Study "Anatomy / Physiology" Essays 166-217

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History of X-Ray Term Paper

… History Of X-Rays

rays were discovered in 1895 by W.C. Roentgen who "noticed a barium platinocyanide screen fluorescing in his laboratory as he generated cathode rays in a Crookes tube." (Assmus) This was the beginning of a discovery that forever changed the way we saw human body and million of other physical phenomenon. X-rays were given this name because Roentgen couldn't decide where they were coming from, how they were being generated etc. And hence chose to assign the letter X to them. He was excited to discover that these rays could penetrate human body and give pictures of bones and internal organs. The Wurzburg Physico-Medical society was first informed of the news and within days it was sent around the world via telegraph. Interestingly the rays couldn't just penetrate human body but all solid objects and New York Times realized just how important this discovery could be for surgeons, NYT predicted… [read more]

Skeletal Muscle Tissue Review the Functional Unit Research Proposal

… Skeletal Muscle Tissue Review

The functional unit of contraction in skeletal muscle is the sarcomere which is the smallest element of a muscle fiber.

The two principle contractile proteins that compose the functional unit of contraction are created by the interaction of actin and myosin.

Skeletal muscle is striated due to the structural organization of contractile protein within individual muscle cells.

Skeletal muscle is often referred to as voluntary muscle which attached to the bone and skin that needs voluntary movements like walking.

The site of close juxtaposition of an axon terminal with the muscle cell plasmalemma is the synapse.

The perimysium is a collagenous connective tissue layer that groups several muscle fibers into bundles called fascicli.

The epimysium is the connective tissue layer which surrounds the entire muscle and merges with connective tissue of tendons and aponeuroses.

Nervous Tissue Review

The primary unit of function in nervous tissue is the neuron

2. The axon hillock is the pale-staining region of the cell body from which the axon arises.

3. The support cell within the CNS is the Cytoplasmic Basophilia.

4. The oligodendrocyte is the myelin-forming cell in the central nervous system.

5. The endoneurium surrounds and protects the myelin sheath while a myelin sheath is a covering of fat that intermittently wrap around a single neuron to send a message quicker.

Endocrine Tissue Review

1. The thyroid gland is considered to be and endocrine organ because it secretes hormones.

2. The hormone secreted by the pituitary gland controls the synthesis and secretion of T3 and T4 (thyroxine) is the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH).

3. Calcitonin hormone regulates the blood calcium levels.

4. Corpora Lutea is responsible for producing estrogen.

5. The thickened endometrium is shed in a period of bleeding that is menstruation. The first day of bleeding is the start of a new cycle of endometrial proliferation.

6. Stratum Basalis is the source of cells to regenerate endometrium after menstruation.

7. A serosa is composed of a secretory epithelial layer known as mesothelium which is consists of a single layer of avascular flat nucleated cells and a connective tissue layer underneath which makes available the blood vessels and nerves for the overlying secretory cells.

8. It differs by serosa being a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which excrete fluids and visceral peritoneum being a continuation of the parietal peritoneum reflected at various places.

9. Do the islets of Langerhans cells secrete their hormones into the same duct system used by the exocrine secretory cells?

Cardiovascular Tissue Review

1. Intercalated discs consist of… [read more]

Thirst and Dehydration Thesis

… Thirst and Hydration in the Human Body

It is a fairly well-known fact the water is the most common molecule in the human body, and one of the most essential to sustaining life in almost all (if not absolutely all) organisms. This is the underlying cause for the feeling of thirst; when levels of water in the body fall too low, the body and brain create a thirst response that encourages the dehydrated individual to drink -- that is, to take in fluids and correct the hydration issue. But as simple as this might seem on the surface, the physical process that occurs in the body is somewhat more complex.

The most essential organs and glands in the regulation of thirst homeostasis are the kidneys and the hypothalamus. Dehydration can occur for many different reasons, but the overall effect is generally the same -- there can be a decrease of blood volume and/or blood plasma in extreme cases, but no matter what the salt concentration of in blood goes up as the water level decreases. Certain receptors in the hypothalamus known as osmoreceptors detect this rise in salt concentration, and cause the hypothalamus to release antidiuretic hormone, also known as ADH, which travels to the kidneys and causes a reduction in the production of urine. When this situation continues, the kidneys themselves release the hormone restin, which in turn creates angiotensin in the blood, causing further retention of fluids by the kidney.

These processes simply stop the body from eliminating fluids, however, or at least slows the kidneys' release of fluids through the production of urine. It is, of course, impossible for the body to create more fluids itself, but other mechanisms create the thirst impulse in the brain that an individual consciously… [read more]

Stress Refers to a State of Tension Thesis

… Stress refers to a state of tension that the mind and the body are subjected to in response to real or perceived threats. The term stress was originally coined by the Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye in 1936, who defined stress… [read more]

Steroids Essay

… Steroids

The term "steroids" can refer to a wide range of drugs that are taken to improve muscle building and athletic performance. Anabolic steroids are the most common type, and are basically compounds that resemble testosterone (Drug Slang terms for steroids include roids, pumpers, juice, juicers, and terms that make them sound more like other medicines and supplements like weight trainers and strength enhancers (ONDCP). Steroids are classified by the federal government as a Schedule III substance, meaning that they have a lower potential of abuse than other drugs (Drug They do not fit into other categories like uppers, depressants, or hallucinogens, though they can have effects similar to all of these drugs.

Steroids can be taken orally or injected ( They can even be rubbed into the skin when the anabolic compounds are placed in a gel or cream (DEA). There are no immediate effects of taking steroids to athletic performance so they must be taken over long periods for the desired effects ( Basically, taking anabolic steroids is like taking extra testosterone, causing the body to exhibit many of the same changes that occur during male puberty including a deepening voice, increased perspiration, the growth of body hair, acne, and the reason people take steroids, the growth of muscle tissue. These effects are only what is seen and felt on the surface, however. Steroid use has other serious effects on short- and long-term health.

Steroids are often taken in a manner known as "cycling," where a person takes large doses of steroids for a period of time and then stops (DEA). This is supposed to enhance the muscle-growing benefits of steroid use. This type of cycling can also influence the types and degrees of health effects that are caused by steroid use, making the drugs even more dangerous.

In addition to the short-term affects of general changes in the body that mimic the response to testosterone, increased irritability, high blood pressure, and fluid retention are all common side effects of steroid use (Drug In addition, men can experience the… [read more]

Snakebites Geography Connection Insect Stings Animal Bites Drowning Frostbite Hypothermia Heat Exhaustion Heat Stroke CPR Thesis

… ¶ … Aid Procedure for Frostbite

The best way to handle frostbite, which is the actual freezing and possible death of tissue due to prolonged exposure to cold or extreme temperatures, is to take the relatively easy steps to prevent… [read more]

Spinal Cord Injuries Research Proposal

… ¶ … Bridging Spinal Cord Injuries" by James W. Fawcett

This article is basically a review of earlier research into spinal cord injuries, specifically that which was conducted by Stephen Davies and colleagues. The paper focuses, as the title suggests, on one method of repairing damage to the central nervous system (specifically the spinal cord) -- bridging the gap caused by the injury with cells that promote regeneration of CNS tissue. Davies and his team have just come out with more research regarding the types of astrocytes that can be optimally used -- and ones that shouldn't be -- in this process of bridging spinal cord injuries for the purpose of regeneration.

Previous problems with this method of bridging had to do not so much with the response of th CNS -- it is very possible to re-grow CNS tissue -- but with the substance the bridge was made of. Using peripheral nervous tissue didn't work because the growing CNS axons liked the PNS as a growth medium too much -- they wouldn't leave it to connect… [read more]

Effects of Dehydration Research Proposal

… ¶ … Dehydration

Water is more important to health than most individuals realize and in fact is critically important to many various functions of the body and the body's entire state of health. The objective of this work is to… [read more]

How to Lift Heavy Things in the Workplace Term Paper

… ¶ … Lift Heavy Things in the Workplace

According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), back injuries are the number one workplace safety problem. The Bureau of Labor and Statistics estimates more than one million workers each year… [read more]

Well-Built, Big, Athletic Man Term Paper

… ¶ … well-built, big, athletic man who is 6 feet tall and weighs 250 pounds. I like being strong, I like how my body is well-proportioned and although I am large I do not feel fat. My weight also reflects a large amount of muscle mass. There is nothing I really don't like about my body, and if there were I would be able to work on it by exercising more.

I usually compare myself with people who look like me. I wouldn't compare myself to someone who was short or who had a totally different body type. Therefore, when I compare myself I am doing it to see what areas I am stronger in and what areas I am weaker in. I might notice that a man has bigger shoulder, chest, arm, stomach or leg muscles. The muscles are often what I end up comparing. However, I also compare things like face features or hair. Sometimes I'll notice a person is a lot fatter or thinner than me and I might compare myself in terms of conditioning… [read more]

Adrenal Gland Term Paper

… Adrenal Gland


The Body Organization

The human body is an organized system, which consists of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems (Degen 2008). A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in… [read more]

Technology and a Human Brain. Including Reviews Term Paper

… ¶ … technology and a human brain. Including reviews of different people with different opinions, human nature, intelligence of a human brain, about modern biotechnology word, few examples of latest technology and how bad it could be if human beings over rely on technology.

This article consist a comparison between modern technology and a human brain. Including reviews of different people with different opinions and what do they think about the article, human nature, intelligence of a human brain, few examples of latest technology, people who fall in the category of young generation and how bad it could be if human beings over rely on technology. it's all about modern biotechnology world.

Your Outboard Brain Knows All

These days, scientist have recently researched that young people as compared to the elders are less capable to anamnesis their personal information. Latest technologies have made lives easier such as mobile phones, which can be easily taken outside and is used for the purpose to store contact numbers. In this way our brain is used lesser infact now days more than half of America relies on such devices especially younger generation. People don't even make an effort to remember anything. The point is that human's have entered in a bionic world with out even observing the fact which is the latest technology ruling over our brain. It has been proved that machine helps to rediscover things which a human brain hesitates to do so, "it's what author Cory Doctorow refers to as an 'outboard brain' (Thompson)." For instance if an individual needs to work on something he or she will simply search it on internet without even bothering to think about it once or twice. If you have notice that sometimes when an individual watch a movie, the story remains there for few days but then eventually we forget about it but after some years we do remember it again, have you ever thought why? it's just because the intelligence of a human brain. The power of biotechnology has changed the human nature or in other words it has hyperbolically affected the nature of an individual. As the author stated that "We're running out of memory." However, such technologies are used to… [read more]

Respiratory System Drugs Term Paper

… Respiratory Drugs

Respiratory System Drugs

This paper summarizes the research on various respiratory system drugs. To understand the importance and utility of these drugs, one must first understand what respiratory drugs are and how they work. Doctors typically prescribe respiratory… [read more]

Bones Muscle Term Paper

… Bones & Muscles

Deltoid muscles are in both shoulders and are associated with the scapula. Pectoralis muscles are located in the upper chest area they are often called pectoral muscles; they are associated with the Sternum and Rib bones. Below the pectorals are rectus abdominus, they are located below the ribs. Bicep and triceps muscles are associated with the Humerous bone. Quadriceps often referred to as the quads, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and sartorius are associated with the femur bone. The gluteus maximus muscle is associated with the sarum and coccyx bone. The cranium is associated with the frontalis muscle. The collarbone is associated with the trapezius muscle. The spinal cord is associated with the latissimus dorsi muscle. The fibula is associated with the gastrocnemus muscle, peroneus longus muscle, and flexor hallics longus muscle. The femur is associated with the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and sartorius muscles.

By understanding the muscles and there skeletal counterparts one is able… [read more]

Radiology Reducing Patient Exposure and Maintaining Image Quality Term Paper

… Radiology, Reducing Patient Exposure and Maintaining Image Quality

Radiology as a branch of medicine was born due to the pioneering effort of German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen who accidentally discovered X-rays while researching in his lab in 1895. The amazing benefit… [read more]

Diseases of the Aorta Term Paper



In medical terns, the aorta is the main trunk of the systemic arterial circulation and is comprised of four main parts -- the ascending aorta, the arch of the aorta, the thoracic portion of the… [read more]

Muscles Involved in the Backhand Action of the Tennis Shot Term Paper

… Tennis

Backhand Action of the Tennis Shot

This paper analyzes the muscles involved in the backhand action of a tennis shot. Included are all muscles initiating and assisting this motion, including the muscles of the leg.

Define the Action

To… [read more]

Massage Therapy Increases Athletic Performance Term Paper

… Massage Therapy for Athletic Performance

Massage Therapy and its Beginnings


Sports Medicine


Origin, Three Forms

Spa Treatments

Aspects of Excellent Athletic Performance

Massage therapy and its Beginnings

Massage therapy is the scientific manipulation of the soft tissues of… [read more]

Embryonic Stem Cells Term Paper

… Embryonic Stem Cell Research - Saving a Life by Destroying Another?

Embryonic stem cells are cells obtained from an embryo in the blastula phase when they are only a few days old and beginning to differentiate (the American Heritage New… [read more]

Ergonomics and Equipment Term Paper

… Ergonomic Equipment

Ergonomic Chair:

Seat Height that allows the user to adjust chair so feet are on the floor or work surface and keyboard is at an appropriate height. Pneumatic adjustability is easier to work than mechanical.

Seat depth change through backrest adjusting or a sliding seat pan. A shorter seat pan allows shorter people to use the chair's backrest and a deeper one is more stable for taller individuals.

Backrest angle refers to changing backrest relative to the angle of the seat. This frequently is done with an adjustment mechanism, but can also be achieved through use of flexing materials or springs in the chair shell. It allows the chair to support different degrees of recline, which transfers some upper-body weight to the chair backrest and lightens the load on the lower back's intervertebral discs. It also increases the angle between the torso and the thighs that causes the lower back to curve inward.

Chair recline changes the entire seat angle relative to the floor. There are two main tilts -- column tilt where chair pivots at the top of the base post and lifts the knees slightly while the back descends and knee tilt in which the pivot point is forward of the post, nearer the knees. In the latter, the knee lift is negligible, but the back and head descend more than in a column tilt chair.

Seat Pan Angle means changing the forward-back angle of the seat with a choice of fixed angle, rather than a free-floating recline. Frequently, this provides forward tilt, where the thighs slope downward. The purpose is to open the angle between the trunk and thighs and reduce disc pressure.

Height Adjustable Armrests reduce the work of the shoulders and upper arms. They can be used incorrectly by limiting free arm motion during activities as typing. Too-high armrests result in elevated shoulders and pressure on the undersides of the elbows and forearms; too-low, require workers to slump or lean to one side

Lumbar Region support to prevent the flattening of the lumbar spine that occurs in most people when seated. Lumbar support is usually done through gentle curves in the backrest shape. These can also… [read more]

Aromatherapy: Raindrop Technique Essential Oils for Beautiful Term Paper

… Aromatherapy: Raindrop Technique

Essential Oils for Beautiful Skin and the Raindrop Technique

History and Overview of the Raindrop Technique

The Raindrop Technique of applying essential oils was developed in the 1980s by D. Gary Young. He based his research on… [read more]

Lifting Weights Term Paper

… Women and Weight Training -No Bulk

Dispelling the Myth that Women who Lift Weights for Exercise Risk Developing Masculine-Appearing Muscles

One kind of physical exercise, properly done, that can and does consistently help women and men alike maintain fit, healthy… [read more]

Endocrine System in the Human Body Term Paper

… Endocrine System

In the human body there is an endocrine system, the function of the endocrine glands is to regulate behavior by means of certain activating secretions or hormones, which poured into the bloodstream, produce certain useful effects. The endocrine system is the set of glands and the hormones they produce that guides the development, growth, reproduction, and behavior of human beings and other animals. (Pettit, 2000, p. 413)

The function of the brain is to receive, mediate, and transmit nerve impulses. In a given social community, the function of the lawyer, judge, legislator, treasurer, is to perform the duties pertaining to his peculiar office. (Patrick, 1929, p. 108) the endocrine system regulates hormones that are directly related to the fight or flight response. Depending on the amount of specific hormones i.e. adrenaline released into one's system determines whether or not the individual will feel the need to take flight "run" or fight "stand" their ground.

Hormones, such as estrogen, androgen, and thyroid,… [read more]

Medical Research Term Paper

… Without continued study and research, American's may never know if stem cells can help cure diseases like ALS, Parkinson's Disease, and many, many others.

Some Americans do understand the importance of stem cell research. In November 2004, Californians approved Proposition 71, which creates funds for stem cell research in the state. They realized, as scientist Joshua Lederberg said, "The blood of those who will die if biomedical research is not pursued will be upon the hands of those who don't do it" (Callahan, 2005). This could open the door to more acceptance in other states, and eventual national funding for stem cell research.

In conclusion, it is quite clear that stem cell research is quite controversial. Many people simply do not understand how it works, or that the stem cells can come from a variety of sources. Stem cell research should be made available in the country to enhance the quality of life by providing research, government funding, and quality physicians. It simply makes sense, because someday, it could save many lives, even the life of a loved one or friend.


Best, S., & Kellner, D. (2004). Chapter 8 Biotechnology, democracy, and the politics of cloning. In Biotechnology and communication: The meta-technologies of information, Braman, S. (Ed.) (pp. 197-222). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bruijn, Dr. Lucie. (2005). A primer on stem cells. Retrieved from the ALS Association Web site: 31 Oct. 2005.

Callahan, D. (2005, January 14). Promises, promises: Is embryonic stem-cell research sound public policy?. Commonweal, 132,… [read more]

Injury (Chest) Athletes to Perform Effectively Need Term Paper

… Injury (Chest)

Athletes to perform effectively need all their body parts at optimum working condition. It is therefore essential that optimum body mechanics are to be ensured guaranteeing maximum performance whilst conserving energy. However, athletes are susceptible to injuries and… [read more]

Pilates Method of Mental and Physical Conditioning Term Paper

… ¶ … Pilates Method of Mental and Physical Conditioning, as an aid to Hip and Knee Rehabilitation

Pilates, invented at the turn of the 20th century, was not popularized outside specialized dance and athletic worlds until about the past 15… [read more]

Lining of Lungs vs. Lining of Intestines Term Paper

… Lining of Lungs vs. Lining of Intestines on Absorption

In the study of zootomy, epithelium is a term to describe a tissue composed of a layer of cells. Epithelium can be found lining internal (e.g. endothelium, which lines the inside of blood vessels) or external (e.g. skin) free surfaces of the body - but there are several important distinctions within, especially with regard to absorption.

The outermost layer of our human skin contains and is comprised of deceased squamous epithelial cells, as are the mucous membranes lining the inside of mouths and body cavities. Other epithelial cells line the insides of the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive and urinary tracts, and make up the exocrine and endocrine glands - so both intestines and lungs have epithelial cells that perform absorption, as noted below in greater length.

Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, absorption and protection. Epithelial cells sit on a basal lamina (formerly called a basement membrane).

First, Absorption in lungs is highly integrated into the respiratory process in humans.

In air-breathing vertebrates, respiration occurs in a series of steps. Air is trained into the animal via the airways -- in reptiles, birds and mammals this often comprises the nose, the pharynx, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchi and bronchioles, and the terminal branches of the respiratory tree.

The lungs of these animals are a rich lattice of alveoli, which provide an enormous surface area for gas exchange. A network of fine capillaries take blood over the surface of alveoli. Oxygen from the air inside the alveoli diffuses into the bloodstream across the exceptionally thin alveolar… [read more]

Lungs Absorb Oxygen Term Paper

… ¶ … Lungs Absorb Oxygen

Every part of the body needs oxygen from the air that is carried throughout the body by the red blood cells in the bloodstream, however because oxygen cannot get into the blood directly, through the skin, the lungs provide a complicated system to absorb it from the air and transfer it into the bloodstream (Way pp).

The lungs lie on either side of the heart and fill the inside of the chest, and are made up of lobes, three on the right and two on the left (Way pp). The inside of the lungs, which looks like a giant sponge, is a mass of fine tubes, the smallest of which end in tiny air sacs called the alveoli (Way pp). There are some 300 million of these alveoli and if spread out, they would cover a piece of ground about the size of a tennis court (Way pp). These alveoli have very thin walls that are crisscrossed with the finest of blood vessels called capillaries (Way pp). The lungs are protected by the rib cage, and in between the ribs are muscles that are essential for breathing, and below the lungs is a dome-shaped muscle called the diaphragm (Way pp). Each lung is covered by two thin layers of tissue, called the pleura, that slide back and forth over each other as we breathe allowing the lungs to expand and contract (Way pp).

The breathing center in the brain receives signals from the body about the amount of oxygen that is needed, then the brain sends messages along nerves to the breathing muscles between the ribs, which allows the right amount of air to be breathed into the lungs (Way pp). With each breath, air is drawn into the nose or mouth, then down through the throat and into the windpipe, or trachea, which splits into two smaller air tubes called the bronchi that go to each lung (Way pp). The air then passes down the bronchi that divide… [read more]

Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Males Term Paper

… BDD in Men

Various problems concerning female perceptions about body image have long been at the center of debate. In recent years men have also begun to confront negative concepts of body image. Although many people are uncomfortable with their… [read more]

Discover Biology Muscles Term Paper

… VR Edgerton was one scientist who began his research by cutting the spinal cords of cats midway down their backs, and putting them on a treadmill, the purpose being to find out if the cats would be able to mimic real walking by means of inducing repetitive activity in such a way that the activity would be able to reawaken certain circuits that had been shut off by the injury to the spines. The experiment showed that these animals could indeed be made to walk again. (The Reeve Effect: Can an actor's determination to walk again change the way medical research is conducted?)

Another important fact discovered by the experiment was that when there was an injury to the spinal cord, amino acids flooded the area, and with the repetitive activity on the treadmill, these amino acid levels dropped, and this meant that the area could be trained to respond differently. In addition, it was also discovered that it would be possible to train one network at a time. In conclusion, Edgerton stated that the neural structure within the lumbar cord was a 'central pattern generator', which not only directed the subconscious into walking, but also stored the memory of walking within, so that it could be activated, after injuries, with rehabilitation and training. (The Reeve Effect: Can an actor's determination to walk again change the way medical research is conducted?)

However, a basic understanding of how animals use their muscles for speed and for the strength of their muscles would explain how similar muscle tissue affects the outcome of muscle contraction. The 'fast twitch' muscles which do not use oxygen but glycogen for their movements, and which are responsible for providing strength and speed, the 'slow twitch' muscles, which have a slower contraction time, and which use oxygen for their contractions, and which are generally found in the area of the thighs and legs and the trunk and hips. These are the two sets of muscles that animals use for their speed and for their strength of muscle contraction. (How Muscles Work:

Question: 3

Pressure Drag is also known as form drag, and is caused by the differences in the size and the shape of the object under consideration. For example, when an individual enters a swimming pool and attempts to walk through the water, he would feel that he [read more]

Gaba Receptors Term Paper

… GABA Receptors in Neurons

In the human body central nervous system, the most plentiful neuro-transmitters are the amino acids. Amino acids support the medical argument that the majority of the body's neurons in the human brain make use of either glutamate or aminobutyric acid (GABA) the primary neuro-transmitter. Therefore, underlying the brain's function (or dysfunction) is knowing that GABA and glutamate serve to regulate the volatility of nearly all neurons of the brain.

The most important neurotransmitter inhibitors in the human brain, as well as in the spinal cord, are GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glycine. These particular amino acids (i.e., inhibitory) are important in medical therapy as they mediate the actions of many neuropharmacological agents (drugs). Both the inhibitory and excitatory amino acids (neurotransmitters) can be either metabotropic or ionotropic in form. The ionotropic transmitters, through initiation, results in an enhanced membrane conductance while the metabortropic activation results in an… [read more]

High Blood Pressure or Hypertension Term Paper

… Eventually, an overworked heart may not be able to pump and transport blood properly through stiff arteries. This condition is referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF). In this case, the enlarged heart loses its capability to pump blood out of its chambers, and fluid pressure builds up on the left side of the heart. This results in a build up of fluid in the lungs.

Myocardial infarctions (heart attack) can be a consequence of hypertension (Black). Recent research indicates that about one third of all heart attacks are silent heart attacks, meaning that they were not recognized as heart attacks at the time they occurred. Silent heart attacks are very often found in hypertensive individuals.


The most commonly used drugs in the first step are diuretics, which stimulate fluid excretion. By causing excess fluid and sodium to leave the body, diuretics reduce the volume of blood and thus lower blood pressure. (Since potassium, an essential mineral, is also washed out of the body along with the sodium, potassium supplements may be necessary). Beta-blockers may be used as a first step. Beta-blockers are drugs that slow the heart rate, thereby lessening its work. Adrenergic-inhibiting agents, which work like beta-blockers, or vasodilators, which relax and open up blood vessels, including constricted arterioles may also be used. Although the effects of hypertension can be devastating, there are treatment options including pharmacological agents, lifestyle, and dietary changes.


Black, H.R. "The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease: Following the Link from Hypertension to Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure." Am J. Hypertens 16.9 Pt 2 (2003): 4S-6S.

Giles, T.D. "Hypertension and Heart Failure Sine Heart Failure. The Acc/Aha Guidelines: A Misadventure in the Lexicography of Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure, Particularly for the Hypertensive." J. Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 5.4 (2003): 280-1.

Lu, M., et al. "[Hypertension and Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis in a General Population of a Rural Areas in China]." Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 25.10 (2004): 841-4.

National Institutes of… [read more]

Burned There Are Specialized Cells Term Paper

… Reflexes are always very fast and done for survival reasons.

This emergency survival action affects many bodily systems. The nervous system is obviously affected, as the root of the process takes place within that system, from the thermoreceptors, to the nerves, to the relay neuron. The reflex arc takes place through the nervous system. Of course, almost immediately the nerves also carry a signal to the brain with information about what has happened. People who touch a hot surface and reflexively pull away from it will notice that happen before they even realize they have burned themselves. That is because the reflex arc does not involve traveling all the way to the brain, because when the body is in harm's way, every minuscule moment of delay means further injury. The brain receives the signal after the reflexive action, and can interpret the events to decide what the next step should be. Perhaps the brain will send a signal to go rinse the hand under cold water, or to get the first aid kit out of the cabinet, or even to call a doctor for advice. Maybe first the brain will send a signal to the vocal cords to yell out in pain. The way that the muscular system is affected is by receiving the signal to contract in order to actually move the hand away from the hot surface, and following this signal to do so. The skeletal system is involved because when the muscles contract, they pull on the bones in the arm and hand, which is what pulls the entire limb away from the stove. Any other instructions that the brain sends to the body will also affect these systems. The nervous system will carry the message, the muscles will contract and relax, which will move the skeletal system by pulling bones in various directions. Every system is interconnected and involved in bodily actions. [read more]

Proteins Play a Special Role Term Paper

… Proteins play a special role in our lives, since they represent one of the basic irreplaceable components required for a productive existance of a human body. They participate in all the process connected with growth and reproduction: an adequate level of protein in a body also helps recover from athletic activity and influences to bone cell growth, strengthens the bones in the body to the highest possible point of potential. Proteins provide immune system defense for the body and also are containers of anti-oxidant components. Protein creases muscle growth and is highly necessary in order to recover properly from some kind of injury.

The basic of a chemical structure of proteins is rather simple: they consist of long circuits of the rests of the amino acids connected among themselves by certain communications. A protein is the basis of an organism. Despite of such variety of protein structures only 22 amino acids are necessary for its construction, 9 from which are irreplaceable. Therefore food is the only source to get them from for a man, as they are not synthesized in organism. So when amino acids are taken in, a very difficult process of creation missing. If the amino acid is not irreplaceable the body starts generating it through the synthesis of other amino acids. The organism splits the amino acids getting the amount of proteins it need for the present moment.

Here is the list of proteins our body cannot generate: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. The main sources for getting protein are naturally based: animal and plant foods provide enough protein for our functioning. Concerning the animal proteins come from eggs, fish, meat and, of course, dairy products. Through them we get those nine amino acids that our body is not capable of producing. Plant proteins are the ones that cannot support our body with the whole required list. That is the reason vegetarians may face sudden general body breakdown.

The normal day rate of protein consumption is 0.8 g of protein per kg body weight per day. Scientists declare that contemporary ration does include enough proteins and strongly recommend not increasing it.… [read more]

Spaceflight on the Cardiovascular Term Paper

… As a result they seem to 'forget' their normal functioning and when the astronauts return to a normal gravity environment, such 'forgetfulness' causes a shortage of blood flow in the upper body. Changes in the functioning of the heart, including irregular heartbeat, have also been noted during spaceflights of longer duration.

The net effect of the above-mentioned cardiovascular changes is that 20% of male astronauts (and almost all female astronauts) experience some degree of dizziness or fainting during the first few days after their return from spaceflights. The degree of effect is directly proportional to the time spent in micro or zero-gravity environment.


Bird, Patrick J. (1996). "Keeping Fit" Spaceflight and Exercise. University of Florida Website.

Snare, Carolyn C. (2002). "Research Examines Adaptations of Cardiovascular System to Microgravity." Space Research. NASA Website. [Available online]. Accessed on October 20, 2004 from

'When Space Makes You Dizzy." (2002). Science @ NASA. [Available online]. Accessed on October 20, 2004 from

Plasma is the liquid part of the blood

Called norepinephrine that cause the blood vessels to constrict to keep the blood pressure at the appropriate level [read more]

Sensory Adaption Term Paper

… Psychology

Sensory Adaptation

This report is a summary of the three of four experiments required for this assignment. The objective of the experiments was to test and also demonstrate how the human body has the ability to adapt in certain experiences. This sensory adjustment is known as 'sensory adaptation.' Each of these experiments was designed to be easy to perform but still is more than capable of providing proof that the human body is in fact making minor adjustments so as not to overload itself in its environment.

This report therefore defines sensory adaptation and describes the systems of the body that receive sensory information. The three experiments were:

Rub your index fingers gently over a piece of very coarse sandpaper

Take about 15 index cards and a flashlight that is opaque on all sides into a very dark room

Fill 3 medium-sized bowls separately with hot, cold and a mixture of hot and water

The three experiments test sensory adaptation. Sensory adaptation is basically a change in the sensitivity to a particular stimulus as a result of being exposed to that stimulus. In other words, the body is making adjustments because it has seen or touched this or that scenario before. There are many examples of the body making adaptive adjustments. Some examples include our ability to adapt to darkness or light, hot or cold weather, and different smells to name just a few.

These abilities to adapt are most likely left over from our early ancestors who were more closely tied to the world of mammals and a constant struggle for survival. In order to survive the human body evolved. This evolution required our ancestors to be able stay alert for the next danger so the body could not be preoccupied. For example, the aroma of a beautiful flower should not preoccupy us as a tiger is about to leap.

Experiment 1 consisted of my having to gently rub my index finger a few times over a piece of very coarse sandpaper. After that I had to rate its coarseness on a scale from 1 which was very soft to 7 which was very coarse. After a few minutes I repeated the experiment once again rating the coarseness by the same scale. The results surprised me. The first time I rubbed the sandpaper the coarseness rating was a definite 7. but, the second time around the sandpaper did feel different. I scored it a 3 the second time around.

The second experiment had me take 15 index cards and a flashlight that was opaque on all sides into a dark room. The objective then was to place all of the cards over the light beam. Then I was to slowly remove one card at a time until I could detect light. When… [read more]

Alcohol Antidiuretic Hormone Dehydration Term Paper

… ¶ … alcohol and ADH. There are three references used for this paper.

Alcohol can affect the body in a number of ways. It is important to examine the relationship between alcohol and ADH to gain a better understanding of the roles they play in dehydration.

Kidney Function

The kidneys are the "major organs of excretion (cleaning blood), removing toxins such as drugs, nitrogenous wastes, metabolic wastes such as creatinine, biliruben from blood pigments in bile, and tar and nicotine from tobacco smoke (" They are responsible for maintaining "water homeostasis, salt homeostasis-ions of Na, K, Ca and Cl, and pH homeostasis by regulation of H+ ions ("

The nephrons are an important part in the filtration of blood. The resulting filtrates pass through the "proximal tubule, the loop of Henle (a long hairpin turn with a descending limb and an ascending limb) and the distule tubule, which empties into a collecting duct (" The "tubular reabsorption by the proximal tubule and loop of nephron returns large amounts of water and solutes to capillaries by osmosis, active transport and diffusion ("

It is important for the kidneys to maintain urine osmolality to prevent "cellular plasmolysis in hypertonic fluid or cellular lysis in hypotonic fluid (" When the "osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus detect increased blood osmolarity due to an excessive loss of water from the body, there is a release of ADH (" The urine can become dilute when there is an increase in NaCl concentration, causing the… [read more]

History of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Term Paper

… The magnet in an MRI system is rated using a unit of measure known as a tesla. Another unit of measure commonly used with magnets is the gauss (1 tesla = 10,000 gauss). The magnets in use today in MRI… [read more]

History of Rsd Term Paper

… In RSD/CRPS, the sympathetic nervous system functions abnormally. It fires, with pain and swelling responses when the body does not reactively require it. In a sense therefore, one might also implicate the failure of the parasympathetic nervous system in bringing… [read more]

AED Technical Instructions Automated External Term Paper


If the individual has a known pacemaker, do not place the electrodes over this area as the pacemaker may disrupt the ECG reading the defibrillator retrieves (ZOLL, 2000). The pacemaker may also be damaged by the discharges released from the AED.

AED Contraindications: Children under 8 years of age.


When shocked, what happens? Slight jerk of the body, muscle contraction of the chest.

Why do you have to stand back when the machine says so? Your body tissue is a good conductor of electricity; it is not likely, but possible that you will get shocked as well when the electricity goes through. The user may also be shocked if the touch the surfaces of the electrode pads or any material touching the individual during the defibrillation process (Zoll, 2000).

What if the batteries die? Owner operator will check in accordance with the manufacturer recommendations. Some are plugged into an outlet. There are commercially available 123A lithium manganese dioxide batteries provided by the manufacturer that must be utilized with this equipment. No other battery should be utilized or it may harm the equipment and void the warranty.


911 AED. "AEDs and Defibrillators." Available:

"Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care" International Consensus on Science" Circulation: 2000; 102, 8

Zoll. (2000). "Zoll AED U.S.… [read more]

Sleeping and Insomnia Term Paper

… About Insomnia

People suffering from Insomnia, the most common sleep disorder, have trouble falling asleep and/or staying asleep. They may wake up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep, wake up too early in the morning, or experience a night of unrefreshing sleep (Cardinal, 2003). Headaches, difficulty concentrating, irritability, bloodshot eyes, and daytime sleepiness are other symptoms. There are three distinct types of insomnia: Transient, Short-term, and Chronic Insomnia.

Transient Insomnia is very short-term, lasting only a day or two (Cardinal, 2003). It may be caused by sleeping in a strange bed (a hotel, perhaps), or worrying about an important upcoming event. Short-term insomnia can last anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. Stress or poor sleep habits are common causes. Chronic insomnia is a much more serious problem. It can last for years and sometimes starts in early childhood. Health problems may result from Chronic Insomnia, as well as excessive daytime sleepiness, poor concentration, memory loss and irritability.

Insomnia is often not a disease but a symptom of some underlying disease or problem (Cardinal, 2003). It may be brought about by stress, anxiety, or depression. Chronic disorders, such as sleep apnea, diabetes, kidney disease, arthritis, have been known to result in Insomnia, as well as the medications used to treat these ailments. Poor eating habits, caffeine, and the consumption of alcohol and nicotine are known to disrupt sleeping patterns also.

Men and women of all ages can suffer from Insomnia, although it seems to be more common in women and the elderly people (Cardinal, 2003). The ability to sleep appears to decrease with advancing age rather than their need for sleep.

Treatment for chronic insomnia consists of first diagnosing and treating underlying medical or psychological problems (Cardinal, 2003). Meditation, hypnosis, and soothing music/sounds have been proven useful techniques in reducing stress and anxiety. The mind needs to stop racing, the muscles to relax so a restful sleep can occur. Doctor prescribed sleeping pills are available to promote sleep in patients, although long-term usage is controversial. And most importantly, an improved lifestyle focusing on diet is necessary.


After observing my roommates sleeping patterns, diet, and other aspects of his lifestyle, I researched what I believed to be his 'ailment'. I presented the results of my research to him and together we proceeded to free him of it. He began by following a strict diet of organic and fresh foods; no caffeine, alcohol, or nicotine after 5:00pm; stretching every morning and jogging every afternoon; and a low stimulation environment starting at sunset.

Within two days he reported that he was feeling more refreshed and energetic, and less anxious. A week later, he was falling asleep from pure exhaustion and waking up bright and early, rejuvenated.


ThinkQuest Online Library. (2003). "Sleep From A To Zzz." Retrieved from the Internet at

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. (2003). "Sleep." MSN. Retrieved from the Internet at

Coren, Stanley. (1996). "Sleep Thieves: an Eye-Opening Exploration into the Science &… [read more]

Exercise Term Paper

… Exercise provides a healthy outlet for the blood to flow freely without being clotted. It helps our body fat to be utilized as an energy source. Oxygen is required in order to produce this energy. Therefore oxygen is a necessity for our muscles. All this benefits our cardiovascular system and allows it to work in tandem with the nervous and immune system. (Dan Strayton, 2002)

Nervous System

The nervous system is an important part of our body. It is said that a person can get rid of an entire day of stress with exercise. It is said that the nervous system is linked to the entire body. If a person gets angry or annoyed, the body clenches up due to the nervous system for the body. However it is equally important that in order for our nervous system to work we should get some exercise. The nervous system is connected to the spine and the brain. It is important for us to exercise the body so that our nervous system performs efficiently.

It sets the flow of blood flowing freely towards the nervous system and allows the neurons to communicate freely with the rest of the body. Proper exercise relaxes the muscles in the nervous system. It is important that the nervous system be protected of all injuries as it's the nucleus of the body. There may be a scenario where a person is injured and exercises properly, then there are a lot of chances that the nervous system can function properly. When the muscles are smoothened it's easier for the body to work and does not allow any major problems. The nervous system also depends on the healthy flow of oxygen to generate blood. Oxygen is also a very important item for the brain as it needs it to function. If a person exercises new blood is created and it flows more easily. This allows fresh oxygen to flow towards the nervous system.


Marissa Beck, Relieving Stress Through Exercise, The Tufts Daily, 2003

Richard Harvey, The Physician and Sports Medicine - September 1995

Harvard Health Publications Special Health Report, Depression Report, 2002

Beat the Blues with exercise,,9688,565736,00.html

Susan Aldridge, University of Missouri, Columbia, July 2003

The Cleveland Clinic 2003

Dan Strayton, 2002 [read more]

Thermo Therapy Application of Healing Term Paper

… The conversion of energy from one energy form (light, sound) to another (heat) is the conversion form of heating, which involves heat transfer. Radian light bakers or heat lamps make superficial heat, where the heat is transmitted when the transmission… [read more]

Scientists Have Been Aware Term Paper

… Scientists want to study stem cells in the laboratory in an effort to learn about their important properties and what differentiates them from specialized cell types. As scientists discover more about stem cells, it may become possible to use the… [read more]

Diathermy: Uses, Benefits, and Risks Term Paper

… 38 cm (10.4%). Three days later after no treatment, the values for the three groups were 8.27 cm (26.7%), 6.83 cm (25.3%), and 4.15 cm (14.2%), respectively. These results demonstrated no significant differences in hamstring flexibility among the groups. The researchers therefore concluded that diathermy and short-duration stretching were no more effective than short-duration stretching alone at increasing hamstring flexibility. However, the researchers do note that the effects of diathermy with longer stretching times need to be investigated.

There has been a recent risk of serious injury or death associated with the use of diathermy treatment on patients with implanted electrical leads (Feigal, 2002). The FDA received reports in which patients with implanted deep brain stimulators (DBS) died after receiving diathermy treatment. One patient had diathermy treatment after oral surgery, while the other patient had the treatment for chronic scoliosis. In both cases, severe brain damage occurred due to the interaction of the diathermy with the implanted device. Shortwave and microwave diathermy, but not ultrasound diathermy, can result in serious injury or death to patients with implanted devices with leads. Patients with any implanted metallic lead are at risk of these serious effects. These effects occur even if the implanted device is not turned on and even if the lead is no longer connected to an implanted system. The interaction between the diathermy energy and the implanted lead causes excessive heating of the tissue surrounding the lead electrodes. It is unknown, at this point, if there is a safe distance between the implant system and the diathermy instrument.

In order to prevent serious injury or death, practitioners using diathermy treatment must be sure to ask patients about possible implants, and to not administer shortwave or microwave diathermy to patients who have had implants in the past unless absolute certainty can be guaranteed as to whether the implant and all leads have been removed in their entirety.

As a treatment modality, diathermy is effective in the relief of pain and muscle spasm. It also aids in increasing flexibility and blood flow, which accelerate healing. However, diathermy treatment is not ideal for every therapy situation. Physicians must demonstrate care in screening patients for possible risk factors, such as metallic implants or pregnancy, which can possibly result in serious injury, and in some instances, death.


Frick, L. (2001). Diathermy. Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine.

Peres, S., Draper, D., Knight, K., Ricard, M. (2002). Pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged long-duration stretching increase dorsiflexion range of motion more than identical stretching without diathermy. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(1), 43-50.

Draper, D., Miner, L., Knight, K., Ricard, M. (2002). The carry-over effects of diathermy and stretching in developing hamstring flexibility. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(1), 37-42.


Feigal, D. (2002). FDA public health notification: Diathermy interactions with implanted leads and implanted systems with leads. U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Center For Devices and Radiological Health.

Goats, C. (1989). Continuous short-wave (radio-frequency) diathermy. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(2), 123-127.

Vasudevan, S. (1997).… [read more]

Electric Signals in the Heart Term Paper

… ' Electric signal transmission starts from the stimulus that activates the electric signal. After being stimulated, electric signals from the nerves travel to the following pathways: neuron's cell membrane- dendrites of next neuron- myelin sheath- nodes of Ranvier- axon. The process of electronic signal transmission in the nerves is a cycle that repeats itself once stimulus becomes present in the body.

Despite the domino-effect that is characteristic of the heart and the nerves' electronic signal transmission, two differences are evident in the transmission process of each. The heart, it can be observed, is independent in accomplishing the function of electronic signal transmission. This process is different in the nervous system. Nerves need to have a form of stimulus in order to generate or trigger an electronic signal reaction and transmission. This shows that nerves are dependent on the sensory organs of the body.

The second difference between the two parts of the body is that the heart is mechanically-induced while the nerves are chemically-induced. This means that both parts' electronic signal transmission activity is based on mechanical and chemical processes for the heart and the nerves, respectively. Notice that the heart's passageways are mostly muscular in structure and rely on the heart's movement (beating) in order to transmit electric signals. Nerves, on the other hand, induce signal transmission by means of chemicals such as sodium and potassium. These essential elements are needed in order for the signals to be passed onto other neurons in the body until the electric signal reaches the brain, which will then provide the appropriate reaction for the signal received. [read more]

Lying Is There Any Way(s) Term Paper

… (Ford)

Voice patterns can also be an indication of deceit. In many cases individuals that are being deceitful there is a change in the pitch of the voice.

The pitch of the voice will increase if a person is lying. (Ford) The voice may also crack or the voice may waver when an individual is being deceitful. An individual can also show deceit in the way that he writes. When an individual is lying their handwriting may appear to be sloppy because there is an increased level of anxiety.

Now that we understand that there are several ways to determine whether or not an individual is being deceitful, let's share some situations in which an individual was caught in a lie. We will also discuss situations in which the individual displayed signs of deceit but were actually being truthful.

In the first situation Keith and John go to the local convenient store with the same amount of money in their pockets. They both buy the exact same things but John comes out of the store with a soda. When John is asked if he stole the soda his eyes get shifty and his skin begins to turn red. As he begins to respond the pitch of his voice increases and he states that he did not steal the soda. Later on in the day the police come to John's house and let him know that the surveillance cameras in the store had observed him stealing a soda from the refrigerator. In this situation the signs were an indication that John was being deceitful.

In another situation Allen and Katie go to a drive in movie together. As they watch the romantic couple on the Movie screen, Katie asks Allen of he loves her. As he begins to respond his eyes get shifty and his skin turns red. Allen responds to Katie by saying that he loved her dearly and enjoyed the time that they spent together. Later on Katie discovered that Allen had told another friend that he did love Katie and that the time that they spent together was priceless. In this scenario the signs that were displayed out of nervousness and fear mimicked the signs that can determine whether or not a person is being deceitful.

In some cases people are forced to go to drastic measures to determine whether or not an individual is lying. Personally, I would hire a private investigator or ask a person to take a polygraph test. A private investigator could provide me with facts that reveal a lie and the polygraph would carefully monitor the individual's physiological reactions which can determine deception.

Works Cited

Ford, Charles V. "Lies!, Lies!!, Lies!!!: The Psychology of Deceit." American Psychiatric Press, 1996 [read more]

Sexual Health Is Not Restricted Term Paper

… Patients given a collar by ambulance personnel or on arrival at hospital do not necessarily have a broken neck. These collars are placed as a precaution in all patients until exams show the absence of spinal injury. Other (more comfortable)… [read more]

Ectopic/Heterotopic Brain Tissue Term Paper

… There objective was to call to attention to a cutaneous marker for neural tube defects of the scalp. The "hair collar" sign consists of "a ring of long, dark, coarse hair surrounding a midline scalp nodule" (Drolet and Lawrence 309).… [read more]

Botox &Reg Term Paper

… In their November 18, 1994 Federal Register Notice, the F.D.A. went so far as to "denounce (d) the promotion of such unapproved use as 'an egregious example of promoting a potential toxic biologic for cosmetic uses.'" (Vangelova) Clearly, their tune has changed, as the cosmetic use of Botox® has since been approved by the F.D.A. this year.

Part Three: Botox® - Can anything bad happen?

Obviously, Botox® is a toxin. As pointed out in Part One, the toxin can cause severe sickness and death if not treated. Clinical use of Botox® is safe, however, when the pure form of the toxin is used, and the doses are carefully and knowingly measured. There can be "much confusion over the doses and units of potency" which can lead to adverse side effects (Munchau 161). Again, the F.D.A. had previously discouraged the cosmetic use of Botox® but approved that use this year. The side effects of injecting poison into your face at intervals of about every three months are still not clear. Much like the initial breast implants, the adverse side effects may not be made known until several years of use are underway. Botox® is still relatively new.

Part Four: Botox® - Looking toward the future.

The clinical possibilities for Botox® are seemingly endless. Botox® has been used in the treatment for severe disorders like multiple sclerosis to something as simple yet painful as migraine headaches (Klein). According to the Botox® website, it is currently being used or studied in over 70 countries.

Botox® has been a successful, low cost solution to many patients of a diverse group of conditions who were otherwise without success. The most often discussed in the media is the cosmetic, superficial uses for reduction of wrinkles - a fountain of youth, if you will, that is not as time-consuming or costly as a traditional face-lift.

The benefits of Botox ® medically, along with the risks, are not yet fully determined. As more research continues, and further studies are completed, the possibilities are endless if the proper use of the toxin continues to be so safe. The only known side effect is the temporary paralysis in the muscular tissues, which often is the benefit itself.


Allergan, Inc. Botox® Website. "Botox: FAQ." 11/03/02

Brin ME. "Botulinum toxin: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and immunology. Muscle Nerve 1997; 20 (suppl 6): S. 146-168.

Coffield JA, Considine RV, Simpson LL. The site and mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin. In: Jankovic J, Hallet M, eds. Therapy with Botulinum Toxin. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1991:41.

DasGupta Br. Structures of botulinum neurotoxin, its functional domains, and perspective on the crystalline type A toxin. In: Jankovic J, Hallet M, eds. Therapy with Botulinum Toxin. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1991:41.

Dolly JO. "therapeutic and research exploitation of botulinum neurotoxins. Eur J. Neurol 1997; 4(supp12): S5-10

Dystonia Medican Research Foundation. What is Dystonia? Accessed 11/06/2002

Glanzman RL, Gelb DJ, Drury I, Bromberg MB, Truong DD. Brachail plexopath after botulinum toxin injections.… [read more]

Jete' Analysis of the Muscles Term Paper

… Injuries could be more severe involving broken bones, especially in the ankle and foot of the leading leg. If a fall is involved bruising could result.

An injury during any part of the leap can cause a cascade effect in which not only the part effected is injured, but other parts are injured in an attempt to compensate for the injured part. Seldom do injuries that occur during a leap involve only one muscle group or body part. The most dangerous phase of the leap is the landing. The faster and higher a dancer is going, the more force the landing will have (Laws, 1994).


The Jete' is a complex movement with many elements of physics involved. There is an entire branch of science devoted to the study of kinesthesiology, or body mechanics. The jete' is one of the most complex movements in ballet, or any other dance form for that matter. The jete' involves all major muscle groups at some point in its execution. A dancer must maintain near perfect position in all phases of the leap. A slight error in any phase could cause injury.

Of the phases of the leap, the landing is by far the most dangerous phase. Muscle, tendon and joint injuries can occur at any time during the leap. However, more severe injuries occur in the landing phase. Injuries can have a cascade effect, where one injury leads to successive injuries. Impact injuries can involve serious injuries such as broken bones and extensive bruising. The bones of the foot and ankle are most susceptible to this type of injury. A dancer must strive to maintain proper balance and positioning in the phases preceding the landing phase in order to minimize risk of injury during this phase.

Injuries from the jete' can be minimized by obtaining proper training and instruction from a reputable teacher. Emphasis in the jete' should always be placed on proper positioning. Height and distance will develop with proper body mechanics. A dancer should always do proper warm up exercises to reduce the risk of hyperextending muscles. The jete' is one of the most demanding and difficult of all ballet moves. However, a properly performed jete' gives the illusion of flight. Dancers must be aware of their surroundings and signals from their own bodies to reduce injury from the performance of this difficult, but beautiful move.

Works Cited

Author unknown. The Physics of Dance. Kent School District. 1998. Retrieved from


accessed August, 2002.

Becker, T.J. Kinetic and kinematic parameters of landing impact forces in the dance jump and leap, 1964. Ph.D thesis., Indiana University.

Kenneth Laws Physics, Dance, and the Pas de Deux, Schirmer Books, New York, 1994. Ballet through the Centuries. Retrieved from

accessed August, 2002 [read more]

Tennis Term Paper

… .The common and inefficient way of moving is when the torso leans over first and then the body moves or the rear is cocked back. Remember to retain balance by moving from your body center, which means that your torso… [read more]

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