Study "Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays 56-109

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Environmental Economics and Nature Conservation Term Paper

… Following this line of thoughts, most of the previous environmental programs focused on a specific environmental problem, such as the threats upon a certain species. FEMAT however strived to offer an integrant approach of all threats characterizing the forestry sector… [read more]


Proof to the Fact That People Thesis

… ¶ … proof to the fact that people have lost part of their basic understanding in nature. Because of the evolution experienced by society, humans have gotten accustomed to believing that everything in nature has its equivalent in the world… [read more]


Animal Testing Animal Models Are Faulty Indicators Essay

… Animal Testing

Animal models are faulty indicators and barriers in the development of drugs. Using animal models for human therapeutic experiments is inappropriate, unethical and unreliable. With new, faster and more accurate testing methods available it is high time that this cruel practice of Vivisection is totally banned from pharmaceutical research.

Animal testing is a cruel, unethical practice that is conducted on a large scale in almost all countries of the world. Taylor K. et.al (2008) reported that each year more than 115 million animals are used as test subjects worldwide. Statistics further indicate that in the U.S. alone, every year more than 25 million animals including mice, dogs, chimpanzees, cats, etc. are subjected to painful and invariably fatal tests. [Stephanie Ernst, 2008] Analyses of animal studies over the last several years have shown that animal testing is largely irrelevant for human subjects. For instance, more than 11600 chemical substances have been proven to have anti-cancer properties in mice while not even one of them has similar effect in humans. Also, among the 32 drugs that are used in cancer treatment among humans none prove to be effective in mice. [DLRM] This gives us a fair indication of the different physiologies and the inappropriateness of animal testing. Still most countries routinely continue with animal testing purely to fulfill regulatory requirements. A brief overview and a discussion of the relevant facts would help better understand this important issue.

Animal Testing: A Review

A recent comprehensive review of animal and corresponding human tests has clearly revealed vast differences in responses between animals and humans to particular drugs. This review published by the journal of 'Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation' (AATEX) that analyzed 20 animal and human studies reported only 2 cases where animal studies proved to be consistent with the human studies. [Andrew Knight, 2007] Another recent British study compared the treatment effects between animal models and human clinical trials for six different medical conditions. Out of these, only 2 animal studies had concordant results with Human clinical trials. Furthermore 2 of the studies had totally contradictory effects than indicated in the animal studies. [Pablo Perel et.al (, 2007)] Hence the validity of using animal models as an indicator for human outcomes stands largely mistaken.

One standing example of the dangers of relying on animal models for drug testing is the case of the drug Vioxx manufactured by Merck Laboratories. More than 80 million people worldwide used this drug in the treatment of arthritis. However, the drug which was found to have "heart protective effect' among mice proved to be carrying a high risk for causing heart attacks among humans. As Dr. John J. Pippin, M.D and chief advisor to the FDA stated, "the Vioxx animal testing debacle is not unique. Over the years, millions of patients have been exposed to harmful drugs, such as Rezulin and Baycol, that seemed safe in tests on mice, dogs, rats, monkeys, horses, and other animals." [ PCRM]

Animal Testing: Barrier to Drug Development

There… [read more]


Goals and Effects of Animal Experiments and Testing Research Proposal

… ¶ … Animal Experiments and Testing

PCRM Position Paper on Animal Research (2004) Animal Experimentation Issues. Adopted by the PCRM Board of Directors 4 June 2004. Online available at http://www.pcrm.org/resch/anexp/position.html

The PCRM Position Paper on Animal Research (2004) states that… [read more]


Explaining Opposing Positions Research Proposal

… Urban Sprawl

Nature vs. Suburbia

Urban sprawl and its impact on the environment has become one of the hottest topics in the media. Urban sprawl eats up farmland and wildlife habitat. On one side are the homeowners, who claim that humans are more important than animals. Others fear for the consequences of sprawl, both on wildlife and on humans, as animals are pushed to the limits of their existence. The following will explore both sides of the controversy in order to gain a better understanding of the issues involved.

On the Side of the Wild

Wildlife supporters fear that encroachment on wildlife can have some devastating effects. Humans do not simply invade full force; they creep in little by little. From 1960 to 1990, the amount of developed land in the U.S. more than doubles, while the population grew by less than 50% (Terris). The problem is not necessarily urban expansion near metropolitan areas, but small settlements that crop up in the middle of nowhere, interconnected by highways and roads. This breaks up the habitat so that animals have to change migratory patterns, nesting grounds, and hunting patterns. Open lands across the nation are at this type of risk.

One example of a species that is already at risk due to this type of growth is the Florida panther. With only 30-50 adults remaining, it is now one of the most endangered species on earth (Terris). This panther and its other relatives were once the most widespread animals in North and South America. Habitat destruction and deforestation are the key elements that contribute to the decline of this majestic animal (Terris). The Saguaro cactus of the Arizona desert may soon fall victim to the urbanization of Arizona, taking with it the other species that depend on it for their existence (Terris). The coastal sage ecosystem is California is one of the hardest hit areas, taking with it the gnatcatcher and other species that live there (Terris).

Urbanization of natural areas takes another toll as well. The numbers of species that can exist in the urban environment are much fewer than can exist in the natural habitat. This gives those that can adapt an unfair advantage and they increase in numbers, while species diversity continues to decline (Terris). This is known as generalization. The overall biomass may remain the same due to increases in the total number of animals, but it becomes even more fragile, as fewer species place this environment in danger of total devastation from a single cause, such as disease.

Fragmentation causes another affect on the animals that are affected. For instance, a road through an amphibian habitat physically divides a population. This division means fewer choices for mates and can lead to an inbred population and the promulgation of genetic borne disease among the species (Terris). Fragmentation makes a population vulnerable to stresses, such as drought and fatal genetic flaws (Terris). In addition, a species may be cut off from its breeding grounds, or from its hunting… [read more]


Animal Experimentations Thesis

… Animal Rights - Animal Experimentation

THE ETHICS of ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION

Since the dawn of medical science animals have been used for the purposes of testing hypotheses before risking human health and human lives on untried new technologies. It makes perfect logical sense to do so, but the process is susceptible to moral criticism for subjecting captive animals to disease, discomfort, and often death, exclusively for our benefit. Certain types of scientific uses of animal subjects are justified, even at the animal's expense. Still, the most equitable balance of all the interests and ethical issues involved requires a multidimensional perspective instead of characterizing all animal experimentation right or wrong absolutely. Discussion of the Issues:

Human beings have hunted and raised domesticated animals for food and raw materials since before recorded history. In that respect, we are no different from other animals; in fact, most of the species hunted by people are themselves, hunters of other animals. From that point-of-view, it is difficult to imagine the moral basis of objection to using animals for scientific experimentation selected from the same species that we routinely slaughter and eat.

On the other hand, a moral objection against the use (or even consumption) of animals may be valid if it defines the issue in terms of the amount of suffering at stake for the animal. In that regard, certain types of uses might justify inflicting pain on animal subjects. Other types of uses may justify slaughtering animals, but only in conjunction with a good-faith effort to minimize pain and suffering. It may very well be that the corresponding benefit of dramatically shortening the life of a pig to test heart valves instead of testing them on human patients justifies the use of the pig for that purpose.

Likewise, one could argue that human beings are not morally obligated to except themselves from the biological food chain; we evolved to hunt along with millions of other animal species designed to eat other animal species. However, there is a fundamental difference between using pigs to advance medical science and for the purposes of manufacturing non-essential products (like cosmetics) at maximum profit.

The same fundamental principle morally differentiates slaughtering animals humanely for consumption and deliberately slicing the testicles from a hog before slaughter to (supposedly) "tenderize" the meat by virtue of a last-second surge of testosterone in the throes of agony (Tripp 2003).

In general, the greater the value potentially associated with animal use the greater the moral justification of exploiting the subject. Conversely, lesser values associated with animal may not. The basis of our moral responsibility to animals is not that human life and interests are more…… [read more]


Religion and Animal Rights Term Paper

… Religion.Animal.Rights

Rogerian Argument Animal Testing: Collaboration and Compromise

**please note, writer does not have a copy of the full text used so cited per the information available by text. Bibliography may require modification based on client's knowledge and material used. Thank you!

The purpose of this paper is to help people understand how important it is to recognize animal rights, and what can be done to minimize the impact of testing on animals so their safety is always a top priority among researchers. Many people with religious ideals often use animals in ways animal rights activists may consider cruel. This paper will help those with different opinions on this subject understand the other's side to reduce conflict.

Arguments

Many opponents of animal testing proclaim testing is wrong morally and ethically, especially pertaining to specific Christian or other religious idealisms. Regan (1938) argues the use of animals for science, "sport," and hunting without cause or for use by researchers to test vanity products is morally and ethically wrong. From a moral perspective, when one uses animals for such purposes they disregard the rights of animals as eloquently presented by Regan. These practices

Opponents argue that moral reasoning is not necessarily enough to justify one's opinion. In essence, this means one cannot suggest the use of animals for testing and other ventures is wrong based strictly on moral principle. Critics supporting the use of animals suggest the minority prefers animals not be used for experiments or to test vanity products. Those against the use of animal rights also argue the use of animals can only be justified if there is truth evident in the presenter's arguments about why animals should not be used.

It is important however, to recognize that truth does exist in the argument against the use of animals. For example, critics suggest the use of animals is ok because animals do not have feeling. However, there is ample evidence, especially among primate species like gorillas and monkeys, that animals do demonstrate feeling, emotion and behaviors similar to those of humans. Just because one doesn't understand the language of animals doesn't mean the animals' rights are not being violated. Taking a baby orangutan from his or her mother to conduct experiments that may result in rashes, discomfort or death may result in aggressive behavior on the part of the mother orangutan, suggesting a moral and ethical violation of trust has occurred, something that has been proven true, at least for certain species.

Early experiments on mice suggest even animals with small brains like mice can learn and become conditioned to react to certain stimuli. Think of Pavlov's extensive experiments on dogs, and how he could manipulate dogs to salivate at the ring of a bell. All of this suggests there is truth in the argument that animal testing is wrong because it violates the rights of a species that is intelligent, even if that intelligence is different than the intelligence mankind has among its own species.

When considering the subject… [read more]


License or Permit to Own a Pet to Reduce Animal Cruelty Term Paper

… Animal Rights - Pet Licenses & Pet Ownership

Owning a pet is a responsibility that requires a commitment to ensure the health, safety, and welfare of the animal throughout its lifetime. All too often, people buy pets on a whim, after seeing a cute dog in a pet store window, for example, or they receive one as an unexpected gift. Either way, many of them are unprepared to honor the moral obligation to provide a safe, comfortable environment for their animals. As a result, millions of unwanted dogs end up in shelters, where most of them are euthanized when they are not adopted within a short time, or immediately if they become ill, to prevent their illnesses from spreading throughout the shelter.

Even when pets are kept for the long-term, many of their owners are either ignorant of their needs, insensitive to their comfort, and often, both. Dogs are left outside, chained to tree without adequate shelter or food, and cats are allowed to roam neighborhoods freely, where, at best, they reproduce uncontrollably; at worst, they become injured or killed by other animals or automobiles.

Only relatively recently have we begun to realize that many animals share complex feelings and emotions that are similar to human emotions, which is especially true of the more highly-developed species like elephants and large-brained marine mammals like whales and dolphin (Moussaieff-Masson, 1995). The similarity between animal thought and human thought, and their parallel abilities to experience emotions like family attachment and fear gives rise to a moral responsibility to safeguard the animals we choose as pets from cruelty, suffering, and neglect. Even so-called lower forms of animal life deserve our compassion, because whether or not they are capable of complex thoughts and emotions, they are undoubtedly susceptible to physical discomfort and pain.

One possible solution to the problem might be requiring licenses for all pet ownership, to ensure that everyone who takes in a pet is capable of and prepared to provide for their needs in a reasonable way. If licenses were required for pet ownership, individuals could be pre-screened for their suitability as pet owners and their ability to provide the minimum acceptable level of care required of their pets. More importantly, their criminal records could also be checked for domestic violence, because, in general, people with histories of violence toward other people are much more likely to abuse animals as well. The relationship between insensitivity toward animals and violence toward other humans is so direct, that criminal profilers have long-considered any history of animal abuse in childhood and adolescence to be one of the most reliable predictors of future violence toward other human beings (Schmalleger, 1997).

In conjunction with licensing for prospective pet ownership, the state could also require written tests the same way they are used to qualify new drivers and to certify skilled workers like nail technicians and hair dressers. The licensing…… [read more]


Shark Attacks Term Paper

… Zoology - Shark Attacks

Under the apparent stillness of even the calmest of seas, an age-old drama plays out countless times as a creature designed for locating, stalking, chasing, and then tearing into living flesh closes in on its doomed prey. Its efficient design, mouth bristling with teeth meant to sink into flesh and never let go, and its swimming speed, agility, and intelligence all but ensure hunting success. After a brief chase, hunter catches up to hunted, its jaws clamp down tightly, and it is all over: the same species of bottle nosed dolphin that humans adore captures another helpless herring in its mouth.

Dolphin, shark, and most other aquatic creatures either hunt other species for food, or they are hunted themselves. As often as not, animal species are both hunters and hunted. Human beings tend to view sharks very differently from other aquatic species, based more on the fact that we sometimes end up on their menu than on the distinction between animals that are predatory hunters and those that are not. To a herring, the common dolphin is a dreaded predatory killer; to us, it is a playfully intelligent mammal that deserves or protection. Would we feel the same way about dolphin if they were no different in personality or character but the size of a large whale who sometimes mistook human beings for tuna? Chances are we would fear dolphin attack as much as we fear shark attack and our characterization of dolphin would incorporate vocabulary like ruthless," "deadly," and "cold-blooded" (despite its mammalian nature).

Discussion and Analysis:

Like dolphin, tuna, swordfish, and many other large predatory aquatic species with which we are familiar, sharks must locate and consume other organisms to survive.

To do so, they have all evolved physiologically and behaviorally to adapt to their environment and to guarantee successful hunts often enough to survive. Unlike the other aquatic species, we fear attack from sharks disproportionately to the actual risk, simply by virtue of the fact that some of them are large enough to mistake us for their prey under the right circumstances. Our characterization of sharks as ruthless killers intent on consuming us reflects our emotional response to the concept of being eaten alive than reality (Ellis, 1989).

Contrary to assumption, sharks - even those large enough to consume us - do not actually hunt human beings. Under the right circumstances, human beings simply find themselves within the vicinity of sharks looking to feed and our awkward swimming motion just happens to mimic some of the signals of distress or injury in the shark's natural prey (Stevens, 1999). In many cases, surfers fall victim to shark attack precisely because they violate some of the basic rules of shark safety: they swim at dawn and dusk, when sharks are most likely to feed, and they dangle their limbs from the sides of a flat board at the surface, despite the fact that sharks almost always attack from the and target prey that is approximately… [read more]


Animal Rights Ethics and Morality Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Ethics and morality have consistently been topics of concern in our society. Concerns about ethics and morality also extend to matters associated with the treatment of animals. The purpose of this discussion is to summarize and critique several… [read more]


Sharp Force Trauma Macroscopic Evidence on Bone Morphology Term Paper

… Sharp Force Trauma Macroscopic Evidence on Bone Morphology

Reviewing the literature is of utmost importance. Without a comprehensive review of literature on the subject, readers of a study are left with a lack of understanding or with a misconception that… [read more]


Ethical Treatment of Animals Term Paper

… Ethical Treatment of Animals

Most animals living with their owners will be able to spend their lives happily because they will always get love form their owners. Meanwhile, there are many other animals living in terrifying circumstance inside a laboratory.… [read more]


Personal Experience With Animal Consciousness Term Paper

… ¶ … Personal Experience With Animal Consciousness

All my life I have had pets -- both dogs and cats. Through my interactions with them I have learned a lot about them and a lot about myself. One of the most important things that I have learned is that I do believe that animals think, but not quite in the same way that humans think. When human beings think, there are many thought processes that they must go through and there are many issues that they often consider, sometimes subconsciously. However, animals do not think of things in the same way. They seem to take a more direct route and think about immediate concerns such as food, as opposed to the long-term concerns that humans might have (Cromie, 2002).

Because of this, there are subtleties and differences in how animals and humans both look at the world and react to it, and these must be examined in order to understand how animals think. The most serious of these issues is what makes up consciousness and how humans define it. Many human researchers feel that animals must have consciousness that is "like their own" in order for the animals to be conscious beings that can actually think (Cromie, 2002). However, other researchers argue that animals can have their own type of consciousness that is different from what humans have and still be able to 'think' for themselves. Many of these opinions that have been advanced over the years, however, have been based on the work that individuals have done with chimps and gorillas (Cromie, 2002). It has been widely assumed that cats and dogs cannot 'think.'

While this may be accurate from a completely scientific point-of-view, that does not change the way that pet owners often look at their animals and does not change the fact that these owners truly often believe that their animals are 'smart' and that they can 'think' for themselves, as well as listen to what is told to them and understand it. There was a dog and his owner on television not that long ago, and the owner would give commands and the dog would obey. This does not sound like a big deal, but it is important to understand the kinds of commands that were given. This dog understood "back up," "take one step....take another step," "turn around....now turn the other way," and other seemingly complicated commands that most individuals would say a dog could not learn because a dog could not 'think' enough to understand what was being said.

Whether this actually means that the dog was thinking is a matter for scientific debate, but the owner likely thinks that the dog must have some measure of intelligence in order to be 'conscious' enough to understand what the commands meant. This particular set of commands likely went on for a full minute or longer, and the dog never had a misstep or a problem, regardless of what the command was. Naturally, a great deal of… [read more]


Life on Earth Term Paper

… This is one of the best manifestations of the information age. Human beings are beginning to think about deeper issues than their own material prosperity. Our concern with the future and the preservation of all forms of life for future generations has come to the forefront of society today. Animal welfare groups have thus grown strong enough to be a significant voice in legislation.

The Animal Welfare Act was passed in 1966. Through this Act legal standards were set for all laboratory animals except mice and rats. These standards extended to both treatment and care. Further standards are that research facilities were to register with the government while being subjected to random inspections (Current Events special report). Furthermore these facilities were required to administer pain medication to animals likely to suffer pain as a result of experiments, except those in which human pain was researched, such as the research of pain relief to cancer patients. Part of this legislation is the requirement of a monitoring committee consisting of at least a veterinarian and one person outside of the research facility. According to the Current Events report, there have been three amendments to the Act until 1991. With the advance of new research methods, the use of animals in medical research has declined significantly (Current Events special report).

While the declines in medical and cosmetic animal research are encouraging, I believe that at its current state, humanity should be sufficiently enlightened to eradicate this practice altogether. After millions of years of evolution, it should be clear that no form of life should be deprived of its right of survival for the purpose of another species without at least the choice or the possibility of escape. Using caged animals in laboratory experimentation is cruel and disrespectful of life. It is on the same level as destroying millions of acres of rain forest every year.

In conclusion, humanity should learn that it is only by respecting and nurturing the earth and all its creatures that human beings will be respected and nurtured in return. Thus, instead of concentrating on improving human life at the expense of everything else, would it not be better to nurture all life? I believe that if human beings were more respectful of their environment and the life around them, it would in the long-term be far more beneficial for both the present and future of humanity. In preserving and respecting all life, therefore, human beings can ensure a bountiful future for themselves and their offspring. It is encouraging that the process is already underway by means of legislation and animal rights groups. The earth will only be properly respected if all animals are treated in a humane and respectful way.

Sources

Chang, Maria L. Animal research: right or wrong? Science World, Scholastic, Inc. March 23, 1998.

Current Events. Battle over animal rights: scientists and animal-rights activists clash over the use of animals for medical research. Special Report, Weekly Reader Corp. Dec 9, 1996

Current Events. Monkey business: animal… [read more]


Animal Testing for Products Term Paper

… Animal Testing for Products

Animal Testing - the Cons

The use of animal testing increased in the United States in the late 19th century and as a reaction to it, groups that spoke for the rights of animals were formed.… [read more]


Vertebrates Term Paper

… About 20 million years later, according to Patton, Paton, Smithson, Clack, rose another tetrapod called Casineria kiddi. The earliest tetrapods lacked hands that could flex, as humans curl their fingers and toes because they have a notch in the flexor… [read more]


Young Goodman Imagines Himself Term Paper

… Goodman's perception of evil in his fellow men is also excessive, for he does not doubt the devil in the slightest when that solemn fellow pronounces "Evil is the nature of mankind... The communion of your race." Goodman believes everything which he sees and hears of his fellow men, and is even ready to believe that his beautiful and loyal Faith (whom he heard calling out for help!) is evil, for afterwards "he shrank from the bosom of Faith..." Not only is he eager to believe ill of all people, he also seems to have a very active imagination as to what sorts of evil exists in the hearts of men. Assuming, as one might well do, that his dream is indeed a product of his own foul imaginings, one sees that Goodman places a wealth of sexual and violent crimes on the heads of his fellows. Most of these are sexually related, from elders who "whispered wanton words to the young maids," to wives who sleep with their husbands as they poison them to "fair damsels" burying illegitimate babies in their gardens to hide illicit relationships. It can be no mistake that the devil uses most sexual words when describing the quest to find sin, suggesting that his follows will "penetrate, in every bosom... The fountain..."

So it is most clear that Young Goodman Brown has an excessive view of the sin of his compatriots, imagining in every bosom and every set of loins the most terrible sexual lust and sadism. Even in the innocent the devil says he will find sins, if he will look beyond their actions into their hearts. Indeed, in a bizarre inversion of Christ's injunction ordering man to be more aware of the beam in his own eye than the splinter in another's eye, the devil orders Goodman Brown and Faith to become "more conscious of the secret guilt of others, both in deed and thought, than they could now be of their own." Though Goodman appears to reject this command, one quickly sees that in fact he obeys it perfectly, for upon returning he never seems to consider his own pride, wrath, or joylessness, but instead condemns all others he sees. He is excessive in his view of the sin of others as he cannot even stand their worship for thought of their secret, imagined sins: "When the congregation were singing a holy psalm, he could not listen because an anthem of sin rushed loudly upon his ear and drowned all the blessed strain. When the minister spoke from the pulpit... then did Goodman Brown turn pale, dreading lest the roof should thunder down upon the gray blasphemer and his hearers." Certainly, it might be true that every worshipper had upon their conscious some sin -- because this is part of human nature, to fail and to try again -- yet in focusing excessively on that sin rather than on their shared faith in God, Goodman Brown lost entirely his ability to have… [read more]


Animal Rights Animals Have the Ability Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Animals have the ability to feel pain and suffering, just as humans do, and they have similar emotional reactions to such suffering. Because this is true, moral people through-out the ages have understood that just as we have a responsibility towards other humans to treat them with compassion and respect (and at the very least to avoid inflicting unnecessary pain), we have the same sort of responsibility to animals. Just as each person has the responsibility to determine how they will live their lives so as to be most moral towards their fellow humans, each person must also determine how they can live so that they are moral towards their fellow animals. It can be harder to know how to live so as to be moral towards animals, because the cruelty towards them is so systemic. The main areas in which one must make decisions about personal morality are that regarding the eating of animals and using of their bodies for pleasure and profit, the use of animals for experimentation, and the appropriate way to live with animals who are our companions. In each of these areas, it is necessary to take into consideration the facts of the case in each area and balance the pain and suffering they entail with one's own self-interest.

When it comes to eating animals, some people might point out that animals eat each other, so one could argue that it is natural for different species to prey on one another and one can treat an animal morally even if one kills then for food, so long as one isn't cruel. This may be valid, especially for hunters (even though most prey animals don't kill other animals, and therefore are the "innocent" parties…… [read more]


Animal Testing: Cosmetics and Toiletries Term Paper

… " However, they are still required by trading standards and consumer protection laws to prove their products are not toxic and dangerous to public health, and that the ingredients are not dangerous. In many countries, it is possible to meet these requirements without any further tests on animals. However, the United States often insists on animal testing.

Some cosmetic manufacturers have come up with alternatives to animal testing, including the follwing

Reliance on existing natural or synthetic ingredients, compounds and substances. These have already been extensively tested on animals in the past, and thus do not need to be tested again.

Avoiding novel ingredients or combinations of ingredients that have not fully been tested and may not be safe.

Testing on human volunteers.

Alternatives to Animal Testing

Animal rights supporters, animal welfare supporters, scientists, doctors and even government officials usually say that they agree that animal testing should result in little suffering to animals as possible, and animal tests should only be performed where absolutely necessary (Wikipedia, 2005).

According to Wikipedia (2005): "The "three Rs" of Reduce (the number of animals used), Refine (animal procedures) and Replace (animal tests with non-animal tests) are used as the basis for animal testing codes of practise. In some countries, the three Rs are mandated by law. In other countries, many animal testing facilities voluntarily ascribe to this code to publicly demonstrate their ethical position."

Numerous scientific studies and institutes are researching both alternatives to animal tests, and improvements to existing tests to reduce the suffering of animals or to reduce the number of animals killed (Wikipedia, 2005). These groups cliam that their efforts are not only for the sake of ethics, but also because the research may improve the accuracy of tests or make them more time- and cost-efficient.

Conclusion

Alternative research methods exist, and have been proven to be more accurate, less expensive and less time-consuming than cruel animal experimentation (WAVA, 2005)

. However, those who benefit financially from experimenting on animals or supplying vivisectors with cages, restraining devices, food for caged animals, and tiny guillotines to destroy animals insist that most medical advances has been made through the use of animal testing. While most drugs and procedures must now be tested on animals before hitting the market, this does not mean that animal experiments are invaluable or irreplaceable. Alternative methods are a viable option.

Dr. Charles Mayo, the founder of the Mayo Clinics in the U.S. summarizes (WAVA, 2005)

: "I abhor vivisection. It should at least be curbed. Better, it should be abolished. I know of no achievement through vivisection, no scientific discovery that could not have been obtained without such barbarism and cruelty. The whole thing is evil."

References

Croce M., (1991) Pietro, Vivisection or Science - a choice to make BETA Tipografica s. r. l.:Rome.

PETA. (2005). Media Centre-Fact Sheet. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsae1.html.

Ruesch, Hans (1989) 1000 Doctors (and many more) Against Vivisection Civis: London .

Wikipedia. (2005). Animal Testing. Retrieved from the Internet at:… [read more]


Animal Research and Experimentation Term Paper

… Often, they do more to protect the experimenters. "For example, the Public Health Service ... in1992, in response to concerns about laboratory break-ins by animal rights advocates," passed a law making it a federal offense to damage or disrupt animal research. (Rowan, 2005)

One of the ethical defenses of experimentation is that animals are so different from humans in their mental capacities. But in the case of psychological experimentation in particular, if animals are so different that experimentation is justified, then how valuable is psychological research upon them? Scientist Phillip Croce contends "no experimentation carried out on one species can be extrapolated to any other, including man. To suppose that such extrapolation could be legitimate is the main reason for the failure and sometimes for the catastrophes which are inflicted upon us by modern medicine, especially in the area of drugs." (Croce, 1991) Even if one takes issues with the biological side of Croce's argument, the alleged uniqueness of the human mind seems to argue against psychological experimentation on humans.

Works Cited

Croce, Phillip. (1991) Vivisection or Science: a choice to make. Text available 1 Feb 2005 at online http://www.pnc.com.au/~cafmr/online/research/croce1.html

Rowan, Andrew N. (2005) "Animal experimentation." World Book Online Reference Center. Retrieved 1 Feb 2005 at .… [read more]


Animal Rights and Experimentation Term Paper

… They were kept in darkness. A lot of the monkeys were sick and suffering from hair loss and skin disease.

It is appalling to know that the NIV covered its back by claiming that at the time of the visit the animal shelter was being rebuilt and that they were suffering from a power cut.

According to the January 2003 edition of the British Medical Journal, maneka Gandhi was sacked from her position of chairwoman of the Indian government's animal experimentation control committee. The article also stated that she was sacked as a result of pressure from the Indian pharmaceutical industry. The article also stated that around 400 out of 467 laboratories did not have any proper facilities for handling laboratory animals.

Maneka Gandhi quoted "the conditions in Indian laboratory animal houses and the practices used in experiments with these animals are among the worst in the world'. She also said 'while millions of animals have been killed in the name of research in India, almost 90 per cent of this research has been useless and has been unnecessary duplication of research already done abroad'.

Cruelty to animals

Animal Rights have been seriously violated in many facilities. The list of findings confirm the wide spread suffering of animals. It was found out that the animals were used without conducting any health or genetic background check. This includes stray dogs and cats. The animals were subjected to extremely filthy and unhygienic conditions. A lot of the animals were subjected to experiments in such conditions. The injured and ailing animals were left to fend for themselves. There was no facility for animal post-operative care. The animals were found to be mutilated, have open wounds or been blinded.

Furthermore it was found out that there was no veterinary official in attendance at the facility since a number of years. A vet is required to relieve the animal of suffering. Most of the vermin (rats and mice) were diseased. They were massively infested with tapeworms and mites. Most of the rats had been blinded during their procedure. The horses were in an even more painful situation as their hooves were infested with bleeding maggots. The officials had used hot irons to brand the horses. There was a lack of proper ventilation or any water supply. There was a lack of proper food and water. Most of the animals were living in small and overcrowded cages. These cages restricted their activity and were extremely dirty and rusty.

The animals were in a state of posttraumatic shock as they were found to be mutilating themselves. The sheep were subjected to extremely brutal procedures as their skulls were drilled to have rabies viruses to check for vaccines. Live frogs were placed into the freezer in order to freeze them.

According to the Billings Gazette 'thirteen monkeys and dozens of hamsters died over the weekend at Rocky Mountain Laboratories in Hamilton after they were housed in 100-degree heat for several hours'. The report stated that all these animals… [read more]


Animal Cruelty Persuasive Argument Term Paper

… Of 39 women who had suffered domestic abuse by their partners 61% stated that their partners had "threatened, injured of killed"

their pets. Of those interviewed, 58% of sexual homicide perpetrators who suffered from being abused sexually as children were able to recall cruelty to animals as children.

Symptoms and Signs of Animal Abuse:

If an animal does not have access to food and to water as well as shelter, and if the animal does not have a clear area or has untreated injuries then abuse should be reported. Other signs of abuse are over-aggressive behavior or extremely timid behavior on the part of the animal. Abandonment of an animal is also considered abuse.

Actions when Witnessing the Abuse of an Animal:

Local authorities are able to receive animal cruelty reports. If there is not one listed in your neighborhood or town then contacting an organization such as PETA which is People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals is a good place to start.

Conclusion:

There is absolutely no reason or justification for society tolerating abuse to animals. Animals are unable to defend themselves in most instances from the onslaught of abuse from a human being. As the statistics and reports in this work demonstrate the individual who commits abuse to an animal is very likely and in most cases will choose a human being for their victim at some point in time. It may seen overly zealous to incarcerate the individual who abuses animals but when studies clearly show that those individuals are much more likely to commit aggressive offenses against humans then it makes perfect sense to toughen the response to criminals who perpetrate abuse against helpless and defenseless animals.

Bibliography:

"Linking Animal Cruelty to Human Violence" [Online] located at: http://www.cfhs.ca/Programs/HumaneEducation/ViolenceLink/cc backgrounder4.htm

"Report Animal Cruelty" (nd) PAWS People Helping Animals [Online] located at: http://www.pas.org/help/report / 'Pain and Suffering, All in a Day's Work" (nd) "Other "Pet Food" Companies: Menu Foods [Onine] at: http://www.iamscruelty.asp 'Animal Cruelty Statutes" (nd) Animal Rights Law [Online] at: http://www.animal-law.org/statutes/

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

"Other 'Pet Food' Companies: Menu Foods" [Online] located at: http://www.iamscruelty.com/o.asp

"Linking Animal Cruelty to Human Violence" [Online] located at: http://www.cfhs.ca/Programs/HumaneEducation/ViolenceLink/cc backgrounder4.htm

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.… [read more]


Animal Cruelty Term Paper

… Sarah couldn't stop crying and nothing her parents said could make her feel better. She had an uneasy feeling her friends were in deep trouble. That day she couldn't even fall asleep. By next morning, she had lost all hope of ever seeing her friends again. But a news item in the paper caught her attention. City Zoological Garden, it read, had apparently imported beautiful animals of rare breed from some unnamed country. Below the news was a photograph of her the animals with Simon, the City Zoo chief. Sarah was stupefied! These were none other than her friends from the forest. They were not imported but kidnapped from the forest. Sarah decided to visit her friends at all costs and save their lives. The next thing she knew, her parents were taking her to the City Zoological Garden, some 300 miles away from where she lived.

The grand entrance of the zoo gave an impression of magnificence and opulence. City Zoological Garden was definitely well maintained. But much to her disappointment, Sarah realized that maintenance and magnificence were only limited to the architecture and landscape. As she inched close to the huge barred enclosures where animals were kept, her disappointment and anger grew steadily. The cages were dirty, the water and food scarce and most animals looked weak and frail. Simon was doing this on purpose so he could sell them to laboratories that were willing to pay a hefty sum for animals of all kinds. Sarah noticed that some animals were so malnourished that they couldn't even walk properly and most of them wore a forlorn look as if pleading for freedom and food. Sarah couldn't believe her eyes. The zoo that was supposed to be a sanctuary for tens of hundreds of animals was nothing more than a prison. Her friends would also end up looking like these poor souls - this disturbing thought sent a chill down her spine. She knew something needed to be done and fast.

Sarah met her friends that day and promised them freedom. She assured them she would do anything in her power to get them out of this oppressive jail. Few days later, Sarah's parents filed a lawsuit against Simon for stealing animals from the forest and reporting them as imports. They accused Simon was purposefully hurting animals to be able to sell them to others on the pretext that they were sick and no longer fit for the zoo. But Simon was a powerful man and while the petition took him by surprise, he soon recovered and hired the best lawyer in town to fight on his behalf. Sarah and her parents have evidence to prove that some animals were stolen from the forest and were being made to endure appalling conditions. The case is still being heard in the court- the fate of these innocent animals hangs in the balance as Simon denies all charges. Sarah and her parents are hoping for the best while Tania, Sheeba, Reno… [read more]


Service Animals (Guide Dogs Term Paper

… Moira Shea, a blind policy expert, attempted to take Beau onto the Senate floor to speak with Senator Wyden, her boss, during a debate. She was refused admittance, because there was an "unwritten rule" against dogs on the Senate floor. Shea challenged the decision, and finally, after debate and complaint, the Senate issued a proclamation allowing service dogs on the floor. Seven years after the Congress passed the ADA, they still could not adhere to its practices ("A Dog's Life"). Clearly, if the nation's own Congressional leaders have problems interpreting the ADA, and the discrimination of service animals, others will have problems as well.

Another case indicates how even the most discerning and understanding individual can misinterpret the law, and service animals' functions. This family was faced with eviction because their landlord did not believe their Autistic son needed or warranted a service animal. He stated, "If he was blind, that would be different'" (Tilton). The family attempted to explain their rights under ADA. Tilton continues, "he then said that his service dog was not 'registered through the state' and that therefore wasn't a service animal. Again, to quote him, 'You can't just pick up any curr dog on the street and call it a service dog.' By the way, this 'curr' is a purebred Collie" (Tilton). This indicates just how ignorant many people still are of the law, and of the rights of disabled individuals who utilize service animals.

Even worse, after the ADA was established, many people with disabilities reported a backlash of hate crimes against them, and their service animals. Someone murdered the Tilton Autistic son's guide dog, and a blind Denver social worker reported, "Someone silently approached and deliberately kicked my guide dog in the kidneys. [ ... ] This was a hate crime. The perpetrator didn't assault or rob me. It was clear that my dog was a guide dog used to assist someone who is blind'" (Wolfe). Sadly, misunderstanding and ignorance are often the reasons that service animals are discriminated against, and for this to change, people need to fully understand just how service animals help their owners. Service dogs are a valuable and necessary resource, and training needs to be developed to help more people understand their vital role in the lives of thousands of Americans. In addition, more training centers need to be established for service animals. In 1996, author Henderson noted that one training agency has only trained 600 animals in its 20-year history. She continued, "At least 9 million Americans live with significant physical and sensory impairments, but there are only 10,000-12,000 assistance dogs at work, of which 7,000 are guide dogs" (Henderson). Clearly, more training centers need to be established. More training centers mean more animals for those who need them, and the more animals that reach society, the more common they will become, and less discrimination will result.

In conclusion, society still does not fully understand service animals, or the vital assistance they provide to the infirm, the… [read more]


Animal Cruelty Term Paper

… "There's one!"

"Where? Where?"

"Right there, mate! Right there, you see it? It's gray and ugly, see, just like the King said it was."

"Oh yeah! It is ugly, innit?"

"Grab the net, quickly! It'll tear off any minute!"

The two princesses exchanged curious glances. Without a word, Princess Lisle made her way to the opening of the cave to spy on the strangers outside. Her sister followed, peering over her older sister's shoulder. They remained silent, listening and watching.

Suddenly Princess Felina gasped in horror.

"What is it?" Princess Lisle whispered loudly. "What?"

"Look!" Princess Felina pointed to the man on the left, who had just captured a Roaming Rompped, an admittedly ugly creature but one which Princess Felina had taken a particular liking to; she cared for three of them in the palace menagerie and they were among her favorite pets as they tended to be docile, affectionate, and made a very cute sound when they purred. Only now, the Roaming Rompped squealed a horrendous cry that pierced through the air, making the very flowers it stood on shudder with despair.

Princess Felina couldn't control herself. She ran out toward the man and shouted "No! Stop it! Stop!" Princess Lisle stayed put, too afraid to jump out of her hiding place.

The man stopped struggling with the net just long enough to gaze upon the angry Princess Felina.

"What's all this then?" he smiled a big, gruesome smile and grabbed the Princess's wrist. Yanking her as hard as he yanked the Roaming Rompped, the man showed his latest catch to the other two men.

"What the- -- you're Princess Felina ain't ya?" one of the other men said.

The Princess was too frightened or too angry to reply.

"You'll be coming with us, then," said the first man. "We've gots ta teach you a lesson about keeping those pretty little lips of yours sealed!"

With that, the three men made off with both their prey, the Roaming Rompped and Princess Felina. Her sister shivered in the dank dark cave, unsure of what to do next. When the party vanished from her view, she ran out from the cave and started off in their general direction without giving it much thought. In about five minutes she reached the place where the three men had taken her sister and the funny-looking creature. The spectacle that lay before her was by far the most horrific thing she had ever laid eyes on. A small run-down cottage in the woods was flanked by rows and rows of caged animals, many of which screamed and moaned, some of which lie listlessly in their too-small homes. This menagerie was the dark, demonic shadow side of her own special menagerie at the castle. These animals were captives, prisoners. The mammals were mottled and partially hairless. The birds had given up even trying to fly and sat at the bottom of their cages, their once-bright feathers rendered dull and lifeless by their condition. Fish were similarly… [read more]


Hierarchy of Animals the Relative Term Paper

… Nevertheless, even in these respects, the hierarchical supremacy of human beings is potentially open to challenge by insects such as the honeybee, whose hives and social structure exhibit astonishing complexity as well. Furthermore, evidence collected from work conducted with dolphins and elephants suggest the remote but distinct possibility that the complexity of their social structure and intellectual capabilities may be much closer to that of human intelligence than that of other animals (Moussaieff Masson, 1995).

Humans likely qualify as the highest form of animal life from the perspective of intellectual development and technological achievement, but that raises another paradox, that along with the accolades of accomplishment come moral responsibilities. One could argue that the ability to coexist peacefully with the rest of one's species is also a relevant factor in establishing a respective hierarchy of life forms.

While warfare and gratuitous violence are not necessarily exclusive failings of human beings, man is likely the only animal who can be said to violate his own moral concepts, perhaps lowering his relative status among more naturally peaceful animals.

In that respect, Bonobo (or Pygmy) chimpanzees may rank higher than human beings by virtue of their more harmonious, peaceful communal lifestyle (Moussaieff Mason, 1995).

On an intellectual level, and certainly from the point-of-view of technological achievement and sophistication, human beings are clearly the highest form of animal life in the history of biological life on Earth. Ultimately though, the relative ranking of animal species on the hierarchy of biological life depends on how one defines animal life and on the arbitrary criteria one values in determining relative status.

References

Berry, A. (1996) Galileo and the Dolphins. Wiley & Sons: New York

Moussaieff Mason, J., McCarthy, S. (1995) When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. Delacorte: New York

Wenke, R. (1999) Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind's First…… [read more]


Animal Rights Slaughter Term Paper

… "

Differences in Species

Experimentation on animals has been proven to be ineffective for human systems. Foods and drugs which are beneficial for animals may be harmful or deadly for humans. Conversely, substances which produce adverse reactions in animals may actually benefit humans. This is because animals and humans each have their own distinct anatomy and psychology.

Buddhism and Animal Rights

The ethics of animal rights supporters are compatible with those of Buddhist in terms of moral beliefs and an understanding of the entire circumstance. The nature of the callous individuals who torture animals cannot account for the true nature of all humans. When determining the true nature, or Buddha-nature of humans, it is important to examine all humankind, and not just one portion of the species.

The Buddhist parable concerning the Way of Purification illustrated that one entity can have good and bad qualities (unknown). Unfortunately, the bad quality will often receive most of the attention or will overtake the good quality, thus leaving a bad impression of the entire entity. This is true of those involved in vivisection. While many scientists and researchers do not agree with the practice, they are often associated with those who torture helpless animals and are thus perceived as inhuman.

Conclusion

There are thousands of animals needlessly tortured every day by researchers in the name of medical research. It is important to apply the concepts of Buddhism and understand that these individuals are separate entities, and do not reflect the true nature of mankind. It is hopeful that the good, who believe in animal rights, will be successful in one day eliminating animal experimentation.

Works Cited

Ruesch, Hans. Slaughter of the Innocent. Matters of Ethics, Philosophy and Religion, Chapter 11.

Pp. 626-637.

Unknown. "Buddha-nature" and "The Way of Purification."…… [read more]


Animal Species Studied Term Paper

… The omega wolf would keep his head hung low, while the Alpha kept his head held very high. Although the wolves in captivity obviously did not hunt prey, they did play with large beach balls provided to them in a… [read more]


Animal Rights Term Paper

… Losing these predators can tilt the ecological balance, and create other implications throughout the animal food chain. For example, when these top predators disappear from the landscape, other species that share their habitats can experience with overpopulation or population decline.… [read more]


Animals for Testing Term Paper

… Clearly, using animals for testing saves lives, money, and makes sense. Using humans, or even cadavers for the same testing would not only be more expensive monetarily, it would be incredibly expensive in human lives. The entire premise of testing is based on creating new treatments which might be harmful or even deadly until their components are understood and managed. Using humans to test potentially deadly compounds would be unconscionable. Using animals, especially those that are bred in the lab specifically for medical research is not only cost effective, it is morally the correct thing to do. Some animal activists point to research done by cosmetic firms as a use of animals in testing that should be banned. One expert notes, "Rights thought dictates that we cannot kill one rights-holder to save another - or even more than one other - whether or not the life of the former is 'different' from that of the latter."

However, millions also use cosmetics and health care products, and if any ingredient is potentially harmful, it is far better to discover it in animal testing rather than in testing on humans. Animal testing simply makes sense for a variety of reasons, including cost savings, preservation of human life, and the safety and security of future generations.

In conclusion, using animals for testing saves lives - period. While the testing of animals should certainly be regulated for mistreatment and conditions, psychologist Elizabeth Baldwin sums up the argument best when she notes, "My own position is that animals do not have rights in the same sense that humans do, but that people have a responsibility to ensure the humane treatment of animals under their care."

The use of animals in testing has been going on for thousands of years, and has led to some of the most significant and live saving medical breakthroughs on the planet. Medical testing using animals should certainly be humane, but should continue, as it saves lives and helps researchers discover life-saving technologies before testing on humans.

Bibliography

Baldwin, Elizabeth. "The Case for Animal Research in Psychology." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, pp. 270-277.

Editors. "Holocaust on Your Plate." MassKilling.com. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.masskilling.com/exhibit.html

Editors. "Proud Achievements of Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Quick Facts About Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Zak, Steven. "Ethics and Animals." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, pp. 278-286.

Editors. "Proud Achievements of Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Editors. "Quick Facts About Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Steven Zak. "Ethics and Animals." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, p.… [read more]


Torture an Animal? Term Paper

… Animal testing would be necessary in determining side effects or possible problems. If animals were not used to test this new development, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to determine how it would affect humans. I would not feel comfortable sending the product to hospitals if it was not thoroughly tested and I know that the government would not approve it.

Serious injury, worsening of health condition, severe defects, or even death could be caused by an untested development. To prevent this from happening, the research department should use the minimal number of animal to test the skin graft.

I would want to be a major part of the animal testing, rather than pass the responsibility to a laboratory technician. By taking a significant role in the process, I would ensure that the department used as few animals as possible and took all precautions necessary to make the process painless for the animals used.

In my opinion, the advances and positive results of animal testing definitely outweigh the negative aspects of the process. Many people who protest against animal testing do so without supplying the medical industry with alternatives to the testing.

At present, animal testing is necessary for the preservation of human life. I believe it is necessary for success of the skin graft development, which would be a major breakthrough for mankind. Therefore, I would absolutely take full part in using animals to test…… [read more]


Animal Testing. The Writer Argues Essay

… And, sadly, the animals do not simply lie down and pass quietly away (Philips, 1998). They die painfully and distressingly (Philips, 1998). " But if the alternative is going to be that humans suffer and die because the treatment cannot be tried on an animal the price becomes to high (Philips, 1998).

Activists will argue that the testing of cosmetics on animals is not going to save lives and therefore should be halted but they are wrong. Each year thousands of victims are severely disfigured because of fires, surgeries, chemical burns or other problems (Philips, 1998). They hide away in their homes afraid to let the world see their faces. They cannot work, they withdraw socially and they stop being productive contributors to society (Philips, 1998). When cosmetics can cover their scars and allow them to venture out again it is a positive aspect of cosmetics that is much more than vanity. If animal testing allows the reentry of the scarred victims to the world then animal testing is needed.

Scientists who are working in medical research are at the centre of the controversy (Philips, 1998). Ironically, it is the men and women who turn down lucrative approaches from drugs companies on the grounds that they do not want their research compromised who often become the objects of attack by the wilder fringes of the animal welfare movement (Philips, 1998). Their argument is that if they could find easier, quicker ways of saving human beings from the effects of disease, ageing or contagion, they would do so. But which of us, told that our son or daughter has been diagnosed with cancer, would say "save the bunny rabbit, sod the child" (Philips, 1998)?

If not for animal testing there would be few medicines for doctors to treat the sick, there would be no insulin for diabetics and transplants would be unheard of (Knill, 2002). " Animal rights activist point to alternative methods for testing. While there have been several alternatives for cosmetic research the field of medical science must depend on animal testing (Madison, 1996). When it comes to the decision to use a new medication on people the government requires that it be tested first on a small group of humans before it can be marketed to the public. Before the medical community uses the medication on the small group of humans it tries it out on animals first. Many drugs and medications are extremely toxic and the potential risk to humans is high in the early phases of development and use. This would be something that would have the potential to cause extreme suffering or even death in the humans it was tested on. The alternative testing methods will not work when it comes to the medication tests because the only way to know how a living thing reacts to the medication is to try it on a living thing.

CONCLUSION

The testing of products on animals has been a topic of heated debate for many years. Activists… [read more]


Marine Mammals the Film Blackfish Essay

… Marine Mammals

The film Blackfish is a documentary from CNN that focuses on the case of the orca Tilikum who is captured and held at SeaWorld. The idea is that it is inadvisable to keep certain species in captivity since large and intelligent animals do not do well in small spaces. The documentary begins with the capture of Tilikum off the coast of Iceland, left in small dark tanks, and trained to do tricks that may also contribute to the animal's psychotic nature (Blackfish, 2013).

First, it is clearly obvious that orcas and other species have no business being kept in captivity. Research shows that orcas are extremely social and have stable groups that exist for decades. They are sophisticated pack hunters and some research even believes they have a kind of culture. The research also shows that the animals average from 20-26 feet long and weigh 6-7 tons. Wildlife biologists believe that there is no real threats to humans with wild orcas, who inhabit a larger portion of the ocean and are migratory in nature (Carwardine, 2001).

Within the documentary, director Cowperthwaite focuses on not only SeaWorld but on the idea of taking a social species with ties to its clan, capturing it in an aggressive manner and uprooting it from its surroundings, then putting it into a much smaller environment where it might be harassed by other orcas, forced to be in dark tanks for hours in solitary confinement, and then forced to do tricks to amuse humans that are not natural for the species. There is documented evidence that taking animals outside of their natural environment and putting them into cages without adequate socialization often makes these captives "psychotic." For example, many captive tropical birds, extremely social, become problems when put into a small cage and denied the company of their own species. This happens with elephants in zoos, apes and monkeys who pace and pace but are limited to concrete and bars, and most certainly, for orcas who are used to miles and miles of open ocean and are forced outside of that. Imagine, if one can, that a human child is taken by force and placed in a "zoo" in which the boundaries are only 10 or so times its body size, forced to mimic behaviors that are somewhat unnatural, punished by being placed in the dark, and in the company of other humans, but who may be from another culture or speak a different language. Would we then expect that child to never act out any aggression?

Part 2 -- SeaWorld, of course, responded to the film by indicating that it was not a true documentary and that they are a zoological setting. As in most cases, there is truth to both sides of the issue. SeaWorld is indeed a zoological park, and they do research and rescue marine creatures. In addition, they have been very successful in bringing knowledge and interest to more people than might have the opportunity to see and understand… [read more]


Behavioral Episodes Essay

… But when a leopard seal opens its mouth to reveal enormous and powerful jaws with sharp, canine teeth, no man would think it otherwise but that this mammal is aggressive and dangerous. However, as a photographer and biologist, Paul Nicklen… [read more]


Spider Life Is Sacred Essay

… ¶ … Spider

Life

Life is sacred no matter whose life. However, there are two informal groups of people that have different opinions and orientation towards the sacredness and worth of life. To the first group or class of people,… [read more]


Haldane "Some Enemies of Science Essay

… We are, after all, animals.

Haldane views granting animals any type of intelligence and subjectivity sentiment, versus rationality. He condemns a system which requires him to justify a 'novel' means of killing a mouse but which allows animals to be slaughtered for food and allows his wife to kill rats with poison. He condemns peers who fox hunt yet who would prohibit vivisection (Haldane 7). To some extent, Haldane's point that compassion for animals is not logically consistent is valid. It could also be argued that a perfectly ethical life in regards to animals is virtually impossible. Outlawing all uses of animals for food would condemn certain types of animals (house cats) to ill health or even an early death, since cats are carnivores. Is eradicating a flea or a tick from the body of a dog tantamount to murder or is it better to let the animal live in a state of permanent discomfort? What about intestinal parasites? What about performing experiments on animals for the purpose of life-saving surgeries designed to save animals? No life can be supported without some form of death, and prioritization is inevitable. Not only does tilling a garden cause the death of earthworms as Haldane points out, but large scale agriculture (used to produce vegetarian food) displaces the habitats of animals and causes their early death in many instances.

Haldane's closing argument is his weakest one, as he engages in ad hominem attacks of anti-vivisectionists. But even if Haldane's opponents are not always logically consistent, as an author he seems overly enthusiastic about attributing motives, not only to other beings but also to anti-vivisectionists themselves, asserting that they hate science because they disagree with him. He claims they do not understand science -- and perhaps people as well, picturing the archetypical vivisectionist as a "sour spinster" (Haldane 22-18).

While death is inevitable, this does not mean that every aspect of suffering must be condoned. Ultimately, even if one does not support a complete ban on testing, Haldane's assertion that needless pain is never inflicted upon animals and that no government oversight of animal experimentation seems dubious: a 'trust the scientists never to go wrong' mentality that belies the fact that economic considerations, bias, and simple cruelty cannot be characteristic of the scientific community. Even in regards to human experimentation, scientists have been taken to task for taking insufficient precautions about participants' safety -- this is likely to be even more true of animal experiments (who have no voice if they are abused). There must be some cost-benefit analysis when any animal life is used or taken, either for food, sport, 'mercy killing,' or science. No moral system is logically consistent -- even in regards to humans, but that does not mean that morality should be blatantly ignored as Haldane would wish us to do. The values of science can still be tempered with the virtues of compassion.

References

Haldane, J.B.S. (2004). Some enemies of science. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd

Ed). Valleau,… [read more]


Rise of the Planet Essay

… For the most part, the testing of animals was seen as an acceptable sacrifice in the hopes of receiving new information and materials to help mankind.

It is not only recently has the question of morality regarding animal cruelty in scientific testing come into question. In 1822 the first laws prohibiting animal cruelty were enacted to protect animals from the inhumanity of those who would abuse them. Charles Darwin wrote of his support of the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act by stating that he understood the importance of scientific inquiry, but that vivisection of animals for "damnable and detestable curiosity" was reprehensible to him (Life 2012). Some of the evidence regarding man's inhumanity towards animals is extremely and wholly disturbing, such as Pavlov's surgical installation of a tube in a dog's muzzle to measure its saliva output in his famous bell test. Since that time, other countries and groups have tried to eradicate animal cruelty in all venues, including in the field of scientific research. Organizations like People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have vocalized and popularized the opinion that testing on animals is inhumane as they are also living creatures (Rollin 2007,-page 521). Among the principle protests regarding the treatment of animals is the sheer number who are abused. According to Meredith Cohn (2010), tens of millions of animals are mistreated this way each year, many of whom are euthanized after the experiment is over.

The context of Rise of the Planet of the Apes is this disagreement between factions over the suitability or morality relating to animal testing. Will, the character played by James Franco, has invented a serum which he believes has the ability to curb the spread and perhaps even cure Alzheimer's disease. Before William tests the substance on a human being, he must go through various animals, the last of which is a chimpanzee named Caesar. An unexpected reaction to the medication is that Caesar has obtained characteristics which are nearly human yet he is still not treated as anything more than an animal. Will's motives are entirely humanitarian. He wishes to cure the disease and help people, including his own father. In doing so, he does not realize the damage that he is doing to the animals in his care (Jeffries 2011). Despite his non-animal traits, the chimp is still relegated to the confines of a laboratory animal and is placed amongst other animals rather than being given any regard (Loy 2011). This is symbolic of the real-world negative attitudes which are given to animals in the scientific community.

The film Rise of the Planet of the Apes seems on the outside to be another science fiction film about a dystopian version of the not-too-distant future. However, the themes that are present in the film do have a factual base which could potentially lead to such a series of events taking place if humanity does not pay attention to the potential dangers of male-animal interaction. Although there are certainly benefits to animal… [read more]


Fukuyama Identifies Many Different Qualities Research Paper

… As human beings created in His image, all living beings are sacred. But in modern, secular democracies, this answer is seldom satisfying, particularly within legal constructs that delineate a wall between church and state. Some philosophers and theologians (including Immanuel Kant) argued that human beings possessed freedom of the will, which was the source of 'Factor X,' but our knowledge of the causation of human behavior on a genetic and environmental level means that most natural scientists merely believe that our biologically-wired decision-making apparatus is merely more complex than those of animals; not that there is a black-and-white division between ourselves and the animal kingdom.

Yet "Nietzsche had the great insight to understand that once the clear red line around the whole of humanity could no longer be drawn, the way would be paved for a much more hierarchical understanding of society" (Fukuyama 155). In the absence of Factor X, it becomes tempting to create a 'sliding scale' of humanity once again, in which some people are viewed as more human than others. And, it should be added, that this is how we often view other living creatures, and not in an entirely rational fashion. We accord greater status to dogs in our society, and are horrified when we hear that other cultures eat them, but we happily devour equally intelligent pigs. The fact that we keep dogs as pets and they reside within our homes gives them superior status in our eyes on the sliding scale of humanity, as we measure the animal kingdom.

Fukuyama suggests we must accept that the idea of 'Factor X,' our identification with all beings of our same species is irrational to some degree, much like our identification with a sports team or a nation. This does not necessarily mean it is a 'bad' thing, however, given that this instinctive preservation of all that is labeled 'human' has had so many positive results. "The problem with [scientific reductionism] is not that it is necessarily false but that it is insufficient to explain many of the most salient and unique human traits" (Fukuyama 162).

On the other hand, this jingoism in favor of what is human has also had many negative consequences, including the use of the planet as an instrument for human preservation, rather than viewing the earth an ecosystem that supports a wide variety of equally valuable living beings. Fukuyama characterizes science as "demystifying" human nature through reductionism, but the fact remains that human beings are part of nature as well as observers of nature (Fukuyama 162). While Factor X may accord dignity to all human groups in a positive manner in theory, anthropocentric thinking has led to the destruction of many habitats and the lives of indigenous peoples by justifying industrialization and unhampered growth. Looking into the future, unless the whole earth is given dignity, not just the human race, the survival of all species is in doubt.

Works Cited

Fukuyama, Francis. Our…… [read more]


Scientific Report of Tufted Capuchin Essay

… The habitat receives both sun and shade and the group does have access to an indoor facility. The entire site is visible from multiple viewing locations and the animals are desensitized to observers through near-continuous observation by zoo attendees.

The tufted capuchin typically lives in a social group between two and twenty animals. The groups contain one dominant male and can have multiple subordinate males and a group of females (Groves 2005). The capuchin diet is omnivorous and feeding is often dictated by a social hierarchy presented by the dominant male and the closeness of a select group of preferred females (di Bitetti 2001).

The group was observed for 2 hours and 15 minutes in a single observation period. Animals were counted and the following classifications were made:

Total Number

Alpha Male(s)

Females

Subordinate Male(s)

Juvenile Males

Juvenile Females

The following parameters were established for behavior observations and the relative times for the individuals:

Resting

Moving

Feeding

Foraging

Grooming

Playing

Not visible to the observer

The data was collected by visual observation and recorded. Averages were determined and differences between the male and female animals are presented.

Results

A total of 15 animals were observed for 2 hours, 15 minutes. The group consisted of the following set of animals broken down by sex and superiority within the group:

3 adult males. 9 adult females. 1 subordinate male. 2 juvenile males

The adult males were the largest of the animals and the subordinate male was similar in size. The two juvenile males were similar in size to the females. The table below shows the percentage of time spent in each activity by the males and females.

Activity

Male (%)

Female (%)

Resting

44

67

Moving

18

17

Feeding

15

5

Foraging

10

0

Grooming

3

6

Playing

5

2

Out of Sight

2

0

The plots below show the differences in percentage of time overall for the two groups male vs. female in the population studied:

The largest differences between the two sexes in this population of animals are in the time spent resting and the time spent feeding. The males have a proportionately larger amount of time spent feeding and smaller amount of time spent resting than the females.

Discussion

The objective of this study was to determine if there are any differences between male and female tufted capuchins in an artificial habitat. The group of capuchin monkeys chosen was observed for 2 hours and 15 minutes and the population had 9 females and 6 males. The sample size was not large enough for a powering study, however there are differences in this population for this duration of observation during the day to show that the males spent more time feeding and less time resting than the females.

Because the energy needs of a larger animal are higher, it makes sense that more time would be spent foraging and feeding for males since those animals are proportionately larger. An important improvement to this study would be to determine the differences… [read more]


Canada Land Management World Wildlife Research Paper

… This speech was specifically made in Nova Scotia, but it is a statement of the mission of the entire organization. This is actually a goal of the organization as a whole and not just that which is active in Canada.… [read more]


Phylum Annelida Annelids Are Members Essay

… The same is also found in chordates and other pigments. The hemoglobin is dissolved directly into the blood allowing them to leave where oxygen is scarce and food is plentiful example in the mud and under water. Their reproductive system can be either sexual or asexual. For example in asexual reproduction, the parent divides itself into two. Some of them (example earthworms) are hermaphroditic meaning they have both sexes in one individual Badea et al., 2010

( ADDIN EN.CITE )

Since they are invertebrates, when they break any of their body parts they can regenerate. Phylum Annelida have the ability to withstand extinction because they are hermaphroditic. Some of them (example earthworms) contribute to soil fertility. They move with ease in most environments due to their ability to burrow, swim and creep. Their segmented bodies facilitate ease of movement through and into surfaces. Their hemoglobin is dissolved directly into the blood allowing them to live in stagnant mud where oxygen is scarce. Their body movement does not interfere with their digestive tract movements due to the muscular walls on their digestive systems Meglitsch P, 1972()

Conclusion

Phylum Annelida is a species that has many merits and positive contribution to earth science; they can live in a variety of environments and move easily due to their segmented body which distinguishes them from other worm like creatures. Phylum Annelida display a clear illustration of metameric organization and have more peculiarities that call for more introspect in biology.

References

Badea, A.B., Gagyi-Palffy, A., Stoian, L.C., & Stan, G. (2010). Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators. [Article]. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the…… [read more]


Do Animals Have Culture? Term Paper

… ¶ … animals have culture?

Animal Culture

Culture in animals has been a controversial issue especially when people hear of culture deviated from the norm. Animal culture is slowly gaining popularity; it entails social transmission of behavior among animal species from generation to generation. Cross-Cultural Capability in animals also deals with the values and skills impacted on an animal to enable it to live and interrelate with other creatures in a multicultural way (Whitehead, 2010). The transmitted behavior can be shared within a group of animals but not specific between different groups of the same species of animal. Behavior among the animals can be transmitted in a variety of ways, such as; through language, teaching and imitation.

Culture in animals started in the ancient times, but it advancement started around the year 1940 where the Japanese scientist (primatologist) found the impact of food of primates behavior leading to the creation of socially transmitted food behavior among them. During those times and even now, primates are more commonly used in an experiment to find out whether there is culture among animals because of their proximity in resemblance to human beings. This theory relies on the fact that there are some cultural traits which are developed as a result of repeating the same event daily or as a routine practice in an animal's life (Laland, 2009). This culture are mostly adopted by animals if they have a positive impact on them such as if they are associated with food or those actions which determine their survival rate. For example an experiment done on chimpanzees where they were shown to use sticks in such a way that they can access food more easily, with time the chimpanzees were able to, not only utilize, the sticks but also, other tools in their effort to reach for food. Therefore, this became one of their culture.

Mimicry in animals is the most commonly used among the three methods, on the other hand, the use of teaching and less of language can best be used on certain specific species of animals with a higher cultural capabilities, but not all. Animals, especially those with the same genes, acquired mostly through birth are more likely to develop the culture more than other animals of the same species. Transmission of behavior into these animals takes time and while doing so the vicinity should be conducive for the animals so as to focus their attention towards learning and mastering the behavior. There…… [read more]


Toulmin-Based Argument in Support Essay

… To this end, there appears to be a direct connection between income level and pet-adoption preferences that indicate public awareness campaigns may be effective in promoting animal adoptions from shelters and reducing euthanasia levels. For instance, pet adoption rates have been shown to differ significantly according to ZIP codes. In this regard, Fine reports that, "Pet-keeping practices vary with neighborhood and community. A study of residents in Salt Lake County revealed that residents' ZIP code areas were highly predictive of the sources of pets residents used in acquiring their pets. Certain ZIP code areas showed high levels of pet adoptions from shelters, while other neighborhoods favored purebred animals, and feral cats were adopted in other areas" (2006, p. 77).

In addition, the Humane Society has sponsored a longstanding public awareness campaign, "Until There are None, Adopt One," that encourages prospective pet owners to acquire their animals from shelters rather than pet stores or so-called "puppy mills" (Hasenauer, 1997). Therefore, by targeting low adoption level communities with public awareness campaigns and policies that prevent animals from being destroyed, adoption levels can be increased and euthanasia rates reduced dramatically (Fine, 2006). Furthermore, purebred dogs (and cats) are also available from animal shelters, but in many cases, "it's the mongrels that tend to be healthier. They get the best traits from all the breeds and are often friendlier and easier to train as well" (Hasenauer, 1997, p. 21). For pet owners who insist on purebred species, there are some nonprofit civic organizations that focus on these as well such as Lab Rescue that specializes in placing Labrador retrievers and Greyhound Pets of America that specializes in placing retired greyhound racing dogs (Hasenauer, 1997).

Counter-Arguments and Rebuttals

An old saying cautions that, "There is no such thing as a 'free puppy,'" and the research certainly confirms this adage. Indeed, pet ownership involves a substantial outlay of time and monetary resources. For example, a New York City-based veterinarian warns that, "Bringing home a dog simply because it looks oh-so-adorable is not the wisest way to choose a companion. Too often I hear people say 'I saw this dog and just had to get it' without thinking of the consequences.' But you're adding a family member who needs daily food, water and attention as well as house training, grooming and veterinary care" (Cherry, 2007, p. 79). Likewise, Hasenauer (1997) researched consumer pet-purchasing habits and found that many new owners are astounded by just how much work is involved in housebreaking a new puppy, for example, for the expense that can accrue to pet ownership. According to Hasenauer, "Buying a living, breathing animal is very different from investing in an inanimate object. Before you bring a pet into your home, you should be willing to commit to loving and caring for that pet for the rest of its life" (p. 21). Despite these constraints, though,

Conclusion

Millions of dogs and cats are destroyed in the United States each year because animal shelters were unable to find suitable… [read more]


Total Eclipse, We See Two Writers Essay

… ¶ … Total Eclipse," we see two writers who have a very personal or -- perhaps, better stated -- psychological connections to the nature that surrounds them. Ehrlich discusses her beloved Wyoming in her essay and has given it an apt title as she describes being able to drive for miles without seeing another person. She says: "The solitude in which westerners live makes them quiet" (Ehrlich 6). This may seem obvious is one considers that being in a place like Wyoming means you will see more animals than you will people. Dillard begins her essay discussing her drive with her husband Gary to watch the total eclipse. The journey took five hours through snowy mountains that eventually melt and change into green valleys. Dillard says, "I watched the landscape innocently, like a fool, like a diver in the rapture of the deep who plays on the bottom while his air runs out" (Dillard 3) -- another sentence that seems to evoke a certain solitude and silence. In these two quotes taken from Ehrlich's and Dillard's essays, the reader is able to feel the power of the two places being witnessed by its authors and how they are allowing nature to overcome them, in a sense. Both Ehrlich and Dillard allow themselves to sit and witness the space around them, mesmerized and awestruck. They do not fight what they see nor do they try to change how they feel.

Ehrlich describes the open spaces of Wyoming as beautiful, but it can also be harsh at times too, with the weather in the winter getting bitterly cold. She writes, "The landscape hardens into a dungeon of space. During the winter, while I was riding to find a new calf, my jeans froze to the saddle, and in the silence that such cold creates I felt like the first person on earth, or the last" (Ehrlich 2). While "a dungeon of space" out of context may evoke some kind of terror and dread, in Ehrlich's description, it evokes peace. The reader also gets the sense that Dillard is very aware of how big and great the world is as she stands looking upon the Yakima valley. She looks upon it as if it is some kind of dream or a Shangri-la (Dillard 6). She notes the sky that seems to go on forever. As Dillard describes her experience of taking in the world around her, it feels as if she, too, is the first (or last) person on earth. Gary, her husband, isn't mentioned in these paragraphs; it is just Dillard and nature. Dillard's awareness of the phenomenon that is the total eclipse is clear. She says,

What you see in an eclipse is entirely different from what you know. It is especially different for those of us whose grasp of astronomy is so frail that, given a flashlight, a grapefruit, two oranges, and fifteen years, we still could not figure out which way to set the clocks for daylight…… [read more]


Is Extinction a Course of Nature? Term Paper

… ¶ … Biology of Species Extinction -- Argument

When it comes to the issue of the extinction of animal species, there are two main schools of thought. According to the first, the extinction of species is simply the naturally course of evolution and not a tragedy that human beings should devote time, energy, and effort to preventing. According to the second school of thought, there is an inherent value to every species and even if extinction is a natural phenomenon, the fact that the rate of species extinction has increased as a result of human activities is sufficient justification for trying to preserve species facing extinction and, at least, to try to minimize the effect of human activities on the premature or accelerated extinction of animal species. While the second position is admirable in some respects and does reflect a certain sensitivity toward nature, it is the much weaker argument.

The extinction of animal species is strictly a function of their ability to adapt to changes in their environment. It is a process that has bee ongoing throughout the natural world for billions of years, ever since the first microbes evolved into different microbes and simple organisms that were better able to thrive in their environment. The evolutionary process predates human activity by such a long period of time that the entire period of human existence on earth amounts to the equivalent of seconds if the history of the planet were represented by a 24-hour clock. On that clock, human beings first appeared only a few seconds before midnight.

The principal reason that there is such ecological diversity in the first place is that biological species have continually evolved by changing their form and functions as necessitated by their external environment. In that respect, the addition of human beings in general and of human activities in particular to the environment is no more or less part of the external environment of other species than all of the environmental changes that have driven evolution (and extinctions) since the first form of life emerged on earth. Just as changes in the populations of predatory and prey species directly influence the success of one another's species, so does the addition of human beings to the equation. In that sense, human activity -- even if it has contributed to or accelerated the "natural" extinction rate of other animal species -- is nothing more or less than another element of the natural world to which other species must adapt if they are to succeed.

To put human activity and its possible influence on animal extinction rates into perspective, just consider that a meteorite that struck the earth near modern-day Siberia is now known to have been the cause of the largest number of simultaneous extinctions likely to have ever occurred on earth from a single cause. It wiped out all of the dinosaurs and probably is the reason that smaller mammals managed to evolve into human beings…… [read more]


Cost Analysis of Search Case Study

… Costs to other animals might include the 'macro' costs of breeding dogs specifically for their ability to track scents. This could indirectly fuel the industry of breeding dogs, versus focusing on finding homes for dogs of mixed origin. There are also 'costs' to the environment in terms of viewing animals as creatures to serve humans, and viewing the natural world as a tool rather than something with integrity in and of itself. Dogs may be called to rescue skiers who imprudently went out on a mountain that was too steep for them, or asked to rescue swimmers who jumped into water with no lifeguard present. This forces the dog to risk their lives for a human being who needlessly risked his own (Gunn & Ralston 20100.

Costs to humans include the costs of breeding and raising the dogs, as well as the time devoted to training them. Most of the handlers are volunteers, and receive no compensation for their efforts. They must also care for the dog if it becomes sick or injured during its lifetime. The investment is considerable: "Handlers must earn and retain certification in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid, learn how to maintain a crime scene, and attend sessions in other aspects of search and rescue work: (Woolf 2010). The rigorous testing and certification process can take months or years for a dog to be certified (SARDUS rescue, 2011, SARDUS).

Indirect costs to humans include the costs of having the dogs run through a disaster site, and the costs of possible false hope if the individual cannot be found who is being tracked down. Also, there are undeniable costs for the deployment of the dogs as part of a formal law enforcement effort.

Works Cited

Gunn, Charlotte & Gene Ralston. "Search for drowned man using GPS and search dogs."

Idaho Search and Rescue Unit. [October 19, 2011]

http://gralston1.home.mindspring.com/DogsAndDGPS.html

"SARDUS dogs work with local law enforcement." SARDUS. [October 19, 2011]

http://www.sardogsus.org/id23.html

Woolf, Norma B. "Search and rescue dogs." Dog Owner's Guide.

[October 19, 2011]

http://www.canismajor.com/dog/srchresc.html… [read more]


Fruit Flies the Importance of Long-Term Memory Research Proposal

… Fruit Flies

The Importance of Long-Term Memory:

Studying the Fruit Fly

The most fascinating of all abilities of life on Earth is the utilization of memory to survive. Memory can be utilized by animals, insects, reptiles, and even fish to… [read more]


Animal Behavior Term Paper

… NRA Uses Propaganda to Promote Lies about Condors & Lead Poisoning

Those who want to help the recovery program for the endangered California Condor are up against the powerful National Rifle Association (NRA, 2011), and the fight to preserve and restore the species is not going to be won easily because of the propaganda put out by the NRA. The main issue is lead poisoning. Condors "are highly susceptible to lead toxicity," according to the Ventana Wildlife Society. Many other respected wildlife and conservation organizations concur that even small fragments of lead bullets, or shotgun pellets, can kill a condor, depending on how long the lead is in the bird's digestive system. Condors are relatives of the vulture and unlike raptors, the California Condor feeds only on carrion (dead animals).

What happens is this: a deer hunter in California shoots his buck, takes the best meat from the deer and leaves the "gut-pile" of the deer on the ground. The condor finds the fresh kill -- with the shattered lead fragments from the bullets still to be found throughout the remains -- and after ingesting the deer's remains, the condor becomes very ill. If the condor is not flown to a hospital and had its digestive tract cleared of the lead, it will die. And so with the evidence in abundance that lead kills condors -- a bird that the state and private organizations have spent millions of dollars trying to restore -- the state passed a law a few years ago that in certain condor areas of California only non-lead ammo is legal for hunters to use. The most popular choice of those responsible hunters that have followed the law is copper ammunition.

But the NRA uses its very effective propaganda machine -- frankly lying about lead bullets, and smearing bona fide scientists that report the medical / biological facts.

The California condor is the largest bird in North America. It has a wingspan of nine and a half feet and can fly over a hundred miles on a single day, according to the Ventana Wildlife Society (2011). In the late 1980s, the California Condor came within an eyelash of extinction. The giant birds' population had been shrinking down from thousands a couple hundred years ago to about 22 birds in 1987. They had been shot, poisoned, and pushed to the brink of extinction. At that time the remaining birds were taken into captivity and no condors were flying free again until 1992, when the recovery program was launched.

Today, there are nearly 400…… [read more]


Wspa Non-Profit Organization Research Paper

… WSPA Non-Profit Organization

https://secure-research-payment.com/beta/writer/writer_order_detail/index/A2024221

The most worthy non-profit organizations are those that commit to the plight of those who are unable to help themselves. The World Society for the Protection of Animals (or WSPA) is one such operation. Animals are… [read more]


Career in Zoo Keeping Research Paper

… ¶ … Vocational Interest in Becoming a Zookeeper

Becoming a zookeeper is my current professional goal. Zookeepers typically work in zoos and their responsibilities include caring for and feeding animals and educating the general public about important issues of biological and ecological conservation. In addition to working directly with animals, zookeepers sometimes specialize in scientific areas of interest. The profession seems to be a perfect way to combine my interest in science, my love for animals, my desire to do something in connection with ecology or nature conservation, and my desire to work with people as well.

Responsibilities of Zookeepers

Zookeepers are responsible for the daily care, feeding, and the veterinary care of a wide variety of animal species. That is a challenging responsibility because zoos often maintain hundreds of different animal species ranging from the smallest insects, rodents, and reptiles to the largest mammals like elephants and zebra. All of these species have very different needs in terms of their diet, their habitats, climates, and the type of care that they require. Many species require a very narrow range of temperature and other climatic conditions to survive and thrive. In addition, certain species are very dangerous and capable of injuring zookeepers accidentally; other species are potentially deadly to human beings being they are carnivorous. According to the zookeepers at the Australia Zoo,

"Okay, well being a zoo keeper is a lot of different things, and also (involves)

working with a lot of different animals, so most zoo keepers that start here at the Zoo work with some of the smaller animals that we've got - things like kangaroos, koalas, that sort of thing. And a lot of people who start doing that usually volunteer at the Zoo for... sometimes a few months until a job comes up. Some people also go to university and study different animal sciences. But I guess the most important thing is to have some practical experience working with animals and that can not only be achieved in a zoo, but also in a vet clinic or in an animal shelter... even on a farm. Anywhere that is involved with looking after and caring for animals."

(Australia Zoo, 2010)

Zookeepers are also responsible for educating the general public…… [read more]


Evolution Essay

… (Vila, 1997) By allowing the least aggressive, most tame and sociable among humans to reproduce, humans developed an entirely unique species: the dog, Canis familiaris. (Morey, 1994) From those beginnings, humans then continued to select for a variety of different traits creating more than 400 different breeds of dogs. Humans chose for physical traits like appendage size, shape of skull, or color, but also chose for behavioral traits like tameness, playfulness, herding, guarding, barking, or other traits that pleased their human masters. (Honeycutt, 2010)

A similar thing happen in the cat "Family," Felidae, when cats spread around the world and encountered new environments. As a result of living in these different environments for many generations, nature selected different traits for different members of the cat family; like the stripes of the Asian Tiger, or the mane of the African Lion. Humans then took a small version of a wild, carnivorous cat, and by choosing for specific traits over successive generations, much like with the dog, created the Felis catus, or the housecat. (Driscoll, 2009)

Humans have, over many thousands of years, taken a natural process by which organisms change, and adapted it to their own purpose. By selecting for specific traits in animals, humans have succeeded in creating entirely new species. As a result human society is filled with human created species of animals meeting every need.

References

Driscoll, Carlos. (2009) The Evolution of House Cats. Scientific American. Retrieved from Science News, Articles and Information| Scientific American.

Honeycutt, Rodney, (2010). Unraveling the Mysteries of Dog Evolution. BMC Biology, 8 (20), Retrieved from Academic Onefile.

Morey, Davcey. (1994). The Early Evolution of the Domesticated Dog. American Scientist, 82 (4), Retrieved from Academic Onefile.

Vila C, et al.,…… [read more]


Exotic Animals Invading Florida Term Paper

… ¶ … combat the growing challenges associated with the release of non-native exotic animals into the wild in Florida and their subsequent invasion of Florida ecosystems. These outsiders then upset delicate biosystems that are already under stress from human encroachment, pollution and other problems. In this paper the author present a practical, researched, and documented proposal offering a solution to this vexing problem, including include prevention, eradication, reduction and containment. Throughout the paper, the Burmese python will be examined as a typical type of problem and solution situation that faces Florida conservation and wildlife management officials with regard to the release of exotic animals into the wild.

Description of the Problem

As stated above, people who no longer can or want their exotic pets frequently release them into the wild in Florida. Many of these animals such as Burmese pythons have adapted amazingly well to the warm, wet climate and have not only thrived but since they have no natural predators are destroying local animals and their food chains.

This has made a bad situation even worse for many animals who have been pushed to the edge of extinction by a variety of factors too numerous to discuss in this short paper.

Proposed Solution

There are already a number of specific solutions that are being executed by the state of Florida at the time of the writing of this paper. Logically, they should continue and be expanded. Priorities for snake management in Florida include prevention, eradication, reduction and containment. Education programs to prevent the sale, purchase, responsible ownership and the release of the animals into the wild are ongoing. Radiotelemetry on so-called "Judas snakes" that are tagged and tracked gives important intelligence on the travel, feeding, hunting and reproductive habits of the Burmese python. Hunting is already being used as a solution for the problem of Burmese pythons in Florida to cull the growing population which is estimated to be in the thousands. Also, destruction of breeding grounds for the Python is also mandatory in Florida. Capture and removal of the animals is being conducted presently (Harvey, et al.).

There also needs to be an outright ban on the sale of exotic pets to people without a license complete with stiff fines and/or jail time. If it is illegal to own an automatic weapon with a special federal permit, it needs to be the same with exotic animals. The Humane Society of the United States and other animal welfare groups are calling for restrictions on the trade of pythons and reptiles, arguing that the government should require exotic pet owners to obtain a permit or license before owning these animals. Florida does not require an ownership permit for Burmese pythons. Powerful pet-trade industry groups do not want the government to force stringent requirements and controls onto the industry. The pet-trade industry is able to impose significantly resist any type of regulation that would interfere with its…… [read more]


Pro or Con of Animal Testing Essay

… ¶ … Animals for Testing

Concern about animal testing probably began in America after 1980, when a group called People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) was formed. Using a strategy of civil disobedience at first, PETA attracted national attention by such stunts as stopping the performance of a circus and spray painting the fur coats of some fashionable ladies. Since then, PETA has grown to 2 million members and a more respectable reputation. It is not only responsible for public awareness of animal testing, but it is also partly responsible for encouraging the development of non-animal methods of testing of products such as drugs and cosmetics that are intended for human beings.

Before PETA, animal testing was the norm, and few protested its validity. Even now, animal testing has many proponents. But then, it seemed like a reasonable choice since animals were the closest match to human beings. Animal testing has made many treatments of disease possible and has saved many lives. It also lets researchers test drugs that might be toxic and make sure they are safe before they test them on humans. As a result, many lives are saved. Besides, the drugs that are tested eventually are approved. These drugs can then heal people more quickly, and some of them might even save people's lives.

However, there are many more convincing reasons why animals should not be used in testing. One strong argument is that the results from animal testing are unreliable. Even test results gathered from a mouse cannot be assumed to also apply for a rat; and, of course, results from rats certainly cannot be assumed to apply to human beings. There is also the issue that animals being tested are out of their natural environment and in a stressful situation, so their reactions would not be the same as they would be in their natural environment.

There is also the expense, which is considerabl. Animals being tested must be fed, housed, and cared for. If there are multiple test sessions, the expense of the feeding, housing, and care continues -- sometimes for months. There is also the expense of buying the animals themselves. Some companies are in business only to breed and sell animals to companies that are doing research

These are powerful reasons for not supporting animal testing. But the most powerful argument for not testing animals is that it is not humane. Many animals are tested and then killed immediately afterwards. Others are injured or cruelly maimed in the testing, and they must then spend the remainder of their lives as captives. What is most upsetting is that many of the drugs tested on animals are never approved, so that there was no benefit to humans and those animals died for no reason at all.

Famous poets have described their disapproval of cruelty to animals. Poetry can be even more compelling than prose to express this exploitation and, as the poet Elizabeth Bishop illustrates in her poem "The Fish." She reels… [read more]


Walden the Term Economy Has Multiple Meanings Thesis

… Walden

The term economy has multiple meanings. The two meanings most important to Henry David Thoreau related to personal economy and frugality. Although these are Thoreau's main concerns in Chapter 1 of Walden, the author is also concerned about society's view of economy and the current state of the people's material well-being in American society. For example, Thoreau mentions the economic conditions of the Chinese and Sandwich Islanders living in New England stating, "something about your condition, especially your outward condition or circumstances in this world, in this town, what it is, whether it is necessary that it be as bad as it is, whether it cannot be improved as well as not." Thoreau spends the bulk of Walden and especially the first chapter outlining the motives for his Walden Pond experiment. He emphasizes having "earned my living by the labor of my hands only," and stresses the simplicity of his lifestyle. Thus, Thoreau's economy is his frugality and the allocation of his own scarce resources. Thoreau deliberately presents Walden in opposition to the budding urbanization, industrialization, and increased wealth that sprouts up around him in New England. Therefore, Thoreau indirectly refers to other definitions of economy including the macroeconomic issues at play in 19th century America.

Question #2

In Chapter 2, Thoreau explains how he came specifically to Walden Pond, and how he cultivates a personal relationship with the land and the environment. Living in nature seems to offer Thoreau spiritual sustenance, as he writes, "Every morning was a cheerful invitation to make my life of equal simplicity, and I may say innocence, with Nature herself." Thoreau argues that the simple life, unencumbered by duties and responsibilities, is a spiritual blessing. Invoking Eastern philosophy, Thoreau suggests that the modern world clouds a direct communion with ourselves and with the vast universe. Living simply, living "deliberately" as Thoreau puts it, is a direct remedy to the stressors and poisons of modern materialistic existence. Materialism begets superficial happiness, whereas the simple life leads to genuine joy.

Question #3

In "Solitude," Thoreau demonstrates direct communion with nature. He refers to the evening as "delicious," and claims, "all the elements are unusually congenial to me." His relationship with nature is deeply personal. He mentions feeling in "sympathy" with plants and pine needles that "befriended" him. Thoreau suggests that an intimate attitude toward nature helps human beings cultivate a more peaceful mentality, and can lead to more harmonious human relationships as…… [read more]

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