the creation of a bypass of blocked arteries, allowing normal blood flow to regions supplied by blocked arteries sublingual: under the tongue; many drugs dissolve and are absorbed into the bloodstream effectively from this location angina: chest pain resulting from reduced blood flow to the heart angiogram: X-ray procedure that measures blood flow through an artery through the use of fluoroscopy (an injected substance that appears differently under X-ray) coronary arteries: blood vessels that supply the heart muscles angioplasty: the widening of an artery to restore normal blood flow atherosclerosis: the condition of hardened and clogged arteries brought about by the collection of fatty deposits on the interior blood vessel walls


The ST event likely represents ischemia, the condition brought about by the damage of tissue in the heart due to a lack of adequate blood supply, a precursor to/cause of the myocardial infarction.


J.M.'s risk factors contributing to the infarction were his gain in weight, his high-fat and high-sodium diet, generally sedentary lifestyle, and family history of similar infarctions and heart/artery problems.


The sympathetic nervous systems sends branches to many internal organs, also passing through (or connecting to nerves that pass through) parts of the body that…… [read more]

Biology How Are Glucose, Proteins, and Lipids Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



How are glucose, proteins, and lipids utilized in your body to provide energy?

The human body is a fascinating self-regulating system that consists of interconnecting components. This structure of the body is central to the way it produces and uses energy (Singh, 2010). Proteins are made up of amino acid. Amino acids are the building-blocks of all cells. Protein is used by the body in order to build, maintain and replace tissue including muscle, hair, skin, organs and glands. It also works to produce hemoglobin, maintain proper immune function, and produce essential hormones and enzymes. Protein can also be broken down into glucose for energy. Without protein, a person's body would be unable to build muscle and carry out many of its essential life functions (the Skinny on Protein, Carbohydrates and Fats, 2008).

Foods that contain protein can be divided into two groups: complete proteins and incomplete proteins. Complete proteins include all nine essential amino acids that the body cannot produce by itself. With the exclusion of soy beans, complete proteins are only found in animal foods like meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and milk and dairy products. Incomplete proteins are missing in one or more of the nine essential amino acids. Incomplete resources of protein include most vegetables, as well as nuts, beans, seeds, peas and grains. Soybeans, however, are a complete protein (the Skinny on Protein, Carbohydrates and Fats, 2008).

Glucose is what the body uses for fuel. With no glucose, or without being able to change it into energy rapidly and efficiently, a person could not survive in good health. So it's very important that the body's energy-metabolism system works efficiently. Here is a very simple explanation of how a person converts glucose into energy.

In response to the rise in blood-glucose levels after meals, the pancreas releases insulin which mops up the glucose and carries it to cells that need extra energy.

The glucose goes into the cell by special molecules in the membrane called glucose transporters.

The cells that require glucose have specific insulin receptors on their surface so that…… [read more]

Animal Biology Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (883 words)
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¶ … PDF file was unable to be edited, thus I have included answers for each question in the narrative below. I separated each tabled question into the different rows, depicted by the row note at the beginning of each answer.

Record the sexes and immerse sets of 10 of each of the animals in three separate containers of room temperature water. Hold one container steady at room temperature and then incrementally increase the temperature of one of the other containers and decrease the temperature (with ice) of the last container. Observe changes if any in the animals. If temperature affects sexuality, the changing temperature should have had an effect on the majority of the animals in one of the containers. If decreasing temperature affects sexuality, more animals in the cold container will have changed sexuality and vice versa for the warm temperature container.

The beta cells of the islets of Lagerhans in the pancreatic follicles.

Insulin is constantly secreted into the bloodstream at low levels, but when blood glucose levels are high, more insulin is secreted than normal.

c. Diabetes would develop. Insulin and Amylin will accumulate in beta cells in the pancreas and causes Amyloid to deposit, disrupting the ability of these cells to produce and regulate insulin.

2. First Row: It binds to ?1 receptors, signaling the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase and phosphorylase kinase (inactivating and activating them, respectively), leading to the latter activating glycogen phosphorylase, to release glucose to the bloodstream.

Second Row: Cardiac rhythm is started or increased. It does this by increasing peripheral resistance via ?1-adrenoceptor vasoconstriction and the ?1-adrenoceptor response.

Third Row: 2 receptors are found primarily in skeletal muscle blood vessels where they trigger vasodilation. -adrenergic receptors are found in smooth muscles and adrenaline triggers vasoconstriction in those vessels.

Fourth Row: Gives the body's muscles greater ability to evade or attack (ie moves blood further away from less imperative body systems to the areas where it is needed for optimum performance).

4. Amniotes are internally fertilized and the males have larger plumbing, whereas basal vertebrates are often externally fertilized and male plumbing is much smaller and less visible.

5. First Row: Hypothalumus with a negative feedback loop. / Uterine and muscle contractions with positive feedback loop.

Last Row: Endocrine. / Oxytocin-Induces more muscular contractions. ADH- affects absorption of kidney tissues.

6. Doping with testosterone causes decline in spermatogenesis and a decline in LH levels through interactions of the testosterone cells and the sperm cells.

7. Estrodial will decline and endometrial development will slow and eventually stop. With endometrial development stopped, GnRH will decrease which will lead to further decline in endometrial development in…… [read more]

Brain to Body Impulse Path Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Brain to Body Impulse Impact

When the body is dehydrated the brain sends messages through neurons to the body. The brain sends messages to the muscles telling the muscles to lift the glass using presynaptic neurons. The neurons communicate through electrical and chemical signs. These signals go through the body along the axon of the presynaptic neuron. The messages that are sent through this neuron are directed to the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron. Chemical changes begin when the electrical signals makes the chemical changes cross the synapse affecting the postsynaptic cell. "The electrical impulse reaches the presynaptic axon terminal, membranous sacs called vesicles move toward the membrane of the axon terminal." (NIHC)

As the vesicles continue to move through the body they join the membrane and discharge what they carry into the synaptic space. Chemical compounds called neurotransmitters are held within the vesicles which are contained in the molecules. The nervous system using many of molecules to send signals throughout the body, neurotransmitters go across the synaptic cleft and stick to receptors. Electrical impulses at this point move away from the dendrite toward the cell body.

According to NIHC "after the neurotransmitter stimulates an electrical impulse in the postsynaptic neuron, it release from the receptors to back into the synaptic space." Retake pumps which are special proteins carry the neurotransmitter into the neuron once again. Motor coordination is used when lifting a glass of water. The central nervous system uses motor tasks to lift the glass of water. The brain acts in the space of rotation by the arm, wrist and other body parts movement which pick the state of manifold.

The impulse transmission to muscle fibers takes place at the neuromuscular junctions. At the time when the nerve impulse terminal lets go of acetylcholine which then activates the acetylcholine receptor. According to Basel University, "(ACHR channels concentrated in the muscle membrane at the NMJ, thus eliciting muscle contraction." The muscles in the skeleton tighten together as they react to the electrical impulses in the motor nerves in the central nervous system.

In the central nervous system there are motor neurons are made to secrete Again and muscle fibers. Muscle contraction begins when actin and myosin filaments of the striated muscle glide over each other. As the fibers go over each other they decrease the size of the muscle fibers. The Myosin is seen when the actin sites filaments when are visible when the calcium ions attach to the troponin molecules. Due to this action bridges are made between actin and myosin. The ATP hydrolysis makes the head of the molecules change form and attach to the actin filament. More changes occur as ADP is released into the myosin heads; due to this the shape changes and allows mechanical energy where the filaments will slide over each other.

There are different muscles which are in use when lifting a glass of water. The muscles are made up of three long bones in the upper arm. The radius and… [read more]

Brain to Body Impulse Path the Role Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (747 words)
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Brain to Body Impulse Path

The role that the brain plays in providing the body with various commands for daily functions is simply amazing. This is because of the complex structure that exists between the brain and the nervous system. As it is attempting to instantaneously respond to various stimuli that is being received. Yet, to fully understand this process requires that you examine the how the brain sends messages to the different muscles in the body and the steps in which the brain sends messages to the body. This will provide the greatest insights as to how this complex system works, which allows the body to effectively function.

Write how you trace the impulse, listing the steps in as much detail as possible, from which your brain sends the message to the appropriate muscles to step up one step. Specifically include the steps involved in transmitting the impulse from the neuron to the muscle fiber at the neuromuscular junction. Specify which muscles are pulling on which bones and what types of joints are involved.

The nervous system is broken down into two parts, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system controls those responses that are instincts and transmits vital information to other parts of the body. When the brain receives stimuli from the outside world; a signal is sent to the particular part or parts of the body to react. Where, a message is sent from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system. It is in the peripheral nervous system that you will find neurons. These are special cells use to carry the different messages to the various muscles. The different neurons communicate with each other through synapses. These are membranes that interconnect the different neurons together. Once the message reaches a particular muscle group, the neurons communicate the command to the various muscles groups or joints. Through what is known as a neuromuscular junction, this is where the synapses are connecting to the actual muscle itself. For example, if the central nervous system gave a command to flex the right arm, an impulse would be passed from the central nervous system to…… [read more]

Central Nervous System Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,318 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Nervous System

Neuroscience can be a difficult subject for the layperson or the student who is not majoring in deep science and biology. But the body's central nervous system plays such an important role in humans' lives -- and has key psychological affects -- it is important to break down the subject for clear understanding. This paper will review the main aspects of the human central nervous system, and also point to how the central nervous system of police officers can be affected by the stressful, dangerous work they do.

What is the central nervous system? Washington University science professor Eric Chudler has published a descriptive online chapter explaining the central nervous system, its parts, how it works and why it is important. The nervous system in humans is broken down into two parts -- the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

Central Nervous System: The central nervous system is divided into parts that include the brain, and the spinal cord. How much does the brain way -- how big is it? Typically, the human brain weighs about three pounds, Chudler explains. But inside that three-pound brain about "about 100 billion nerve cells" (called neurons); and also there are to be found in the human brain "trillions of 'support cells' called glia.

Compared with a human brain, a dinosaur (in this case, a stegosaurus dinosaur) had a brain weighing only about 70 grams, that represented about 0.004% of its body weight. The human brain represents about 2% of its body weight. Presumably, this ratio is presented in the science to show that humans have far more intelligence than these giant creatures that lived millions of years ago.

While the spinal cord of a typical woman is about 43 centimeters, an adult man's spinal cord is about 45 centimeters long. The spinal cord and all of its delicate features is protected by the "vertebral column" which is basically the backbone. The backbone protects the spinal cord. Basically, the spinal cord carries messages from the brain up and down the body -- relaying responses and instructions for important bodily functions.

The brain is divided into two hemispheres and each one "communicates with the other through the corpus callosum" which is a bundle of nerve fibers (Washington University). Within those hemispheres are neurons (called "nuclei") and there are axons (called "tracts") (Chudler, 2006). (http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/nsdivide.html).

The brain has a Cerebral cortex that controls a person's perception, reasoning, language, voluntary movement and thought. What is the cortex made of? Chudler describes the cortex as "a sheet of tissue that makes up the outer layer of the brain" and it is from 2 to 6 millimeters thick. To look at a human cerebral cortex one sees an object that has "many bumps and grooves"; a bump is called "gyrus" and A cortex groove are called a "sulcus."

Another important part of the brain is the Cerebellum; it controls a person's body movement, balance, and posture. The Brain stem controls breathing, heart rate, and… [read more]

Functional Relationship of the Pns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


The size of the receptive field dictates how detailed the received information will be; the smaller a receptive field is, the more detailed the information.

6. Use a specific example to briefly explain how our bodies might use sensory adaptation in response to an environmental stimulus.

The first thing that comes to mind is having a fan or space heater on at night. One turns the thing on and can hear it spinning, or making heat, but after a few minutes we cannot hear it anymore and fall asleep.

7. Compare and contrast the terms ganglia and nuclei as they relate to the nervous system.

Ganglia are clusters of neurons in the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Nuclei are complex structures of neurons in the brain. The fundamental difference between the two is that they lie in different parts of the nervous system. They are quite similar on a structural level.

8. Define plexus. Why are the lumbar and cervical regions of the spinal cord enlarged?

Indicate the spinal roots of origin of the four major nerve plexuses, and name the general body regions served by each.

Plexus is a complex mass of interconnected ganglia. The lumbar and cervical regions of the spinal cord are enlarged because, to accommodate the innervation needs of the limbs, more masses of neurons exist in these locations. The four major nerve plexuses are these: 1) the cervical plexus (C1 -- C8), which serves the neck, shoulder, arm and diaphragm, 2) the brachial plexus (C5 -- T1), which serves the pectoral girdle and the… [read more]

Nervous System the Major Structures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (315 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


What information do the ascending pathways to brain communicate? Where are the cell bodies for first-, second-, and third-order neurons for this pathway located?

7. This highly convoluted nature of the cerebrum increases the surface area to accommodate a large number of neurons and nerve cells.

8. Hypothalamus take part in neurotransmitter regulation, salt and hunger cravings, behavior and mood function, feeding organs' reflexes, and pituitary gland regulation.

9. Cerebellum coordinates muscles activity in order for them to produce smooth movement by linking with extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems as well as descending reticular formation. It therefore plays a coordination role.

10. The structures associated with limbic system comprise of anterior thalamic, hippocampus, limbic cortex, and amygdale. Its major or primary role is influencing both the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system, thereby supporting a range of body functions, such…… [read more]

Biological Psychology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (615 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Temperature Regulation

Biological psychology

Temperature regulation: A function of the brain and the body

Temperature regulation: A function of the brain and the body

As warm-blooded animals, humans and other mammals and birds have a great advantage in temperature regulation. Unlike cold-blooded animals such as reptiles, insects, and amphibians, humans are capable of moving quite quickly in very cold temperatures. The human body is not dependant upon the environment to maintain a core temperature so the body's muscles can function effectively. 2/3 of human's total energy expenditure involves maintaining body temperature. We need more fuel as a species than a frog, but we are also capable of moving faster during cold weather to obtain higher-quality sources of protein and satisfy the needs of our many fast-twitch muscles (Kalat, 2008, p.293). Constant body temperatures and better-quality fuel may also have enabled humans to obtain enough nutrients to fuel greater brain cell activity as well.

However, humans are still quite fragile and are capable of functioning at an optimal level within only a relatively limited temperature range, as when temperatures exceed 41C, protein stability decreases (Kalat, 2008, p.295). But the higher the temperature, the more muscle activity can increase. Human's body temperature at 37C thus is considered an optimal compromise to maintain homeostasis. Slightly cooler temperatures are needed to maintain optimal fertility and ensure healthy fetal development (Kalat, 2008, p.293).

The brain plays a critical function in temperature regulation. The preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (POA/AH) are critical for temperature control (Kalat, 2008, p.294). Cells react based upon the temperature of the hypothalamus -- if the hypothalamus 'feels' cold, so does the organism. Temperature receptors in the skin and spinal cord also affect sensation and animals react most strongly to temperature when both their temperature receptors and the hypothalamus are receiving similar types of stimulation.

Temperature, much like hunger…… [read more]

Neuro Signaling and the Structure of the Nervous System and Muscle Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,384 words)
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If the sodium/potassium pump were not working, an equilibrium both of charge and of Na+ a K+ ions would eventually (though gradually, due to the limited space available for permeating the membrane) be reached on both sides of the membrane. There would be no ability to form an action potential in such a situation, as there would not be any mass migration of molecules across the membrane due to an imbalanced charge or polarity. This implies that the quantity of ions that crosses the membrane during an action potential is directly related to the strength and possibly the speed fo the impulse.

The essential ion in causing the exocytosis of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic cell is Ca2+. The depolarization of the nerve terminal causes Ca2+ selective channels to open, and as there is a much higher concentration of calcium outside the cell, the influx of Ca2+ ions creates a measurable current. These Ca2+ ions are thought to bind to certain proteins that exist along the surface of synaptic vesicles; these vesicles re pushed out to create fusion. These vesicles are then drawn back into the cell and recycled for future use.


The action potential's arrival at the axon terminal causes the opening of the Ca2+ selective ion channels. The influx of Ca2+ ions then trigger the extension of the synaptic vesicles, which fuse to the cell membrane of the motor neuron and release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. The acetylcholine then diffuses along the membrane and binds to nicotonic acetylcholine receptors on the motor end plate. These receptors are ligand-gated ion channels, and acetylcholine causes them to open. These channels funnel sodium into and potassium out of the muscle cells, causing a depolarization which triggers the release of Ca2+ in the muscle, which in trun initiates muscle function.


After activation has occurred and opened a voltage-gated sodium ion channel, the influx of sodium actually pulls another gate inside the channel closed until activation occurs again. This activation cannot occur until the refractory period has passed, allowing enough action potential to build up and create a useful flow of ions that produces a significant current. The pulling shut of this gate is what prevents an action potential from occurring in the opposite direction; the inward flow of ions is never allowed to take place to the degree that the cellular environment can become positive for extended periods of time, which could then possibly trigger such an action potential were it allowed to occur.


though sensitization is an opposite process of habituation, and sensitization is an adaptive process, habituation could not properly be considered a maladaptive trait. it, too, is an adapted response that is useful and even necessary in certain circumstances. Just as sensitization would not be considered an advantageous adaptation in every synaptic response -- everything would then carry the same level of heightened response -- habituation is not always or even often a bad thing. It is necessary in aiding the… [read more]

Tissue Types That Compose the Epidermis Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  2 pages (708 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … tissue types that compose the epidermis. Name the tissue types that compose the dermis. List the major layers of the epidermis and dermis and briefly describe the individual functions of each layer.

The epidermis of skin is composed of 4 cell types, which may be stratified or squamous: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Merkel's cells, and Langerhan's cells. The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis, which consists of three major constituents: collagen, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers. The epidermis layer can have up to five strata while the dermal layer has two. Together, from the outermost to innermost, these strata are: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale in the epidermis, and the papillary and reticular layer in the dermis.

The functions of these layers are as follows:

Stratum corneum -- composed of dead cells and keratin, prevents desiccation of deeper cells

Stratum lucidum -- composed of dead, flattened keratinocytes and also melanocytes, contains high levels of melanin and helps protect against UV damage

Stratum granulosum -- layer where keratinocytes initiate keratinization and begin producing keratin

Stratum spinosum -- keratinization may also initiate at this stratum, contains spiny cells which interlock, providing additional structure to skin

Stratum basale -- continuously dividing layer of keratinocytes, basement of epidermal layer, typically one cell thick

2. In general, the integument serves a protective function to the body. Briefly describe

Integument provides functions against desiccation, prevents access from pathogenic microorganisms, mitigates UV damage, protects internal structures, and assists in temperature regulation.

3. Name the three pigments that contribute to skin color. Give a brief example of how a specific change in skin color could be used as a clinical sign for certain pathologies.

Skin color is produced by three elements: melanin (pheomelanin or eumelanin), hemoglobin, and oxyhemoglobin. Hypoxia is an example of a condition where skin color is altered by a decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin. Lack of oxygen results in dark red hemoglobin (deoxyhemoglobin), which when seen through the skin appears blue. Thus, people who are experiencing pathological hypoxia may manifest blue skin.

4. In clinical practice, drugs can be delivered by…… [read more]

Laughter Is Laughter the Best Medicine Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,639 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



Is laughter the best medicine, as the expression often states? The research findings are mixed. Some researchers, such as Ronald Berk, point to the positive benefits of laughing. They conclude that humor causes psychological and physiological changes in the body that equate to aerobic exercises. Other researchers, such as Rod Martin, are skeptical about these results. He says, at… [read more]

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