Study "Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays 1-55

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Animal Rights Essay

… Animal Rights

Over the past several decades, the media and pro-animal groups have paid increasing attention to what Singer called in his 1983 book the "animal liberation movement."

The issue of animal rights has been argued from both sides for… [read more]

Animal Rights in the Debate Term Paper

… Animal Rights

In the debate over animal rights, the supporters argue that animals have rights because they are sentient beings that, in the most important ways, differ from humans only in degree, not in kind. On the other side, opponents… [read more]

Sapolsky, Robert. A Primate's Memoir. Scribner, 2002 Book Report

… Sapolsky, Robert. A Primate's Memoir. Scribner, 2002.

The title of Robert Sapolsky's a Primate's Memoir is a kind of a playful joke: on one hand, the author, a Harvard-educated neuroscientist and animal behaviorist is a primate, hence the name of Sapolsky's autobiography. On the other hand, his book is also the tale of the primates he became acquainted with during his studies: because of his passion for baboons, Sapolsky's fortunes became intimately tied to a group of the species, to the point where he became an accepted, if lower-ranking member of their tribe. Sapolsky spent more than twenty years in southwestern Kenya, living and working with baboons. Four months out of every year was spent observing the parallels and distinctions between human and baboon behavior. Sapolsky had little financial support from his university, lived on canned sardines and spaghetti, and when he was not physically threatened by the baboons, he found himself confronted with the dangers of politicians, bureaucrats, and charlatans in a land where life is cheap.

Even though conditions were difficult at times, this was the cumulating effort of a lifetime dream that had begun when the author was a boy, staring at the images of primates in the Museum of Natural History and wishing that he could BE one of them. "I had never planned to become a savanna baboon," begins Sapolsky's memoir (Sapolsky 3). He wanted to be a different kind of ape: "You make compromises in life; not every kid can grow up to become president or a baseball star or a mountain gorilla. So I made plans to join the baboon troop" (Sapolsky 4). Actually living amongst baboons taught Sapolsky the difference between himself and his beloved creatures very quickly, but only increased his fascination.

Sapolsky notes his early enthusiasm, not simply to be amusing or note the early nature of his passionate interest in primates, but also to underline the similarities between 'us' and the apes. Just like humans, apes appear to have their leaders, followers -- and misfits. "Still just emerging from my own festering adolescent insecurities, I had a difficult time not identifying utterly with Benjamin and his foibles…[Benjamin] stumbled over his feet a lot, always sat on the stinging ants... He didn't have a chance with the females, and if anyone on earth had lost a fight and was in a bad mood, Benjamin would invariably be the one stumbling onto the scene at the worst possible moment" (Sapolsky 10). Apes are animals, yet seem intriguingly similar to ourselves, because of their closeness in the history of our evolution as a species.

By studying the baboons, Sapolsky learns a great deal about himself and about human life, specifically the human response to stress and stress hormones. Much to his surprise, the idea that testosterone and aggression leads to social dominance does not hold, according to his research findings. Instead, lower-ranking males often… [read more]

Anthropomorphism and Animal Violence Human Beings Essay

… Anthropomorphism and Animal Violence

Human beings and animals exist in a state of uncomfortable cohabitation. We have historically been outliers to an ecological system that depends on a great many hierarchical rules. In our independence from this ecology, we have not only placed ourselves at the top of the food chain through any number of technological artifices, but we have also channeled our understanding of animals through our needs and our experiences.

The work by Stephen Jay Gould (1982) demonstrates man's need to contextualize all things according to his own experiences, offering an illustration in the way that we characterize the behaviors of animals. While a certain degree of scientific understanding tells us that the impulses and motives for animals are inherently driven by survival, as opposed to desire, there is a tendency to perceive acts of violence or destruction in nature as indicative of evil or ill-will. According to Gould, this is a characteristic attributed for example to the parasitic tormet imposed by the family of flies and wasps called inchneumon.

Gould likens this to drawing and quartering in human terms, telling that

"as the king's executioner drew out and burned his client's entrails, so does the inchneumon larvae eat fat bodies and digestive organs first, keeping the caterpillar alive by preserving intact the essential heart and central nervous system. Finally, the larvae completes its work and kills its victim, leaving behind the caterpillar's empty shell. Is it any wonder that ichneumons, not snakes or lions, stood as the paramount challenge to God's benevolence during the heyday of natural theology?" (Gould, p. 2)

Prominent Incidences:

In one sense, this perception does appear to be a fundamental misunderstanding of the objectivity of nature. However, some recent incidences in the headlines illustrate are tendency to employ this anthropomorphism in our characterizations.

When famous Las Vegas performer Roy Horn of Siegfried and Roy was mauled during a performance by one of their trademark white tigers, such characterization underscored this human tendency. According to Sigfriend, speaking on behalf of his critically injured partner, "every living thing goes crazy. Every species,'" (Marquez, p. 1)

The attribution of insanity is at once a decidedly human way of perceiving the species in question and, additionally, suggests that the tiger had no rational motive for the mauling, which is something that we simply can't assume to know.

The Timothy Treadwell story is another illustration of how the natural and instinctual behaviors of predatory animals are often described in terms that human beings can ethically or philosophically comprehend. Treadwell was a radical zoologist who desired to live among the bears and, in doing so, exposed himself to the dangers inherent in such proximity. When he and his girlfriend were mauled to death by a brown bear in their campsite, there was little surprise. According to one colleague, "You… [read more]

Mastery Over Nature Term Paper

… " (1995 citing Zuckerman, 1979) By the late seventeenth century 'menageries' became popular.

Menageries were quite simply caged animals kept in private collections as a status symbol for the owners. Louis XIV is known to have had such a collection know as the Versailles menageries in which a botanical garden was arrange with an enclosure for elephants and lions around his house. The collection of Louis XIV was moved in 1804 to Paris and kept in a zoological garden called Jardin des Plantes in what was a public exhibit of the animals. The animals were kept in Paris and were adherent to "scientific formulations about non-human nature that supported practices of animal confinement." (Anderson, 1995)

It is reported that legitimacy to the concept of the menagerie was given by the scientific community and this spread throughout Europe and by 1847 the Zoological Society of London was formed comprising the royal menageries and Windsor Park and the Tower of London. The zoos in the western world are reported to have "evolved historically out of a much older and more general logic and desire for classification and control of the non-human world" described as the 'rationalist' school of thought. However, it is reported that as Christianity and humanism developed that the setting apart of humankind from the animal world was solidified. Dualism and reason were a school of thought that grew to imply "a hierarchy that pitted nature both against and beneath human who was henceforth justified in treating nature as object, as background to -- and instrument of -- human purposes." (Anderson, 1995) Anderson states that it is interesting that "the imaginative act that assimilated those, thinking, sentient, intentional and animate creatures called 'animals' into the blackbox category of nature." (1995) Anderson writes that Descartes stated that animals while having the capacity sensation were mechanical beings which were not aware and as well did not possess a conscious nature.

According to Anderson, the zoo in colonial and post-colonial Australia "has been one of the sites through which the confidence and privilege of partial perspective have been encoded and 'naturalized'." (1995) The zoo takes the "raw material of nature" and constructs it into "an iconic representation of human capacity for order and control" as the images of the zoo which are constructed are "one that dramatize, even glorify, this capacity for intervention in nonhuman nature."

Summary and Conclusion

However one perceives the Adelaide Zoo in Adelaide, South Australia, it is certain that the exotic animals which one can view in the zoo are of the nature that one otherwise would not be able to see in nature. Without the benefit of the zoo, children would view merely pictures of the lovely, strange and frightening creatures they are able to view while visiting the zoo. The zoo brings to life many characters in the storybooks of childhood and allows the children to literally place an animal's face with its name and enables children to exert their imagination and their creativity. The world would… [read more]

Human Nature, Difference Between Man Term Paper

… (Aquinas xiii)

But all the reviewers of Aristotelian and Thomas philosophies with regard to human nature are have a unity on in disagreeing with Saint Thomas, by declaring his view incompatible and in collision with by Aristotle and Plato view of human nature and more of middle ground between the two.

Thomas's view point had its root and inspiration from Christian theology and that is why his view point regarding the difference between human nature and animal is if not outright rejected but is daunted.

Aristotle and St. Thomas point out that some things are said to be one (in animals and humans) because their genus is one, as a man, a horse; and a dog are one because they agree, or are one, in the genus animal…but are distinguished by diverse differences which are, as it were, diverse forms. (Crowley and Redpath 4)


But both Aristotle and Aquinas agree on philosophical argument which is, "Man differs radically from other things because of the it's ability to make choice because of free will which other plants and brutes do not posses to a level which the humans posses" (Adler 54)

Both the viewpoints ultimately try to acquire one common ground but theological as well as different outlook on human nature has bounded both the philosophies in a way that it cannot accept each other without contradicting each other.

Works Cited

Adler, Mortimer Jerome. The Difference of Man and the Difference It Makes. New York: Fordham University Press, 1993.

Aquinas, Saint Thomas. On human nature. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.

Crowley, Charles B. And Peter A Redpath. Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy of measure and the international system of Units (SI system). Maryland: University Press of America, 1996.

Hoekema, Anthony. Created in God's Image. Wm. B. Eerdmans… [read more]

How Should a Human Behave Toward the Members of Another Species? Essay

… ¶ … Human Behave Toward the Members of Another Species

The question "How should a human behave toward the members of other species" challenges the conduct and behaviours of human beings towards nature. The question appears four times in the… [read more]

Should Animals Have the Same Rights as People Essay

… ¶ … Animals have the same rights as people?

The argument presented while in support of animal rights does not assert that animals should have the same exact rights as people. However, animals do have feelings, they have emotions, and… [read more]

What Information Can Be Learned From Nonhuman Animal Studies Research Paper

… ¶ … Nonhuman Animal Studies?

Animal testing represents an important subject for debate and confrontation between those that support the medical testing on animals especially from the point-of-view of the added value it brings and those that argue the rights… [read more]

Animal Testing Negatives Research Paper

… Abusing animals in testing laboratories is unavoidable even if the researchers take utmost care to prevent them. Numerous studies by scientists and ethicists have shown that animal testing leads to pain, emotional distress, and post-traumatic stress syndrome due to invasive… [read more]

Zoo Animals Human Beings Research Paper

… Therefore, it cannot be assumed that successful breeding programs necessarily mean an increase in animal welfare, but rather that there are more animals of any given species, who may or may not be treated well depending on the specific zoo.… [read more]

Animal Welfare Assurance Organizations Research Paper

… The ASPCA does not oppose the use of animals in entertainment, "provided that all of the animals' physiological and behavioral needs are fully met and that no cruel practices are used in raising, training and maintaining the animals, including when… [read more]

Nature Is Being Apart From Humanity Term Paper

… Nature Is Being Apart From Humanity

Nature and Humanity

Together and Yet Apart Purpose:

The purpose of this work is to explore the destruction of nature and how that is separating humanity and nature even though all exist on the… [read more]

Guns: Artistotle's History of Animals Term Paper

… This practice enabled Aristotle to describe phenomena such as the embryological development of a chick, to distinguish dolphins from fish and to describe the chambered stomachs of ruminants. He was also able to examine the social organization of bees, and he noticed that some sharks give birth to live young.

Indeed, Aristotle's keen interest in sea life led him to his extensive studies of dolphins, which he classified as mammals after observing their reproduction practices. Aristotle's successors however were slow to accept this fact, and it was only two thousand years later that biologists began to confirm Aristotle's observations of the dolphin. Another observation of sea life is the fact that the torpedo fish stuns its prey. Knowledge at the time was too limited for Aristotle to realize that this was done by means of an electric shock.

Aristotle's study was pioneering work at the time, since Plato, his master, and all other philosophers considered only abstract thought as worthy of their time. Aristotle himself however took great pleasure in examining the natural world around him, and described five hundred different animals in his work. The philosopher's contribution to zoology however lasted unrefuted for more or less 2,000 years.

The concept of the "final cause" is one embedded in the mindset of Aristotle's time; everything was seen to have a higher purpose, or design. According to this philosophy, living creatures are placed on the earth for a specific purpose. And this purpose was unique for each species. Of course this concept is absent from zoological and scientific studies today. It is however part of Aristotle's concept that there is progress in the development and hierarchy of animals, which is the basis for Darwin's evolution theory. This idea was echoed by Greek philosophers of the time, but in-depth knowledge of the evolution mechanism lacked during this time. It was only 2,200 years later when Darwin was able to use the accumulated scientific knowledge of his time to arrive at an empirical evolution theory.

While many of his observations were accurate, Aristotle also made some fundamental errors. He for example believed that the heart was the center of life, whereas the brain functioned only as a cooling mechanism.

It is however clear that Aristotle has made a significant contribution to our scientific knowledge and study methodology of animals. He was obviously far ahead of his time, as he was considered the authority in this field for nearly 2,000 years.


Aristotle. The History of Animals. Trans. D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson. 2004. [read more]

Animal Cloning Essay

… Animal Cloning

There is no shortage of controversy surrounding the topic of cloning. This sentiment particularly applies to animal cloning. The general public initially became aware of the fact that animal cloning was a reality when Dolly the Sheep was successfully cloned in 1996. Since that time the efforts of scientists to continue to clone animals has evinced little sign of abating. However, in the wake of what such scientists regard as progress, there are myriad ethical considerations that have abounded and which continue to plague this particular applicability of technology. Many of these ethical considerations revolve about the perceived pain of animals during the cloning process, the implication on other animals, and the effects of cloning on humans. A careful examination of these ethical issues reveals that animal cloning should stop, and likely should have never started.

Those who are in favor of cloning attest to the perceived good that it will create. When cloning an adult animal, one can almost guarantee a perfect replica of that particular specimen. Additionally, the perceived good of this technology is viable for endangered species, and can help to prevent some of the most revered and hard to find animals from getting eliminated from the earth. It is also purported to help farmers get the best animals for livestock (Pecorino, 2000). Although these intentions are noble, cloning animals should not take place -- even those that are endangered species. In the first place, animals become endangered when there are significant issues with their habitats or with other species that are involved with them in the food chain. Balance is needed to eliminate the danger of animals that are endangered species; cloning will not restore such balance. Moreover, there are too many complications that occur during the process of a successful cloned attempt that, ethically speaking, such an attempt is not worthwhile and certainly not defensible.

The pain that animals have to endure in order to successfully clone a particular animal is considerable. In fact, the cloning process is little short of torture for most animals. Animals endure a fair amount of agony while they are used in scientific experiments related to cloning Additionally, animals also incur side effects related to the cloning process once it is completed. The fact of the matter is that there is no guarantee that cloning will work, and that it will not produce negative affects on the animals that is cloned. Gurdon notes (2005), "most cloned animals are abnormal" (43). Due to these facts, as well as the general "pain and suffering" (Fiester, 2005, p. 328) animals endure during the process of cloning, this practice should cease.

Another very real concern regarding cloning is the ramifications that it can produce on humans. These ramifications not only include aspects of the cloning of people, but also of preying on certain elements of human nature. An example of the latter includes a pet owner who laments the death… [read more]

Endangered Animals Essay

… ¶ … Judy Braddy

Hunter May

Not Everything is Worth Saving

"Since the Endangered Species Act was passed by the government in 1973, people have come to realize that they must change their ways if other species besides humans are to survive. The Endangered Species Act accomplishes this goal; however, it is biting off more than it can chew. While this act is trying to save species from becoming extinct, it's efforts have resulted in large sums of money loss to the government. An example? In 2011, the construction of a hospital was delayed due to a sighting of an endangered species of fly around the construction area of the unfinished hospital. To make a story short, the rare species of fly flew away, never to be rescued, which made the government lose thousands of dollars for something that was not worth the money. If endangered animals are to be saved, then only the animals that have some value and importance should be saved, so that the efforts to save that animal species is not in vain. ("


In a world full of lies one truth still prevails the strong will survive. In every class on general science, one topic is continually brought forth Survival of the Fittest. It cannot be stopped and as such trying to save endangered species is a futile effort that needs to cease. More good can be done in the world if we simple let the weak disappear into the dust of history and strive to make sure that humanity never drops in nature's hierarchical scale. We can see those that have already gone extinct in the past, what science tells us about the how we have come to the present through evolution, and finally how much money is waste to these useless efforts.

Furthermore, as much as any part of our heritage, private property defines who we are as Americans. It is an organizing principle for our government and cultural symbol of our independence and freedom (Castelnuovo). Therefore, there is an inherent contradiction in the rights of the individual and the collective rights of animals. Some animals are predators that damage human property, or humans themselves. Protecting animals places expensive and unfair burdens against the public. The expenses associated with the protection of these species represent a considerable expenditure to the public. The U.S. federal and state governments spent just more than $1.7 billion to conserve endangered and threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in fiscal year (FY) 2012 (from October 1, 2011, to September 30, 2012), according to an accounting recently published by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS); that's up from $1.59 billion in FY 2011 and $1.45 billion in FY 2010 (Platt).

There is another issue that is deeply intertwined… [read more]

Panther, by Reiner Maria Rilke Essay

… The one behind the wheel thinks like the deserving member of the community: he or she leaves the shelter of his or her car, transgressing, to enter the darkness, guided by his taillights. His first action is thus apparently motivated by his or her concern for the other members of his own community: "the road is narrow; to swerve might make more dead."

To describe the reason that made him or her descend into the darkness, the first word the narrator uses is noncommittal: "a heap." The second word that follows immediately is: "a doe." This is another word for the female deer, but it will also bring one to the idea of a John / Jane Doe: an unidentified corpse, that is, a dead human being. The word that follows in the description seems to reinforce this idea: "a recent killing." The narrator deliberately describes his finding as a killing, leaving behind the object of that killing as if, to establish a first connection between the two worlds: his or hers and the being in the wild, the deer. The reader finds the next image jumping back to the original attitude of indifference, in a void of feelings: "I dragged her off." But, the phrase continues and engages: "she was large in the belly." The narrator uses the third person personal pronoun to suggest he or she realized it was more than just "a heap," furthermore, it was more than just a dead animal. From that moment on, the story becomes very personal: the dead wild animal was bearing life, a life that had not ceased along with its bearer. The second and most powerful connection between the human world and the animal kingdom is thus established: the ability to give life.

This is the moment when the human hesitates. He or she is incapable of finishing something as mechanical as getting rid of a lifeless obstacle on the road. The moral aspect of human existence, what humans think separates them from animals, enters the stage: to act deliberately and to take or not to take a new life. Here it is the fourth unseen character: the living fawn. The five character is quickly introduced: the car. The car takes the lively form of an animal: "under the hood purred the steady engine." The human and the lifeless mechanical engine are partners in conquering the animal kingdom and establishing the victory of men vs. animals.

The narrator describes this scene as if it were a painting, including the fifth character, the working car, in it: "around our group I could hear the wilderness listen." The character who has been there all along, wilderness, is presented as if waiting for a deliberation, with the human being judge, messenger and executioner. This judge emphasizes that he or she, as a representative of his or her species, but for the benefit of all involved, took his time and pondered, before reaching a decision: "my only swerving." He granted this favor to the… [read more]

Animals in Captivity Term Paper

… Animals in Captivity

Zoological parks and aquariums continue to exist because they have respect for dignity of the animals in their care. Zoos found in different locations of the world have their own code of animal welfare. The World Association… [read more]

Red Wolf and Different Term Paper

… However, a majority of the young ones die during the first six months of their lives. The young pairs among red wolves copulate mostly before they reach the age of three (Paradiso & Nowak, 1972). The gestation period is about sixty to sixty three days after which 6 to 8 offspring are born usually.

The litter from a reproductive red-wolf couple "are tolerated in their natal home range until they disperse, with dispersal apparently related to social factors most typically associated with the onset of sexual maturity" (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247).

A number of dens may be established by the pregnant female red wolves during the denning season. A lot of dens are established on the surface depressions that are low and are located in thick vegetation for the purpose of shelter. On the other hand, other dens are located in shallow hideaways in the ground underneath the large trees. The young offspring are usually moved from one den to another before leaving the existing den.

Development and Lifespan/Longevity

Both male and female red wolves are active parents as they rear their young ones in the den throughout the first year of their lives. The young red wolves are also cared and nursed by other wolves in the pack. Almost all the red wolves have a natural life of more or less ten years (Dahl, 1997).


The main predators of red wolves are other members of the canids family. These include gray wolves as well as coyotes. This is because they combat for having possession of a particular territory. Other predators that usually prey young red wolves are alligators, large raptors and bobcats (Dahl, 1997).

To cut a long story short, there is no economic importance of red wolves to human beings. Previously, they were considered a grave threat to livestock. They were also called large marauders on small stock (Sutton, 1998, p. 15). This is the reason why red wolves were terminated by humans to the brink of extinction. However, the good thing is that this species has been reintroduced to save it from becoming endangered (Paradiso & Nowak, 1972).


Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA

Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.

Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.

Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from

Sutton, K.B. (1998). Arkansas Wildlife: A History. Fayetteville: University of… [read more]

Animal Farm an Analysis Book Review

… Thus, the pig leaders of Animal Farm become like the very real humans they initially appeared to despise.

Napoleon's character is different from Snowball's in that it is more of an authoritarian than a visionary. Snowball's plans for guiding Animal Farm are utopian, Napoleon's militaristic. Napoleon trains the dogs to be attack dogs that they might shield him. He enlists Squealer to be his public relations man, to trick the dumber animals into submitting to his authority. If Napoleon has any virtues at all, it might be his overall tenacity: he does not allow anyone else to reign alongside him and will do anything to keep power all to himself. His flaws, however, are his willingness to deceive and even rewrite history in order to maintain power. He promotes false doctrine and is perfectly willing to murder dissenters.

Snowball's virtues are his bravery in battle: he is a natural and courageous leader, who inspires the other animals to charge Jones and the men. He is fearless whereas Napoleon is cowardly and shows no heroics in the battle. Snowball's faults lie in the fact that he is too much of a dreamer to realize the duplicity of Napoleon and ends up being chased off the farm as a result. Snowball is the more intelligent of the two: his designs for the windmill serve as the blueprint. His speeches are also more passionate and alive. Napoleon's on the other hand are brutal, brief, and imbued with militarism and empty patriotism. Napoleon cunningly replaces morality with self-adulation and state propaganda.

The setting is important because it represents the type of worker collective promoted in the Soviet Union at the time Orwell wrote the novel. Animal Farm is a literal allusion to the [read more]

Animals and Society Essay

… Animal Rights

The roles of animals in the society are explored by highlighting the facts highlighted by a number of authors. The interaction of human beings with the animals is an important part of the society. These roles are highlighted… [read more]

Animal Rights Research Paper

… I believe that animal testing is a method which can only be justified by the reason due to which this method is adapted. For instance, when the issue is to save human lives and bring forth a brighter day for people by introducing cures to deadly diseases, the use of animals may be acceptable. However, to put animals through similar suffering for a weak cause such as beauty is unethical and inhumane. It proves that man does not care for the feelings of other beings and that convenience is truly the key. Even though the cost of testing animals and keeping them under a roof, feeding them, and investigating their reactions for a long period of time is a costly endeavor and is not even always successful and further and most importantly gives pain to the animals, people still continue to test products in this manner. There continue to be many alternative methods of testing substances to check that they are safe, the most convenient apparently is testing substances on animals. All of this is due to a mere reason that people do not care about a single animal life, needless to say that is not moving to have knowledge that thousands and thousands of animals are put through such suffering every month, for products that encourage shallow thinking and do not help the cause of mankind in anyway. I believe that if animals would be treated better and their feelings and emotions taken into account more often, the world would be better off and there would more living beings on Earth other than Humans whose rights are also fulfilled and paid heed upon.


Bekoff, M. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood Press: 1998. Print.

Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Judson, K. Animal Testing. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark: 2006. Print.

Mironov, Vladimir . "The Future of Medicine: Are Custom-Printed Organs on the Horizon? Medical Researchers Are Creating Robots That Can Bioprint New Tissue and Organs Directly into Patients' Bodies While Performing Surgery-Without Assistance from Doctors." Futurist. 45 (2011): n. page. Print.

Yarri, D. The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and… [read more]

Animal Testing There Has Been Heated Debates Essay

… Animal Testing

There has been heated debates over the years on the use of animals for experimental purposes, scientist have their argument to support their use while, at the same time, animal lobby groups have their argument against the use… [read more]

Animal Testing There Are Individuals and Organizations Research Paper

… Animal Testing

There are individuals and organizations that say using animals in test laboratories for biomedical research or for product research is unethical no matter what the purpose. Others argue that using animals is vitally important for research that could… [read more]

Animal Research in Laboratories Essay

… Animal Research in Laboratories

What are the applicable ethical considerations when scientists use animals in research? Can researchers justify causing pain to animals while doing research on medicines that could potentially be beneficial to humans? These issues will be discussed in this paper, along with the news that there may soon be alternatives to using animals in research.

Pro and Con -- on Animal Research

In the Mark Kula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University in California the statistics presented show that "about 20 million animals are experimented on and killed annual" -- and of those three-quarters are killed for medical purposes and the remaining for the testing of "various products" (Andre, et al., 2010, p. 2). Further data reveals that about eight million animals (of the 20 million) are made to go through pain, and moreover about 10% of those are not given any painkillers, Andre explains.

There is a good moral argument to be made that pain "…is an intrinsic evil," and anything that causes pain to another living thing is "…simply not morally permissible," Andre continues. The author quotes 19th century philosopher Jeremy Benthan's viewpoint about animals and humans. Bentham believes the morally appropriate question is not, "Can they reason" or "Can they talk?" Instead the utilitarian philosopher says the ethical question is, "Can they suffer?" And the answer is, of course they can and do suffer, and therein lies the controversy. Making animals suffer is not just cruel; it is unethical by any standards of fairness and morality.

Animals do indeed suffer when they are "…starved, shocked, burned, and poisoned" (Andre, 2). These horrifically painful acts go on while the researchers are attempting to find some remedy for a human ailment, or trying to improve on a beauty treatment for the wealthy woman whose face is beginning to wrinkle. There in fact is evidence that baby mice have had their legs "chopped off" so the researchers could determine if they would "groom themselves with their stumps" (Andre, 2). Clearly, there have been (and apparently still are) some hideously unconscionable experiments done on animals.

Those who advocate for continuing animal research suggest that without the ability to utilize animals in research "…scientists' efforts would be massively hampered," according to Laurie Pycroft… [read more]

Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair Article Review

… This focus on domesticated animals at the expense of the larger biosphere ultimately demonstrates the unviable nature of animal liberation philosophy and practice, because "animal liberation, if pursued at the practical as well as the rhetorical level, would have ruinous consequences on plants, soils and waters," as well as the various forms of life which depend on these resources for their well-being. Furthermore, the animal liberation movement contains a simplistic understanding of the food web, such that unsustainably sourced vegetarian foods are valued over meat taken in a reasonable, sustainable way from a single animal. In short, the animal liberation movement, though nobly committed to lessening the suffering of animals, is ultimately naive, unrealistic, and actually fairly damaging to the overall well-being of life on Earth.

A more useful response to the factory farming and cruelly disruptive techniques of contemporary capitalism would be to forego the desire to impose "our alienation from nature and natural processes and the cycles of life on other animals" by arguing that they be given precisely the same legal rights as humans and instead "take the opposite course and accept and affirm natural biological laws, principles, and limitations in the human personal and social spheres" (Callicott 5). Thus, Callicott is so critical of the animal liberation movement because he sees it as simply a different version of the same problem, so that the supposed binary between moral humanism and humane moralism actually only serves "to drown out the much deeper challenge to 'business-as-usual' ethical philosophy represented by Leopold and his exponents, and to keep ethical philosophy firmly anchored to familiar modern paradigms" (Callicott 6). The animal liberation movement is ultimately inconsistent with an ecocentric approach to environmental ethics, and only serves to provide the public with seemingly alternative theories while actually reinforcing the same tired organization of humanity within nature.

By comparing the animal liberation movement with Aldo Leopold's notion of the "land ethic," Callicott demonstrates that far from reducing the suffering of animals or otherwise offering them some moral parity with humans, the animal liberation movement unnecessarily limits the dispersal of rights to those animals deemed worthy, thus reenacting the same form of discrimination practiced by moral humanists who argue that humans are separate from animals and thus deserve preferential treatment, albeit by expanding the category of the "worthy" animals beyond mere humans to those animals most frequently domesticated for food. A genuine environmental ethics, on the other hand, seeks not to impose artificially constructed notions of legal rights onto nature but rather to reorient humanity's position within the biosphere such that everything, from animals and plants to the resources which sustain them, is accorded a kind of fundamental right to exist, a right that demands ethical decisions on the part of humans but which does not unduly sugarcoat the reality of nature.

Works Cited

Callicott,… [read more]

Zoo Animal Technology Program Term Paper

… I enjoy the sciences, as well, and I think that it is important when choosing a degree program. In addition, I have volunteered at local animal shelters to work around animals, and I find I enjoy the work. What I don't enjoy is when people have to give up their pets, or dump them off. I find it very disturbing that so many pet owners don't take their obligations seriously. That is another reason I want to join the Zoo Animal Technology Program. I want to work in an environment that is more positive for the animals and their long-term welfare, because the animal shelters can be quite depressing at times, and that is definitely not where I want to spend my career working with animals.

I realize the program is competitive and demanding, and that there is a sequence to the courses and their completion. I am prepared for that, and to work hard to gain my degree so I can find the career of my dreams. Specifically, I would like to work in marine rehabilitation, or in one of the successful breeding programs. I would like to work at a prestigious park, such as San Diego, but I would also enjoy working in a smaller facility that offered more interaction with visitors.

It has always been my goal to work with animals, because I enjoy taking care of them and interacting with them. They are fun, but more than that, they rely on us for their existence, and they give unequivocal and undying love for only affection and care in return. They are loyal, they are loving, and they are affectionate. While I know that all zoo animals don't share those qualities (and they shouldn't), I know that these animals are dependent on us for their existence, and that I enjoy making sure they have the best existence they possibly can. To see animals mistreated or abused is extremely disturbing to me, that's why I want to work where they are valued and well cared for, and that's why I would like to enter your Zoo Animal Technology Program.

Thank you and I look forward to… [read more]

Scientific Research With Animals Thesis

… ¶ … scientific research with animals, and the scientific purpose of the research. Scientific research with animals has been controversial for decades. Animal rights activists violently oppose it in any form, believing it is cruel to the animals and unnecessary.… [read more]

Animals Research Paper

… Animals generally are an example of how nature works instinct work because of their unique features of developing and adapting in a world full of unknown and adversities. The evolution of humanity had also brought negative effects for the animal reign because of the fast growing urban areas and the intensive agricultural activities.

The Amur Leopard is one of nature's priceless creations and it is an impressing member of the animal reign as a big cat. The species is even more priceless compared to others due to the fact that it is one of the most endangered species with an estimate of only 30 individuals still living in the wild. It is also known as the Far Eastern Leopard, the Manchurian Leopard, or the Korean Leopard and it is generally found West of Vladivostok near the border between Russia and China.

According to recent studies, there are ten living leopard subspecies and it stands out from the rest of the subspecies because of its pale coat and due to the fact that it is very well adapted for living in cold areas.

The perfect place for the Amur leopard to flourish is within the forests from the Far East. Humans are responsible for most of the circumstances that lead to the endangering of the species. Despite the fact that in the recent years endangered species have received more attention, it takes a supernatural effort to recover what was lost. The Amur leopard population has suffered the most during the second half of the 20th century as people were striking the full hit of industrialization and forests were cut out with no regards to the effects of their reckless behavior. Moreover, entire forests are destroyed every year on purpose because farmers are setting fires to get a more fertile soil.

The case of the Amur leopard is similar to its bigger relative, the Siberian (Amur) tiger, which is also an endangered species. The fact that people are more familiar with the situation of the Siberian tiger also helps to prevent the extinction of the Amur leopard because from the wildlife reserves and the favorable conditions created for the natural world to flourish would benefit more than one species.

As most felines, the Amur leopard is carnivorous and it usually feed on deer, which are widespread across the territory inhabited by the leopard. The Amur leopard is also known to prey on smaller mammals such as hares or badgers. The Amur leopard is a solitary hunter and is known to stalk its prey before attempting an attack. Similar to other leopard subspecies, it is a good climber and can hide its food in trees so that it can save it for later. The Amur leopard is also remarkable due to the fact that it is an excellent swimmer and a very fast animal with a speed of approximately 37 miles per hour on short distances. It is highly territorial and it marks its territory with urine. Being a nocturnal feline,… [read more]

Animal Research Following the Precedent Established Term Paper

… Animal Research

Following the precedent established for the past hundred years of using sentient beings for laboratory modeling, animals should continue to be used in biomedical research because the scientific knowledge gained far outweighs any ethical and moral considerations.

Animal… [read more]

Animal Rights Introduction Right, Properly Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Introduction right, properly understood, is a claim, or potential claim, that one party may exercise against another' (Roger, 2003), the rights are granted and are ought to be respected towards the grieved party, and other party towards which… [read more]

Should Animals Be Used in Sports and Entertainment Term Paper

… ¶ … circus without animals, imagine if there was no lion show, no ring master, no flying monkeys, or dancing bears. There are many entertainment venues and sports venues that use animals as part of their show, but this does not necessarily make them abusive or corrupt. Just as human beings, whether they are athletes or clowns, are used as part of entertainment, so are animals. They are neither treated cruelly as a rule, nor neglected. Therefore, their use in sports and entertainment should continue as long as they are being treated with kindness and respect.

Animals should be allowed within entertainment and sports because they serve a specific purpose of entertainment. Many opponents such as members of PETA say that using them in such a way is cruel and demeaning. However, circuses, entertainment venues, and sporting events rarely treat their animals with cruelty. Rather the majority of animals working within the entertainment profession are carefully guarded and treated because they are an important part of the act themselves. Sea World for instance, expand over 30% of their annual revenue on animal maintenance, providing the best facilities for their animals and caring for them with extremely precision. Therefore, animals within… [read more]

Why Animals Should Have Rights Term Paper

… ¶ … animal cruelty and animal rights have been a several theme in recent media and public sentiments, few people really understand what it means to give animals the rights that they deserve. Instead, we are harming animals both directly and indirectly on a daily basis to satisfy our basic needs. This implies that human beings still look to animals as if they have no righs whatsoever, and more than that, it is completely legitimate to kill, maim and destroy their livelihood at will. Animals are not only treated with complete disregard, but humanity has deemed them fit to be genetically altered, manipulated and changed. All of these actions seem to fit the portfolio of God, rather than our own human species. In the following analysis I will thoroughly examine animal rights, and clarify through conceptual frameworks, why it is necessary for us to have animal rights.

There are many conceptual reasons why philosophers do not accept an egalitarian comparison between humans and animals. Kant, Descartes, Aquinas, and many other philosophers rejects the claim of animal rights because they view them purely as organic equivalents to machines. They argue that animals are driven by coarse instincts and thus are unable to experience pain. This is the fundamental underpinnings of their social and political argument. Their assertions however are unwarranted and unjustified. Close examination of animals have shown that they do indeed have feelings, moreover, they have sophisticated mechanism by which they express and feel pain. Biology has taught us that animals are just as sophisticated anatomically as human beings, and that they have evolved through natural selection to be primary candidates within their species. Therefore to assume that animals not only are only servants to mankind, but also mere machines… [read more]

Animal and Plant Domestication Term Paper

… Animal and Plant Domestication

One of the most difficult and interesting questions posed to researchers and students alike is the longitudinal development of man. Within this question is one that is often called the basis or beginning for modern man… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Environmentalism vs. Animal Rights Term Paper

… Environmental Ethics

Environmentalism vs. Animal Rights

The 1960s was a decade for the revolutionaries; drugs were considered therapeutic, revolting against the authorities and the governments was "in," and there was a need for a change in the principles of the… [read more]

Animals for Research Because it Is Cruel Term Paper

… ¶ … animals for research because it is cruel to the animals and this research can be accomplished in other ways. Using animals for research purposes in the scientific and medical communities has been an accepted practice for years, but… [read more]

Animal Rights Ethical Standards of Behavior Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Ethical standards of behavior have evolved along with human understanding of the value of life. Indeed, this fact is evident in the historical evolution of the human right to life, liberty, and dignity, which was followed by the… [read more]

Animal Rights Introduction Glance Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Introduction glance at the news is enough to reveal that few people are genuinely concerned about the welfare and plight of animals in the United Stated and in the world. For example, PETA Org recently launched a campaign… [read more]

Human Interactions With Nonhuman Animals Term Paper

… Others, however, have persuasively argued that humans and animals are equal in perception and experience, thus leading to the conclusion that humans should relate to nonhuman animals on the basis that animals share many human feelings and perceptions. In Back… [read more]

Animal Rights- Should Animals Term Paper

… Another animal can obligate you in exactly the same way another person can....So of course we have obligations to animals. (Korsgaard, 1996, 153)

This discussion above was adequately backed by scholarly views on the subject of animal rights. In the lights of these expert views and theories, we can safely conclude that animals deserve to be treated more humanely because they are capable of feeling pain. While we do agree that it would be impossible and even impractical to assume that they can be given the same rights as human beings, animals deserve mercy and kindness because of the fact that they experience pain in the same way as man does.


Animal Rights -- A Symposium,' London: Centaur Press, 1979, p.viii.

Harold D. Guither, Animal Rights: History and Scope of a Radical Social Movement. Southern Illinois University Press. Carbondale, IL. 1998.

Kant, I., 1785, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.. [Available online, Hypertext Library electronic text of the translation by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott (Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Wales/Swansea)]

Regan, T., 1985, "The Case for Animal Rights," in P. Singer (ed.), In Defence of Animals, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Kant, I., LA, Lectures on Anthropology, Akademie-Textausgabe, Berlin.

Kant, I., LE, Lectures on Ethics, translated and edited by P. Heath and J.B. Schneewind, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Korsgaard, C., 1996, The Sources of Normativity, Cambridge: Cambridge

Bentham, J., 1781, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals… [read more]

Unpredictable as Animals Essay

… They usually wag their tails for people they know and like. They don't have moods.

That brings us to people. People are completely unpredictable because they have moods. But let's deal with the cat- and dog-like behaviors of people first.

When a person wakes up from a nap, that person might stretch. He or she might jump out of bed, run through the house and scream at a neighbor to stop that racket with the buzz saw. Or the person might saunter into the bathroom and fill a tub full of scented bath bubbles, slip into it, and almost fall asleep again. If the person is hungry, he or she might rummage around in the cupboards for a snack...and then take fifteen minutes deciding whether potato chips or a chocolate bar are less likely to cause fat bellies and heart attacks later in life. Or he or she may just say, the heck with it, and call for pizza delivery. When the pizza comes, it might be the wrong one -- no pepperoni, but tons of pineapple. The person might say it's OK and try the pineapple. Or the person might pitch a fit and refuse to pay and call all his friends and say how lousy the pizza delivery is. But he might do either one of these things not depending on his nature, like a cat or a dog, but on his mood at the moment. The same pizza that got thrown at the delivery guy today might have been enjoyed as a unique experience tomorrow.

The mood of the person will determine whether he or she calls a friend to come over and play a game or go to a movie, or whether the person just sits in front of the TV feeling sorry for herself because the neighbor's buzz saw woke her up and put her in this foul mood. But something on the TV might jog her memory that she was supposed to take her grandmother shopping, so she gets dressed, wipes the pizza sauce off her chin and purposely perks up. She isn't really perky; she just doesn't want her granny to see her in a foul mood. Granny doesn't believe in foul moods, and if you show her a 'mood,' she'll either leave or scold. Or maybe ignore it. Or maybe try to help you out of it. Or maybe give you the name of a good psychiatrist.

In short, even Granny is more unpredictable than a cat. [read more]

Nature in an Episode Term Paper

… Therefore, Lisa Simpson understood that nature must be respected but not imitated. She acted with moral conscience; nature in the form of the shark acted with self-serving and amoral instinct.

Ironically, Lisa consciously attempted to follow nature through environmental activism. Environmentalists often appeal to a back-to-nature philosophy to encourage people to respect the earth's natural resources. However noble environmentalism is, nature still remains a poor role model. Environmentalism must include working against, rather than with nature. On several occasions in his essay, Mill refers to bridge-building as an ultimate example of how humans often and inevitably need to work against nature. Were humans to completely follow nature, we would have no books, no advanced tools, and no jewelry, let alone television, radio, or computers.

Similarly, people who are interested in protecting endangered species or eliminating greenhouse gases must work against nature in some way. Introducing wolves into national forests to control deer populations in a prime example of how humans work against nature in order to help improve nature. This is the same irony expressed in The Simpsons episode. Respecting and honoring the beauty in the natural world does not require that we follow nature.

It can be argued that the six-pack holder threatening that fish was a human creation signaling the need to follow nature. Sure, many human creations are harmful, destructive, and unnecessary.

However, as the shark in The Simpsons shows, nature is not as kind or compassionate as human beings. Because nature is a poor role model, humans do have an obligation to act with higher awareness, often contrary to nature. Lisa Simpson combined human morality with respect for her environment to create a balanced philosophy of nature in accordance with John Stuart Mill's… [read more]

Animal Conservation Importance to Human Term Paper

… We were not put here to ruin our surrounding for those who follow after us, we were put here to live in harmony with the world around us, and one way we can do that is to make sure that we conserve endangered animals, and do not endanger any more.

Numerous wildlife organizations promote the conservation of animals, and well-known actors and personalities support many of them. For example, the "World Wide Fund for Nature" (WWF) is a worldwide organization that attempts to conserve endangered wildlife of all sorts, including animals, marine life, world forestation to support animal life, and other conservation efforts. One of the celebrities involved in the organization is His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh. Other animal conservation groups include the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), the International Wildlife Coalition (IWC), the Foundation for Endangered Wildlife, and numerous others. Most U.S. states also have local wildlife organizations that care for and encourage conservation of endangered species on a local basis. There are also many groups who are dedicated to saving certain types of endangered species, such as the Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF), the African Elephant Conservation Trust, the Timber Wolf Alliance, the Greyhound Protection League, and many, many more. The Philadelphia Zoo is involved in animal conservation in a wide variety of ways. They actively support conservation in Liberia, West Africa, where there are endangered chimpanzees, forest elephants, and more. They also support conservation of many local endangered species, including the Diamondback Terrapin, Timber Rattlesnakes, and Philadelphia Urban Migratory Birds.

In conclusion, animal conservation is not only vital to save endangered species; it is vital to our own survival on our planet. The animals around us live in harmony with nature, and we could learn a lot from them. The more animals we save and nurture, the more we save our selves, and… [read more]

Thoreau Was a Student Book Report

… When Thoreau made it to Provincetown, he spent some time describing the huge quantity of caught fish he saw, all over town, everywhere. Even the cattle were fed fish, it was so abundant. He did not give any sense that there might be some danger of over-fishing. He recounted again a fairly recent history of not only heavily wooded land but of good soil, although the surrounding land was all sand by his writing. He noted dwarfed trees again. It would make an interesting study for an ecologist to explore the history of land use on the Cape and try to determine how it is that the ecology changed so drastically in 150 or so years.

Thoreau's readers are completely drawn into his wonder of the world he sees around him on his long walk down the Cape to Provincetown. In the process he describes such a wide variety of animal and plant life, all living within the same ecology, also described, that he almost predicts Darwin's work. He notes the many different varieties of grass, the different kinds of seaweed, which he correctly identifies as algae. He is fooled by the "blackfish," which turn out to be mammals, but his quest for accurate information about the world around him, and for great detail, never ends. If he had decided to become a scientist instead of a naturalist - that is, if he had decided to pursue the study of zoology or botany rigorously, instead of simply celebrating the differences - we might be talking today about Thoreau's scientific contributions in the way we do… [read more]

Animal Imagery in King Lear Term Paper

… 4.93-95).

King Lear responds to Edgar's story and plight with the clearest comparison to men and animals:

Why, thou wert better in thy grave than to answer, with thy uncovered body this extremity of the skies,

Is man no more than this? Consider him well.

Thou / owest the worm no silk, the beast no hide, the sheep no wool, the cat no perfume. Ha! here's three on/'s are sophisticate! Thou art thing itself, unaccommodated man is no more but such a poor bare, forked animal as thou art. Off, off, you lendings / come unbutton here" (3.4.104-111).

One of the more charming analogies used in the play is when Edgar asks King Lear, "Let us deal justly / Sleepest or wakest thou, jolly shepherd? Thy sheep be in the corn / And for one blast of thy minikin mouth / Thy sheep shall take no harm / Pur! The cat is gray" (3.6.41-46). Quite obviously, Edgar is referring to the need for a king, like a shepherd, to be ever vigilant so that his flocks never come to any harm.

From charming to the use of animals to refer to the savage, barbaric behaviour of Regan and Goneril, when Gloucester says, "Because I would not see thy cruel nails / Pluck out his poor old eyes; nor thy fierce sister/In his anointed flesh stick boarish fangs" (3.7.62-64).

Goneril's own husband chastises her, "What have you done? Tigers, not daughters, what have you perform'd? A father, and a gracious aged man / Whose reverence even the head-lugg'd bear would lick" (4.2.44-47).

There are many more references to animals throughout the play that have not been covered here since there are too many of them. Surprisingly, there are fewer and fewer animal motifs in Act 5. It's almost as if the need for it reduces as good overcomes evil and justice is done.

We have seen from the above examples that there are frequent references to animals in King Lear… [read more]

Animal Cruelty Term Paper

… The cages that Harlow subjected his experiments to would also need to be appropriate for the experiment and the information that is hoped to be derived from it.

3. Give a recent instance where primates were used for research experiments (please cite your study) then explain the ethical consideration with the choice of primates?

A relatively controversial research experiment with primates occurred with the Silver Spring Monkeys between from 1981 until 1991. This experiment, arguable more than Harlow's created horrific living conditions for the primates. This experiment also subjected them to what many believe torture and inhumane activities. The benefits derived from the experiment however, have had implications for human society in multiple facets.

In summary, 17 monkeys had been used as research subjects by the world renowned scientist Edward Taub. Taub, to initiate the experiment cut the afferent ganglia that supplied sensation to the brain from their arms. The afferent ganglia is located in the spinal cord. By removing it and he hoped to train the animals to use the arm that they could not feel. In May 1981, Alex Pacheco of the animal-rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) began working undercover in the lab, and alerted police to what PETA viewed as unacceptable living conditions for the monkeys.

Police raided the lab and found many ethical aspects within it. For one, the living condictions for the animals were deplorable. Feces appeared throughout the cages; so much so that the animals had to dig through it to find food. Because they had no feeling in their arms, the monkeys would chew and rip the skin from the arms and hands, exposing the bone. These wounds were not properly treated according to authorities. The monkeys were subjected to horrific and often painful experiments through the day. Authorities also cited the fact that the monkeys lived in 15 x 15 cages, in a room with no windows for years at a time. Due to these ethical considerations and more Taub was charged with 17 counts of animal cruelty and failing to provide adequate veterinary care. He was convicted on six counts; five were overturned during a second trial, and the final conviction was overturned on appeal in 1983, when the court ruled that… [read more]

Animal Cell Division Essay

… Animal Cell Division:

Colchicine and Cytochalasin B. are two substances that are commonly used in animal cell division since they are inhibitors of cell division. While colchicine is poison that binds to tubulin and prevents its gathering into microtubules, cytochalasins are compounds that bind to the end of actin filaments and prevent their elongation. Cell division is a process that is scientifically referred to as mitosis that necessitates microscopic protein fibers that act like structural cables to pull separating cells apart. While the structural cables i.e. microscopic protein fibers are known as mitotic spindles, colchicines interferes with their structure.

Generally, colchicines are widely used in human medicine against gout despite of the uncertainties surrounding this process or procedure. In this case, colchicines seem to lessen inflammation linked to urate crystal accumulation. The capability of colchicines to interfere with the seeming structural protein formation has contributed to its use in scarring illnesses and abnormal protein dispositions like hepatic cirrhosis and amyloidosis respectively ("Colchicine," par, 1). On the other hand, cytochalasins are a group of associated fungal metabolites that are related by chemical structure and characterized by a highly substituted hydrogenated insoindole ring with a macrocyclic ring attached to them. Since the macrocyclic ring tend to differ in atoms and may be a lactone or carbocycle, cytochalasins have various interesting, unusual, and characteristic impacts on the animal cell.

These two substances are mainly used as inhibitors of cell division, which is the basis of their effects or impacts on animal cell division. The main effect of colchicines on animal cell division is that they block cells undergoing division in mitosis and ultimately revert to interphase. Therefore, this substance inhibits cytoplasmic and nuclear division, which contributes to its ability and tendency to prevent or lessen DNA synthesis.

Due to the ability of colchicines to interfere with cell division and their potential side effects, they should not be used in animals for breeding. This is primarily because the substances are not only harmful to unborn… [read more]

Urban Forestry Term Paper

… Other considerations include the heavy air pollution that threatens trees in urban locations; soil compaction which "can result from construction, paving root zones, traffic, or subsidence, a severe problem in New Orleans" as well as heavy rainfall not due to storms (Talarchek 1987: 218).

Q3. Urban forests have many benefits from pollution and noise abatement to aesthetics and parkland. What uses would you assign to your forest and why? Explain in detail.

Although the environmental benefits conveyed by trees are certainly important, one cannot minimize the vital role played by parks in lifting the spirit of a city. New Orleans still suffers tremendous hardships as the result of Hurricane Katrina, and a great gap exists between the 'haves' and 'have-nots' of the city. By creating a recreational urban forest that is accessible to all as a place to play and enjoy the natural environment, nature can help a city that is still healing and dealing with catastrophic emotional wounds. Planting fruit and nut trees that can feed the community and trees of great aesthetic value like oak and cypress trees would support that mission.

Planting fruit trees and other trees which could be harvested and used to provide food for the public might counteract opposition that scarce funds were being spent on trees and not working to provide aid to the poor. Forest areas can provide safe places for residents to improve their health through exercise and to act as democratic spaces that bring people together in recreational activities.

Q4. Discuss what care and maintenance would be needed to support this site. Consider both ecological (forest plants and animals) and environmental (man) factors. Refer to Chapter 18, Text.

Fungi, wood rot, and other forms of decay are common in moist, humid environments like the city of New Orleans. Regular harvesting and preventing of forest fires that lead to premature decay are essential (Chapter 18: 368). Although New Orleans tends to be moist and not overly sunny, sharp drops in temperature (such as a quick freeze) can be damaging. Vascular wilt is common in oak trees (Chapter 18: 375). Gypsy Moths and Forest Tent caterpillars are pests that attack oaks (Chapter 18: 378).

Q5. Explain in detail what you perceive to be the greatest difficulty in creating this urban forest and why.

Regular maintenance is needed for an urban forest to thrive. Pruning to prevent trees from being damaged by winds and electrical wires is required; careful screening for pest and animal degradation is demanding; and it must be ensured that the trees are not suffering due to air pollution and other environmental factors. This requires time and financial resources. There may be resistance to expending those resources in a city where poverty and the needs of the human population are still so dire.


Gill, Dan. (2012). Fruit trees provide sweet harvest for your landscape. Times Picayune.


New Orleans' urban forests survived Katrina. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved:

Talarchek, Gary M. (1987). Indicators of urban forest conditions in New… [read more]

Structure of Animals Two Essay

… They are considered pseudocoelomates, meaning their bodies are not lined completely by mesoderm. None of the phyla on the tree shown in this example are coelomates, or animals that possess a true coelom in which the body cavity was derived entirely from mesoderm.

Both nematodes and annelids exhibit prostome development. Their mouths were developed from the blastpore, which is the opening to the digestive tract. In prostome development, the coelem develops from mesoderm and then splits. This is what is meant by schizocoelous development. Another feature of this type of development is spiral cleavage. As cells divide, they are not stacked in rows (radial cleavage) but instead stacked in alternating rows. By contrast, Echinodermata and Chordata exhibit deuterostome development, where the anus develops from the blastophore and division of cells is characterized by radial cleavage.

The Animal Phylogenetic Tree shows there is only one phyla, Chordata, for all vertebrates. Obviously humans are included in this phyla. In terms of development, Porifera are the simplest, followed by Cnidaria. Chordata and Echinodermata are two branches that split from the main brain. The next split in the Phylogenetic Tree shows four branches: Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, and Nematoda. Mollusca and Nematoda represent the first split, while a secondary split features annelids and arthropods. Therefore, although it seems as though annelids and nematods are very closely related, since they are both types of worms, the Phylogenetic Tree shows there are some significant differences between them.


"Mastering biology." (2012). Retrieved from


Waggoner, B. (2009, January 21). Berkeley. Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.


Waggoner, B. (2006). Introduction to the annelida. University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved from

/annelida.html [read more]

Visual Rhetoric Bandit Essay

… The Shelter Pet Project advertisements therefore emphasize the benefits of pet ownership, without preying upon the viewer's sensitivity to suffering animals.

Bandit's Confession

Only two colors are used for the text: white and yellow. The white text is limited to the main message and yellow appears to be used for contrast and emphasis. The largest font size in the image represents a message from bandit that states "She snores more than I do, but I still love my human." ("Bandit"). This message represents an anacoluthon element because it conveys an impossible event, such as dogs talking. This statement humanizes Bandit and thereby allows the viewer to glimpse the anthropomorphic world of pet owners. This 'confession' by bandit also communicates possibility of loyalty, trust, understanding, tolerance, and by virtue of the bedroom setting, comfort, intimacy, and shared privacy.

Mutually-Beneficial Relationship

Bandit's confession reverses the viewer's cognitive orientation from the pet owner's to that of the pet. This cognitive orientation is further emphasized by the text stating "A person is the best thing to happen to a shelter pet" ("Bandit"). The combination of the two messages suggests the possibility that a mutually beneficial relationship could be created by adopting a pet from a shelter. The Bandit advertisement therefore points out how an adopted pet might enhance the viewer's life and the life of the shelter pet, without resorting to accusations of indifference and shocking images of suffering pets housed in a shelter. The main yellow text communicates the action the viewer needs to take in order to form this mutually beneficial relationship -- adopt.


The collaborative effort between the Humane Society, Maddie's Fund, and the Ad Council has resulted in a series of professionally-designed visual advertisements that seek to emphasize the mutual benefits of shelter pet adoption, from the perspective of both the pet owner and the pet. The traditional benefits of pet companionship, including loyalty, comfort, and warmth, are communicated through the image, alongside messages that the owner has something important to offer the shelter pet. Although the latter is communicated mainly through an anacoluthon pun, the point is valid despite being packaged in an anthropomorphic message. This approach stands in stark contrast to shocking photos of caged animals that tend to prey upon the viewer's distaste for suffering, and therefore deemphasizes the nature of the shelter's existence to the point of irrelevance, as it should.

Works Cited

Barribeau, Tim. "Better Photography Could Save the Lives of Abandoned Animals." (2011, Sep. 19). Web. 13 Jan. 2012.

Chapman, Cameron. "Color Theory for Designers, Part 1: The Meaning of Color." Smashing Magazine (2010, Jan. 28). Web. 13 Jan. 2012.

Humane Society. "Bandit." n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2012.

Humane Society. "Campaign fact sheet."… [read more]

Psychology Animal Behaviour the Hypothesis Essay

… Psychology

Animal Behaviour

The hypothesis of the article "Sound production in red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study" by Millot, Vandewalle & Parmentier (2011), is that piranhas make sounds and these sounds are able to be associated with given behaviors like aggression, intimidation, food competition, and chasing and that these sounds were generated by rapid contractions of sonic muscles that insert on a broad tendon surrounding ventrally the cranial sac of the swimbladder.

Main Conclusion Regarding the Hypothesis

The author's main conclusions were that each kind of sound emitted by piranhas is associated with a specific behavior; the caudal swimbladder does not play a role in sound production; the vibration frequency of the cranial swimbladder corresponds exactly to the sonic muscle contraction rate; the bark sound was produced by sonic muscle contraction at 100?Hz because this frequency brings together the conditions necessary to produce this type of sound; the other sound type might be produced by only one sonic muscle contraction; and the third sound was the result of the jaws snapping.

One strength of the Experimental Design

A strength of the experimental design was that the researchers made direct underwater observations of the feeding and social interactions of red-bellied piranhas. They examined breeding behaviour, described how individual piranhas attacked goldfish and investigated piranha shoaling behaviour in a controlled environment.

One Weakness of the Experimental Design

A weakness of this experimental design was that there was no testing of the vibratory capacities of the cranial and caudal sacs to see if this might have been the source of the sounds being recorded. To date the exact role of both sacs in sound production remains poorly understood and really could use some further research in order to see what role, if any they play in the sound production of piranhas.

Follow up Study to… [read more]

Animal Advocacy Organizations Thesis

… The ASPCA is less interested in publicity events like PETA pulls off and is more interested in activities like education; this is not to say that PETA does not educate the public, but the ASPCA is known more for helping citizens identify, for example, signs that pets are not being treated kindly. The ASPCA has a list of signs that pets are being abused; a few of those signs include: a) when a collar is too tight a dog suffers; b) evidence of "multiple healed wounds" or open sores that are untreated; c) a dog that is infested with fleas, ticks, or signs of "inadequate grooming… overgrown nails or a dirty coat"; d) seeing an owner strike the animal or leaving a dog on a leash in the back yard with no shade, no water; and e) signs of weakness, limping, or heavy discharge from the nose or eyes (ASPCA)

Meanwhile PETA's strategy includes vigorous attacks on "factory farms" that cram thousands of chickens so tightly together they can hardly turn around. "More than 7 billion chickens are killed for their flesh each year, and 452 million hens are used for their eggs," PETA explains. "Ninety-nine percent of these animals spend their lives in total confinement… yet not a single federal law protects chickens from abuse… even though two-thirds of Americans say they would support such a law" (PETA).


Both the ASPCA and PETA organizations are doing a good job of bringing the needs of animals to the press and the public. They are both quite different in their approaches -- the PETA group uses dramatic, shocking video to make its point while the ASPCA is more low-key -- but Americans that respect and treasure all animals domestic and wild appreciate the work that is being done by both groups.

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize

Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from

Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. (2011). All About PETA / How PETA Helps

Animals / Our… [read more]

Psychological Research on Animals Is it Ethical Essay

… Psychological Research on Animals

Is it ethical to use animals in psychological research? The answer is yes, but that answer comes with a qualification: if the psychological research is conducted in an ethical way, in accordance with the guidelines from the American Psychological Association, and federal law, and does no harm to the animal, it then should be considered ethical.

Ethical Psychological Research on Animals is Federal Law

The American Psychological Association (APA) has published guidelines for those that have the authority in their university labs or elsewhere to conduct psychological experiments on animals. The APA insists that there be: a) "a clear scientific purpose" to the experiment; b) a reasonable expectation that the experiment will "increase knowledge of the processes underlying the evolution, development, maintenance, alteration, control, or biological significance of behavior"; c) an expectation of an "increase" of the "understanding of the species under study" and d) a report on the result that "benefit the health or welfare of humans or other animals" (Section VI.A., APA)

The APA article mentions the guidelines covered by federal law -- the Animal Welfare Act, enforced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture -- that require all labs and universities conducting psychological research to have an "Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee" (IACUC) review every proposal to use animals in research. Without the pre-approval of the IACUC, no animals may be obtained and no studies conducted, the APA explains.

How often are animals used in psychological research? The APA claims that about 7 or 8% of psychological research involve the use of animals; and about 90% of the animals used have been rodents and birds (mostly rats and mice and pigeons). Only 5% of animals used in psychological research are "monkeys and other primates" and the use of dogs and cats is "rare," the APA site says.

Ethical Psychological Research Project: At Carleton College, animals are used in psychological research and according to the materials presented, the scientists conducting the psychological experiments are careful to follow federal law and APA guidelines. One particular experiment -- funded in part by a… [read more]

Animism and Perspectivism Essay

… ¶ … Native American myths, the question of whether or not animals possess a spark of humanity or can bridge the gap between animals and humans relies upon Native American or Western perspectives. Certainly, we can not ignore ancient myths… [read more]

Use of Animal Testing Term Paper

… Animal testing is a much discussed matter at the moment and its controversy is mainly owed to the fact that a certain part of the general public supports the concept, while another is against tit Even though itmight be regarded… [read more]

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