"Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays

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Hierarchy of Animals the Relative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nevertheless, even in these respects, the hierarchical supremacy of human beings is potentially open to challenge by insects such as the honeybee, whose hives and social structure exhibit astonishing complexity as well. Furthermore, evidence collected from work conducted with dolphins and elephants suggest the remote but distinct possibility that the complexity of their social structure and intellectual capabilities may be much closer to that of human intelligence than that of other animals (Moussaieff Masson, 1995).

Humans likely qualify as the highest form of animal life from the perspective of intellectual development and technological achievement, but that raises another paradox, that along with the accolades of accomplishment come moral responsibilities. One could argue that the ability to coexist peacefully with the rest of one's species is also a relevant factor in establishing a respective hierarchy of life forms.

While warfare and gratuitous violence are not necessarily exclusive failings of human beings, man is likely the only animal who can be said to violate his own moral concepts, perhaps lowering his relative status among more naturally peaceful animals.

In that respect, Bonobo (or Pygmy) chimpanzees may rank higher than human beings by virtue of their more harmonious, peaceful communal lifestyle (Moussaieff Mason, 1995).

On an intellectual level, and certainly from the point-of-view of technological achievement and sophistication, human beings are clearly the highest form of animal life in the history of biological life on Earth. Ultimately though, the relative ranking of animal species on the hierarchy of biological life depends on how one defines animal life and on the arbitrary criteria one values in determining relative status.


Berry, A. (1996) Galileo and the Dolphins. Wiley & Sons: New York

Moussaieff Mason, J., McCarthy, S. (1995) When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. Delacorte: New York

Wenke, R. (1999) Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind's First…… [read more]

Animal Rights Slaughter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Differences in Species

Experimentation on animals has been proven to be ineffective for human systems. Foods and drugs which are beneficial for animals may be harmful or deadly for humans. Conversely, substances which produce adverse reactions in animals may actually benefit humans. This is because animals and humans each have their own distinct anatomy and psychology.

Buddhism and Animal Rights

The ethics of animal rights supporters are compatible with those of Buddhist in terms of moral beliefs and an understanding of the entire circumstance. The nature of the callous individuals who torture animals cannot account for the true nature of all humans. When determining the true nature, or Buddha-nature of humans, it is important to examine all humankind, and not just one portion of the species.

The Buddhist parable concerning the Way of Purification illustrated that one entity can have good and bad qualities (unknown). Unfortunately, the bad quality will often receive most of the attention or will overtake the good quality, thus leaving a bad impression of the entire entity. This is true of those involved in vivisection. While many scientists and researchers do not agree with the practice, they are often associated with those who torture helpless animals and are thus perceived as inhuman.


There are thousands of animals needlessly tortured every day by researchers in the name of medical research. It is important to apply the concepts of Buddhism and understand that these individuals are separate entities, and do not reflect the true nature of mankind. It is hopeful that the good, who believe in animal rights, will be successful in one day eliminating animal experimentation.

Works Cited

Ruesch, Hans. Slaughter of the Innocent. Matters of Ethics, Philosophy and Religion, Chapter 11.

Pp. 626-637.

Unknown. "Buddha-nature" and "The Way of Purification."…… [read more]

Animal Species Studied Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The omega wolf would keep his head hung low, while the Alpha kept his head held very high. Although the wolves in captivity obviously did not hunt prey, they did play with large beach balls provided to them in a manner similar to what I would expect from a pack hunting, with the different wolves running around to keep the… [read more]

Animal Rights Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Losing these predators can tilt the ecological balance, and create other implications throughout the animal food chain. For example, when these top predators disappear from the landscape, other species that share their habitats can experience with overpopulation or population decline. First, overpopulation occurs as the predator-fewer environments encourages swift growth of species which typically would be targets of cougar hunting,… [read more]

Animals for Testing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Clearly, using animals for testing saves lives, money, and makes sense. Using humans, or even cadavers for the same testing would not only be more expensive monetarily, it would be incredibly expensive in human lives. The entire premise of testing is based on creating new treatments which might be harmful or even deadly until their components are understood and managed. Using humans to test potentially deadly compounds would be unconscionable. Using animals, especially those that are bred in the lab specifically for medical research is not only cost effective, it is morally the correct thing to do. Some animal activists point to research done by cosmetic firms as a use of animals in testing that should be banned. One expert notes, "Rights thought dictates that we cannot kill one rights-holder to save another - or even more than one other - whether or not the life of the former is 'different' from that of the latter."

However, millions also use cosmetics and health care products, and if any ingredient is potentially harmful, it is far better to discover it in animal testing rather than in testing on humans. Animal testing simply makes sense for a variety of reasons, including cost savings, preservation of human life, and the safety and security of future generations.

In conclusion, using animals for testing saves lives - period. While the testing of animals should certainly be regulated for mistreatment and conditions, psychologist Elizabeth Baldwin sums up the argument best when she notes, "My own position is that animals do not have rights in the same sense that humans do, but that people have a responsibility to ensure the humane treatment of animals under their care."

The use of animals in testing has been going on for thousands of years, and has led to some of the most significant and live saving medical breakthroughs on the planet. Medical testing using animals should certainly be humane, but should continue, as it saves lives and helps researchers discover life-saving technologies before testing on humans.


Baldwin, Elizabeth. "The Case for Animal Research in Psychology." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, pp. 270-277.

Editors. "Holocaust on Your Plate." MassKilling.com. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.masskilling.com/exhibit.html

Editors. "Proud Achievements of Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Quick Facts About Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Zak, Steven. "Ethics and Animals." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, pp. 278-286.

Editors. "Proud Achievements of Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Editors. "Quick Facts About Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Steven Zak. "Ethics and Animals." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, p.… [read more]

Torture an Animal? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Animal testing would be necessary in determining side effects or possible problems. If animals were not used to test this new development, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to determine how it would affect humans. I would not feel comfortable sending the product to hospitals if it was not thoroughly tested and I know that the government would not approve it.

Serious injury, worsening of health condition, severe defects, or even death could be caused by an untested development. To prevent this from happening, the research department should use the minimal number of animal to test the skin graft.

I would want to be a major part of the animal testing, rather than pass the responsibility to a laboratory technician. By taking a significant role in the process, I would ensure that the department used as few animals as possible and took all precautions necessary to make the process painless for the animals used.

In my opinion, the advances and positive results of animal testing definitely outweigh the negative aspects of the process. Many people who protest against animal testing do so without supplying the medical industry with alternatives to the testing.

At present, animal testing is necessary for the preservation of human life. I believe it is necessary for success of the skin graft development, which would be a major breakthrough for mankind. Therefore, I would absolutely take full part in using animals to test…… [read more]

Animal Testing. The Writer Argues Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,325 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


And, sadly, the animals do not simply lie down and pass quietly away (Philips, 1998). They die painfully and distressingly (Philips, 1998). " But if the alternative is going to be that humans suffer and die because the treatment cannot be tried on an animal the price becomes to high (Philips, 1998).

Activists will argue that the testing of cosmetics on animals is not going to save lives and therefore should be halted but they are wrong. Each year thousands of victims are severely disfigured because of fires, surgeries, chemical burns or other problems (Philips, 1998). They hide away in their homes afraid to let the world see their faces. They cannot work, they withdraw socially and they stop being productive contributors to society (Philips, 1998). When cosmetics can cover their scars and allow them to venture out again it is a positive aspect of cosmetics that is much more than vanity. If animal testing allows the reentry of the scarred victims to the world then animal testing is needed.

Scientists who are working in medical research are at the centre of the controversy (Philips, 1998). Ironically, it is the men and women who turn down lucrative approaches from drugs companies on the grounds that they do not want their research compromised who often become the objects of attack by the wilder fringes of the animal welfare movement (Philips, 1998). Their argument is that if they could find easier, quicker ways of saving human beings from the effects of disease, ageing or contagion, they would do so. But which of us, told that our son or daughter has been diagnosed with cancer, would say "save the bunny rabbit, sod the child" (Philips, 1998)?

If not for animal testing there would be few medicines for doctors to treat the sick, there would be no insulin for diabetics and transplants would be unheard of (Knill, 2002). " Animal rights activist point to alternative methods for testing. While there have been several alternatives for cosmetic research the field of medical science must depend on animal testing (Madison, 1996). When it comes to the decision to use a new medication on people the government requires that it be tested first on a small group of humans before it can be marketed to the public. Before the medical community uses the medication on the small group of humans it tries it out on animals first. Many drugs and medications are extremely toxic and the potential risk to humans is high in the early phases of development and use. This would be something that would have the potential to cause extreme suffering or even death in the humans it was tested on. The alternative testing methods will not work when it comes to the medication tests because the only way to know how a living thing reacts to the medication is to try it on a living thing.


The testing of products on animals has been a topic of heated debate for many years. Activists… [read more]

Marine Mammals the Film Blackfish Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,233 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Marine Mammals

The film Blackfish is a documentary from CNN that focuses on the case of the orca Tilikum who is captured and held at SeaWorld. The idea is that it is inadvisable to keep certain species in captivity since large and intelligent animals do not do well in small spaces. The documentary begins with the capture of Tilikum off the coast of Iceland, left in small dark tanks, and trained to do tricks that may also contribute to the animal's psychotic nature (Blackfish, 2013).

First, it is clearly obvious that orcas and other species have no business being kept in captivity. Research shows that orcas are extremely social and have stable groups that exist for decades. They are sophisticated pack hunters and some research even believes they have a kind of culture. The research also shows that the animals average from 20-26 feet long and weigh 6-7 tons. Wildlife biologists believe that there is no real threats to humans with wild orcas, who inhabit a larger portion of the ocean and are migratory in nature (Carwardine, 2001).

Within the documentary, director Cowperthwaite focuses on not only SeaWorld but on the idea of taking a social species with ties to its clan, capturing it in an aggressive manner and uprooting it from its surroundings, then putting it into a much smaller environment where it might be harassed by other orcas, forced to be in dark tanks for hours in solitary confinement, and then forced to do tricks to amuse humans that are not natural for the species. There is documented evidence that taking animals outside of their natural environment and putting them into cages without adequate socialization often makes these captives "psychotic." For example, many captive tropical birds, extremely social, become problems when put into a small cage and denied the company of their own species. This happens with elephants in zoos, apes and monkeys who pace and pace but are limited to concrete and bars, and most certainly, for orcas who are used to miles and miles of open ocean and are forced outside of that. Imagine, if one can, that a human child is taken by force and placed in a "zoo" in which the boundaries are only 10 or so times its body size, forced to mimic behaviors that are somewhat unnatural, punished by being placed in the dark, and in the company of other humans, but who may be from another culture or speak a different language. Would we then expect that child to never act out any aggression?

Part 2 -- SeaWorld, of course, responded to the film by indicating that it was not a true documentary and that they are a zoological setting. As in most cases, there is truth to both sides of the issue. SeaWorld is indeed a zoological park, and they do research and rescue marine creatures. In addition, they have been very successful in bringing knowledge and interest to more people than might have the opportunity to see and understand… [read more]

Behavioral Episodes Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,422 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


But when a leopard seal opens its mouth to reveal enormous and powerful jaws with sharp, canine teeth, no man would think it otherwise but that this mammal is aggressive and dangerous. However, as a photographer and biologist, Paul Nicklen has witnessed another side of these animals. His encounter with a leopard seal female has indicated how opened to interactions… [read more]

Spider Life Is Sacred Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,499 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Spider


Life is sacred no matter whose life. However, there are two informal groups of people that have different opinions and orientation towards the sacredness and worth of life. To the first group or class of people, life of human beings is only honorable enough to be protected. To them, rest of the species simply maintain the… [read more]

Haldane "Some Enemies of Science Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,081 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


We are, after all, animals.

Haldane views granting animals any type of intelligence and subjectivity sentiment, versus rationality. He condemns a system which requires him to justify a 'novel' means of killing a mouse but which allows animals to be slaughtered for food and allows his wife to kill rats with poison. He condemns peers who fox hunt yet who would prohibit vivisection (Haldane 7). To some extent, Haldane's point that compassion for animals is not logically consistent is valid. It could also be argued that a perfectly ethical life in regards to animals is virtually impossible. Outlawing all uses of animals for food would condemn certain types of animals (house cats) to ill health or even an early death, since cats are carnivores. Is eradicating a flea or a tick from the body of a dog tantamount to murder or is it better to let the animal live in a state of permanent discomfort? What about intestinal parasites? What about performing experiments on animals for the purpose of life-saving surgeries designed to save animals? No life can be supported without some form of death, and prioritization is inevitable. Not only does tilling a garden cause the death of earthworms as Haldane points out, but large scale agriculture (used to produce vegetarian food) displaces the habitats of animals and causes their early death in many instances.

Haldane's closing argument is his weakest one, as he engages in ad hominem attacks of anti-vivisectionists. But even if Haldane's opponents are not always logically consistent, as an author he seems overly enthusiastic about attributing motives, not only to other beings but also to anti-vivisectionists themselves, asserting that they hate science because they disagree with him. He claims they do not understand science -- and perhaps people as well, picturing the archetypical vivisectionist as a "sour spinster" (Haldane 22-18).

While death is inevitable, this does not mean that every aspect of suffering must be condoned. Ultimately, even if one does not support a complete ban on testing, Haldane's assertion that needless pain is never inflicted upon animals and that no government oversight of animal experimentation seems dubious: a 'trust the scientists never to go wrong' mentality that belies the fact that economic considerations, bias, and simple cruelty cannot be characteristic of the scientific community. Even in regards to human experimentation, scientists have been taken to task for taking insufficient precautions about participants' safety -- this is likely to be even more true of animal experiments (who have no voice if they are abused). There must be some cost-benefit analysis when any animal life is used or taken, either for food, sport, 'mercy killing,' or science. No moral system is logically consistent -- even in regards to humans, but that does not mean that morality should be blatantly ignored as Haldane would wish us to do. The values of science can still be tempered with the virtues of compassion.


Haldane, J.B.S. (2004). Some enemies of science. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd

Ed). Valleau,… [read more]

Rise of the Planet Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,271 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For the most part, the testing of animals was seen as an acceptable sacrifice in the hopes of receiving new information and materials to help mankind.

It is not only recently has the question of morality regarding animal cruelty in scientific testing come into question. In 1822 the first laws prohibiting animal cruelty were enacted to protect animals from the inhumanity of those who would abuse them. Charles Darwin wrote of his support of the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act by stating that he understood the importance of scientific inquiry, but that vivisection of animals for "damnable and detestable curiosity" was reprehensible to him (Life 2012). Some of the evidence regarding man's inhumanity towards animals is extremely and wholly disturbing, such as Pavlov's surgical installation of a tube in a dog's muzzle to measure its saliva output in his famous bell test. Since that time, other countries and groups have tried to eradicate animal cruelty in all venues, including in the field of scientific research. Organizations like People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have vocalized and popularized the opinion that testing on animals is inhumane as they are also living creatures (Rollin 2007,-page 521). Among the principle protests regarding the treatment of animals is the sheer number who are abused. According to Meredith Cohn (2010), tens of millions of animals are mistreated this way each year, many of whom are euthanized after the experiment is over.

The context of Rise of the Planet of the Apes is this disagreement between factions over the suitability or morality relating to animal testing. Will, the character played by James Franco, has invented a serum which he believes has the ability to curb the spread and perhaps even cure Alzheimer's disease. Before William tests the substance on a human being, he must go through various animals, the last of which is a chimpanzee named Caesar. An unexpected reaction to the medication is that Caesar has obtained characteristics which are nearly human yet he is still not treated as anything more than an animal. Will's motives are entirely humanitarian. He wishes to cure the disease and help people, including his own father. In doing so, he does not realize the damage that he is doing to the animals in his care (Jeffries 2011). Despite his non-animal traits, the chimp is still relegated to the confines of a laboratory animal and is placed amongst other animals rather than being given any regard (Loy 2011). This is symbolic of the real-world negative attitudes which are given to animals in the scientific community.

The film Rise of the Planet of the Apes seems on the outside to be another science fiction film about a dystopian version of the not-too-distant future. However, the themes that are present in the film do have a factual base which could potentially lead to such a series of events taking place if humanity does not pay attention to the potential dangers of male-animal interaction. Although there are certainly benefits to animal… [read more]

Fukuyama Identifies Many Different Qualities Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As human beings created in His image, all living beings are sacred. But in modern, secular democracies, this answer is seldom satisfying, particularly within legal constructs that delineate a wall between church and state. Some philosophers and theologians (including Immanuel Kant) argued that human beings possessed freedom of the will, which was the source of 'Factor X,' but our knowledge of the causation of human behavior on a genetic and environmental level means that most natural scientists merely believe that our biologically-wired decision-making apparatus is merely more complex than those of animals; not that there is a black-and-white division between ourselves and the animal kingdom.

Yet "Nietzsche had the great insight to understand that once the clear red line around the whole of humanity could no longer be drawn, the way would be paved for a much more hierarchical understanding of society" (Fukuyama 155). In the absence of Factor X, it becomes tempting to create a 'sliding scale' of humanity once again, in which some people are viewed as more human than others. And, it should be added, that this is how we often view other living creatures, and not in an entirely rational fashion. We accord greater status to dogs in our society, and are horrified when we hear that other cultures eat them, but we happily devour equally intelligent pigs. The fact that we keep dogs as pets and they reside within our homes gives them superior status in our eyes on the sliding scale of humanity, as we measure the animal kingdom.

Fukuyama suggests we must accept that the idea of 'Factor X,' our identification with all beings of our same species is irrational to some degree, much like our identification with a sports team or a nation. This does not necessarily mean it is a 'bad' thing, however, given that this instinctive preservation of all that is labeled 'human' has had so many positive results. "The problem with [scientific reductionism] is not that it is necessarily false but that it is insufficient to explain many of the most salient and unique human traits" (Fukuyama 162).

On the other hand, this jingoism in favor of what is human has also had many negative consequences, including the use of the planet as an instrument for human preservation, rather than viewing the earth an ecosystem that supports a wide variety of equally valuable living beings. Fukuyama characterizes science as "demystifying" human nature through reductionism, but the fact remains that human beings are part of nature as well as observers of nature (Fukuyama 162). While Factor X may accord dignity to all human groups in a positive manner in theory, anthropocentric thinking has led to the destruction of many habitats and the lives of indigenous peoples by justifying industrialization and unhampered growth. Looking into the future, unless the whole earth is given dignity, not just the human race, the survival of all species is in doubt.

Works Cited

Fukuyama, Francis. Our…… [read more]

Scientific Report of Tufted Capuchin Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,265 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The habitat receives both sun and shade and the group does have access to an indoor facility. The entire site is visible from multiple viewing locations and the animals are desensitized to observers through near-continuous observation by zoo attendees.

The tufted capuchin typically lives in a social group between two and twenty animals. The groups contain one dominant male and can have multiple subordinate males and a group of females (Groves 2005). The capuchin diet is omnivorous and feeding is often dictated by a social hierarchy presented by the dominant male and the closeness of a select group of preferred females (di Bitetti 2001).

The group was observed for 2 hours and 15 minutes in a single observation period. Animals were counted and the following classifications were made:

Total Number

Alpha Male(s)


Subordinate Male(s)

Juvenile Males

Juvenile Females

The following parameters were established for behavior observations and the relative times for the individuals:







Not visible to the observer

The data was collected by visual observation and recorded. Averages were determined and differences between the male and female animals are presented.


A total of 15 animals were observed for 2 hours, 15 minutes. The group consisted of the following set of animals broken down by sex and superiority within the group:

3 adult males. 9 adult females. 1 subordinate male. 2 juvenile males

The adult males were the largest of the animals and the subordinate male was similar in size. The two juvenile males were similar in size to the females. The table below shows the percentage of time spent in each activity by the males and females.


Male (%)

Female (%)



















Out of Sight



The plots below show the differences in percentage of time overall for the two groups male vs. female in the population studied:

The largest differences between the two sexes in this population of animals are in the time spent resting and the time spent feeding. The males have a proportionately larger amount of time spent feeding and smaller amount of time spent resting than the females.


The objective of this study was to determine if there are any differences between male and female tufted capuchins in an artificial habitat. The group of capuchin monkeys chosen was observed for 2 hours and 15 minutes and the population had 9 females and 6 males. The sample size was not large enough for a powering study, however there are differences in this population for this duration of observation during the day to show that the males spent more time feeding and less time resting than the females.

Because the energy needs of a larger animal are higher, it makes sense that more time would be spent foraging and feeding for males since those animals are proportionately larger. An important improvement to this study would be to determine the differences… [read more]

Canada Land Management World Wildlife Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,782 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


This speech was specifically made in Nova Scotia, but it is a statement of the mission of the entire organization. This is actually a goal of the organization as a whole and not just that which is active in Canada. One of the main reasons that this is such a concern in Canada is because the boreal forests in the… [read more]

Phylum Annelida Annelids Are Members Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (601 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The same is also found in chordates and other pigments. The hemoglobin is dissolved directly into the blood allowing them to leave where oxygen is scarce and food is plentiful example in the mud and under water. Their reproductive system can be either sexual or asexual. For example in asexual reproduction, the parent divides itself into two. Some of them (example earthworms) are hermaphroditic meaning they have both sexes in one individual Badea et al., 2010


Since they are invertebrates, when they break any of their body parts they can regenerate. Phylum Annelida have the ability to withstand extinction because they are hermaphroditic. Some of them (example earthworms) contribute to soil fertility. They move with ease in most environments due to their ability to burrow, swim and creep. Their segmented bodies facilitate ease of movement through and into surfaces. Their hemoglobin is dissolved directly into the blood allowing them to live in stagnant mud where oxygen is scarce. Their body movement does not interfere with their digestive tract movements due to the muscular walls on their digestive systems Meglitsch P, 1972()


Phylum Annelida is a species that has many merits and positive contribution to earth science; they can live in a variety of environments and move easily due to their segmented body which distinguishes them from other worm like creatures. Phylum Annelida display a clear illustration of metameric organization and have more peculiarities that call for more introspect in biology.


Badea, A.B., Gagyi-Palffy, A., Stoian, L.C., & Stan, G. (2010). Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators. [Article]. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the…… [read more]

Do Animals Have Culture? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (822 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … animals have culture?

Animal Culture

Culture in animals has been a controversial issue especially when people hear of culture deviated from the norm. Animal culture is slowly gaining popularity; it entails social transmission of behavior among animal species from generation to generation. Cross-Cultural Capability in animals also deals with the values and skills impacted on an animal to enable it to live and interrelate with other creatures in a multicultural way (Whitehead, 2010). The transmitted behavior can be shared within a group of animals but not specific between different groups of the same species of animal. Behavior among the animals can be transmitted in a variety of ways, such as; through language, teaching and imitation.

Culture in animals started in the ancient times, but it advancement started around the year 1940 where the Japanese scientist (primatologist) found the impact of food of primates behavior leading to the creation of socially transmitted food behavior among them. During those times and even now, primates are more commonly used in an experiment to find out whether there is culture among animals because of their proximity in resemblance to human beings. This theory relies on the fact that there are some cultural traits which are developed as a result of repeating the same event daily or as a routine practice in an animal's life (Laland, 2009). This culture are mostly adopted by animals if they have a positive impact on them such as if they are associated with food or those actions which determine their survival rate. For example an experiment done on chimpanzees where they were shown to use sticks in such a way that they can access food more easily, with time the chimpanzees were able to, not only utilize, the sticks but also, other tools in their effort to reach for food. Therefore, this became one of their culture.

Mimicry in animals is the most commonly used among the three methods, on the other hand, the use of teaching and less of language can best be used on certain specific species of animals with a higher cultural capabilities, but not all. Animals, especially those with the same genes, acquired mostly through birth are more likely to develop the culture more than other animals of the same species. Transmission of behavior into these animals takes time and while doing so the vicinity should be conducive for the animals so as to focus their attention towards learning and mastering the behavior. There…… [read more]

Toulmin-Based Argument in Support Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


To this end, there appears to be a direct connection between income level and pet-adoption preferences that indicate public awareness campaigns may be effective in promoting animal adoptions from shelters and reducing euthanasia levels. For instance, pet adoption rates have been shown to differ significantly according to ZIP codes. In this regard, Fine reports that, "Pet-keeping practices vary with neighborhood and community. A study of residents in Salt Lake County revealed that residents' ZIP code areas were highly predictive of the sources of pets residents used in acquiring their pets. Certain ZIP code areas showed high levels of pet adoptions from shelters, while other neighborhoods favored purebred animals, and feral cats were adopted in other areas" (2006, p. 77).

In addition, the Humane Society has sponsored a longstanding public awareness campaign, "Until There are None, Adopt One," that encourages prospective pet owners to acquire their animals from shelters rather than pet stores or so-called "puppy mills" (Hasenauer, 1997). Therefore, by targeting low adoption level communities with public awareness campaigns and policies that prevent animals from being destroyed, adoption levels can be increased and euthanasia rates reduced dramatically (Fine, 2006). Furthermore, purebred dogs (and cats) are also available from animal shelters, but in many cases, "it's the mongrels that tend to be healthier. They get the best traits from all the breeds and are often friendlier and easier to train as well" (Hasenauer, 1997, p. 21). For pet owners who insist on purebred species, there are some nonprofit civic organizations that focus on these as well such as Lab Rescue that specializes in placing Labrador retrievers and Greyhound Pets of America that specializes in placing retired greyhound racing dogs (Hasenauer, 1997).

Counter-Arguments and Rebuttals

An old saying cautions that, "There is no such thing as a 'free puppy,'" and the research certainly confirms this adage. Indeed, pet ownership involves a substantial outlay of time and monetary resources. For example, a New York City-based veterinarian warns that, "Bringing home a dog simply because it looks oh-so-adorable is not the wisest way to choose a companion. Too often I hear people say 'I saw this dog and just had to get it' without thinking of the consequences.' But you're adding a family member who needs daily food, water and attention as well as house training, grooming and veterinary care" (Cherry, 2007, p. 79). Likewise, Hasenauer (1997) researched consumer pet-purchasing habits and found that many new owners are astounded by just how much work is involved in housebreaking a new puppy, for example, for the expense that can accrue to pet ownership. According to Hasenauer, "Buying a living, breathing animal is very different from investing in an inanimate object. Before you bring a pet into your home, you should be willing to commit to loving and caring for that pet for the rest of its life" (p. 21). Despite these constraints, though,


Millions of dogs and cats are destroyed in the United States each year because animal shelters were unable to find suitable… [read more]

Total Eclipse, We See Two Writers Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Total Eclipse," we see two writers who have a very personal or -- perhaps, better stated -- psychological connections to the nature that surrounds them. Ehrlich discusses her beloved Wyoming in her essay and has given it an apt title as she describes being able to drive for miles without seeing another person. She says: "The solitude in which westerners live makes them quiet" (Ehrlich 6). This may seem obvious is one considers that being in a place like Wyoming means you will see more animals than you will people. Dillard begins her essay discussing her drive with her husband Gary to watch the total eclipse. The journey took five hours through snowy mountains that eventually melt and change into green valleys. Dillard says, "I watched the landscape innocently, like a fool, like a diver in the rapture of the deep who plays on the bottom while his air runs out" (Dillard 3) -- another sentence that seems to evoke a certain solitude and silence. In these two quotes taken from Ehrlich's and Dillard's essays, the reader is able to feel the power of the two places being witnessed by its authors and how they are allowing nature to overcome them, in a sense. Both Ehrlich and Dillard allow themselves to sit and witness the space around them, mesmerized and awestruck. They do not fight what they see nor do they try to change how they feel.

Ehrlich describes the open spaces of Wyoming as beautiful, but it can also be harsh at times too, with the weather in the winter getting bitterly cold. She writes, "The landscape hardens into a dungeon of space. During the winter, while I was riding to find a new calf, my jeans froze to the saddle, and in the silence that such cold creates I felt like the first person on earth, or the last" (Ehrlich 2). While "a dungeon of space" out of context may evoke some kind of terror and dread, in Ehrlich's description, it evokes peace. The reader also gets the sense that Dillard is very aware of how big and great the world is as she stands looking upon the Yakima valley. She looks upon it as if it is some kind of dream or a Shangri-la (Dillard 6). She notes the sky that seems to go on forever. As Dillard describes her experience of taking in the world around her, it feels as if she, too, is the first (or last) person on earth. Gary, her husband, isn't mentioned in these paragraphs; it is just Dillard and nature. Dillard's awareness of the phenomenon that is the total eclipse is clear. She says,

What you see in an eclipse is entirely different from what you know. It is especially different for those of us whose grasp of astronomy is so frail that, given a flashlight, a grapefruit, two oranges, and fifteen years, we still could not figure out which way to set the clocks for daylight…… [read more]

Is Extinction a Course of Nature? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (984 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Biology of Species Extinction -- Argument

When it comes to the issue of the extinction of animal species, there are two main schools of thought. According to the first, the extinction of species is simply the naturally course of evolution and not a tragedy that human beings should devote time, energy, and effort to preventing. According to the second school of thought, there is an inherent value to every species and even if extinction is a natural phenomenon, the fact that the rate of species extinction has increased as a result of human activities is sufficient justification for trying to preserve species facing extinction and, at least, to try to minimize the effect of human activities on the premature or accelerated extinction of animal species. While the second position is admirable in some respects and does reflect a certain sensitivity toward nature, it is the much weaker argument.

The extinction of animal species is strictly a function of their ability to adapt to changes in their environment. It is a process that has bee ongoing throughout the natural world for billions of years, ever since the first microbes evolved into different microbes and simple organisms that were better able to thrive in their environment. The evolutionary process predates human activity by such a long period of time that the entire period of human existence on earth amounts to the equivalent of seconds if the history of the planet were represented by a 24-hour clock. On that clock, human beings first appeared only a few seconds before midnight.

The principal reason that there is such ecological diversity in the first place is that biological species have continually evolved by changing their form and functions as necessitated by their external environment. In that respect, the addition of human beings in general and of human activities in particular to the environment is no more or less part of the external environment of other species than all of the environmental changes that have driven evolution (and extinctions) since the first form of life emerged on earth. Just as changes in the populations of predatory and prey species directly influence the success of one another's species, so does the addition of human beings to the equation. In that sense, human activity -- even if it has contributed to or accelerated the "natural" extinction rate of other animal species -- is nothing more or less than another element of the natural world to which other species must adapt if they are to succeed.

To put human activity and its possible influence on animal extinction rates into perspective, just consider that a meteorite that struck the earth near modern-day Siberia is now known to have been the cause of the largest number of simultaneous extinctions likely to have ever occurred on earth from a single cause. It wiped out all of the dinosaurs and probably is the reason that smaller mammals managed to evolve into human beings…… [read more]

Cost Analysis of Search Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (735 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Costs to other animals might include the 'macro' costs of breeding dogs specifically for their ability to track scents. This could indirectly fuel the industry of breeding dogs, versus focusing on finding homes for dogs of mixed origin. There are also 'costs' to the environment in terms of viewing animals as creatures to serve humans, and viewing the natural world as a tool rather than something with integrity in and of itself. Dogs may be called to rescue skiers who imprudently went out on a mountain that was too steep for them, or asked to rescue swimmers who jumped into water with no lifeguard present. This forces the dog to risk their lives for a human being who needlessly risked his own (Gunn & Ralston 20100.

Costs to humans include the costs of breeding and raising the dogs, as well as the time devoted to training them. Most of the handlers are volunteers, and receive no compensation for their efforts. They must also care for the dog if it becomes sick or injured during its lifetime. The investment is considerable: "Handlers must earn and retain certification in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid, learn how to maintain a crime scene, and attend sessions in other aspects of search and rescue work: (Woolf 2010). The rigorous testing and certification process can take months or years for a dog to be certified (SARDUS rescue, 2011, SARDUS).

Indirect costs to humans include the costs of having the dogs run through a disaster site, and the costs of possible false hope if the individual cannot be found who is being tracked down. Also, there are undeniable costs for the deployment of the dogs as part of a formal law enforcement effort.

Works Cited

Gunn, Charlotte & Gene Ralston. "Search for drowned man using GPS and search dogs."

Idaho Search and Rescue Unit. [October 19, 2011]


"SARDUS dogs work with local law enforcement." SARDUS. [October 19, 2011]


Woolf, Norma B. "Search and rescue dogs." Dog Owner's Guide.

[October 19, 2011]

http://www.canismajor.com/dog/srchresc.html… [read more]

Fruit Flies the Importance of Long-Term Memory Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,167 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Fruit Flies

The Importance of Long-Term Memory:

Studying the Fruit Fly

The most fascinating of all abilities of life on Earth is the utilization of memory to survive. Memory can be utilized by animals, insects, reptiles, and even fish to find food and shelter. Long-term memory in particular is a fascination of both public and scientists alike. With new experiments… [read more]

Animal Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (851 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


NRA Uses Propaganda to Promote Lies about Condors & Lead Poisoning

Those who want to help the recovery program for the endangered California Condor are up against the powerful National Rifle Association (NRA, 2011), and the fight to preserve and restore the species is not going to be won easily because of the propaganda put out by the NRA. The main issue is lead poisoning. Condors "are highly susceptible to lead toxicity," according to the Ventana Wildlife Society. Many other respected wildlife and conservation organizations concur that even small fragments of lead bullets, or shotgun pellets, can kill a condor, depending on how long the lead is in the bird's digestive system. Condors are relatives of the vulture and unlike raptors, the California Condor feeds only on carrion (dead animals).

What happens is this: a deer hunter in California shoots his buck, takes the best meat from the deer and leaves the "gut-pile" of the deer on the ground. The condor finds the fresh kill -- with the shattered lead fragments from the bullets still to be found throughout the remains -- and after ingesting the deer's remains, the condor becomes very ill. If the condor is not flown to a hospital and had its digestive tract cleared of the lead, it will die. And so with the evidence in abundance that lead kills condors -- a bird that the state and private organizations have spent millions of dollars trying to restore -- the state passed a law a few years ago that in certain condor areas of California only non-lead ammo is legal for hunters to use. The most popular choice of those responsible hunters that have followed the law is copper ammunition.

But the NRA uses its very effective propaganda machine -- frankly lying about lead bullets, and smearing bona fide scientists that report the medical / biological facts.

The California condor is the largest bird in North America. It has a wingspan of nine and a half feet and can fly over a hundred miles on a single day, according to the Ventana Wildlife Society (2011). In the late 1980s, the California Condor came within an eyelash of extinction. The giant birds' population had been shrinking down from thousands a couple hundred years ago to about 22 birds in 1987. They had been shot, poisoned, and pushed to the brink of extinction. At that time the remaining birds were taken into captivity and no condors were flying free again until 1992, when the recovery program was launched.

Today, there are nearly 400…… [read more]

Wspa Non-Profit Organization Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (3,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


WSPA Non-Profit Organization


The most worthy non-profit organizations are those that commit to the plight of those who are unable to help themselves. The World Society for the Protection of Animals (or WSPA) is one such operation. Animals are a voiceless and unempowered presence in the world and human beings act as both their attackers and their defenders. The… [read more]

Career in Zoo Keeping Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Vocational Interest in Becoming a Zookeeper

Becoming a zookeeper is my current professional goal. Zookeepers typically work in zoos and their responsibilities include caring for and feeding animals and educating the general public about important issues of biological and ecological conservation. In addition to working directly with animals, zookeepers sometimes specialize in scientific areas of interest. The profession seems to be a perfect way to combine my interest in science, my love for animals, my desire to do something in connection with ecology or nature conservation, and my desire to work with people as well.

Responsibilities of Zookeepers

Zookeepers are responsible for the daily care, feeding, and the veterinary care of a wide variety of animal species. That is a challenging responsibility because zoos often maintain hundreds of different animal species ranging from the smallest insects, rodents, and reptiles to the largest mammals like elephants and zebra. All of these species have very different needs in terms of their diet, their habitats, climates, and the type of care that they require. Many species require a very narrow range of temperature and other climatic conditions to survive and thrive. In addition, certain species are very dangerous and capable of injuring zookeepers accidentally; other species are potentially deadly to human beings being they are carnivorous. According to the zookeepers at the Australia Zoo,

"Okay, well being a zoo keeper is a lot of different things, and also (involves)

working with a lot of different animals, so most zoo keepers that start here at the Zoo work with some of the smaller animals that we've got - things like kangaroos, koalas, that sort of thing. And a lot of people who start doing that usually volunteer at the Zoo for... sometimes a few months until a job comes up. Some people also go to university and study different animal sciences. But I guess the most important thing is to have some practical experience working with animals and that can not only be achieved in a zoo, but also in a vet clinic or in an animal shelter... even on a farm. Anywhere that is involved with looking after and caring for animals."

(Australia Zoo, 2010)

Zookeepers are also responsible for educating the general public…… [read more]

Evolution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Vila, 1997) By allowing the least aggressive, most tame and sociable among humans to reproduce, humans developed an entirely unique species: the dog, Canis familiaris. (Morey, 1994) From those beginnings, humans then continued to select for a variety of different traits creating more than 400 different breeds of dogs. Humans chose for physical traits like appendage size, shape of skull, or color, but also chose for behavioral traits like tameness, playfulness, herding, guarding, barking, or other traits that pleased their human masters. (Honeycutt, 2010)

A similar thing happen in the cat "Family," Felidae, when cats spread around the world and encountered new environments. As a result of living in these different environments for many generations, nature selected different traits for different members of the cat family; like the stripes of the Asian Tiger, or the mane of the African Lion. Humans then took a small version of a wild, carnivorous cat, and by choosing for specific traits over successive generations, much like with the dog, created the Felis catus, or the housecat. (Driscoll, 2009)

Humans have, over many thousands of years, taken a natural process by which organisms change, and adapted it to their own purpose. By selecting for specific traits in animals, humans have succeeded in creating entirely new species. As a result human society is filled with human created species of animals meeting every need.


Driscoll, Carlos. (2009) The Evolution of House Cats. Scientific American. Retrieved from Science News, Articles and Information| Scientific American.

Honeycutt, Rodney, (2010). Unraveling the Mysteries of Dog Evolution. BMC Biology, 8 (20), Retrieved from Academic Onefile.

Morey, Davcey. (1994). The Early Evolution of the Domesticated Dog. American Scientist, 82 (4), Retrieved from Academic Onefile.

Vila C, et al.,…… [read more]

Exotic Animals Invading Florida Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (972 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … combat the growing challenges associated with the release of non-native exotic animals into the wild in Florida and their subsequent invasion of Florida ecosystems. These outsiders then upset delicate biosystems that are already under stress from human encroachment, pollution and other problems. In this paper the author present a practical, researched, and documented proposal offering a solution to this vexing problem, including include prevention, eradication, reduction and containment. Throughout the paper, the Burmese python will be examined as a typical type of problem and solution situation that faces Florida conservation and wildlife management officials with regard to the release of exotic animals into the wild.

Description of the Problem

As stated above, people who no longer can or want their exotic pets frequently release them into the wild in Florida. Many of these animals such as Burmese pythons have adapted amazingly well to the warm, wet climate and have not only thrived but since they have no natural predators are destroying local animals and their food chains.

This has made a bad situation even worse for many animals who have been pushed to the edge of extinction by a variety of factors too numerous to discuss in this short paper.

Proposed Solution

There are already a number of specific solutions that are being executed by the state of Florida at the time of the writing of this paper. Logically, they should continue and be expanded. Priorities for snake management in Florida include prevention, eradication, reduction and containment. Education programs to prevent the sale, purchase, responsible ownership and the release of the animals into the wild are ongoing. Radiotelemetry on so-called "Judas snakes" that are tagged and tracked gives important intelligence on the travel, feeding, hunting and reproductive habits of the Burmese python. Hunting is already being used as a solution for the problem of Burmese pythons in Florida to cull the growing population which is estimated to be in the thousands. Also, destruction of breeding grounds for the Python is also mandatory in Florida. Capture and removal of the animals is being conducted presently (Harvey, et al.).

There also needs to be an outright ban on the sale of exotic pets to people without a license complete with stiff fines and/or jail time. If it is illegal to own an automatic weapon with a special federal permit, it needs to be the same with exotic animals. The Humane Society of the United States and other animal welfare groups are calling for restrictions on the trade of pythons and reptiles, arguing that the government should require exotic pet owners to obtain a permit or license before owning these animals. Florida does not require an ownership permit for Burmese pythons. Powerful pet-trade industry groups do not want the government to force stringent requirements and controls onto the industry. The pet-trade industry is able to impose significantly resist any type of regulation that would interfere with its…… [read more]

Pro or Con of Animal Testing Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Animals for Testing

Concern about animal testing probably began in America after 1980, when a group called People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) was formed. Using a strategy of civil disobedience at first, PETA attracted national attention by such stunts as stopping the performance of a circus and spray painting the fur coats of some fashionable ladies. Since then, PETA has grown to 2 million members and a more respectable reputation. It is not only responsible for public awareness of animal testing, but it is also partly responsible for encouraging the development of non-animal methods of testing of products such as drugs and cosmetics that are intended for human beings.

Before PETA, animal testing was the norm, and few protested its validity. Even now, animal testing has many proponents. But then, it seemed like a reasonable choice since animals were the closest match to human beings. Animal testing has made many treatments of disease possible and has saved many lives. It also lets researchers test drugs that might be toxic and make sure they are safe before they test them on humans. As a result, many lives are saved. Besides, the drugs that are tested eventually are approved. These drugs can then heal people more quickly, and some of them might even save people's lives.

However, there are many more convincing reasons why animals should not be used in testing. One strong argument is that the results from animal testing are unreliable. Even test results gathered from a mouse cannot be assumed to also apply for a rat; and, of course, results from rats certainly cannot be assumed to apply to human beings. There is also the issue that animals being tested are out of their natural environment and in a stressful situation, so their reactions would not be the same as they would be in their natural environment.

There is also the expense, which is considerabl. Animals being tested must be fed, housed, and cared for. If there are multiple test sessions, the expense of the feeding, housing, and care continues -- sometimes for months. There is also the expense of buying the animals themselves. Some companies are in business only to breed and sell animals to companies that are doing research

These are powerful reasons for not supporting animal testing. But the most powerful argument for not testing animals is that it is not humane. Many animals are tested and then killed immediately afterwards. Others are injured or cruelly maimed in the testing, and they must then spend the remainder of their lives as captives. What is most upsetting is that many of the drugs tested on animals are never approved, so that there was no benefit to humans and those animals died for no reason at all.

Famous poets have described their disapproval of cruelty to animals. Poetry can be even more compelling than prose to express this exploitation and, as the poet Elizabeth Bishop illustrates in her poem "The Fish." She reels… [read more]

Walden the Term Economy Has Multiple Meanings Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (814 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



The term economy has multiple meanings. The two meanings most important to Henry David Thoreau related to personal economy and frugality. Although these are Thoreau's main concerns in Chapter 1 of Walden, the author is also concerned about society's view of economy and the current state of the people's material well-being in American society. For example, Thoreau mentions the economic conditions of the Chinese and Sandwich Islanders living in New England stating, "something about your condition, especially your outward condition or circumstances in this world, in this town, what it is, whether it is necessary that it be as bad as it is, whether it cannot be improved as well as not." Thoreau spends the bulk of Walden and especially the first chapter outlining the motives for his Walden Pond experiment. He emphasizes having "earned my living by the labor of my hands only," and stresses the simplicity of his lifestyle. Thus, Thoreau's economy is his frugality and the allocation of his own scarce resources. Thoreau deliberately presents Walden in opposition to the budding urbanization, industrialization, and increased wealth that sprouts up around him in New England. Therefore, Thoreau indirectly refers to other definitions of economy including the macroeconomic issues at play in 19th century America.

Question #2

In Chapter 2, Thoreau explains how he came specifically to Walden Pond, and how he cultivates a personal relationship with the land and the environment. Living in nature seems to offer Thoreau spiritual sustenance, as he writes, "Every morning was a cheerful invitation to make my life of equal simplicity, and I may say innocence, with Nature herself." Thoreau argues that the simple life, unencumbered by duties and responsibilities, is a spiritual blessing. Invoking Eastern philosophy, Thoreau suggests that the modern world clouds a direct communion with ourselves and with the vast universe. Living simply, living "deliberately" as Thoreau puts it, is a direct remedy to the stressors and poisons of modern materialistic existence. Materialism begets superficial happiness, whereas the simple life leads to genuine joy.

Question #3

In "Solitude," Thoreau demonstrates direct communion with nature. He refers to the evening as "delicious," and claims, "all the elements are unusually congenial to me." His relationship with nature is deeply personal. He mentions feeling in "sympathy" with plants and pine needles that "befriended" him. Thoreau suggests that an intimate attitude toward nature helps human beings cultivate a more peaceful mentality, and can lead to more harmonious human relationships as…… [read more]

Zoos the History of Zoos Is Entwined Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,591 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



The history of zoos is entwined with the history of human civilizations. Zoos represent the relationship between human beings and their natural environment, and especially between human beings and other animals. The very existence of zoos, and their predecessors such as menageries and personal collections of wild animals, suggests that human beings have attempted control wild animals in some… [read more]

Environmental Settings of the Cambrian Explosion Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


Environmental Settings of the Cambrian Explosion

The objective of this work is to examine the development of natural environments alongside the evolution of life throughout the Cambrian explosion. This work will focus on beginnings of life, their natural environments and their evolution in changing environments from the beginning to the end of the Cambrian explosion. The key theme of this… [read more]

Bacterial Source Tracking and Total Maximum Daily Load Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,523 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7



Microbial Source Tracking lacks a methodology that is appropriate in the tracing of bacterial contamination in the environment resulting in the identification and control of these pollutant sources which affects the decision-making in water-quality and management in a negative manner. The method for making identification of sources of microbial pollution is 'Microbial… [read more]

Animal Liberation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (721 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Animal Liberation by Peter Singer

In Animal Liberation, Peter Singer presents a convincing argument against the continued exploitation of animals used for scientific research and for human consumption. My beliefs on the issues have always been very similar to Singer's.

The principal basis for Singer's suggestion that lack of concern for animal suffering is unethical and immoral is the overwhelming evidence that animals experience physical pain as acutely as humans. Specifically, the only significant difference between human suffering and animal suffering is that animals cannot communicate their responses to us through verbal language.

However, as Singer points out in his strongest arguments, neither can human infants, or for that matter, deaf mutes. Nevertheless, nobody refutes the idea that human beings experience pain regardless of whether or not they can communicate through language. As Singer explains, there is no doubt as to the substantial similarity between many elements of animal physiology and function and human physiology and function; in fact, that is precisely why animal experiments are relevant to human medical research.

Likewise, animals display nearly identical reactions to painful stimuli as humans in every other respect besides linguistic expression.

Singer also offers the findings of animal behaviorist studies, as well as anecdotal evidence of wildlife experts, documenting the extent to which so-called "higher animals" are apparently capable of suffering from non-physical pain that is considered emotional trauma in humans. One of Singer's most interesting arguments is that relating to speciesism, the concept that humans tend to view moral issues subjectively, in that concerns that are, in fact, virtually identical as between humans and animals are only taken seriously to the extent they pertain to humans. In that regard, Singer reminds us that the very same distinctions that supposedly justify certain conduct toward other animals is identical to various moral beliefs once used to justify human slavery, exploitation, and other aspects of racism, even within the human species.

Singer criticizes both the use of animals for medical experimentation and the manner in which the modern farming industry raises animals for human consumption, but does not adequately detail the fundamental moral basis for distinguishing morally justifiable forms of scientific experiments…… [read more]

Parthenogenesis Is the Development or Growth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (362 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Parthenogenesis is the development or growth of an organism in which fertilization does not occur between complimentary sex cells. It is a form of asexual reproduction where an unfertilized gamete begins to develop into the full-grown organism. It is fairly common in the less complex forms of species in the animal kingdom up through the Insect class, but becomes much less common thereafter. While the mechanisms involved in the process are not completely understood, parthenogenesis develops an offspring with almost identical genetic markers as the parent, very similar to the development of a clone, but with only one sex producing the phenomena. While certain worms and insects have this trait in common, a few kinds of amphibians, reptiles, and birds can also reproduce parthenogenetically. ("Parthenogenesis") However, mammalian embryos derived experimentally in this manner have thus far died within a period of days. (Kim, et.al. 483)

Parthenogenesis is used by organisms to exploit certain environmental circumstance. In the case of aphids they often use parthenogenesis to reproduce in larger numbers when supplies of food are abundant. Many organisms that use this method…… [read more]

Arguments Against Testing Drugs on Animals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … drug testing on animals. Using animals for drug testing and development may have had a purpose at one time, but with advances in science and technology, it no longer has a place in modern drug development techniques. Using animals in drug testing is cruel, and it should be outlawed.

Many people and federal agencies condone the use of animal testing because they maintain it helps save lives. For example, the "FDA's position on animal testing is straightforward and consistent: The use of animal tests by industry to establish the safety of regulated products is necessary to minimize the risks from such products to humans."

However, over the years, this position has been modified because of the outcry of many citizens who believe animal testing is cruel and abusive, and it should be stopped. Modern research indicates there are many other ways to accomplish drug testing without harming animals.

As we learn more about diseases and illness, it is becoming clearer that many health concerns can be aided by behavior modification. One writer states, "Improvement in health is likely to come in the future, as in the past, from modification of the conditions that lead to disease, rather than from intervention in the mechanism of disease after it has occurred."

Many conditions today have their origins in diet and lifestyle, such as high cholesterol, adult-onset diabetes, and others. Scientists urge diet and exercise changes to help these diseases, and animal testing does not need to occur in these cases. Research and scientific thought will surely find more causes such as these in the future, lessening the need for animal testing at all.

Another important argument against using animals in drug testing is the results. Most animals react far differently to diseases and drugs than humans do. One author notes, "Research results are relevant only to the species under tests and concern for the risk of misleading predictions, since humans and animals often respond quite differently to drugs and disease." Thus, using animals in testing may actually skew the results, and the drugs may not be as effective as first thought, or they might be too potent.

Finally, many animal tests have been eliminated because they have been shown to be ineffective,…… [read more]

De Waal and Kummer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


De Waal and Kummer

What do Kummer and de Waal describe as the major ecological (environmental and social) conditions altered by captivity?

Observing primates in zoos proved to have significant limitations. Kummer notes that zoos' practices of keeping only one mature adult male helped avoid serious fights, but that the lone male paid a price - boredom. Artificially restricting the… [read more]

Environmental History Thoreau Muir Leopold and Carson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,926 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Environmental Science

Four pivotal people - whose collective positive impact on the environment and on society's understanding of the natural world is powerful - are featured in this paper. They are John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Henry David Thoreau, and Rachel Carson; an understanding of their lives and professional contributions is necessary for any student who wishes to become informed as… [read more]

Wildlife Attractions Animal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Indeed many people visit zoos and other wildlife attractions and there is great potential to teach the public about wildlife welfare in conservations (Animal Ethics Clarifier). This can be done through information plaques near animal exhibits and through explanations given by tour guides (Animal Ethics Clarifier).

On the other hand those that oppose these attractions assert that even when these… [read more]

Snake River Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Snake River is part of the larger Columbia River system. The natural ecology of the Snake River has been altered by the placement of dams on the river, altering the way Salmon move through the entire region and raising a number of questions about whether the dams are doing more harm than good. The Snake River is the main tributary… [read more]

Animal Senses Herman, Pack Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,268 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In short, the dolphin turned out to be smart enough to assess new situations instantly and use whatever skills/abilities it needed to obtain correct information and further, to use its prior training to let the researcher know its answer. Still, the question must be asked: Is there a point to this experiment? Will knowing how a dolphin 'sees' objects bring… [read more]

Why Animals Should Be Spayed Neutered Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Spaying and Neutering Pets

Spaying and Neutering -- the least costly alternative to you, your pet, and to society

Why you should spay or neuter your pet

Attention getter -- common misconception

Subvert Common Misconception

Why spaying and neutering good for society

Common Myths -- miracles of birth, purebred

Overpopulation -- the reality

Why spaying and neutering good for pet… [read more]

Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff, and Mccarthy, Susan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff, and McCarthy, Susan. When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. 1995: Delacorte Press.

In the prologue of this book, Massan explains that scientists have been carefully trained to believe that animals do not experience emotions. He dismantles that notion easily on the second page when he describes being charged by an enraged elephant. Unless anger is… [read more]

Narrative of the Life of an American Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Narrative of the Life of an American Slave: The Use of Animal Metaphors, Images, And Comparisons by Its Author

Today, we live in a world where we usually encounter animals as pets or as cellophane wrapped packages in the meat department -- seldom as beasts of burden or creatures that we make an economic profit from, unless we are farmers. But in the 19th century of the rural agrarian South, animals were necessary to the livelihood of plantation owners, making work less onerous and providing a potential for profit in trade. Alas, the human personages of slaves provided similar respite from physical labor and similar sources of profits.

This is why, over the course of Narrative of the Life of an American Slave, the author, the once-enslaved Frederick Douglass, frequently makes use of animal images to describe his plight and to make analogies between his own existence and the existence of an animal. This would not be, initially a surprise to his contemporary readership. As a slave in the American South, Douglass was frequently forced to work amongst animals as well as function like one, so animals were a ready source of metaphor.

Douglass makes it clear how he was often asked to function as a beast of burden in his own labors, and punished like a beast by being whipped. He wrote in an era where animals were not accorded even minimal rights. Today, animal rights are a frequent source and subject of public debate, but in Douglass' era, because of the human possession of a soul, in contrast to animals, the idea of animals and humans being close in origin was less comfortable. Rather, what was of debate was if Douglass' own race was fully human or closer to the non-human 'lower' rungs of the animal kingdom, as they were frequently treated.

Thus, Douglass uses animal metaphors to glean support for his cause from a potentially sympathetic Northern readership and audience, from a religious perspective. He has a soul, unlike an animal, yet he was treated like one. He uses examples of his being treated like an animal, and bought and sold like a beast, to show that even under the 'best' forms of human enslavement, in other words, even when slaves have kind masters, they are treated as subhuman actors in the universe. "Added to the cruel lashing a to which these slaves were subjected," on one farm, "they [the slaves] were kept nearly half-starved. They seldom knew what it was to eat a full meal. I have seen Mary [a fellow slave] contending with the pigs for the offal thrown into the street. So much was Mary kicked and cut to pieces, that she was oftener called pecked than by her name." (1897, Chapter IV) Mary, out of slavery and the ill treatment is reduced to the status of a beast, although she is made, like all humans, in God's image, many of Douglass' abolitionists and Northern Christian readers would marvel, with horror.

What makes a… [read more]

Environmental Effects on Species Habitats Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


o. occidentalis)

California black rail

Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus

California clapper rail

Rallus longirostris obsoletus

California condor

Gymnogyps califonianus

California least tem

Sterna albifrons browni (=Sterna antillarum browni) golden eagle

Aquila chrysaetos greater sandhill crane

Grus candadensis tabida light-footed clapper rail

Rallus longirostris levipes southern bald eagle (=bald eagle)

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (=Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trumpeter swan

Cygnus buccinator white-tailed kite

Elanus leucurus… [read more]

Life Forms in the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


nearctica.com/nathist/protista/prointro.htm)." They are the ancestors of the sponges, "and of all the protoctists, it the choanoflagellates that are the most likely ancestors of animals (web.lander.edu/rsfox/112protc.html)."


Choanoflagellates are protists and are related to both fungi and animals. These single-cell organisms are believed to be early ancestors to sponges and animals.

Works Cited

(Choanoflagellates. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

< halassa.gso.uri.edu/rines/ecology/choanofl.htm>).

(Introduction to the Choanoflagellates. (accessed 10 November, 2003).


(Protists. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

< http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entries/60/p0616000.html>).

(Protists. (accessed 10 November, 2003).


(Protists. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

(Survey of Organismal Diversity. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

).… [read more]

Wild Species Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Wild species and the people, who depend on them, are being increasingly at risk, since the diversity of nature is disturbed and ecosystems are being degraded and fragmented. By means of changes that would be created artificially, the delicate balance of our ecosystem would be upset as a result of introducing genetically engineered species For example, in the production of… [read more]

Animals Have Rights? Tabor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Machan states that animals and humans are fundamentally different, and that one of those fundamental differences is the ability to make moral decisions. However, he bases his argument more on the presence of self-consciousness than on reality. Animals rarely, if ever, kill except for food or self-defense. Humans, on the other hand, kill other humans for a number of unethical, morally unjust reasons. Animals, because they would never perform such actions, could be considered morally superior to human beings. Machan's conclusion is correct: animals and humans are different. However, that difference is due more to brain functions and not morality.

The main ethical principle used by the author is the "respect for persons." Machan argues that human autonomy is superlative to any other ethical notion. While Machan sounds utilitarian at times, especially in regards to his views on animal testing, his utilitarianism is limited to human beings and does not extend to other sentient beings. While Machan urges people to develop moral virtues so as to not grossly mistreat animals, his argument is not virtue-based.

While I agree that human beings are superior to animals because of our greater brain capacity, I do not believe that animals are undeserving of protection. Animals may not be able to think rationally, but they are still sentient beings. To assume that animals are inferior might be a fallacy; because human beings have a deplorable record of mistreating both animals and fellow humans, it seems that human beings can be considered inferior to animals on a number of accounts. I do, however, agree that using animals to benefit human beings is acceptable in some instances. Those instances are basically the same for humans and for animals: food and self-defense. To abuse and exploit the animal kingdom is a fundamentally…… [read more]

Warm-Blooded vs. Cold-Blooded Animals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (915 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Many cold-blooded animals shiver, like warm-blooded animals, to stay warm when they are in a cold area. Fish move to deeper waters during the colder months or migrate to different areas. Often fish have a special protein in their blood that helps them to survive frigid temperatures. Many cold-blooded animals hibernate during the winter.

After discovering the difference between warm-blooded and cold-blooded creatures, I watched how my gecko and dog responded to changes in temperature. It was fascinating to discover that they acted accordingly with my research. Also, I found that both animals were able to adjust to changes. This raised the question: Is it better to be a warm-blooded animal or a cold-blooded animal?

Warm-blooded enjoy many advantages that cold-blooded animals do not. For example, warm-blooded animals are able to stay active in cold environments, while cold-blooded animals become extremely sluggish in the cold. Because they depend on their own bodies for temperature control, warm-blooded animals can live nearly anywhere on Earth, while cold-blooded animals would find it very difficult to survive in arctic regions or on high mountains. Unlike cold-blooded animals, war-blooded animals do not need to be warm to find a mate and reproduce, so they can mate anywhere.

On the other hand, cold-blooded animals enjoy their own advantages. For example, they need less energy to survive than their warm-blooded friends. Mammals and birds need a great deal of food and energy to survive, while cold-blooded animals can live on much less. If food is scarce, cold-blooded animals can keep their body temperatures low to survive. Warm-blooded animals do not have this option. In addition, warm-blooded animals are more prone to infections than cold-blooded animals. The constantly changing body temperatures of cold-blooded animals make it hard for viruses and bacteria to survive.

My research led me to the conclusion that both warm-blooded and cold-blooded have equal advantages than enable them to survive. When hearing the differences between warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, I initially though that I would prefer to be cold-blooded than warm-blooded. However, after weighing the options, I changed my mind. As a cold-blooded animal, if my environment got too hot, then I would feel hot outside and inside my body right away. As a warm-blooded animal, if my surroundings become hot, I would only feel the heat from the outside, but my whole body's temperature will not instantly increase. I would have greater control. However, if I were a cold-blooded creature, I would be able to survive longer without food and be less prone to infections. Both animals seem to have equal advantages.


Daniels, Patricia. Warm-Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1983

Daniels, Patricia. Cold Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1986.

The Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Dimensions,…… [read more]

Maldive Shark, by Herman Melville Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


On the contrary, for a species to survive, they must adapt to their ever-changing surroundings, and the pilot fish has clearly done this, and now resides comfortably with the shark.

The pilot fish and the shark are "friends" in that they share the same "neighborhood," but they are animals, and thus do not recognize the friendship, what they recognize is survival, and they each rely on the other to survive. The beauty of the relationship is that somehow they figured out what the other needed, and a way to provide it, while still surviving. It is a beautiful thing in nature that allows animals to help and nurture each other without really recognizing the fact. The benefit of life is living, which is much preferable to being eaten by the "great maw" of the shark. Another benefit is the ability to pass on the learned knowledge of survival to progeny, thereby lengthening the lifespan of…… [read more]

Environmental Themes in Grapes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,447 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Everglades would be confined to one million acres within the levees and the shallow marsh of Everglades National Park (Douglas, 1997).

This federal act called for the control of water levels though a network of pumps and roughly 1,400 miles of canals and levees. "Within the Everglades, the project created five enormous impoundments, the water conservation areas, running through… [read more]

Beauty and Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"It is a wondrous spectacle, but within a decade, scientists fear, most migratory monarchs may vanish from North America -- victims of human stupidity and greed" (Darrach 1993). Every year hundreds of millions of monarchs migrate from Mexico to Canada. This is a trip of 5,000 miles. The butterflies that go to Mexico and survive the winter then head north… [read more]

Nineteenth Century Physiologist Claude Bernard Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,186 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" The experiments involved cruel and heartbreaking methods to obtain results. Experiments like these are fundamentally wrong. It can be equated to the Nazi's during the Second World War conducting experiments on humans to improve the life of other humans. (Newton & Lyons, 2001) These experiments are sadistic and they should be stopped as quickly as possible.

There are better ways for finding the effect of lifestyle even on animals. Better records can be kept of veterinary visits or medical treatments that are conducted for the benefit of animals. This data can be then synthesized to obtain any trends and observations in the data collected.

The John Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing was set up 20 years ago in the U.S. It is devoted to investigating and developing alternatives to animal testing. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Paris-based club of the world's richest 29 nations decided to abolish the LD50 -- Lethal Dose50 (50% of the dose of a substance required to cause death) test in 2000.

Are humans superior to animals? Does this superior attitude allow man to do what he likes to animals? Animals do have a lot in common with human beings -- physiologically and emotionally. If animals can be used to help understand human beings then at some level we do consider them our equal, and we do assume that they have the same behavioral patterns as humans. Claims of non-awareness of the feeling that animals have cannot give man the right to use animals as they like.

Jeremy Bentham states that the question of whether animal can reason or whether they can talk is not important but whether animals can suffer and no matter what is said they do. He defined the "prerequisite for having interests...if a being suffers there can be no moral justification for refusing to take the suffering into consideration" (Singer 1979:31); he called this "principle of consideration of interests."

Many scientists are now questioning the results got from the experiments done on animals. Various factors, such as the stress induced by caging animals can change the behavior and the biochemical makeup of animals. No experimentation carried out on one species in an environment other that its own natural habitat be extrapolated to any other, including man.

Man should realize the importance of other animal species. People might try to deny that animals are similar to us -- animals have no feeling and emotions. A paradox indeed! If animals are so different how then can they be then used to determine how man functions? If results based on animal experimentation is considered valid for humans are we under no obligation to treat them justly and fairly since they are more similar to us than we claim them to be. How can we ignore their sufferings?


Animal Experimentation: Sadistic Scandal." 18 April 2002. http://www.peta-online.org/mc/facts/fsae1.html

Brecher, Arie. Speech at the International Congress of Doctors Against Vivisection, Italian Parliament, November 8, 1989. Reprinted in the International Foundation Report… [read more]

Benefits of Spaying and Neutering Pets Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Spay Neuter

Dogs, cats, and other companion pets like rabbits and pot-bellied pigs bring great joy to their owners. The benefits of caring for a dog and cat are immeasurable. However, with pet ownership comes a responsibility to care for the animal for the rest of its life. Sterilizing the animal through the processes known colloquially as spaying and neutering… [read more]

Theme of the Greenbelt Policy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,209 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


They are also known to help in the fight against global warming and help the earth retain its earlier natural form in terms of the climate and weather (West L., 2014). Texas needs to be actively involved in the protection of the natural environment hence the passing of this law will significantly put Texas on the map of those regions that are concerned about nature and the global warming challenge.

The green belts are also known for the fundamental part that they play in the protection of wild animals as well as the plants that are found therein. Since the areas covered by the city are often busy section with activities going on, noises from the busy schedules of people, exhaust fumes that make it difficult for birds to inhabit the region, the green belts are the only sections that can be a refuge for the wild animals that are in the region. The human-wildlife conflict is significantly reduced by the existence of these greenbelts hence needs to be encouraged and indeed put to be a law in all the cities in Texas (Kamau David, 2013). There is ned to have people around the city to turn to conservation instead of getting into activities that will act to encourage conflict between human beings and the wild animals that shall have been displaced from the destroyed natural green belts and hence forced to get into the human habitats or clash with human in the process of being driven from their natural habitats (Kuschk, 2012).

The rural areas that surround the cities are also at risk once the cities are left unchecked and expand or sprawl wantonly. The green belts hence are known to protect the character of rural areas that might otherwise be taken over by expanding suburbs. There is no better way to protect the rural areas from being changed totally hence lose their identity or even worse still be completely destroyed by the sprawling cities than the use of green belts. The rural areas are known to be characterized by the natural lifestyle, no high-rise buildings, natural conservation and care for the natural environment and the animals therein. If the greenbelts are destroyed, then even the rural areas that exist behind the greenbelt will be predominantly exposed to the destructive force and nature of the city, with streams that they sue being exposed to high risks of getting dry as was the case in Kenya (The Green Belt Movement, 2014). Texas is largely known to be rural in nature hence there is no where else in the U.S. that this greenbelt law needs to be passed than in Texas in order to ensure safety of the rural areas and effectively conserving the identity of Texas.

There is no better time to have the greenbelt law implemented in Texas cities than now since this will help curb the challenges that are faced not only by Texans but by extension the surrounding states. This will also help in setting a precedence… [read more]

Introducing a Pet-Feeding Device for Dogs Marketing Plan

Marketing Plan  |  3 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Figure 1. Lentek 6-Day Automatic Pet Dish

Source: http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41ZXTTGH20L.jpg

Three competitors that offer some type of automatic pet food dispensers are described in Table 2 below.

Table 2

Current automatic pet food dispenser vendors



Lentek 6-Day Automatic Pet Dish (http://www.amazon.com / Lentek-6-Day-Automatic-Pet-Dish/dp/B00006JHRE)

* Automatic six-day pet dish ideal during week-long vacations

* Selectable feeding intervals of 6, 12 or 24 hours

* Each compartment holds 2/3 cup dry or 5-1/2 ounces wet food

* Accurate timer; lid rotation stops if resistance is felt

* Includes removable lid and two inserts; uses one 9-volt battery.

PetSafe Eatwell Automatic Pet Feeder (http://www.petsmart.com)

* 5-compartment dish for meals up to 5 days with a portion size of 1 cup each.

* Rotating serving dish brings food to pet.

* Electronic timer allows you to set the times each new meal is presented.

* Dishwasher-safe food tray.

* Airtight compartments keeps food fresh.

* Electronic timer selectable to one or more meals per day.

Uses four (4) D-cell batteries (not included).

4 Meals Tray Automatic Pet Feeder Electronic Programmable Dry/Wet Food Dog Cat Feeder w / LCD display

* Record a personal message for your pet

* Built in clock with easy to read LCD

* User programmable feeding times

* 4 Separate large food trays, prefect for dry or wet pet food.

* Keeps pets on a regular feeding schedule


Marketing Strategy

Caninantics intends to begin marketing Pooch Pantry and then branching into other canine accessories by the end of the year.



The start-up costs for the venture will come from the following sources:


Owner/operator/inventor funding from savings:






Bank loan:




It is important for start-ups such as Caninantics to have formal internal controls in place to ensure that their organizational strategies remain closely aligned with their mission, values and goals (Adler, 2009).


Adler, J. (2009, December 2). Start-ups, too dependent on realty, swell failures. American Banker, 173(231), 1.

Facts about pet ownership. (2014). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Retrieved from http://www.aspca.org/about-us/faq/pet-statistics.…… [read more]

Lonesome George, Martha, and the Black Rhinoceros Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (5,725 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Black Rhinoceros / Extinction

Imagining Extinction:

The Black Rhinoceros and the Last of the Race

This paper intends to discuss the idea of extinction. Such discussion necessarily entails a certain amount of scientific discourse, but in particular I would like to ramify the scientific discussion with some literary and cultural insights as well. The reason for this should be obvious.… [read more]

Hear Me? See Me? Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  5 pages (1,632 words)
Bibliography Sources: 28


Cross modal effects take place not only in humans but in chimpanzees as well. Because chimpanzees are so similar to homo sapiens, the presence of cross modality is something that is totally understandable. The question that could be asked is if cross modality is so prevalent in both humans and chimpanzees, could it also be prevalent in other animals as… [read more]

Plant Biology Shoot Architecture Enhances Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (714 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In terms of plant root systems, for example, soil teems with various bacteria and fungi. In numerous cases, these have evolved together, so that the bacteria or fungi assist the plant and in return increase their own nutritional intake. With bacteria, the process is generally known as "nitrogen fixation." The bacteria that grow around the root systems provide a source of fixed nitrogen which is used by the plant in the formation of chemical compounds. The process occurred when the bacteria, which are anaerobic and thus undergo respiration in an environment with no oxygen -- the bacteria provide the plant with nitrogen while in turn the plant protects the bacteria from oxygen.

A different sort of symbiotic relationship occurs between plant root systems and fungi. Mycorrhizae -- which literally means "fungus roots" -- are in essence a symbiotic arrangement of root systems with underground fungus. The fungus has a safe place to live and is supplied with sugar by the host plant, but in return the fungus is beneficial for the plant with which it has the relationship. The fungus spreads and grows in a way that expands the plants overall area for water absorption and ultimately can select specific chemicals (like phosphates) which are useful for the plant. The fungus has also evolved to produce other compounds that are beneficial to the plant in other ways -- either to increase root growth or to produce antibiotic agents that protect the plant from hostile bacteria.

One final and particularly unusual form of co-evolution is involved in carnivorous plants. These plants -- such as the famous Venus flytrap -- live in swampy environments with acidic soil which lacks adequate nitrogen. The plant has evolved in some way to attract the insect or small animal, and then essentially "digests" it by secreting chemical compounds that break down the animal organism into its consitutent parts -- thus providing the plant with the nitrogen it fails to get through its root system. This is not precisely symbiosis, of course, because it is not beneficial to both the Venus flytrap and…… [read more]

Taxonomic Categories Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Taxonomic Categories

There are 9 animals in nine different Phyla. Be sure to look at every page.



Dichotomous Key (steps)



Organism is multicellular

Does it have exo or endo skeleton? NO

Is organism asymmetrical (sponge). NO

Is organism transparent? YES

It is jelly fish.

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Subphylum: Medusozoa


Does it have endo-skeleton or exo-skeleton? EXO

Does it have Shell? YES.

Does it have foot? YES.

It is a snail

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca



Does it have any skeleton? NO

Found on land? YES?

Does it have symmetrical smooth body? YES

Does it have a segmented body? YES

It is an earthworm

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Annelida




Terrestrial or non-terrestrial? TERRESTRIAL

Flies or crawls or walk? FLIES

Has fur and spinal cord? NO

Has antenna? YES

5) Has hind wing? YES

6) it is a butterfly

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Insecta


1) Terrestrial or non-terrestrial? NON-TERRESTRIAL

2) Has endo or exo skeleton? EXO

3) Body symmetrical? NO

4) it is a sponge

Kingdom: Animalia

Subkingdom: Parazoa Phylum: Porifera


1) Terrestrial or non-terrestrial? NON-TERRESTRIAL

2) Has endo or exo skeleton? EXO

3) Body is symmetrical? YES RADIAL

4) Does it have feet? Yes

5) Body smooth or spiny? SPINY

6) it is a star fish.

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata



Class: Asteroidea



1) Multicellular hence it is either plant or animal

2) Lacks chlorophyll hence it is animal

3) Has skeleton hence Chordata

4) Has feathers and flies hence it is aves

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Aves


Image Rights: Allen G.

Collins and the UC Museum of Paleontology


1) Does it have a skeleton? NO

2) Is the body symmetrical? YES

3) Is the round or cylinder like? NO

4) Found on land or water? POND WATER

5) Can it see? YES

6) it is a lukeworm

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Platyhelminthes


Image Rights: Courtesy of University of Minnesota


1) Has skeleton? NO

2) Found on land? YES

3) Body round? YES

4) Body smooth? YES

5) Body is segmented? NO

6) it is a…… [read more]

Conservation Biology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Other valued of biodiversity to humans include the fact that rich environments provide heretofore unknown resources, such as new food products and medicines. Important medicinal discoveries such as the pain medications codeine and morphine were only discovered because they were natural defense mechanisms found in plants to prevent their consumption by herbivorous organisms.

Factors that threaten species persistence include: (1) degradation, destruction, and fragmentation of their natural habitats, (2) overexploitation of populations, (3) disease or a new predator's introduction, and (4) some natural or unnatural phenomena which upsets the balance within the ecosystem (Sadava 2011,-page 1247). Each of these factors could lead to endangerment of extinction of given populations.

6. Describe at least four strategies used by Conservation Biologists to protect Biodiversity.

a. Creating and maintaining nature preserves which emulate the natural habitats of the creatures that live within the preserve. These preserves will be built in regions which are close to the climate and terrain of the original ecosystem in the hope that the animals will be able to survive and thrive within the community.

b. Conservation biologists have used the legal system to ban chemicals, processes, and procedures which have been proven to negatively impact biodiversity. For example, conservation biologists have been instrumental in banning the use of chemical sprays such as DDT which are used by farmers to prevent insects from eating or bruising their crops. These insect sprays have not only decimated the insect population, but also impacted bird communities and cats in certain regions of the world because these secondary consumers eat the insects and are then themselves poisoned.

c. Implementing procedures to decrease carbon emissions, such as encouraging green processes either through social pressure or through legislative measures. This has included implementation of carpooling lanes and regional transit systems to lessen the amount of cars on the road which then release harsh chemicals into the environment both in the air and in the ground.

d. Conservation biologists have worked internationally to expand knowledge of endangered species and encourage cooperation between nations to protect various species. It is perceived as larger than a national problem and these scientists have been able to achieve a level of international cooperation unseen in other situations.

Works Cited

Fujikawa, T. & Dougherty, J. (2010). The value of biodiversity and its impact on human health.

David Suzuki Foundation.

Sadava, et al. (2011). Life: the Science of Biology Volume 2. 9th ed. Sinauer: Gordonsville, VA.

Sahney, S. & Benton, M. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.

Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological. 275(1636). 759-65.…… [read more]

Environmental Law Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Environmental law

Environmental law: The Endangered Species Act

The Endangered Species Act was passed in 1973 and was designed to help species in danger of becoming extinct as a result of "economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation" (ESA, 1973, Cornell). The Act only protects endangered and threatened species, not all wildlife. Endangerment is when a species is "in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range" while "threatened" means "a species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. All species of plants and animals, except pest insects, are eligible for listing as endangered or threatened" (ESA, 2013, FWS). One or more of the following five criteria must be met for a species to be protected under the provisions of the ESA: the species is faced with present or threatened destruction of its habitat; there is overuse of its habitat or of the species for "commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes;" the species has exhibited a decline due to disease or predators; inadequacy of existing regulations to protect the species; and/or other natural factors (ESA, 1973, Cornell).

The 1973 ESA is a reformation of the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966. The Act arose out of the budding environmental and conservation movement of the time, and has remained virtually unchanged since, with only very minor amendments (History, 2013, FSW). The most significant change regarding the law has been in relation to costs: "Originally the ESA wasn't supposed to consider financial concerns, something even the Supreme Court agreed" but the law changed in 1978 when Congress demanded to know the costs of protecting specific species (Vinzant 2009). Before he left office, George Bush issued an order that "federal officials didn't have to bother to consult with scientists when they decided whether logging or mining would impact a species on the brink of extinction" but this provision was quickly overturned by President Obama when he assumed office (Vinzant 2009).

By 1988, "Congress was requiring the Fish and Wildlife Service to complete recovery plans for each species, including recovery times and costs" although a study in 2006 "found only 20 of 107 plans…… [read more]

Zoos Are Categorically Utilitarian in Their Purpose Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Zoos are categorically utilitarian in their purpose and function. Even when zoos participate in the preservation of species, education, consciousness raising, and fundraising, they are still performing a utilitarian function that precludes the individual rights of the animals therein. The zookeeper works on the principle of utility -- that it is useful to maintain an institution that promotes education and research, as well as promotes ecological integrity via the preservation of species. Most zookeepers would also claim that their facilities and their working procedures ensure the humane treatment and welfare of the animals; that animals are being treated well by being regularly fed, offered time to play and interact with others in their species, and not being harmed. Any restrictions to the animal's freedom is conceived of as being part of the "greatest good for the greatest number" utilitarian concept -- which in this case can even be extended to some species of animal such as those about to go extinct. If a zoo is preserving the endangered species and breeding them in captivity, then those programs restrict the individual freedoms of individual animals for the collective good of their entire species. Because he builds much of his animal ethic on utilitarianism, Peter Singer is far more likely than Tom Regan to acknowledge that zoos are -- or at least can be -- morally acceptable institutions.

Yet when zoos do things like put on entertainment shows, they are more blatantly exploiting the animals individually and collectively, for the utilitarian goal of profit-making and mass-market entertainment. The latter type of zoo is more obviously unethical than the former, and it also raises questions about the perceived utility of animals for human benefit. Both Peter Singer and Tom Regan would decry the type of zoo that puts on shows and allow their animals to mope in cages, but would do so for different reasons. Singer would claim that while the individual elephants being paraded around the…… [read more]

Biology Species D In Evolutionary Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Microhabitats can, and often do, create rapid adaptive variation.

Part 10

A. The major limitations on the morphological concept of species is that there is often a large amount of phenotypic variability within a species; that organisms that can interbreed sometimes have different physical characteristics, and that it does not consider if individuals of a species can produce viable offspring. For biological concepts, many species do not reproduce sexually, and then are hard to apply to the biological concept since it emphasizes reproduction. In other words, in the biological concept, species are based not on physical similarity, but on fertility.

B. In this scenario, likely the morphological concept because the butterfly populations are distinct. In this manner, we could look at not just reproduction, but differences in body function, biochemistry, behavior and genetic make-up.

Part 11 - A clade is a group consisting of an ancestor and its decedents. Extinction rates can exceed speciation rates in clades based on a sharp change in diversity, climate, and habitat for a specific organism. This can be artificial (man-caused) or natural (weather, earthquakes, climate change, etc.). Certainly much of the basic mass extinctions are examples of this; 1) the Cretaceous-Paleocene Extinction Event about 65 million years ago in which 75% of all species became extinct; 2) the Triassic-Jurassic event about 200 million years ago when 70-75% of species became extinct. In #1, the boundary event was severe enough so that the majority of non-avian dinosaurs became extinct and mammals and birds emerged dominant; in #2 most non-dinosaurian archosaurs and large amphibians were eliminated, resulting is less terrestrial competition for the remaining species.

Part 12 -- You should check this with your text































Part B. Species 3 and 5

Part C. Species 2, 4 and 5

Part 13 - In vitro evolution may not involve the cells and therefore the results can have larger mutations; Molecular evolution is at the RNA, DNA and protein scale based on cellular structures. In vitro evolution produces new molecules, molecular evolution new combinations.

Part 14 -- Between fossil and molecular evidence, I would side with the molecular evidence due to the reliability of science and genetic definitions as opposed to outside variables (temperature, strata, location, etc.) of the physical fossil evidence.

Part 15 --…… [read more]

Fur From China Against Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Since glimmers of hope is evidence, let each and everybody take action. For us to dismantle this fur trade as fast as possible, we should begin by showing it in our habits. Pledge never to buy fur from China, as well as encouraging the friends and family you have to take the same action. Majority of people are truly not heartless and they care for others and are willing to do the right thing. However most of these people are not aware of the cruelty behind the fur trim on their gloves or coats, while most of them tend to be misled by false labeling and fairy tales over fur farms, (Chiara Feddeck, 2012).

In case you have decided to stop, you should stop, there are fabulous fake furs, and it becomes very tricky to separate them from the real stuff, and as mention they deliberately mislabeled them. There are some other ways which might work of distinguishing them such as: closely looking at the substrate material, which might be leathery and skin-like (that one s real) on the other hand it might be woven like a rug (such is a fake one). Some people might opt to use flame test which still works. Taking a few strands that belong to the furry fibers of the garment then hold them over a small flame, if it is real fur, the smell will be like burning hair as well as leaving a strand of, well, burnt hair. However, many of the common synthetics, smell like burning plastic and melt to take the bead form just like plastic. Another way of distinguishing the fur is trying to push a pin through the base of the fur. In case it is the real one, there will be a leather backing hence becoming hard to force a pin through. A fake one will allow the pin to go through it easily. Moreover, you can as well blow on the fur for it to separates. A real fur will expose its layers of soft, almost wooly fur through which there is protruding longer hairs, while the backing should be leather. When it is fake, it will have a common single simple layer of almost identical hairs.


China fur has never proved worth buying for such a long time for there are still not definite rules and regulation that govern the fur trade so that the State can export a quality and look upon the manner of slaughtering that takes place in various part of the state. I have a feeling that after becoming aware of the malicious practices no fur from China will be bought as well as forming part of our garment or buying them.


Chiara Feddeck, (2012). Fur Is Not Fashionable: The Cruelty of The Fur Industry. Retrieved march 17, 2013 from http://www.witandfancy.com/2012/01/19/fur-is-not-fashionable-the-cruelty-of-the-fur-industry/

Steve Martindale, (2013). Best of PETA Prime: Help Shut Down the Chinese Fur Trade. Retrieved march 17, 2013 from http://prime.peta.org/2011/07/china

Graham, David,(2012). How Canada Gets Dog and Cat… [read more]

Synaptic Communication This Report Will Cover Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Synaptic Communication

This report will cover the principles of synaptic communication of neurons throughout one's life and how that communication governs and influences communications with people and leads to certain behaviors. About four sources will be used to cover these topics. Some will cover neurons specifically while others will cover behavior.

Synapse Communication & Development

One major building block that neurons need to function and develop occurs during the initial formation of neurons. One such building block is the NMDA receptor, as referred to and studied by McAllister in 2007. The majority of mature glutamatergic synapses are in the neurons of the cortex on dendritic spines. The development and changes of these synapses occur both in utero and in vivo, with the latter referring to the time spent in the womb of the mother before birth (NIH, 2013).

For experiences and daily events to shape the form and function of synapses, there must be a processing of thousands of synaptic inputs and they must be translated into the appropriate changes in function. In short, if an impetus for change if fleeting dn by no means permanent, the chances that real and lasting change will result with the neurons and synapses is exceedingly unlikely (NIH, 2013).

One example of how synapses communication is through bidirectional communication between the synapse and the nucleus. This process regulates neuronal development and plasticity. The exact same process can be used to increase calcium levels in the post-synaptic cell. Calcium's role in biochemical transduction of sigans from the synapse to the nucleus is well-known in the scientific community (NIH, 2013)

To take the subject of neuron/synapse communication a bit further, a different site cites the use of the word "nerve" when discussion communication and that is deemed to be fitting given that nerves hold a vital role that involves a lot of communication. Neurons communicate over long distances by sending a series of signals call nerve impulses through a framework called the axons. These axons make up the tract of the nerve and serve as the conduit of the communication (IntroPsych, 2013).

The output from each axon arrives at an area call the synapse, as discussed above. At the point of the synapse, the neurons are separated by a tiny gap call the synaptic cleft. When a nerve impulse reaches the axon, a single neuron may send impulses or signals to thousands of other neurons. The dendrites and/or cell body of a single synapse or cell body (the axon of those points, usually) will possible receive the signal from the synapses and then react accordingly (IntroPsych, 2013).

When transmitters flow across a chemical synapse, there is one of two effects that will manifest itself. The first is that it will get excited and this will cause the neuron to possible fire off a signal of its own in sort of a cascading effect across the neurons and synapses. The other effect to have it inhibited by the signal it's receiving. Either way, the reactions from neuron's… [read more]

Bombadil and Treebeard in Middle-Earth Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Several other characters in Tolkien's works are established as mysterious and explanations from the author are never forthcoming (McCloskey, 2002). About the Lord of the Rings, Tolkien did offer that he wrote the story clearly in terms of good and bad sides, of beautiful against ugliness, of kindness against ruthlessness (McCloskey, 2002). But the key point that Tolkien makes -- and that best explains Bombadil's puzzling behavior -- is the effect brought about by renouncing control and any desire of tangible things (McCloskey, 2002). In separating from the world such that he exists only as a watcher, Bombadil is free from the right and wrong duality (McCloskey, 2002). Indeed, the means of exerting power and control loose meaning and value to Bombadil (McCloskey, 2002).

Treebeard is a Middle-earth character who is the eldest member of the Ents species. Treebeard is regarded to live in the ancient Forest of Fangorn, and like the other inhabitants of forests he looks like a tree, having a rigid bodily structure and leafy hair. Treebeard ant the other Ents once roamed other forests of the Middle-earth, including the Misty Mountains, Mirkwood, Mordor, and the Blue Mountains. But when the Etnwives were driven out at the end of the Third Age, the Ents isolated themselves in the Forest of Fangorn. Treebeard was encouraged by Pippin and Merry to stop the Saruman from cutting down his trees, and so Treebeard led a war against Saruman and his Orcs to stop the carnage. If Bombadil can be characterized as quick and frivolous, Treebeard makes no haste. He has been characterized as something waking up from an ages long sleep after which he engages in slow, steady thinking considering the world suddenly revealed around him with the "same slow care it had given to its own inside affairs for endless years" (Tolkien, 1954).


Both Treebeard and Bombadil found ways to interact with the physical world around them. Bombadil is disengaged with the tangible world in the same way that a Buddhist monk might be; he does not engage in the rightness or wrongness of the world as he lives above it and beyond it. Treebeard manages the danger and conflict in the world, as would a tree in a storm -- bending, giving way, and yet winning the contest by surviving and by still being there at the end of the storm or the end of the battle.

The tension that exists between the characterization of Bombadil and Treebeard is the same tension that is evident when the concepts of heaven and earth are juxtaposed. Bombadil does not concern himself with earthly things, and he expresses the joy and free abandon that is characteristic of a small child -- or an angelic being. Treebeard carries the weight of the world -- antagonism and war, fear and treachery -- and they literally weigh him down, cause him to be slow moving, though not slow witted. Treebeard's pensive attitude is a result of his deep appreciation of the effects of… [read more]

Phyla and Parasites Ten Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Also, they have no digestive tract which allows them to absorb food directly from the stomach.

Ascaris ~ Adapted with a sucker mouth and have no internal transportation. They need a host to survive. Its body is long and narrow which allows it to easily accommodate in the intestine of its host. It is also adapted to protect its skin against the chemicals of the host body. Also, the nervous system and sensory organs were simplified.

Platyhelminthes ~ They have adapted a thick body which protects them against the host body.

Their spines, suckers, and hooks developed to be attached and their organs which allow motion were removed.

Protozoa: Developed the ability to encysted which makes a thick, tough wall around itself and then enter a state of hibernation. Many of them avoid places which are inhospitable, such as where there is no oxygen.

Leech: Creates a cocoon for itself which is a protective covering. Adapted to be a hermaphrodite to help reproduction. Leech developed slow digestions and the ability to secrete hirudin which prevents blood clotting.

Nematode: Developed a pseudocoelom which has a body cavity lined with a mesoderm. This is a space for both circulation and internal organs. They move not with limbs but a hydrostatic skeleton.

Taenia Solium: The parasite developed an external cuticular epidermis, an adhesive organ, and no alimentary canal. Each segment has independent reproductive organs and does not have any external organs.

Entamoeba Histolytica: Developed the ability to tolerate the high temperatures within the host body and to avoid digestive chemicals.

Ischnocera: The parasite has evolved an elongated…… [read more]

Behavioral Training for Therapy Dogs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These are Animal Assisted Therapy and Animal Assisted Activities even thought researchers in the field of human-nonhuman animal studies have continually been criticized for lack of theoretical foundations (Brown, 2004, p.68). The human-companion animal bond is based on theories with three kinds of models that are considered as being akin to the human-animal attachments and relationships.

The Animal Assisted Therapy is a therapy service in which companion animals are part of the therapy of a patient. In this category, interactions with the therapy dogs are part of the plan of treatment developed by healthcare professionals to enhance the emotional and physical function of a patient. On the contrary, the Animal Assisted Activities therapy service basically entails the introduction of pets to withdrawn patients or individuals to stimulate communication. This is carried out because patients tend to feel comfortable around a friendly animal despite the lack of the need for trained professionals or absence of formal plan of treatment.

With regards to the current use of therapy and service animals has mainly included the concept of naming laboratory animals. Laboratory animals have been developed to constitute extra evidence of a personal relationship between humans and animals. These laboratories have training for regular procedures that can lessen personnel and animal stress. In the future of therapy and animal service, the administrators of animal research should search for opportunities to motivate the formation and sustenance of bonds between individuals and animals. This process should start with the initial employee interview and maintenance of the philosophy by providing for a final disposition of the animal in a humane way.


Bayne, K. (2002). Development of the Human-Research Animal Bond and Its Impact on Animal

Well-being. ILAR Journal, 43(1), 4-9. Retrieved from http://dels-old.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/43_1/v4301Bayne.pdf

Brown, S. (2004). The Human-Animal Bond and Self-Psychology: Toward a New

Understanding. Society & Animals, 12(1), 67-86. Retrieved from http://animalsandsociety.org/assets/library/528_s1214.pdf… [read more]

Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve: Restoring Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Management and Restoration

Knowledge about the ecosystem's original structure and function continues to aid in the development of plans to restore the preserve to its initial state and manage its maintenance thereafter. Studies continuously run in conjunction with the restoration in order to bring the area back to its initial beauty and quality. Today, the trails of the preserve reveal a reemergence of the preserve's original ecosystem with native flora including warm-season grasses and native wildflowers growing in the area in droves once again (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). Additionally, where woodlands were once leveled to make way for agricultural dominance, today these woodlands are dominated by mixed Pennsylvania hardwoods and two wetland areas as existed before the area's agricultural emergence (VisitPhilly, 2012, p.1).

Species Interactions in Management and Restoration

Volunteers and restoration specialists alike continue to work diligently in the preserve to bring the area back to its original state by fostering the interactions of different species of flora and fauna in order to bring Gwynedd back to its original glory. Today, originally-found grassland birds including the Eastern Meadowlark, Northern Harrier, Eastern Bluebird and Woodcock cohabitate the area as they did prior to agricultural development as do animals such as the red fox and eastern flying squirrel (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). Where foreign crops once flourished, now thrive native grass meadows filled with big bluestem, little bluestem and Indian-grass as well as New York ironweed, purple coneflower and swamp milkweed as well as woodlands dominated by red oak, red ash and red maple (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). The Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve now exists in its former glory with its intended species' cohabitation, which is vital to ensuring the area survives and continues to flourish as nature intended.


Natural Lands Trust. 2012. "Gywnedd Wildlife Preserve." Web. Retrieved from:

http://www.natlands.org/preserves-to-visit/list-of-preserves/gwynedd-wildlife-preserve / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].

Visit Philly Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve." Philadelphia and the Countryside. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.visitphilly.com/outdoor-activities/philadelphia/gwynedd-wildlife-preserve / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].

Schuylkill River National and State Heritage Area Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd

Wildlife Preserve." Web. Retrieved from: http://www.schuylkillriver.org / Detail.aspx?id=170 [Accessed on 23 April 2012].… [read more]

Misfits, Written by Arthur Miller Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Her love of animals and expression of horror at the cruelty of the west is naive yet touching. She is continually taken aback at Langland's callousness to animals. Her new relationship is almost destroyed when she sees Langland's real work: roping horses and making them submit so he can slaughter them. His entire life, Roslyn realizes, has been built upon cruelty. She feels that what she saw as her last chance at starting anew is lost. Guido offers to set the horses free for her if she will leave Langland for him, but that only further depresses her, as she sees it as evidence that men will only show kindness when they want something in exchange. She had also rejected Guido before because of the way he treated his late, pregnant wife, refusing to drive the woman to the hospital when she was in labor

The story ends on an idealistic, hopeful note -- Pearce sets the horses free, and after attempting to capture one of them, Langland eventually capitulates to Roslyn's demands. The ending suggests that some form of redemption is possible, although it is not clear how Langford and Roslyn will live together. If the two of them formed a new union, this could allow life to begin anew and enable Langford to redeem himself from his estranged relationship with his own children. This would also suggest that the traditional, lonely cowboy of the West is finally redeemed by domesticity, and taught to treat wild things with respect. But the overall tone of the film remains bleak, and the viewer is left with a sense that Roslyn and her lover are fantasizing rather than really talking about what will likely transpire in the near or far future.

Work Cited

The Misfits. Starring Marilyn Monroe and Clark Gable.…… [read more]

Maintenance Behavior Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Maintenance Behavior

This report is based on the movie 'Furry Vengeance'. The movie concerns the building of a new habitat for human beings which is the task undertaken by a young real estate developer by the name Dan Sanders, who had convinced his wife and family to relocate to the project site. Dan's family was not happy about the move since it meant leaving their lives behind to come to live to this new remote place. The construction meant destroying the forests and the ecosystem. The angry animals in the forest ganged up to stop this destruction from happening. The animals are led by a clever raccoon to teach the developer a lesson about the consequences of man's encroachment and destruction to nature. In the end, the movie ends by the human beings deciding to build their homes away from the forest and building a conservatory around the forest. The movie has a mix of behaviors which are exhibited both by the animals and the human beings.


One of the positive behaviors that are seen is that of positivity. Positivity refers to the state of something or someone exhibiting a positive feeling. This is seen towards the end of the movie whereby the animals and the human beings agree to co-exist. The human beings, led by Dan Sanders, agree to leave the project and to build a conservatory. Sander's boss, Neal Lyman also came to the project site and after feeling the wrath of the retaliation of the animals, decided to abandon the project for later days. The project had led Sander's family to think of him as mad at some point and that he was taking the project extremely seriously than the way he was taking care of his family. When Dan decides to leave the project…… [read more]

Biology Summary a Population Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


I would begin my classification by identifying any and all anatomical features shared by both species which appear to hold the same function. By searching for homologies such as similar bone structure one can begin deducing whether or not the two species have evolved from a common ancestor. Caution is advised in this approach, however, due to the frequent occurrence of homoplasies, or similarities which have occurred along independent evolutionary lines. An example of the misleading nature of homoplasies can be found in the case of butterflies and birds. While both species share the common adaptation of winged flight, with the wings of both creatures even sharing a similar external appearance, the internal structure of each wing is wholly incongruent. This incongruence is highly indicative that both species evolved from independent ancestors, which is why a more thorough investigation must be undertaken.

When a rabbit eats the lettuce in your garden, all of the energy in the lettuce is used by the rabbit. Is this statement true or false? Defend your answer.

This statement is false because the theory of trophic dynamics holds that the energy of a producer is transferred to its consumer at a rate between 10 and 20%. Every organism transfers energy and converts it to biomass at varying levels of efficiency, meaning the lettuce will have already utilized much of its existing energy for the sake of growth before it is consumed by the rabbit.

A gardener puts a chemical into his/her garden that kills all of the decomposers. What would happen to the garden?

Without decomposers like earthworms, fungi and bacteria present in a garden ecosystem the complex links within the nutrient cycle would soon be irrevocably broken. Decomposers serve a unique and vital role in any ecosystem by helping to facilitate the removal of decaying plant and animal matter, so absent their presence a typical garden would become inundated with organic debris. Furthermore, without decomposers working to convert complex chemicals into essentials such as carbon and nitrogen, the soil…… [read more]

Marine Bioluminescence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,296 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


A number of invertebrates also provide exceptional powers of regeneration and might be capable of regrowing the missing tissues. This occurrence takes place in almost all bioluminescent organisms that are large enough to recuperate from lack of tissues or skin as a result of an attack.


Common between cephalopods, fishes and crustaceans, counter illumination is one of the kinds… [read more]

Creature Contacts A) Shipman, Pat Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


I am interested in learning more on this fascinating topic after reading Shipman's article.

e) Man's interaction with animals was shown to be essential to human development. Shipman points out that human's learned predatory skills from observing animals. It is one explanation for the survival of the human race when early carnivores such as sabretooth cats, who were faster and heavier than man, became extinct when humans did not. Early cave art shows that man learned from animals and shared information about them with other humans, through drawings. Secondly, humans followed animals with respect to migratory patterns. Plant-eating humans could remain in one place; predatory humans had to expand their territory as they sought new hunting grounds. As humans domesticated animals, they also required more space so animals could graze.

f) The study of human evolution often focuses on the physical changes that man has undergone, including development of a larger brain, less body hair, and more erect stature. There is often considerable focus on the use of tools, the discovery of nature's elements, and the increasing sophistication of groups and their governance, from families to tribes and eventually to villages, cities and states. There has not been as much study of the human-animal connection, particularly with respect to the domestication of animals for the purpose of companionship. This article offers a window into another aspect of human evolution that augments the material already presented in the textbook.

Work Cited

Shipman, Pat. "Creature Contacts." New Scientist 210.2814 (2011). 32-36. Web. 11 Nov. 11.

Creature contacts. (cover story)

Shipman, Pat


New Scientist, 5/28/2011, Vol. 210 Issue 2814, p32-36, 5p


Subject Terms:

HUMAN-animal relationships

ANIMALS & civilization

DOMESTICATION… [read more]

Watersheds Netherlands Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,434 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … medium sized watershed in Holland. We will look at the current water status of the Biesbosch National Park watershed. This examination will include considerations of water quantity, quality and supply and demand. Also, there have been several other problems plaguing this watersheds including excess population, additional or changed agricultural practices, dams, new industries and forestry techniques. We will… [read more]

Island Biogeography Theory Have Affected Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (812 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Within the last few decades, however, it was discovered that whereas the theory on which those designs was built may have been heuristically beneficial, the equilibrium theory itself was scientifically full of holes, groundless, in fact, and therefore, impractical (ibid.). Instead of the notions of equilibrium, steady state, homogeneity, and stability that were thought to exist in nature on a constant level (e.g. Botkin, 1990), scientists discovered instead that many of our environmental designs and understandings of islands were built on myths and that nature instead was in constant imbalance and flux, patchy and arbitrary (Wu & Loucks, 1995) with stochastic and heterogeneity its prominent characteristics.

A new ecological paradigm has emerged called the hierarchical patch dynamics paradigm (HPDP) which now drives design in alternate ways (Wu, 2008). No longer are influences on the protected area (of, for instance, the reserve) considered nor is the heterogeneity for the internal areas controlled and supervised. There are allowed to be multiple sources for species and original disturbance patches are allowed to go unchecked (Jazen, 1983). No extra corridors are built, and check is no longer foisted on the intra-reserve corridor. Reserves are no longer islands. It is in this way that recent changes in the view of the applicability of island biogeography theory have affected the principles and practice of conservation design.


Botkin DB (1990) Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Janzen DH (1983) No park is an island: increase in interference from outside as park size decreases. Oikos, 41, 402 -- 410.

MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton

Wu, J. (2008). Changing perspectives on biodiversity conservation: from species protection to regional sustainability Biodiversity Science 16 (3): 205 -- 213

Wu J, Loucks OL (1995) From balance-of-nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: a paradigm shift in ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology, 70, 439 -- 466.

Wu J, Vankat JL (1991) A system dynamics model of island…… [read more]

Fluvial Landscape: Chino Hills State Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Chino Hills State Park has several different kinds of vegetation in each of its major habitats. In the creek zones, cattail stands, as well as willow and sycamore woodlands with understories of wild rose, stinging nettle, and mule fat provide habitats for numerous animals. Live coast oaks are near the water sources, giving way to Southern California black walnut trees. The Tecate cypress is found in some parts of the park, specifically Coal Canyon. The park also features scrub and chaparral communities, which have coastal sage scrub, California sagebrush, California buckwheat, purple stage, laurel sumac, and toyon (California State Parks). The grass in the park provides a good example of invasive species. "Most of the grassland in the park is non-native annual European grasses that were introduced here during the early ranching years. However, grassland species native to California, such as purple needle grass and giant rye can be found among the annuals. An active grassland restoration program in the park is restoring native grassland to its more natural and dominant state" (California State Parks).

The climate in the park is typical of the climate in other parts of the Inland Empire area of California. The climate is temperate, so that it is warm in the summers, with temperatures usually in the 70s, and cool in the winter, with temperatures in the 50s. August is the warmest month of the year and January is the coldest month of the year, but temperatures are mild. Obviously, higher elevations experience broader temperature ranges. There is a moderate difference in daytime and nighttime temperatures. Rainfall is distributed throughout the year, but February tends to be wetter than other months. The area has relatively low humidity, but is not arid.

Chino Hills State Park's greatest natural resource may be its animal species diversity. Water Canyon Natural Preserve and Coal Canyon make up a biological corridor that allows wide-ranging species to range, despite human encroachment into their traditional range. This is critical because, otherwise, species that need large habitats become trapped in isolated patches, which threatens inner-species diversity, and can eventually lead to extinction. The animals that take advantage of this corridor most notably include bobcats and mountain lions, which may be observed in the park. Other animals that may be seen in the park include red-tailed hawks, turkey vultures, coyotes, deer, songbirds, and reptiles. Among the more than 200 species that live in the park, some of them are rare, threatened, or endangered (California State Parks).

Chino Hills State Park is an example of a human effort to preserve biological diversity. The park was created so that long-ranging species would have sufficient habitat to avoid extinction. This has helped encourage biological diversity in animal species, as well as plant species. As long as humans remain good stewards of this protected piece of land, some of the natural biological diversity in this area of California may remain protected, in spite of tremendous human expansion in the same area.

Works Cited

California State Parks. "Chino Hills… [read more]

Nursing Search and Rescue Dogs Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,458 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


These heavier-than-air particles, which hold this person's scent, will usually be close to the ground or on nearby foliage, so the trailing dog will frequently have its nose on the ground, different from the air scent dog (Dogs in Search & Rescue, n.d.).

A bloodhound is characteristically trained for scent favoritism. Each dog is typically worked in a harness, on… [read more]

Solicited in Connection the Presence Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Unfortunately, the deer itself is almost extinct, and, therefore, it is incumbent upon ourselves to protect it. Following unregulated deer shooting in the 1930s, conservation ecologists have been working hard to protect the deer population. Experts estimate that approximately 30 million white-tailed deer exist in the United States alone. Unfortunately deer, beautiful and rare as they are, have multiplied to the extent that they can cause serious problems that include vehicular collision, vehicular damage, economic damage to farmer's crops (especially in corn and orchards), obstruction to reforestation, and destruction of native plants and animals in parks and natural areas. In suburban areas, deer are not help, too, often ruining landscape plants. Frustration of locals causes them to be hunted or trapped in order to relocate them. In many U.S. states and Canadian provinces, sharp shooting of deer is a common occurrence, but, as integral part of the ecosystem, the white-tailed deer must be protected at all costs.

Evaluating each of the Park's plans in formation and carefully reviewing their potential advantages and disadvantages, it seems to me that Plan B. would be the most beneficial to both park supervisors, tourists and, certainly, the deer population themselves. Alternative Action Plan B - non-lethal restraints in combination with Activity A and possibly supplemented by surgical sterilization would greater control be needed - would best serve to monitor the deer's eating habits. Whilst being the least controversial and most placating to the general public, this option would also serve to more effectively control the deer's actions.

It is my hope that this letter will be of some help to the park in question and that for your sake and ours, the white-tailed deer will be restrained from wreaking further damage

Again, thank your of the opportunity to comment on the Plan


Matthews NE et al. (2005). Evaluation of a trap-sterilize-release program for white tailed deer. Report for the Highland Park City Council www.wildcarebayarea.org/site/DocServer/Matthewsetal2005HighlandParkSterilizationReport

NPS.gov. Chapter 1 Purpose and Need for Action http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/1EIS.pdf;

NPS.gov. Chapter 2. Alternatives


NPS.gov. Chapter 3 Affected Environment


NPS.gov. Chapter 4 Environmental Consequences http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/4EIS.pdf

NPS.Gov. Chapter 9 Letters


NPS.gov. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

Final white-tailed deer management plan / environmental impact statement

Catoctin mountain park http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/0EIS.pdf

Rooney, TP & Waller, DM (2003) Direct and indirect effects of white-tailed deer in forest ecosystems, Forest Ec. & Manag, 181, 165-176

Russell, FL et al., (2001). effects of white-tailed deer on plants..: a review. Am. Midland Nat., 146, 1-26… [read more]

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