"Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays

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Animal Rights Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Animal Rights

Over the past several decades, the media and pro-animal groups have paid increasing attention to what Singer called in his 1983 book the "animal liberation movement."

The issue of animal rights has been argued from both sides for some time. Singer and similar activists advocate for the continued well being of all sentient beings that are conscious and… [read more]

Animal Rights in the Debate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Animal Rights

In the debate over animal rights, the supporters argue that animals have rights because they are sentient beings that, in the most important ways, differ from humans only in degree, not in kind. On the other side, opponents argue that animals have no or little rights owing to their subordinate position in the overall scheme of things. In… [read more]

Sapolsky, Robert. A Primate's Memoir. Scribner, 2002 Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Sapolsky, Robert. A Primate's Memoir. Scribner, 2002.

The title of Robert Sapolsky's a Primate's Memoir is a kind of a playful joke: on one hand, the author, a Harvard-educated neuroscientist and animal behaviorist is a primate, hence the name of Sapolsky's autobiography. On the other hand, his book is also the tale of the primates he became acquainted with during his studies: because of his passion for baboons, Sapolsky's fortunes became intimately tied to a group of the species, to the point where he became an accepted, if lower-ranking member of their tribe. Sapolsky spent more than twenty years in southwestern Kenya, living and working with baboons. Four months out of every year was spent observing the parallels and distinctions between human and baboon behavior. Sapolsky had little financial support from his university, lived on canned sardines and spaghetti, and when he was not physically threatened by the baboons, he found himself confronted with the dangers of politicians, bureaucrats, and charlatans in a land where life is cheap.

Even though conditions were difficult at times, this was the cumulating effort of a lifetime dream that had begun when the author was a boy, staring at the images of primates in the Museum of Natural History and wishing that he could BE one of them. "I had never planned to become a savanna baboon," begins Sapolsky's memoir (Sapolsky 3). He wanted to be a different kind of ape: "You make compromises in life; not every kid can grow up to become president or a baseball star or a mountain gorilla. So I made plans to join the baboon troop" (Sapolsky 4). Actually living amongst baboons taught Sapolsky the difference between himself and his beloved creatures very quickly, but only increased his fascination.

Sapolsky notes his early enthusiasm, not simply to be amusing or note the early nature of his passionate interest in primates, but also to underline the similarities between 'us' and the apes. Just like humans, apes appear to have their leaders, followers -- and misfits. "Still just emerging from my own festering adolescent insecurities, I had a difficult time not identifying utterly with Benjamin and his foibles…[Benjamin] stumbled over his feet a lot, always sat on the stinging ants... He didn't have a chance with the females, and if anyone on earth had lost a fight and was in a bad mood, Benjamin would invariably be the one stumbling onto the scene at the worst possible moment" (Sapolsky 10). Apes are animals, yet seem intriguingly similar to ourselves, because of their closeness in the history of our evolution as a species.

By studying the baboons, Sapolsky learns a great deal about himself and about human life, specifically the human response to stress and stress hormones. Much to his surprise, the idea that testosterone and aggression leads to social dominance does not hold, according to his research findings. Instead, lower-ranking males often…… [read more]

Anthropomorphism and Animal Violence Human Beings Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (941 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Anthropomorphism and Animal Violence

Human beings and animals exist in a state of uncomfortable cohabitation. We have historically been outliers to an ecological system that depends on a great many hierarchical rules. In our independence from this ecology, we have not only placed ourselves at the top of the food chain through any number of technological artifices, but we have also channeled our understanding of animals through our needs and our experiences.

The work by Stephen Jay Gould (1982) demonstrates man's need to contextualize all things according to his own experiences, offering an illustration in the way that we characterize the behaviors of animals. While a certain degree of scientific understanding tells us that the impulses and motives for animals are inherently driven by survival, as opposed to desire, there is a tendency to perceive acts of violence or destruction in nature as indicative of evil or ill-will. According to Gould, this is a characteristic attributed for example to the parasitic tormet imposed by the family of flies and wasps called inchneumon.

Gould likens this to drawing and quartering in human terms, telling that

"as the king's executioner drew out and burned his client's entrails, so does the inchneumon larvae eat fat bodies and digestive organs first, keeping the caterpillar alive by preserving intact the essential heart and central nervous system. Finally, the larvae completes its work and kills its victim, leaving behind the caterpillar's empty shell. Is it any wonder that ichneumons, not snakes or lions, stood as the paramount challenge to God's benevolence during the heyday of natural theology?" (Gould, p. 2)

Prominent Incidences:

In one sense, this perception does appear to be a fundamental misunderstanding of the objectivity of nature. However, some recent incidences in the headlines illustrate are tendency to employ this anthropomorphism in our characterizations.

When famous Las Vegas performer Roy Horn of Siegfried and Roy was mauled during a performance by one of their trademark white tigers, such characterization underscored this human tendency. According to Sigfriend, speaking on behalf of his critically injured partner, "every living thing goes crazy. Every species,'" (Marquez, p. 1)

The attribution of insanity is at once a decidedly human way of perceiving the species in question and, additionally, suggests that the tiger had no rational motive for the mauling, which is something that we simply can't assume to know.

The Timothy Treadwell story is another illustration of how the natural and instinctual behaviors of predatory animals are often described in terms that human beings can ethically or philosophically comprehend. Treadwell was a radical zoologist who desired to live among the bears and, in doing so, exposed himself to the dangers inherent in such proximity. When he and his girlfriend were mauled to death by a brown bear in their campsite, there was little surprise. According to one colleague, "You…… [read more]

Mastery Over Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


" (1995 citing Zuckerman, 1979) By the late seventeenth century 'menageries' became popular.

Menageries were quite simply caged animals kept in private collections as a status symbol for the owners. Louis XIV is known to have had such a collection know as the Versailles menageries in which a botanical garden was arrange with an enclosure for elephants and lions around his house. The collection of Louis XIV was moved in 1804 to Paris and kept in a zoological garden called Jardin des Plantes in what was a public exhibit of the animals. The animals were kept in Paris and were adherent to "scientific formulations about non-human nature that supported practices of animal confinement." (Anderson, 1995)

It is reported that legitimacy to the concept of the menagerie was given by the scientific community and this spread throughout Europe and by 1847 the Zoological Society of London was formed comprising the royal menageries and Windsor Park and the Tower of London. The zoos in the western world are reported to have "evolved historically out of a much older and more general logic and desire for classification and control of the non-human world" described as the 'rationalist' school of thought. However, it is reported that as Christianity and humanism developed that the setting apart of humankind from the animal world was solidified. Dualism and reason were a school of thought that grew to imply "a hierarchy that pitted nature both against and beneath human who was henceforth justified in treating nature as object, as background to -- and instrument of -- human purposes." (Anderson, 1995) Anderson states that it is interesting that "the imaginative act that assimilated those, thinking, sentient, intentional and animate creatures called 'animals' into the blackbox category of nature." (1995) Anderson writes that Descartes stated that animals while having the capacity sensation were mechanical beings which were not aware and as well did not possess a conscious nature.

According to Anderson, the zoo in colonial and post-colonial Australia "has been one of the sites through which the confidence and privilege of partial perspective have been encoded and 'naturalized'." (1995) The zoo takes the "raw material of nature" and constructs it into "an iconic representation of human capacity for order and control" as the images of the zoo which are constructed are "one that dramatize, even glorify, this capacity for intervention in nonhuman nature."

Summary and Conclusion

However one perceives the Adelaide Zoo in Adelaide, South Australia, it is certain that the exotic animals which one can view in the zoo are of the nature that one otherwise would not be able to see in nature. Without the benefit of the zoo, children would view merely pictures of the lovely, strange and frightening creatures they are able to view while visiting the zoo. The zoo brings to life many characters in the storybooks of childhood and allows the children to literally place an animal's face with its name and enables children to exert their imagination and their creativity. The world would… [read more]

Human Nature, Difference Between Man Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Aquinas xiii)

But all the reviewers of Aristotelian and Thomas philosophies with regard to human nature are have a unity on in disagreeing with Saint Thomas, by declaring his view incompatible and in collision with by Aristotle and Plato view of human nature and more of middle ground between the two.

Thomas's view point had its root and inspiration from Christian theology and that is why his view point regarding the difference between human nature and animal is if not outright rejected but is daunted.

Aristotle and St. Thomas point out that some things are said to be one (in animals and humans) because their genus is one, as a man, a horse; and a dog are one because they agree, or are one, in the genus animal…but are distinguished by diverse differences which are, as it were, diverse forms. (Crowley and Redpath 4)


But both Aristotle and Aquinas agree on philosophical argument which is, "Man differs radically from other things because of the it's ability to make choice because of free will which other plants and brutes do not posses to a level which the humans posses" (Adler 54)

Both the viewpoints ultimately try to acquire one common ground but theological as well as different outlook on human nature has bounded both the philosophies in a way that it cannot accept each other without contradicting each other.

Works Cited

Adler, Mortimer Jerome. The Difference of Man and the Difference It Makes. New York: Fordham University Press, 1993.

Aquinas, Saint Thomas. On human nature. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.

Crowley, Charles B. And Peter A Redpath. Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy of measure and the international system of Units (SI system). Maryland: University Press of America, 1996.

Hoekema, Anthony. Created in God's Image. Wm. B. Eerdmans…… [read more]

How Should a Human Behave Toward the Members of Another Species? Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,536 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Human Behave Toward the Members of Another Species

The question "How should a human behave toward the members of other species" challenges the conduct and behaviours of human beings towards nature. The question appears four times in the essay, and the author is continually referring to the question and linking human beings and other animals. Through the question,… [read more]

Should Animals Have the Same Rights as People Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,094 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Animals have the same rights as people?

The argument presented while in support of animal rights does not assert that animals should have the same exact rights as people. However, animals do have feelings, they have emotions, and there is empirical science to back up the contention that animals to grieve like humans. It is the position of this paper that animals' emotions are closer to human emotions than has been previously known, and that animals should have more rights and more respect than they do now.

Animals Deserve Respect and Should Have Rights

So many instances of animal cruelty are available in the news these days, from the gruesome slaughter of millions of animals on "factory farms" (where chickens, cows, and pigs stand in their own excrement and are pumped full of antibiotics to keep them healthy enough to be slaughtered) to the brutal, inhumane use of animals in testing labs that do research for cosmetics and other frivolous products.

Specifically, one point that can be made that links animals' emotions with human emotions is the fact that animals do grieve. Journalist Courtney Langley writes an interesting story in the Virginia Gazette regarding animal research by anthropology professor Barbara King at the College of William and Mary. King's recent book, How Animals Grieve, points to a poignant story about two ducks. These ducks has been rescued from a foie gras factory; foie gras is a controversial method of force-feeding ducks with far more food than they would ever eat normally and the point is to fatten up the liver of the duck for people to eat.

King reports that these rescued ducks were "…decimated and traumatized" but they bonded with each other in a farm animal sanctuary. Their names were Harper and Kohl, and with loving treatment they lived for a few years. But eventually Kohl became seriously ill and had to be euthanized. The supervisors at the rescue farm allowed Harper to be present while Kohl was put down. "When his friend was lying still, dead, on the ground, Harper came over to his friend and put his neck over top of his friend and laid there, and just sat with the body" (Langley, 2013). But that was only part of this sad scene; for weeks, Harper had what King called a "sorrow response," because Harper would not eat, he avoided other ducks and "became afraid of people" (Langley, p. 1). The behaviors Harper showed were "…specific about the loss of his friend," King explained.

King has discovered other evidence about animals and grieving that is compelling; for example she discusses Eleanor, a Kenyan matriarch elephant in Africa, who died and was visited by her calf along with "…a parade of female elephants, some of whom stood guard over her body" (Langley, p. 2). In fact elephants from five different families visited Eleanor's body and stood by; they likely never knew Eleanor and this indicates to King that elephants do mourn.

Crows, too, mourn their dead,… [read more]

What Information Can Be Learned From Nonhuman Animal Studies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Nonhuman Animal Studies?

Animal testing represents an important subject for debate and confrontation between those that support the medical testing on animals especially from the point-of-view of the added value it brings and those that argue the rights of animals as beings with rights and in need of equal treatment as humans. There are numerous arguments suggesting that… [read more]

Animal Testing Negatives Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,261 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Abusing animals in testing laboratories is unavoidable even if the researchers take utmost care to prevent them. Numerous studies by scientists and ethicists have shown that animal testing leads to pain, emotional distress, and post-traumatic stress syndrome due to invasive procedures, deprivation of basic physiological and environmental needs, disease, and social isolation. The loss of ability to fulfill natural needs… [read more]

Zoo Animals Human Beings Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,974 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Therefore, it cannot be assumed that successful breeding programs necessarily mean an increase in animal welfare, but rather that there are more animals of any given species, who may or may not be treated well depending on the specific zoo.

The idea that successful breeding programs necessarily mean an increase in animal welfare is so pervasive precisely because it feels… [read more]

Animal Welfare Assurance Organizations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,107 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The ASPCA does not oppose the use of animals in entertainment, "provided that all of the animals' physiological and behavioral needs are fully met and that no cruel practices are used in raising, training and maintaining the animals, including when their period of useful service is over' (ASPCA Position statement 5.16).

The ASPCA also stresses the need for consideration of the environment and for nature, keeping with its concerns about the ethical treatment of wild animals. It does not oppose animal control of wildlife in all instances, but stresses that, like all forms of euthanasia, it should only be practiced as a last resort (ASPCA Position statement 6.1). The ASPCA is not a conservation group such as, for example, Greenpeace, but sees its support of healthy environment for all animals, wild as well as tame, as keeping with its mission of cruelty prevention.

The ASPCA is an extremely large not-for-profit organization and releases an annual report detailing its successes. This is necessary, given the extensive corporate as well as individual sponsorship solicited by the organization, to demonstrate that its funds are being put to good use. Its annual report contains a wide variety of examples of how the ASPCA has exerted its influence to improve conditions for animals, as in the case of NYC's carriage horses, as well as its financial statements. A complete copy of the audit can be obtained by the organization's CFO (Chief Financial Manager) (Annual report, ASPCA, 2010: 56-57).

It is difficult to compare a large organization such as the ASPCA with a national platform to a small, local organization like Manes and Tails which does not conduct a formal audit. Because of its specific focus upon horses in need, Manes and Tails has the potential to address specific issues of interest to the horse community, such as natural shoeing and health-promoting care of horses for all owners, offering low-cost board for horse owners in need, and acting as a vocal advocate against horse slaughter. The ASPCA has superior funding and its 'net' is wider-reaching, but it cannot monitor the treatment of all animals, particularly given the special needs of horses in terms of care and rehabilitation. Ultimately, both types of organizations -- specific and general, national and local -- are needed to improve conditions for animals within the United States. The guidelines issued by Manes and Tails are actually more detailed and radical in terms of policy positions, but it has the luxury of taking a more definite stand, given that it does not have to please as wide a range of stakeholders as the ASPCA.


Annual report. (2010). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).

Retrieved September 20, 2011 at http://onlinedigitalpubs.com/publication/?i=76489

Mission statement. (2011). Manes and Tails. Retrieved September 20, 2011 at http://www.manesandtailsorganization.org/mission.htm

Policy positions. (2011). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).

Retrieved September 20, 2011…… [read more]

Nature Is Being Apart From Humanity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,578 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nature Is Being Apart From Humanity

Nature and Humanity

Together and Yet Apart Purpose:

The purpose of this work is to explore the destruction of nature and how that is separating humanity and nature even though all exist on the same planet and each are dependent on one another in the maintenance of a delicate balance that is necessary for… [read more]

Guns: Artistotle's History of Animals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (855 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This practice enabled Aristotle to describe phenomena such as the embryological development of a chick, to distinguish dolphins from fish and to describe the chambered stomachs of ruminants. He was also able to examine the social organization of bees, and he noticed that some sharks give birth to live young.

Indeed, Aristotle's keen interest in sea life led him to his extensive studies of dolphins, which he classified as mammals after observing their reproduction practices. Aristotle's successors however were slow to accept this fact, and it was only two thousand years later that biologists began to confirm Aristotle's observations of the dolphin. Another observation of sea life is the fact that the torpedo fish stuns its prey. Knowledge at the time was too limited for Aristotle to realize that this was done by means of an electric shock.

Aristotle's study was pioneering work at the time, since Plato, his master, and all other philosophers considered only abstract thought as worthy of their time. Aristotle himself however took great pleasure in examining the natural world around him, and described five hundred different animals in his work. The philosopher's contribution to zoology however lasted unrefuted for more or less 2,000 years.

The concept of the "final cause" is one embedded in the mindset of Aristotle's time; everything was seen to have a higher purpose, or design. According to this philosophy, living creatures are placed on the earth for a specific purpose. And this purpose was unique for each species. Of course this concept is absent from zoological and scientific studies today. It is however part of Aristotle's concept that there is progress in the development and hierarchy of animals, which is the basis for Darwin's evolution theory. This idea was echoed by Greek philosophers of the time, but in-depth knowledge of the evolution mechanism lacked during this time. It was only 2,200 years later when Darwin was able to use the accumulated scientific knowledge of his time to arrive at an empirical evolution theory.

While many of his observations were accurate, Aristotle also made some fundamental errors. He for example believed that the heart was the center of life, whereas the brain functioned only as a cooling mechanism.

It is however clear that Aristotle has made a significant contribution to our scientific knowledge and study methodology of animals. He was obviously far ahead of his time, as he was considered the authority in this field for nearly 2,000 years.


Aristotle. The History of Animals. Trans. D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson. 2004. http://classics.mit.edu//Aristotle/history_anim.html… [read more]

Animal Cloning Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (976 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Animal Cloning

There is no shortage of controversy surrounding the topic of cloning. This sentiment particularly applies to animal cloning. The general public initially became aware of the fact that animal cloning was a reality when Dolly the Sheep was successfully cloned in 1996. Since that time the efforts of scientists to continue to clone animals has evinced little sign of abating. However, in the wake of what such scientists regard as progress, there are myriad ethical considerations that have abounded and which continue to plague this particular applicability of technology. Many of these ethical considerations revolve about the perceived pain of animals during the cloning process, the implication on other animals, and the effects of cloning on humans. A careful examination of these ethical issues reveals that animal cloning should stop, and likely should have never started.

Those who are in favor of cloning attest to the perceived good that it will create. When cloning an adult animal, one can almost guarantee a perfect replica of that particular specimen. Additionally, the perceived good of this technology is viable for endangered species, and can help to prevent some of the most revered and hard to find animals from getting eliminated from the earth. It is also purported to help farmers get the best animals for livestock (Pecorino, 2000). Although these intentions are noble, cloning animals should not take place -- even those that are endangered species. In the first place, animals become endangered when there are significant issues with their habitats or with other species that are involved with them in the food chain. Balance is needed to eliminate the danger of animals that are endangered species; cloning will not restore such balance. Moreover, there are too many complications that occur during the process of a successful cloned attempt that, ethically speaking, such an attempt is not worthwhile and certainly not defensible.

The pain that animals have to endure in order to successfully clone a particular animal is considerable. In fact, the cloning process is little short of torture for most animals. Animals endure a fair amount of agony while they are used in scientific experiments related to cloning Additionally, animals also incur side effects related to the cloning process once it is completed. The fact of the matter is that there is no guarantee that cloning will work, and that it will not produce negative affects on the animals that is cloned. Gurdon notes (2005), "most cloned animals are abnormal" (43). Due to these facts, as well as the general "pain and suffering" (Fiester, 2005, p. 328) animals endure during the process of cloning, this practice should cease.

Another very real concern regarding cloning is the ramifications that it can produce on humans. These ramifications not only include aspects of the cloning of people, but also of preying on certain elements of human nature. An example of the latter includes a pet owner who laments the death…… [read more]

Endangered Animals Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Judy Braddy

Hunter May

Not Everything is Worth Saving

"Since the Endangered Species Act was passed by the government in 1973, people have come to realize that they must change their ways if other species besides humans are to survive. The Endangered Species Act accomplishes this goal; however, it is biting off more than it can chew. While this act is trying to save species from becoming extinct, it's efforts have resulted in large sums of money loss to the government. An example? In 2011, the construction of a hospital was delayed due to a sighting of an endangered species of fly around the construction area of the unfinished hospital. To make a story short, the rare species of fly flew away, never to be rescued, which made the government lose thousands of dollars for something that was not worth the money. If endangered animals are to be saved, then only the animals that have some value and importance should be saved, so that the efforts to save that animal species is not in vain. (Debate.org)"


In a world full of lies one truth still prevails the strong will survive. In every class on general science, one topic is continually brought forth Survival of the Fittest. It cannot be stopped and as such trying to save endangered species is a futile effort that needs to cease. More good can be done in the world if we simple let the weak disappear into the dust of history and strive to make sure that humanity never drops in nature's hierarchical scale. We can see those that have already gone extinct in the past, what science tells us about the how we have come to the present through evolution, and finally how much money is waste to these useless efforts.

Furthermore, as much as any part of our heritage, private property defines who we are as Americans. It is an organizing principle for our government and cultural symbol of our independence and freedom (Castelnuovo). Therefore, there is an inherent contradiction in the rights of the individual and the collective rights of animals. Some animals are predators that damage human property, or humans themselves. Protecting animals places expensive and unfair burdens against the public. The expenses associated with the protection of these species represent a considerable expenditure to the public. The U.S. federal and state governments spent just more than $1.7 billion to conserve endangered and threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in fiscal year (FY) 2012 (from October 1, 2011, to September 30, 2012), according to an accounting recently published by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS); that's up from $1.59 billion in FY 2011 and $1.45 billion in FY 2010 (Platt).

There is another issue that is deeply intertwined…… [read more]

Panther, by Reiner Maria Rilke Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,241 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The one behind the wheel thinks like the deserving member of the community: he or she leaves the shelter of his or her car, transgressing, to enter the darkness, guided by his taillights. His first action is thus apparently motivated by his or her concern for the other members of his own community: "the road is narrow; to swerve might make more dead."

To describe the reason that made him or her descend into the darkness, the first word the narrator uses is noncommittal: "a heap." The second word that follows immediately is: "a doe." This is another word for the female deer, but it will also bring one to the idea of a John / Jane Doe: an unidentified corpse, that is, a dead human being. The word that follows in the description seems to reinforce this idea: "a recent killing." The narrator deliberately describes his finding as a killing, leaving behind the object of that killing as if, to establish a first connection between the two worlds: his or hers and the being in the wild, the deer. The reader finds the next image jumping back to the original attitude of indifference, in a void of feelings: "I dragged her off." But, the phrase continues and engages: "she was large in the belly." The narrator uses the third person personal pronoun to suggest he or she realized it was more than just "a heap," furthermore, it was more than just a dead animal. From that moment on, the story becomes very personal: the dead wild animal was bearing life, a life that had not ceased along with its bearer. The second and most powerful connection between the human world and the animal kingdom is thus established: the ability to give life.

This is the moment when the human hesitates. He or she is incapable of finishing something as mechanical as getting rid of a lifeless obstacle on the road. The moral aspect of human existence, what humans think separates them from animals, enters the stage: to act deliberately and to take or not to take a new life. Here it is the fourth unseen character: the living fawn. The five character is quickly introduced: the car. The car takes the lively form of an animal: "under the hood purred the steady engine." The human and the lifeless mechanical engine are partners in conquering the animal kingdom and establishing the victory of men vs. animals.

The narrator describes this scene as if it were a painting, including the fifth character, the working car, in it: "around our group I could hear the wilderness listen." The character who has been there all along, wilderness, is presented as if waiting for a deliberation, with the human being judge, messenger and executioner. This judge emphasizes that he or she, as a representative of his or her species, but for the benefit of all involved, took his time and pondered, before reaching a decision: "my only swerving." He granted this favor to the… [read more]

Animals in Captivity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Animals in Captivity

Zoological parks and aquariums continue to exist because they have respect for dignity of the animals in their care. Zoos found in different locations of the world have their own code of animal welfare. The World Association of Zoos and Aquarium in a bid to develop an ethical tradition has come up with a standard of conduct… [read more]

Red Wolf and Different Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,943 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


However, a majority of the young ones die during the first six months of their lives. The young pairs among red wolves copulate mostly before they reach the age of three (Paradiso & Nowak, 1972). The gestation period is about sixty to sixty three days after which 6 to 8 offspring are born usually.

The litter from a reproductive red-wolf couple "are tolerated in their natal home range until they disperse, with dispersal apparently related to social factors most typically associated with the onset of sexual maturity" (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247).

A number of dens may be established by the pregnant female red wolves during the denning season. A lot of dens are established on the surface depressions that are low and are located in thick vegetation for the purpose of shelter. On the other hand, other dens are located in shallow hideaways in the ground underneath the large trees. The young offspring are usually moved from one den to another before leaving the existing den.

Development and Lifespan/Longevity

Both male and female red wolves are active parents as they rear their young ones in the den throughout the first year of their lives. The young red wolves are also cared and nursed by other wolves in the pack. Almost all the red wolves have a natural life of more or less ten years (Dahl, 1997).


The main predators of red wolves are other members of the canids family. These include gray wolves as well as coyotes. This is because they combat for having possession of a particular territory. Other predators that usually prey young red wolves are alligators, large raptors and bobcats (Dahl, 1997).

To cut a long story short, there is no economic importance of red wolves to human beings. Previously, they were considered a grave threat to livestock. They were also called large marauders on small stock (Sutton, 1998, p. 15). This is the reason why red wolves were terminated by humans to the brink of extinction. However, the good thing is that this species has been reintroduced to save it from becoming endangered (Paradiso & Nowak, 1972).


Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HomHpmeIyWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+ wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA

Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.

Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.

Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-022-01-0001.pdf

Sutton, K.B. (1998). Arkansas Wildlife: A History. Fayetteville: University of…… [read more]

Animal Farm an Analysis Book Review

Book Review  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Thus, the pig leaders of Animal Farm become like the very real humans they initially appeared to despise.

Napoleon's character is different from Snowball's in that it is more of an authoritarian than a visionary. Snowball's plans for guiding Animal Farm are utopian, Napoleon's militaristic. Napoleon trains the dogs to be attack dogs that they might shield him. He enlists Squealer to be his public relations man, to trick the dumber animals into submitting to his authority. If Napoleon has any virtues at all, it might be his overall tenacity: he does not allow anyone else to reign alongside him and will do anything to keep power all to himself. His flaws, however, are his willingness to deceive and even rewrite history in order to maintain power. He promotes false doctrine and is perfectly willing to murder dissenters.

Snowball's virtues are his bravery in battle: he is a natural and courageous leader, who inspires the other animals to charge Jones and the men. He is fearless whereas Napoleon is cowardly and shows no heroics in the battle. Snowball's faults lie in the fact that he is too much of a dreamer to realize the duplicity of Napoleon and ends up being chased off the farm as a result. Snowball is the more intelligent of the two: his designs for the windmill serve as the blueprint. His speeches are also more passionate and alive. Napoleon's on the other hand are brutal, brief, and imbued with militarism and empty patriotism. Napoleon cunningly replaces morality with self-adulation and state propaganda.

The setting is important because it represents the type of worker collective promoted in the Soviet Union at the time Orwell wrote the novel. Animal Farm is a literal allusion to the… [read more]

Animals and Society Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,285 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Animal Rights

The roles of animals in the society are explored by highlighting the facts highlighted by a number of authors. The interaction of human beings with the animals is an important part of the society. These roles are highlighted by the articles highlighted in the paper.

'Animal liberation' is an important book written by Peter Singer. The main fact highlighted by the author in the book is the importance of launching the animal rights movement. It was published in 1975 when animal rights movement gained toll in an industrialized world. The organization named as People for Ethical Treatment of Animals, PETA, has heavily criticized the book by Peter Singer, but the realities that have been highlighted by Peter are more important. The rights that have been organized by PETA are not supported by Peter. The criticism provided by Peter in the book is based on the way in which the industrialized society makes use of the animals. The author has highlighted utilitarian morals and ethics. Thereby in order to read the book, it is important that one must be aware of the utilitarian rules. Since an increase in industrialization, people are not even aware of the source of food being fed upon. What is the source of the cosmetics or beauty products being used by the people? For the maintenance or sustenance of life, how animals are used is an important question. Animal liberation is the book that has highlighted the brutal systems under which animals are used. The main aim of the book is to highlight ethics based on which animals are used in the society. One of the main facts that have thus been highlighted by the author is that people should become vegetarian. Singer has highlighted many ways in which animals are slaughtered for the benefit of the human beings. A number of arguments have been given by Singer as to why meat should not be used as food by people. Firstly, the animals must not be slaughtered for the production of meat; and secondly, the land being used for the rearing and management of animal farms must be used for the cultivation of crops (Singer, 2001, p. 89).

The second important book is 'Animal Rights, Human Wrongs' written by Tom Regan. The main question asked in the book is the eligibility criteria based on which an animal gets it rights. What are the reasons based on which animal testing becomes illegal. Tom Regan is one of the most well-known philosopher and social activist. Importance of the book is based on the arguments that have been placed by the author in favor of animal rights. In these cases, two important questions have been explored which are an important part of the moral theory (Regan, 2000, p. 66). The first question in this case is what are the reasons based on which acts can be called as illegal. Three important moral theories have been considered by the author include contractarianism, Kantian ethics, and utilitarianism. The book has… [read more]

Animal Rights Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,695 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


I believe that animal testing is a method which can only be justified by the reason due to which this method is adapted. For instance, when the issue is to save human lives and bring forth a brighter day for people by introducing cures to deadly diseases, the use of animals may be acceptable. However, to put animals through similar suffering for a weak cause such as beauty is unethical and inhumane. It proves that man does not care for the feelings of other beings and that convenience is truly the key. Even though the cost of testing animals and keeping them under a roof, feeding them, and investigating their reactions for a long period of time is a costly endeavor and is not even always successful and further and most importantly gives pain to the animals, people still continue to test products in this manner. There continue to be many alternative methods of testing substances to check that they are safe, the most convenient apparently is testing substances on animals. All of this is due to a mere reason that people do not care about a single animal life, needless to say that is not moving to have knowledge that thousands and thousands of animals are put through such suffering every month, for products that encourage shallow thinking and do not help the cause of mankind in anyway. I believe that if animals would be treated better and their feelings and emotions taken into account more often, the world would be better off and there would more living beings on Earth other than Humans whose rights are also fulfilled and paid heed upon.


Bekoff, M. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood Press: 1998. Print.

Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Judson, K. Animal Testing. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark: 2006. Print.

Mironov, Vladimir . "The Future of Medicine: Are Custom-Printed Organs on the Horizon? Medical Researchers Are Creating Robots That Can Bioprint New Tissue and Organs Directly into Patients' Bodies While Performing Surgery-Without Assistance from Doctors." Futurist. 45 (2011): n. page. Print.

Yarri, D. The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and…… [read more]

Animal Testing There Has Been Heated Debates Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,029 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Animal Testing

There has been heated debates over the years on the use of animals for experimental purposes, scientist have their argument to support their use while, at the same time, animal lobby groups have their argument against the use of animal for experimental purposes. In Britain alone, more than 3 million animals have been experimented on in their laboratories, this does not include those which their body parts are harvested for experiment purposes and those that did not meet the required standards for experimental purposes. With such increase in animal use, the question which arises is, is it ethically right to use animals for experimental purposes, yet they have life just like humans Simon Festing, 2007 ()

Scholars have described the use of live animals in scientific as vivisection. Scientist have tried to defend their actions saying that the use of animal is the safest way to test new products necessary for medical development but is it still ethical to breed a life just to get rid of it after the experiment? In addition, animals such as rats and mice are mostly being used because they are easy to inbreed, are small, and more so cheap, but, in some other special experiments, animals such as rabbits, pigs, chickens, fish, dogs and guinea pigs are also used EMP, 2004()

Scientist normally subject these animals to torture, pain, distress and lasting harm just to achieve the desired results which should reciprocate what human would have gone through instead. Animal lobby groups have noted that animals usually suffer a lot in the hands of scientist, they add that, even those animals, not in the testing schedule end up detained for a long period that they end up developing stress to the point of even death due to the solitary confinement they are often kept in EMP, 2004()

Scientist want the rest of the public to believe that animals such as the rats and mice can be disposed of like objects forgetting that these creatures also have a life, they have maternal instincts, experience fear and pain just like other animals. These animals are normally subjected to pain and toxic experiments which are normally killing them on the spot Simon Festing, 2007 .

Though, the use of these animals is good for medicals experiments such as in determining the causes of a certain health problem and to find out the treatment of certain diseases. It is still unethical to use them, because of the following reasons.

Just like it is ethical to seek consent to a human being why do scientist use them against their wish, since the same way they cannot ask for consent is the same way they do not belong in those experiments with humans. Secondly, human beings should respect life, whether it is of a small creature or a huge creature, all of them has an equal opportunity to exist among other creatures on earth.

Right from the medical principle of mal-beneficence, scientist should avoid doing harm to these… [read more]

Animal Testing There Are Individuals and Organizations Research Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 6


Animal Testing

There are individuals and organizations that say using animals in test laboratories for biomedical research or for product research is unethical no matter what the purpose. Others argue that using animals is vitally important for research that could possibly resolve human health issues. Both sides have valid points and this paper delves into issue using positions from several… [read more]

Animal Research in Laboratories Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (753 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Animal Research in Laboratories

What are the applicable ethical considerations when scientists use animals in research? Can researchers justify causing pain to animals while doing research on medicines that could potentially be beneficial to humans? These issues will be discussed in this paper, along with the news that there may soon be alternatives to using animals in research.

Pro and Con -- on Animal Research

In the Mark Kula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University in California the statistics presented show that "about 20 million animals are experimented on and killed annual" -- and of those three-quarters are killed for medical purposes and the remaining for the testing of "various products" (Andre, et al., 2010, p. 2). Further data reveals that about eight million animals (of the 20 million) are made to go through pain, and moreover about 10% of those are not given any painkillers, Andre explains.

There is a good moral argument to be made that pain "…is an intrinsic evil," and anything that causes pain to another living thing is "…simply not morally permissible," Andre continues. The author quotes 19th century philosopher Jeremy Benthan's viewpoint about animals and humans. Bentham believes the morally appropriate question is not, "Can they reason" or "Can they talk?" Instead the utilitarian philosopher says the ethical question is, "Can they suffer?" And the answer is, of course they can and do suffer, and therein lies the controversy. Making animals suffer is not just cruel; it is unethical by any standards of fairness and morality.

Animals do indeed suffer when they are "…starved, shocked, burned, and poisoned" (Andre, 2). These horrifically painful acts go on while the researchers are attempting to find some remedy for a human ailment, or trying to improve on a beauty treatment for the wealthy woman whose face is beginning to wrinkle. There in fact is evidence that baby mice have had their legs "chopped off" so the researchers could determine if they would "groom themselves with their stumps" (Andre, 2). Clearly, there have been (and apparently still are) some hideously unconscionable experiments done on animals.

Those who advocate for continuing animal research suggest that without the ability to utilize animals in research "…scientists' efforts would be massively hampered," according to Laurie Pycroft…… [read more]

Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (959 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This focus on domesticated animals at the expense of the larger biosphere ultimately demonstrates the unviable nature of animal liberation philosophy and practice, because "animal liberation, if pursued at the practical as well as the rhetorical level, would have ruinous consequences on plants, soils and waters," as well as the various forms of life which depend on these resources for their well-being. Furthermore, the animal liberation movement contains a simplistic understanding of the food web, such that unsustainably sourced vegetarian foods are valued over meat taken in a reasonable, sustainable way from a single animal. In short, the animal liberation movement, though nobly committed to lessening the suffering of animals, is ultimately naive, unrealistic, and actually fairly damaging to the overall well-being of life on Earth.

A more useful response to the factory farming and cruelly disruptive techniques of contemporary capitalism would be to forego the desire to impose "our alienation from nature and natural processes and the cycles of life on other animals" by arguing that they be given precisely the same legal rights as humans and instead "take the opposite course and accept and affirm natural biological laws, principles, and limitations in the human personal and social spheres" (Callicott 5). Thus, Callicott is so critical of the animal liberation movement because he sees it as simply a different version of the same problem, so that the supposed binary between moral humanism and humane moralism actually only serves "to drown out the much deeper challenge to 'business-as-usual' ethical philosophy represented by Leopold and his exponents, and to keep ethical philosophy firmly anchored to familiar modern paradigms" (Callicott 6). The animal liberation movement is ultimately inconsistent with an ecocentric approach to environmental ethics, and only serves to provide the public with seemingly alternative theories while actually reinforcing the same tired organization of humanity within nature.

By comparing the animal liberation movement with Aldo Leopold's notion of the "land ethic," Callicott demonstrates that far from reducing the suffering of animals or otherwise offering them some moral parity with humans, the animal liberation movement unnecessarily limits the dispersal of rights to those animals deemed worthy, thus reenacting the same form of discrimination practiced by moral humanists who argue that humans are separate from animals and thus deserve preferential treatment, albeit by expanding the category of the "worthy" animals beyond mere humans to those animals most frequently domesticated for food. A genuine environmental ethics, on the other hand, seeks not to impose artificially constructed notions of legal rights onto nature but rather to reorient humanity's position within the biosphere such that everything, from animals and plants to the resources which sustain them, is accorded a kind of fundamental right to exist, a right that demands ethical decisions on the part of humans but which does not unduly sugarcoat the reality of nature.

Works Cited

Callicott,…… [read more]

Zoo Animal Technology Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (718 words)
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I enjoy the sciences, as well, and I think that it is important when choosing a degree program. In addition, I have volunteered at local animal shelters to work around animals, and I find I enjoy the work. What I don't enjoy is when people have to give up their pets, or dump them off. I find it very disturbing that so many pet owners don't take their obligations seriously. That is another reason I want to join the Zoo Animal Technology Program. I want to work in an environment that is more positive for the animals and their long-term welfare, because the animal shelters can be quite depressing at times, and that is definitely not where I want to spend my career working with animals.

I realize the program is competitive and demanding, and that there is a sequence to the courses and their completion. I am prepared for that, and to work hard to gain my degree so I can find the career of my dreams. Specifically, I would like to work in marine rehabilitation, or in one of the successful breeding programs. I would like to work at a prestigious park, such as San Diego, but I would also enjoy working in a smaller facility that offered more interaction with visitors.

It has always been my goal to work with animals, because I enjoy taking care of them and interacting with them. They are fun, but more than that, they rely on us for their existence, and they give unequivocal and undying love for only affection and care in return. They are loyal, they are loving, and they are affectionate. While I know that all zoo animals don't share those qualities (and they shouldn't), I know that these animals are dependent on us for their existence, and that I enjoy making sure they have the best existence they possibly can. To see animals mistreated or abused is extremely disturbing to me, that's why I want to work where they are valued and well cared for, and that's why I would like to enter your Zoo Animal Technology Program.

Thank you and I look forward to…… [read more]

Scientific Research With Animals Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,057 words)
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¶ … scientific research with animals, and the scientific purpose of the research. Scientific research with animals has been controversial for decades. Animal rights activists violently oppose it in any form, believing it is cruel to the animals and unnecessary. Scientists and others, such as psychologists, believe it is necessary in many cases, and that animal research can prevent human… [read more]

Animals Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (996 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Animals generally are an example of how nature works instinct work because of their unique features of developing and adapting in a world full of unknown and adversities. The evolution of humanity had also brought negative effects for the animal reign because of the fast growing urban areas and the intensive agricultural activities.

The Amur Leopard is one of nature's priceless creations and it is an impressing member of the animal reign as a big cat. The species is even more priceless compared to others due to the fact that it is one of the most endangered species with an estimate of only 30 individuals still living in the wild. It is also known as the Far Eastern Leopard, the Manchurian Leopard, or the Korean Leopard and it is generally found West of Vladivostok near the border between Russia and China.

According to recent studies, there are ten living leopard subspecies and it stands out from the rest of the subspecies because of its pale coat and due to the fact that it is very well adapted for living in cold areas.

The perfect place for the Amur leopard to flourish is within the forests from the Far East. Humans are responsible for most of the circumstances that lead to the endangering of the species. Despite the fact that in the recent years endangered species have received more attention, it takes a supernatural effort to recover what was lost. The Amur leopard population has suffered the most during the second half of the 20th century as people were striking the full hit of industrialization and forests were cut out with no regards to the effects of their reckless behavior. Moreover, entire forests are destroyed every year on purpose because farmers are setting fires to get a more fertile soil.

The case of the Amur leopard is similar to its bigger relative, the Siberian (Amur) tiger, which is also an endangered species. The fact that people are more familiar with the situation of the Siberian tiger also helps to prevent the extinction of the Amur leopard because from the wildlife reserves and the favorable conditions created for the natural world to flourish would benefit more than one species.

As most felines, the Amur leopard is carnivorous and it usually feed on deer, which are widespread across the territory inhabited by the leopard. The Amur leopard is also known to prey on smaller mammals such as hares or badgers. The Amur leopard is a solitary hunter and is known to stalk its prey before attempting an attack. Similar to other leopard subspecies, it is a good climber and can hide its food in trees so that it can save it for later. The Amur leopard is also remarkable due to the fact that it is an excellent swimmer and a very fast animal with a speed of approximately 37 miles per hour on short distances. It is highly territorial and it marks its territory with urine. Being a nocturnal feline,…… [read more]

Animal Research Following the Precedent Established Term Paper

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Animal Research

Following the precedent established for the past hundred years of using sentient beings for laboratory modeling, animals should continue to be used in biomedical research because the scientific knowledge gained far outweighs any ethical and moral considerations.

Animal research has always been a contentious subject, but within the past few decades the debate has risen to critical levels,… [read more]

Animal Rights Introduction Right, Properly Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,876 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Animal Rights

Introduction right, properly understood, is a claim, or potential claim, that one party may exercise against another' (Roger, 2003), the rights are granted and are ought to be respected towards the grieved party, and other party towards which the actions are performed. In general, when we talk about rights, we concentrate on the human rights, but the terminology… [read more]

Should Animals Be Used in Sports and Entertainment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (401 words)
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¶ … circus without animals, imagine if there was no lion show, no ring master, no flying monkeys, or dancing bears. There are many entertainment venues and sports venues that use animals as part of their show, but this does not necessarily make them abusive or corrupt. Just as human beings, whether they are athletes or clowns, are used as part of entertainment, so are animals. They are neither treated cruelly as a rule, nor neglected. Therefore, their use in sports and entertainment should continue as long as they are being treated with kindness and respect.

Animals should be allowed within entertainment and sports because they serve a specific purpose of entertainment. Many opponents such as members of PETA say that using them in such a way is cruel and demeaning. However, circuses, entertainment venues, and sporting events rarely treat their animals with cruelty. Rather the majority of animals working within the entertainment profession are carefully guarded and treated because they are an important part of the act themselves. Sea World for instance, expand over 30% of their annual revenue on animal maintenance, providing the best facilities for their animals and caring for them with extremely precision. Therefore, animals within…… [read more]

Why Animals Should Have Rights Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
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¶ … animal cruelty and animal rights have been a several theme in recent media and public sentiments, few people really understand what it means to give animals the rights that they deserve. Instead, we are harming animals both directly and indirectly on a daily basis to satisfy our basic needs. This implies that human beings still look to animals as if they have no righs whatsoever, and more than that, it is completely legitimate to kill, maim and destroy their livelihood at will. Animals are not only treated with complete disregard, but humanity has deemed them fit to be genetically altered, manipulated and changed. All of these actions seem to fit the portfolio of God, rather than our own human species. In the following analysis I will thoroughly examine animal rights, and clarify through conceptual frameworks, why it is necessary for us to have animal rights.

There are many conceptual reasons why philosophers do not accept an egalitarian comparison between humans and animals. Kant, Descartes, Aquinas, and many other philosophers rejects the claim of animal rights because they view them purely as organic equivalents to machines. They argue that animals are driven by coarse instincts and thus are unable to experience pain. This is the fundamental underpinnings of their social and political argument. Their assertions however are unwarranted and unjustified. Close examination of animals have shown that they do indeed have feelings, moreover, they have sophisticated mechanism by which they express and feel pain. Biology has taught us that animals are just as sophisticated anatomically as human beings, and that they have evolved through natural selection to be primary candidates within their species. Therefore to assume that animals not only are only servants to mankind, but also mere machines…… [read more]

Animal and Plant Domestication Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Animal and Plant Domestication

One of the most difficult and interesting questions posed to researchers and students alike is the longitudinal development of man. Within this question is one that is often called the basis or beginning for modern man and development overall and this is the domestication of plants and animals. It is said that the point at which humans adopted domesticated practiced of agriculture and husbandry they began to be able to move forward in development, left with more time, as a result of not being tied to hunting and gathering everything they would need to survive. (Smith 15) First, this work will address this question by summarizing the anthropological approach to domestication, briefly comparing it to the genetic research model and evaluating it as a process in the puzzle of developing a record of early man. Second, the main focus of this work will be to compare archeological evidence as it applies to the animal record and the plant record.

There are generally two schools of thought with regard to tracing the origins of domesticated agriculture and husbandry, the archeological approach and the genetic approach, both are used to give the body of research a greater whole picture of the question, yet they are sometimes at odds with one another, as they can and often do result in differing scientific theories and results. The documentation of domestication as it is studied by the genetic school looks at the changes associated with the genetic profile, that are a result of contact with man. (M.A Zeder et al. 5) While in contrast the archeological school utilizes the culmination of archeological processes to identify locations and times associated with domestication events often relying on new technology to build a case for linear and localized changes in ancient DNA, as well as changes in the morphologies of the flora or fauna being studied, often guided by the previously understood genetic materials (8) There is no doubt that the marriage of these two approaches will greatly increase the body of knowledge of domestication of both flora and fauna.

The archaeological record with regard to plant domestication includes a number of variable evidences. These evidences can be sought through examination of a chain of evidence in the record. A behavioral change occurs, in the manner that people are interacting with the plant, a genetic change occurs in the plant and a morphological change occurs where the plant becomes different in the record. Utilizing this chain the archeologist can look at a whole myriad of evidence seeking everything from geological changes wrought by human intervention, such as landscape alterations that indicate agricultural clearing and a general disturbance of the area for the purpose of planting, evidence of human intervention to obtain water for irrigation as well as specific comparative changes that have occurred within the plant itself, through comparison of wild species with suspected domesticates as they appear regionally, side by side in the record. (Smith 16)

Archeologists can look at the morphological changes… [read more]

Environmental Ethics Environmentalism vs. Animal Rights Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Environmental Ethics

Environmentalism vs. Animal Rights

The 1960s was a decade for the revolutionaries; drugs were considered therapeutic, revolting against the authorities and the governments was "in," and there was a need for a change in the principles of the cultures so that these new mannerisms could not only be justified in action but maintained and encouraged with the progress of time. Nestled deep in this decade was also the initiation and the root of the environmental movement. More specifically, it was in 1967 that the UCLA historian Lynn White Jr. had printed a document where he criticized the rigid Judeo-Christian traditions and blamed those traditions for the numerous environmental hazards that the world was facing at the time. He believed that to live in a peaceful and nurtured world, everyone needed to embrace the concealed and sequestered imminence of our traditions and oust the traditions that were prevalent at the time (White, 1967).

Callicott soon after, in 1980, printed his document where he stated the probable and bound-to-spark-debates issue of the ethics behind the environmentalists and their movement. By this time, however, the animal rights advocates already had established views, in comparison, on various issues concerning the environment as well as the hazards of the decisions made keeping the "ethics" in mind views. Some of the pioneers of these views and outlooks were the following writings (some already in print and others on their way out): Peter Singer's "Animal Liberation and Stephen Clark's the Moral Status of Animals," Bernard Rollin's "Animal Rights and Human Morality," "Animals, Men and Morals edited by Stanley Godlovitch, Rosalind Godlovitch, and John Harris had been published in 1972, and Regan and Singer's first edition of the "Animal Rights and Human Obligations" had been published in 1976. By the end of 1980, authors like those mentioned above and Colin McGinn, Cora Diamond, Donald VanDeVeer, Joel Feinberg, Mary Midgley, Thomas Auxter and Timothy Sprigge had already laid down the basics and philosophies behind the animal rights and their violations. Callicott, in his document wanted to introduce a third player, "land ethic," into the game where decisions were made on the environment, and its effect on humans and animals were analyzed thereof; he wanted to dismiss what was believed to be humanitarian and moral when making these decisions and make the whole process a three-way story (Jamieson, 1997).

Callicott, in his essay highlights the similarities between the two apparently opposing groups: animal rights activist and environmental activists. The problem that Callicott pints out is the late reactions of the animal rights activists who at first approves the western environmental projects, then after they have been implemented they complain about the unfair and varying lack of attention paid to the non-human animals that exist in the same environment. However, they argue that the for majority of their academic years they have been taught within the customary setup of the Anglo-American philosophy while those that study to be environmentalists have been taught with an all round curriculum that includes… [read more]

Animals for Research Because it Is Cruel Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … animals for research because it is cruel to the animals and this research can be accomplished in other ways. Using animals for research purposes in the scientific and medical communities has been an accepted practice for years, but it has come under fire as more people understand just how inhumanely these animals are treated. The animals cannot speak up for themselves, so animal rights activists do it for them, often in graphic and vocal ways. Using animals for research is wrong, because it is cruel and it harms animals that have no way to defend themselves. Animals should only be used for research in very specific situations, such as when the animal is not at all harmed by the research.

What is animal research? Simply put, it is the use of caged, laboratory animals for medical and scientific research. The research is eventually used to develop new products, new medical breakthroughs, and a deeper understanding of medical conditions - hopefully to find a cure or a better way of treating the disease or affliction. However, animals are also used in research for chemicals, beauty products, and just about anywhere scientists would not think of using humans as "guinea pigs." Instead, they use the guinea pigs themselves, and this is what animal rights activists actively protest. However, most people only have certain mental images of what goes on in an animal research lab. Dr. Larry Carbone, an animal research veterinarian notes,

Research uses of animals vary widely. Some animals are used to produce cells or tissues for use in test tubes and tissue culture. This may be as simple as humanely euthanizing an animal to collect cells and organs. Or it could require several months of immunizing a rabbit to collect blood samples rich in antibodies. Some projects require complicated surgeries, as when surgeons and immunologists work together to develop organ transplant procedures or to study organ rejection (Carbone 24).

While there are many forms of research, one of the most chilling aspects of this research is that the animals are commonly killed at the end of the project, when they are of no further scientific use to the scientist. Carbone continues, "at the end of such a long procedure the animal may either be awakened from anesthesia or, more likely, euthanized" (Carbone 25). This is perhaps the most disturbing aspect of animal research - the animals serve only one purpose - scientific, and when the scientists are through with them, even healthy animals are euthanized rather than given another chance at life.

Unfortunately, animals are not only used and abused in scientific research. They are also often used in other forms of sociological and psychological research. For example, in the 1950s through the 1970s, according to author David DeGrazia, a researcher in Wisconsin studied primates and how total isolation and maternal deprivation affected them. Some of his experiments included isolating newborn chimpanzees from all external stimuli. He also subjected babies to "monster mothers" who were cloth replicas of… [read more]

Animal Rights Ethical Standards of Behavior Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Animal Rights

Ethical standards of behavior have evolved along with human understanding of the value of life. Indeed, this fact is evident in the historical evolution of the human right to life, liberty, and dignity, which was followed by the belief that life in all its myriad forms should be valued. In fact, it is the latter worldview, which now forms the basis of the controversy over the use of animals in medical research and experiments. Currently, this controversy revolves around whether animals have as much right to life as human beings. Depending on the standpoint taken on this basic issue, arguments range on a continuum between animal welfare and animal rights. Animal welfare theories hold that while animals have interests, those interests can be sacrificed if there are some human benefits that are thought to justify that sacrifice (BBC, 2004). As against this, animal rights activists believe that animals have the same rights as human beings, which include the right to life, freedom from ownership and confinement, and from use as a food source or subject of medical research without consent (AMP, 2004). It is the objective of this paper to research the arguments of both animal welfare and animal rights theories before attempting to draw any conclusion on the subject.

Interestingly, the perspective of animal welfare groups can be said to match with that of the scientific community. For one, both these groups hold the view that immediate abolition of all animal experiments is not possible since medical research is still needed to find cures and treatments for diseases that currently threaten the quality of both human and animal life. In addition, these groups advocate that new consumer products, medicines, and industrial and agricultural chemicals must be tested to identify risks to both human and animal health as well as hazards to the environment (FRAME).

A point worth noting in the preceding argument is that there is a clear respect for the value of animal life. Indeed, this fact is evident in the view that using animals in medical research benefits both humans as well as animals. But perhaps, more important, both these groups believe that the care and use of experimental animals must be in compliance with all relevant animal welfare laws and guidelines, and that, as far as possible alternative procedures such as mathematical models, computer simulation and in vitro biological systems should be used (FRAME). In other words, the 'Three Rs' of Replacement (alternative methods such as testing on cell cultures), Reduction (statistics to reduce the number of animals), and Refinement (improve the experiment to reduce animal suffering) are the principles that must be followed to ensure a humane experimental approach (BBC, 2004).

Thus, it is evident that the scientific community and animal welfare theories respect the value of animal life. However, they nevertheless support the use of animal experiments where necessary because of historical precedence. In effect, they point out the many beneficial medical breakthroughs that have emerged from experimenting with animals such as… [read more]

Animal Rights Introduction Glance at the News Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,298 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Animal Rights

Introduction glance at the news is enough to reveal that few people are genuinely concerned about the welfare and plight of animals in the United Stated and in the world. For example, PETA Org recently launched a campaign against a large company for extreme animal abuse. There are numerous examples that occur daily of personal, corporate as well… [read more]

Human Interactions With Nonhuman Animals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,296 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Others, however, have persuasively argued that humans and animals are equal in perception and experience, thus leading to the conclusion that humans should relate to nonhuman animals on the basis that animals share many human feelings and perceptions. In Back to Earth: Tomorrow's Environmentalism, Anthony Weston argues that humans are essentially connected to, and part of, the larger word. He notes that humans must set aside our beliefs that we are superior to other forms of life, and that the human experience is central to the world. Weston argues that we must reconnect with the earth, and reconnect with greater nature through our senses. In essence, Weston argues strongly against Descartes' dichotomy between humans and the rest of the natural world. Weston's argument for connection with the larger world ultimately presupposes that animals and humans are equal in our experience and perceptions.

Descartes' argument that the uniqueness of human thought as the basis of a dichotomy between humans and animals is ultimately essential to countering this assumption. In Animals are Machines, Descartes notes persuasively that there is no clear evidence that supports thought in animals. Instead, the behaviors of animals can be easily explained away by pure mechanistic actions.

Similarly, Abrams argues that an understanding of human language as abstract, which Descartes thought to be clear evidence of human thought not shared by animals, is essentially a false understanding of human communication. Writes Abrams, "by overlooking the sensuous, evocative dimension of human discourse, and attending solely to the denotative and conventional aspect of verbal communication, we can hold ourselves apart from, and outside of, the rest of animate nature" (p. 79). Abrams argues that this is a false dichotomy, as human language is deeply denotative and linked to affective meaning and sensation, thus meaning that Descartes' dichotomy between human thought and animal thought was essentially false, and that human treatment of animals built on this false dichotomy was essentially erroneous.

However, the argument that human language contains a strong evocative, connotative aspect does not necessarily negate Descartes' argument that animals do not possess the capacity for abstract, reasoned, denotative thought and language. Certainly, as Abrams argues, human language contains both connotative and denotative aspects of verbal communication. Abrams himself notes an abstract of communication between animals and humans that is missing, saying "I gradually came to discern there was no common ground between the unlimited human intellect and the limited sentience of other animals, no medium through which we and they might communicate with and reciprocate one another" (p. 25). While he eventually notes that a common ground appears through connotative expression, the fact that only humans appear to communicate in an abstract, reasoned manner argues strongly in support of Descartes' assertion the animal absence of such thought creates a distinct dichotomy of experience. As such, while animals an humans may share connotative expression and thought, this does little to discredit Descartes' argument that animals' incapability for abstract, reasoned thought and language leads to the conclusion that humans have little… [read more]

Animal Rights- Should Animals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,743 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another animal can obligate you in exactly the same way another person can....So of course we have obligations to animals. (Korsgaard, 1996, 153)

This discussion above was adequately backed by scholarly views on the subject of animal rights. In the lights of these expert views and theories, we can safely conclude that animals deserve to be treated more humanely because they are capable of feeling pain. While we do agree that it would be impossible and even impractical to assume that they can be given the same rights as human beings, animals deserve mercy and kindness because of the fact that they experience pain in the same way as man does.


Animal Rights -- A Symposium,' London: Centaur Press, 1979, p.viii.

Harold D. Guither, Animal Rights: History and Scope of a Radical Social Movement. Southern Illinois University Press. Carbondale, IL. 1998.

Kant, I., 1785, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.. [Available online, Hypertext Library electronic text of the translation by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott (Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Wales/Swansea)]

Regan, T., 1985, "The Case for Animal Rights," in P. Singer (ed.), In Defence of Animals, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Kant, I., LA, Lectures on Anthropology, Akademie-Textausgabe, Berlin.

Kant, I., LE, Lectures on Ethics, translated and edited by P. Heath and J.B. Schneewind, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Korsgaard, C., 1996, The Sources of Normativity, Cambridge: Cambridge

Bentham, J., 1781, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals…… [read more]

Unpredictable as Animals Essay

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They usually wag their tails for people they know and like. They don't have moods.

That brings us to people. People are completely unpredictable because they have moods. But let's deal with the cat- and dog-like behaviors of people first.

When a person wakes up from a nap, that person might stretch. He or she might jump out of bed, run through the house and scream at a neighbor to stop that racket with the buzz saw. Or the person might saunter into the bathroom and fill a tub full of scented bath bubbles, slip into it, and almost fall asleep again. If the person is hungry, he or she might rummage around in the cupboards for a snack...and then take fifteen minutes deciding whether potato chips or a chocolate bar are less likely to cause fat bellies and heart attacks later in life. Or he or she may just say, the heck with it, and call for pizza delivery. When the pizza comes, it might be the wrong one -- no pepperoni, but tons of pineapple. The person might say it's OK and try the pineapple. Or the person might pitch a fit and refuse to pay and call all his friends and say how lousy the pizza delivery is. But he might do either one of these things not depending on his nature, like a cat or a dog, but on his mood at the moment. The same pizza that got thrown at the delivery guy today might have been enjoyed as a unique experience tomorrow.

The mood of the person will determine whether he or she calls a friend to come over and play a game or go to a movie, or whether the person just sits in front of the TV feeling sorry for herself because the neighbor's buzz saw woke her up and put her in this foul mood. But something on the TV might jog her memory that she was supposed to take her grandmother shopping, so she gets dressed, wipes the pizza sauce off her chin and purposely perks up. She isn't really perky; she just doesn't want her granny to see her in a foul mood. Granny doesn't believe in foul moods, and if you show her a 'mood,' she'll either leave or scold. Or maybe ignore it. Or maybe try to help you out of it. Or maybe give you the name of a good psychiatrist.

In short, even Granny is more unpredictable than a cat.… [read more]

Nature in an Episode Term Paper

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Therefore, Lisa Simpson understood that nature must be respected but not imitated. She acted with moral conscience; nature in the form of the shark acted with self-serving and amoral instinct.

Ironically, Lisa consciously attempted to follow nature through environmental activism. Environmentalists often appeal to a back-to-nature philosophy to encourage people to respect the earth's natural resources. However noble environmentalism is, nature still remains a poor role model. Environmentalism must include working against, rather than with nature. On several occasions in his essay, Mill refers to bridge-building as an ultimate example of how humans often and inevitably need to work against nature. Were humans to completely follow nature, we would have no books, no advanced tools, and no jewelry, let alone television, radio, or computers.

Similarly, people who are interested in protecting endangered species or eliminating greenhouse gases must work against nature in some way. Introducing wolves into national forests to control deer populations in a prime example of how humans work against nature in order to help improve nature. This is the same irony expressed in The Simpsons episode. Respecting and honoring the beauty in the natural world does not require that we follow nature.

It can be argued that the six-pack holder threatening that fish was a human creation signaling the need to follow nature. Sure, many human creations are harmful, destructive, and unnecessary.

However, as the shark in The Simpsons shows, nature is not as kind or compassionate as human beings. Because nature is a poor role model, humans do have an obligation to act with higher awareness, often contrary to nature. Lisa Simpson combined human morality with respect for her environment to create a balanced philosophy of nature in accordance with John Stuart Mill's…… [read more]

Animal Conservation Importance to Human Term Paper

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We were not put here to ruin our surrounding for those who follow after us, we were put here to live in harmony with the world around us, and one way we can do that is to make sure that we conserve endangered animals, and do not endanger any more.

Numerous wildlife organizations promote the conservation of animals, and well-known actors and personalities support many of them. For example, the "World Wide Fund for Nature" (WWF) is a worldwide organization that attempts to conserve endangered wildlife of all sorts, including animals, marine life, world forestation to support animal life, and other conservation efforts. One of the celebrities involved in the organization is His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh. Other animal conservation groups include the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), the International Wildlife Coalition (IWC), the Foundation for Endangered Wildlife, and numerous others. Most U.S. states also have local wildlife organizations that care for and encourage conservation of endangered species on a local basis. There are also many groups who are dedicated to saving certain types of endangered species, such as the Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF), the African Elephant Conservation Trust, the Timber Wolf Alliance, the Greyhound Protection League, and many, many more. The Philadelphia Zoo is involved in animal conservation in a wide variety of ways. They actively support conservation in Liberia, West Africa, where there are endangered chimpanzees, forest elephants, and more. They also support conservation of many local endangered species, including the Diamondback Terrapin, Timber Rattlesnakes, and Philadelphia Urban Migratory Birds.

In conclusion, animal conservation is not only vital to save endangered species; it is vital to our own survival on our planet. The animals around us live in harmony with nature, and we could learn a lot from them. The more animals we save and nurture, the more we save our selves, and…… [read more]

Thoreau Was a Student Book Report

Book Report  |  6 pages (1,782 words)
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When Thoreau made it to Provincetown, he spent some time describing the huge quantity of caught fish he saw, all over town, everywhere. Even the cattle were fed fish, it was so abundant. He did not give any sense that there might be some danger of over-fishing. He recounted again a fairly recent history of not only heavily wooded land but of good soil, although the surrounding land was all sand by his writing. He noted dwarfed trees again. It would make an interesting study for an ecologist to explore the history of land use on the Cape and try to determine how it is that the ecology changed so drastically in 150 or so years.

Thoreau's readers are completely drawn into his wonder of the world he sees around him on his long walk down the Cape to Provincetown. In the process he describes such a wide variety of animal and plant life, all living within the same ecology, also described, that he almost predicts Darwin's work. He notes the many different varieties of grass, the different kinds of seaweed, which he correctly identifies as algae. He is fooled by the "blackfish," which turn out to be mammals, but his quest for accurate information about the world around him, and for great detail, never ends. If he had decided to become a scientist instead of a naturalist - that is, if he had decided to pursue the study of zoology or botany rigorously, instead of simply celebrating the differences - we might be talking today about Thoreau's scientific contributions in the way we do…… [read more]

Animal Imagery in King Lear Term Paper

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King Lear responds to Edgar's story and plight with the clearest comparison to men and animals:

Why, thou wert better in thy grave than to answer, with thy uncovered body this extremity of the skies,

Is man no more than this? Consider him well.

Thou / owest the worm no silk, the beast no hide, the sheep no wool, the cat no perfume. Ha! here's three on/'s are sophisticate! Thou art thing itself, unaccommodated man is no more but such a poor bare, forked animal as thou art. Off, off, you lendings / come unbutton here" (3.4.104-111).

One of the more charming analogies used in the play is when Edgar asks King Lear, "Let us deal justly / Sleepest or wakest thou, jolly shepherd? Thy sheep be in the corn / And for one blast of thy minikin mouth / Thy sheep shall take no harm / Pur! The cat is gray" (3.6.41-46). Quite obviously, Edgar is referring to the need for a king, like a shepherd, to be ever vigilant so that his flocks never come to any harm.

From charming to the use of animals to refer to the savage, barbaric behaviour of Regan and Goneril, when Gloucester says, "Because I would not see thy cruel nails / Pluck out his poor old eyes; nor thy fierce sister/In his anointed flesh stick boarish fangs" (3.7.62-64).

Goneril's own husband chastises her, "What have you done? Tigers, not daughters, what have you perform'd? A father, and a gracious aged man / Whose reverence even the head-lugg'd bear would lick" (4.2.44-47).

There are many more references to animals throughout the play that have not been covered here since there are too many of them. Surprisingly, there are fewer and fewer animal motifs in Act 5. It's almost as if the need for it reduces as good overcomes evil and justice is done.

We have seen from the above examples that there are frequent references to animals in King Lear…… [read more]

Animal Cruelty Term Paper

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The cages that Harlow subjected his experiments to would also need to be appropriate for the experiment and the information that is hoped to be derived from it.

3. Give a recent instance where primates were used for research experiments (please cite your study) then explain the ethical consideration with the choice of primates?

A relatively controversial research experiment with primates occurred with the Silver Spring Monkeys between from 1981 until 1991. This experiment, arguable more than Harlow's created horrific living conditions for the primates. This experiment also subjected them to what many believe torture and inhumane activities. The benefits derived from the experiment however, have had implications for human society in multiple facets.

In summary, 17 monkeys had been used as research subjects by the world renowned scientist Edward Taub. Taub, to initiate the experiment cut the afferent ganglia that supplied sensation to the brain from their arms. The afferent ganglia is located in the spinal cord. By removing it and he hoped to train the animals to use the arm that they could not feel. In May 1981, Alex Pacheco of the animal-rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) began working undercover in the lab, and alerted police to what PETA viewed as unacceptable living conditions for the monkeys.

Police raided the lab and found many ethical aspects within it. For one, the living condictions for the animals were deplorable. Feces appeared throughout the cages; so much so that the animals had to dig through it to find food. Because they had no feeling in their arms, the monkeys would chew and rip the skin from the arms and hands, exposing the bone. These wounds were not properly treated according to authorities. The monkeys were subjected to horrific and often painful experiments through the day. Authorities also cited the fact that the monkeys lived in 15 x 15 cages, in a room with no windows for years at a time. Due to these ethical considerations and more Taub was charged with 17 counts of animal cruelty and failing to provide adequate veterinary care. He was convicted on six counts; five were overturned during a second trial, and the final conviction was overturned on appeal in 1983, when the court ruled that…… [read more]

Animal Cell Division Essay

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Animal Cell Division:

Colchicine and Cytochalasin B. are two substances that are commonly used in animal cell division since they are inhibitors of cell division. While colchicine is poison that binds to tubulin and prevents its gathering into microtubules, cytochalasins are compounds that bind to the end of actin filaments and prevent their elongation. Cell division is a process that is scientifically referred to as mitosis that necessitates microscopic protein fibers that act like structural cables to pull separating cells apart. While the structural cables i.e. microscopic protein fibers are known as mitotic spindles, colchicines interferes with their structure.

Generally, colchicines are widely used in human medicine against gout despite of the uncertainties surrounding this process or procedure. In this case, colchicines seem to lessen inflammation linked to urate crystal accumulation. The capability of colchicines to interfere with the seeming structural protein formation has contributed to its use in scarring illnesses and abnormal protein dispositions like hepatic cirrhosis and amyloidosis respectively ("Colchicine," par, 1). On the other hand, cytochalasins are a group of associated fungal metabolites that are related by chemical structure and characterized by a highly substituted hydrogenated insoindole ring with a macrocyclic ring attached to them. Since the macrocyclic ring tend to differ in atoms and may be a lactone or carbocycle, cytochalasins have various interesting, unusual, and characteristic impacts on the animal cell.

These two substances are mainly used as inhibitors of cell division, which is the basis of their effects or impacts on animal cell division. The main effect of colchicines on animal cell division is that they block cells undergoing division in mitosis and ultimately revert to interphase. Therefore, this substance inhibits cytoplasmic and nuclear division, which contributes to its ability and tendency to prevent or lessen DNA synthesis.

Due to the ability of colchicines to interfere with cell division and their potential side effects, they should not be used in animals for breeding. This is primarily because the substances are not only harmful to unborn…… [read more]

Urban Forestry Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,033 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Other considerations include the heavy air pollution that threatens trees in urban locations; soil compaction which "can result from construction, paving root zones, traffic, or subsidence, a severe problem in New Orleans" as well as heavy rainfall not due to storms (Talarchek 1987: 218).

Q3. Urban forests have many benefits from pollution and noise abatement to aesthetics and parkland. What uses would you assign to your forest and why? Explain in detail.

Although the environmental benefits conveyed by trees are certainly important, one cannot minimize the vital role played by parks in lifting the spirit of a city. New Orleans still suffers tremendous hardships as the result of Hurricane Katrina, and a great gap exists between the 'haves' and 'have-nots' of the city. By creating a recreational urban forest that is accessible to all as a place to play and enjoy the natural environment, nature can help a city that is still healing and dealing with catastrophic emotional wounds. Planting fruit and nut trees that can feed the community and trees of great aesthetic value like oak and cypress trees would support that mission.

Planting fruit trees and other trees which could be harvested and used to provide food for the public might counteract opposition that scarce funds were being spent on trees and not working to provide aid to the poor. Forest areas can provide safe places for residents to improve their health through exercise and to act as democratic spaces that bring people together in recreational activities.

Q4. Discuss what care and maintenance would be needed to support this site. Consider both ecological (forest plants and animals) and environmental (man) factors. Refer to Chapter 18, Text.

Fungi, wood rot, and other forms of decay are common in moist, humid environments like the city of New Orleans. Regular harvesting and preventing of forest fires that lead to premature decay are essential (Chapter 18: 368). Although New Orleans tends to be moist and not overly sunny, sharp drops in temperature (such as a quick freeze) can be damaging. Vascular wilt is common in oak trees (Chapter 18: 375). Gypsy Moths and Forest Tent caterpillars are pests that attack oaks (Chapter 18: 378).

Q5. Explain in detail what you perceive to be the greatest difficulty in creating this urban forest and why.

Regular maintenance is needed for an urban forest to thrive. Pruning to prevent trees from being damaged by winds and electrical wires is required; careful screening for pest and animal degradation is demanding; and it must be ensured that the trees are not suffering due to air pollution and other environmental factors. This requires time and financial resources. There may be resistance to expending those resources in a city where poverty and the needs of the human population are still so dire.


Gill, Dan. (2012). Fruit trees provide sweet harvest for your landscape. Times Picayune.



New Orleans' urban forests survived Katrina. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved:


Talarchek, Gary M. (1987). Indicators of urban forest conditions in New… [read more]

Structure of Animals Two Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (616 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They are considered pseudocoelomates, meaning their bodies are not lined completely by mesoderm. None of the phyla on the tree shown in this example are coelomates, or animals that possess a true coelom in which the body cavity was derived entirely from mesoderm.

Both nematodes and annelids exhibit prostome development. Their mouths were developed from the blastpore, which is the opening to the digestive tract. In prostome development, the coelem develops from mesoderm and then splits. This is what is meant by schizocoelous development. Another feature of this type of development is spiral cleavage. As cells divide, they are not stacked in rows (radial cleavage) but instead stacked in alternating rows. By contrast, Echinodermata and Chordata exhibit deuterostome development, where the anus develops from the blastophore and division of cells is characterized by radial cleavage.

The Animal Phylogenetic Tree shows there is only one phyla, Chordata, for all vertebrates. Obviously humans are included in this phyla. In terms of development, Porifera are the simplest, followed by Cnidaria. Chordata and Echinodermata are two branches that split from the main brain. The next split in the Phylogenetic Tree shows four branches: Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, and Nematoda. Mollusca and Nematoda represent the first split, while a secondary split features annelids and arthropods. Therefore, although it seems as though annelids and nematods are very closely related, since they are both types of worms, the Phylogenetic Tree shows there are some significant differences between them.


"Mastering biology." (2012). Retrieved from http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_


Waggoner, B. (2009, January 21). Berkeley. Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.


Waggoner, B. (2006). Introduction to the annelida. University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/annelida

/annelida.html… [read more]

Visual Rhetoric Bandit Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The Shelter Pet Project advertisements therefore emphasize the benefits of pet ownership, without preying upon the viewer's sensitivity to suffering animals.

Bandit's Confession

Only two colors are used for the text: white and yellow. The white text is limited to the main message and yellow appears to be used for contrast and emphasis. The largest font size in the image represents a message from bandit that states "She snores more than I do, but I still love my human." ("Bandit"). This message represents an anacoluthon element because it conveys an impossible event, such as dogs talking. This statement humanizes Bandit and thereby allows the viewer to glimpse the anthropomorphic world of pet owners. This 'confession' by bandit also communicates possibility of loyalty, trust, understanding, tolerance, and by virtue of the bedroom setting, comfort, intimacy, and shared privacy.

Mutually-Beneficial Relationship

Bandit's confession reverses the viewer's cognitive orientation from the pet owner's to that of the pet. This cognitive orientation is further emphasized by the text stating "A person is the best thing to happen to a shelter pet" ("Bandit"). The combination of the two messages suggests the possibility that a mutually beneficial relationship could be created by adopting a pet from a shelter. The Bandit advertisement therefore points out how an adopted pet might enhance the viewer's life and the life of the shelter pet, without resorting to accusations of indifference and shocking images of suffering pets housed in a shelter. The main yellow text communicates the action the viewer needs to take in order to form this mutually beneficial relationship -- adopt.


The collaborative effort between the Humane Society, Maddie's Fund, and the Ad Council has resulted in a series of professionally-designed visual advertisements that seek to emphasize the mutual benefits of shelter pet adoption, from the perspective of both the pet owner and the pet. The traditional benefits of pet companionship, including loyalty, comfort, and warmth, are communicated through the image, alongside messages that the owner has something important to offer the shelter pet. Although the latter is communicated mainly through an anacoluthon pun, the point is valid despite being packaged in an anthropomorphic message. This approach stands in stark contrast to shocking photos of caged animals that tend to prey upon the viewer's distaste for suffering, and therefore deemphasizes the nature of the shelter's existence to the point of irrelevance, as it should.

Works Cited

Barribeau, Tim. "Better Photography Could Save the Lives of Abandoned Animals." PopPhoto.com (2011, Sep. 19). Web. 13 Jan. 2012.

Chapman, Cameron. "Color Theory for Designers, Part 1: The Meaning of Color." Smashing Magazine (2010, Jan. 28). Web. 13 Jan. 2012.

Humane Society. "Bandit." TheShelterPetProject.org n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2012.

Humane Society. "Campaign fact sheet."…… [read more]

Psychology Animal Behaviour the Hypothesis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (614 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Animal Behaviour

The hypothesis of the article "Sound production in red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study" by Millot, Vandewalle & Parmentier (2011), is that piranhas make sounds and these sounds are able to be associated with given behaviors like aggression, intimidation, food competition, and chasing and that these sounds were generated by rapid contractions of sonic muscles that insert on a broad tendon surrounding ventrally the cranial sac of the swimbladder.

Main Conclusion Regarding the Hypothesis

The author's main conclusions were that each kind of sound emitted by piranhas is associated with a specific behavior; the caudal swimbladder does not play a role in sound production; the vibration frequency of the cranial swimbladder corresponds exactly to the sonic muscle contraction rate; the bark sound was produced by sonic muscle contraction at 100?Hz because this frequency brings together the conditions necessary to produce this type of sound; the other sound type might be produced by only one sonic muscle contraction; and the third sound was the result of the jaws snapping.

One strength of the Experimental Design

A strength of the experimental design was that the researchers made direct underwater observations of the feeding and social interactions of red-bellied piranhas. They examined breeding behaviour, described how individual piranhas attacked goldfish and investigated piranha shoaling behaviour in a controlled environment.

One Weakness of the Experimental Design

A weakness of this experimental design was that there was no testing of the vibratory capacities of the cranial and caudal sacs to see if this might have been the source of the sounds being recorded. To date the exact role of both sacs in sound production remains poorly understood and really could use some further research in order to see what role, if any they play in the sound production of piranhas.

Follow up Study to…… [read more]

Animal Advocacy Organizations Thesis

Thesis  |  2 pages (754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The ASPCA is less interested in publicity events like PETA pulls off and is more interested in activities like education; this is not to say that PETA does not educate the public, but the ASPCA is known more for helping citizens identify, for example, signs that pets are not being treated kindly. The ASPCA has a list of signs that pets are being abused; a few of those signs include: a) when a collar is too tight a dog suffers; b) evidence of "multiple healed wounds" or open sores that are untreated; c) a dog that is infested with fleas, ticks, or signs of "inadequate grooming… overgrown nails or a dirty coat"; d) seeing an owner strike the animal or leaving a dog on a leash in the back yard with no shade, no water; and e) signs of weakness, limping, or heavy discharge from the nose or eyes (ASPCA)

Meanwhile PETA's strategy includes vigorous attacks on "factory farms" that cram thousands of chickens so tightly together they can hardly turn around. "More than 7 billion chickens are killed for their flesh each year, and 452 million hens are used for their eggs," PETA explains. "Ninety-nine percent of these animals spend their lives in total confinement… yet not a single federal law protects chickens from abuse… even though two-thirds of Americans say they would support such a law" (PETA).


Both the ASPCA and PETA organizations are doing a good job of bringing the needs of animals to the press and the public. They are both quite different in their approaches -- the PETA group uses dramatic, shocking video to make its point while the ASPCA is more low-key -- but Americans that respect and treasure all animals domestic and wild appreciate the work that is being done by both groups.

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize

Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.aspca.org.

Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty.

CNN.com. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. (2011). All About PETA / How PETA Helps

Animals / Our…… [read more]

Psychological Research on Animals Is it Ethical Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (694 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Psychological Research on Animals

Is it ethical to use animals in psychological research? The answer is yes, but that answer comes with a qualification: if the psychological research is conducted in an ethical way, in accordance with the guidelines from the American Psychological Association, and federal law, and does no harm to the animal, it then should be considered ethical.

Ethical Psychological Research on Animals is Federal Law

The American Psychological Association (APA) has published guidelines for those that have the authority in their university labs or elsewhere to conduct psychological experiments on animals. The APA insists that there be: a) "a clear scientific purpose" to the experiment; b) a reasonable expectation that the experiment will "increase knowledge of the processes underlying the evolution, development, maintenance, alteration, control, or biological significance of behavior"; c) an expectation of an "increase" of the "understanding of the species under study" and d) a report on the result that "benefit the health or welfare of humans or other animals" (Section VI.A., APA)

The APA article mentions the guidelines covered by federal law -- the Animal Welfare Act, enforced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture -- that require all labs and universities conducting psychological research to have an "Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee" (IACUC) review every proposal to use animals in research. Without the pre-approval of the IACUC, no animals may be obtained and no studies conducted, the APA explains.

How often are animals used in psychological research? The APA claims that about 7 or 8% of psychological research involve the use of animals; and about 90% of the animals used have been rodents and birds (mostly rats and mice and pigeons). Only 5% of animals used in psychological research are "monkeys and other primates" and the use of dogs and cats is "rare," the APA site says.

Ethical Psychological Research Project: At Carleton College, animals are used in psychological research and according to the materials presented, the scientists conducting the psychological experiments are careful to follow federal law and APA guidelines. One particular experiment -- funded in part by a…… [read more]

Animism and Perspectivism Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Native American myths, the question of whether or not animals possess a spark of humanity or can bridge the gap between animals and humans relies upon Native American or Western perspectives. Certainly, we can not ignore ancient myths from Sumeria, Babylonia or ancient Egypt, especially where their legends, heroes and gods included so many zoomorphic forms. Indeed, the… [read more]

Use of Animal Testing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Animal testing is a much discussed matter at the moment and its controversy is mainly owed to the fact that a certain part of the general public supports the concept, while another is against tit Even though itmight be regarded by some as being cruel animal testing is beneficial for humanity as a whole, as it provides scientists with solid… [read more]

Environmental Economics and Nature Conservation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,913 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Following this line of thoughts, most of the previous environmental programs focused on a specific environmental problem, such as the threats upon a certain species. FEMAT however strived to offer an integrant approach of all threats characterizing the forestry sector and to offer a solution that leads not only to sustainable revenues from touristy activities for instance, but ensures universal… [read more]

Proof to the Fact That People Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,292 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … proof to the fact that people have lost part of their basic understanding in nature. Because of the evolution experienced by society, humans have gotten accustomed to believing that everything in nature has its equivalent in the world of humans. Thus, animals, plants, and everything that is not human in general has begun to be perceived as having… [read more]

Animal Testing Animal Models Are Faulty Indicators Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,261 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Animal Testing

Animal models are faulty indicators and barriers in the development of drugs. Using animal models for human therapeutic experiments is inappropriate, unethical and unreliable. With new, faster and more accurate testing methods available it is high time that this cruel practice of Vivisection is totally banned from pharmaceutical research.

Animal testing is a cruel, unethical practice that is conducted on a large scale in almost all countries of the world. Taylor K. et.al (2008) reported that each year more than 115 million animals are used as test subjects worldwide. Statistics further indicate that in the U.S. alone, every year more than 25 million animals including mice, dogs, chimpanzees, cats, etc. are subjected to painful and invariably fatal tests. [Stephanie Ernst, 2008] Analyses of animal studies over the last several years have shown that animal testing is largely irrelevant for human subjects. For instance, more than 11600 chemical substances have been proven to have anti-cancer properties in mice while not even one of them has similar effect in humans. Also, among the 32 drugs that are used in cancer treatment among humans none prove to be effective in mice. [DLRM] This gives us a fair indication of the different physiologies and the inappropriateness of animal testing. Still most countries routinely continue with animal testing purely to fulfill regulatory requirements. A brief overview and a discussion of the relevant facts would help better understand this important issue.

Animal Testing: A Review

A recent comprehensive review of animal and corresponding human tests has clearly revealed vast differences in responses between animals and humans to particular drugs. This review published by the journal of 'Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation' (AATEX) that analyzed 20 animal and human studies reported only 2 cases where animal studies proved to be consistent with the human studies. [Andrew Knight, 2007] Another recent British study compared the treatment effects between animal models and human clinical trials for six different medical conditions. Out of these, only 2 animal studies had concordant results with Human clinical trials. Furthermore 2 of the studies had totally contradictory effects than indicated in the animal studies. [Pablo Perel et.al (, 2007)] Hence the validity of using animal models as an indicator for human outcomes stands largely mistaken.

One standing example of the dangers of relying on animal models for drug testing is the case of the drug Vioxx manufactured by Merck Laboratories. More than 80 million people worldwide used this drug in the treatment of arthritis. However, the drug which was found to have "heart protective effect' among mice proved to be carrying a high risk for causing heart attacks among humans. As Dr. John J. Pippin, M.D and chief advisor to the FDA stated, "the Vioxx animal testing debacle is not unique. Over the years, millions of patients have been exposed to harmful drugs, such as Rezulin and Baycol, that seemed safe in tests on mice, dogs, rats, monkeys, horses, and other animals." [ PCRM]

Animal Testing: Barrier to Drug Development

There… [read more]

Goals and Effects of Animal Experiments and Testing Research Proposal

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¶ … Animal Experiments and Testing

PCRM Position Paper on Animal Research (2004) Animal Experimentation Issues. Adopted by the PCRM Board of Directors 4 June 2004. Online available at http://www.pcrm.org/resch/anexp/position.html

The PCRM Position Paper on Animal Research (2004) states that the primary purpose of medical research is to promote human health, and the most direct research methods focus on the… [read more]

Explaining Opposing Positions Research Proposal

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Urban Sprawl

Nature vs. Suburbia

Urban sprawl and its impact on the environment has become one of the hottest topics in the media. Urban sprawl eats up farmland and wildlife habitat. On one side are the homeowners, who claim that humans are more important than animals. Others fear for the consequences of sprawl, both on wildlife and on humans, as animals are pushed to the limits of their existence. The following will explore both sides of the controversy in order to gain a better understanding of the issues involved.

On the Side of the Wild

Wildlife supporters fear that encroachment on wildlife can have some devastating effects. Humans do not simply invade full force; they creep in little by little. From 1960 to 1990, the amount of developed land in the U.S. more than doubles, while the population grew by less than 50% (Terris). The problem is not necessarily urban expansion near metropolitan areas, but small settlements that crop up in the middle of nowhere, interconnected by highways and roads. This breaks up the habitat so that animals have to change migratory patterns, nesting grounds, and hunting patterns. Open lands across the nation are at this type of risk.

One example of a species that is already at risk due to this type of growth is the Florida panther. With only 30-50 adults remaining, it is now one of the most endangered species on earth (Terris). This panther and its other relatives were once the most widespread animals in North and South America. Habitat destruction and deforestation are the key elements that contribute to the decline of this majestic animal (Terris). The Saguaro cactus of the Arizona desert may soon fall victim to the urbanization of Arizona, taking with it the other species that depend on it for their existence (Terris). The coastal sage ecosystem is California is one of the hardest hit areas, taking with it the gnatcatcher and other species that live there (Terris).

Urbanization of natural areas takes another toll as well. The numbers of species that can exist in the urban environment are much fewer than can exist in the natural habitat. This gives those that can adapt an unfair advantage and they increase in numbers, while species diversity continues to decline (Terris). This is known as generalization. The overall biomass may remain the same due to increases in the total number of animals, but it becomes even more fragile, as fewer species place this environment in danger of total devastation from a single cause, such as disease.

Fragmentation causes another affect on the animals that are affected. For instance, a road through an amphibian habitat physically divides a population. This division means fewer choices for mates and can lead to an inbred population and the promulgation of genetic borne disease among the species (Terris). Fragmentation makes a population vulnerable to stresses, such as drought and fatal genetic flaws (Terris). In addition, a species may be cut off from its breeding grounds, or from its hunting… [read more]

Animal Experimentations Thesis

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Animal Rights - Animal Experimentation


Since the dawn of medical science animals have been used for the purposes of testing hypotheses before risking human health and human lives on untried new technologies. It makes perfect logical sense to do so, but the process is susceptible to moral criticism for subjecting captive animals to disease, discomfort, and often death, exclusively for our benefit. Certain types of scientific uses of animal subjects are justified, even at the animal's expense. Still, the most equitable balance of all the interests and ethical issues involved requires a multidimensional perspective instead of characterizing all animal experimentation right or wrong absolutely. Discussion of the Issues:

Human beings have hunted and raised domesticated animals for food and raw materials since before recorded history. In that respect, we are no different from other animals; in fact, most of the species hunted by people are themselves, hunters of other animals. From that point-of-view, it is difficult to imagine the moral basis of objection to using animals for scientific experimentation selected from the same species that we routinely slaughter and eat.

On the other hand, a moral objection against the use (or even consumption) of animals may be valid if it defines the issue in terms of the amount of suffering at stake for the animal. In that regard, certain types of uses might justify inflicting pain on animal subjects. Other types of uses may justify slaughtering animals, but only in conjunction with a good-faith effort to minimize pain and suffering. It may very well be that the corresponding benefit of dramatically shortening the life of a pig to test heart valves instead of testing them on human patients justifies the use of the pig for that purpose.

Likewise, one could argue that human beings are not morally obligated to except themselves from the biological food chain; we evolved to hunt along with millions of other animal species designed to eat other animal species. However, there is a fundamental difference between using pigs to advance medical science and for the purposes of manufacturing non-essential products (like cosmetics) at maximum profit.

The same fundamental principle morally differentiates slaughtering animals humanely for consumption and deliberately slicing the testicles from a hog before slaughter to (supposedly) "tenderize" the meat by virtue of a last-second surge of testosterone in the throes of agony (Tripp 2003).

In general, the greater the value potentially associated with animal use the greater the moral justification of exploiting the subject. Conversely, lesser values associated with animal may not. The basis of our moral responsibility to animals is not that human life and interests are more…… [read more]

Religion and Animal Rights Term Paper

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Rogerian Argument Animal Testing: Collaboration and Compromise

**please note, writer does not have a copy of the full text used so cited per the information available by text. Bibliography may require modification based on client's knowledge and material used. Thank you!

The purpose of this paper is to help people understand how important it is to recognize animal rights, and what can be done to minimize the impact of testing on animals so their safety is always a top priority among researchers. Many people with religious ideals often use animals in ways animal rights activists may consider cruel. This paper will help those with different opinions on this subject understand the other's side to reduce conflict.


Many opponents of animal testing proclaim testing is wrong morally and ethically, especially pertaining to specific Christian or other religious idealisms. Regan (1938) argues the use of animals for science, "sport," and hunting without cause or for use by researchers to test vanity products is morally and ethically wrong. From a moral perspective, when one uses animals for such purposes they disregard the rights of animals as eloquently presented by Regan. These practices

Opponents argue that moral reasoning is not necessarily enough to justify one's opinion. In essence, this means one cannot suggest the use of animals for testing and other ventures is wrong based strictly on moral principle. Critics supporting the use of animals suggest the minority prefers animals not be used for experiments or to test vanity products. Those against the use of animal rights also argue the use of animals can only be justified if there is truth evident in the presenter's arguments about why animals should not be used.

It is important however, to recognize that truth does exist in the argument against the use of animals. For example, critics suggest the use of animals is ok because animals do not have feeling. However, there is ample evidence, especially among primate species like gorillas and monkeys, that animals do demonstrate feeling, emotion and behaviors similar to those of humans. Just because one doesn't understand the language of animals doesn't mean the animals' rights are not being violated. Taking a baby orangutan from his or her mother to conduct experiments that may result in rashes, discomfort or death may result in aggressive behavior on the part of the mother orangutan, suggesting a moral and ethical violation of trust has occurred, something that has been proven true, at least for certain species.

Early experiments on mice suggest even animals with small brains like mice can learn and become conditioned to react to certain stimuli. Think of Pavlov's extensive experiments on dogs, and how he could manipulate dogs to salivate at the ring of a bell. All of this suggests there is truth in the argument that animal testing is wrong because it violates the rights of a species that is intelligent, even if that intelligence is different than the intelligence mankind has among its own species.

When considering the subject… [read more]

License or Permit to Own a Pet to Reduce Animal Cruelty Term Paper

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Animal Rights - Pet Licenses & Pet Ownership

Owning a pet is a responsibility that requires a commitment to ensure the health, safety, and welfare of the animal throughout its lifetime. All too often, people buy pets on a whim, after seeing a cute dog in a pet store window, for example, or they receive one as an unexpected gift. Either way, many of them are unprepared to honor the moral obligation to provide a safe, comfortable environment for their animals. As a result, millions of unwanted dogs end up in shelters, where most of them are euthanized when they are not adopted within a short time, or immediately if they become ill, to prevent their illnesses from spreading throughout the shelter.

Even when pets are kept for the long-term, many of their owners are either ignorant of their needs, insensitive to their comfort, and often, both. Dogs are left outside, chained to tree without adequate shelter or food, and cats are allowed to roam neighborhoods freely, where, at best, they reproduce uncontrollably; at worst, they become injured or killed by other animals or automobiles.

Only relatively recently have we begun to realize that many animals share complex feelings and emotions that are similar to human emotions, which is especially true of the more highly-developed species like elephants and large-brained marine mammals like whales and dolphin (Moussaieff-Masson, 1995). The similarity between animal thought and human thought, and their parallel abilities to experience emotions like family attachment and fear gives rise to a moral responsibility to safeguard the animals we choose as pets from cruelty, suffering, and neglect. Even so-called lower forms of animal life deserve our compassion, because whether or not they are capable of complex thoughts and emotions, they are undoubtedly susceptible to physical discomfort and pain.

One possible solution to the problem might be requiring licenses for all pet ownership, to ensure that everyone who takes in a pet is capable of and prepared to provide for their needs in a reasonable way. If licenses were required for pet ownership, individuals could be pre-screened for their suitability as pet owners and their ability to provide the minimum acceptable level of care required of their pets. More importantly, their criminal records could also be checked for domestic violence, because, in general, people with histories of violence toward other people are much more likely to abuse animals as well. The relationship between insensitivity toward animals and violence toward other humans is so direct, that criminal profilers have long-considered any history of animal abuse in childhood and adolescence to be one of the most reliable predictors of future violence toward other human beings (Schmalleger, 1997).

In conjunction with licensing for prospective pet ownership, the state could also require written tests the same way they are used to qualify new drivers and to certify skilled workers like nail technicians and hair dressers. The licensing…… [read more]

Shark Attacks Term Paper

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Zoology - Shark Attacks

Under the apparent stillness of even the calmest of seas, an age-old drama plays out countless times as a creature designed for locating, stalking, chasing, and then tearing into living flesh closes in on its doomed prey. Its efficient design, mouth bristling with teeth meant to sink into flesh and never let go, and its swimming speed, agility, and intelligence all but ensure hunting success. After a brief chase, hunter catches up to hunted, its jaws clamp down tightly, and it is all over: the same species of bottle nosed dolphin that humans adore captures another helpless herring in its mouth.

Dolphin, shark, and most other aquatic creatures either hunt other species for food, or they are hunted themselves. As often as not, animal species are both hunters and hunted. Human beings tend to view sharks very differently from other aquatic species, based more on the fact that we sometimes end up on their menu than on the distinction between animals that are predatory hunters and those that are not. To a herring, the common dolphin is a dreaded predatory killer; to us, it is a playfully intelligent mammal that deserves or protection. Would we feel the same way about dolphin if they were no different in personality or character but the size of a large whale who sometimes mistook human beings for tuna? Chances are we would fear dolphin attack as much as we fear shark attack and our characterization of dolphin would incorporate vocabulary like ruthless," "deadly," and "cold-blooded" (despite its mammalian nature).

Discussion and Analysis:

Like dolphin, tuna, swordfish, and many other large predatory aquatic species with which we are familiar, sharks must locate and consume other organisms to survive.

To do so, they have all evolved physiologically and behaviorally to adapt to their environment and to guarantee successful hunts often enough to survive. Unlike the other aquatic species, we fear attack from sharks disproportionately to the actual risk, simply by virtue of the fact that some of them are large enough to mistake us for their prey under the right circumstances. Our characterization of sharks as ruthless killers intent on consuming us reflects our emotional response to the concept of being eaten alive than reality (Ellis, 1989).

Contrary to assumption, sharks - even those large enough to consume us - do not actually hunt human beings. Under the right circumstances, human beings simply find themselves within the vicinity of sharks looking to feed and our awkward swimming motion just happens to mimic some of the signals of distress or injury in the shark's natural prey (Stevens, 1999). In many cases, surfers fall victim to shark attack precisely because they violate some of the basic rules of shark safety: they swim at dawn and dusk, when sharks are most likely to feed, and they dangle their limbs from the sides of a flat board at the surface, despite the fact that sharks almost always attack from the and target prey that is approximately… [read more]

Animal Rights Ethics and Morality Term Paper

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Animal Rights

Ethics and morality have consistently been topics of concern in our society. Concerns about ethics and morality also extend to matters associated with the treatment of animals. The purpose of this discussion is to summarize and critique several different theories associated with the ethical treatment of animals. The discussion will focus on the treatment of animals as it… [read more]

Sharp Force Trauma Macroscopic Evidence on Bone Morphology Term Paper

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Sharp Force Trauma Macroscopic Evidence on Bone Morphology

Reviewing the literature is of utmost importance. Without a comprehensive review of literature on the subject, readers of a study are left with a lack of understanding or with a misconception that the results of the study or the subject being studied exists in a kind of bubble and has no relevance… [read more]

Ethical Treatment of Animals Term Paper

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Ethical Treatment of Animals

Most animals living with their owners will be able to spend their lives happily because they will always get love form their owners. Meanwhile, there are many other animals living in terrifying circumstance inside a laboratory. They are living in a small cage and they can only expect to be used as a test subject for… [read more]

Personal Experience With Animal Consciousness Term Paper

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¶ … Personal Experience With Animal Consciousness

All my life I have had pets -- both dogs and cats. Through my interactions with them I have learned a lot about them and a lot about myself. One of the most important things that I have learned is that I do believe that animals think, but not quite in the same way that humans think. When human beings think, there are many thought processes that they must go through and there are many issues that they often consider, sometimes subconsciously. However, animals do not think of things in the same way. They seem to take a more direct route and think about immediate concerns such as food, as opposed to the long-term concerns that humans might have (Cromie, 2002).

Because of this, there are subtleties and differences in how animals and humans both look at the world and react to it, and these must be examined in order to understand how animals think. The most serious of these issues is what makes up consciousness and how humans define it. Many human researchers feel that animals must have consciousness that is "like their own" in order for the animals to be conscious beings that can actually think (Cromie, 2002). However, other researchers argue that animals can have their own type of consciousness that is different from what humans have and still be able to 'think' for themselves. Many of these opinions that have been advanced over the years, however, have been based on the work that individuals have done with chimps and gorillas (Cromie, 2002). It has been widely assumed that cats and dogs cannot 'think.'

While this may be accurate from a completely scientific point-of-view, that does not change the way that pet owners often look at their animals and does not change the fact that these owners truly often believe that their animals are 'smart' and that they can 'think' for themselves, as well as listen to what is told to them and understand it. There was a dog and his owner on television not that long ago, and the owner would give commands and the dog would obey. This does not sound like a big deal, but it is important to understand the kinds of commands that were given. This dog understood "back up," "take one step....take another step," "turn around....now turn the other way," and other seemingly complicated commands that most individuals would say a dog could not learn because a dog could not 'think' enough to understand what was being said.

Whether this actually means that the dog was thinking is a matter for scientific debate, but the owner likely thinks that the dog must have some measure of intelligence in order to be 'conscious' enough to understand what the commands meant. This particular set of commands likely went on for a full minute or longer, and the dog never had a misstep or a problem, regardless of what the command was. Naturally, a great deal of… [read more]

Life on Earth Term Paper

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This is one of the best manifestations of the information age. Human beings are beginning to think about deeper issues than their own material prosperity. Our concern with the future and the preservation of all forms of life for future generations has come to the forefront of society today. Animal welfare groups have thus grown strong enough to be a significant voice in legislation.

The Animal Welfare Act was passed in 1966. Through this Act legal standards were set for all laboratory animals except mice and rats. These standards extended to both treatment and care. Further standards are that research facilities were to register with the government while being subjected to random inspections (Current Events special report). Furthermore these facilities were required to administer pain medication to animals likely to suffer pain as a result of experiments, except those in which human pain was researched, such as the research of pain relief to cancer patients. Part of this legislation is the requirement of a monitoring committee consisting of at least a veterinarian and one person outside of the research facility. According to the Current Events report, there have been three amendments to the Act until 1991. With the advance of new research methods, the use of animals in medical research has declined significantly (Current Events special report).

While the declines in medical and cosmetic animal research are encouraging, I believe that at its current state, humanity should be sufficiently enlightened to eradicate this practice altogether. After millions of years of evolution, it should be clear that no form of life should be deprived of its right of survival for the purpose of another species without at least the choice or the possibility of escape. Using caged animals in laboratory experimentation is cruel and disrespectful of life. It is on the same level as destroying millions of acres of rain forest every year.

In conclusion, humanity should learn that it is only by respecting and nurturing the earth and all its creatures that human beings will be respected and nurtured in return. Thus, instead of concentrating on improving human life at the expense of everything else, would it not be better to nurture all life? I believe that if human beings were more respectful of their environment and the life around them, it would in the long-term be far more beneficial for both the present and future of humanity. In preserving and respecting all life, therefore, human beings can ensure a bountiful future for themselves and their offspring. It is encouraging that the process is already underway by means of legislation and animal rights groups. The earth will only be properly respected if all animals are treated in a humane and respectful way.


Chang, Maria L. Animal research: right or wrong? Science World, Scholastic, Inc. March 23, 1998.

Current Events. Battle over animal rights: scientists and animal-rights activists clash over the use of animals for medical research. Special Report, Weekly Reader Corp. Dec 9, 1996

Current Events. Monkey business: animal… [read more]

Animal Testing for Products Term Paper

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Animal Testing for Products

Animal Testing - the Cons

The use of animal testing increased in the United States in the late 19th century and as a reaction to it, groups that spoke for the rights of animals were formed. If one asks the people conducting experiments on animals as to why they do such a thing, their initial response… [read more]

Vertebrates Term Paper

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About 20 million years later, according to Patton, Paton, Smithson, Clack, rose another tetrapod called Casineria kiddi. The earliest tetrapods lacked hands that could flex, as humans curl their fingers and toes because they have a notch in the flexor surface on the phalanges. Due to this, walking on a rocky land, that necessitates the ability to curl the paws… [read more]

Young Goodman Imagines Himself Term Paper

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Goodman's perception of evil in his fellow men is also excessive, for he does not doubt the devil in the slightest when that solemn fellow pronounces "Evil is the nature of mankind... The communion of your race." Goodman believes everything which he sees and hears of his fellow men, and is even ready to believe that his beautiful and loyal Faith (whom he heard calling out for help!) is evil, for afterwards "he shrank from the bosom of Faith..." Not only is he eager to believe ill of all people, he also seems to have a very active imagination as to what sorts of evil exists in the hearts of men. Assuming, as one might well do, that his dream is indeed a product of his own foul imaginings, one sees that Goodman places a wealth of sexual and violent crimes on the heads of his fellows. Most of these are sexually related, from elders who "whispered wanton words to the young maids," to wives who sleep with their husbands as they poison them to "fair damsels" burying illegitimate babies in their gardens to hide illicit relationships. It can be no mistake that the devil uses most sexual words when describing the quest to find sin, suggesting that his follows will "penetrate, in every bosom... The fountain..."

So it is most clear that Young Goodman Brown has an excessive view of the sin of his compatriots, imagining in every bosom and every set of loins the most terrible sexual lust and sadism. Even in the innocent the devil says he will find sins, if he will look beyond their actions into their hearts. Indeed, in a bizarre inversion of Christ's injunction ordering man to be more aware of the beam in his own eye than the splinter in another's eye, the devil orders Goodman Brown and Faith to become "more conscious of the secret guilt of others, both in deed and thought, than they could now be of their own." Though Goodman appears to reject this command, one quickly sees that in fact he obeys it perfectly, for upon returning he never seems to consider his own pride, wrath, or joylessness, but instead condemns all others he sees. He is excessive in his view of the sin of others as he cannot even stand their worship for thought of their secret, imagined sins: "When the congregation were singing a holy psalm, he could not listen because an anthem of sin rushed loudly upon his ear and drowned all the blessed strain. When the minister spoke from the pulpit... then did Goodman Brown turn pale, dreading lest the roof should thunder down upon the gray blasphemer and his hearers." Certainly, it might be true that every worshipper had upon their conscious some sin -- because this is part of human nature, to fail and to try again -- yet in focusing excessively on that sin rather than on their shared faith in God, Goodman Brown lost entirely his ability to have… [read more]

Animal Rights Animals Have the Ability Term Paper

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Animal Rights

Animals have the ability to feel pain and suffering, just as humans do, and they have similar emotional reactions to such suffering. Because this is true, moral people through-out the ages have understood that just as we have a responsibility towards other humans to treat them with compassion and respect (and at the very least to avoid inflicting unnecessary pain), we have the same sort of responsibility to animals. Just as each person has the responsibility to determine how they will live their lives so as to be most moral towards their fellow humans, each person must also determine how they can live so that they are moral towards their fellow animals. It can be harder to know how to live so as to be moral towards animals, because the cruelty towards them is so systemic. The main areas in which one must make decisions about personal morality are that regarding the eating of animals and using of their bodies for pleasure and profit, the use of animals for experimentation, and the appropriate way to live with animals who are our companions. In each of these areas, it is necessary to take into consideration the facts of the case in each area and balance the pain and suffering they entail with one's own self-interest.

When it comes to eating animals, some people might point out that animals eat each other, so one could argue that it is natural for different species to prey on one another and one can treat an animal morally even if one kills then for food, so long as one isn't cruel. This may be valid, especially for hunters (even though most prey animals don't kill other animals, and therefore are the "innocent" parties…… [read more]

Animal Testing: Cosmetics and Toiletries Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


" However, they are still required by trading standards and consumer protection laws to prove their products are not toxic and dangerous to public health, and that the ingredients are not dangerous. In many countries, it is possible to meet these requirements without any further tests on animals. However, the United States often insists on animal testing.

Some cosmetic manufacturers have come up with alternatives to animal testing, including the follwing

Reliance on existing natural or synthetic ingredients, compounds and substances. These have already been extensively tested on animals in the past, and thus do not need to be tested again.

Avoiding novel ingredients or combinations of ingredients that have not fully been tested and may not be safe.

Testing on human volunteers.

Alternatives to Animal Testing

Animal rights supporters, animal welfare supporters, scientists, doctors and even government officials usually say that they agree that animal testing should result in little suffering to animals as possible, and animal tests should only be performed where absolutely necessary (Wikipedia, 2005).

According to Wikipedia (2005): "The "three Rs" of Reduce (the number of animals used), Refine (animal procedures) and Replace (animal tests with non-animal tests) are used as the basis for animal testing codes of practise. In some countries, the three Rs are mandated by law. In other countries, many animal testing facilities voluntarily ascribe to this code to publicly demonstrate their ethical position."

Numerous scientific studies and institutes are researching both alternatives to animal tests, and improvements to existing tests to reduce the suffering of animals or to reduce the number of animals killed (Wikipedia, 2005). These groups cliam that their efforts are not only for the sake of ethics, but also because the research may improve the accuracy of tests or make them more time- and cost-efficient.


Alternative research methods exist, and have been proven to be more accurate, less expensive and less time-consuming than cruel animal experimentation (WAVA, 2005)

. However, those who benefit financially from experimenting on animals or supplying vivisectors with cages, restraining devices, food for caged animals, and tiny guillotines to destroy animals insist that most medical advances has been made through the use of animal testing. While most drugs and procedures must now be tested on animals before hitting the market, this does not mean that animal experiments are invaluable or irreplaceable. Alternative methods are a viable option.

Dr. Charles Mayo, the founder of the Mayo Clinics in the U.S. summarizes (WAVA, 2005)

: "I abhor vivisection. It should at least be curbed. Better, it should be abolished. I know of no achievement through vivisection, no scientific discovery that could not have been obtained without such barbarism and cruelty. The whole thing is evil."


Croce M., (1991) Pietro, Vivisection or Science - a choice to make BETA Tipografica s. r. l.:Rome.

PETA. (2005). Media Centre-Fact Sheet. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsae1.html.

Ruesch, Hans (1989) 1000 Doctors (and many more) Against Vivisection Civis: London .

Wikipedia. (2005). Animal Testing. Retrieved from the Internet at:… [read more]

Animal Research and Experimentation Term Paper

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Often, they do more to protect the experimenters. "For example, the Public Health Service ... in1992, in response to concerns about laboratory break-ins by animal rights advocates," passed a law making it a federal offense to damage or disrupt animal research. (Rowan, 2005)

One of the ethical defenses of experimentation is that animals are so different from humans in their mental capacities. But in the case of psychological experimentation in particular, if animals are so different that experimentation is justified, then how valuable is psychological research upon them? Scientist Phillip Croce contends "no experimentation carried out on one species can be extrapolated to any other, including man. To suppose that such extrapolation could be legitimate is the main reason for the failure and sometimes for the catastrophes which are inflicted upon us by modern medicine, especially in the area of drugs." (Croce, 1991) Even if one takes issues with the biological side of Croce's argument, the alleged uniqueness of the human mind seems to argue against psychological experimentation on humans.

Works Cited

Croce, Phillip. (1991) Vivisection or Science: a choice to make. Text available 1 Feb 2005 at online http://www.pnc.com.au/~cafmr/online/research/croce1.html

Rowan, Andrew N. (2005) "Animal experimentation." World Book Online Reference Center. Retrieved 1 Feb 2005 at .… [read more]

Animal Rights and Experimentation Term Paper

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They were kept in darkness. A lot of the monkeys were sick and suffering from hair loss and skin disease.

It is appalling to know that the NIV covered its back by claiming that at the time of the visit the animal shelter was being rebuilt and that they were suffering from a power cut.

According to the January 2003 edition of the British Medical Journal, maneka Gandhi was sacked from her position of chairwoman of the Indian government's animal experimentation control committee. The article also stated that she was sacked as a result of pressure from the Indian pharmaceutical industry. The article also stated that around 400 out of 467 laboratories did not have any proper facilities for handling laboratory animals.

Maneka Gandhi quoted "the conditions in Indian laboratory animal houses and the practices used in experiments with these animals are among the worst in the world'. She also said 'while millions of animals have been killed in the name of research in India, almost 90 per cent of this research has been useless and has been unnecessary duplication of research already done abroad'.

Cruelty to animals

Animal Rights have been seriously violated in many facilities. The list of findings confirm the wide spread suffering of animals. It was found out that the animals were used without conducting any health or genetic background check. This includes stray dogs and cats. The animals were subjected to extremely filthy and unhygienic conditions. A lot of the animals were subjected to experiments in such conditions. The injured and ailing animals were left to fend for themselves. There was no facility for animal post-operative care. The animals were found to be mutilated, have open wounds or been blinded.

Furthermore it was found out that there was no veterinary official in attendance at the facility since a number of years. A vet is required to relieve the animal of suffering. Most of the vermin (rats and mice) were diseased. They were massively infested with tapeworms and mites. Most of the rats had been blinded during their procedure. The horses were in an even more painful situation as their hooves were infested with bleeding maggots. The officials had used hot irons to brand the horses. There was a lack of proper ventilation or any water supply. There was a lack of proper food and water. Most of the animals were living in small and overcrowded cages. These cages restricted their activity and were extremely dirty and rusty.

The animals were in a state of posttraumatic shock as they were found to be mutilating themselves. The sheep were subjected to extremely brutal procedures as their skulls were drilled to have rabies viruses to check for vaccines. Live frogs were placed into the freezer in order to freeze them.

According to the Billings Gazette 'thirteen monkeys and dozens of hamsters died over the weekend at Rocky Mountain Laboratories in Hamilton after they were housed in 100-degree heat for several hours'. The report stated that all these animals… [read more]

Animal Cruelty Persuasive Argument Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Of 39 women who had suffered domestic abuse by their partners 61% stated that their partners had "threatened, injured of killed"

their pets. Of those interviewed, 58% of sexual homicide perpetrators who suffered from being abused sexually as children were able to recall cruelty to animals as children.

Symptoms and Signs of Animal Abuse:

If an animal does not have access to food and to water as well as shelter, and if the animal does not have a clear area or has untreated injuries then abuse should be reported. Other signs of abuse are over-aggressive behavior or extremely timid behavior on the part of the animal. Abandonment of an animal is also considered abuse.

Actions when Witnessing the Abuse of an Animal:

Local authorities are able to receive animal cruelty reports. If there is not one listed in your neighborhood or town then contacting an organization such as PETA which is People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals is a good place to start.


There is absolutely no reason or justification for society tolerating abuse to animals. Animals are unable to defend themselves in most instances from the onslaught of abuse from a human being. As the statistics and reports in this work demonstrate the individual who commits abuse to an animal is very likely and in most cases will choose a human being for their victim at some point in time. It may seen overly zealous to incarcerate the individual who abuses animals but when studies clearly show that those individuals are much more likely to commit aggressive offenses against humans then it makes perfect sense to toughen the response to criminals who perpetrate abuse against helpless and defenseless animals.


"Linking Animal Cruelty to Human Violence" [Online] located at: http://www.cfhs.ca/Programs/HumaneEducation/ViolenceLink/cc backgrounder4.htm

"Report Animal Cruelty" (nd) PAWS People Helping Animals [Online] located at: http://www.pas.org/help/report / 'Pain and Suffering, All in a Day's Work" (nd) "Other "Pet Food" Companies: Menu Foods [Onine] at: http://www.iamscruelty.asp 'Animal Cruelty Statutes" (nd) Animal Rights Law [Online] at: http://www.animal-law.org/statutes/

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

"Other 'Pet Food' Companies: Menu Foods" [Online] located at: http://www.iamscruelty.com/o.asp

"Linking Animal Cruelty to Human Violence" [Online] located at: http://www.cfhs.ca/Programs/HumaneEducation/ViolenceLink/cc backgrounder4.htm




Ibid.… [read more]

Animal Cruelty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,087 words)
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Sarah couldn't stop crying and nothing her parents said could make her feel better. She had an uneasy feeling her friends were in deep trouble. That day she couldn't even fall asleep. By next morning, she had lost all hope of ever seeing her friends again. But a news item in the paper caught her attention. City Zoological Garden, it read, had apparently imported beautiful animals of rare breed from some unnamed country. Below the news was a photograph of her the animals with Simon, the City Zoo chief. Sarah was stupefied! These were none other than her friends from the forest. They were not imported but kidnapped from the forest. Sarah decided to visit her friends at all costs and save their lives. The next thing she knew, her parents were taking her to the City Zoological Garden, some 300 miles away from where she lived.

The grand entrance of the zoo gave an impression of magnificence and opulence. City Zoological Garden was definitely well maintained. But much to her disappointment, Sarah realized that maintenance and magnificence were only limited to the architecture and landscape. As she inched close to the huge barred enclosures where animals were kept, her disappointment and anger grew steadily. The cages were dirty, the water and food scarce and most animals looked weak and frail. Simon was doing this on purpose so he could sell them to laboratories that were willing to pay a hefty sum for animals of all kinds. Sarah noticed that some animals were so malnourished that they couldn't even walk properly and most of them wore a forlorn look as if pleading for freedom and food. Sarah couldn't believe her eyes. The zoo that was supposed to be a sanctuary for tens of hundreds of animals was nothing more than a prison. Her friends would also end up looking like these poor souls - this disturbing thought sent a chill down her spine. She knew something needed to be done and fast.

Sarah met her friends that day and promised them freedom. She assured them she would do anything in her power to get them out of this oppressive jail. Few days later, Sarah's parents filed a lawsuit against Simon for stealing animals from the forest and reporting them as imports. They accused Simon was purposefully hurting animals to be able to sell them to others on the pretext that they were sick and no longer fit for the zoo. But Simon was a powerful man and while the petition took him by surprise, he soon recovered and hired the best lawyer in town to fight on his behalf. Sarah and her parents have evidence to prove that some animals were stolen from the forest and were being made to endure appalling conditions. The case is still being heard in the court- the fate of these innocent animals hangs in the balance as Simon denies all charges. Sarah and her parents are hoping for the best while Tania, Sheeba, Reno… [read more]

Service Animals (Guide Dogs Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Moira Shea, a blind policy expert, attempted to take Beau onto the Senate floor to speak with Senator Wyden, her boss, during a debate. She was refused admittance, because there was an "unwritten rule" against dogs on the Senate floor. Shea challenged the decision, and finally, after debate and complaint, the Senate issued a proclamation allowing service dogs on the floor. Seven years after the Congress passed the ADA, they still could not adhere to its practices ("A Dog's Life"). Clearly, if the nation's own Congressional leaders have problems interpreting the ADA, and the discrimination of service animals, others will have problems as well.

Another case indicates how even the most discerning and understanding individual can misinterpret the law, and service animals' functions. This family was faced with eviction because their landlord did not believe their Autistic son needed or warranted a service animal. He stated, "If he was blind, that would be different'" (Tilton). The family attempted to explain their rights under ADA. Tilton continues, "he then said that his service dog was not 'registered through the state' and that therefore wasn't a service animal. Again, to quote him, 'You can't just pick up any curr dog on the street and call it a service dog.' By the way, this 'curr' is a purebred Collie" (Tilton). This indicates just how ignorant many people still are of the law, and of the rights of disabled individuals who utilize service animals.

Even worse, after the ADA was established, many people with disabilities reported a backlash of hate crimes against them, and their service animals. Someone murdered the Tilton Autistic son's guide dog, and a blind Denver social worker reported, "Someone silently approached and deliberately kicked my guide dog in the kidneys. [ ... ] This was a hate crime. The perpetrator didn't assault or rob me. It was clear that my dog was a guide dog used to assist someone who is blind'" (Wolfe). Sadly, misunderstanding and ignorance are often the reasons that service animals are discriminated against, and for this to change, people need to fully understand just how service animals help their owners. Service dogs are a valuable and necessary resource, and training needs to be developed to help more people understand their vital role in the lives of thousands of Americans. In addition, more training centers need to be established for service animals. In 1996, author Henderson noted that one training agency has only trained 600 animals in its 20-year history. She continued, "At least 9 million Americans live with significant physical and sensory impairments, but there are only 10,000-12,000 assistance dogs at work, of which 7,000 are guide dogs" (Henderson). Clearly, more training centers need to be established. More training centers mean more animals for those who need them, and the more animals that reach society, the more common they will become, and less discrimination will result.

In conclusion, society still does not fully understand service animals, or the vital assistance they provide to the infirm, the… [read more]

Animal Cruelty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,245 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


"There's one!"

"Where? Where?"

"Right there, mate! Right there, you see it? It's gray and ugly, see, just like the King said it was."

"Oh yeah! It is ugly, innit?"

"Grab the net, quickly! It'll tear off any minute!"

The two princesses exchanged curious glances. Without a word, Princess Lisle made her way to the opening of the cave to spy on the strangers outside. Her sister followed, peering over her older sister's shoulder. They remained silent, listening and watching.

Suddenly Princess Felina gasped in horror.

"What is it?" Princess Lisle whispered loudly. "What?"

"Look!" Princess Felina pointed to the man on the left, who had just captured a Roaming Rompped, an admittedly ugly creature but one which Princess Felina had taken a particular liking to; she cared for three of them in the palace menagerie and they were among her favorite pets as they tended to be docile, affectionate, and made a very cute sound when they purred. Only now, the Roaming Rompped squealed a horrendous cry that pierced through the air, making the very flowers it stood on shudder with despair.

Princess Felina couldn't control herself. She ran out toward the man and shouted "No! Stop it! Stop!" Princess Lisle stayed put, too afraid to jump out of her hiding place.

The man stopped struggling with the net just long enough to gaze upon the angry Princess Felina.

"What's all this then?" he smiled a big, gruesome smile and grabbed the Princess's wrist. Yanking her as hard as he yanked the Roaming Rompped, the man showed his latest catch to the other two men.

"What the- -- you're Princess Felina ain't ya?" one of the other men said.

The Princess was too frightened or too angry to reply.

"You'll be coming with us, then," said the first man. "We've gots ta teach you a lesson about keeping those pretty little lips of yours sealed!"

With that, the three men made off with both their prey, the Roaming Rompped and Princess Felina. Her sister shivered in the dank dark cave, unsure of what to do next. When the party vanished from her view, she ran out from the cave and started off in their general direction without giving it much thought. In about five minutes she reached the place where the three men had taken her sister and the funny-looking creature. The spectacle that lay before her was by far the most horrific thing she had ever laid eyes on. A small run-down cottage in the woods was flanked by rows and rows of caged animals, many of which screamed and moaned, some of which lie listlessly in their too-small homes. This menagerie was the dark, demonic shadow side of her own special menagerie at the castle. These animals were captives, prisoners. The mammals were mottled and partially hairless. The birds had given up even trying to fly and sat at the bottom of their cages, their once-bright feathers rendered dull and lifeless by their condition. Fish were similarly… [read more]

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