Study "Anatomy / Physiology" Essays 111-165

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Biology Explain How Enzymes Research Paper

… Typically, the Cori cycle involves anaerobic glycolysis and lactate releasing into the bloodstream and subsequently the liver. A person with mitochondrial disease may experience elevated lactic acid levels in the blood due to an inefficient or ineffective Cori cycle (United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation, n.d.).

B2. Explain where in the citric acid cycle a hypothetical defect of an enzyme could occur that prevents an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in response to an increased energy need and how the products of the citric acid cycle are converted into ATP.

If an enzyme is defective in the sense that it prevents an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in spite of there being an increased need for energy in the body, then it would account for symptoms like muscular weakness and fatigue. The citric acid cycle is one of the most important metabolic cycles in the human body. During the citric acid cycle, most of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed for energy is produced ("Citric Acid Cycle Summary"). Converting products of the citric acid cycle, such as carbon compounds and fatty acids, into ATP, involves a complex process of metabolism. Also known as the Krebs cycle, the citric acid cycle is the most fundamental of food-related metabolism. All inputs to the body such as fats, protein, and carbohydrates, can be converted into ATP in the cells via electron transport. Oxidation is the cornerstone of the process by which the products of the citric acid cycle are converted into ATP. The point in the citric acid cycle in which a hypothetical defect of an enzyme, like those that cause mitochondrial disease, occurs would be glycogenesis.


Breakspear Medical Group (n.d.). Fructose metabolism -- acumen. Retrieved online:

"Citric Acid Cycle Summary." Retrieved online:

"Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and other Energy-Releasing Pathways," (n.d.). Retrieved online:

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation (n.d.). What is mitochondrial disease? Retrieved online: [read more]

Wakefulness and Sleep Essay

… ¶ … evolution have enabled blind mole rats to synchronize their SCN activity to light, even though they cannot see well enough to make any use of the light?

The SCN is a way that mammals are able to synch light and visual images from the retina to the brain. However, most of the input to this path is not initiated from simple retinal receptors. This must mean that light and light intensity is not all that is being communicated, since there are a number of animals that are "blind" based on their environment and evolution. For instance, blind mole rats do not have eye muscles or a lens to focus and they have less than 1% of the number of optic nerves in other comparable species. It appears, though, that the reason blind animals can synchronize their SCN activity to light is because they need certain chemicals that are produced in their brains by the presence of light, even though they cannot see. These chemicals are necessary for the survival of the species; some even speculate that it protects the rats from cancer. Even if the rats do not receive direct light input, they can reset their circadian rhythms through changes in light intensity so they know the best time to be underground, to eat, avoid predation and survive. The ability to reset to an appropriate circadian rhythm is also helpful in protecting the species during seasonal changes (e.g. less light in winter, more in summer), and to trigger hormones for reproduction at the optimum time.

2. If you travel across several time zones to the east and want to use melatonin to help reset your circadian rhythm, at what time of day should you take it? What if you travel west?

Melatonin is hormone that is released by the pineal gland that influences the circadian and circandnural rhythms. Typically, the pineal gland secrets melatonin at night to make us feel tired. When we travel, we do not automatically reset our rhythms for a few days, until our body gets used to the new time zone and pattern of light and dark. It appears that melatonin secretion begins about 2-3 hours prior to sleep, thus people who want to use melatonin to reset their sleep/wake cycle should take a tablet about 2 hours before they wish to start their sleep cycle. The hormone resets the biological clock based on receptors in the SCN. If a person wants to fall asleep earlier, they should take a moderate dose of melatonin in the later afternoon. It does not… [read more]

Jaguars, Cheetahs, and Other Great Cats Term Paper

… ¶ … jaguars, cheetahs, and other great cats to have mostly slow-twitch, non-fatiguing muscles in their legs or mostly fast-twitch, quickly fatiguing muscles? What kinds of animals might have mostly the opposite kind of muscles?

One of the issues with evolution is that it favors behaviors and physiological changes that are conducive to survival of the species. If a mutation causes something negative, then there are fewer of that species to produce and over time, that mutation causes the need for another adaptation. In terms of muscle development, in mammals and humans there are fast-twitch fibers and slow twitch fibers. The fast-twice have fast contractions and tire quickly, but provide quick bursts of energy. Slow-Twitch fibers have fewer contractions and do not tire easily. Mammals rely on slow-twitch fibers for non-strenous activities, but for activities that are survival essential or require quickness, the fast-twitch muscles are used. Animals that do not need prolonged speed, but have protection like spines, skin poisons, or armor would not need to use fast-twitch muscles since their survival depends on other adaptations. Predators like the great cats would need mostly fast-twitch muscles to outrun and capture prey (Kalat, p. 234).

Part 2 -Human infants are at first limited to gross movements of the trunk, arms, and legs. The ability to move one finger at a time matures gradually over at least the first year. What hypothesis would you suggest about which brain areas controlling movement mature early and which areas mature later?

Human infants are quite dependent on parenting for a longer portion of their lives than many other mammals. Development of functions is likely controlled by need and what the infant must be able to do at different stages of their lives in order to survive. The first things infants need to do is to be able to feed, so their gross-motor functions would be tuned to that behavior. Then, they need to be able to track visual items, grasp objects, and learn balance so they can walk. Since the first… [read more]

Doctor Determine Treatment Research Proposal

… To help the doctor determine where the defect might have occurred:

1. Explain what would happen to the amount of energy available to a cell if the entire Cori cycle occurred and remained within that single cell (i.e., a muscle cell).

The Cori cycle refers to the metabolic pathway where lactate created by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles flows to the liver and is converted to glucose, which once again is absorbed by the muscles and is converted back to lactate.

The other half of the Cori cycle occurs where, instead of lactate produced by anaerobic fermentation massing UP inside the muscle cells, the lactate is transferred to the liver where gluconeogenesis occurs. Gluconeogenesis converts lactate into glucose (is supplied to the muscles through the bloodstream) by converting the glucose first into pyruvate. The Cori cycle needs multiple cells for its effectiveness. If it were limited / confined to one cell, the entire process would fail.

2. Construct a dynamic diagram to show the doctor why the citric acid cycle is central to aerobic metabolism.

Note: A dynamic diagram should be clearly labeled and include arrows to show movement and interactions.

The citric acid cycle is the first stage in metabolism which consists of removing high-energy electrons from carbon fuels (left). Those electrons then generate a steep proton high (middle), which creates adenosine triphosphate (ATP )(right). The two together (the entire process / synthesis) creates aerobic metabolism (Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002)).

3. Explain where in the citric acid cycle a hypothetical defect of an enzyme could occur that prevents an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in response to an increased energy need and how the products of the citric acid cycle are converted into ATP.

The citric acid cycle generates electrons from carbon fuels. ATP is created by the citric acid cycle extracting the electrons from the coenzyme CoA and using these electrons to create and synthesize NADH and FADH2.

electrons released in the reoxidation of NADH and FADH2 flow through a series of membrane proteins which then flow through the ATP pathway to produce ATP from ADP and from the non-organic phosphate. The hypothetical defect of the enzyme would come about in electrons released by NADH and FADH2.( Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002)

4. Explain the role of coenzyme Q10 in ATP synthesis as part of the electron transport chain.

Coenzyme Q. carries the electrons to the cytochrome bc1 pathway which also breaks down enzymes into fructose and energy via metabolism and generates 95% of the body's energy in the form of ATP. Since the molecule can exist in both a completely reduced and oxidized form, it can perform both functions simultaneously. (Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford)


Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002) Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: WH Freeman

Cross NC, de Franchis R, Sebastio G, et al. (1990). Molecular analysis of aldolase B. genes in hereditary fructose intolerance. Lancet 335 (8685): 306 -- 9

Huntington's Disease… [read more]

Atropine Pharmacokinetics and Pharmodynamics Essay

… Atropine Pharmacokinetics

Atropine has many different uses for individuals, because of its great effect on the body. Although the direct effect and the length of time that it takes for atropine to function differs according to how the drug is administered, the basis is very similar. To begin, once the drug has been administered, its target is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. These receptors function by receiving acetylcholine in order for the parasympathetic system to function correctly. However, once atropine is in the body, it is a competitive antagonist for these muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). The antagonist is a molecule in atropine that inhibits the agonists' (in this case the agonist is acetylcholine) actions by preventing acetylcholine from binding to the active site and initiating the conformational change necessary for its targets to be initiated. After atropine binds to the receptor, it is reversibly bound, so it does not stabilize the conformational change on the receptor, so no activation actually occurs. Because of this, the receptors are occupied, but no action is taking place because acetylcholine cannot bind and cause the targeted action. This leads to a build-up of acetylcholine in the body system (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). After binding, atropine diffuses into the cell and eventually into the bloodstream. This most directly affects the vagus nerve which is the primary cranial nerve in charge of the parasympathetic system. Blocking the acetylcholine from binding, which is what atropine is essentially doing, will then promote a variety of effects on an individual's body that are the complete opposite of what the vagus nerve would have initially started. Atropine will vasodilate the blood vessels, increase the electroconductivity of the AV node, and as a result, do what it is supposed to: increase heart rate in individuals. The digestive system will also be slowed down as the main ingredient for the "rest and digest" process of the parasympathetic system will be missing (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). Without any acetylcholine receptors available… [read more]

Prescription, Nonprescription and Herbal Medicines Term Paper

… The effect of certain drugs on the enzymes in the liver must also be taken into consideration. Different sorts of drugs have a range of affects of the Cytochrome enzymes that exist in the liver. The drugs either induct or… [read more]

Drug Action Pharmacokinetics Essay

… Up to 80% of salicylic acid metabolized in the liver. Conjunction with glycine leads to the formation of Salicyl Uric acid and it forms a glucorinide with Glucoronic acid. Salicylic acid is mainly excreted by the kidneys as salicyluric acid but also as salicylic phenol (about 10%), free salicylic acid (also about 10%), and five percent as acyl glucuronides.

Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drug actions. There are four levels of drug action; molecular, cellular, tissue, and system. Molecular targets for drugs are commonly receptors, ion channels, enzymes, and transport carrier molecules. Hormone and neurotransmitter receptors are very important molecular targets for drug actions. These are very selective and often the drug actions are also selective. These actions can be: (1) agonists that bind do a hormone and neurotransmitter receptor can mimic the effects of endogenous ligands; (2) antagonists that bind to the receptor but do not mimic -- interfere with agonist binding (competitive, noncompetitive, reversible, and irreversible antagonism); (3) partial agonists bind with receptors only partially; and (4) inverse agonists which stop productive independent reactivity of the receptor.

Ion channels are proteins in the transmembrane. When these are open they allow selective passage of specific ions via a specific configuration of the channel. Ion channels occur in four different states: (1) rested (here the channel is closed but stimulation can open it); (2) activated (open); (3) inactivated (closed and stimulation will not open it); and (4) transitioned between states.

Enzymes are important for regulatory and metabolic pathways. There are great many enzymes in cells and the bodily fluids of these are potential targets for drugs. Drugs either mimic enzyme substrate or inhibit enzyme activity. The drug action of enzymes occurs on the ligand -- recognition sites. For example, acetylcholinesterase degrades acetylcholine. There are two components to the substrate -- recognition site. Acetylcholine interaction with the site leads to acetylcholine hydrolysed choline and acetate. Some cholinester analogues can also bind to the site inhibiting hydrolysis of endogenous acetylcholine.

Transport molecules regulate cell contents using carrier molecules to facilitate passage of ions and molecules.

Cellular targets for drugs include molecular targets for drug action link to cellular response components (enzymes, ion channels, and so forth). This is accomplished via the transduction (second messenger systems). Receptors are classified according to the components they are linked to and include: (A) Receptor -- operated channels that are molecular targets and after ligand -- binding can have a role in transduction; (B) G -- protein -- linked receptors which are transduction components linked to a super -- family of receptors; (C) receptors that are enzymes such as Tyrosine kinases and Guanylyl cyclase; and (D) DNA linked receptors which are intracellular receptors that can interact with DNA.

Tissue and symptom targets for drugs are intimately linked and their mechanism is difficult to determine. Examples of tissue targets for drugs include the heart, lungs, and the autonomic nervous system.

Aspirin acts by the irreversible inhibition of the enzyme COX (cyclo-oxgenase). This… [read more]

Env Design Anthropometry Physical Characteristics Term Paper

… Impact of winter coats on drivers)

2. For Standing Personnel

Center of gravity

Zone of convenient reach

Design of Work Surfaces

Horizontal work surfaces

Normal Area: "Area that can be conveniently reached with a sweep of the forearm while the upper arm hangs in a natural position to the side" (p. 432).

Maximum Area: "Area that could be reached by extending arm from shoulder" (p. 432)

Work Surface Height = height of upper surface measured from floor

Seated work surface height and arm posture (elbows at 90 degrees)

Seated work surface height and thigh clearance (accommodate thighs of largest user)

General Principles for Seated Work Surfaces

1. If possible, make it adjustable

2 Work surface level places working height at elbow height

3. Adequate thigh clearance

Standing work surface = similar principles (design for largest user; take into account elbow height)

General Principles of Seat Design

1. Promote lumbar lordosis (naturally concave shape); kyphotic (convex -- bad!)

2. Minimize disk pressure (unsupported sitting can create pressure)

3. Minimize static loading of back muscles (allow back to recline)

4. Reduce postural fixity (sitting in one position for long time)

**provide for easy adjustability -- can increase productivity in workplace! But must be easy to adjust

Guidelines for Making Adjustable Furniture

1. Controls are easy to reach

2. Labels, directions are easy to understand

3. Controls easy to locate, interpret

4 Tools not necessary

5. Controls provide immediate feedback

6. Logical, consistent controls

7. Few motions to use the controls

8. Adjustments require one hand only

General Chair Factors

Seat height, seat slope

Seat depth, seat width

Contouring and cushioning

Seat back parameters (angle at min. 90-105 deg, up to 120 deg preferable)

Seat back width (12 in lumbar)

Seat back height

Lumbar support

Specific Seat Types and Design

Computer workstation -- reduce postural fixity

Multipurpose chairs

Chairs for reading, resting

Video Display… [read more]

Zoology Relics of Human Evolution Essay

… But the big toe in humans can only really be used for balance while walking upright or standing.

Coccyx. These fused vertebrae are all that is left of the tail that most mammals still use for balance and communication. Tails are not needed in humans because they walk upright and spend less time in trees than their primates.

Paranasal sinuses. These nasal sinuses may help to capture bacteria and viruses as they are lined with mucus. The also make the head lighter and to warm and moisten the air we breathe. The sinuses of our early ancestors may have helped with survival if they were lined with odor receptors that gave a heightened sense of smell.


Fireflies. Lightening bugs or fireflies are known for their crepuscular use of bioluminescence to attract mates or prey. The bioluminescence produced by fireflies is a cold light that does not have any ultraviolet or infrared frequencies. The light is produced chemically and the color may be perceived as yellow, pale red, or green. The wavelengths of the light range from 510 to 670 nanometers.

Anglerfish. The anglerfish that live in the bathypelagic zone emit light from their escas that serves to attract prey. The bioluminescence is produced through symbiosis with bacteria. The exact mechanism by which the bacteria enter the escas is not known. Notably, the bacteria population can become very dense as they multiply within the esca. As a result, the light emitted from them can be a very bright glow.

Latia neritoides. Latia neritoides is a small freshwater snail or limpet that occurs only in streams in New Zealand. As an aquatic gastropod mollusk, it is a member of the family Latiidae. This snail is bioluminescent and phosphorescent and its light-emitting system is believed to be unique. It is the only freshwater gastropod that emits light and the mechanism, and the structures of the luciferin and luciferase, are not entirely clear.

Squid. The Taningia Danae is a squid that has gigantic yellow photophores on the end of its two arms. These are the largest light-producing organs known to exist on any animal. The photophores are lemon-colored and about the size of lemons. Since the photophores have a black membrane that functions like an eyelid, and can be opened and closed, the photophores can be flashed at will.

Extinct Animals

Steller's sea cow. The Steller's sea cow or Hydrodamalis gigas was a large herbivorous marine animal of the order Sirenia. Its closest living relatives are the manatees and the dugong. The sea cow was abundant throughout the North Pacific, but because it was such a slow-moving animal, it was hunted to extinction within 27 years. It was first described by Georg Wilhelm Steller, an expedition naturalist, in 1741. An average weight was about 8 to 10 tons. It looked much like a large seal but had two forelimbs, a whale-like fluke, no actual teeth (just flat wide bony plates top and bottom), thick and black skin, with a head small in proportion… [read more]

Pathophysiology Musculoskeletal Essay

… ¶ … alterations which can occur in the musculoskeletal structures of the foot and lower legs. Essentially, metatarsus adductus is a foot deformity that is caused by the development impaired by an infant's position in its mother's womb. The delicate bones in the foot are bent inwards towards the infant's body (Carroll, 2008). There are a number of positional issues that can cause the condition, but include a breech position for extended periods of time. Moreover, a hereditary condition known as ogliohydramnios, where the mother fails to produce a sufficient amount of amniotic fluid causes the deformity. This can cause the infant to suffer from developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) as well. Equinovarus deformity is a type of club foot, where the foot is also bent inwards towards the body. There are three types of equinovarus deformities, positional equinovarus, idiopathic congenital equinovarus, and teratologic equinovarus. These feature a combination of equinus deformity which is a "plantar flexion of the foot in which the heel is lower than the toes" and valgus deformity, the "eversion and abduction of the heel and forefoot" (Carroll, 2008, p 1622). These are often caused by genetic disorders. The idiopathic equinovarus deformation in newborns often occurs more in males and is a type of clubfoot which can be treated with both surgery and use of braces. Teratologic equinovarus has neuromuscular or syndromic causes such as arthrogryposis and osteochondrodusplasia. Finally, pes planus is a type of flat foot, rather than club foot like the others discussed. This is often a condition passed down within the family and is essentially when the arch of the foot collapses. Most flay feet cases in children will eventually develop healthy arches with the development of healthy muscle, tendon, and bones.… [read more]

Kai Hung Fung Artwork Instrument Essay

… Limitations of Using Human Body over Alternative Mediums

It is not an easy job to use human body as an interactive instrument in ads as it sometimes might not explains the idea behind the ads. The human body might mislead from the actual ideas as people get distracted by the human body and not paying attention to the actual theme behind the ads that is why it is very difficult to use the human body as a communication instrument. However Fung has used human body in such a way that the onlooker is not led to a misguided direction and the basic theme of the art remains vividly perceptible to him.

Fung's use of human body as an interactive instrument works most of the times but not necessarily always. When it comes to people, their lives, emotions, dreams and desires; it is easy and best to use human body. However when it comes to objects other than living, use of human body is limited as human body cannot use as an object for the ads. The models are full of emotions, feelings and desires so it is not possible to relate them with objects as the objects do not have feelings and emotions (Beck 1987). In his artwork, Fung has never deviated from the use of human body.

One school of thought is against the idea that humans are the best interactive instruments used for relating to the audience. The reason behind is that the particular group of people believe that sometimes people are least interested about other people's feelings. However when emotions, feelings, care and sharing are shown to them in other creatures like animals; it makes them feel for their own species. So yes, human body as an interactive instrument has some limitations.


Beck. 1987. "Art and Communication." Accessed October 21, 2012

Fung. 2006. "Artwork Using 3D Computed Tomography: Extending Radiology into the Realm of Visual Art." Leonardo 39:187-191. Accessed October 21, 2012. doi:10.1162/leon.2006.39.3.187.

Fung. 2006. "The rainbow technique: an innovative approach to the artistic presentation of 3D" computed tomography." Leonardo 39:101-103. Accessed October 22, 2012.

Gajitz. 2011. "Scientific Scans Show Natural Art Inside of Human Bodies." Accessed October 21, 2012.

Griggs. 2009. "Window on the body: CT scans become art." Accessed October 21, 2012.

Lester. 2007. "Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge 2007." Science 317:1858… [read more]

Herniated Disc Spinal Disc Herniation Essay

… al. 2005).

Location and Position- Symptoms are typically experienced on only one side of the body and generally in the lumbar region. Typically, less than 4% of the cases occur in the thoracic area. The position of the hernia also depends on the manner in which it affects other discs. Cervical herniations occur most often between the fifth and sixth or sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae (C5/6 or C6/7). Lumbar disc herniations occur in the lower back, usually between the 4/5 lumbar region or between the 5th lumbar and sacrum. The sciatic nerve is the most common to be affected, causing burning pain that radiates intensely. Similarly, if the femoral nerve is involved, the patient might experience additional numbness and even a burning feeling in legs and hips (Postacchini; Baldwin,, 2011).

Diagnosis and Modality -- Diagnosis is usually made when patients complain of certain symptoms and location of the injury. Typically, imaging studies are needed to confirm or rule out other issues like tumors, lesions, or metastases (Baldwin).

Radiographic Issues- Six types of imaging studies are available when herniated discs are suspected, depending again on location, severity of pain, reported cause, and/or patient's age and lifestyle:

X-Ray -- X-Rays are limited in their ability to image any soft tissue, but can rule out tumors, infections or fractures.

CAT -- Computed Tomography shows the shape and size of the spinal canal and structures, including soft tissue. Depending on the herniation site, it is still sometimes difficult to completely see the affected area.

MRI -- Magnetic resonance images shows the spinal cord, nerves and surrounding areas at a higher resolution than a CAT scan. It is usually the image of choice for most herniated disc evaluations.

Myelogram -- This is an x-ray of the spinal canal after the patient is given a contrasting injection. This reveals displacement of the contrast material and can find tumors, spurs or herniated discs.

Nerve Conduction or EMG -- Nerve conduction studies introduce an electrical current that is measured as it travels on a nerve root, which shows whether there is actual ongoing nerve damage.

TMS - Transcranial Magnetic Simulations measure the time needed for neural impulses to move up and down the spine. It aids in assessing healing or areas of damage (Wilmink, 2009).

Treatment- Treatment is dependent upon severity of injury and area(s) affected. It can range from non-surgical methods (anti-inflammatories or pain medication) combined with stretching and exercising; physical therapy (massage, traction or electrical stimulation); steroid injections; weight control and body mechanics; spinal manipulation, to surgery as a last resort. Surgery can dissolve the disc, remove portions of the disc or rupture, fuse discs or replace them. Surgical goals, though, have risks for additional nerve damage, and include relief of pain, nerve compression, and the patient's ability to return to normal function (Mayo Clinic).


Herniated Disc. (2012) MedlinePlus. Retrieved from:


Baldwin, J.,, (2011). Lumbar (Intervertebral) Disk Disorders. Medscape Reference.

Retrieved from:

Ernst, C., (2005). Prevalence of Annual… [read more]

Export Import Company Consider Organization Essay

… The stiffening and thickening occurring throughout the body can also cause changes in blood pressure. "Receptors called baroreceptors monitor the blood pressure and make changes to help maintain a fairly constant blood pressure when a person changes positions or activities. The baroreceptors become less sensitive with aging" (Dugdale 2010). Some older people experience low blood pressure on standing, due to an imbalance with their baroreceptors. Conversely, some older patients experience hypertension or high blood pressure because of the thickening and stiffening of the heart walls and other components of the cardiovascular system. The heart must work harder due to aging and other arteries will also thicken and stiffen.

The nature of the blood also changes with age. The aging body contains less body water than a younger body, causing a decrease in overall blood volume. When red blood cells decrease (measured as a decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels), the individual may feel fatigued more easily. White blood cells which play a role in immune resistance "decrease in their number and ability to fight off bacteria. This reduces the ability to resist infection" (Dugdale 2010).

When working out, older people have a lower target maximum heart rate than younger people due to on average their 25% reduction in maximum cardiac output ("Cardiovascular system," AAHF, 2012). However, many of the changes due to age can be effectively counterbalanced with an appropriate diet and regular exercise. An older, conditioned person is often more easily able to work out and is in better condition than an untrained younger person. It is also important to note that not all individuals experience cardiac symptoms with equal severity as they age. Diet, exercise, genetics, and environment all play a role in the degree to which aging affects the cardiovascular system in a manner scientists are still attempting to fully understand.

Works Cited

"Cardiovascular system." American Academy of Health and Fitness. AAHF. [28 Sept 2012]

Dugdale, David C. "Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels." Medline Plus Encyclopedia,

2010. [28 Sept 2012] [read more]

Steroids -- Cause and Effect Term Paper

… Steroids -- Cause and Effect

The cause in terms of why people -- especially those involved in athletic competition -- would take a drug as dangerous as anabolic steroids is easy to understand: athletes want an edge, they want to… [read more]

Lymphatic System Essay

… The body has over 300 nodes filtering foreign elements. As unknown and unhealthy materials are captured by the nodes, each person's unique white blood cells move in to destroy them and keep the body healthy.

There are select white blood cells that make special disease-fighting proteins which kill off diseased and infected cells. There are others that help quarantine germs in the body and kill them before they have a chance to spread infection or disease. Because of this valuable protection, any type of disorder of the lymphatic system has the power to prevent the body from being able to defend itself against infection and sickness and can ultimately lower the function of the immune system and contaminate the circulatory system (Brown, 2005). The lymphatic process not only protects the human body, but also allows cells in the body to function at their best.

There are certain steps that can be taken to keep the lymphatic system operating efficiently. The lymphatic system depends on a constant supply of fluid, so drinking at least eight glasses of filtered water each day is recommended. Preservatives, artificial sweeteners, excess sugar, chemicals and processed foods all put strain on the lymphatic system. Organic fruits and vegetables, whole grain and natural foods are better choices because they can supply the lymphatic system with crucial vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytonutrients. The chlorophyll in green vegetables is especially helpful to the lymphatic system. Healthy fats found in walnuts, flax seeds, peanuts, and avocados are beneficial, as is regular exercise and massage which keep lymph fluids moving. Deep breathing also invites oxygen into the body which helps remove unwanted material and toxins.


Brown, P. (2005). Lymphatic system: Unlocking the drains.… [read more]

Environment Influences the Body Plan Essay

… The bilateral sea urchins of the Early Jurassic period had an anus positioned near the end of the body and when engaged in locomotive activity, kept the anus oriented rearward. The slimming of the bilateral sea urchin body shape is believed to have facilitated digging into the sand for food because less sand had to be moved, and the rearward pointing anus more sanitary.

A recent study carefully examined the behavior of the bilateral sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina and found evidence suggesting that the bilaterality facilitates defense (Yoshimura and Motokawa, 2010). Sea urchins use several strategies to avoid predation, including moving only during the night to avoid attracting attention. Sea urchins also elaborate spines. A. crassispina, in accordance with their bilateral symmetry, have body regions with shorter and longer spines. After observing the behavior of A. crassispina in the laboratory and in the field, it was noticed that the shorter spins were kept away from open waters and towards structures that provided barriers against predation. In addition, A. crassispina preferred to rest in the corners at the top of the water tank, rather than the bottom corners. Since A. crassispina prefer shallow tidal pools in the field, the authors interpreted this as indicating the primary predator threat is from the water column, rather than from above the water surface.


The environmental forces that have driven the evolutionary emergence of bilateral symmetry are believed to be related to the use of locomotion to find food. Essential to this process is the development of a nervous system capable of sensing food and driving motor activity. Recent research also suggests that bilaterality could be facilitating defensive strategies.


Martindale, Mark Q. And Henry, Jonathan Q. (1998). The development of radial and biradial symmetry: The evolution of bilaterality. American Zoologist, 38, 672-684.

Yoshimura, Kazuya and Motokawa, Tatsuo. (2010). Bilaterality in the regular sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina is related to efficient defense not to… [read more]

Physics of Swimming Term Paper

… Pressure drag as a result of the body moving, between the upper part and lower part of the body while swimming reduces the pace of a swimmer. The turbulence along the body can only be minimized by the ridges made along the suit. Similarly, such suits are made to cover all parts of the body with the exception of feet and arms to minimize water drag. Such full body swimsuits aids in reduction of muscle fatigue, as the moving parts of the body will only require minimum energy to propel the swimmer.

Swim suits are made of very smooth surfaces as rough surface lower swimmer's movement in water as it increases the opposing force between swimmer and water (Gibo, T., 2). In addition, some suits are made slightly thicker to increase the buoyancy while in water. Smooth surfaces have less frictional drag to water as compared to rough surfaces. This minimizes the frictional drag while swimming, and the effort required when swimming is minimized, as the ability to float is higher and will require less energy.

During competitions, some swimsuits have been banned due to unfair advantage. Different suits have an advantage over others, making swimming measurement impact grater to others. Thickness of suits has been specified to be 1mm thick. This is to reduce the advantage of buoyancy to other swimmers who instead would have used less force to float, such as the LZR Razor swimmers is said to have added buoyancy. Swimming suits are set not to extend the ankles or shoulders. Full body suits minimize water drag, which is an added advantage to those who have. Standardized swimming suits hence are recommended without extended shoulders and ankles.

For competitions, specified swimming suits are recommended, and no competitor is allowed to tailor make for him/herself. This ensures that the modifications made are universal to all. Competitors are allowed only one suit during competition, which they use till the end of competition unless otherwise.


Swimming is a sport that has evolved over a long period. It has undergone several technological improvements and advancement to improve its competition. Improvements in swimming field have been focused on the improvement of the suits with the application of physics and the modern technology, such as shaving of hair or wearing smooth swimming caps, which reduces the friction drag of water. Upon improving such measures, competitions have ensured fair advantage to all swimming competitors this will be achieved by standardizing all swimwear. Swimming suits are worn by anyone during swimming, no matter the age, size or gender.

Works Cited

Haphaestus, B. Swimsuits. Balton. Haphaestus books publisher, 2011.

Koff, T.,Kovich, E.D. And McPhillips, K. The Physics of Swimming. London: UNC chapea hill publisher, 2004.

Lucer, B. And Bleulgohlke, C. Masters Swim Suit. Meyer and Meyer… [read more]

Embryonic Stem Cell Research Research Paper

… 71). And while the concerns citizens have about science and its "implications" are not new, the hE's cell research -- and all its implications -- has provided the chance for these above-mentioned concerns to "coalesce around a new, scientific field… [read more]

Human Health and the Mind-Body Connection Term Paper

… Human Health and the Mind-Body Connection

In some respects, the human mind and body are separate entities, particularly in connection with the types of ailments to which each is vulnerable and the diagnoses and treatment of those ailments. Generally, medical… [read more]

Galectin 1 In the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Human Cancer Cachexia Introduction

… Galectin-1 in the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Human Cancer Cachexia

The modern oncology can control cancer progression leading to chronic treatments. In the absence of controls, patients reach a state slowly wasting. Orexigenic drugs (corticosteroids, megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone… [read more]

Biology Invertebrates: Echinodermata Phyla Essay

… Each would have a unique function. The morphology of the tapeworm allows it to feed off its host.

Phylum Nematoda

6a. How does the number of body cavities of nematodes compare with that of flatworms?

Flatworms have no body cavities. Nematodes have one.

b. What are the advantages of a digestive tract having a separate entrance and exit?

This allows specialization zones within the digestive tract.

c. Female Ascaris are more numerous than males. Why might this be adaptive?

There might be more females so that the creature could reproduce at higher rates.

7. How would you describe the motion of a nematode?

The motion of nematodes is caused by contraction and relaxing of muscles. It can move forward by extension but not much sideways.

8a. The cuticle of Ascaris is flaky and tough. What might be an adaptive advantage of a thick and tough cuticle?

The thick, tough cuticle would protect the creature from predators more easily than a thin one.

b. Where do the internal organ of Ascaris attach to the body wall?

The stomach and up into the intestines

c. How does the diameter of the female reproductive tract change?

It opens to the extieror

d. Are any sensory organs evident in Ascaris? Why would this be adaptive?

They have bristles around the mouth and chemosensory. This tells them when they are near a food source.

Class Hirudinea

8e. How could production of a packet-like spermatophore contribute to the evolutionary success of leeches in their environment?

The packet-like spermatophore makes reproduction more likely in watery environments where the sperm could otherwise be destroyed.

9. List three or four characteristics [read more]

Scientific Explantation of the Brain Maclean and the Three Brain Robert Bly Essay

… Brain and the Three Brain

A Scientific Explanation:

The Brain by Paul MacLean and "The Three Brain" by Robert Bly

The brain is one of the most complex and one of the least understood organs of the body. Throughout history, it has served as basis for wonderment, and with the beginning of the study of psychology as a science in the 1870's, it became the focus of a decades-long pondering that continues today, in the same field. The brain has been explain, dissected, and re-explained many times, yet nobody knows how it works to a certainty. The paragraphs below will explain scientifically two views of the brain, one by Paul MacLean and one by Robert Bly.

Paul MacLean's model of the brain, called the Triune Brain, includes the corpus callosum, the cerebrum, the limbic system, the reptilian complex, the cerebellum and the brain stem as central components of the organ. MacLean further suggests that the brain is actually three brains in one and each "layer" has been established as a result of an evolutionary need. The three layers are the reptilian (R) complex, the limbic system and the neocortex. Furthermore, MacLean contends that they all have different functions but that they also interact.

In MacLean's model, the R-complex is responsible for actual physical survival and is composed of the brain stem and cerebellum. The limbic system is the "second" brain, and it houses emotions. This part includes the amygdala and the hippocampus, the latter of which is responsible for long-term memories. The limbic system is further described as having evolved in primal activities mainly related to food and sex. Lastly, the neocortex constitutes almost the entire human brain and is the "outer" portion. This part makes language, speech and writing possible and is also responsible for most of our thinking.

In "The Three Brain" by Robert Bly, the reader is presented with another view of the… [read more]

Brain and Behavior Essay

… Neurons are the initiators of all human activity, emotion, and cognition. The neural input goes down the dendritic neuron until it reaches the axon terminal, where other neurons transport it from the synapse. Action is commenced by the firing of an action potential (i.e. nerve impulse) that causes a neuron to dash down the dendrite. Neurons communicate via chemical messages called neurotransmitters that transmit the neuron and push it along from one axon to another enticing them to cross synapses whilst doing so. Sometimes the neurotransmitters impede the neurons from crossing over the synapse by inhibiting the receiving cell. At other times they excite the neuron and receptor allowing the receptor to welcome the neuron and to facilitate its passage. Neural activity is farther enhanced and regulated by other chemicals called neuropeptides. The brain, it has recently been discovered, works according to the principle of neuroplasticity, namely, it can 'rewire' itself and modify according to experience and environment.

Neuroscientists divide the nervous system into the central nervous system (CNS) comprising the main part of the brain and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of spine and brain stem. The PNS includes the somatic (voluntary) and the autonomic (instinctive) nervous systems. Most of the computing (actions, emotions, decisions) is carried out by the CNS. The PNS carried sensory information to and from the brain via the brain stem and spine. Instinctive bodily processes are regulated by the autonomic nervous system in a dual process of sympathetic branch (i.e. reactive) and parasympathetic (i.e. quelling) as exemplified in the 'fight and flight response' where fear may cause an instinctive (sympathetic) reaction, instantly after subdued by the parasympathetic rejoinder.

Neuroscientists study the brain for various reasons not least to investigate the causes and brain regions of behavior as well as to better comprehend and cure pathological disease. Brain research is conducted through various forms of imagery (e.g. CT, PET, or fMRI), through simple studies / observations, or though lesioning.

The human brain, otherwise known as the cerebral cortex, is divided into left and right hemispheres connected by the corpus colluseum. Each hemisphere… [read more]

Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance Research Paper

… These are the different modes of conventional PPV, non-conventional PPV, and inhaled medical gases. There are many available modes of conventional PPV for the ICU to alter airway pressure. But because infants and children are sensitive to alterations, non-conventional approaches… [read more]

Stress Management -- Body Scan Thesis

… Generally, I have found that it is possible to use these techniques to reverse my physiological reaction to external stressors.

Response to the Scan

My principal response to the body scan was surprise at the realization of how much my reaction to stress is expressed in my body and how much my conscious attempts to change some of those natural responses can help me reverse that stress response. In particular, I discovered that controlling my breathing is the single most important factor and that it allows me to control the other physiological responses as well.

Isomorphic Stress Management Technique

I learned that the stress management techniques that are most helpful to me are those that pertain to advance visualization and situational preparedness. In general, the more familiar I am with what to expect, the less stressful the situation is for me. Therefore, I can minimize my stress level by researching situations to ascertain as much information as possible before I experience them. Similarly, I have discovered that time management is equally important for managing stress. When I am rushed, my stress level always increases, regardless of other factors. Therefore, my approach to stress management is to obtain as much information (such as driving or walking directions, applicable rules, and the type of physical layout involved) as possible. I also make sure to leave as much of a time cushion as possible so that even an unanticipated delay cannot trigger my stress response. In combination, those techniques, together with prior visualization of unfamiliar situations helps me reduce my stress response substantially, even in circumstances that ordinarily provoke my physiological… [read more]

Prolotherapy Proliferation Therapy Essay

… Prolotherapy

A) Tendons and ligaments are comprised of what kind of tissue?

Tendons, which connect muscles to bones, and ligaments, which connect bones to other bones, are comprised of dense fibrous connective tissue containing many collagen fibers that are tightly packed together.

B) Why is it that damage to these tissues (as well as cartilage) have a difficult time healing after damage?

Damage to these tissues is difficult to heal because of a lack of blood supply. The inflammatory response, which promotes healing, can also be impeded with the use of anti-inflammatory medications.

C) Using the information in Chapter 6 and other places in the text, explain the process of inflammation? What initiated the process? What Cells come into the area to help prevent Infection? What do these cells do? How do they come in? This may depend on the severity of the damage to the tissue- for example; the process may be different depending on whether blood vessels are damaged. What other types of cells come into the area? What do these cells secrete to help repair the damaged tissue? What eventually replaces the damaged tissue? Is it new tissue or something else?

When tissue is damaged, either due to injury or infection, the damaged tissue initiates the inflammatory response, a non-specific defense. Signs of inflammation include heat, redness, swelling, and pain. Damaged tissue and mast cells release chemicals which signal the bone marrow to release white blood cells into the bloodstream. Additionally, histamine is released which relaxes the smooth muscle and arterioles which supply blood to tissue capillaries. This allows for increased blood flow to the area, resulting in heat and redness. Histamine also increases permeability of the capillaries. This allows nutrients and oxygen to enter the damaged tissue to promote healing; however, this is also what causes pain and swelling.

Stimulated by chemicals released by the damaged tissue, white blood cells (neutrophils and monocytes) travel to the site of the injury. Neutrophils are phagocytic, meaning they promote healing by engulfing pathogens and destroying them with hydrolytic enzymes. As they enter the tissues,… [read more]

Earthworm Dissection Term Paper

… Earthworm Dissection

Phylum Annelida is comprised of a group of animals referred to as segmented worms. They are can be found universally in terrestrial, marine and fresh water environments. They can range from a few millimeters to several meters in length. Annelids can be differentiated from other invertebrates based on their external structure. These include lengthy cylindrical bodies composed of several segments of the same kind, lack of appendages, antennas or prominent head part. There are 3 major Annelid groups -- Oligochaeta, Hirudinidea and Polychaeta. The first two are terrestrial and associated with earthworms and leaches respectively. The last one is marine in nature ("Annelida: Worms," n.d.)

Earthworms have front and back ends, better acknowledged as the anterior and posterior. The first posterior section is called its mouth which has a cushioning of flesh called prostomium. This is used to block the mouth entrance when the anterior contracts. While hunting for food, the prostomium extends out and ingests particles ("Composting Worms," n.d.).

The anterior cross section of the gizzard of an earthworm consists of the oral cavity part of its digestive system. This includes the mouth and the Pharynx. The mouth is used to ingest soil and serves as a way of locomotion. This is assisted by the pharynx where the pharyngeal muscles are utilized in the sucking action. Those substances are then passed onto the oesophagus. The digestive tube has a nerve cord underneath it which broadens into a large cerebral ganglion ("Earthworm," n.d.).

The earthworm does not have a heart per se. However they have organs called aortic arches which show functional and structural similarity with the human heart. It has 5 of these and can be related to the 4 chambers in the human heart. A gland in between each arch facilitates calcium digestion. The arches and gland put together makes up less than 5% of their total body length. They are found enfolded around the oesophagus, behind the ganglion. An earthworm needs all 5 of… [read more]

Neurobiology Binocular Vision Essay

… Neurobiology

Binocular Vision

One of the most significant achievements made in the evolution of certain mammals is binocular vision, which allows for much greater precision, depth perception, and non-movement-based differentiation of objects when compared to monocular vision (Howard & Rogers, 1995). Part of this development has to do with the physical structures of the skull and specifically the placements of the eyes, which lead to a coordination of visual fields that simply does not occur in monocular vision, but there is also a great deal of responsibility for this phenomenon found in the internal structures of the eye, the parts of the nervous system connecting the eye to the brain, and alterations in the visual processing centers of the brain (Howard & Rogers, 1995). The timing of transmissions from the two eyes of binocular versioned organisms is a matter of great interest and importance.

Information from both eyes is ultimately communicated to a single area and often to a single cell used for processing the information and sending it further along towards the brain for ongoing analysis and processing (Howard & Rogers, 1995). The fact that there are not two separate pathways to the visual areas of the brain for the transmission of light information taken in by the two eyes and translated into neural impulses means that there must be another mechanism by which the information received and transmitted by each eye is differentiated. The timing by which the ganglia at the end of the retinal neurons receive chemical messengers from each eye determines how the brain will eventually interpret these signals and create binocular… [read more]

Physical Science Essay

… Science

New imaging technology enables an "unprecedented" glimpse into the brain, notes Rebecca Boyle (2010). In an article for Popular Science magazine, Boyle (2010) offers a brief video clip of a mouse's cortex to show what the new brain imaging technoloy can do. Called array tomography, the imaging technology has the potential to dramatically increase understanding of how electrical signals are sent throughout the brain of any organism, including humans. Array tomography presents "a map of every synapse's position in the cortex, with colors corresponding to different synaptic types," (Boyle 2010). The technology is relatively straightforward in principle: high-resolution photographs of nano-thin layers of the brain are strung together to create a three-dimensional image. To obtain the color differentiation, stains are used. The stains are antibodies that "match 17 synapse-related proteins," (Boyle 2010). The resulting glow provides the stunning visual imagery that can help neuroscientists better understand the inner landscape of the human brain. Array tomography combines the best principles of high-resolution digital photography with the fundamental principles of neuroscience. Therefore, array tomography represents the interface between physical and biological science.

Neuroscience is itself the bridge between the purely physical and the life sciences. The brain carriers electrical impulses and can be viewed as a series of switches and networks, not dissimilar from the Internet. An individual synapse is "like a microprocessor" that has "both memory-storage" and "information-processing elements," according to one neuroscientist (cited by Boyle 2010). Synapses are not simply "on/off" switches that either send or do not send signals, usually in the form of chemicals or hormones. Any one synapse may be capable of making up to a thousand different decisions, making the brain far more complex for traditional imaging technology. The brain is more like outer space than it is alike to any other organ of the body. Discovering how the brain works is… [read more]

Comparison Between Human Circulatory System and Oyster Literature Review

… ¶ … Human Circulatory System and Oyster Circulatory System

15, November, 2010

There are two main types of circulatory systems, open and closed. Some Phylum Mollusca have a closed circulatory system, like humans, but not all do. Molluscas live in… [read more]

Calcium the Importance Discussion Chapter

… Calcium

The Importance of Calcium in the Human Body

It is difficult to decide which elements are the "most important" in the human body, as many different elements are essential to survival. The problem is not really made any easier when carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen -- the four elements that comprise organic compounds -- are removed, because many of the other elements that are found in the human body to lesser degrees still serve vital functions, and without any number of them life and the functions that sustain human action would cease. Still, if pressed to identify one of the most vital of these lesser elements, calcium would certainly make the short list. Calcium serves a variety of functions within the body that make it absolutely essential to performing certain actions and for basic survival, and is the most abundant mineral in most complex animal organisms (Essential Vitamins Guide 2010). The reasons why calcium is so important will be detailed in the following paragraphs.

The most well-known of calcium's function, used to get children around the globe to drink their milk and marketed to seniors in various forms due to the degradations of aging, is in forming the bones of the body. Ninety-nine percent of all the calcium found in a human body is in the bones and the teeth, and this elements is the primary constituent of these features (EVG 2010; MedlinePlus 2010). Without calcium, the body would have no shape, and furthermore would be unable to perform any of the standard activities that are so easily performed thanks to our skeletal structure -- sitting, standing, walking, talking, and even breathing (not to mention a host of other activities) are all wholly dependent on our bones (EVG 2010; Food Mineral 2010). The body's skeleton also ensures that there is room for soft-tissue organs to function as they are supposed to, and provides a great deal of protection from injury to the inner body, as well (MedlinePlus 2010).

It is not only in the skeleton and the teeth… [read more]

How Are Regenerative Therapies Beginning to Rebuild and Restore Function to Injured Body Parts? Term Paper

… Regenerative Therapies

Though the media attention paid to stem cell research has waned somewhat in the face of economic crises and other political issues, the medical innovation that holds the promise to repair damages spinal cords, provide custom-made organs for… [read more]

Resqpod in Cardiac Arrest Research Paper

… ResQPOD in Cardiac Arrest


The ResQPOD is an impedance threshold device which regulates thoracic pressure on demand during hypotension. This device effectively increases vital organ perfusion in the instance of a variety of arrhythmias even those associated with a… [read more]

Marfan's Syndrome Term Paper

… Marfan syndromme is a multisystem disease with variable genotypic and phenotypic appearance. There is overlap in clinical presentation with other multisystem diseases that often may lead to misdiagnosis. Consequently because of its diverse clinical features diagnosis is challenging and necessitates… [read more]

Masculinity Gender and Symbolism in the Film Pumping Iron Essay

… Masculinity, Gender, and Symbolism in the film, "Pumping Iron

Pumping Iron: Displays of masculinity and femininity in the bodybuilding world

Long before Arnold Schwarzenegger symbolized budgetary restraint in California, he was the symbol of what constituted the ultimate in physical… [read more]

Anabolic Steroids Ergogenic Aids Are Devices, Drugs Term Paper

… Anabolic Steroids

Ergogenic aids are devices, drugs, procedures and other substances that are constantly used to increase energy level in an individual and increase his/her performance. Mostly these substances are used by sports persons who want results but instead of… [read more]

Strains Versus Sprains Term Paper

… Medicine

Strains vs. Sprains

Strains occur when there are injuries that involve muscles or tendons. They take place when the muscle is tore, twisted, or pulled. Strains are a severe type of injury that is a consequence of overstretching or… [read more]

Thyroid "Hot Spots" Incidentally Detected Research Paper

… The FDG-PET scan indicated improved bone marrow uptake and a left cervical hot spot. FNAC of an hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe pointed to papillary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was carried out. The diagnosis of a PTC was ascertained.… [read more]

Cardiovascular Case Study

… Cardiac

Cardiovascular Case Study

hypertension: chronic elevated blood pressure diuretic: a substance/drug that causes the kidneys to engage in increased activity, causing more frequent urination/less fluid retention electrocardiogram: a measurement of the electrical activity in a heart, to test for problems/ensure stability myocardial infarction: "heart attack;" the blood vessels to the heart become blocked, and the heart ceases functioning/is greatly debilitated bypass surgery: involves the creation of a bypass of blocked arteries, allowing normal blood flow to regions supplied by blocked arteries sublingual: under the tongue; many drugs dissolve and are absorbed into the bloodstream effectively from this location angina: chest pain resulting from reduced blood flow to the heart angiogram: X-ray procedure that measures blood flow through an artery through the use of fluoroscopy (an injected substance that appears differently under X-ray) coronary arteries: blood vessels that supply the heart muscles angioplasty: the widening of an artery to restore normal blood flow atherosclerosis: the condition of hardened and clogged arteries brought about by the collection of fatty deposits on the interior blood vessel walls


The ST event likely represents ischemia, the condition brought about by the damage of tissue in the heart due to a lack of adequate blood supply, a precursor to/cause of the myocardial infarction.


J.M.'s risk factors contributing to the infarction were his gain in weight, his high-fat and high-sodium diet, generally sedentary lifestyle, and family history of similar infarctions and heart/artery problems.


The sympathetic nervous systems sends branches to many internal organs, also passing through (or connecting to nerves that pass through) parts of the body that… [read more]

Biology How Are Glucose, Proteins, and Lipids Research Paper

… Biology

How are glucose, proteins, and lipids utilized in your body to provide energy?

The human body is a fascinating self-regulating system that consists of interconnecting components. This structure of the body is central to the way it produces and uses energy (Singh, 2010). Proteins are made up of amino acid. Amino acids are the building-blocks of all cells. Protein is used by the body in order to build, maintain and replace tissue including muscle, hair, skin, organs and glands. It also works to produce hemoglobin, maintain proper immune function, and produce essential hormones and enzymes. Protein can also be broken down into glucose for energy. Without protein, a person's body would be unable to build muscle and carry out many of its essential life functions (the Skinny on Protein, Carbohydrates and Fats, 2008).

Foods that contain protein can be divided into two groups: complete proteins and incomplete proteins. Complete proteins include all nine essential amino acids that the body cannot produce by itself. With the exclusion of soy beans, complete proteins are only found in animal foods like meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and milk and dairy products. Incomplete proteins are missing in one or more of the nine essential amino acids. Incomplete resources of protein include most vegetables, as well as nuts, beans, seeds, peas and grains. Soybeans, however, are a complete protein (the Skinny on Protein, Carbohydrates and Fats, 2008).

Glucose is what the body uses for fuel. With no glucose, or without being able to change it into energy rapidly and efficiently, a person could not survive in good health. So it's very important that the body's energy-metabolism system works efficiently. Here is a very simple explanation of how a person converts glucose into energy.

In response to the rise in blood-glucose levels after meals, the pancreas releases insulin which mops up the glucose and carries it to cells that need extra energy.

The glucose goes into the cell by special molecules in the membrane called glucose transporters.

The cells that require glucose have specific insulin receptors on their surface so that… [read more]

Animal Biology Case Study

… ¶ … PDF file was unable to be edited, thus I have included answers for each question in the narrative below. I separated each tabled question into the different rows, depicted by the row note at the beginning of each answer.

Record the sexes and immerse sets of 10 of each of the animals in three separate containers of room temperature water. Hold one container steady at room temperature and then incrementally increase the temperature of one of the other containers and decrease the temperature (with ice) of the last container. Observe changes if any in the animals. If temperature affects sexuality, the changing temperature should have had an effect on the majority of the animals in one of the containers. If decreasing temperature affects sexuality, more animals in the cold container will have changed sexuality and vice versa for the warm temperature container.

The beta cells of the islets of Lagerhans in the pancreatic follicles.

Insulin is constantly secreted into the bloodstream at low levels, but when blood glucose levels are high, more insulin is secreted than normal.

c. Diabetes would develop. Insulin and Amylin will accumulate in beta cells in the pancreas and causes Amyloid to deposit, disrupting the ability of these cells to produce and regulate insulin.

2. First Row: It binds to ?1 receptors, signaling the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase and phosphorylase kinase (inactivating and activating them, respectively), leading to the latter activating glycogen phosphorylase, to release glucose to the bloodstream.

Second Row: Cardiac rhythm is started or increased. It does this by increasing peripheral resistance via ?1-adrenoceptor vasoconstriction and the ?1-adrenoceptor response.

Third Row: 2 receptors are found primarily in skeletal muscle blood vessels where they trigger vasodilation. -adrenergic receptors are found in smooth muscles and adrenaline triggers vasoconstriction in those vessels.

Fourth Row: Gives the body's muscles greater ability to evade or attack (ie moves blood further away from less imperative body systems to the areas where it is needed for optimum performance).

4. Amniotes are internally fertilized and the males have larger plumbing, whereas basal vertebrates are often externally fertilized and male plumbing is much smaller and less visible.

5. First Row: Hypothalumus with a negative feedback loop. / Uterine and muscle contractions with positive feedback loop.

Last Row: Endocrine. / Oxytocin-Induces more muscular contractions. ADH- affects absorption of kidney tissues.

6. Doping with testosterone causes decline in spermatogenesis and a decline in LH levels through interactions of the testosterone cells and the sperm cells.

7. Estrodial will decline and endometrial development will slow and eventually stop. With endometrial development stopped, GnRH will decrease which will lead to further decline in endometrial development in… [read more]

Brain to Body Impulse Path Essay

… Brain to Body Impulse Impact

When the body is dehydrated the brain sends messages through neurons to the body. The brain sends messages to the muscles telling the muscles to lift the glass using presynaptic neurons. The neurons communicate through… [read more]

Brain to Body Impulse Path the Role Essay

… Brain to Body Impulse Path

The role that the brain plays in providing the body with various commands for daily functions is simply amazing. This is because of the complex structure that exists between the brain and the nervous system. As it is attempting to instantaneously respond to various stimuli that is being received. Yet, to fully understand this process requires that you examine the how the brain sends messages to the different muscles in the body and the steps in which the brain sends messages to the body. This will provide the greatest insights as to how this complex system works, which allows the body to effectively function.

Write how you trace the impulse, listing the steps in as much detail as possible, from which your brain sends the message to the appropriate muscles to step up one step. Specifically include the steps involved in transmitting the impulse from the neuron to the muscle fiber at the neuromuscular junction. Specify which muscles are pulling on which bones and what types of joints are involved.

The nervous system is broken down into two parts, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system controls those responses that are instincts and transmits vital information to other parts of the body. When the brain receives stimuli from the outside world; a signal is sent to the particular part or parts of the body to react. Where, a message is sent from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system. It is in the peripheral nervous system that you will find neurons. These are special cells use to carry the different messages to the various muscles. The different neurons communicate with each other through synapses. These are membranes that interconnect the different neurons together. Once the message reaches a particular muscle group, the neurons communicate the command to the various muscles groups or joints. Through what is known as a neuromuscular junction, this is where the synapses are connecting to the actual muscle itself. For example, if the central nervous system gave a command to flex the right arm, an impulse would be passed from the central nervous system to… [read more]

Central Nervous System Essay

… ¶ … Nervous System

Neuroscience can be a difficult subject for the layperson or the student who is not majoring in deep science and biology. But the body's central nervous system plays such an important role in humans' lives --… [read more]

Functional Relationship of the Pns Term Paper

… The size of the receptive field dictates how detailed the received information will be; the smaller a receptive field is, the more detailed the information.

6. Use a specific example to briefly explain how our bodies might use sensory adaptation in response to an environmental stimulus.

The first thing that comes to mind is having a fan or space heater on at night. One turns the thing on and can hear it spinning, or making heat, but after a few minutes we cannot hear it anymore and fall asleep.

7. Compare and contrast the terms ganglia and nuclei as they relate to the nervous system.

Ganglia are clusters of neurons in the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Nuclei are complex structures of neurons in the brain. The fundamental difference between the two is that they lie in different parts of the nervous system. They are quite similar on a structural level.

8. Define plexus. Why are the lumbar and cervical regions of the spinal cord enlarged?

Indicate the spinal roots of origin of the four major nerve plexuses, and name the general body regions served by each.

Plexus is a complex mass of interconnected ganglia. The lumbar and cervical regions of the spinal cord are enlarged because, to accommodate the innervation needs of the limbs, more masses of neurons exist in these locations. The four major nerve plexuses are these: 1) the cervical plexus (C1 -- C8), which serves the neck, shoulder, arm and diaphragm, 2) the brachial plexus (C5 -- T1), which serves the pectoral girdle and the [read more]

Nervous System the Major Structures Term Paper

… What information do the ascending pathways to brain communicate? Where are the cell bodies for first-, second-, and third-order neurons for this pathway located?

7. This highly convoluted nature of the cerebrum increases the surface area to accommodate a large number of neurons and nerve cells.

8. Hypothalamus take part in neurotransmitter regulation, salt and hunger cravings, behavior and mood function, feeding organs' reflexes, and pituitary gland regulation.

9. Cerebellum coordinates muscles activity in order for them to produce smooth movement by linking with extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems as well as descending reticular formation. It therefore plays a coordination role.

10. The structures associated with limbic system comprise of anterior thalamic, hippocampus, limbic cortex, and amygdale. Its major or primary role is influencing both the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system, thereby supporting a range of body functions, such… [read more]

Biological Psychology Essay

… Temperature Regulation

Biological psychology

Temperature regulation: A function of the brain and the body

Temperature regulation: A function of the brain and the body

As warm-blooded animals, humans and other mammals and birds have a great advantage in temperature regulation. Unlike cold-blooded animals such as reptiles, insects, and amphibians, humans are capable of moving quite quickly in very cold temperatures. The human body is not dependant upon the environment to maintain a core temperature so the body's muscles can function effectively. 2/3 of human's total energy expenditure involves maintaining body temperature. We need more fuel as a species than a frog, but we are also capable of moving faster during cold weather to obtain higher-quality sources of protein and satisfy the needs of our many fast-twitch muscles (Kalat, 2008, p.293). Constant body temperatures and better-quality fuel may also have enabled humans to obtain enough nutrients to fuel greater brain cell activity as well.

However, humans are still quite fragile and are capable of functioning at an optimal level within only a relatively limited temperature range, as when temperatures exceed 41C, protein stability decreases (Kalat, 2008, p.295). But the higher the temperature, the more muscle activity can increase. Human's body temperature at 37C thus is considered an optimal compromise to maintain homeostasis. Slightly cooler temperatures are needed to maintain optimal fertility and ensure healthy fetal development (Kalat, 2008, p.293).

The brain plays a critical function in temperature regulation. The preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (POA/AH) are critical for temperature control (Kalat, 2008, p.294). Cells react based upon the temperature of the hypothalamus -- if the hypothalamus 'feels' cold, so does the organism. Temperature receptors in the skin and spinal cord also affect sensation and animals react most strongly to temperature when both their temperature receptors and the hypothalamus are receiving similar types of stimulation.

Temperature, much like hunger… [read more]

Neuro Signaling and the Structure of the Nervous System and Muscle Thesis

… Neurobiology



If the sodium/potassium pump were not working, an equilibrium both of charge and of Na+ a K+ ions would eventually (though gradually, due to the limited space available for permeating the membrane) be reached on both sides… [read more]

Tissue Types That Compose the Epidermis Research Proposal

… ¶ … tissue types that compose the epidermis. Name the tissue types that compose the dermis. List the major layers of the epidermis and dermis and briefly describe the individual functions of each layer.

The epidermis of skin is composed of 4 cell types, which may be stratified or squamous: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Merkel's cells, and Langerhan's cells. The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis, which consists of three major constituents: collagen, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers. The epidermis layer can have up to five strata while the dermal layer has two. Together, from the outermost to innermost, these strata are: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale in the epidermis, and the papillary and reticular layer in the dermis.

The functions of these layers are as follows:

Stratum corneum -- composed of dead cells and keratin, prevents desiccation of deeper cells

Stratum lucidum -- composed of dead, flattened keratinocytes and also melanocytes, contains high levels of melanin and helps protect against UV damage

Stratum granulosum -- layer where keratinocytes initiate keratinization and begin producing keratin

Stratum spinosum -- keratinization may also initiate at this stratum, contains spiny cells which interlock, providing additional structure to skin

Stratum basale -- continuously dividing layer of keratinocytes, basement of epidermal layer, typically one cell thick

2. In general, the integument serves a protective function to the body. Briefly describe

Integument provides functions against desiccation, prevents access from pathogenic microorganisms, mitigates UV damage, protects internal structures, and assists in temperature regulation.

3. Name the three pigments that contribute to skin color. Give a brief example of how a specific change in skin color could be used as a clinical sign for certain pathologies.

Skin color is produced by three elements: melanin (pheomelanin or eumelanin), hemoglobin, and oxyhemoglobin. Hypoxia is an example of a condition where skin color is altered by a decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin. Lack of oxygen results in dark red hemoglobin (deoxyhemoglobin), which when seen through the skin appears blue. Thus, people who are experiencing pathological hypoxia may manifest blue skin.

4. In clinical practice, drugs can be delivered by… [read more]

Laughter Is Laughter the Best Medicine Essay

… Laughter

Is laughter the best medicine, as the expression often states? The research findings are mixed. Some researchers, such as Ronald Berk, point to the positive benefits of laughing. They conclude that humor causes psychological and physiological changes in the… [read more]

Anp 1 Questions About Tissues Research Proposal

… ANP 1 Questions about Tissue

Tissues are defined as groups of cells with similar structure that perform a common function. Please identify (name) the four broad classes of tissues present in our bodies and give the general function that each provides.

There are four categories of tissues in the human body: epithelial tissues, connective tissues, nervous tissues, and muscle tissues. Epithelial tissue protects the body from moisture loss, bacteria, and internal injuries. Connective tissue provides structure and support to the body. Nervous tissues form the nervous system, which is responsible for coordinating the activities and movements of the body. Muscle tissue differs from other tissue types in that it contracts. Muscle tissue comes in three types: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal (, 2009, What are the four types of tissue found in the human body)

Q2: Explain the functional classification of multicellular exocrine glands and supply an example for each class.

Unicellular exocrine glands consist of single cells, specialized for secretion, which are interspersed amongst other, non-secretory epithelial cells. "The most common unicellular exocrine glands are the goblet cells (mucus secreting cells) found in the epithelium of the trachea and the digestive tube" (Exodrine glands. 2009, the Internet Encyclopedia of Science). Multicellular exocrine glands such as salivary, mammary, or sebaceous (oil) glands are formed by "invagination, or in-pouching, of an epithelial sheet (Exodrine glands. 2009, the Internet Encyclopedia of Science).

Q3: Name four important functions of connective tissue and provide examples from the body that illustrate each function.

Loose connective tissues hold physical structures of the body together, like holding the outer layer of skin to the underlying muscle tissue. Loose connective tissues also form fat layers, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow. Fibrous connective tissue holds body parts together, with… [read more]

Mind Body Connection With Learning Thesis

… Mind Body Connection w/Learning

This is a template and guideline. Please do not use as a final, turn-in paper.

One only needs to feel the knots in the stomach prior to an important speech, or test, or recital, or just… [read more]

Controversial Dietary Products and Theories Thesis

… Controversial Dietary Products and Theories

According to the advertisements promoting colon cleansing diets and related websites, the human colon becomes "impacted" with undigested foods and the average person carries a substantial amount of excess weight because of this type of intestinal "impaction" (Colovox, 2008; MVDT, 2009). Commercial websites such as those maintained by Colovox Cleanser (2009) and the Martha's Vineyard Detox Diet (2008) promote colon cleansing through laxative-type products and even colonic irrigation. In addition to promoting colon "cleansing" for the supposed purpose of eliminating the impacted fecal material in the intestines, both of these products suggest that fasting and cleansing are necessary for human health because "toxins" build up from synthetically processed food in the modern diet (Colovox, 2008; MVDT, 2009).

In reality, there is absolutely no truth to the claim about intestinal "impaction" because the colon does not allow anything to build up along its walls (Barrett, 2008). According to physician Steven… [read more]

Mapmakers, Chapter Thesis

… Brain Mapping

Though the practice of medicine has been around for thousands of years, it is really only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that the inquiry and understanding of medicine became fully rooted in the scientific method, and began making large advances. Even so, it was not until relatively recently that our understanding of one of the most essential yet complex organs in the human body began to truly take off. This organ is, of course, the brain, the center for processing input, cognitive thinking, controlling motor function, and running almost every single mechanism of the body. The fifth chapter of Schwartz and Begley's The Mind & The Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force (2002) provides an overview of how the brain was mapped, to the degree that it is, and in the process reveals many interesting details of the actual wiring of the brain. Though the specific details discussed differ, Vilayanur Ramachandran's (2007) lecture on how the brain works supports and enhances the information presented in the textbook, including new directions in the exploration of the brain.

Both the Schwartz & Begley text (20o2) and Dr. Ramachandran (2007) use specific examples to illustrate the larger principles they discuss, and so a similar comparison of the information they present would be useful here. One of the most interesting and significant findings presented in the textbook is the cortical remapping that was seen to occur following the surgical joining or separation of digits in both adult owl monkeys and human beings. In the owl monkeys, pre-cortical mapping showed individual areas of the brain associated with independent digits; three months after two digits were joined, so was the area in the brain that responded to input from this new single digit. A reversed effect in the brain took place in human beings whose congenitally joined digits were surgically separated (Schwartz &… [read more]

Plants and Sun Essay

… ¶ … sun makes plants stronger. The role of the sun in the growth of plants may appear trivial to most people and for a great extent, this may be the reason why there is not enough attention given to it. However, simple things that appear trivial, the likes of this one, also deserve the equal amount of attention that is generously given to complex things. It is for this reason that this topic was chosen.

Plants live upon soil, water, and air. However, in order to for them to grow and be stronger in order to continue to live, plants need the sun. According to Professor Hans Hackel of Germany, although there are different kinds of plants, each differing in needs in terms of the amount of sunlight they need in order to grow and flourish, "no plant can survive for long in the total absence of light." (21) Moreover, they "cannot live without light -- darkness is deadly for them!" (Hackel 22) In fact, a plant will put all its energy and resources "into developing shoots" to find sunlight when it finds itself in darkness. (Hackel 22)

Plants require different physiological processes in order to flourish. And sunlight is vital for "a whole range of physiological processes." (Hackel 21) Plants need sunlight so that the different physiological processes required to keep them living can take place. It is through the physiological processes that plants grow stronger because of the sun.

Photosynthesis or assimilation is one of the physiological processes that are essential to plants. Photosynthesis "allows plants to synthesize glucose from water and carbon dioxide,… [read more]

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