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Medical Condition Known as Lou Research Paper

… The quick shift in pressure, through use of a face mask, or mouthpiece or a tracheotomy tube, "…produces a high expiratory flow rate from the lungs, simulating a cough" (ALSA). What happens when there is "poor cough reflex"? That can lead to pooling of secretions in the lungs as well as in the back of the throat, the ALSA continues. When there are these secretions this situation can lead to the upper airway obstruction "…and/or respiratory infections, such as pneumonia" (ALSA).

How much does a person expect to have to spend to purchase a Bi-PAP machine? According to www.focusonals.com, the Bi-PAP was actually developed in the 1990s from the C-PAP ("continuous positive airway pressure") and it can cost between $2,000 and $3,000. Medicare may pay for a substantial portion of the device and some medical insurance companies will cover this device, focusonals.com explains.

The NeuRx Diaphragm Pacing System (DPS) was approved in 2011 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and it is designed to "supplement breathing efforts and help preserve diaphragm muscle function" (MDA/ALS Newsmagazine) (Madsen, 2011). It may serve as a way to delay the need for "invasive tracheotomy ventilation," and help people who still have muscle use of their diaphragm. The DPS does not require deep surgery, only "minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery, in which electrodes are…implanted in the diaphragm…and the device then activates the diaphragm muscle" (Madsen). Not only does the DPS help to supplement the ability to breathe, it delays the shrinkage of the actual diaphragm and indeed reduces the need for "invasive ventilation" (Madsen).

The cost runs upwards of $20,000, according to Michelle Pfiumm writing in the ALS Therapy Development Institute. Pfiumm goes on to suggest that the NeuRx DPS has not been "sufficiently demonstrated through clinical studies to slow respiratory decline," or even, for that matter, help improve the quality of life for the ALS patient. Are insurance companies going to be willing to shell out $20,000 for a device that is relative new on the market and hasn't truly proven to be of great help vis-a-vis the patient's need to sleep. Speaking of cost, to purchase a DynaVox eye-activated computer system a person must spend nearly $12,000, albeit there is evidence that this system helps users to "…access their communication device using their eyes" (DynaVox). "With a simple blink or by dwelling on the desired area of the screen," the ALS patient can learn to communicate once his or her motor neurons no longer kick muscles into gear.

In conclusion, the person with ALS has a choice to make: a) to use machines to help keep live flowing while there is the inevitable deterioration of the body; or b) or to let the disease run its course and accept the demise and deterioration of the body without the stress of the sound, the expense, and the other aspects of technology in this regard. For my part, I have seen the stress created by machines that are only effective temporarily and I suggest that… [read more]


Pathophysiology What Is a Functional End Artery? Case Study

… Pathophysiology

What is a functional end artery?

Right Coronary Artery: Transports blood containing oxygen to the right atrium and the ventricles. Under it is the Posterior Descending Artery, which facilitates the supply of blood with oxygen to the lower side of the septum and the left ventricle.

Left Main Coronary Artery: Transports blood to the left upper downward artery and the left diacritic divided into Left Anterior Descending Artery and Left Circumflex Artery. The former is used to supply blood with oxygen to the upper region of the septum, the walls of the atrium and the left atrium. On the other hand, the latter supplies oxygen to the ramparts of the left atrium and ventricles.

Functional end artery: refers to an artery whose terminal branches connect with those of neighboring arteries; the degree of anastomoses is ineffectual to maintain the viability of the tissue supplied in the event where occlusion of the artery occurs.

State the pathological condition that probably pre-existed in the coronary artery, and discuss the contribution that endothelium may make to its development.

The condition could be coronary thrombosis that causes the coronary artery to become narrow. This is attributed to the accumulation of fatty layers on the endothelium, thus increasing its overall thickness while reducing the effective area of coronary vessels.

3. What sensory nerves occur in the ventricle, and why is cardiac pain sometimes experienced in the arms as well as the chest.

Sensory nerve terminals (neurites) situated in the ventricles are associated with myelinated and unmyelinated afferent axons. These axons cause the cardiopulmonary nerves and vagosympathetic complexes to interlink with afferent cell bodies in nodose ganglia bilaterally. This explains why cardiac pain is occasionally in the arms and the upper body area.

4. How is it possible for the left ventricle myocardium to be ischemic when the left ventricle is full of richly oxygenated blood?

There are situations where the myocardial oxygen requirements exceed the ability of coronary artery to supply this oxygen. In other words, the myocardial oxygen supply is inadequate to meet the myocardial oxygen demands. This mismatch is normally attributed to the chronically narrowed coronary artery due to…… [read more]


Fantastic Voyage [HS130 Essay

… Occasionally, with every deep inspirations and expirations, these muscles would also support respiration. Higher up in the abdominal wall, I could see Mrs. X's kidneys! Not too far ahead, was her liver on my left side. This large organ almost extended transversely throughout the abdomen. Inside the liver were sinusoids, the entire picture of which looked like as if looking down from an airplane at a suburban neighborhood. Beneath the liver was a pouch which I guessed to have been the gallbladder. (Hansen et al., 2002)

Eventually, I reached the diaphragm. The diaphragm was a muscular organ that separated the chest from the abdomen. This muscle sheet consisted of three tunnels. These tunnels allowed the inferior vena cava, the aorta and the esophagus to pass through. As I crossed over to the other side, I noticed that the chest consisted only of two main organs: the lungs and the heart. It quickly came to my notice that something was wrong with the lower lobe of the right lung! I immediately knew then, that this was what must have been making Mrs. X sick. I quickly traced my way to this part to take a closer look. (Hansen et al., 2002)

The inferior vena cava had the lowest pressure when compared to all the other vessels that I had been to. On reaching the right atrium, I was immediately pumped into the right ventricle and instantly out again into the pulmonary artery. This vessel was much different when compared to the veins; it had no valves and its walls were thicker and it consisted of a higher pressure. I finally made it to the right lung and traced my way down to the lower lobe. (Hansen et al., 2002)

The vessels here were more permeable and consisted of the largest amount of white blood cells. Looking at the cells up close, they did not all look the same. Some were larger, some had bi-lobed nucleuses and some had multi-lobed nucleuses. Some white blood cells were carrying weapons (antibodies) and some were engulfing the microbes. These cells resembled soldiers regarding their organization skills. With the arrival of each white blood cell, they would stick to the epithelium of the vessel wall, roll over and then would squeeze through to the site of the infection. (Kumar et al., 2010)

The microbes were rod like bacteria which I guessed were responsible for making Mrs. X sick. These organisms were invading the walls of the alveoli and blood vessels, thus causing damage. Most of the white blood cells responsible for its defense were the ones that were multi-lobed (neutrophils). These cells would attach themselves to the microbe and then engulf it in a vacuole. The microbe would dissolve within these vacuoles. Some cells were throwing weapons (antibodies) at the microbes, rendering them inactive. Most of these cells were also releasing substances that were attracting other defense mechanisms. Simultaneously, the epithelial cells kept dividing, repairing the damaged cells and forming new blood vessels. These blood vessels… [read more]


Tissue Aging and the Body System Essay

… Tissue Maturation: Body System Effects

On the cellular level, the body groups similar organisms to create tissues. Such cellular tissues do not perform in isolation, but collectively, they perform a specialized function, building a larger living organism called the human… [read more]


Impact of Neurotransmitters on Physical and Mental Behavior Essay

… Psychology

Impact of Neurotransmitters on Physical and Mental Behavior

Neurotransmitters are free floating chemicals that are located in the brain. They transmit signals in the synapse controlling a lot of a person's physical and mental behavior. There are four major neurotransmitters: 1) Dopamine, 2) Acetylcholine, 3) Norepinephrine and 4) Serotonin. These chemicals allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses. They are also found at the axon endings of motor neurons, where they motivate the muscle fibers. And they and their close relatives are formed by some glands such as the pituitary and the adrenal glands (Carlson, 2011).

Dopamine

Dopamine is a vital neurotransmitter that controls several key functions in the brain, such as motor output, motivation and reward, learning and memory, and endocrine regulation. Dopamine does not mediate fast synaptic transmission, but rather adjusts it by triggering slow-acting effects by way of the activation of dopamine receptors (Rondo, Hageman & Van Craenenbroeck, 2010). The dopamine system is important in: behavioral switching, incorporation of emotive to motor behaviors, the four F's of appetitive behaviors like feeding, fighting, fleeing and sexual behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and extra pyramidal (extra-motor) control (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).

Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter formed by neurons referred to as cholinergic neurons. In the peripheral nervous system acetylcholine plays a role in skeletal muscle movement, as well as in the regulation of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. In the central nervous system acetylcholine is thought to be involved in learning, memory, and mood.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl coenzyme A by way of the action of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and becomes packaged into membrane-bound vesicles. After the appearance of a nerve signal at the termination of an axon, the vesicles combine with the cell membrane, causing the discharge of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. For the nerve signal to carry on, acetylcholine must disperse to another nearby neuron or muscle cell, where it will bind and make active a receptor protein (Acetylcholine, 2011).

The acetylcholine…… [read more]


MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging Uses Research Paper

… (Weiss, 1997)

MRI has become increasingly common and is of great demand in the diagnoses of many diseases. Edward Purcell, in the 1930's (Weiss, 1997), discovered NMR which later turned into MRI. For further discoveries concerning the MRI, Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology (Weiss, 1997). Later in 1970, Raymond Damadian (Weiss, 1997) who was a medical doctor and research scientist discovered the usage of the MRI to medical diagnosis.

The usage of MRI has been popular ever since. 22,000 MRI machines were sold worldwide in 2002 and MRI scans were rapidly in demand. (Weiss, 1997). MRI scans are still being carried out and has become widely applicable to medicine. An MRI can detect the most crucial of all processes: changes of the water content among tissues and organs in the human body. With advanced computer processing, detailed images of pathological changes can be observed. With discoveries of many new diseases, an MRI scan can help diagnose a variety of medical conditions, particularly soft tissue diseases. For instance, abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord, causes of pelvic pain in women, diseases of the liver and so on. (Weiss, 1997)

This technological innovation is still used by doctors and it seems that it will continue to give best results in the future as well. In this modern world where technology is a necessity, MRI has proven to be one of the most reliable machines in the history of mankind. (2009)

References

Weiss, L.D. (1997). Private Medicine and Public Health: Profit, Politics, and Prejudice in the American Health Care Enterprise. Boulder, CO. West view Press. References Magnetic Resonance…… [read more]


Endocrine System to Include Dwarfism Gigantism and Addison's Disease Book Report

… Diseases

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system comprises eight chief glands all through the body. These glands produce hormones. Hormones are chemical couriers. They move through the bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work gradually and influence body processes from… [read more]


Form Follows Function in Forensics Biology Essay

… MACROBUTTON DoFieldClick [Student's Last Name]

MACROBUTTON DoFieldClick

MACROBUTTON DoFieldClick [Instructor's Name]

MACROBUTTON DoFieldClick [Course Title]

How Can we Tell if a Human Skeleton is Male or Female without the Pelvis?

Evolution has determined that males and females develop using different genetic mechanisms which influence the action of hormones on the body. Females primarily produce estrogen, and in smaller amounts, testosterone. Testosterone is a hormone that makes things grow bigger; in men testosterone is produced on the order of 10 times more than in women. Testosterone, in men, is the major hormone involved in the sexual development of the testes and prostate. It also causes men to grow bigger muscles (Baum and Crespi). The human skeleton also develops as part of the hormone growth-mediated process, with men developing larger skeletons, ostensibly to carry the additional muscles needed for survival and protection of the female and offspring. Females tend to have smaller skeletons more suited to childbearing and childrearing (Liu, Sartor and Nader).

In mammals there are two genders, male and female. Males provide one half of the genetic material through their sperm, and females provide the other needed half of the human genetic material in their eggs. Together, life begins. Males of mammal species do not carry young; that is, they do not become pregnant. Females carry the fertilized embryo to maturity, resulting in live birth of an infant. The female body is evolutionarily designed for this role, having wider pelvic bones to support the growing baby in utero (Silva, Botelho and Prado). The ability to tell females from males when only skeletal material is present can be done by examining the pelvic bones. Female pelvic bones are wider, more horizontally placed, and broader. Male pelvic bones are more vertical, narrower, and less broad. However when the pelvic bones are not present for analysis, other skeletal clues must be ascertained to determine gender (Kim, Sung and Song).

Other parts of the human skeleton can refer to the gender of the person, though the pelvic bones are the best indicator. The skull can also be used to differentiate between genders. The skull of males is generally larger than that of females. The chin tends to be more square in males than females. The brow ridges are larger and broader, and the mastoid projections behind the ears tend to be larger in males. Due to the increased muscle mass of males, there is also a more defined muscle attachment ridge on the back of the skull where neck muscles would attach. Conversely in females the chin is narrower, the skull is smaller, orbital ridges are sharper and narrower, the forehead has a more vertical angle, mastoid processes are smaller, and muscle attachment ridges are less pronounced on the back/base of the skull (Silva, Botelho and Prado).

Other features that tend to differentiate…… [read more]


Kinesiology -- Human Kinetics Dunking Term Paper

… Both feet should be on the ground about a feet away from the hoop.

Hold the ball with both hands and jump as high as you can.

Extend the arms and push the ball through the basket.

Land softly on… [read more]


Stress on Kidneys and Resistance Essay

… The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

The GAS is a universal three staged response to stress introduced by Dr. Hans Selye; a very well-known Canadian endocrinologist. It has a colossal impact on the kidneys and the renal system. However, before fully understanding its impact, one must familiarize themselves with the renal system itself.

The Renal System

The renal system, sometimes also referred to as the urinary or the excretory system includes a group of organs that work together to produce, store and release urine. The kidneys located at the back of the abdominal cavity are vital to the proper functioning of the renal system. Some of the main functions carried out by the renal system in a body includes controlling the body's water balance, regulation of blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, regulation of blood electrolyte balance, excretion of metabolic wastes such as urea, and creatinine, regulating body's acid base balance, regulation of red blood cells production via the hormone erythropoietin. (Birmingham City University January 2011)

"According to Selye, there are three stages to the General Adaptation Syndrome. These include:

Stage 1: Alarm Reaction:

This is the first stage of GAS. Here the body releases adrenaline and a variety of other psychological mechanisms in order to combat the stress and to stay in control. This is sometimes also called fight or flight response. Here, any physical or mental trauma will trigger an immediate set of reactions that combat the stress. Because the immune system is initially depressed, normal levels of resistance are lowered, making the body more susceptible to infection and disease. If the stress is not severe or long-lasting, you tend to bounce back and recover rapidly.

Stage 2: Resistance:

Eventually, sometimes rather quickly, a body adapts to stress, and there's actually a tendency to become more resistant to illness and disease. The immune system works overtime during this period, trying to keep up with the demands placed upon it. Overtime, the mind becomes complacent about the situation and assumes that it can resist the effects of stress indefinitely. Therein lays the danger; believing that the mind is immune from the effects of stress, hence typically failing to do anything about it.

Stage 3: Exhaustion:

Because a human body is not able to maintain homeostasis and the long-term resistance needed to combat stress, it invariably develops a sudden drop in its resistance level. No one experiences exactly the same resistance and tolerance to stress, but everyone's immunity at some point collapses following prolonged stress reactions. Life sustaining mechanisms slow down and sputter, organ systems begin to break down, and stress-fighting reserves finally succumb to what Selye called diseases of adaptation." (Health News Network)

Many scientists now consider the GAS as one of the leading causes of stress ultimately leading to severe health problems. By changing the way our body normally functions, stress disrupts the natural balance which is crucial for one's well-being. "It can also subtract years from our lives by speeding up the aging process. Resistance is the name… [read more]


Hematology Is the Branch Research Paper

… with A and B type blood being genetically dominant to O. Since it is a recessive blood type and therefore neutral, O-type blood can be used in all patients, even if they are not the same. O is called the "universal donor" because even someone with AB blood can receive O. blood successfully. There are also Rh factors which determine if a blood type is positive or negative. What this means is that a specific blood protein is looked for in human blood strains. Whether a person does or does not possess this protein will determine if the blood type is positive or negative.

Blood is pumped throughout the body through the cardiovascular system, controlled by the heart. The left ventricle pumps the blood into the rest of the body from the heart and it circulates through the body to return to the heart on the right side of the organ. Besides carrying oxygen, plasma also ensures that hormones are circulated and waste products are removed from the body.

Doctors specializing in hematology are logically called hematologists. Blood diseases are any that can affect production of blood or any of the components of blood such as the cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, and the function of coagulation. According to the American Society of Hematology (2010), hematologists are beginning to prove that other cancers and ailments can begin with the blood stream. Therefore, one of the first tests doctors usually perform on ailing patients is a CBC or complete blood count. This information is used as a building block to investigate. Like any part of the body, chemical, viral, bacterial, or genetic influences can cause complications in the blood which create health problems. Platelets are an extremely important component of the blood stream and the body's regenerative abilities. However, there can be dangers associated with the clots. For example, a blood clot that forms internally can block the flow of blood which will, in turn, cut off the flow of oxygen to the part of the body where the clot is located. This can lead to paralysis in that limb or even death if the clot affects the arteries of the brain.

The base purpose of blood in the human body is to transport oxygen throughout the body. However, it is also responsible for fighting disease, for healing injuries, and for sending nutrients into body parts that need all while extracting waste products. For all these reasons, blood is an extremely important part of human anatomy. Without blood, the human body simply cannot function which is why the loss of blood is of such importance and the care of injury so immediately necessary. Blood loss is a very serious issue and can lead to grave danger. The components of the blood stream all work together in their assigned roles to allow the body to function and to purge the body of invaders which would could be harmful.

References:

"Blood Basics" (2010). American Society of Hematology.

Brass, Lawrence (2010). "Understanding and Evaluating Platelet… [read more]


Calcium Neuro the Role Essay

… Calcium Neuro

The Role of Calcium in Neurotransmission

Calcium channels and calcium ions, due largely to the significant positive charge of calcium ions (Ca++), have been demonstrated by empirical evidence that began mounting decades ago to be highly important in neurotransmission at the chemical synapses (Katz & Miledi, 1968; Dodge & Rahamimoff, 1967; Augustine & Charlton, 1986). At chemical synapses, changes in calcium ion concentration within and external to the terminal axon membrane create significant action potentials, and the concentration's degrees of variance demonstrate a non-linear impact on action potential that increases on an exponential scale (Katz & Miledi, 1968; Augustine & Charlton, 1986; Dodge & Rahamimoff, 1967). This paper will summarize and review three articles three article that discuss the importance of calcium ions in neurotransmission and especially in their presynaptic placement and functioning.

Katz and Miledi (1968) conducted a series of experiments using from neuromuscular structures and demonstrated quite clearly the role that calcium plays in the production of neural impulses and resultant muscular action. Through these experiments, Katz and Miledi (1968) showed that manipulating the intervals between neural impulses and thus altering the amount of time calcium ions were held in suspension to create depolarization had a significant impact on the degree of neural activation and ultimate muscular movement. For example, increasing the amount of time in which depolarization occurred by a simple factor of two, increased muscular movement fifty fold (Katz & Miledi, 1968). Their experiments demonstrated the high degree to which calcium facilitates and sets parameters for neural functioning (Katz & Miledi, 1968).

Slightly earlier research into the role of calcium in frog neuromuscular junction's function was…… [read more]


Digestive and Absorptive and Transport Mechanisms Essay

… Digestive System

Understanding the Mechanisms of the Digestive System

All of the workings of the muscles, nerves, and in fact all of the organs and systems of the human body depend upon energy and nutrients for their continued operation. This energy and the vast majority of nutrients are pulled directly from the food that is ingested, making the operation of this system vital to the survival and success of the individual as a whole. The digestive system works in a manner that is fairly direct in some aspects, and yet the system as a whole is highly complex and requires multiple steps and the involvement of many direct and peripheral organs in order to efficiently achieve its purpose. Essentially, the digestive system is concerned with ingesting food items, breaking them down into usable nutritive components, absorbing these components so that they can be shipped around the body to where they are needed, and ultimately expelling any unused portion of the ingested food along with certain other waste materials/digestive by products.

This entire process begins in the mouth, where several things occur to begin the digestive process. First, the jaw and teeth are used to mechanically break down the food, creating smaller pieces that become a sort of mush due to the secretion of saliva and mucous (NGS 2010). An enzyme in saliva, salivary amylase, begins to break down a type of carbohydrate known as starches, which changes them from polysaccharides to disaccharides, and is a form of chemical (as opposed to mechanical) digestion (Discovery 2000). The mucous secretion helps to hold the chewed food in a given mouthful into a ball, which eases the food's journey on the it's next step through the digestive process -- the esophagus.

No real digestion or absorption occurs in the esophagus, but it is still an essential part of the digestive system and can be used to illustrate and explain one of the most basic functions that the digestive system performs -- the movement of food through the body. Most of the large, hollow organs that make up the primary part of the digestive system have smooth muscles in their linings that allow for alternating contractions and relaxations, which effectively moves food through these organs in its various stages of digestion (Enchanted Learning 2010). The esophagus does nothing but move food in this manner, taking it from the mouth and pushing it through a series of well-timed contractions and relaxations that occur in a wave-like motion down the length of this tube to the stomach (NDDIC 2008). This is the reason it is still possible to swallow upside down -- gravity isn't doing the work, the esophagus is.

It is in the stomach that digestion really begins in full force, though this consists more of the breaking down of food rather than the actual absorption of nutrients. The acid mixture that exists in the stomach is highly corrosive and turns food from a still largely solid state to a more liquid and homogenous mass… [read more]


Neuroscience Hormones and the Nervous Term Paper

… At times, the manner in which things are accomplished seems almost arbitrary due to the complexity of the body's operations. That is, the many different individual hormonal mechanisms and the complexity of their interactions with the electrical triggers sent by the nervous system seem to have occurred almost through happenstance. A more direct and consistent system for creating responses and achieving certain functions would make more sense, it would seem, yet the body has evolved specifically to coordinate and successfully manipulate a range of chemical and electrical messengers instead. I'm sure that a more in-depth study of the endocrine and nervous systems and their interactions than what is supplied in the text (and the brief supplemental online research that I engaged in) would make these processes seem far more elegant and fine-tuned, but it still amazes me that some seemingly basic functions can require so much complexity to be brought to fruition.

The extent of the influence of the endocrine system on the human body is also amazing. The sheer number of different hormones that exist and their highly specialized purpose (with very general and far-reaching effects) is a fascinating feature of the human body. The fact that the administering of naturally occurring hormones as artificial therapies can actually cause major risks as side effects is also intriguing. Hormones are something that are vital to many processes affecting our growth, health, and happiness, yet the slightest imbalance in the natural amounts of these hormones can have a very adverse effect. I suppose this is proof that there really can be too much of a good thing.… [read more]


Role of Manipulative Thrust Techniques in the Management of Low Back Pain Data Analysis Chapter

… Manipulative Thrust Techniques in Lower Back Pain

Manipulative thrust techniques are used by osteopaths and chiropractors to make adjustments in the lower spinal region of the lower back and other joints in the body. Osteopaths call it adjustments and chiropractors… [read more]


Psychological Effects of Chronic Stress Research Paper

… Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress

Personality

Stress can cause both physical and physiological affects on a person. Prolonged chronic stress has been shown to cause a number of different illnesses and problems. There have been many studies done that have… [read more]


Magnetic Resonance System on Patients Essay

… The physical effects are classified by Hurlbert (2000) as below:

Paraparesis: A slight degree of paralysis affecting the lower extremities

Paraplegia: Complete paralysis of both lower extremities and usually the lower trunk. The upper extremities are not involved.

Quadriparesis: Partial paralysis of all four limbs (arms, legs)

Quadriplegia (or Tetraplegia): Complete paralysis of all four limbs

Paresis: Partial paralysis

Paralysis: Partial or complete loss of motor function

Paresthesias: Abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling.

Bearing similarities in the conditions experienced in the brain and spine injury patients, the response given tend to be similar. The care is both psychological and physical. They are meant assist the patients regain the use of their psychological and physical capabilities.

Response strategies/management of brain injury patients

The patient can undergo externally induced stepping movements applied, especially the paraplegia patients. This can bring about rhythmic locomotion like response.

Patients can also undergo upper extremity reconstructive surgery which involves utilization of unaffected but nonessential muscle to provide a lost function in another part of the body.

Functional neuromuscular stimulation can also be used as a response strategy. This involves electrical stimulation of intact peripheral nerves which can bring about contraction in muscles paralyzed by upper motor neuron injury. Stimulation can be achieved by implanted electrodes. Such stimulation can be useful for exercise and for function.

Psychological adjustment is influenced by how patients are treated during the rehabilitation stage. First response may be made with the individual soon after a spinal chord injury or in the early days of hospitalization. Working with patients at this early stage ought to initially be slow, restricted to building a relationship and gathering information. It is critical to provide as much reassurance and respect as is important.

Krause and Rohe, (1998) recommend the following as ways of managing psychological depression that may result from injury of the brain or the spine;

Recognize the symptoms and organize a prompt referral to an experienced mental health clinician, such as a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist to determine the severity of the symptoms. Persistent symptoms may require more specialized treatment and a revised diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Depression.

Let patients know that these are commonly experienced after a traumatic and life threatening event, and a normal re action to such a stressful situation.

Encourage the person to talk about what they are experiencing with family and friends. Discussion may help reduce any negative appraisals of his/her reaction during the experience.

Zejdlik (1992) suggests that "social support will be critical for helping the individual cope after a trauma has occurred. It may be necessary to identify potential sources of support and facilitate support from others like partners, family, friends, work colleagues, peer support."

Brain and spine injury patients show identical conditions physically and psychologically so care should be accorded to them to assist them cope with life. It is paramount to note that anyone can be a victim of brain or spinal injury hence inalienable assistance as discussed above should be accorded.

References… [read more]


Interrelatedness of Diseases Thesis

… Interrelatedness of Diseases

GRIM CAUSES, GRIM CONSEQUENCES

Type-2 Diabetes

Also called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, this is a chronic condition in the body's metabolism of sugar or glucose (Mayo Clinic Staff 2009). The body resists the effects or insulin or… [read more]


Assessing and Managing Patients With Musculoskeletal Conditions Essay

… ¶ … Judge, N.L. (2007). "Assessing and managing patients with musculoskeletal conditions," Nursing standard, 22(1)

The musculoskeletal system is one of the most extensive in the human body, performing many of the basic functions necessary to a functional life and comprising the majority of the human body's mass (Judge 2007). Made up of the bones, muscles, and joints, the musculoskeletal system provides the maintenance of body shape, supports and protects other systems and structures within the body, allows for movement -- including breathing, stores calcium and phosphate, and produces essential blood cells (Judge 2007). Of course, each of the vital functions performed by the musculoskeletal system is also susceptible to degeneration and disease, leading to a variety of symptom presentations. In her 2007 Nursing standards article, Nicola L. Judge provides an excellent overview of the anatomy, functions, and various common diseases and presentations of the musculoskeletal system, allowing the working nurse to more efficiently diagnose and treat patients who present with musculoskeletal conditions.

The three elements of the musculoskeletal system -- bones, joints, and muscles -- are highly interconnected and interrelated in the body, both in function and in direct physical structure. The underlying physical cause of a disease, then, often results in symptoms affecting each component of the musculoskeletal system. In her explanation of various diseases and the methods for assessing patients with musculoskeletal complaints, Judge does not often point out this relationship explicitly. Instead, by using rather broad but to-the-point descriptions of some of the more common conditions arising within the musculoskeletal system, an understanding of the entire system and the possible presented symptoms is allowed to emerge gradually.

This is certainly the case with the first condition listed by the author, osteoarthritis. Affecting an estimated eighty-five percent of the population at some point in their lives, this condition is marked by a reduction in joint tissue, leading to the eventual exposure of bone and a lack of articular cartilage, which cause pain, reduced mobility in the affected joints, and thus reduced functional ability (Judge 2007). This information is presented succinctly and clearly in the article, followed by the standard diagnostic procedure (a simple X-ray of the affected joint) (Judge 2007). It seems to have been the author's intent with this article to eliminate any interpretation in favor of a comprehensive (though not exhaustive) understanding of the simple facts surrounding common musculoskeletal diseases and complaints, which has surprisingly little or no detrimental effect on the article's overall readability.

There is also a heavy emphasis on the functionality of the…… [read more]


Skin Blood Flow in Human Adult Thermoregulation How and Why it Works Research Proposal

… Skin Blood Flow

Thermoregulation is the regulation of temperature. More concretely it is the maintenance of a particular temperature of the living body. Organisms that do not have thermoregulation and protective functions would have been eliminated through natural selection. There… [read more]


Specific Nerves and Muscles Thesis

… Stepping Up One Step and Reaching Up

After making a conscious decision to step up one step, the brain starts working on autopilot. A message (via electrical impulse) is sent from the cerebellum -- which handles such practiced movements as stepping up -- down the spinal cord and along the correct periphery nerves to the leg muscles (pbs.org). Chemical transmitters in the spaces or synapses between nerve cells allow for the electrical impulse to be rapidly transmitted, to the point that action feels almost instantaneous with thought (pbs.org). This is still only the most basic process involved in stepping, however; though the interplay of the neurotransmitters is somewhat complex between nerves, it basically consists of certain positively and negatively charged atoms or ions -- especially sodium, calcium, and potassium -- moving in and out of the nerve cell membranes, creating an imbalance in charge that results in an electric current (Freudenrich 2009). When this electrical impulse hits the muscles it is targeting, things get a lot more complicated.

At the neuromuscular junction, the small gap (synapse) between the end of the motor neuron and the muscle fiber, a process similar to that which occurs between nerve cells takes place. A chemical neurotransmitter travels from the nerve cell to receptors on the muscle, where it binds and starts a reaction across the entire muscle tissue, creating an action potential in the muscle by releasing other chemical messengers that find their way into the individual cells of the muscle fiber through the T-tubules (Freudenrich 2009). In this way, a mixture of interrelated electric and chemical signals are need to transmit the impule for movement from the brain, through the nerve cells, and into the actual muscle tissue. Even in the muscle tissue, however, the line between a chemical and electric reaction is a rather thin one. The processes are too linked together in the ways they work on the human body to be considered separately -- but more on that later.

So far, the process as described could be referring to any muscle movement. There are of course very specific muscles, with specific actions, that are used when stepping up one step. The bones that must be moved are first the femur, the major bone of the thigh that attaches to the hip with a ball-and-socket joint, which in turn will draw up the tibia and fibula (the bones of the lower leg) (Cluett 2009). The muscle that accomplishes this is he quadriceps, which runs along the front of the thigh and draws it up (raising the knee and rotating the femur forward and up in the hip socket) when it contracts; though the tibia and fibula are involved in the raising of the leg, they and the calf muscles to which they are attached do not really perform any work. In raising the body up on the step, however, the calf muscles would tighten, as would the hamstring (which works in opposition to the quadriceps) in order to hold the leg… [read more]


Body Cavities Research Proposal

… ¶ … Human Body Cavity

The internal human body cavity is the central mass of human anatomy and contains all the major organs. The upper region is incased within a skeletal cage growing out of the spinal column designed to protect the most important organs that are critical for life. The rib cage surrounds the two lobes of the lungs and the heart that lies in-between

them just slightly to the left of the spine (Iazzetti & Rigutti, 2007). Immediately below the rib cage, the stomach lies close to the middle of the central mass flanked by the liver occupying the right side of the major cavity and the much smaller spleen on the other side of the stomach. Two kidneys lie below the liver and spleen and toward the rear of the torso (Iazzetti & Rigutti, 2007).

The rest of the space in body cavity is taken up by approximately fifteen feet of small intestine and three or four feet of large intestine. The…… [read more]


Functions of the Skeletal System Essay

… ¶ … Functions of the Skeletal System

When one thinks about the skeletal system, the function of support is the first thing that comes to mind. However, the skeletal system serves other functions as well. It supplies a place for muscles to attach to allow for movement. It serves to protect the soft tissue from harm. It serves as a storage reservoir for minerals. It is also the place where hemopoeisis takes occurs. The following will explore these five important functions in greater detail.

The first function of the skeletal system is to provide support for the body. Without our skeletal system, we would be little more blobs of tissue on the ground. The purpose of support is the most obvious function of the skeletal system. The skeletal system also allows us to move. Muscles attach to bones, much like a set of pulleys to help us move our skeletal system. This complex system allows us to move and perform the many tasks that comprise our daily lives.

The skeletal system also protects soft tissues. The skeleton is divided into tow major sections. The upper portion is called the axial skeleton and consists of the skull, spinal column, ribs, breastbone, and hyoid bone. The lower portion is called the appendicular skeleton and includes the upper extremities, lower extremities, hips, and pelvis. Without the skeleton vital organs would be vulnerable.

Minerals that are necessary for a number of other functions are stored in the bones such as calcium and phosphorus. The skeletal system helps to regulate release of these substances into the blood system, assuring that a future supply is available when needed. The skeletal system is also important in hemopoeisis, the production of blood cells.

The skeletal system serves many functions other than support. It is an important part of the chemical reactions that make up the human anatomy. As one can see, the skeletal system performs many vital functions within the body.

Scenario Analysis

Julie is mountain climbing with a group of friends when she slips, falls, and bumps the left side of her head on a rock. She gets up slowly, and is dazed but otherwise appears unhurt. She feels able to proceed, and the climb continues. An hour later, Julie gets a severe headache and experiences a ringing in her ears. She starts having trouble speaking, and soon loses consciousness. Before medical personnel can reach the scene, Julie dies. What was the likely cause of the death?

The most likely cause of death was a concussion caused by the blow to the head. Julie exhibits one of the key first signs of a concussive blow; she is dazed when she gets up. Her slow movement is another sign that the blow was not as minor as she thought. Concussions are graded according to severity. A grade 0 shows only a headache and difficulty concentrating. A grade 1 shows a dazed feeling lasting less than a minute. Grade 2 concussion symptoms last much longer and include cloudy senses.… [read more]


Vitruvian Man Thesis

… Vitruvian Man

The concept of the Vitruvian Man has its origins not with Leonardo da Vinci, as many may belief, given the fact that his name is usually associated with the famous image of the Vitruvian Man, but with a Roman architect, Marcus Vitruvius, who published a treatise on architecture in 1 BCE, referred to as De Architectura. The concept of the Vitruvian Man is presented in Book III, where Marcus Vitruvius points out that "in the members of a temple there ought to be the greatest harmony in the symmetrical relations of the different parts to the general magnitude of the whole," continuing throughout the subsequent paragraph in showing that the proportions of man are scientifically determined and related one with the other.

Vitruvius, as a true Pythagorean, interested in figures and numbers, the relationship between these and how they affect one's existence, used the proportions between the different parts of the body as a mean of designing and constructing temples during the Roman times and in proposing a human model approach to temple construction, with this model being believed to be a true expression of perfection during his time.

The justification that Vitruvius used to explain this perfection was related to the two geometric forms believed to be perfect during Antiquity: the square and the circle. In Vitruvius's explanations, a human individual could perfectly fit into both these two shapes, with his legs and arms outstretched. This gave a perfect explanation for why the human body was perfectly proportioned.

The Renaissance period brought about a return to some of the values and perceptions of the Antiquity, as individuals, coming out of the Middle Ages, began to rediscover the values of the past. This is how Leonardo da Vinci, a true man of the Renaissance, with diverse interests going from painting to medicine and to anatomy, including human proportions, as well as architectural proportions, discovered the Vitruvian Man, as it was included in the architecture books by Vitruvius.

The idea of architectural proportions, as related to the human body, were translated by Leonardo da Vinci into the drawing of the Vitruvian Man, aimed at becoming and showing the perfection of man. He puts into drawing the proportions mentioned in Vitruvius's book De Architectura, notably in book 3, chapter I, 2nd paragraph: "The human body that the face from the chin to the top of the forehead and the roots of the hair is a tenth part; also the palm of the hand from the wrist to the top of the middle finger is as much; the head from the chin to the crown, an eighth part; from the top of the breast with the bottom of the neck to the roots of the hair, a sixth part." The paragraph continues in a similar manner providing the appropriate proportions between each of the human body parts.

The sensation of movement comes from the fact that the individual is projected both in the circle and the square, which also creates an… [read more]


Finding Errors Research Proposal

… ¶ … NPR Health and Science special on All Things Considered entitled "Summer Science: Studying Mosquitoes and Corn" is addressed to a general audience. Scientific jargon is understandably avoided in the segment on corn because most listeners only want and need to learn about the general concepts behind corn biology, physiology, and reproduction. However, in the process of oversimplifying corn physiology and reproduction, the farmer speaking to NPR made a few key errors. Using the term "ears" for the female corn inflorescences is understandable, and using the common term "silks" for what are essentially elongated stigmas on the female inflorescences makes sense when the radio audience is NPR listeners without a background in plant physiology. Unfortunately, both the farmer and the interviewer confuse the silk with the tassel: when in fact the former is the pollen receptor, or stigma, on the female plant whereas the tassel is the male inflorescence, or cluster of flowers. The tassel (male inflorescence) contains pollen grains that fertilize the silks (stigmas), which are on…… [read more]


History of Radiology Thesis

… History Of Radiology

The field of radiology has drastically changed since the discovery of x-rays. Today radiology is not just limited as a diagnostics tool but interventional radiology is the forefront treatment for many serious diseases. Today's radiologists are not relegated to diagnostic roles but are actively involved in caregiving.

Radiology has evolved a long way since the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm roentgen back in 1895. Today, the field of radiology is a comprehensive medical specialty which is not just limited to diagnostic imaging using x-rays, ultrasound, MRI, etc., but also constitutes interventional treatment methods such as angiography, angioplasty, radio frequency ablation, embolization etc. Particularly, in the treatment of vascular diseases and cancer, interventional radiology has become an effective and minimally invasive therapeutic approach. A brief history would help us get better insight into the timeline and the developments of new and important diagnostic and therapeutic tools in the field of radiology.

X-rays and Fluoroscopy

Wilhelm roentgen, the German physicist, discovered x-rays in 1895 creating what would be a revolution in medicine. Highly recognized for his achievement, the scientist was duly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1905 for his startling discovery, which was to be the precursor to modern medical diagnostic tools. It took not much time to understand the usefulness and the applications of x-rays to medical and other scientific domains. X-ray was one of the very first non-invasive tools that allowed a physician to look inside the human body without opening it. Soon after this discovery of x-rays followed the development of fluoroscopes and Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the designer of the first commercial fluoroscope using calcium tungstate as the florescent material. In 1896 it is reported that Edison and his workers had to screen more than 1800 chemical substances before arriving at calcium tungstate as the ideal material. [Otto Glassner, pg.236] in 1913, the Coolidge hot cathode tube became a standard x-ray vacuum tube with improvements over the original Crookes tube. Radiographic films appeared in 1918 replacing the previously used glass medium. However, the early radiologists were exposed to dangerous overdoses and many fatalities occurred due to occupational radiation. Only much later in the 1950's, with the development of x-ray image intensifiers and television camera did fluoroscopists find it safer as they could observe the images from a different room without the risk of exposure. [Christensen, pg. 166]

CT Scanners Ultrasound and MRI

Next major development in radiology was the invention of the CT Scanner by the British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield in the year 1972. The CT scanner employs x-rays to generate images from multiple angles and then uses the computer to produce a cross sectional image which greatly improves the diagnostics. Modern whole body CT scanners are faster, use low radiation and produce high resolution cross sectional images. The 1980's saw yet another revolution in medical diagnostics with the invention of the MRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as opposed to CT scans does not use x-rays but magnetism. [Peterborough and Stamford Hospitals NHS Foundation… [read more]


Human Brain Is a Unique Creation Term Paper

… Human brain is a unique creation - it is wonderfully made to enable us to think, plan, move, see, speak, hear, taste, smell and imagine. It is the central organ of sensation, thought and the true seat of intelligence. The brain is responsible for the major functions of the body in order to survive. It is the one in charged of controlling the body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and breathing. The human brain accepts and processes information through our senses - seeing, smelling, hearing, touching, and tasting. Even our capacity to handle physical motion when we do our daily activities is controlled by our brain. It dictates the parameter the way we talk, walk, sit, run, and perform other locomotors. It also has coordinating and regulating functions that allow us to use our logic, provide reasoning, experience emotions, and even to dream.

Specifically, the functions of the human brain include the Limbic System, Sensory System (Visual System, Olfactory System, Gustatory System, Auditory System, and Somatosensory System), Motor System, and Associative System. According to the Discovery Channel, it is the "genes that dictate the basic structure of the brain's network" (September, 2007).

The average human brain weighs about three pounds. At birth, the human brain weighs less than a pound. Studies show that the human brain is composed of roughly around 100 billion neurons, which are linked to as many as 10,000 other neurons. The Neuroglia, which is also known as the "nerve glue," is a type of brain cells that "guide neurons during fetal development" (Enchanted Learning). As a child grows, the number of cell remains relatively stable, but the cells grow in size and the number of connections increases. The same thing with our capacity for learning - it is greatest when we are young, and as we grow older, it diminishes. The human brain reaches its full size at about 6 years of age.

The human brain, just like the brain of all animals, is composed of different parts such as the brain stem, cerebellum, hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and the cerebrum. These are further classified into major internal and major external parts. The major internal parts of the human brain are Cingulate Sulcus, Corpus Callosum, Diencephalon, Anterior Commissure, Temporal Lobe, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla, and Cerebellum. On the other hand, the major external parts of the human brain are Frontal Lobe, Pareital Lobe, temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Brain Stem, and Cerebellum.

Of the many complex functions of the human brain that we have mentioned above, have you ever imagine, how our brain looks like? A fresh, living human brain is actually very soft, jelly-like and deep red. It does not become firm and grey until it has been preserved with various chemicals. It is about the size of a small head of cauliflower. The human brain takes up 1% of the body weight. Almost 20% of the oxygen in the body and 20% of the blood flow is consumed by our brain. It begins to die in… [read more]


Cardiovascular System Functions Term Paper

… Cardiovascular System

Functions of the Cardiovascular System

Food substances, transported by the blood, include: amino acids, fatty acids, mineral salts and vitamins from a person's intestines to the cells of his/her body.

Waste substances, transported by the blood, for produced… [read more]


Elements and Buffer Systems Term Paper

… Buffer Systems in the Body

Understanding Buffer Systems in the Body

The body of an adult human consists approximately 60% water. Water within the body is divided into that which is contained within cellular walls and that which is located… [read more]


Ivan Pavlov in "Lecture Xxiii Term Paper

… Ivan Pavlov

In "Lecture XXIII," Ivan Pavlov describes several experiments conducted on dogs, and how these could help to elucidate a variety of psychological conditions and their concomitant physiological symptoms. Firstly, Pavlov distinguishes between two conditions in dogs that produce pathological disturbance; these are the excitatory and the inhibitory processes. In comparing the results of his experiments to conditions found in human beings, Pavlov concludes that these processes are also responsible for nervous and psychic disturbances in human beings. Specifically, strong and weak stimuli were used to determine the reaction in dogs. These were varied according to the specific cortical constitution of the dogs.

Pavlov's experiments are useful in terms of the light they shed on human neurotic and psychological conditions. Indeed, his work set the precedent for future experiments to help humanity in its advances to understand various conditions not only of the human brain, but of the entire physiology. The link that Pavlov attempts to make between human and animal has paved the way for further experimentation such as those on primates.

Pavlov's choice of dogs for his hypothesis relating to the link between human and animal conditioning is interesting. Dogs are very simple psychological creatures as compared to human beings. The more logical choice for experimental animals would probably have been primates, as commonly accepted today. His reasoning regarding the human-animal link in terms of experimentation however does make sense. Furthermore his logical and consistent methodology appears to be scientifically sound.

Another issue that Pavlov raises is hypnotism, comparing the accepted form of animal hypnotism during the time of his writing with that of human beings. Once again, he draws interesting parallels between the effect of various stimuli between human beings and a relatively simple animal such as the dog. After a description of animal hypnotism with the help of repetitive movement,…… [read more]


Stem Cell Stems Cells Term Paper

… Stem Cell

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique… [read more]


Acclimatization Ascending to Higher Altitudes Requires Term Paper

… Acclimatization

Ascending to higher altitudes requires the body to make several compensatory changes. This process is known as acclimatization, and it involves various physiological systems adapting to lower levels of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). There are acute responses to… [read more]


MI: Myocardial Infarction Term Paper

… Although the heart will retain a scar, many people go on to lead quite normal lives after recuperation. Try to take it easy, and rest assured that Paul will be taken care of to the best of our ability."

Question 3: When you analyzed his ECG, you referred to several different leads, such as lead I. What are leads?

Leads are the Electrodes that are typically attached to the chest, neck, arms, and legs to record the pathway of electrical impulses through the heart muscle. The results of this can tell us how the heart is functioning, and can also pinpoint specific problems.

Question 4: Why is it possible to record an ECG on the body surface without direct access to the heart?

Within the body, there is a natural electrical system. This causes the heart to pump at regular intervals to the various parts of the body. Because this is an electrical process, we can get the electrical "map" or picture of what is going on by measuring the way that electrical impulses are conducted through various parts of the body including the chest, arms and legs. Much as one can see if a car battery is working properly by measuring the voltage through the wires, the body can conduct electricity in a predictable way. The ECG allows us to get this information from the body surface and then allow physicians to interpret this information for possible abnormalities (WebMD, 2005).

Question 5: What effect would the injection of isotonic saline have on Paul's extracellular fluid volume? On his intracellular fluid volume? On his total body osmolarity?

Venous administration of isotonic saline would expand Paul's extracellular fluid volume. However, because it does not change extracellular sodium concentration, it does not change intracellular volume (Kohan, 2005). Thus, Paul's total body osmorality is unchanged.

When Paul arrived at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center emergency room, one of the first tasks was to determine he had actually had a heart attack. Paul's vital signs (pulse and breathing rates, blood pressure, temperature) were taken. A resident physician drew blood for enzyme assays to determine the level of cardiac enzymes in Paul's blood.

When heart muscle cells die, they release various enzymes that serve as markers of a heart attack. I addition, a second tube of blood was sent for an assay of its troponin I level.

Question 6: Some of the enzymes that are used as markers for heart attacks are… [read more]


Frog Term Paper

… If we have a look at the vertebral columns in frogs, the first bone is the atlas. This is the only cervical bone we will see in a frog, as the next seven are abdominal and there two additional lower… [read more]


Homeostasis: An Analysis of Energy Term Paper

… Homeostasis: An Analysis of Energy Homeostasis in the Body

The ability of the human body to maintain a homeostatic state at any point in time depends on a number of factors. Homeostasis generally refers to the ability of an organism, including a human to maintain a certain state of equilibrium. This is achieved through minute physiological processes that occur on a day-to-day basis (Cone, 2001). There are some studies which suggest that energy is stored in the body as a mechanism for adjusting or re-establishing a state of homeostasis in the body, which may or may not be a predetermined state based on genetics and other individual factors (Schwartz, Woods, Seeley, Barsh, Baskin & Leibel, 2003). The subject of energy homeostasis with regard to human physiology is discussed in greater detail below.

Literature Review: Energy Homeostasis

Energy homeostasis can be defined as the state of equilibrium where the body is not only producing an adequate level of energy to function, but where the metabolism is working synergistically with the rest of the body to burn and store nutrients as needed (Cone, 2001). This is an ongoing process that occurs as human beings feed and hydrate themselves day in and out. Energy homeostasis is affected by a number of factors, including how much exercise and how much sleep one gets during the course of a given day (Cone, 2001). If for example a person sleeps excessively, in theory they will disrupt the natural state of equilibrium in the body, potentially causing even more sleepiness (contrary to what one might think, that an individual might feel more rested).

Cone (2001) cites physiological experiments conducted that show that energy stored in fat tissue is actually "homeostatically controlled by the hypothalamus" and notes that the brain adjusts for excess fat and attempts to establish homeostasis in the body by adjusting metabolism and hunger, which in theory will drive someone back to a preset weight (p. 565). Using the same theory one can conclude that the body will make adjustments when someone loses too much weight in order to re-establish a homeostatically comfortable state. That state at which someone is physiologically in homeostasis seems to be at least in some respects genetically controlled (Cone, 2001). There is research being conducted to determine whether or not one can alter the state in which the body is predisposed to 'maintain' (Schwartz, Woods, Seeley, Barsh, Baskin & Leibel, 2003).

In a similar study conducted by Schwartz, Woods, Seeley, Barsh, Baskin & Leibel (2003) the idea that energy homeostasis is "inherently biased toward weight gain" is explored. The researchers attempt to describe a model of energy homeostasis that explains neural pathways utilized to control energy balance. The authors suggest that individuals who lose weight will constantly have to attempt to maintain their weight loss over time, as the body sees losing weight in some situations as an attempt to disrupt the natural homeostasis of the body. This is particularly true of individuals whose weight loss results in a weight… [read more]


Cell Term Paper

… Brain Cells

Distinguish between the following cell types: NEURON, OLIGODENDROCYTE and ASTROCYTE.

The brain has a number of different cells present within its composition responsible for different functions. If we were to distinguish between cells found in the brain the following characteristics would have to be studied.

NEURON: Neurons are cells that act as messengers receiving electro-chemical signals from the neuro system and conduct them to the brain. There can be various types of neurons depending on their length which can vary from 4 microns (.004 mm) to 100 microns (.1 mm) in diameter. Their length can be from a millimeter to several feet long. The neuron when viewed can be seen to contain a cell body with receivers in the form of branches called dendrites [similar to tentacles in shape]. Then there is a projection called an axon that conducts the actual nerve signal at the end of which the axon terminal transmits it along a gap within the cell called the synapse. [Enchanted Learning.com, 2005] Thus, to identify these cells the researcher would have to ensure the presence of an axon and dendrites.

OLIGODENDROCYTE: These…… [read more]


Characteristic of Human Body Decomposition Over Time in Various Settings Term Paper

… ¶ … Human Body Decomposition Over Time in Various Settings

Characteristics of Human Body Decomposition Over Time in Various Settings

The branch of science that investigates the decomposition process of the human body is known as Taphonomy, which encompasses the… [read more]


Muscular System Function of Action Term Paper

… They are arranged spatially into sarcomeres. Thin filaments run between and parallel to the thick filaments within the A band. It is this placement that allows for the sliding filament model.

18. Location of active sites? Location of ATPase?

ATPases… [read more]


Positron Emission Tomography (Pet) Term Paper

… How Positron Emission Tomography Works.

The detection of the annihilation of radiation by the radiation detectors used in PET is the basis of the operation. Such detectors operate on the principle of "coincidence detection"; here, the external detection and localization… [read more]


Massage Therapy Term Paper

… Massage Therapy

This report aims to describe how massage can be used to affect changes in the Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindle cells. It has taken mankind many thousands of years to get a true grasp of the human body's complexities and not surprisingly, science has still not completely unraveled all of the body's inert mysteries. However, we humans are getting closer to understand the intricate functions of our bodies. For example, one modern discovery has helped us make vast strides in the study of anatomy. The relationship between the Peripheral Nervous System which consists of the cranial and spinal nerves and the Central Nervous System which consists of the brain and spinal chord have been discovered to be the body's mechanism for maintaining musculoskeletal integrity by utilizing sensory and motor neurons. Massage has been used as a therapeutic technique by physical therapists for many years but, until recently, there has been little scientific proof that the effect of massage is actually a form of muscle relaxation or stimulation. Thus, recent research has suggested that certain types of massage can inhibit the activity of a muscle's spinal motor neurons.

Massage therapists should be aware that certain techniques for stretching muscles like kneading may cause activity in the massaged muscle. The Golgi tendon organs are a proprioceptive sensory nerve endings embedded among the fibers of a tendon and muscles. The Golgi tendon organs become activated when a tendon is contracted through muscle manipulation. "Stimulus for Golgi tendon organs is mechanical deformation generally in the form of a muscle contraction originally thought to be high threshold receptors very sensitive to actively generated muscle force." (HHP, 2004) In other words, if a massage therapist was to change the length of the muscle through manipulation, that action would increase tension on the muscle because the Golgi tendon organs would become active. Golgi tendon organs therefore are receptors that in part prevent excessive stress to joints by acting as reflex inhibitors.

Like the Golgi tendon organs, muscle spindle cells are sensory organs where proprioceptive neuron fibers terminate in muscles and therefore are the body's way of delivering…… [read more]


Body and the Function Term Paper

… Take for example the homeostatic function of maintaining pH. This is also referred to as the acid- base function and has the obvious role of keeping a certain proportion of acid and base within our bodies. If, for example, a too high concentration of acid is present in the body, this may be damaged (as is the case, for example, of a high concentration of acid in the stomach, which leads to ulcer).

Other homeostatic functions are body temperature, blood pressure and sugar levels. I have already mentioned and briefly described the body temperature function. The two latter follow the same principle. Let's take blood pressure. A high blood pressure can lead to vascular accidents, while a reduced blood pressure may mean that some areas of the body are not well irrigated. The optimal parameters must be reached for the body to function efficiently.

We have to imagine that homeostasis and the homeostatic functions are among the most complex functions our body performs. Indeed, it means not only noticing when some of the parameters are not respected, but also reacting accordingly and correcting the deviations.

Bibliography

1. The excretory system. On the Internet at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEXCRET.html

2. Nakineshny, Steve. Introduction to Physiology 1: Levels of Organization. 2004. On the Internet at http://www.eblaforum.org/library/biology/intphysio01.html

3. http://www.courseworkbank.co.uk/coursework/explain_is_meant_by_term_homeostasis_2472/

Nakineshny, Steve. Introduction to Physiology 1: Levels of Organization. 2004. On the Internet at http://www.eblaforum.org/library/biology/intphysio01.html

The excretory system. On the Internet at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEXCRET.html… [read more]


Computed Tomography, More Commonly Know Term Paper

… The technologist is also able to see and hear the patient, and if necessary will communicate with the patient over an intercom.

Several computers are used to control the entire CaT system (Imaginis.com, 2004). The main computer that oversees the… [read more]


Analyzing the Rheumatoid Arthritis Issue Chapter

… ¶ … Rheumatoid Arthritis

The most widely occurring autoimmune inflammatory form of arthritis among adults is rheumatoid arthritis. It significantly affects the ability of performance of everyday activities, including domestic and work tasks, and HR-QOL (health-related quality of life), as well as increases mortality risks (Singh et al., 2016; Clements, 2011). The condition is progressive, chronic, and autoimmune in nature, and linked to systemic, articular, and extra-articular effects. Rheumatoid arthritis reportedly impacts 0.51% of developed countries' adult populations. While some patients suffer from minor self-limited illness, a number of patients undergo joint destruction, multiple co-morbidities, and serious physical disability. Mortality rates more than double among rheumatoid-arthritic patients, as compared to general population; this gap seems to be broadening. This review aims at summarizing rheumatoid arthritis' complex pathobiology as presently understood, emphasizing the impacts of major systemic- as well as articular- level immune modulators (Choy, 2012).

Findings

While the precise cause of rheumatoid arthritis is still unknown, latest findings indicate that a genetic base exists for development of the disease. Over 80% of rheumatoid arthritis patients carry HLA-DRB1*04 cluster epitope, and those who possess two alleles of HLA-DRB1*04 are at greater risk of contracting nodular disease, undergoing joint destruction-related surgery, and involvement of major organ. Rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology involves numerous immune modulators (effector cells and cytokines) and signaling pathways. Immune modulators' complex interaction is what causes joint damage, starting from the synovial membrane. Aside from joint symptoms, a number of patients experience systemic or extra-articular symptoms, or both. The greatest contributor to damage of cartilage among people with rheumatoid arthritis is hyperplastic synovium (Choy, 2012).

Greater understanding of rheumatoid arthritis pathobiology has resulted in the creation of biological agents, which target multiple immune mediators that involve themselves in the illness process. But while biological agents show promise, they do possess some limitations. For instance, pathophysiological response hierarchy is not clear. As multiple immune mediators are known to work together during disease process, what must be the first target -- a cytokine, B cells, or T cells is the question that arises (Choy, 2012; Burmester, Feist & Dorner, 2014).

Discussion

Analyses across genomes make it evident that the…… [read more]


Importance of Movement Knowledge and Its Link to Culture Essay

… ¶ … Kinetic Dynamics or Vitality

Related Quotation/s and page numbers

"Bringing out the somatic, or felt, dimensions of movement opens the way for an examination ofkinetic vitality as an overlooked aspect of embodied knowledge." (page 85)

"Basing my discussion on the potential for movement knowledge inherent in embodiment, I find that cultural patterns of kinetic vitality emerge as the "ghost," to borrow Lesley Stern's tenn, in all gesture." (page 85)

"Critically, I am suggesting that a concept of gesture requires not only association with movement's kinetic qualities of vitality but also an accounting of the way the sensations of kinetic vitality are socially structured, transformed, and mediated." (page 103)

Summary of Concept/Idea

Kinetic dynamics, or kinetic vitality in particular, as something that influences the shapes of human movement has not received the attention it deserves as a form of knowledge and a philosophy in itself (Sklar, 2008). Every individual's natural tendency to express a thought or feeling possesses vital qualities, which represent his distinct cultural way of expressing such a thought or feeling. This expression is commonly perceived as gesture. Mark Johnson suggested that gesture relates closely with human movement. The link extends to what seems un-expressed or hidden but which is nonetheless alive and vital although subdued or suppressed. One can interpret such hidden but vital thought or feeling as a ghost, as it remains implicit or suggested (Sklar).

But whether gesture is verbalized or mechanically exhibited, whether it is socially pronounced in bodily but unconscious form, or eventually yields its meaning after undergoing transformations, gesture remains vital and a dependable and meaningful representation of one's culture (Sklar, 2008). The seeming lack of movement, or stillness, in itself possesses the qualities of vitality. The way one sits or stands quietly or simply poses still delivers a message, which is essentially reveals the person's culture, his perceptions and what he feels, thinks and what he is (Sklar).

4. Interpretation

Sklar (2008, 1991) explores and delineates the realm of kinesthesia, which refers to the sensation or strain or movement of muscles, tendons or joints. He refines his focus on kinetic vitality and deplores the lack of attention and interest in it. He points to the wealth of meaning in this field. Everything a person does always carries a message, consciously or unconsciously expressed. Bodily movements are not merely biological executions intended to accomplish a purpose, no matter how basic or brief. People of different cultures perform even the most fundamental or briefest movements differently. This is why it is important to know and understand as much as we can about what bodily movements (Sklar)

Sklar (2008, 1991) elucidates his point on gesture as intimately connected to human movement. A serious study of culture will not pass off the insinuations of gesture. It is not a mere reflex. In its most basic form, a gesture reveals something about how the person feels or thinks about what he does at the moment. He goes as far as stating that even non-motion or… [read more]


Ways That Joints Within the Skeleton Operate Essay

… Human skeleton is an integral part of the human body. It acts as the frame just like the beams and supports of a house keep the house together. It also provides the structure for veins and muscles, just like the… [read more]


Medicine: Sports Essay

… ¶ … Knee Hyperextension on a Dancer's Posture, Alignment, and Technique

Maintaining a good posture is key for any dancer who wishes to display beautiful dance movements. Often times, people use the terms 'posture' and 'alignment' interchangeably. However, alignment is more than just posture. It is how the axes of the various bones line up against the rest of the body. Maintaining a good posture will almost certainly mean having the correct alignment, and hence, being able to move freely, with a lower risk of injury. Basically, when the bones line up properly, shear stress is maintained on the ligaments and the body is able to keep its balance without putting undue pressure on the outer parts of the joint and the shoulder. The port de bras and arms are able to move freely, allowing the dancer to execute aesthetically pleasing lines, especially in arabesque. Moreover, the dancer is able to dance for longer periods because they can breathe easily as with minimal pressure on the shoulders and the diaphragm; and the lungs are able have more room for expansion and contraction. Proper alignment is achieved when the spine is aligned in such a way that the back is straight, the natural curve at the base is maintained, and the knees, hipbones, and shoulders are all in line.

Evidently, alignment is crucial for good dancing; however, there are a number of errors that inhibit one's ability to instill proper posture and alignment. One of these errors is hyper extending the knee. Hyper-extension is the process by which the knee curves behind the calf and thigh muscles extend beyond what is considered "the natural range of motion" (Chuckrow). Whereas some dancers are born with a naturally hyper-extended knee (referred to as genu-recurvatum in medicine), some develop it within the course of their dancing career (McCormack 5). Dance groups will often prefer dancers with hyper-extended knees not only because these make the lines look nicer, but also because they are thought to have…… [read more]


Fundamentals of Psychology Essay

… Adults pass traits down to their children from one generation to another through transmitting genes. Genes however do not provide an accurate direction on how a child will behave but rather map up the potential outcomes. Genes direct the occurrence of some inherited physical characteristics such as hair color, height and so on. However there are some behaviors which can be inherited such as anxiety, depression, smoking, and intelligence and so on. The inheritance of these genes which produce these behavior tendencies does not guarantee that these behaviors will actually occur in an individual. These genes affect the development of the nervous and endocrine system and how they operate which in turn influences the likelihood of the occurrence of a certain behavior under certain circumstances (Powell, 2014).

An individual's behavior is determined by the environment and the social influences of the environment which they live in. An individual that lives around a violent environment will end up developing violent behaviors. This is because they learn from what is around them and hence their behavior is determined by what they see around them each day (Powell, 2014).

I believe that nurture provides a stronger behavior on an individual than nature. This is because what is around an individual greatly impacts how they end up being. This is because the environment has a strong impact on people and people to go by what is the norm within the environment. People are easily influenced by peers and one can move from being a simple quiet individual to a talkative person due to the fact that the people he or she lives around are also talkative.

References

Farr, G. (2002). The Nervous System - Advanced Version / What is the Nervous System?. Become healthy now. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from http://www.becomehealthynow.com/article/bodynervousadvanced/826

Powell, K. (2014). Nature vs. Nurture . about parenting. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from http://genealogy.about.com/cs/geneticgenealogy/a/nature_nurture.htm… [read more]


How Skeletal and Muscular Systems Work Together Essay

… Notably, the blood needs calcium so that the nervous system can send signals, for blood to clot, and for contraction of muscles for movement. In essence, the muscles in the body link with the nervous system and permit initiation of movement through nerve signals that are sent to and from the brain. Notably, the skeletal muscles are connected to the bones and work with the connective tissue in various joints in the body to enable body movements. The connective tissue plays a crucial role in structural support for the body.

Given that the skeletal systems and the muscular systems support each other and are inter-linked, an injury to either of the systems has an instant impact on the other. Moreover, an imbalance or weakness in any component of each of the systems not only produces a strain or injury to the connective tissue but can also result in damages to the bone. Such direct damages to the bone affect body movements and sustenance of life because of their impact on the effective functioning of the skeletal and muscular systems. Similarly, torn or strained muscles can contribute to imbalances within or weaknesses on the muscle and eventually exert additional strain on the connective tissue in attempt to compensate for the problem. The resultant torn or strained connective tissue can in turn cause imbalances in the muscle and cause significant changes in the joint structure, which is likely to lead to arthritis.

Skeletal and muscular systems are essentially important and crucial body parts or systems that perform basic functions to enable body movements. These systems are intertwined and part of the complex network of symbiotic systems of the human body. Generally, these systems work together as the body's framework as well as for providing structural support that enables movement and sustain life.

References:

Turley, S.M. (2011). Medical language (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education

Inc.

Washington, B. (2010, September 26). How the Skeletal and Muscular Systems Work Together.

Retrieved June…… [read more]


Major Organ Systems: Pituitary Gland Essay

… Oxytocin

Uterus and breasts

Stimulates contraction of the uterus to assist in childbirth, and increases prostaglandin production, which heighten contractions further; stimulates breasts to produce milk during nursing, and regulates the flow of the produced milk.

Referred to as the 'love hormone' because of its chemical messenger role in promoting human behaviors, including mother-infant bonding, anxiety, trust, recognition, and sexual arousal.

(Source: Turley, 2011; Davies 2007)

References

Davies, J. (2007). Essentials of Medical Terminology (3rd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.

Turley, S. (2011). Medical Language: Immerse Yourself (2nd ed.).…… [read more]


Stressed Memories (APA Citation) Journal

… This happens through a number of physiological processes beginning with the dilation of the pupils; allowing for an abundance of information to be sent to the brain for processing. However, this information overload is then filtered through the ventral visual stream eliminating irrelevant information. Through modifications of the hippocampus region of the brain the remaining information is processed and remembered. In other words, increases in stress levels cause a hyper-vigilant state in which an excess of information is obtained. This information is then filtered through a number of processes in the brain and eventually only the relevant information is remembered.

The researchers sought to discover the means by which people remember better during stressful conditions. Subjects for the test were exposed to both neutral and stressful states and shown a number of pictures. A day later they were asked to remember the pictures and it was discovered that they remembered better the ones they were shown during the stressful times. During the test their brains were scanned by a fMRI, which detailed the activity in the different areas of the brain and from this information they were able to draw conclusions as to the physiological affects of stress on memory. They discovered that stress caused a state of hyper-vigilance in the sensory processing of the brain, as well as an increase in the filtering processes. In the end the researchers assert that "this reduction of task irrelevant ambient noise, in combination with a stress-hormone-induced optimal state for neural plasticity may explain why stressful events attain a privileged position in memory." (Henckens, p.10117)

References

Henchens, Marloes, et al. (2009). "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects

Memory Formation in Humans." Journal of Neuroscience 29(32), 10111-10119.…… [read more]


Miguel Nicolelis a Monkey Term Paper

… With these methods, it has been found that it takes about half a second for a command from the brain to result in the movement of limbs.

As an example of the applications of such research is a Monkey called Aurora, who has been taught to play computer games with a joystick.

Ten years ago, she was also taught to control a robotic arm to play the same game just using her thought processes.

Aurora could also move a robot on the other side of the planet with just her thought processes.

Later, this research was extended by means of a virtual avatar that primates could control with their thinking. This included sensory information transmitted back to the brain by touch.

The implications of the research are highly important in terms of research to help people with neurological damage move again.

Application

In applying the video to the course, I think the most important idea in this video is the one that Miguel Nicolelis ends with: Nothing is impossible. He points out that, before great technological advances are made, there are always those who consider the particular advance as "impossible." He names the moon landing as one of these cases. Controlling robotic limbs with one's mind was also considered impossible at its first proposal when researching all the things Aurora could do with her mind. In business and in life it is important to recognize that the impossible is simply a "possible" to which sufficient energy and thought must yet be applied.

For me personally, I will make what Mr. Nicolelis said about the impossible my personal mantra. It is only by recognizing possibilities that one can advance and achieve success.… [read more]


Cognitive Psychology Artificial Brain the Brain Primarily Essay

… Cognitive Psychology

Artificial brain

The brain primarily consists of three major parts; the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain. Each of these parts have specialized functions as well as characteristics that enable them to perform the specialized functions. As a surgeon given the grants to design an artificial brain, there are various functions that I will ensure are changed in each section and will be highlighted below after every discussion of the purpose and function of each of these parts of the brain.

The forebrain is also referred to as prosencephalon and is the largest part of the brain. This is further separated into the lower diencephalon and the upper telencephalon. It is in this section of the brain that most voluntary and involuntary motor control, the cognition, language as well as emotions are controlled. The forebrain being the most exposed on the head with most risks to physical trauma being from the front would be fitted with a protective cartilage that would further minimize the impact of such physical trauma from the front apart from the cranium.

The lower diencephalon is made up of parts like the pretectum, prethalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, thalamus and subthalamus making this section responsible for automatic nervous system that regulates temperature and sleep. It also deals with the control of hormones that regulate metabolism. It is also responsible for equilibrium, controlling eye movements and respiratory control. The function of hearing, salivating, chewing food, hearing are as well controlled here. As a surgeon, this part will be modified in order to restrain the production of the digestion hormone so that people would not fall hungry more often. The part that controls hearing would be made also to have a wider range of reception than is now since there are lower sounds that cannot be heard yet important to the human beings.

The upper telencephalon is made up of the cerebrum hence this is the most complex part of the central nervous system. It is here that personality is controlled, as well as the memory and cognitive ability of man. Reasoning, concentration and abstract thinking takes place here. The control of motor function takes place here too and defects in this part are what may result in Parkinson's disease as well as Huntington's disease. During the construction of the artificial brain, I will ensure that this part…… [read more]


Cultural Observation in Any Culture Case Study

… This is illustrating how body enclosures are different based upon cultural / individual tastes, style and regional factors. (Katiyar, 2009) ("The Classification System of Dress," 2013) (Eicher, 2008)

Describe how the form or style of the dress practice or ensemble relates to the body underneath. Consider why the body has the shape it does; identify climactic, hereditary or nutritional forces at work. Are there special physical needs or considerations? Is the body a canvas or an armature for dress?

In general, the sari is designed to accentuate certain body types. The most notable include: ectomorphs, endomorphs and a combination. An ectomorph is someone who is thinner and has an athletic style of appearance. In this case, the sari is worn to illustrate the shoulder or possibly the mid section. This is used to identify climatic, hereditary and nutritional forces through demonstrating how this person is subject to more physical activities. They live in warmer and more tropical climate (such as: the South or Western parts of India). At the same time, they are receiving the right amounts of nutrition. This is taking into account these special needs and making the body into a canvas for the dress. (Katiyar, 2009) ("The Three Somatotypes," 2013) (Eicher, 2008)

An endomorph is when someone is naturally bigger and they will have a much larger body type. This does not necessarily mean that they are overweight. Instead, it is highlighting how they will have larger amounts of fat and muscle. When someone is wearing a sari, it is used to show that they are from a family with a hereditary history of being heavier, from more arid climates and having access to better forms of nutrition. In this case, the special needs and considerations are from having the clothing fit more loosely. This is designed to make the body an armature for the dress. (Katiyar, 2009) ("The Three Somatotypes," 2013) (Eicher, 2008)

The combination of body types is when someone can easily be able to gain or lose weight. In general, they will more than likely have larger amounts of body fat in their waist and hips. This is showing how these individuals can be from the Northern to Central parts of India. It is highlighting hereditary factors through illustrating that they may be from backgrounds where there are better nutritional needs. This is accomplished by having greater amounts of access to meats and other fatty foods. In this aspect, the body can be used as canvas or an armature. This is based upon the special physical needs, which can lead to the individual showing off more of their body. At the same time, they may have the sari fit loser around their waist. However, this will depend upon the size of the person. (Katiyar, 2009) ("The Three Somatotypes," 2013) (Eicher, 2008)

References

The Classification System of Dress. (2013).

The Three Somatotypes. (2013). University of Houston. Retrieved from: http://www.uh.edu/fitness/comm_educators/3_somatotypesNEW.htm

Eicher, J. (2008). The Visible Self:…… [read more]


Image Enhancement Techniques Research Shows Term Paper

… When it is bright, it gives the picture a lot more contrast and also more details unlike the negative images where there is not much detail.

Many individuals like this technique because the brightness of a dark image can effortlessly… [read more]


First Aid to Injuries Term Paper

… First Aid to Injuries

There are basic skills and knowledge relating to first aid that Aron Ralston used while he was trapped in the Blue John Canyon a Slot Canyon for 127 hours when a rock fell on his hand squeezing it against the wall of the canyon hence making it impossible to pull out.

One of the first aid skills that he used was to apply a makeshift tourniquet on his arm to constrict the blood vessels and control bleeding. He then snapped the two bones close to the wrist and used the utility knife he had to cut through the flesh and free himself. The tourniquet helped in controlling the excessive bleeding after cutting through the skin and muscles.

Though in shock, Aron knew that being strong and staying still was a precursor to slowing down the heartbeat rate hence reduction in the metabolism of the body and knew that for him to conserve maximum energy within him, he had to stay as still as possible particularly during the day when the heat wears out the energy in the body. He mostly tried to sit against the opposite wall and have maximum rest as could be possible.

Aron had to amputate his arm at last and this he kept as the last option and not a priority. This is an indication that in first aid, there are those options that are resorted into as a last measure and not as the first priority. This was after realizing that his arm had formed gangrene and was a potential cause for further infection to the upper part of the arms. The most significant aspect of the amputation of the arms that he did himself was the fact that he avoided open wounds that could result in bleeding and snapped the two bones first before he cut through the skin and the muscles.

While attempting to detach himself from the rock by amputating his arm at first, he suffered lacerations from the short blade knife though he never succeeded in doing so. The best he did was to stop the bleeding by applying pressure on the lacerations for long enough to stop the bleeding.

Once his arm was crushed by the rock,…… [read more]

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