"Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays

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Torture an Animal? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (513 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Animal testing would be necessary in determining side effects or possible problems. If animals were not used to test this new development, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to determine how it would affect humans. I would not feel comfortable sending the product to hospitals if it was not thoroughly tested and I know that the government would not approve it.

Serious injury, worsening of health condition, severe defects, or even death could be caused by an untested development. To prevent this from happening, the research department should use the minimal number of animal to test the skin graft.

I would want to be a major part of the animal testing, rather than pass the responsibility to a laboratory technician. By taking a significant role in the process, I would ensure that the department used as few animals as possible and took all precautions necessary to make the process painless for the animals used.

In my opinion, the advances and positive results of animal testing definitely outweigh the negative aspects of the process. Many people who protest against animal testing do so without supplying the medical industry with alternatives to the testing.

At present, animal testing is necessary for the preservation of human life. I believe it is necessary for success of the skin graft development, which would be a major breakthrough for mankind. Therefore, I would absolutely take full part in using animals to test…… [read more]

Animals for Testing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Clearly, using animals for testing saves lives, money, and makes sense. Using humans, or even cadavers for the same testing would not only be more expensive monetarily, it would be incredibly expensive in human lives. The entire premise of testing is based on creating new treatments which might be harmful or even deadly until their components are understood and managed. Using humans to test potentially deadly compounds would be unconscionable. Using animals, especially those that are bred in the lab specifically for medical research is not only cost effective, it is morally the correct thing to do. Some animal activists point to research done by cosmetic firms as a use of animals in testing that should be banned. One expert notes, "Rights thought dictates that we cannot kill one rights-holder to save another - or even more than one other - whether or not the life of the former is 'different' from that of the latter."

However, millions also use cosmetics and health care products, and if any ingredient is potentially harmful, it is far better to discover it in animal testing rather than in testing on humans. Animal testing simply makes sense for a variety of reasons, including cost savings, preservation of human life, and the safety and security of future generations.

In conclusion, using animals for testing saves lives - period. While the testing of animals should certainly be regulated for mistreatment and conditions, psychologist Elizabeth Baldwin sums up the argument best when she notes, "My own position is that animals do not have rights in the same sense that humans do, but that people have a responsibility to ensure the humane treatment of animals under their care."

The use of animals in testing has been going on for thousands of years, and has led to some of the most significant and live saving medical breakthroughs on the planet. Medical testing using animals should certainly be humane, but should continue, as it saves lives and helps researchers discover life-saving technologies before testing on humans.


Baldwin, Elizabeth. "The Case for Animal Research in Psychology." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, pp. 270-277.

Editors. "Holocaust on Your Plate." MassKilling.com. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.masskilling.com/exhibit.html

Editors. "Proud Achievements of Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Quick Facts About Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Zak, Steven. "Ethics and Animals." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, pp. 278-286.

Editors. "Proud Achievements of Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Editors. "Quick Facts About Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/

Steven Zak. "Ethics and Animals." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, p.… [read more]

Animal Species Studied Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,701 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The omega wolf would keep his head hung low, while the Alpha kept his head held very high. Although the wolves in captivity obviously did not hunt prey, they did play with large beach balls provided to them in a manner similar to what I would expect from a pack hunting, with the different wolves running around to keep the… [read more]

Animal Rights Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,309 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Losing these predators can tilt the ecological balance, and create other implications throughout the animal food chain. For example, when these top predators disappear from the landscape, other species that share their habitats can experience with overpopulation or population decline. First, overpopulation occurs as the predator-fewer environments encourages swift growth of species which typically would be targets of cougar hunting,… [read more]

Animal Rights Slaughter Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (593 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Differences in Species

Experimentation on animals has been proven to be ineffective for human systems. Foods and drugs which are beneficial for animals may be harmful or deadly for humans. Conversely, substances which produce adverse reactions in animals may actually benefit humans. This is because animals and humans each have their own distinct anatomy and psychology.

Buddhism and Animal Rights

The ethics of animal rights supporters are compatible with those of Buddhist in terms of moral beliefs and an understanding of the entire circumstance. The nature of the callous individuals who torture animals cannot account for the true nature of all humans. When determining the true nature, or Buddha-nature of humans, it is important to examine all humankind, and not just one portion of the species.

The Buddhist parable concerning the Way of Purification illustrated that one entity can have good and bad qualities (unknown). Unfortunately, the bad quality will often receive most of the attention or will overtake the good quality, thus leaving a bad impression of the entire entity. This is true of those involved in vivisection. While many scientists and researchers do not agree with the practice, they are often associated with those who torture helpless animals and are thus perceived as inhuman.


There are thousands of animals needlessly tortured every day by researchers in the name of medical research. It is important to apply the concepts of Buddhism and understand that these individuals are separate entities, and do not reflect the true nature of mankind. It is hopeful that the good, who believe in animal rights, will be successful in one day eliminating animal experimentation.

Works Cited

Ruesch, Hans. Slaughter of the Innocent. Matters of Ethics, Philosophy and Religion, Chapter 11.

Pp. 626-637.

Unknown. "Buddha-nature" and "The Way of Purification."…… [read more]

Hierarchy of Animals the Relative Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (650 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nevertheless, even in these respects, the hierarchical supremacy of human beings is potentially open to challenge by insects such as the honeybee, whose hives and social structure exhibit astonishing complexity as well. Furthermore, evidence collected from work conducted with dolphins and elephants suggest the remote but distinct possibility that the complexity of their social structure and intellectual capabilities may be much closer to that of human intelligence than that of other animals (Moussaieff Masson, 1995).

Humans likely qualify as the highest form of animal life from the perspective of intellectual development and technological achievement, but that raises another paradox, that along with the accolades of accomplishment come moral responsibilities. One could argue that the ability to coexist peacefully with the rest of one's species is also a relevant factor in establishing a respective hierarchy of life forms.

While warfare and gratuitous violence are not necessarily exclusive failings of human beings, man is likely the only animal who can be said to violate his own moral concepts, perhaps lowering his relative status among more naturally peaceful animals.

In that respect, Bonobo (or Pygmy) chimpanzees may rank higher than human beings by virtue of their more harmonious, peaceful communal lifestyle (Moussaieff Mason, 1995).

On an intellectual level, and certainly from the point-of-view of technological achievement and sophistication, human beings are clearly the highest form of animal life in the history of biological life on Earth. Ultimately though, the relative ranking of animal species on the hierarchy of biological life depends on how one defines animal life and on the arbitrary criteria one values in determining relative status.


Berry, A. (1996) Galileo and the Dolphins. Wiley & Sons: New York

Moussaieff Mason, J., McCarthy, S. (1995) When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. Delacorte: New York

Wenke, R. (1999) Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind's First…… [read more]

Animal Cruelty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The cages that Harlow subjected his experiments to would also need to be appropriate for the experiment and the information that is hoped to be derived from it.

3. Give a recent instance where primates were used for research experiments (please cite your study) then explain the ethical consideration with the choice of primates?

A relatively controversial research experiment with primates occurred with the Silver Spring Monkeys between from 1981 until 1991. This experiment, arguable more than Harlow's created horrific living conditions for the primates. This experiment also subjected them to what many believe torture and inhumane activities. The benefits derived from the experiment however, have had implications for human society in multiple facets.

In summary, 17 monkeys had been used as research subjects by the world renowned scientist Edward Taub. Taub, to initiate the experiment cut the afferent ganglia that supplied sensation to the brain from their arms. The afferent ganglia is located in the spinal cord. By removing it and he hoped to train the animals to use the arm that they could not feel. In May 1981, Alex Pacheco of the animal-rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) began working undercover in the lab, and alerted police to what PETA viewed as unacceptable living conditions for the monkeys.

Police raided the lab and found many ethical aspects within it. For one, the living condictions for the animals were deplorable. Feces appeared throughout the cages; so much so that the animals had to dig through it to find food. Because they had no feeling in their arms, the monkeys would chew and rip the skin from the arms and hands, exposing the bone. These wounds were not properly treated according to authorities. The monkeys were subjected to horrific and often painful experiments through the day. Authorities also cited the fact that the monkeys lived in 15 x 15 cages, in a room with no windows for years at a time. Due to these ethical considerations and more Taub was charged with 17 counts of animal cruelty and failing to provide adequate veterinary care. He was convicted on six counts; five were overturned during a second trial, and the final conviction was overturned on appeal in 1983, when the court ruled that…… [read more]

Pro or Con of Animal Testing Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,323 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Animals for Testing

Concern about animal testing probably began in America after 1980, when a group called People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) was formed. Using a strategy of civil disobedience at first, PETA attracted national attention by such stunts as stopping the performance of a circus and spray painting the fur coats of some fashionable ladies. Since then, PETA has grown to 2 million members and a more respectable reputation. It is not only responsible for public awareness of animal testing, but it is also partly responsible for encouraging the development of non-animal methods of testing of products such as drugs and cosmetics that are intended for human beings.

Before PETA, animal testing was the norm, and few protested its validity. Even now, animal testing has many proponents. But then, it seemed like a reasonable choice since animals were the closest match to human beings. Animal testing has made many treatments of disease possible and has saved many lives. It also lets researchers test drugs that might be toxic and make sure they are safe before they test them on humans. As a result, many lives are saved. Besides, the drugs that are tested eventually are approved. These drugs can then heal people more quickly, and some of them might even save people's lives.

However, there are many more convincing reasons why animals should not be used in testing. One strong argument is that the results from animal testing are unreliable. Even test results gathered from a mouse cannot be assumed to also apply for a rat; and, of course, results from rats certainly cannot be assumed to apply to human beings. There is also the issue that animals being tested are out of their natural environment and in a stressful situation, so their reactions would not be the same as they would be in their natural environment.

There is also the expense, which is considerabl. Animals being tested must be fed, housed, and cared for. If there are multiple test sessions, the expense of the feeding, housing, and care continues -- sometimes for months. There is also the expense of buying the animals themselves. Some companies are in business only to breed and sell animals to companies that are doing research

These are powerful reasons for not supporting animal testing. But the most powerful argument for not testing animals is that it is not humane. Many animals are tested and then killed immediately afterwards. Others are injured or cruelly maimed in the testing, and they must then spend the remainder of their lives as captives. What is most upsetting is that many of the drugs tested on animals are never approved, so that there was no benefit to humans and those animals died for no reason at all.

Famous poets have described their disapproval of cruelty to animals. Poetry can be even more compelling than prose to express this exploitation and, as the poet Elizabeth Bishop illustrates in her poem "The Fish." She reels… [read more]

Exotic Animals Invading Florida Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (972 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … combat the growing challenges associated with the release of non-native exotic animals into the wild in Florida and their subsequent invasion of Florida ecosystems. These outsiders then upset delicate biosystems that are already under stress from human encroachment, pollution and other problems. In this paper the author present a practical, researched, and documented proposal offering a solution to this vexing problem, including include prevention, eradication, reduction and containment. Throughout the paper, the Burmese python will be examined as a typical type of problem and solution situation that faces Florida conservation and wildlife management officials with regard to the release of exotic animals into the wild.

Description of the Problem

As stated above, people who no longer can or want their exotic pets frequently release them into the wild in Florida. Many of these animals such as Burmese pythons have adapted amazingly well to the warm, wet climate and have not only thrived but since they have no natural predators are destroying local animals and their food chains.

This has made a bad situation even worse for many animals who have been pushed to the edge of extinction by a variety of factors too numerous to discuss in this short paper.

Proposed Solution

There are already a number of specific solutions that are being executed by the state of Florida at the time of the writing of this paper. Logically, they should continue and be expanded. Priorities for snake management in Florida include prevention, eradication, reduction and containment. Education programs to prevent the sale, purchase, responsible ownership and the release of the animals into the wild are ongoing. Radiotelemetry on so-called "Judas snakes" that are tagged and tracked gives important intelligence on the travel, feeding, hunting and reproductive habits of the Burmese python. Hunting is already being used as a solution for the problem of Burmese pythons in Florida to cull the growing population which is estimated to be in the thousands. Also, destruction of breeding grounds for the Python is also mandatory in Florida. Capture and removal of the animals is being conducted presently (Harvey, et al.).

There also needs to be an outright ban on the sale of exotic pets to people without a license complete with stiff fines and/or jail time. If it is illegal to own an automatic weapon with a special federal permit, it needs to be the same with exotic animals. The Humane Society of the United States and other animal welfare groups are calling for restrictions on the trade of pythons and reptiles, arguing that the government should require exotic pet owners to obtain a permit or license before owning these animals. Florida does not require an ownership permit for Burmese pythons. Powerful pet-trade industry groups do not want the government to force stringent requirements and controls onto the industry. The pet-trade industry is able to impose significantly resist any type of regulation that would interfere with its…… [read more]

Career in Zoo Keeping Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (747 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Vocational Interest in Becoming a Zookeeper

Becoming a zookeeper is my current professional goal. Zookeepers typically work in zoos and their responsibilities include caring for and feeding animals and educating the general public about important issues of biological and ecological conservation. In addition to working directly with animals, zookeepers sometimes specialize in scientific areas of interest. The profession seems to be a perfect way to combine my interest in science, my love for animals, my desire to do something in connection with ecology or nature conservation, and my desire to work with people as well.

Responsibilities of Zookeepers

Zookeepers are responsible for the daily care, feeding, and the veterinary care of a wide variety of animal species. That is a challenging responsibility because zoos often maintain hundreds of different animal species ranging from the smallest insects, rodents, and reptiles to the largest mammals like elephants and zebra. All of these species have very different needs in terms of their diet, their habitats, climates, and the type of care that they require. Many species require a very narrow range of temperature and other climatic conditions to survive and thrive. In addition, certain species are very dangerous and capable of injuring zookeepers accidentally; other species are potentially deadly to human beings being they are carnivorous. According to the zookeepers at the Australia Zoo,

"Okay, well being a zoo keeper is a lot of different things, and also (involves)

working with a lot of different animals, so most zoo keepers that start here at the Zoo work with some of the smaller animals that we've got - things like kangaroos, koalas, that sort of thing. And a lot of people who start doing that usually volunteer at the Zoo for... sometimes a few months until a job comes up. Some people also go to university and study different animal sciences. But I guess the most important thing is to have some practical experience working with animals and that can not only be achieved in a zoo, but also in a vet clinic or in an animal shelter... even on a farm. Anywhere that is involved with looking after and caring for animals."

(Australia Zoo, 2010)

Zookeepers are also responsible for educating the general public…… [read more]

Walden the Term Economy Has Multiple Meanings Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (814 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



The term economy has multiple meanings. The two meanings most important to Henry David Thoreau related to personal economy and frugality. Although these are Thoreau's main concerns in Chapter 1 of Walden, the author is also concerned about society's view of economy and the current state of the people's material well-being in American society. For example, Thoreau mentions the economic conditions of the Chinese and Sandwich Islanders living in New England stating, "something about your condition, especially your outward condition or circumstances in this world, in this town, what it is, whether it is necessary that it be as bad as it is, whether it cannot be improved as well as not." Thoreau spends the bulk of Walden and especially the first chapter outlining the motives for his Walden Pond experiment. He emphasizes having "earned my living by the labor of my hands only," and stresses the simplicity of his lifestyle. Thus, Thoreau's economy is his frugality and the allocation of his own scarce resources. Thoreau deliberately presents Walden in opposition to the budding urbanization, industrialization, and increased wealth that sprouts up around him in New England. Therefore, Thoreau indirectly refers to other definitions of economy including the macroeconomic issues at play in 19th century America.

Question #2

In Chapter 2, Thoreau explains how he came specifically to Walden Pond, and how he cultivates a personal relationship with the land and the environment. Living in nature seems to offer Thoreau spiritual sustenance, as he writes, "Every morning was a cheerful invitation to make my life of equal simplicity, and I may say innocence, with Nature herself." Thoreau argues that the simple life, unencumbered by duties and responsibilities, is a spiritual blessing. Invoking Eastern philosophy, Thoreau suggests that the modern world clouds a direct communion with ourselves and with the vast universe. Living simply, living "deliberately" as Thoreau puts it, is a direct remedy to the stressors and poisons of modern materialistic existence. Materialism begets superficial happiness, whereas the simple life leads to genuine joy.

Question #3

In "Solitude," Thoreau demonstrates direct communion with nature. He refers to the evening as "delicious," and claims, "all the elements are unusually congenial to me." His relationship with nature is deeply personal. He mentions feeling in "sympathy" with plants and pine needles that "befriended" him. Thoreau suggests that an intimate attitude toward nature helps human beings cultivate a more peaceful mentality, and can lead to more harmonious human relationships as…… [read more]

Zoos the History of Zoos Is Entwined Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,591 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



The history of zoos is entwined with the history of human civilizations. Zoos represent the relationship between human beings and their natural environment, and especially between human beings and other animals. The very existence of zoos, and their predecessors such as menageries and personal collections of wild animals, suggests that human beings have attempted control wild animals in some… [read more]

Environmental Settings of the Cambrian Explosion Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (3,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


Environmental Settings of the Cambrian Explosion

The objective of this work is to examine the development of natural environments alongside the evolution of life throughout the Cambrian explosion. This work will focus on beginnings of life, their natural environments and their evolution in changing environments from the beginning to the end of the Cambrian explosion. The key theme of this… [read more]

Bacterial Source Tracking and Total Maximum Daily Load Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  9 pages (2,523 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7



Microbial Source Tracking lacks a methodology that is appropriate in the tracing of bacterial contamination in the environment resulting in the identification and control of these pollutant sources which affects the decision-making in water-quality and management in a negative manner. The method for making identification of sources of microbial pollution is 'Microbial… [read more]

Animal Liberation Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (721 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Animal Liberation by Peter Singer

In Animal Liberation, Peter Singer presents a convincing argument against the continued exploitation of animals used for scientific research and for human consumption. My beliefs on the issues have always been very similar to Singer's.

The principal basis for Singer's suggestion that lack of concern for animal suffering is unethical and immoral is the overwhelming evidence that animals experience physical pain as acutely as humans. Specifically, the only significant difference between human suffering and animal suffering is that animals cannot communicate their responses to us through verbal language.

However, as Singer points out in his strongest arguments, neither can human infants, or for that matter, deaf mutes. Nevertheless, nobody refutes the idea that human beings experience pain regardless of whether or not they can communicate through language. As Singer explains, there is no doubt as to the substantial similarity between many elements of animal physiology and function and human physiology and function; in fact, that is precisely why animal experiments are relevant to human medical research.

Likewise, animals display nearly identical reactions to painful stimuli as humans in every other respect besides linguistic expression.

Singer also offers the findings of animal behaviorist studies, as well as anecdotal evidence of wildlife experts, documenting the extent to which so-called "higher animals" are apparently capable of suffering from non-physical pain that is considered emotional trauma in humans. One of Singer's most interesting arguments is that relating to speciesism, the concept that humans tend to view moral issues subjectively, in that concerns that are, in fact, virtually identical as between humans and animals are only taken seriously to the extent they pertain to humans. In that regard, Singer reminds us that the very same distinctions that supposedly justify certain conduct toward other animals is identical to various moral beliefs once used to justify human slavery, exploitation, and other aspects of racism, even within the human species.

Singer criticizes both the use of animals for medical experimentation and the manner in which the modern farming industry raises animals for human consumption, but does not adequately detail the fundamental moral basis for distinguishing morally justifiable forms of scientific experiments…… [read more]

Parthenogenesis Is the Development or Growth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (362 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Parthenogenesis is the development or growth of an organism in which fertilization does not occur between complimentary sex cells. It is a form of asexual reproduction where an unfertilized gamete begins to develop into the full-grown organism. It is fairly common in the less complex forms of species in the animal kingdom up through the Insect class, but becomes much less common thereafter. While the mechanisms involved in the process are not completely understood, parthenogenesis develops an offspring with almost identical genetic markers as the parent, very similar to the development of a clone, but with only one sex producing the phenomena. While certain worms and insects have this trait in common, a few kinds of amphibians, reptiles, and birds can also reproduce parthenogenetically. ("Parthenogenesis") However, mammalian embryos derived experimentally in this manner have thus far died within a period of days. (Kim, et.al. 483)

Parthenogenesis is used by organisms to exploit certain environmental circumstance. In the case of aphids they often use parthenogenesis to reproduce in larger numbers when supplies of food are abundant. Many organisms that use this method…… [read more]

Arguments Against Testing Drugs on Animals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (744 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … drug testing on animals. Using animals for drug testing and development may have had a purpose at one time, but with advances in science and technology, it no longer has a place in modern drug development techniques. Using animals in drug testing is cruel, and it should be outlawed.

Many people and federal agencies condone the use of animal testing because they maintain it helps save lives. For example, the "FDA's position on animal testing is straightforward and consistent: The use of animal tests by industry to establish the safety of regulated products is necessary to minimize the risks from such products to humans."

However, over the years, this position has been modified because of the outcry of many citizens who believe animal testing is cruel and abusive, and it should be stopped. Modern research indicates there are many other ways to accomplish drug testing without harming animals.

As we learn more about diseases and illness, it is becoming clearer that many health concerns can be aided by behavior modification. One writer states, "Improvement in health is likely to come in the future, as in the past, from modification of the conditions that lead to disease, rather than from intervention in the mechanism of disease after it has occurred."

Many conditions today have their origins in diet and lifestyle, such as high cholesterol, adult-onset diabetes, and others. Scientists urge diet and exercise changes to help these diseases, and animal testing does not need to occur in these cases. Research and scientific thought will surely find more causes such as these in the future, lessening the need for animal testing at all.

Another important argument against using animals in drug testing is the results. Most animals react far differently to diseases and drugs than humans do. One author notes, "Research results are relevant only to the species under tests and concern for the risk of misleading predictions, since humans and animals often respond quite differently to drugs and disease." Thus, using animals in testing may actually skew the results, and the drugs may not be as effective as first thought, or they might be too potent.

Finally, many animal tests have been eliminated because they have been shown to be ineffective,…… [read more]

Animal Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (851 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


NRA Uses Propaganda to Promote Lies about Condors & Lead Poisoning

Those who want to help the recovery program for the endangered California Condor are up against the powerful National Rifle Association (NRA, 2011), and the fight to preserve and restore the species is not going to be won easily because of the propaganda put out by the NRA. The main issue is lead poisoning. Condors "are highly susceptible to lead toxicity," according to the Ventana Wildlife Society. Many other respected wildlife and conservation organizations concur that even small fragments of lead bullets, or shotgun pellets, can kill a condor, depending on how long the lead is in the bird's digestive system. Condors are relatives of the vulture and unlike raptors, the California Condor feeds only on carrion (dead animals).

What happens is this: a deer hunter in California shoots his buck, takes the best meat from the deer and leaves the "gut-pile" of the deer on the ground. The condor finds the fresh kill -- with the shattered lead fragments from the bullets still to be found throughout the remains -- and after ingesting the deer's remains, the condor becomes very ill. If the condor is not flown to a hospital and had its digestive tract cleared of the lead, it will die. And so with the evidence in abundance that lead kills condors -- a bird that the state and private organizations have spent millions of dollars trying to restore -- the state passed a law a few years ago that in certain condor areas of California only non-lead ammo is legal for hunters to use. The most popular choice of those responsible hunters that have followed the law is copper ammunition.

But the NRA uses its very effective propaganda machine -- frankly lying about lead bullets, and smearing bona fide scientists that report the medical / biological facts.

The California condor is the largest bird in North America. It has a wingspan of nine and a half feet and can fly over a hundred miles on a single day, according to the Ventana Wildlife Society (2011). In the late 1980s, the California Condor came within an eyelash of extinction. The giant birds' population had been shrinking down from thousands a couple hundred years ago to about 22 birds in 1987. They had been shot, poisoned, and pushed to the brink of extinction. At that time the remaining birds were taken into captivity and no condors were flying free again until 1992, when the recovery program was launched.

Today, there are nearly 400…… [read more]

Fruit Flies the Importance of Long-Term Memory Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,167 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Fruit Flies

The Importance of Long-Term Memory:

Studying the Fruit Fly

The most fascinating of all abilities of life on Earth is the utilization of memory to survive. Memory can be utilized by animals, insects, reptiles, and even fish to find food and shelter. Long-term memory in particular is a fascination of both public and scientists alike. With new experiments… [read more]

Wspa Non-Profit Organization Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (3,619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


WSPA Non-Profit Organization


The most worthy non-profit organizations are those that commit to the plight of those who are unable to help themselves. The World Society for the Protection of Animals (or WSPA) is one such operation. Animals are a voiceless and unempowered presence in the world and human beings act as both their attackers and their defenders. The… [read more]

Cost Analysis of Search Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (735 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Costs to other animals might include the 'macro' costs of breeding dogs specifically for their ability to track scents. This could indirectly fuel the industry of breeding dogs, versus focusing on finding homes for dogs of mixed origin. There are also 'costs' to the environment in terms of viewing animals as creatures to serve humans, and viewing the natural world as a tool rather than something with integrity in and of itself. Dogs may be called to rescue skiers who imprudently went out on a mountain that was too steep for them, or asked to rescue swimmers who jumped into water with no lifeguard present. This forces the dog to risk their lives for a human being who needlessly risked his own (Gunn & Ralston 20100.

Costs to humans include the costs of breeding and raising the dogs, as well as the time devoted to training them. Most of the handlers are volunteers, and receive no compensation for their efforts. They must also care for the dog if it becomes sick or injured during its lifetime. The investment is considerable: "Handlers must earn and retain certification in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid, learn how to maintain a crime scene, and attend sessions in other aspects of search and rescue work: (Woolf 2010). The rigorous testing and certification process can take months or years for a dog to be certified (SARDUS rescue, 2011, SARDUS).

Indirect costs to humans include the costs of having the dogs run through a disaster site, and the costs of possible false hope if the individual cannot be found who is being tracked down. Also, there are undeniable costs for the deployment of the dogs as part of a formal law enforcement effort.

Works Cited

Gunn, Charlotte & Gene Ralston. "Search for drowned man using GPS and search dogs."

Idaho Search and Rescue Unit. [October 19, 2011]


"SARDUS dogs work with local law enforcement." SARDUS. [October 19, 2011]


Woolf, Norma B. "Search and rescue dogs." Dog Owner's Guide.

[October 19, 2011]

http://www.canismajor.com/dog/srchresc.html… [read more]

Is Extinction a Course of Nature? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (984 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Biology of Species Extinction -- Argument

When it comes to the issue of the extinction of animal species, there are two main schools of thought. According to the first, the extinction of species is simply the naturally course of evolution and not a tragedy that human beings should devote time, energy, and effort to preventing. According to the second school of thought, there is an inherent value to every species and even if extinction is a natural phenomenon, the fact that the rate of species extinction has increased as a result of human activities is sufficient justification for trying to preserve species facing extinction and, at least, to try to minimize the effect of human activities on the premature or accelerated extinction of animal species. While the second position is admirable in some respects and does reflect a certain sensitivity toward nature, it is the much weaker argument.

The extinction of animal species is strictly a function of their ability to adapt to changes in their environment. It is a process that has bee ongoing throughout the natural world for billions of years, ever since the first microbes evolved into different microbes and simple organisms that were better able to thrive in their environment. The evolutionary process predates human activity by such a long period of time that the entire period of human existence on earth amounts to the equivalent of seconds if the history of the planet were represented by a 24-hour clock. On that clock, human beings first appeared only a few seconds before midnight.

The principal reason that there is such ecological diversity in the first place is that biological species have continually evolved by changing their form and functions as necessitated by their external environment. In that respect, the addition of human beings in general and of human activities in particular to the environment is no more or less part of the external environment of other species than all of the environmental changes that have driven evolution (and extinctions) since the first form of life emerged on earth. Just as changes in the populations of predatory and prey species directly influence the success of one another's species, so does the addition of human beings to the equation. In that sense, human activity -- even if it has contributed to or accelerated the "natural" extinction rate of other animal species -- is nothing more or less than another element of the natural world to which other species must adapt if they are to succeed.

To put human activity and its possible influence on animal extinction rates into perspective, just consider that a meteorite that struck the earth near modern-day Siberia is now known to have been the cause of the largest number of simultaneous extinctions likely to have ever occurred on earth from a single cause. It wiped out all of the dinosaurs and probably is the reason that smaller mammals managed to evolve into human beings…… [read more]

Total Eclipse, We See Two Writers Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Total Eclipse," we see two writers who have a very personal or -- perhaps, better stated -- psychological connections to the nature that surrounds them. Ehrlich discusses her beloved Wyoming in her essay and has given it an apt title as she describes being able to drive for miles without seeing another person. She says: "The solitude in which westerners live makes them quiet" (Ehrlich 6). This may seem obvious is one considers that being in a place like Wyoming means you will see more animals than you will people. Dillard begins her essay discussing her drive with her husband Gary to watch the total eclipse. The journey took five hours through snowy mountains that eventually melt and change into green valleys. Dillard says, "I watched the landscape innocently, like a fool, like a diver in the rapture of the deep who plays on the bottom while his air runs out" (Dillard 3) -- another sentence that seems to evoke a certain solitude and silence. In these two quotes taken from Ehrlich's and Dillard's essays, the reader is able to feel the power of the two places being witnessed by its authors and how they are allowing nature to overcome them, in a sense. Both Ehrlich and Dillard allow themselves to sit and witness the space around them, mesmerized and awestruck. They do not fight what they see nor do they try to change how they feel.

Ehrlich describes the open spaces of Wyoming as beautiful, but it can also be harsh at times too, with the weather in the winter getting bitterly cold. She writes, "The landscape hardens into a dungeon of space. During the winter, while I was riding to find a new calf, my jeans froze to the saddle, and in the silence that such cold creates I felt like the first person on earth, or the last" (Ehrlich 2). While "a dungeon of space" out of context may evoke some kind of terror and dread, in Ehrlich's description, it evokes peace. The reader also gets the sense that Dillard is very aware of how big and great the world is as she stands looking upon the Yakima valley. She looks upon it as if it is some kind of dream or a Shangri-la (Dillard 6). She notes the sky that seems to go on forever. As Dillard describes her experience of taking in the world around her, it feels as if she, too, is the first (or last) person on earth. Gary, her husband, isn't mentioned in these paragraphs; it is just Dillard and nature. Dillard's awareness of the phenomenon that is the total eclipse is clear. She says,

What you see in an eclipse is entirely different from what you know. It is especially different for those of us whose grasp of astronomy is so frail that, given a flashlight, a grapefruit, two oranges, and fifteen years, we still could not figure out which way to set the clocks for daylight…… [read more]

Toulmin-Based Argument in Support Essay

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To this end, there appears to be a direct connection between income level and pet-adoption preferences that indicate public awareness campaigns may be effective in promoting animal adoptions from shelters and reducing euthanasia levels. For instance, pet adoption rates have been shown to differ significantly according to ZIP codes. In this regard, Fine reports that, "Pet-keeping practices vary with neighborhood and community. A study of residents in Salt Lake County revealed that residents' ZIP code areas were highly predictive of the sources of pets residents used in acquiring their pets. Certain ZIP code areas showed high levels of pet adoptions from shelters, while other neighborhoods favored purebred animals, and feral cats were adopted in other areas" (2006, p. 77).

In addition, the Humane Society has sponsored a longstanding public awareness campaign, "Until There are None, Adopt One," that encourages prospective pet owners to acquire their animals from shelters rather than pet stores or so-called "puppy mills" (Hasenauer, 1997). Therefore, by targeting low adoption level communities with public awareness campaigns and policies that prevent animals from being destroyed, adoption levels can be increased and euthanasia rates reduced dramatically (Fine, 2006). Furthermore, purebred dogs (and cats) are also available from animal shelters, but in many cases, "it's the mongrels that tend to be healthier. They get the best traits from all the breeds and are often friendlier and easier to train as well" (Hasenauer, 1997, p. 21). For pet owners who insist on purebred species, there are some nonprofit civic organizations that focus on these as well such as Lab Rescue that specializes in placing Labrador retrievers and Greyhound Pets of America that specializes in placing retired greyhound racing dogs (Hasenauer, 1997).

Counter-Arguments and Rebuttals

An old saying cautions that, "There is no such thing as a 'free puppy,'" and the research certainly confirms this adage. Indeed, pet ownership involves a substantial outlay of time and monetary resources. For example, a New York City-based veterinarian warns that, "Bringing home a dog simply because it looks oh-so-adorable is not the wisest way to choose a companion. Too often I hear people say 'I saw this dog and just had to get it' without thinking of the consequences.' But you're adding a family member who needs daily food, water and attention as well as house training, grooming and veterinary care" (Cherry, 2007, p. 79). Likewise, Hasenauer (1997) researched consumer pet-purchasing habits and found that many new owners are astounded by just how much work is involved in housebreaking a new puppy, for example, for the expense that can accrue to pet ownership. According to Hasenauer, "Buying a living, breathing animal is very different from investing in an inanimate object. Before you bring a pet into your home, you should be willing to commit to loving and caring for that pet for the rest of its life" (p. 21). Despite these constraints, though,


Millions of dogs and cats are destroyed in the United States each year because animal shelters were unable to find suitable… [read more]

Do Animals Have Culture? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (822 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … animals have culture?

Animal Culture

Culture in animals has been a controversial issue especially when people hear of culture deviated from the norm. Animal culture is slowly gaining popularity; it entails social transmission of behavior among animal species from generation to generation. Cross-Cultural Capability in animals also deals with the values and skills impacted on an animal to enable it to live and interrelate with other creatures in a multicultural way (Whitehead, 2010). The transmitted behavior can be shared within a group of animals but not specific between different groups of the same species of animal. Behavior among the animals can be transmitted in a variety of ways, such as; through language, teaching and imitation.

Culture in animals started in the ancient times, but it advancement started around the year 1940 where the Japanese scientist (primatologist) found the impact of food of primates behavior leading to the creation of socially transmitted food behavior among them. During those times and even now, primates are more commonly used in an experiment to find out whether there is culture among animals because of their proximity in resemblance to human beings. This theory relies on the fact that there are some cultural traits which are developed as a result of repeating the same event daily or as a routine practice in an animal's life (Laland, 2009). This culture are mostly adopted by animals if they have a positive impact on them such as if they are associated with food or those actions which determine their survival rate. For example an experiment done on chimpanzees where they were shown to use sticks in such a way that they can access food more easily, with time the chimpanzees were able to, not only utilize, the sticks but also, other tools in their effort to reach for food. Therefore, this became one of their culture.

Mimicry in animals is the most commonly used among the three methods, on the other hand, the use of teaching and less of language can best be used on certain specific species of animals with a higher cultural capabilities, but not all. Animals, especially those with the same genes, acquired mostly through birth are more likely to develop the culture more than other animals of the same species. Transmission of behavior into these animals takes time and while doing so the vicinity should be conducive for the animals so as to focus their attention towards learning and mastering the behavior. There…… [read more]

Phylum Annelida Annelids Are Members Essay

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The same is also found in chordates and other pigments. The hemoglobin is dissolved directly into the blood allowing them to leave where oxygen is scarce and food is plentiful example in the mud and under water. Their reproductive system can be either sexual or asexual. For example in asexual reproduction, the parent divides itself into two. Some of them (example earthworms) are hermaphroditic meaning they have both sexes in one individual Badea et al., 2010


Since they are invertebrates, when they break any of their body parts they can regenerate. Phylum Annelida have the ability to withstand extinction because they are hermaphroditic. Some of them (example earthworms) contribute to soil fertility. They move with ease in most environments due to their ability to burrow, swim and creep. Their segmented bodies facilitate ease of movement through and into surfaces. Their hemoglobin is dissolved directly into the blood allowing them to live in stagnant mud where oxygen is scarce. Their body movement does not interfere with their digestive tract movements due to the muscular walls on their digestive systems Meglitsch P, 1972()


Phylum Annelida is a species that has many merits and positive contribution to earth science; they can live in a variety of environments and move easily due to their segmented body which distinguishes them from other worm like creatures. Phylum Annelida display a clear illustration of metameric organization and have more peculiarities that call for more introspect in biology.


Badea, A.B., Gagyi-Palffy, A., Stoian, L.C., & Stan, G. (2010). Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators. [Article]. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the…… [read more]

Narrative of the Life of an American Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


Narrative of the Life of an American Slave: The Use of Animal Metaphors, Images, And Comparisons by Its Author

Today, we live in a world where we usually encounter animals as pets or as cellophane wrapped packages in the meat department -- seldom as beasts of burden or creatures that we make an economic profit from, unless we are farmers. But in the 19th century of the rural agrarian South, animals were necessary to the livelihood of plantation owners, making work less onerous and providing a potential for profit in trade. Alas, the human personages of slaves provided similar respite from physical labor and similar sources of profits.

This is why, over the course of Narrative of the Life of an American Slave, the author, the once-enslaved Frederick Douglass, frequently makes use of animal images to describe his plight and to make analogies between his own existence and the existence of an animal. This would not be, initially a surprise to his contemporary readership. As a slave in the American South, Douglass was frequently forced to work amongst animals as well as function like one, so animals were a ready source of metaphor.

Douglass makes it clear how he was often asked to function as a beast of burden in his own labors, and punished like a beast by being whipped. He wrote in an era where animals were not accorded even minimal rights. Today, animal rights are a frequent source and subject of public debate, but in Douglass' era, because of the human possession of a soul, in contrast to animals, the idea of animals and humans being close in origin was less comfortable. Rather, what was of debate was if Douglass' own race was fully human or closer to the non-human 'lower' rungs of the animal kingdom, as they were frequently treated.

Thus, Douglass uses animal metaphors to glean support for his cause from a potentially sympathetic Northern readership and audience, from a religious perspective. He has a soul, unlike an animal, yet he was treated like one. He uses examples of his being treated like an animal, and bought and sold like a beast, to show that even under the 'best' forms of human enslavement, in other words, even when slaves have kind masters, they are treated as subhuman actors in the universe. "Added to the cruel lashing a to which these slaves were subjected," on one farm, "they [the slaves] were kept nearly half-starved. They seldom knew what it was to eat a full meal. I have seen Mary [a fellow slave] contending with the pigs for the offal thrown into the street. So much was Mary kicked and cut to pieces, that she was oftener called pecked than by her name." (1897, Chapter IV) Mary, out of slavery and the ill treatment is reduced to the status of a beast, although she is made, like all humans, in God's image, many of Douglass' abolitionists and Northern Christian readers would marvel, with horror.

What makes a… [read more]

Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff, and Mccarthy, Susan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff, and McCarthy, Susan. When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. 1995: Delacorte Press.

In the prologue of this book, Massan explains that scientists have been carefully trained to believe that animals do not experience emotions. He dismantles that notion easily on the second page when he describes being charged by an enraged elephant. Unless anger is… [read more]

Why Animals Should Be Spayed Neutered Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,823 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Spaying and Neutering Pets

Spaying and Neutering -- the least costly alternative to you, your pet, and to society

Why you should spay or neuter your pet

Attention getter -- common misconception

Subvert Common Misconception

Why spaying and neutering good for society

Common Myths -- miracles of birth, purebred

Overpopulation -- the reality

Why spaying and neutering good for pet… [read more]

Animal Senses Herman, Pack Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,268 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In short, the dolphin turned out to be smart enough to assess new situations instantly and use whatever skills/abilities it needed to obtain correct information and further, to use its prior training to let the researcher know its answer. Still, the question must be asked: Is there a point to this experiment? Will knowing how a dolphin 'sees' objects bring… [read more]

Snake River Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Snake River is part of the larger Columbia River system. The natural ecology of the Snake River has been altered by the placement of dams on the river, altering the way Salmon move through the entire region and raising a number of questions about whether the dams are doing more harm than good. The Snake River is the main tributary… [read more]

Wildlife Attractions Animal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,849 words)
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Indeed many people visit zoos and other wildlife attractions and there is great potential to teach the public about wildlife welfare in conservations (Animal Ethics Clarifier). This can be done through information plaques near animal exhibits and through explanations given by tour guides (Animal Ethics Clarifier).

On the other hand those that oppose these attractions assert that even when these… [read more]

Environmental History Thoreau Muir Leopold and Carson Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,926 words)
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Environmental Science

Four pivotal people - whose collective positive impact on the environment and on society's understanding of the natural world is powerful - are featured in this paper. They are John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Henry David Thoreau, and Rachel Carson; an understanding of their lives and professional contributions is necessary for any student who wishes to become informed as… [read more]

De Waal and Kummer Term Paper

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De Waal and Kummer

What do Kummer and de Waal describe as the major ecological (environmental and social) conditions altered by captivity?

Observing primates in zoos proved to have significant limitations. Kummer notes that zoos' practices of keeping only one mature adult male helped avoid serious fights, but that the lone male paid a price - boredom. Artificially restricting the… [read more]

Spider Life Is Sacred Essay

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¶ … Spider


Life is sacred no matter whose life. However, there are two informal groups of people that have different opinions and orientation towards the sacredness and worth of life. To the first group or class of people, life of human beings is only honorable enough to be protected. To them, rest of the species simply maintain the… [read more]

Haldane "Some Enemies of Science Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 2


We are, after all, animals.

Haldane views granting animals any type of intelligence and subjectivity sentiment, versus rationality. He condemns a system which requires him to justify a 'novel' means of killing a mouse but which allows animals to be slaughtered for food and allows his wife to kill rats with poison. He condemns peers who fox hunt yet who would prohibit vivisection (Haldane 7). To some extent, Haldane's point that compassion for animals is not logically consistent is valid. It could also be argued that a perfectly ethical life in regards to animals is virtually impossible. Outlawing all uses of animals for food would condemn certain types of animals (house cats) to ill health or even an early death, since cats are carnivores. Is eradicating a flea or a tick from the body of a dog tantamount to murder or is it better to let the animal live in a state of permanent discomfort? What about intestinal parasites? What about performing experiments on animals for the purpose of life-saving surgeries designed to save animals? No life can be supported without some form of death, and prioritization is inevitable. Not only does tilling a garden cause the death of earthworms as Haldane points out, but large scale agriculture (used to produce vegetarian food) displaces the habitats of animals and causes their early death in many instances.

Haldane's closing argument is his weakest one, as he engages in ad hominem attacks of anti-vivisectionists. But even if Haldane's opponents are not always logically consistent, as an author he seems overly enthusiastic about attributing motives, not only to other beings but also to anti-vivisectionists themselves, asserting that they hate science because they disagree with him. He claims they do not understand science -- and perhaps people as well, picturing the archetypical vivisectionist as a "sour spinster" (Haldane 22-18).

While death is inevitable, this does not mean that every aspect of suffering must be condoned. Ultimately, even if one does not support a complete ban on testing, Haldane's assertion that needless pain is never inflicted upon animals and that no government oversight of animal experimentation seems dubious: a 'trust the scientists never to go wrong' mentality that belies the fact that economic considerations, bias, and simple cruelty cannot be characteristic of the scientific community. Even in regards to human experimentation, scientists have been taken to task for taking insufficient precautions about participants' safety -- this is likely to be even more true of animal experiments (who have no voice if they are abused). There must be some cost-benefit analysis when any animal life is used or taken, either for food, sport, 'mercy killing,' or science. No moral system is logically consistent -- even in regards to humans, but that does not mean that morality should be blatantly ignored as Haldane would wish us to do. The values of science can still be tempered with the virtues of compassion.


Haldane, J.B.S. (2004). Some enemies of science. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd

Ed). Valleau,… [read more]

Rise of the Planet Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


For the most part, the testing of animals was seen as an acceptable sacrifice in the hopes of receiving new information and materials to help mankind.

It is not only recently has the question of morality regarding animal cruelty in scientific testing come into question. In 1822 the first laws prohibiting animal cruelty were enacted to protect animals from the inhumanity of those who would abuse them. Charles Darwin wrote of his support of the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act by stating that he understood the importance of scientific inquiry, but that vivisection of animals for "damnable and detestable curiosity" was reprehensible to him (Life 2012). Some of the evidence regarding man's inhumanity towards animals is extremely and wholly disturbing, such as Pavlov's surgical installation of a tube in a dog's muzzle to measure its saliva output in his famous bell test. Since that time, other countries and groups have tried to eradicate animal cruelty in all venues, including in the field of scientific research. Organizations like People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have vocalized and popularized the opinion that testing on animals is inhumane as they are also living creatures (Rollin 2007,-page 521). Among the principle protests regarding the treatment of animals is the sheer number who are abused. According to Meredith Cohn (2010), tens of millions of animals are mistreated this way each year, many of whom are euthanized after the experiment is over.

The context of Rise of the Planet of the Apes is this disagreement between factions over the suitability or morality relating to animal testing. Will, the character played by James Franco, has invented a serum which he believes has the ability to curb the spread and perhaps even cure Alzheimer's disease. Before William tests the substance on a human being, he must go through various animals, the last of which is a chimpanzee named Caesar. An unexpected reaction to the medication is that Caesar has obtained characteristics which are nearly human yet he is still not treated as anything more than an animal. Will's motives are entirely humanitarian. He wishes to cure the disease and help people, including his own father. In doing so, he does not realize the damage that he is doing to the animals in his care (Jeffries 2011). Despite his non-animal traits, the chimp is still relegated to the confines of a laboratory animal and is placed amongst other animals rather than being given any regard (Loy 2011). This is symbolic of the real-world negative attitudes which are given to animals in the scientific community.

The film Rise of the Planet of the Apes seems on the outside to be another science fiction film about a dystopian version of the not-too-distant future. However, the themes that are present in the film do have a factual base which could potentially lead to such a series of events taking place if humanity does not pay attention to the potential dangers of male-animal interaction. Although there are certainly benefits to animal… [read more]

Fukuyama Identifies Many Different Qualities Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,005 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


As human beings created in His image, all living beings are sacred. But in modern, secular democracies, this answer is seldom satisfying, particularly within legal constructs that delineate a wall between church and state. Some philosophers and theologians (including Immanuel Kant) argued that human beings possessed freedom of the will, which was the source of 'Factor X,' but our knowledge of the causation of human behavior on a genetic and environmental level means that most natural scientists merely believe that our biologically-wired decision-making apparatus is merely more complex than those of animals; not that there is a black-and-white division between ourselves and the animal kingdom.

Yet "Nietzsche had the great insight to understand that once the clear red line around the whole of humanity could no longer be drawn, the way would be paved for a much more hierarchical understanding of society" (Fukuyama 155). In the absence of Factor X, it becomes tempting to create a 'sliding scale' of humanity once again, in which some people are viewed as more human than others. And, it should be added, that this is how we often view other living creatures, and not in an entirely rational fashion. We accord greater status to dogs in our society, and are horrified when we hear that other cultures eat them, but we happily devour equally intelligent pigs. The fact that we keep dogs as pets and they reside within our homes gives them superior status in our eyes on the sliding scale of humanity, as we measure the animal kingdom.

Fukuyama suggests we must accept that the idea of 'Factor X,' our identification with all beings of our same species is irrational to some degree, much like our identification with a sports team or a nation. This does not necessarily mean it is a 'bad' thing, however, given that this instinctive preservation of all that is labeled 'human' has had so many positive results. "The problem with [scientific reductionism] is not that it is necessarily false but that it is insufficient to explain many of the most salient and unique human traits" (Fukuyama 162).

On the other hand, this jingoism in favor of what is human has also had many negative consequences, including the use of the planet as an instrument for human preservation, rather than viewing the earth an ecosystem that supports a wide variety of equally valuable living beings. Fukuyama characterizes science as "demystifying" human nature through reductionism, but the fact remains that human beings are part of nature as well as observers of nature (Fukuyama 162). While Factor X may accord dignity to all human groups in a positive manner in theory, anthropocentric thinking has led to the destruction of many habitats and the lives of indigenous peoples by justifying industrialization and unhampered growth. Looking into the future, unless the whole earth is given dignity, not just the human race, the survival of all species is in doubt.

Works Cited

Fukuyama, Francis. Our…… [read more]

Scientific Report of Tufted Capuchin Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,265 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The habitat receives both sun and shade and the group does have access to an indoor facility. The entire site is visible from multiple viewing locations and the animals are desensitized to observers through near-continuous observation by zoo attendees.

The tufted capuchin typically lives in a social group between two and twenty animals. The groups contain one dominant male and can have multiple subordinate males and a group of females (Groves 2005). The capuchin diet is omnivorous and feeding is often dictated by a social hierarchy presented by the dominant male and the closeness of a select group of preferred females (di Bitetti 2001).

The group was observed for 2 hours and 15 minutes in a single observation period. Animals were counted and the following classifications were made:

Total Number

Alpha Male(s)


Subordinate Male(s)

Juvenile Males

Juvenile Females

The following parameters were established for behavior observations and the relative times for the individuals:







Not visible to the observer

The data was collected by visual observation and recorded. Averages were determined and differences between the male and female animals are presented.


A total of 15 animals were observed for 2 hours, 15 minutes. The group consisted of the following set of animals broken down by sex and superiority within the group:

3 adult males. 9 adult females. 1 subordinate male. 2 juvenile males

The adult males were the largest of the animals and the subordinate male was similar in size. The two juvenile males were similar in size to the females. The table below shows the percentage of time spent in each activity by the males and females.


Male (%)

Female (%)



















Out of Sight



The plots below show the differences in percentage of time overall for the two groups male vs. female in the population studied:

The largest differences between the two sexes in this population of animals are in the time spent resting and the time spent feeding. The males have a proportionately larger amount of time spent feeding and smaller amount of time spent resting than the females.


The objective of this study was to determine if there are any differences between male and female tufted capuchins in an artificial habitat. The group of capuchin monkeys chosen was observed for 2 hours and 15 minutes and the population had 9 females and 6 males. The sample size was not large enough for a powering study, however there are differences in this population for this duration of observation during the day to show that the males spent more time feeding and less time resting than the females.

Because the energy needs of a larger animal are higher, it makes sense that more time would be spent foraging and feeding for males since those animals are proportionately larger. An important improvement to this study would be to determine the differences… [read more]

Canada Land Management World Wildlife Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,782 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


This speech was specifically made in Nova Scotia, but it is a statement of the mission of the entire organization. This is actually a goal of the organization as a whole and not just that which is active in Canada. One of the main reasons that this is such a concern in Canada is because the boreal forests in the… [read more]

Evolution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (643 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Vila, 1997) By allowing the least aggressive, most tame and sociable among humans to reproduce, humans developed an entirely unique species: the dog, Canis familiaris. (Morey, 1994) From those beginnings, humans then continued to select for a variety of different traits creating more than 400 different breeds of dogs. Humans chose for physical traits like appendage size, shape of skull, or color, but also chose for behavioral traits like tameness, playfulness, herding, guarding, barking, or other traits that pleased their human masters. (Honeycutt, 2010)

A similar thing happen in the cat "Family," Felidae, when cats spread around the world and encountered new environments. As a result of living in these different environments for many generations, nature selected different traits for different members of the cat family; like the stripes of the Asian Tiger, or the mane of the African Lion. Humans then took a small version of a wild, carnivorous cat, and by choosing for specific traits over successive generations, much like with the dog, created the Felis catus, or the housecat. (Driscoll, 2009)

Humans have, over many thousands of years, taken a natural process by which organisms change, and adapted it to their own purpose. By selecting for specific traits in animals, humans have succeeded in creating entirely new species. As a result human society is filled with human created species of animals meeting every need.


Driscoll, Carlos. (2009) The Evolution of House Cats. Scientific American. Retrieved from Science News, Articles and Information| Scientific American.

Honeycutt, Rodney, (2010). Unraveling the Mysteries of Dog Evolution. BMC Biology, 8 (20), Retrieved from Academic Onefile.

Morey, Davcey. (1994). The Early Evolution of the Domesticated Dog. American Scientist, 82 (4), Retrieved from Academic Onefile.

Vila C, et al.,…… [read more]

Behavioral Episodes Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (2,422 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


But when a leopard seal opens its mouth to reveal enormous and powerful jaws with sharp, canine teeth, no man would think it otherwise but that this mammal is aggressive and dangerous. However, as a photographer and biologist, Paul Nicklen has witnessed another side of these animals. His encounter with a leopard seal female has indicated how opened to interactions… [read more]

Nineteenth Century Physiologist Claude Bernard Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,186 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


" The experiments involved cruel and heartbreaking methods to obtain results. Experiments like these are fundamentally wrong. It can be equated to the Nazi's during the Second World War conducting experiments on humans to improve the life of other humans. (Newton & Lyons, 2001) These experiments are sadistic and they should be stopped as quickly as possible.

There are better ways for finding the effect of lifestyle even on animals. Better records can be kept of veterinary visits or medical treatments that are conducted for the benefit of animals. This data can be then synthesized to obtain any trends and observations in the data collected.

The John Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing was set up 20 years ago in the U.S. It is devoted to investigating and developing alternatives to animal testing. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Paris-based club of the world's richest 29 nations decided to abolish the LD50 -- Lethal Dose50 (50% of the dose of a substance required to cause death) test in 2000.

Are humans superior to animals? Does this superior attitude allow man to do what he likes to animals? Animals do have a lot in common with human beings -- physiologically and emotionally. If animals can be used to help understand human beings then at some level we do consider them our equal, and we do assume that they have the same behavioral patterns as humans. Claims of non-awareness of the feeling that animals have cannot give man the right to use animals as they like.

Jeremy Bentham states that the question of whether animal can reason or whether they can talk is not important but whether animals can suffer and no matter what is said they do. He defined the "prerequisite for having interests...if a being suffers there can be no moral justification for refusing to take the suffering into consideration" (Singer 1979:31); he called this "principle of consideration of interests."

Many scientists are now questioning the results got from the experiments done on animals. Various factors, such as the stress induced by caging animals can change the behavior and the biochemical makeup of animals. No experimentation carried out on one species in an environment other that its own natural habitat be extrapolated to any other, including man.

Man should realize the importance of other animal species. People might try to deny that animals are similar to us -- animals have no feeling and emotions. A paradox indeed! If animals are so different how then can they be then used to determine how man functions? If results based on animal experimentation is considered valid for humans are we under no obligation to treat them justly and fairly since they are more similar to us than we claim them to be. How can we ignore their sufferings?


Animal Experimentation: Sadistic Scandal." 18 April 2002. http://www.peta-online.org/mc/facts/fsae1.html

Brecher, Arie. Speech at the International Congress of Doctors Against Vivisection, Italian Parliament, November 8, 1989. Reprinted in the International Foundation Report… [read more]

Beauty and Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"It is a wondrous spectacle, but within a decade, scientists fear, most migratory monarchs may vanish from North America -- victims of human stupidity and greed" (Darrach 1993). Every year hundreds of millions of monarchs migrate from Mexico to Canada. This is a trip of 5,000 miles. The butterflies that go to Mexico and survive the winter then head north… [read more]

Environmental Themes in Grapes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,447 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Everglades would be confined to one million acres within the levees and the shallow marsh of Everglades National Park (Douglas, 1997).

This federal act called for the control of water levels though a network of pumps and roughly 1,400 miles of canals and levees. "Within the Everglades, the project created five enormous impoundments, the water conservation areas, running through… [read more]

Maldive Shark, by Herman Melville Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (329 words)
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On the contrary, for a species to survive, they must adapt to their ever-changing surroundings, and the pilot fish has clearly done this, and now resides comfortably with the shark.

The pilot fish and the shark are "friends" in that they share the same "neighborhood," but they are animals, and thus do not recognize the friendship, what they recognize is survival, and they each rely on the other to survive. The beauty of the relationship is that somehow they figured out what the other needed, and a way to provide it, while still surviving. It is a beautiful thing in nature that allows animals to help and nurture each other without really recognizing the fact. The benefit of life is living, which is much preferable to being eaten by the "great maw" of the shark. Another benefit is the ability to pass on the learned knowledge of survival to progeny, thereby lengthening the lifespan of…… [read more]

Warm-Blooded vs. Cold-Blooded Animals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (915 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Many cold-blooded animals shiver, like warm-blooded animals, to stay warm when they are in a cold area. Fish move to deeper waters during the colder months or migrate to different areas. Often fish have a special protein in their blood that helps them to survive frigid temperatures. Many cold-blooded animals hibernate during the winter.

After discovering the difference between warm-blooded and cold-blooded creatures, I watched how my gecko and dog responded to changes in temperature. It was fascinating to discover that they acted accordingly with my research. Also, I found that both animals were able to adjust to changes. This raised the question: Is it better to be a warm-blooded animal or a cold-blooded animal?

Warm-blooded enjoy many advantages that cold-blooded animals do not. For example, warm-blooded animals are able to stay active in cold environments, while cold-blooded animals become extremely sluggish in the cold. Because they depend on their own bodies for temperature control, warm-blooded animals can live nearly anywhere on Earth, while cold-blooded animals would find it very difficult to survive in arctic regions or on high mountains. Unlike cold-blooded animals, war-blooded animals do not need to be warm to find a mate and reproduce, so they can mate anywhere.

On the other hand, cold-blooded animals enjoy their own advantages. For example, they need less energy to survive than their warm-blooded friends. Mammals and birds need a great deal of food and energy to survive, while cold-blooded animals can live on much less. If food is scarce, cold-blooded animals can keep their body temperatures low to survive. Warm-blooded animals do not have this option. In addition, warm-blooded animals are more prone to infections than cold-blooded animals. The constantly changing body temperatures of cold-blooded animals make it hard for viruses and bacteria to survive.

My research led me to the conclusion that both warm-blooded and cold-blooded have equal advantages than enable them to survive. When hearing the differences between warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, I initially though that I would prefer to be cold-blooded than warm-blooded. However, after weighing the options, I changed my mind. As a cold-blooded animal, if my environment got too hot, then I would feel hot outside and inside my body right away. As a warm-blooded animal, if my surroundings become hot, I would only feel the heat from the outside, but my whole body's temperature will not instantly increase. I would have greater control. However, if I were a cold-blooded creature, I would be able to survive longer without food and be less prone to infections. Both animals seem to have equal advantages.


Daniels, Patricia. Warm-Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1983

Daniels, Patricia. Cold Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1986.

The Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Dimensions,…… [read more]

Animals Have Rights? Tabor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (605 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Machan states that animals and humans are fundamentally different, and that one of those fundamental differences is the ability to make moral decisions. However, he bases his argument more on the presence of self-consciousness than on reality. Animals rarely, if ever, kill except for food or self-defense. Humans, on the other hand, kill other humans for a number of unethical, morally unjust reasons. Animals, because they would never perform such actions, could be considered morally superior to human beings. Machan's conclusion is correct: animals and humans are different. However, that difference is due more to brain functions and not morality.

The main ethical principle used by the author is the "respect for persons." Machan argues that human autonomy is superlative to any other ethical notion. While Machan sounds utilitarian at times, especially in regards to his views on animal testing, his utilitarianism is limited to human beings and does not extend to other sentient beings. While Machan urges people to develop moral virtues so as to not grossly mistreat animals, his argument is not virtue-based.

While I agree that human beings are superior to animals because of our greater brain capacity, I do not believe that animals are undeserving of protection. Animals may not be able to think rationally, but they are still sentient beings. To assume that animals are inferior might be a fallacy; because human beings have a deplorable record of mistreating both animals and fellow humans, it seems that human beings can be considered inferior to animals on a number of accounts. I do, however, agree that using animals to benefit human beings is acceptable in some instances. Those instances are basically the same for humans and for animals: food and self-defense. To abuse and exploit the animal kingdom is a fundamentally…… [read more]

Wild Species Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Wild species and the people, who depend on them, are being increasingly at risk, since the diversity of nature is disturbed and ecosystems are being degraded and fragmented. By means of changes that would be created artificially, the delicate balance of our ecosystem would be upset as a result of introducing genetically engineered species For example, in the production of… [read more]

Life Forms in the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (329 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


nearctica.com/nathist/protista/prointro.htm)." They are the ancestors of the sponges, "and of all the protoctists, it the choanoflagellates that are the most likely ancestors of animals (web.lander.edu/rsfox/112protc.html)."


Choanoflagellates are protists and are related to both fungi and animals. These single-cell organisms are believed to be early ancestors to sponges and animals.

Works Cited

(Choanoflagellates. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

< halassa.gso.uri.edu/rines/ecology/choanofl.htm>).

(Introduction to the Choanoflagellates. (accessed 10 November, 2003).


(Protists. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

< http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entries/60/p0616000.html>).

(Protists. (accessed 10 November, 2003).


(Protists. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

(Survey of Organismal Diversity. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

).… [read more]

Environmental Effects on Species Habitats Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


o. occidentalis)

California black rail

Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus

California clapper rail

Rallus longirostris obsoletus

California condor

Gymnogyps califonianus

California least tem

Sterna albifrons browni (=Sterna antillarum browni) golden eagle

Aquila chrysaetos greater sandhill crane

Grus candadensis tabida light-footed clapper rail

Rallus longirostris levipes southern bald eagle (=bald eagle)

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (=Haliaeetus leucocephalus) trumpeter swan

Cygnus buccinator white-tailed kite

Elanus leucurus… [read more]

Marine Mammals the Film Blackfish Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,233 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Marine Mammals

The film Blackfish is a documentary from CNN that focuses on the case of the orca Tilikum who is captured and held at SeaWorld. The idea is that it is inadvisable to keep certain species in captivity since large and intelligent animals do not do well in small spaces. The documentary begins with the capture of Tilikum off the coast of Iceland, left in small dark tanks, and trained to do tricks that may also contribute to the animal's psychotic nature (Blackfish, 2013).

First, it is clearly obvious that orcas and other species have no business being kept in captivity. Research shows that orcas are extremely social and have stable groups that exist for decades. They are sophisticated pack hunters and some research even believes they have a kind of culture. The research also shows that the animals average from 20-26 feet long and weigh 6-7 tons. Wildlife biologists believe that there is no real threats to humans with wild orcas, who inhabit a larger portion of the ocean and are migratory in nature (Carwardine, 2001).

Within the documentary, director Cowperthwaite focuses on not only SeaWorld but on the idea of taking a social species with ties to its clan, capturing it in an aggressive manner and uprooting it from its surroundings, then putting it into a much smaller environment where it might be harassed by other orcas, forced to be in dark tanks for hours in solitary confinement, and then forced to do tricks to amuse humans that are not natural for the species. There is documented evidence that taking animals outside of their natural environment and putting them into cages without adequate socialization often makes these captives "psychotic." For example, many captive tropical birds, extremely social, become problems when put into a small cage and denied the company of their own species. This happens with elephants in zoos, apes and monkeys who pace and pace but are limited to concrete and bars, and most certainly, for orcas who are used to miles and miles of open ocean and are forced outside of that. Imagine, if one can, that a human child is taken by force and placed in a "zoo" in which the boundaries are only 10 or so times its body size, forced to mimic behaviors that are somewhat unnatural, punished by being placed in the dark, and in the company of other humans, but who may be from another culture or speak a different language. Would we then expect that child to never act out any aggression?

Part 2 -- SeaWorld, of course, responded to the film by indicating that it was not a true documentary and that they are a zoological setting. As in most cases, there is truth to both sides of the issue. SeaWorld is indeed a zoological park, and they do research and rescue marine creatures. In addition, they have been very successful in bringing knowledge and interest to more people than might have the opportunity to see and understand… [read more]

Florida Manatee Conservation Efforts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … Florida Manatee Conservation Efforts

Saving the Gentle Giants of Florida

Gliding through the water on paddle-shaped fins, the manatee, otherwise known as the "sea cow," looks like a larger, more passive version of a seal. Adults can weigh around 1,000 pounds and are typically 9 to 10 feet long, but have the potential to grow as large as… [read more]

Most Dangerous Game Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (819 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Hunter or Hunted?

In his story, "The Most Dangerous Game," Richard Connell breaks down the stereotypes between man and beast. Throughout the novel he poses reason against instinct. Despite the seeming disparity between these two approaches to the world, Connell does not ultimately privilege rational thought. Rather, he shows that it is not rationality alone but man's dual nature that allows him to survive. In the story, it is oonly by embracing both elements that a man can be successful.

The opening scene sets up the dichotomy between rational thought and instinct that Connell seeks to counter. At first, Rainsford expresses a stereotypical affinity to the superiority of the rational mind. As a way of justifying his haunting of animals, Rainsford exclaims, "They have no understanding" (8). To invalidate the sailors' instinctual fear of General Zaroff's island, he says it is "pure imagination" and "superstition" (9). All of his statements discount irrational thought. Rainsford sees lack of reason, fancy, and unfounded belief as inferior. However, throughout the course of Connell's story, Rainsford not only displays these animal characteristics, but also relies heavily upon them for his survival.

Despite his seeming disapproval of instinctual interaction with the world, throughout the story Rainsford both relies on instinct and Connell likens him frequently to animals. Alone on the deck of the yacht, Rainsford's instincts dominate his experiences. His hearing is heightened. The reader is told how he, a man, has senses that are inscrutable: "his ears, expert in such matters" (9). Unlike humans, who experience the world primarily through sight, Rainsford's hearing is his dominant sense. Like an animal too, Rainsford is described as having agility and excellent balance: "He leaped upon the rail and balanced himself there" (9).

Throughout the story Rainsford relies, like an animal, on his instincts and senses to help him survive. Finding himself in immediate danger of dying after falling off the yacht, Rainsford relies on intuition to survive. He knows he must shed his clothes to stay afloat. Hiding from the general, Rainsford is warned of danger by the actions of other animals: "the cry of some startled bird" draws his attention (20). Before he even sees that it is the general approaching, Rainsford instinctually "flattened himself down on the limb" (20). Later on, elated by the possibility that the general fell victim to one of his traps, Rainsford "felt and impulse to cry aloud with joy" and "leaped up from his place of concealment"; his…… [read more]

Conciliation for the Sake of Humanity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Conciliation for the Sake of Humanity

Certain controversies will never be resolved toward full acceptance of one side or another, because ethical or emotional considerations are involved. Animal research falls into this purview. At one extreme are those who give no thought to how animals are used or abused. At other extreme are the animal activists, including the millions of… [read more]

Border Wall a Research Investigation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,853 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Border Wall

A Research Investigation of the Environmental Impact of the Border Wall in the LRGV

The problem of illegal immigration from Mexico and Latin America has produced what U.S. lawmakers view as a security risk. One resolution is the Southwest Border Wall, which runs 175 miles parallel to the Rio Grand, separating Texas from Mexico. The research here discusses… [read more]

Personal Statement Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Personal Statement

It has been said, that a life without a goal can be compared with a traveler, who is sitting in a bus, but has still not decided about their destination. This is problematic, because not knowing where you are heading in life will increase the odds that you will end up wasting: money, time and energy (while not being able to enjoy the process). It is therefore, imperative for us to be clear about our goals to: achieve success and satisfaction. Becoming a veterinarian has been the ambition of my life since childhood. I have always found this career field highly appealing and interesting. However, I am also aware of the fact that I can achieve my goal of becoming a veterinarian, with the help of a scholarship to fund the tuition. If I am chosen, this would be a dream come true for me. As I can be able to peruse those interests that I have a deep passion for (without having to worry about financial issues).

What makes me an ideal candidate is: I have developed a close bond with animals since my early childhood. This is because of the financial problems in my family, where I had to spend my childhood working on a ranch. The experience helped me to learn about: the different types of animals and to see that I could make an impact in the world. I cannot forget the many sleepless nights, when I had to take care of those innocent creatures. As I would: dress up their wounds, bottle-feed the young and take care of the horses (with these being some of my responsibilities on the ranch). When I was working with the animals, I gained a greater appreciation for: life and an immense satisfaction with the work. At which point, I would always search for opportunities to: get close to some the animals and learn as much as possible about them. This is important, because this experience would help me, to see how I could make difference in the lives of these animals (giving me a sense of importance and compassion for my work).

As I grew up, I gained more knowledge…… [read more]

Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri

Vibrio species are gram negative rods that are facultative anaerobes and are mainly found in aquatic environments. Vibrio are distinct from the Enterobacteriaceae in that they react positively for oxidase and have polar flagella. They are a known cause of gastrointestinal diseases in humans, such as Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera (Murray, 1998). However,… [read more]

Hairs and Fibers Lab Report

Lab Report  |  2 pages (664 words)
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Hair and Fiber Lab

In all hair samples (the human pulled and cut samples from head and body as well as the animal samples), it was fairly easy to identify the cortex, pigment granules, cuticles, and the medulla one the highest power of my rather rudimentary microscope. Using the magnifying glass was not nearly as effective; while the cortex and cuticle could definitely be seen with greater clarity, the medulla and pigment granules were much more difficult to discern. The medulla appears quite clearly as a darker area running through the middle of the human hair samples in a fairly solid line, though in the animal hair sample the medulla appears to be segmented, or appears in broken pieces rather than in the solid line as in the human samples. The cuticles could not be seen on the cut samples, but appeared largely similar in both the human and animal pulled samples, which is in contrast to the cortexes of the two different species of hair that contained very different patterns from each other. The colors of the human and animal hairs were very different, but the pigment granules themselves appeared to have fairly similar shapes.

Placing the hair and fiber samples on the flashlight did not lead to many hugely substantial differences in the observed color or shape of the strands. There did appear to be some difference in the color of the hair samples, which were lighter when placed on the flashlight but this is easily explained as a difference directly attributable to the difference in lighting. The outer parts of the hair strands, however, also appeared slightly more transparent, and the darker area of the medulla was more easily observable through the magnifying glass when the strands were placed on the flashlight than when they were simply observed on the paper. No real discernable differences were noted with the synthetic fiber that was examined on the flashlight, however.

Many of the identifying features of the hair can be seen…… [read more]

Invasive Plant Species in New York State Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,808 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Invasive Plant Species in New York State

In fulfillment of the requirements for:

Invasive plant species are those plants in a geographic area that did not develop as a part of the local biomass, but that were introduced through the affect of humans or by the way of flora and fauna. Not all non-indigenous plants are invasive and in some… [read more]

Improving the Endangered Species Act Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Improving the Endangered Species Act

Since its inception in 1973, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) had 109 species listed as endangered. Today there are at last count 1,500 endangered species that the ESA is designed to protect and ensure their long-term survival (Robbins, 2010). Like much of the legislation designed to protect endangered species of all types, the ESA has yet to reach its full potential. The effects of political infighting and a lack of focus on the goals of the ESA has marginalized its effectiveness over time (Robbins, 2010). So has the lack of focus on creating a cohesive strategy to ensure more species survive for generations to come. Presented in this paper are suggestions for improving the effectiveness of ESA from articles in class and from outside sources, and from observation and analysis.

Analysis and Recommendations

First, the ESA is excellent at cataloging species that are endangered, yet does little to define a strategy by species to protect them. The result is often an uncoordinated set of responses to endangered plants, animals, birds or fish going extinct. This approach to solving endangered specifics lacks a unified strategy, costs the government an exponentially higher amount of spending, and can be ineffective in accomplishing its primary goal. The need for a more effective framework for cross-department coordination is necessary if endangered species strategies are to be effective. Having this framework will get out of the drastic measures taken when a given species is about to go extinct. Second, the ESA has no definitions of the amount of habitat necessary for an endangered species to return above threatened species status. While the ESA grants access to private land for purposes of protecting an endangered or threatened species, it does not provide for guidance and strategy to government organizations as to when they should intervene. This is often up to Interior Department and other coordinating government agencies.

Fourth, the impacts of chemicals and…… [read more]

Art Formal Analysis Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Art Analysis -- Walter Anderson's Crabs

Figure 1- Blue Crabs, Walter Anderson

Walter Anderson was born in 1903 in New Orleans and grew up in a home surrounded by an appreciation for the arts. He attended private school, then the Parsons Institute of Design in New York City and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine arts. Earning a scholarship to study abroad he traveled throughout Europe and was particularly moved by the primitive cave art in Les Eyzies, France. He returned to the south, married, and went to work at his brother Peter's pottery company. In the 1930s he worked on the Works Progress Administration's Mural Project and began to be noticed as a muralist. However, in the late 1930s he began to experience severe depression and was institutionalized for a time, finally returning to an extremely productive period. Finally, in 1947 he left his family, lived alone in an isolated cabin on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. He spent 18 years using the materials, flora, and fauna of the area as inspiration and worked under primitive conditions, often sleeping in his boat for weeks at a time and enduring extreme weather conditions. He died at the age of 62 of lung cancer, and only by chance when cleaning his cottage were his very imaginative works discovered (The Life of Walter Inglis Anderson, 2009). We do not know exactly when Anderson conceived and painted his Crabs-2, but this painting was indicative of his obsession with color, primitivism, and nature.

Crabs 2 is a watercolor, approximately 8 1/2 X 11 on parchment paper. It is a simple drawing, two Southern Blue Crabs facing off for a battle or perhaps a mating ritual. Taken together, the crabs form a circle, or, more accurately, two individual arcs the envelope each other. There is really no single focal point, in fact the eye moves around the object, giving it a sense of movement within the frame. The color of the background is "sandy," obviously giving us the impression that this is meant to be natural in orientation.

While the overall schemata is one-dimensional, the coloration used gives the work a sense of depth; particularly if we not the dark blue and black shadings combined with the almost anatomical nature of the crabs. It is with this coloration and transparency that Anderson communicates the primitive nature of these animals, and the oneness with nature. In fact, if one looks at a few other actual "primitive" pieces of…… [read more]

Science and Culture Breakthroughs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,745 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Redefining Culture -- Chimpanzees and Hunting

One way human culture is often defined is the manner in which humans are able to manipulate their environment through external means -- tools. There are many instances of certain animal populations using pieces of the environment; sticks, stones, branches, etc., as tools to assist with food gathering or opening of seeds, mollusks, etc.… [read more]

Conflict Between Human and Non-Human an Analysis of the Short Story the Elephants on Neptune Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,792 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Conflict between Human and Non-human: An analysis of the short story "The Elephants on Neptune"

Ecological ethics:

Mike Resnick's short story "The Elephants on Neptune" and the Deep Ecology movement

Ecological ethics:

Mike Resnick's short story "The Elephants on Neptune" and the Deep Ecology movement

One of the difficulties inherent in writing about animals is that a writer is always… [read more]

Dinosaurs and Massive Reptiles Are Gone Giant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Dinosaurs and Massive Reptiles Are Gone

Giant, cold-water salamanders: Selective pressures and biodiversity

One of the great curiosities of the amphibian world is the large salamanders known as cryptobranchids. They appear to the naked eye more like prehistoric relics than the small, swift-moving salamanders with which most individuals are familiar. Of course, both large and small sizes can convey evolutionary disadvantages and advantages to a species. The giant salamanders of Asia and North America would once have been more difficult to be easily consumed as prey, unlike their smaller counterparts. Yet it is also more difficult today for these animals to find enough food to sustain them, and to conceal themselves from more intelligent predators such as humans. In the contemporary era, most amphibian species flourish when they can camouflage themselves in their environments, making a small size an advantage. But this was not always the case: during earlier phases of evolution, large sizes provided protection for these animals. However, as the biodiversity of warmer zones resulted in the creation of faster-moving and more skillful predators (including humans) the numbers of these creatures shrunk and they are now only found in colder regions.

The relatively lower biodiversity of colder environments may have reduced the threat of predators for the giant salamanders, hence their continued (albeit limited) existence today. Because of their scarcity, large amphibians are often called an evolutionary curiosity, a 'living fossil' like the hanzaki (Andrias japonicus) and the Chinese giant salamander (a. davidianus), and the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) of U.S.. "Creatures rather like these were certainly around when dinosaurs dominated life on land, and fossils of the family have been found much further afield than their current tight distribution - in northern Europe, certainly, where scientists presumed the lineages had gone extinct until tales of the strange Oriental forms made their way back to the scientific…… [read more]

Predators in Three Different Types of Ecosystems Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,216 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … predators in three different types of ecosystems. Research management strategies for predator control

Predators are a vital element in ecology, as they usually prevent their prey from thriving and growing in numbers uncontrollably. Evolution has made it possible for predators to adapt to various ecosystems from around the world. While a number of predators have been decimated and even brought to extinction by man (who is considered to be the planet's most competent predator), others have enjoyed a growth in population due to diverse beneficial factors.

Canid species are generally known to have the capacity to adapt to almost every environment, regardless of the harsh conditions that they come across. The largest member of the species in the present is the Gray Wolf, and, it is present in a lot of ecosystems, even though it is considered to be less adaptable than other members from the canid species. Gray wolves are presently spread in a wide variety of ecosystems, ranging from tundra to deserts. The Gray Wolf had once inhabited most of Eurasia and North America, its adaptableness having helped it survive the ice age. (Whyte Macdonald, David Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio)

Because of the fact that they can adapt to most environments, and, because of their sociability, wolfs are considered to be apex predators in all of the ecosystems that they live in. The broadening of human territory also meant that wolf territories became threatened, with wolves becoming extinct in certain areas. Experts today believe that the grey wolf is not in danger of extinction because the wolf population is considered as a total sum. However, when taking into account the recent data gathered from particular parts of the planet, one can find that while wolves thrive in certain areas, there are only a few dozen left in others. (Whyte Macdonald, David Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio)

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources is currently conducting programs that are meant to increase wolf population in the state. The authorities have decided that they have to prevent wolves from leaving their designed area, since this might lead to divergences between the animals and humans. Also, the living space for the wolves needs to be arranged so that it would provide the predators with everything that they require. (Wisconsin Departament of Natural Resources)

While conditions are critical in Wisconsin, with the wolf population being in danger of extinction, matters are rather different in other areas. Proper conditions such as large areas to inhabit and abundance in prey have lead to wolf numbers becoming alarming. In response, humans are inclined to intervene and to control wolf population, so that it would not affect ecosystems. The Yellowstone National Park authorities had reintroduced wolves into the park's ecosystem in 1995, hoping for the animals to reproduce and to increase in numbers. Indeed, wolves thrived in their new home, and, they've reached an impressive number in the present. However, their success has affected the ecosystem, with the elk population in the area being decimated as a result of… [read more]

How Do Human Activities Adversely Threaten Wildlife? Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (466 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … human activities adversely threaten wildlife?

Impact of human beings on wildlife: The negative impact of the human animal on other animal species

All species impact one another in positive and negative ways -- overpopulation of one species, after all, can result in the depletion of another species, in the absence of predators that eat the dominant creature. However, the human species has proven particularly wily in manipulating its environment and protecting itself from normal population-reduction pressures. For example, humans can use their larger and more sophisticated brains to find ways to build highly technologically efficient homes. Humans can guard themselves within secure walls, can create medicine to combat natural diseases, and they can raise livestock and vegetation to enable their species to seldom or never suffer the ravages of famine. Water is purified and even humans born with certain natural disadvantages can be sustained with medical and technological support.

However, the human drive to seek food and shelter has not proven equally salutary to the world's wildlife. Global warming has rendered the earth less hospitable to animals such as the polar bear, which is dependant upon cold temperatures to survive. Pollution has also affected the ecosystem of aquatic life. According to CNN: "Freshwater species in both temperate and tropical regions fell by 29% between 1970 and 2003…despite covering only about 1% of the total land surface of the planet, inland waters…… [read more]

Biology Qs the Primary Source of Difficulty Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (829 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Biology Qs

The primary source of difficulty that researchers and biologists have had in classifying the protists results from the great diversity of the kingdom, including widely varying morphological and reproductive features. Determining when branches in the classification are called for and the degree of relation between the various protests is a difficult task, and currently the determination of classification is made largely on whether the protists are more animal-like (protozoa) or plant-like (algae) in their general appearance and functionality. Developments in DNA and RNA sequencing has led to the belief that this might not actually be the most accurate way to classify the protests from an evolutionary perspective, however, and that other relationships and/or divisions might exist that aren't yet fully understood by researchers. As similarities and differences in RNA molecules are identified, the classification of many protests is likely to change.


Generally, "algae" refers to more plant-like protozoa while "protozoa" refers to those that are more animal-like. Both algae and protozoa can be unicellular, though algae is often multicellular and/or lives in massive colonies. Algae generally create energy through photosynthesis, and while some protozoa such as phytoplankton photosynthesize as well, they often ingest other organic material to use for fuel.


Because all algae photosynthesize, the main difference used for classification of algae is their general morphology, which also relates to the environments where certain phyla are found. Members of the phylum Euglenophyta are motile, and can detect and move to areas of bright light to facilitate better photosynthesis. The phylum Bacillariophyta contains organisms with hard silica shells and not all are motile. Rhodophyta are red in color, generally multicellular, and grow on rocks. Cholorphyta are green and have cellulose walls, and come in unicellular and multicellular varieties. Phaeophyceae are brown algae that include the different kelp varieties; these algae are generally multicellular and live in marine environments.


Protozoa, the more animal-like species of the kingdom of protista, are generally classified by their method of movement. The Sarcodinians move by extending their cytoplasm and bunching up again; amoebas are a well-known example. The Zoomastagina propel themselves with long flagella, while the Ciliophora use small hair-like cilia to propel themselves in any direction. The final classification of the protozoa is the Sporozoa, which cannot actually move by themselves.


Though immobile like most plants, fungi do not photosynthesize or have cellulose walls; their cell walls contain chitin instead. Fungi grow from spores, which are essentially packages of cloned material from the…… [read more]

Why We Are the Only Primates That Can Swim Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,279 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Primates & Swimming

Do Primates Other Than Humans Swim?

"Why we are the only primates that can swim?" is a good point to raise, but it leaves the impression of being a trick question because humans are not the only primates that can swim. Although there are conflicting reports on whether or not certain primates really can swim, reliable research shows that several other primates are quite good swimmers, and those species will be reviewed in this paper.

First, the human part of the story: humans can swim but must be taught to swim. According to Bob Hopkins, swimming instructor at the Sussex County YMCA in New Jersey, humans in the water "naturally go vertical" because "all of our body density is in our legs" and humans' buoyancy is in the chest -- our lungs. Therefore, humans swim in a "non-horizontal position" and that creates a lot of resistance to forward movement through the water, Hopkins writes.

Hopkins, who was trained at the U.S. Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs and is certified by the American Swim Coaches Association and the National Interscholastic Swim Coaches Association, explains that swimming requires humans to "reprogram [our] neuro muscular memory" which, until humans hit the water, only knows dry land muscular activities.

Secondly, there are indeed primates that swim. The London Times reports that some naturalists are "shocked" when they see apes swim across a river in Borneo. In an April, 2008 piece, Lewis Smith writes that Orangutans had previously been thought of as non-swimmers, but on a research science trip to Borneo, scientists witnessed an Orangutan swimming across a wide river in order to get to "some of their favourite fruits at a conservation refuge on Kaja island" (Smith, 2008). Moreover, the Orangutan had not been identified previously as a swimmer, Smith adds, and the Orangutan that was being observed by the naturalists in Borneo (on Kaja Island) took a stick and stunned a fish before plucking it out of the water and eating it.

Unfortunately these apes are endangered, threatened with extinction, because of diminishing habitat.

Meantime author Loren Coleman, writing in the book Mysterious America: The Ultimate Guide to the Nation's Weirdest Wonders, Strangest Spots, and Creepiest Creatures (Coleman, 2007), insists that Orangutans do not swim. It is hard to know whether Coleman has even been to Borneo, or whether he's ever left the United States for that matter, but he insists (p. 211) in "pointing out that the orangutan of Borneo and Sumatra is constitutionally incapable of swimming the Mississippi or any other river, while our primate friends from the bottomlands seem to be able to do so without inordinate difficulty" (Coleman, p. 211).

Sounding self-assured, Coleman (p. 211) writes that "Most primates swim remarkably well, but authorities agree that anthropoid apes avoid water and cannot swim." Coleman doesn't mention what authorities he is alluding to, but he goes on to describe the fate of several chimpanzees who drown in various venues, including a chimp in the "moat of… [read more]

Killer Whale Communication Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,725 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Killer Whale Communication

Vocal communication is a vital aspect of the lives of Killer whales. Though several researches have shown their adaptability to interferences, serious disruptions to their aquatic vocal communication system would bear severe negative consequences.

Maintaining our marine ecosystem is not a choice but a crucial responsibility for preserving our own environmental ecosystem. If nothing is done, we… [read more]

Mekong River Delta the Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,539 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Works Cited

Baird I.G. Mark S. Flaherty1 and Ian G. Baird2. Mekong River Fish Conservation Zones in Southern Laos: Assessing Effectiveness Using Local Ecological Knowledge. Environmental Management. Volume 36, Number 3 / September, 2005

Friederich, H. 2000. The biodiversity of the wetlands in the Lower Mekong Basin. Paper submitted to the World Commission on Dams, Presented at the Commission's East/Southeast Asia Regional Consultation, Hanoi, Vietnam. 26-27 February

Hoa, Le Thi Viet, Nguyen Huu Nhan, Eric Wolanski, Tran Thanh Congb, Haruyama Shigeko. The combined impact on the flooding in Vietnam's Mekong River delta of local man-made structures, sea level rise, and dams upstream in the river catchment

Kummu M., Varis, O. (2007) Sediment-related impacts due to upstream reservoir trapping, the Lower Mekong River. Geomorphology 85 (2007) 275-293

Nguyen, V.L., Ta, T.K.O., Tateishi, M., 2000. Late Holocene depositional environments and coastal evolution of the Mekong River Delta, southern Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 18, 427-439.

Ta, T.K.O., Nguyen, V.L., Tateishi, M., Kobayashi, I., Tanabe, S., Saito, Y., 2002. Holocene delta evolution and sediment discharge of the Mekong River, southern Vietnam. Quaternary Science Reviews 21, 1807-1819.

Tamura T. Yoshiki Saito," Sotham Sieng, Bunnarin Ben, Meng Kong, Im Sim, Sokuntheara Choup and Fumio Akiba Initiation of the Mekong River delta at 8 ka: evidence from the sedimentary succession in the Cambodian lowland. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 29 (2007) 585-592.

World Resources…… [read more]

Galapagos Islands Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,433 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



Since Charles Darwin published the Origin of the Species in 1859, the Galapagos Islands have been renown for their ecological diversity. The islands are also remarkable for their geographic terrain and volcanic activity. Officially part of Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands are still many hundreds of miles off the shore of South America. Their being located on the equator in… [read more]

Horse Slaughter in the United States Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,991 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Horse Slaughter


Introduction to the Range of Moral Perspective:

Human beings have hunted animals for food since the dawn of earliest civilization and have been raising them in captivity for work and for slaughter since the first evidence of recorded human history, such as that preserved in prehistoric cave art that has survived to this… [read more]

Scientific Taxonomy and Earths Biodiversity Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (784 words)
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In scientific terms, taxonomy refers to the science, laws or principles of animal and plant classification, especially in the fields of biology, zoology and botany and can be defined as "a process of classifying living organisms in specific established categories" (Smith, 2005, p. 56). According to Edward Thompson, taxonomic classification "begins with the broadest and most inclusive category and ends with the narrowest category" (2004, p. 63), much like an upside-down pyramid with a broad base at the top and an apex at the bottom, being kingdom to species or sometimes subspecies. In order of categorization, the categories are kingdom, phylum, subphylum, class, order, family, genus, species and finally subspecies; there are also sub-phylums, sub-classes, sub-orders and sub-families, due to various differences in shape, size and anatomy. In the kingdom of Animalia which includes all animals outside of plants, I have chosen the horse and the tiger (Mammalia), the beetle and the ant (Insecta), the pelican and the eagle (Aves) and the starfish and the sea urchin (echinoderms). As to characteristics, the horse and the tiger are warm-blooded, have hair, a four-chambered heart, are quadrupeds and bear their young alive; the beetle and the ant are multi-legged, have wings, an exoskeleton, antennae, compound eyes and are generally land-dwelling; the pelican and the eagle are warm-blooded, have wings and feathers, a beak, and are bipedal, while the starfish and sea urchin live in the ocean, have endoskeletons, are exothermic and breath much like fishes by taking oxygen from the water and expelling carbon dioxide.

There are three basic characteristics shared by all mammals -- they are warm-blooded endothermic), meaning that their body temperatures are controlled internally, have hair on their bodies and bear their young alive, rather than through egg-laying. The differences between the horse and the tiger are numerous, such as the horse has hooves (i.e., odd-numbered toes) rather than claws like the tiger; the horse is a herbivore (plant-eating) while the tiger is a carnivore (meat-eating), and the teeth of a horse are designed for grinding plants while the teeth of the tiger are designed to rip and tear away flesh. As to orders, the horse belongs to the order of Perissodactyla which pertains to "certain hoofed mammals with an odd number of toes," while the tiger belongs to the order of Felidae or feline cats…… [read more]

History and Present Status of the Black Bear in New Jersey Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,804 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


American Black Bear

America long ago ceased being the more pristine wilderness it was when Europeans first arrived, and since that time, the history of the country has been a story of larger and larger populations pushing more into formerly wild territory and at the same time pushing out many native animal species. What has normally happened is that these… [read more]

Cnidarians Consist of Several Groups Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Cnidarians consist of several groups that sometimes are divided into four or six categories. Most agree, however, that Anthozoa (corals), Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellies), Hydrozoa (medusae, siphonophores, hydroids, fire corals) and Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) comprise the four main groups. Staurozoa (stalked jellyfish) and Polypodiozoa (a single specie: Polypodium hydriforme Ussow, 1885 - a parasite) may be added to the previous four. Their name comes from the Greek word "cnidos," meaning stinging nettle. Cubuozoa jellyfish have also been called "sea wasps."

All of these species are armed with stinging cells called nematocysts. They may have all inherited this characteristic from a single ancestor, yet as a group, cnidarians are extremely diverse and would not seem to be related at all. Some are attached to rocks, others float freely in the sea with stinging tentacles. Some have no tentacles, yet if touched emit stinging chemicals that are poisonous and may even kill a human who meets up with too many of them at one time. Another characteristic is common among them. They are all round, with parts of their body extending out from the center; they are "radially symmetrical." A third characteristic they all share is that they all have hydrostatic skeletons, whether or not they have mineralic or organic endoskeletons or exoskeletons (Shick 270).

The phyla Cnidaria live exclusively in water and are polyps, as the sea anemones, corals and medusae. Cnidaria, being polypoid or medusoid are biradially or radially symmetrical, and is uncephalized, with a single opening in its body, the mouth. Around the mouth are tentacles with microscopic capsules of stinging toxic nematocysts, which act offensively or defensively. This is what makes the phylum distinctive, this cnidae (or threads) (Fautin 5).

Sting of Cnidarians

The original reason for the sting is to capture and paralyze prey. The stinging cell is called a cnidocyte, which is located within a structure called a nematocyst. The nematocyst is the "stinger" and is shaped like a thread coiled and ready to strike and deliver the stinging toxin into the body of the prey. Some react to touch, others spring forward on their own, on an impulse from the animal which tells it to fire. Most deliver a smarting, harmless sting, but there are jellyfish which can deliver an extremely harmful dose of stings, which, with the wrong person, could become fatal. This form of fatality is common on the northern coast of Australia, where humans sometimes tangle with the jellyfish which live there in abundance. These jellyfish include the giant Lion's Main (Cenae Capillata), whose bell can reach 96 inches with tentacles as long as 98 feet in length. (Oceanside 3).

The capsule which contains the thread has a "hair trigger" which, when touched, makes the capsule explode as it shoots the poisonous thread out. The poison penetrates the prey or threatening animal and once it is poisoned, the tentacles of the cnidarian wrap around the prey and the prey is eaten with a mouth located in the very center of the… [read more]

Miser Play From Moliere Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,538 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … ancient Greeks and Chinese philosophers were studying and writing about human nature in their writings. Thucydides found human nature to be main course of the aspects of politics. The world has changed a great deal since then and yet, human nature appears to have remained the same. It is undisputable that the latest discoveries of technology gave humanity… [read more]

Yellowstone National Park Issue of Controlled Burning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,094 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Controlled Burning at Yellowstone National Park: A burning debate

Controlled burning is a fairly routine part of park maintenance at Yellowstone National Park. Controlled burning has been used as a tool of wildlife conservation in the past, as a way of promoting a greater diversity and abundance of plants and animals in conservation parks such as Yellowstone. Controlled burning is seen as a way of being 'more' rather than less close or similar to nature and how nature regulates species diversity. "Most wildlife biologists (at least in the west) love to see small, controlled fires burning in areas of potential wildlife habitat -especially where a mosaic type burn can occur that leaves gaps in the burn of unburned fuel. These gaps provide the cover for wildlife that can still enjoy the benefits of the burn (new growth, nutrient release, etc.). Wildlife thrives on new growth after a controlled burn" (Albright 2000). Burning, responsibly controlled by fire officials, can make for a better environment for new plant and animal species.

However, the way that such practices are put into place at Yellowstone has been particularly controversial. During the 1980s, especially after a 1988 forest fire raged out of control at Yellowstone Park, many people opposed the controlled burn policy, particularly representatives of the forest and timber industry. "A let-burn policy is indeed defensible in a properly managed forest. But defenders of this hands-off approach refuse to acknowledge that Yellowstone was not a managed forest. Park officials, backed by the environmental community, did not permit dead and dying timber to be removed from Yellowstone. Rather than allow 150-year-old trees infested by dwarf mistletoe and mountain pine beetle to be periodically removed by harvest or by prescribed, controlled burns, Yellowstone managers mistakenly allowed dead wood to accumulate and the fire hazard to escalate," noted the President of the National Forest Products Association in 1988. Environmentalists were accused of having too much of a hands-off policy in terms of burning Yellowstone, and engaging in insufficient pruning, tree removal, and direction of how the burning was managed.

Of course, the forest industry had a profound economic interest in making such allegations. But in recent years, the increase in global temperatures of the past decades and frequent Western droughts has made the policy even more controversial. Why add fuel to the flames, one might ask, when the dangers of how unpredictable wind and weather patterns make forest fires, even so-called controlled forest fires, so difficult to manage? Controlled burns can rapidly devolve into uncontrolled burns. "What really created our problem is three different major wind shifts," said the fire crews after an unexpected shift in winds caused an April 2008 fire to rage out of control, leading to the forced evacuation of 40 to 50 homes in the area near the park (Shay & Johnson 2008). Although no one was injured, the lack of precipitation that made containment of the fire difficult to control caused local officials to criticize the choice of time and place… [read more]

Siberian Husky the Tamed Wolf Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,052 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Animals - Siberian Husky


Background and History of the Siberian Husky:

The Siberian Husky is a working dog bred primarily for its pulling strength, physical endurance, and resistance to extreme cold. The breed was originally developed by the Inuit Eskimo people for the express purpose of pulling sleds across the vast snow- driven plains… [read more]

Wildland Recreation Management Trends Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,604 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Recreation and Leisure

Forest health and restoration

There is a plethora of evidence from studies on environmental research to suggest that healthy forests are of vital importance to the balance in nature and ultimately for human existence. Forests not only provide clean water but also "...support livelihoods, shelter wildlife and help maintain a stable climate" (Fire and Conservation). The last… [read more]

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