"Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays

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Theory of Island Biogeography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (418 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Island Biogeography & Uneven Distributions of Species

The theory of island biogeography explains the uneven distributions of species population in islands, or why some islands have more diverse numbers of species than other islands. The theory suggests that the number of species an island reflects a balance between the rate at which new species occupy it and older species become extinct. Resources are limited in nature and because the resources of an island are particularly limited, "as the number of resident species increases, the smaller and more prone to extinction their individual populations are likely to become. The rate at which additional species will establish populations will be high when the island is relatively empty, and the rate at which resident populations go extinct will be high when the island is relatively full" (Ehrlich, Dobkin & Wheye 1988). Also, according to the theory of metapopulations it is more likely for a species to survive if it is spread out into large areas, to reduce the likelihood the species will be decimated by a change in geological fortunes ("A Short Introduction to Metapopulation Models and GIS," RAMAS: Ecological and Environmental Software, 2008).

The theory of island biogeography is helpful in explaining why there is more biodiversity in larger…… [read more]

Shark Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,680 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Ethics & Sharks


The concept of human sensitivity toward non-human animals has taken a long time to develop and in many respects, still lags far behind other moral concerns. In much of modern Western society, dogs and cats are kept as pets, along with various other species of animals, in conjunction with which Americans… [read more]

Evolution of Color Vision in Vertebrates Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,313 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Color Vision

Evolution of Color Vision in Vertebrates

Color Vision is one of the most striking and somewhat mysterious developments in the evolutionary progress of vertebrates. While most of us take it for granted and probably view it as a rather straight forward developmental step in evolution, it is anything but a liner step-by-step progression. The development of the eye… [read more]

Parrots Are at the Top Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,337 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Parrots Are at the Top of the Species Chain

We parrots are sometimes underestimated by our ignorant caretakers, humans. Many times we are overlooked as simple pets; that our very existence depends on the resourcefulness of the human race. However, this view is entirely wrong. We, as parrots, are intelligent, resourceful, dangerous, and most importantly, at the top of the species chain.

All bird species predate humans, and all mammals for that matter, by millions of years. Sometimes humans forget that our ancestors walked the earth with the dinosaurs. Most humans, who like to think they own us as pets, forget that our origins trace back around seventy million years. In fact, many human scientists don't even know for sure when or how our first ancestor came about, and they call us inferior. Now, these ancestors to all bird species became more and more developed as the years rolled on. Around fifty million years ago is when our species, Psittaciformes to be more specific, began appearing in the ancient lands of what mankind now refers to as "Europe." We continued to develop, and around twenty million years ago our ancestors were almost identical to what we are today. Humans call these our "modern ancestors."

So now that we have proven our superiority in longevity, what else makes us the top species? Well, first of all we have a superior body build which reduces the need for man-made tools in order to survive. While humans have little strength and natural weapons or tools to help them survive, we are built by nature to innately have everything we need from birth. We have strong curved beaks which act as several tools for our survival. We use our beaks to break open food, as natural weapons for defense and offense, as well as to formulate our methods of communication. Humans weren't born with knives for fingers, but we were genetically inclined to survive without such tools. Our beaks are definitely our most important survival tool, for they act as defense as well as a method of satisfying our hunger in the harsh terrain of the jungle and elsewhere. Along with our genetically superior beaks, we also have strong longs with sharp claws on our feet. These also serve as natural tools, and can be used as weapons along with tools to break open food sources. These claws also help us maintain balance when perched high up in the trees, where the view is amazing and we are far above any dangerous predators.

That last point leads me into the discussion of our greatest natural asset, our wings. Our wings are much better than having fingers, for they allow us to soar above the dangerous flat lands while enjoying the view of the gods. For centuries, humans have envied our ability to fly; therefore, jealousy may be one of the main reasons they are so quick to label us as inferior. However, our wings allow us to travel to places they can only dream… [read more]

Arctic FOX Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,067 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 25


¶ … ARCTIC FOX (National Geographic, online at http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/Animals/mammals/arctic-fox.html,2008)

Understanding the Arctic Fox

Peripheral to the concern and implications of the melting artic regions is the concern about the wildlife supported by the region. What will become of the polar bears, the giant water animals like whales and walrus, to the smallest animals like the arctic fox? Some, more than… [read more]

Value of Maintaining Natural Ecosystems: Preservation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



The objective of this work is to compare and contrast the practices of Preservation and Conservation as they relate to the maintenance of ecosystem. The concept of 'natural regulation' will be discussed and examples from Maryland will be provided.

The difference between what constitutes conservation and what constitutes preservation is a difference often misunderstood by many. This work seeks to establish precisely what the difference between conservation and preservation is through examining information related to the forests in the State of Maryland.


The work of Patrice Jastrzembski entitled: "Maryland's Forests: Conservation vs. Preservation" relates that there is discrepancies over the word conservation in terms of its definition. It is generally agreed among that the word 'conserve' "means to use something wisely." (Jastrzembski, nd) Jastrezembski states most people consider "conserving our forests" means to use forest and forest products wisely, but to others, conserving forests means to preserve or set aside. These two interpretations of the term 'conserve our forests' are completely opposite one another." (Jastrzembski, nd) While the belief is held that forest management initiatives are harmful and currently the "trend is to let nature take its course...Forest managers and their proponents disagree." (Jastrzembski, nd) Forest managers and others hold the belief that utilization of the forest for wood and paper products are not necessarily harmful to the forest. These individuals believe that thinning the forests allow for the trees left to grow larger and stronger reducing the risks for insect and disease problems in the forest and as well bringing about a reduction in risk for forest fires.


In the work entitled: "Maryland Forests: Sustainability" it is stated that more than 14,000 people in…… [read more]

Animal Cruelty Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,475 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … cruelty, and thereafter apply the meaning to animals, and the ways in which cruelty is meted out to them by scientists and researchers. The history of using animals for experimentation will be analyzed, and then, the British Cruelty to Animals Act in 1876 will be explained. A conclusion will be made, about why it is unethical to use… [read more]

Shark Attack: Realistic Fears or Hysteria? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0



Under the stillness of even the calmest of seas an age-old drama plays out. Countless times, a creature designed for locating, stalking, chasing, and then tearing into living flesh closes in on its doomed prey. Its efficient design, mouth filled with teeth meant to sink into its prey and never let go, and its swimming speed, agility, and intelligence all but ensure hunting success. After a brief chase, a shark catches up to its prey, its jaws clamp down tightly, and it is all over: just in the same way that the bottle nosed dolphin that humans adore captures another helpless herring in its mouth.

Dolphins, sharks, and most other aquatic creatures either hunt other species for food, or they are hunted themselves. As often as not, animal species are both hunters and hunted. Human beings tend to view sharks very differently from other aquatic species, based more on the fact that we sometimes end up on their menu. The idea of being food for another creature, according to the human mind set, creates our distinction between animals that are predatory hunters and those that are not. To a herring, the common dolphin is a dreaded predatory killer; to us it is a playful intelligent mammal that deserves our protection. Would we feel the same way about dolphins if there was no difference in their personality or character but instead they were the size of a whale who sometimes possibly mistakes human beings for tuna? Chances are we would fear dolphin attacks as much as we fear shark attacks and our characterization of dolphins would incorporate vocabulary like "ruthless," "deadly," and "cold-blooded" despite its mammalian nature.

Like dolphins, tuna, swordfish, and many other large predatory aquatic species sharks must locate and consume other creatures to survive. To guarantee their survival they have evolved over time physiologically and behaviorally to adapt to their environment and master the art of hunting. Unlike the other aquatic species, we fear attack from sharks disproportionately to the actual risk, simply due to the fact that some of them are large enough to mistake us for their prey under the right circumstances. "Our characterization of sharks as ruthless killers intent on consuming us reflects our emotional response to the concept of being eaten alive than reality" (Ellis, 1989).

Perceptions about the danger of shark attack are extremely susceptible to media publicity and their resulting hysteria. The Summer of 2001 had actually been dubbed the summer of the shark" after several attacks, mainly as a result of the publicity associated with one or two victims. Time…… [read more]

Extinction of Just One Species of Animals Has Devastating Effects on Our Ecosystem Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,904 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Extinction and the Ecosystem

The ability of a species to survive the extinction of another depends on its ability to adapt. Omnivores fair better than those with a limited range of food. When a single food source disappears from the environment, it can more easily find another suitable food source. More highly specialized members of the ecosystem will not be… [read more]

Marketing Plan for Opening a Doggie Day Care Term Paper

Term Paper  |  25 pages (6,854 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Marketing Plan for Opening a Doggie Day Care

City Paws: The Daycare with a Heart

Profile of Other Doggie Daycare Facilities in Boston Area.

In spite of, or perhaps because of, its highly urbanized setting, Boston is home to the nation's first doggie daycare facility (Pet Companions Bed & Biscuit, discussed further below) and the market currently supports a number… [read more]

Moby Dick -- Ahab's Whale of Malice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,748 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Moby Dick -- Ahab's Whale of Malice, Ahab's Whale of Nothingness

One of the most attractive, yet mad aspects of the character of Ahab in Herman Melville's Moby Dick is the way that Ahab seems to attribute morality and intelligent design to the natural world, as embodied in the persona of the white whale Moby Dick. Ostensibly, Ahab is captaining… [read more]

Sustainability of Yosemite National Park Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (722 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Yosemite Sustainability

Yosemite National Park is one of the most prized natural areas not
only in the United States, but the world. With beautiful forests,
waterfalls, mountains, and wildlife it is a treasure for visitors today and
it should be a treasure for future generations. Fifty years from now,
Yosemite National Park should be preserved as a place of natural beauty for
visitors as it is a popular place today and should remain so. However,
general tourists must be responsible in their actions to ensure the park
remains in pristine condition.
Thee first step to retaining and sustaining the natural environment
and resources of Yosemite National Park is to ensure that each tourist has
maximum respect for what he or she is about to visit. Thus, each tourist
should be grateful for the opportunity to visit Yosemite and should respect
its natural aspects. Newsletters and welcome letters, signs, and park
rangers should encourage the tourist to understand the wonders he or she is
being permitted to visit and should encourage an attitude of respect
towards nature. Visiting the park should be a privilege, and not an
entitlement, and the park officials should do their best so this attitude
can be shared to the general tourist. The general tourist must read these
notices, follow the signs, and learn the rules of the park.
But then it is up to the general tourist to follow the rules and
treat the park with the respect it deserves. This means making his or her
presence known as little as possible. Leave nature untouched and do not
infringe on the wildlife. Do not damage nature, but have respect for it.
There are actions that can be taken that will go a long way towards
sustaining the environment. For example, when hiking a tourist can stay on
the marked trails as going off the trail damages the natural wildlife. A
tourist should not feed the wildlife either as the food may not only be bad
for the wild animal, but it could break the natural cycle in which the park
is trying to protect. Trash should be thrown away as if everyone left a
piece of trash,…… [read more]

Bark Scorpions of the Southwest Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,043 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Bark Scorpions of the Southwest

The Bark Scorpion only averages from one to three inches long -- yet in the 20th century, the sting of the bark scorpion killed more people in Arizona than the all types of poisonous snakes within the state grouped together (Gouge et.al, 2007; "Bark Scorpion," Arizona Highways Magazine. 2005). In this century, thanks to increasing awareness of the deadly nature of the sting of this creature, no one has suffered a fatal attack, and it has been thirty years since a documented fatality has been recorded in Arizona. However, it is important for everyone who may come into contact with a Bark Scorpion to be aware of the terrible risks posed by the scorpion to humans, and to gain a sense of its habits. Even when it is not fatal, the sting of a Bark Scorpion can pose a serious risk to humans.

The Bark Scorpion is especially dangerous to infants and small children, and has most often attacked humans who were picking up firewood or rocks. The scorpion likes to find shelter from larger predators like birds in such concealed areas, and to shelter from the sun during the day. The animal's official name comes from the scorpion's habit of seeking shelter beneath the underside of wood pieces, but it is also known as the Crevice Scorpion because it also hides in the crevices of trees and stones (Gouge et al., 2007).

Although scorpions as a whole "are commonly thought of as desert animals" they may be found in grasslands and savannahs, forests, and caves, but the Bark Scorpion is most common the desert states of the U.S. including California, Arizona, Nevada, southern Utah, and southwestern New Mexico and the Baja Peninsula (Gouge et al., 2007). Bark Scorpions, like all scorpions are classified as venomous arthropods in the class Arachnida, the same class that includes poisonous and nonpoisonous spiders. Scorpions have an elongated two-parted body and a segmented tail tipped with a stinger. They have four pairs of legs with pliers-like pincers on the end. These pinchers are used for grasping. The body's two parts are called the cephalothorax and the abdomen. The cephalothorax is covered above by a head shield "that usually bears a pair of median eyes and 2 to 5 pairs of lateral eyes at its front corners" (Gouge et.al, 2007). On its underside, the scorpion has pectines or feelers "used to sense the texture and vibration of surfaces....The abdomen consists of 12 distinct segments, with the last five forming the metasoma" or 'tail.' At the end of the abdomen is the telson, "which is a bulb-shaped structure containing the venom glands and a sharp, curved stinger to deliver venom" (Gouge et.al, 2007).

The scorpion's preferred temperature is a night above 70F. Scorpions are active at night, and spend their days where it is cool and moist. Scorpions have extra layers of fats on their exoskeleton to retain water. Scorpions get most of their water from their food. They feed on… [read more]

Jellyfish Are Marine Invertebrates Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,078 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Jellyfish are marine invertebrates which are part of the Scyphozoan class, and in turn the phylum Cnidaria; "members of this structurally simple marine group possess one of two body forms. Sea anemones, sea whips, corals and hydroids are polyps growing attached to rocks or other hard surfaces of the sea. Jellyfish and the Portuguese man-of- war are free-swimming medusa. Both… [read more]

Part of World Effects Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,940 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Lake Victoria is a natural body of water that has experienced exponential change within the past hundred years due to human activity. Even before the twentieth century, however, some experts suggest that it was home to one of the most explosive and fascinating demonstrations of evolution in the history of life. In the relatively short geologic time that the… [read more]

Smilodon Saber Toothed Cat Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,284 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10



What we know About Smilodon

The smilodon is one of the most interesting predators of the Pleistocene era. Studying and habits of large predators can give us many clues as to the biodynamics of an area. The largest collection of smilodon fossils is in the tar pits near the city of present day Los Angeles. Many of the early… [read more]

Extinction by Erwin Douglass Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Erwin, Douglas H. Extinction.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Author Douglas H. Erwin is Senior Scientist and Curator in the Department of Paleobiology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and an External Faculty Member of the Santa Fe Institute. This book addresses the end-Permian mass extinction, one of several mass extinctions that have been found in the history… [read more]

Evolution of Whales and Dolphins Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,939 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Evolution of Whales and Dolphins

Dolphins and porpoises and whales belong to either of two cetacean families, the Platanistidae (fresh-water dolphins) or Delphinidae (including all other dolphins, the porpoises, the porpoises and cetaceans commonly called whales). The difference between porpoises and dolphins has led to considerable confusion, as it can be called by both names. There is, however, a technical… [read more]

Survival (Man vs. Wild) Published Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,835 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"Turn, smell, listen, feel and then a sound, a small sound, an he looked up and away from the lake and saw the wolf. It was halfway up the hill from the lake, standing with its head and shoulders sticking out into a small opening, looking down on him with wide yellow eyes. He had never seen a wolf and the size threw him - not as big as a bear but somehow seeming that large. The wolf claimed all that was below him as his own, took Brian as his own" (120).

Buck, of course, is the central character of the Call of the Wild. And it is through Buck's eyes that we see humans and must ask -- what is the call of the wild? Is it the call to avarice? Is it the particular human trait of collecting more than needed? Certainly, the human capacity for love is great, as is their capacity for cruelty -- most did not see dogs as anything but possessions. Still, it seems that Buck came to understand that it was not all humans who were cruel -- that just as he was shoved into a tight, cold cage and starved there were some who would share their fire and meager provisions. Just as some would wield a club at the slightest provocation, others would act with respect and love. And, it is perhaps this capacity that separates the animal in humans and the human in animals? For Brian, in Hatchet, Brian must learn that it is through his own abilities, making a hatchet, for instance; that he will survive in the wild. He must learn that the wild is not to be feared, but respected. When he is rescued, he returns home a different person -- his respect for the wild, his trials and tribulations have made him see humanity in a different way; and, like Buck's journey, he may well wonder who is truly the civilized creature and what is the "civilized" world?

References:…… [read more]

Humans as a Concept Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,565 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12



Furthermore, this cultural production results in subsequent cultural diversity, such that whales can be seen to exist in a social environment as robust as any human establishment. For example, "one of the best-known example of marine culture comes from killer whales [because] pods of killer whales have highly varied dialects and ways of life, even while sharing the same… [read more]

California Native Plant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,146 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


California Native Plant

An Analysis of the a. manzanita

The manzanita is a perennial shrub of the ericaceae family, native to California. The manzanita enjoys its most active growth during the spring and summer months of the year. While different varieties of the Arctostaphylos manzanita offer varying distinctive characteristics (there are over forty different species of Arctostaphylos in California), the most common (the A. manzanita Parry) bears a white glandular flower and produces a "glabrous to hairy" fruit, 8-12 mm wide. Its ecological habitat is of the Outer and Inner North Coast Ranges, the Cascade Range Foothills, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills, the San Francisco Bay Area. This paper will discuss the Arctostaphylos manzanita in all of its varying aspects.

Aside from being an attractive addition to surroundings at or below an elevation of 1500 ft the A. manzanita does not offer much practical use in the way of berry or seed product, fodder product, or fuel or lumber product. It can be a valuable product for nurseries, but as far as providing edible or medicinal value, the A. manzanita has a low palatability for browsing and grazing animals, and zero palatability for humans. Its protein potential is also likewise low.

What then is the value of the A. manzanita? Depending upon which variety you obtain, the A. manzanita offers an aesthetic value that can compliment any native Californian setting. For example, the leaves of the A. manzanita Parry are erect petioles of 6-12 mm, with blades of 2-5 cm and 1-3.5 cm wide, usually in an oblong or oval aspect, with bright, shiny green surfaces, glabrous and smooth. The stems are twig-like and smooth and the white flowers hang upside down and are small (a quarter of an inch in length) and shaped like a cup. The bark of the somewhat crooked branches is reddish in color and the shrub can grow up to 15 ft in height. Some local tradition has it that the berries the shrub provides can be brewed into a cider, but when ingested in large quantities the fruit is likely to upset the stomach.

The Dr. Hurd manzanita tree is available in a one gallon container from Las Pilitas Nursery for $8.99. The Dr. Hurd manzanita is an evergreen hybrid shrub and is said to better suited to garden conditions than other manzanitas like the A. glauca. The Dr. Hurd also is well-suited to clay soil and can even survive in sandy soil. It is a drought tolerant plant and would work well in any xeriscaped setting. This particular hybrid was named for Dr. Cuthbert Hurd, in whose garden the plant was found -- most likely a cross between the A. manzanita and the A. stanfordiana. Apparently, these two species frequently occur in the Sonoma County region and often form new hybrids.

Other manzanitas of California (which can range in height from two inches to nearly twenty ft, depending on whether they exist in coastal or interior ranges -- the taller are found in… [read more]

Solicited in Connection the Presence Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,021 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Unfortunately, the deer itself is almost extinct, and, therefore, it is incumbent upon ourselves to protect it. Following unregulated deer shooting in the 1930s, conservation ecologists have been working hard to protect the deer population. Experts estimate that approximately 30 million white-tailed deer exist in the United States alone. Unfortunately deer, beautiful and rare as they are, have multiplied to the extent that they can cause serious problems that include vehicular collision, vehicular damage, economic damage to farmer's crops (especially in corn and orchards), obstruction to reforestation, and destruction of native plants and animals in parks and natural areas. In suburban areas, deer are not help, too, often ruining landscape plants. Frustration of locals causes them to be hunted or trapped in order to relocate them. In many U.S. states and Canadian provinces, sharp shooting of deer is a common occurrence, but, as integral part of the ecosystem, the white-tailed deer must be protected at all costs.

Evaluating each of the Park's plans in formation and carefully reviewing their potential advantages and disadvantages, it seems to me that Plan B. would be the most beneficial to both park supervisors, tourists and, certainly, the deer population themselves. Alternative Action Plan B - non-lethal restraints in combination with Activity A and possibly supplemented by surgical sterilization would greater control be needed - would best serve to monitor the deer's eating habits. Whilst being the least controversial and most placating to the general public, this option would also serve to more effectively control the deer's actions.

It is my hope that this letter will be of some help to the park in question and that for your sake and ours, the white-tailed deer will be restrained from wreaking further damage

Again, thank your of the opportunity to comment on the Plan


Matthews NE et al. (2005). Evaluation of a trap-sterilize-release program for white tailed deer. Report for the Highland Park City Council www.wildcarebayarea.org/site/DocServer/Matthewsetal2005HighlandParkSterilizationReport

NPS.gov. Chapter 1 Purpose and Need for Action http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/1EIS.pdf;

NPS.gov. Chapter 2. Alternatives


NPS.gov. Chapter 3 Affected Environment


NPS.gov. Chapter 4 Environmental Consequences http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/4EIS.pdf

NPS.Gov. Chapter 9 Letters


NPS.gov. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

Final white-tailed deer management plan / environmental impact statement

Catoctin mountain park http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/0EIS.pdf

Rooney, TP & Waller, DM (2003) Direct and indirect effects of white-tailed deer in forest ecosystems, Forest Ec. & Manag, 181, 165-176

Russell, FL et al., (2001). effects of white-tailed deer on plants..: a review. Am. Midland Nat., 146, 1-26… [read more]

Nursing Search and Rescue Dogs Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,458 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


These heavier-than-air particles, which hold this person's scent, will usually be close to the ground or on nearby foliage, so the trailing dog will frequently have its nose on the ground, different from the air scent dog (Dogs in Search & Rescue, n.d.).

A bloodhound is characteristically trained for scent favoritism. Each dog is typically worked in a harness, on… [read more]

Fluvial Landscape: Chino Hills State Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,034 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Chino Hills State Park has several different kinds of vegetation in each of its major habitats. In the creek zones, cattail stands, as well as willow and sycamore woodlands with understories of wild rose, stinging nettle, and mule fat provide habitats for numerous animals. Live coast oaks are near the water sources, giving way to Southern California black walnut trees. The Tecate cypress is found in some parts of the park, specifically Coal Canyon. The park also features scrub and chaparral communities, which have coastal sage scrub, California sagebrush, California buckwheat, purple stage, laurel sumac, and toyon (California State Parks). The grass in the park provides a good example of invasive species. "Most of the grassland in the park is non-native annual European grasses that were introduced here during the early ranching years. However, grassland species native to California, such as purple needle grass and giant rye can be found among the annuals. An active grassland restoration program in the park is restoring native grassland to its more natural and dominant state" (California State Parks).

The climate in the park is typical of the climate in other parts of the Inland Empire area of California. The climate is temperate, so that it is warm in the summers, with temperatures usually in the 70s, and cool in the winter, with temperatures in the 50s. August is the warmest month of the year and January is the coldest month of the year, but temperatures are mild. Obviously, higher elevations experience broader temperature ranges. There is a moderate difference in daytime and nighttime temperatures. Rainfall is distributed throughout the year, but February tends to be wetter than other months. The area has relatively low humidity, but is not arid.

Chino Hills State Park's greatest natural resource may be its animal species diversity. Water Canyon Natural Preserve and Coal Canyon make up a biological corridor that allows wide-ranging species to range, despite human encroachment into their traditional range. This is critical because, otherwise, species that need large habitats become trapped in isolated patches, which threatens inner-species diversity, and can eventually lead to extinction. The animals that take advantage of this corridor most notably include bobcats and mountain lions, which may be observed in the park. Other animals that may be seen in the park include red-tailed hawks, turkey vultures, coyotes, deer, songbirds, and reptiles. Among the more than 200 species that live in the park, some of them are rare, threatened, or endangered (California State Parks).

Chino Hills State Park is an example of a human effort to preserve biological diversity. The park was created so that long-ranging species would have sufficient habitat to avoid extinction. This has helped encourage biological diversity in animal species, as well as plant species. As long as humans remain good stewards of this protected piece of land, some of the natural biological diversity in this area of California may remain protected, in spite of tremendous human expansion in the same area.

Works Cited

California State Parks. "Chino Hills… [read more]

Watersheds Netherlands Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,434 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … medium sized watershed in Holland. We will look at the current water status of the Biesbosch National Park watershed. This examination will include considerations of water quantity, quality and supply and demand. Also, there have been several other problems plaguing this watersheds including excess population, additional or changed agricultural practices, dams, new industries and forestry techniques. We will… [read more]

Creature Contacts A) Shipman, Pat Article Critique

Article Critique  |  2 pages (580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


I am interested in learning more on this fascinating topic after reading Shipman's article.

e) Man's interaction with animals was shown to be essential to human development. Shipman points out that human's learned predatory skills from observing animals. It is one explanation for the survival of the human race when early carnivores such as sabretooth cats, who were faster and heavier than man, became extinct when humans did not. Early cave art shows that man learned from animals and shared information about them with other humans, through drawings. Secondly, humans followed animals with respect to migratory patterns. Plant-eating humans could remain in one place; predatory humans had to expand their territory as they sought new hunting grounds. As humans domesticated animals, they also required more space so animals could graze.

f) The study of human evolution often focuses on the physical changes that man has undergone, including development of a larger brain, less body hair, and more erect stature. There is often considerable focus on the use of tools, the discovery of nature's elements, and the increasing sophistication of groups and their governance, from families to tribes and eventually to villages, cities and states. There has not been as much study of the human-animal connection, particularly with respect to the domestication of animals for the purpose of companionship. This article offers a window into another aspect of human evolution that augments the material already presented in the textbook.

Work Cited

Shipman, Pat. "Creature Contacts." New Scientist 210.2814 (2011). 32-36. Web. 11 Nov. 11.

Creature contacts. (cover story)

Shipman, Pat


New Scientist, 5/28/2011, Vol. 210 Issue 2814, p32-36, 5p


Subject Terms:

HUMAN-animal relationships

ANIMALS & civilization

DOMESTICATION… [read more]

Maintenance Behavior Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Maintenance Behavior

This report is based on the movie 'Furry Vengeance'. The movie concerns the building of a new habitat for human beings which is the task undertaken by a young real estate developer by the name Dan Sanders, who had convinced his wife and family to relocate to the project site. Dan's family was not happy about the move since it meant leaving their lives behind to come to live to this new remote place. The construction meant destroying the forests and the ecosystem. The angry animals in the forest ganged up to stop this destruction from happening. The animals are led by a clever raccoon to teach the developer a lesson about the consequences of man's encroachment and destruction to nature. In the end, the movie ends by the human beings deciding to build their homes away from the forest and building a conservatory around the forest. The movie has a mix of behaviors which are exhibited both by the animals and the human beings.


One of the positive behaviors that are seen is that of positivity. Positivity refers to the state of something or someone exhibiting a positive feeling. This is seen towards the end of the movie whereby the animals and the human beings agree to co-exist. The human beings, led by Dan Sanders, agree to leave the project and to build a conservatory. Sander's boss, Neal Lyman also came to the project site and after feeling the wrath of the retaliation of the animals, decided to abandon the project for later days. The project had led Sander's family to think of him as mad at some point and that he was taking the project extremely seriously than the way he was taking care of his family. When Dan decides to leave the project…… [read more]

Reproductive Biology of Rotifers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,090 words)
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Bdelloid Rotifer Reproduction

Rotifers are, perhaps, one of the most interesting phyla of microscopic pseudocoelomate animals on the face of the planet. Each tiny animal is approximately 0.1-0.5 mm in length and are found in freshwater around the globe, and in saltwater in certain areas. The name rotifer is derived from Latin meaning 'wheel bearer', and was spawned due to… [read more]

Merostomata Horseshoe Crabs Term Paper

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Merostomata- Horseshoe Crabs

The history of the Horseshoe Crab is one of confusion, the traditional association of the coruscations has given them their common name, yet with more close analysis the association is clearly only a loose one.

At one time they were considered true crustaceans, thus the name "crab." However, these dark brown Arthropods that we usually have in our popular touch tank are only distantly related to such crustaceans as the true crabs, shrimps and lobsters. By examining their underside, we can clearly see many similarities between the horseshoe crabs, members of the class Merostomata, and spiders, scorpions and ticks, which belong to the class Arachnida. (Sturtevant 2004)

The formal name for the American species is Limulus polyphemus. Additionally, historical confusion about the species is its age. It is often called a living fossil yet it has no fossil record whatsoever.

While we sometimes see the horseshoe crab referred to as a "living fossil," it is more appropriate and factual to eschew such an oxymoron, since Limulus polyphemus has no fossil record whatever. The genus Limulus ranges back only about 20 million years, and, therefore, is not so old as was thought at one time. (Sturtevant 2004)

Though much older relative of today's horseshoe crabs are known to have been present on the American continent about 520 million years ago.

A judging from fossils found in the Burgess Shales of British Columbia, Canada. While these relatives and their descendants enjoyed a phenomenal evolutionary success, surviving environmental changes that led to the rise and fall of the dinosaurs, they did not undergo great diversification. Actually a modest four species grouped into three genera inhabit the earth today. (Sturtevant 2004)

The relatively small set of species associated with the horseshoe crab name are relegated in relatively small numbers to only a few regions of the world, waterways.

Our Limulus is only found along the entire Atlantic coast from Maine south and along the Gulf of Mexico as far as the Yucatan. The other two genera are found along the coast of southeast Asia and adjacent islands such as Japan. (Sturtevant 2004)

Another notable fact about the horseshoe crab is that like humans it has no natural enemies and therefore lives in relative peace, at the will of the retention of its specialized habitat. The habitat of the Merostomata class is largely associated with its life cycle.

Spawning adults prefer sandy beach areas within bays and coves that are protected from wave energy. Beach habitat also must include porous, well-oxygenated sediments to provide a suitable environment for egg survival and development. Differences between coarse- and fine-grained sand, as well as how rapidly the sand drains, affect nest-site selection and nesting synchrony. The preferred sites are usually located next to large intertidal sand flat areas, which provide protection from wave energy and an abundance of food for juveniles.

The eggs, juveniles and adults also thrive in highly salient water.

Horseshoe crabs use different habitats at different life stages. For example, protected beaches… [read more]

Endangered American Burying Beetle Term Paper

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Endangered American Burying Beetle

This is a paper about the Endangered American Burying Beetle. There are four references used for this paper.

There are a number of species that are facing extinction throughout the world. It is important to look at the Endangered American Burying Beetle and determine its ecological significance, its population and geographic distribution, the known anthropogenic threats, and a realistic management plan for recovery.

Ecological Significance

The American Burying Beetle plays a significant role in ecology. The beetles "bury carcasses found on the ground, thus playing an important role in the recycling of nutrients. Through the act of burying, they also remove prey from competing flies and ants, and in this way may serve to limit those species, which sometimes reach pest proportions (http://endangered.fws.gov/wildlife.html#Species)."

Population and Geographic Distribution

The beetle used to be found throughout the eastern portion of North America, however, today is only found in two natural areas- "on Block Island, off the southern coast of Rhode Island, and in eastern Oklahoma, where it has been recently recorded in Latimer, Cherokee, Muskogee, and Sequoyah counties. Some beetles, however, have also been found in southwestern Missouri, and in the Platte River Valley in west-central Nebraska (http://endangered.fws.gov/wildlife.html#Species)."

The population of the beetle is thriving fairly well on Block Island, with an estimated mean adult population in 1991 of 375. During the same year, 207 adult beetles were recorded by researchers in Oklahoma.

Anthropogenic Threats

There is no clear cause in the decline of the American burying beetle, however it has been suggested that the "decline has the characteristics of the rapid spread of a pathogen, while there is no evidence which supports this explanation. Fragmentation or loss of the beetle's habitat, as well as competition with raccoons and other scavengers that tend to follow humans into new environments may also have contributed to the beetle's decline (Chenot)." The use of chemicals such as DDT in the beetle's natural habitat may…… [read more]

Wes Sechrest and Thomas M Term Paper

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Special care is taken to accurately approximate values that the fossil record or point molecular estimates do not clearly identify. They write, "Date estimates were available for a majority of nodes in both trees. Nodes without times of divergence were dated by interpolation using a pure birth model, whereby a clade's age is proportional to the logarithm of the number… [read more]

Brazilian Rain Forest Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (787 words)
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Al Gore and John Chafee were shocked when they visited the rain forest in 1989. Gore stated "The devastation is just unbelievable. It's one of the great tragedies of all history (Linden, 1989)."

Experts point out that if the rain forest vanishes, the entire planet would suffer. "Moist tropical forests are distinguished by their canopies of interlocking leaves and branches that shelter creatures below from sun and wind, and by their incredible variety of animal and plant life. If the forests vanish, so will more than 1 million species -- a significant part of earths' biological diversity and genetic heritage (Linden, 1989)."

Finding New Species

In 1992, a "pocket-size monkey with a koala-like face, a hint of stripes like a zebra and tufted ears was discovered in the rain forest (unknown, 1992)." The species was named the Maues marmoset after being found near that particular Brazilian river. This was the third new species of monkey to be found in the forest in only two years. Revelations such as these "underscore the Amazon's biological richness (it is home to more than a quarter of the world's known primate species) and its continuing mystery (unknown, 1992)."

Other species found in the rain forest in the past years include the "Black-headed Sague Dwarf, which was discovered in 1996 and is the second-smallest monkey ever found; the Zog-Zog, which was discovered in 1997 and is one of four new monkey species found in a single year in the Amazon region; and a species of Piranha, which was discovered in 1996 and whose young eat floating fruits and seeds while the adults devour fish flesh (Cannell, 1999)."


The Brazilian Rain Forest is able to sustain a number of rare species of plants and animals through its rich soil and freshwater system. While many of these species are currently in danger from deforestation, researchers are hopeful increased awareness of the rainforest and its habitants will allow the forest to continue to sustain these rare species for years to come.


Cannell, Michael. (08 February, 1999). "New Species -- Keep on Counting!." Science World.

Linden, Eugene. (18 September, 1989). "Playing with fire: destruction of the Amazon is "one of the great tragedies of history." Time.

(Rainforest Facts.…… [read more]

Environmental Ethics the Natural World Has Taken Term Paper

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Environmental Ethics

The natural world has taken approximately 4.5 billion years to reach the form we currently see today. All the diversity of life we are currently familiar with gradually sprang from the first single-celled organisms -- human are no exception. The biological processes of natural selection and sexual selection have ultimately resulted in some of the most beautiful and interesting plants and animals that could ever be imagined. As part of this process, humans -- as observed from an objective perspective -- could almost be thought of as a plague. We have descended on the land like locusts, devoured and destroyed everything in our path, with completely no concern outside of our own sustenance. On a geologic timescale humans are hardly worth mentioning; even the most generous estimates place the origin of modern man to 2 million years ago. By comparison to the millions of organisms that came before us, our success has been extremely short-lived and, like locusts, self-destructive.

The manner by which humans utilize the earth's resources is not only detrimental to the survival of other species, but also to our own. For example, the worldwide use of oil as a source of energy is growing exponentially; as humans drill deeper and in more locations the world's wildlife is pushed aside in the name of profit. Additionally, global warming threatens to permanently alter our climate, further risking the natural world and our own survival. As if that were not enough, the use and drilling of oil is increasing at a time when it should be decreasing. It has been recognized that oil is a finite resource that will eventually run out, and in so doing, threaten very the fabric of civilization: this aspect of human negligence is directly analogous to a plague. Even with a level of consciousness far beyond all the organisms that came before us, and even though we know our current practices will lead to eventual disaster, humans continue to behave in a manner concerned with only immediate benefits.

Doubtlessly, some could make the argument that this sort of behavior is perfectly aligned with the principles of evolution; namely, that organisms behave in their own, immediate self-interest. Extending this notion to humans, it should be anticipated that we expend all of our natural resources before we implement new solutions, and also, that we be unconcerned with competing species. This is a strong argument. There is no way to directly refute this sort of perspective, but I am sill inclined to take issue with it. It appears that this outlook on life is a mere justification for practices and institutions that are already in place, and therefore, are reluctant to change their ways. I would argue that humans are, debatably, the first organisms on earth to possess a high level of deductive reasoning, and that we also have an innate appreciation for beauty and the value of that beauty. Because of this, humans should be concerned with other species of life; they possess inherent value… [read more]

Narwhal Whales General Characteristics Term Paper

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Communication may lead to a better understanding of social behavior, migration patterns, and gender differences among Narwhals. Such a finding may be as unique as the whale itself and may cause others to re-think the perception of other mammalian teeth. Information will be collected and integrated from field observations, traditional Inuit knowledge, and new scientific data from collaborators in dental and marine mammal research. (Secrets of the tusk)

This research and many other research projects are in the process of unlocking much valuable information -- which is more reason to prevent the extermination of the Narwhal whale.


All about Whales. Accessed November 22, 2004. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/whales/species/Narwhal.shtml

American Zoo. Accessed November 22, 2004. http://www.americazoo.com/goto/index/mammals/227.htm

Bruemmer, Fred. Of monstrous moles and unicorn horns. International Wildlife, May 15, 1998.

monodon monoceros: Narwhal. Accessed November 22, 2004. http://www.cetacea.org/narwhal.htm

Narwhal Whales. Pictures of Pets. Accessed November 22, 2004


Narwhals: Photos Show Decline of "Unicorn" Whales. Accessed November 22, 2004. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/04/0413_040413_narwhalwhales.html

Odontoceti. Ask a Scientist. Accessed November 22, 2004 http://oceanlink.island.net/ask/odontoceti.html#Anchor1114785

Secrets of the tusk. Narwhal org. Accessed November 22, 2004 http://www.narwhal.org/facts.html

Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises. Accessed November 22, 2004. http://www.solcomhouse.com/sonar.htm

Whale guide Reference Desk. Narwhals, Accessed November 22, 2004. http://www.whaleguide.com/data/narwhal1.htm… [read more]

Organism: Monkey Classification Term Paper

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An important characteristic is the existence of a hard palate, which allows the animal to breathe and chew at the same time. (ibid) The skeletal anatomy of the monkey allows for quick movement. The reproductive system is designed for longer periods of gestation. Most monkeys have layers of hair which also acts as a cooling system in many species. "Morris points out that all primates (including all 192 species of monkeys) are covered with hair ... " (Bergman J. 2004)

4. Movement and stance

Monkeys normally have an erect posture. Except for the spider monkey, monkeys cannot swing arm-over-arm. They move about in the trees by running on all fours along the braches. They have a similar skeletal structure to other mammals. (Monkey: Encyclopedia Com)

5. Nutrition and life support

Almost all species eat insects, leaves and fruit. However, there are some species of monkey that are carnivores. Some species supplement their diet with different types of food, including lizards, bird eggs, fruit, and plant sap. "Several species of monkeys, and chimpanzees, but not the other apes, have been known to attack and eat other monkeys." (Primate: Encarta Encyclopedia)

6. Habitat

Monkeys commonly live in trees. However, there are some species that live on the ground. They have no permanent home or shelter.

7. Reproduction and social life

Similar to apes and humans, the female monkey has a monthly reproductive cycle. Mating can occur at any time. However, in some monkey species mating is a seasonal occurrence. Monkeys usually produce one infant at a time and the baby is cared for by the mother for a long period of time. With regard to the social structure, monkeys commonly live in groups, as well as separating into male-female pairs. Monkeys can live in large groups or troops of a few hundred individuals.


Bergman J. 2004)

Why Mammal Body Hair Is an Evolutionary Enigma. CRS Quarterly. [Online] Available from: http://www.creationresearch.org/crsq/articles/40/40_4/Bergman.htm. December 26, 2004.

Classification: Infoplease. [Online] Available from:

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0859744.html. December 26, 2004

Kinzey, Warren G., ed. New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1997.

Monkey: Encyclopedia Com [Online] Available from:

http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m1/monkey.asp. December 26, 2004.

Monkey: Wikipedia. [Online] Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monkey. December 27. 2004.

"MONKEY," Young Students Learning Library, January 1, 1996

"Monkey." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Oxnard, Charles E. The Order of Man: A Bio-mathematical Anatomy of the Primates. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1983.

Primate. Encarta Encyclopedia. [Online] Available from: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569210/Primate.html. December 27, 2004.

Primate Characteristics. Jan Goodall Institute. [Online] Available from:

http://www.chimpanzoo.org/about_chimpanzees.html. December 26, 2004.

Segerstrile, Ullica and Peter Molnar, eds. Nonverbal Communication Where Nature Meets Culture. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.… [read more]

American Pit Bull Terrier Term Paper

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However, of late, this poor and loyal beast has been severely castigated and penalized for being a man-killer, a vicious beats, and a dog that must be banished from within the city limits, or land his owners into trouble, meaning arrest and fines. In truth, this is a perfect example of somebody being punished without giving them a very basic… [read more]

Tiger and Me See Essay

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¶ … Tiger and Me see the tiger, lying in the sun. I walk up the walkway and view her through a wire mesh that separates her from me. The setting looks so natural as she lies there, by a little manmade brook. Perhaps she knows she cannot get to me, but I know I cannot get to her. I wonder, then, what it would be like to be walking through a forest in India, and come upon a beautiful glade, with trees and a little stream, and a lovely tiger stretched out by the water. What would I do? There would be no wire mesh to hide behind. Would she notice me? Would she be hungry? Would she be as curious about me as I am about her right now?

The experts call that "anthropomorphism," when a human sees human traits in an animal. No, she does not think in the same ways humans do, but surely she must think, or else how could she plan the best way to catch an antelope? If I came upon this tiger in the wild, she would not be curious about me. She would simply judge whether I was a potential meal, whether she was hungry, and whether she had a decent chance of catching me.

They say that the biggest difference between humans and animals is that humans know they are mortal. This tiger knows about mortality, but she knows it differently than I do. I know that I will die some day, and that if that wire mesh were not there, or if I had come upon her in the forest of India, I might be looking at the thing that would soon kill me. She does not look at death that way. She does not know that she is alive, or that she will die some day, but she understands death.…… [read more]

Poisoning Our Planet Term Paper

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Poisoning Our Planet

If it is the air we breathe, the land we use, or the water we drink, we do not pay any heed to the indiscriminate use of the resources of our planet. Nevertheless we are dependent on these resources for innumerable part of our present and future welfare. Similar to as we human beings are dependent on… [read more]

Destruction of Wilderness Term Paper

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Diminishing Wilderness

Most people are aware that as human beings encroach on previously wild area, this new use of old land can have negative effects on the environment. No person takes joy in seeing an animal, even one considered obscure, go extinct, but at the same time, people need some place to live, and people like to live in beautiful surroundings. That human tendency often puts human desire and the needs of individual species in conflict.

The area in which a plant or animal lives is called its habitat. An animal's habitat suits that animal's needs for food, shelter, and reproduction. In return, the animal contributes to the maintenance in various ways. A bird might eat a specific berry, and the seeds, contained in the birds droppings, have a fertilizer-enriched dot of land in which to germinate. Thus a habitat can be defined as "an ecosystem, [or] a community of organisms functioning as a unit in nature" (Editor, PAGE).

The main reason for most endangered species is habitat destruction. While some animals are resilient enough to cope with major habitat destruction, others cannot, in particular those animals who have evolved to live in very specific types of habitat.

There are numerous examples of habitat destruction and its effects on wildlife. For instance, the Richmond birdwing butterfly is a beautiful butterfly found in subtropical rainforests in Australis (Pyper, PAGE). This butterfly feeds almost exclusively on one plant -- the Richmond birdwing vine. As habitat shrank, a second problem developed: a vine called Dutchman's pipe pushed out the Rhichmond birdwing vine. The butterflies laid their eggs on the Dutchman pipe, which made a good environment for the eggs but was poisonous to the caterpillars (Pyper, PAGE). The result was that the butterfly lost nearly 70% of its habitat, and a further decline because of the intruding vine, which was not native to the area.

The example of this butterfly shows that it is not always obvious what interferes with a specie's survival, and not always obvious what needs to be done to support its continuance.

Not always obvious what features in an environment help support the species. Another example is The red-cockaded woodpecker. This southeastern United States bird lives in Southern pines. The sap that oozes from the trees as the bird drills under the bark oozes out and prevents snakes from eating its young (Nickens, PAGE). Birds seem to be animals easily affected by habitat change: the least tern used to be very common in much of the United States before 1880, when hunters nearly pushed them to extinction (Gerhardt, PAGE). They live in river basins, dive into the water to catch small fish, and nest in open sandy shorelines. They stay away from vegetation where predators might lie in wait. Water programs to create dams, recreational areas and irrigation have made much of their former habitats unsuitable for them (Gerhardt, PAGE).

One animal that has been brought back from the edge of extinction and studied extensively is Australia's mountain pyygmy-possum.… [read more]

18th C. Decorative Botanical Art Term Paper

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18th C. decorative botanical art

18th Century Botanical Art

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, pearls were a very popular bauble with the wealthy and the royal; brought back from the explorations of the Far East and the New World and still rare, they are seen in portraits most particularly of Queen Elizabeth I, but also of other nobles.… [read more]

Taxa What Is Cnidaria? Term Paper

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There is asexual reproduction too among cnidarians, and this type of reproduction may more often than not occur in both phases of its life cycle. In asexual reproduction, the new entity is produced from small bits of tissue that has been budded from the parent, like for example, in the hydra, or the parent can divide it into smaller parts… [read more]

Adaptations of Organisms in the Taiga Biome Term Paper

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Adaptations of Organisms in the Taiga Biome

Taiga or Boreal Forest

Taiga or Boreal Forest (also Northern Coniferous Forest) cover about 11% of the Earth's land surface, or one third of its total forested area (about 1.5 billion hectares/3.7 billion acres). It occurs in the Northern hemisphere, in a circumpolar band, running though Canada, Scandinavia, Russia, China, Mongolia, the Korea… [read more]

Histology Term Paper

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Areolar connective tissue consist of a meshwork of thin fibers that interlace in all directions, giving the tissue both elasticity and tensile strength. It is commonly found in the papillary region of the dermis of skin and in the lamina propria of mucous membranes. While dense regular connective tissue occurs as cord or band-like structures or as broad sheet-like structures. It is composed primarily of collagen fibers in a parallel arrangement. This arrangement results structures that are flexible but have great tensile strength.

Ligaments are special type of dense regular connective tissue that connects bones to bones. They have similar structural arrangement to tendons, but differ in their yellow color, which is due to the abundance of elastic fiber in the tissue. The elastic fibers are stained a dark brown-red with orcein. Elastic fibers provide ligament with…… [read more]

Mekong River Basin Term Paper

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Mekong River Basin

Research, Review and Evaluation of Present and Future

Conditions of the Region

Physical Geological Information

Present Environmental Condition

Cultural Significance of the Mekong River Basin Region

Economic Significance of the Mekong River Basin

The Mekong River Basin

Research, Review and Evaluation of Present and Future

Conditions of the Region

The Geography of the River

The Mekong River Basin is one of the ten longest rivers existing in the world and has a significant impact upon the nature, environment, societal aspects as well as the economical aspects of the Indo-china Peninsula. The origination of the name of "Mekong" is in the Thai language of Mae Nam Khnong. (Bao, et al., 2004) the Tibet Mountains are home to the Mekong's beginning which travels from the River of Rick or the Dza Chu River, or River of Rock, which is the primary source for the Mekong River. The Dza Chu runs through a valley that is narrow and parallel to the two rivers of Yangz Jiang and Salween River. Upon the Mekong having reached the Chinese province of Yung-Nan it is then called the Lancang Jiang or "Turbulent River" Next the river travels through the Golden Triangle, Myanmar and Laos boarder, and on into the Vientiane Plain. The phrase lower Mekong means downstream segment from the point [According to a geographic review online at http://cantho.cool.ne.jp/mekong/outline/mcxxcxekong_river_e.html

] After the Vientiane Plain the rapids which are termed notorious flows into Cambodia and on into the Mekong Delta in Vietnam where the water is distributed into the paddy fields.

I. The Countries of the Mekong River Basin

The countries of the Mekong River Basin region are listed as follows with other relevant data:

Countries Area (km2) Basin in Nation (km2)


The Kingdom of Thailand 9,597,000

The Union of Myanmar 678.030

The People's Republic of China 236,725

202,400 85.5%

The Lao Peoples Democratic

Republic 513.115

Cambodia 181,100

Social Republic of Vietnam 331.700

There is much history due to frictions between countries in the Mekong River Basin area and this is cited as the reason that the river is known by some very many different names. The relationships of Laos and Cambodia are integral to the people of this country as 85% of the areas of both countries are connected intricately with the river in one way or another whether economical, environmental, or simply in the dependence upon the river for the resource of water the river provides. The River is 795,000 km2 in length of 4, 6-20 km and is at its' highest point in Tibet 4,620 km. The catchments area of the Mekong Delta is "very unstable due to lack of proper survey especially in upstream mountainous area and in the Mekong Delta of which watershed is obscure.

II. Environmental and Ecological Data

The Lower Mekong River Basin fishery is called "one of the most abundant river fisheries in the world" and is critically important to 55 million individuals living in the basin area. From this income is earned in the industry… [read more]

Gray Wolf, Giving Some Natural History Term Paper

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¶ … gray wolf, giving some natural history of the animal, its living habits, and range, along with the ongoing controversy over relocating wolves in the American West. Gray wolves are related to domesticated dogs, and are members of the canine family. The United States Government declared the gray wolf an endangered species in 1973 when Congress passed the Endangered… [read more]

Literary Analysis on Annie Dillard's Pilgrim at Tinker Creek Term Paper

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Annie Dillard

Metaphors of "Winter" from a Pilgrim at Tinker Creek -- the Author and her World at Rest, both in harmony with and against the natural world

Annie Dillard's Pulitzer Prize-winning book, A Pilgrim at Tinker's Creek, is set in Virginia's Blue Ridge Mountains. The story is a kind of modern, female version of Thoreau's Walden. Dillard strives to… [read more]

Popol Vuh Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,684 words)
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Hunahpu and Humbatz certainly appear to be two of the most human deities; indeed they open the door for human creation. Still, many of the other gods represent things that seem almost wholly unrelated to one another. Quetzalcoatl seems to be both a snake and a bird, at the same time that he is the creator of civilization, the god of water, and the god of the south wind. Xquic is doubtlessly the god of pregnancy and weaving, but she also possesses the destructive properties of water. Out of these many contrasts, and the way much of the world was constructed out of the gods' attempts at creating man, the reader gets the undeniable impression that the underlying philosophy of the Maya was that existence itself is alive, conscious, and fluid.

The existence of man is one that is parallel with nature; he fits into his specific position in nature -- his duty is to behave as a man by using his unique gifts to honor the gods -- but he is not at the center of the world. It is from this particular perspective that all Mayan moral philosophy must necessarily flow. Accordingly, it is wrong for an individual to be self absorbed, to not express humility, to dominate others on the grounds of wealth or riches, or to be prideful. These are the central morals to be found in the Popol Vuh, and recognizing them demands that one distinguish his place within nature, civilization, and the divine as being linked to interdependence and complexity. So, to overlook the philosophical teachings within the Popol Vuh would be to overlook the coexistive plan for the world that it describes.

It is somewhat possible to make an analogy between the universe that the Popol Vuh develops and the particular properties of an ecosystem. This is because within the Popol Vuh the justifications for why human beings can eat animals, why monkeys are the way they are, why the stars are in the sky, and why man is granted certain traits are all present. In other words, mankind is positioned within the balance of nature both physically and spiritually: such is the core lesson of the Popol Vuh.


1. Nelson, Ralph. The Popol Vuh.…… [read more]

Snakes Term Paper

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Hence it is not unusual to find snakes basking in the sun for long periods after devouring a meal.

To conserve heat, snakes coil up, exposing less skin to cold. In colder environments, snakes hibernate in winters hiding in deep crevices or underground shelters. Such shelters may be inhabited by a number of snakes at a time due to lack of appropriate space, but otherwise snakes like to live solitary lives.

Snakes feed on worms, insects, lizards, small mammals, birds, and frogs. Some snakes feed exclusively on other snakes or on eggs of other animals. The large pythons such as the anaconda can swallow even larger animals such as wild pigs, monkeys, and deer. They usually employ one of two methods for killing their prey: by injecting their venom or by constriction

. Smaller, agile snakes may pursue their prey while heavier snakes like the python lie in waiting and ambush their victim when they pass by. Sakes do not chew their food and swallow their food whole -- often while the victim is still alive. ("Snake," 2005)

Snakes also employ a wide-range of techniques to ward off predators who feed on them. Some snakes become absolutely motionless to escape detection. Venomous snakes sometimes have distinctive coloration such as bright yellow and orange stripes to warn attackers about their poisonous nature. Other snakes such as the rattlesnake make a hissing or a buzzing sound to frighten predators. Some snakes simply strike at their attackers, and/or display their fangs to warn them off. (Shine, 2005)


The mating season for snakes in cold climates is spring while in tropical climates there is no specific season. Females produce a special smell to signal their readiness for mating. During mating the male injects his sperm in the female's oviduct where fertilization occurs. Most snakes lay their eggs in crevices or secluded places and abandon them while a few species such as the king cobra and the diamond python contruct a nest for their eggs and guard and warm them until they are hatched. Some snakes, e.g. snakes in colder climates or sea snakes, give live birth. This is because the female can control the temperature of the eggs by keeping them in their bodies, helping to speed up the rate of development. One snake specie is even known to reproduce without mating by a process known as parthenogenesis.


Shine, Richard. (2005). "Snake (reptile)," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005. Retrieved on August 17, 2005 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761578341/Snake_(reptile).html

'Snake." (2005). Article from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on August 17, 2005 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snake

Since snake skeletons are fragile they usually do not fossilize. Origin and evolution of the species are, therefore, difficult to determine.

Squamata is the largest order of reptiles; it is distinguished by horny, scaly skin.

Animals that cannot produce their own body heat

If disturbed during the process of digestion, snakes often regurgitate the prey in order to escape the threat.

The constrictors wrap their body tightly around the prey…… [read more]

Region of the World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Rainforests - Environmental Challenges in Central and South America

For several decades, many Americans have been aware that the rainforests of Central and South America are shrinking as well as the fact that the lost of significant amounts of rainforest could well have a negative effect on the entire world as well as the immediate areas in and near the… [read more]

Great Basin Spadefoot Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Basin Spadefoot

The common named Great Basin Spadefoot is a ranked species in the animalia kingdom, and is known as Scaphiopus hammondi intermontanus and Scaphiopus intermontanus, Cope 1883 (Spea pp). The Taxonomic Hierarchy is as follows: Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata, Class Amphibia Linnaeus, Subclass Lissamphibia, Superorder Salientia, Order Anura Merrem, Family Scaphiopodidae Cope (Spea pp).

The… [read more]

Global Warming, Natural Disasters Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,018 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


A third effect of deforestation in the Amazon is the increase in global warming. The intake of carbon dioxide by the massive amounts of trees in the Amazon rain forest constitutes a significant portion of the entire globe's carbon dioxide processing. These trees process the carbon dioxide to produce oxygen; diminishing the numbers of trees performing this task increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and lessens the amount of oxygen in the environment. This disruption of the carbon cycle results in more heat being trapped in the earth's atmosphere by the increased amount of carbon dioxide, which results in overall global warming -- also known as the greenhouse effect. This phenomenon has been blamed for changes in the world's climate such as an increase in ocean temperatures worldwide, an overall increase in air temperatures worldwide, and the accelerated melting of the polar ice caps, which can be attributed to higher air and oceanic temperatures (Wikipedia).

This polar melting contributes to rising sea level, directly affecting the quality of living -- or even the possibility of inhabiting -- lower-level areas near the oceans. Current events such as the tsunami in southeast Asia and the hurricanes along the United States' Gulf Coast may have roots in this higher sea level; had the sea level for flooding been farther out into the ocean, the destruction in these two acts of nature might not have been so devastating; as the situations were, the proximity of human inhabitants to sea level and the higher level of the ocean resulted in thousands of lives being lost and millions of dollars of property being destroyed. Detractors of the theory that higher sea levels result in damage to property and human lives need only to look at the Gulf Coast or the areas affected by the tsunami to see the damage inflicted by higher oceanic levels.

In examining these three results of deforestation in the Amazon rain forest -- extinction and endangerment of plant and animal species, global warming, and decreased precipitation in other areas -- we can easily see the detrimental impact of destroying these natural resources. I believe that protection for such areas is the only way to protect the globe and the global climate as a whole; the value of the rain forests is far greater than the monetary value associated with mining, logging, farming, or any other activity which may be pursued on it.

Works Cited

FIGHTING FOR A RARE BIRD, By: Edgar, Blake, Rattner, Robert, International Wildlife, Mar/Apr99, Vol. 29, Issue 2

Lawrence, K., 2002. "Amazon deforestation could affect U.S. climate," Duke news, http://www.dukenews.duke.edu/2002/10/avissar1024_print.htm

Mirabella, Marina, 1997. "In the Amazon, deforestation is on the rise," CNN, 11/24/97 accessed online at http://www.cnn.com/EARTH/9711/24/amazon.burning/

'Global Warming," Wikipedia 2005. Online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming… [read more]

Genetically Modified Trees Scientists Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,448 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Much of the testing that has been done thus far has been careful to analyze the potential mishaps that might result from genetically engineered processes, and a majority of these studies have confirmed the risks even to the natural environment at present are minimal compared with the advantages we stand to gain from use of genetically modified trees (Avise 2004;… [read more]

Human Acts Occur Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,183 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This fundamental different in belief systems was further exemplified in the settlers' use of domesticated animals.

"Few English observers could have realized this. People accustomed to keeping domesticated animals lacked the conceptual tools to recognize the more distant kind of husbandry of their own," Cronan writes. The Native Americans viewed animals differently; they did not see them as the demarcation of property lines, but instead let them live on the land as well; there were also fewer livestock species roaming the land in the villages than in the settlers' town, making the animals' use of the land far lessened. Cronon emphasizes the ecological effect animals have on the land -- a very demanding, destructive one -- and that while the Native Americans succeeded in finding a careful balance between land, person, and animal, the settlers were not as well-thought.

"Because there had been fewer of them in a given amount of territory, they had required less food and had had a smaller ecological effect on the land that fed them. The livestock of the colonists, on the other hand, required more land than all other agricultural activities put together. In a typical town, the land allocated to them was from two to ten times greater than that used for tillage. As their numbers."

The settlers saw the animals of New England as another source of capital; another profit yet to be made. Their use of the animals and the land for urban markets and part of the global market trade becoming firmly established in the eighteenth century was a direct result of their approach to not only the land, but to their lives in general.

The settlers introduced to the land of New England completely changed the landscape of the area between 1600 and 1800. "Ecological abundance and economic prodigality went hand in hand: the people of bounty were a people of waste."

The permanent settlers expected warmth through the winter, and a steady flow of species, both animal and plant, to provide their own welfare and the sustainability of their market economy. They brought fur trade, animals and plants that, combined with the European way methods of agriculture, destroyed the land, and destroyed the Indian populations at the same time. Old World pathogens ate their way through Native American populations which were already struggling to modify systems of life to cohabit their land with the invading Europeans, who were not struggling to modify their lives to the land. Merchant's survey makes clear that human factors, over the course of time, can have both immediate and long-lasting affects on the land. Through population pressures on the land, the market economy and its fads and fluctuations, technology, social relations, and the attitudes of human agents on the natural-human system, the environment of a land can be indelibly altered. The affects of the European settlers on New England by 1800 left a land unrecognizable to the Native Americans who had lived comfortably, happily, and with great cooperation on that land for thousands… [read more]

Botany of Desire Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Botany of Desire

Michael Pollan's best selling book The Botany of Desire offers an interesting insight into the psyche of plants (if there is such a thing). The sub-title "A plant's Eye view of the world" gives away the thesis which revolves around botanical desires and how they often work with human desires for their own ends. Whether we like the book or not- (obviously some of us wouldn't bother reading about plants and what they think) the author must be given credit for presenting a completely original treatise. He may not be correct but he certainly had something unique to say about human desires and evolutionary process of plants.

Pollan presents his thesis by exploring the histories of four plants apples, tulips, marijuana, and potatoes. The author feels that while we thought we were using plants for our benefit, the plants had all the while been using us for their survival. The simple example of this lies in our desire to repeatedly grow some plants. Though we obviously think that we are doing it because we desire, Pollan believes that it could be that these plants are "[getting] us to move and think for them" (p. xx). The treatise with its highly original thesis is definitely worth a read though there are many points on which we may not agree. For example, the author believes that plants have made us help them survive through beauty and taste. In other words, he connected it with Darwin's theory of natural selection where the fittest survived. However if that were so, why is it that we still see many other plants which are otherwise not so beautiful or fruits not all that appealing surviving. While I agree that tulip is a flower most people would love to have in their gardens, what about cactus. This plant has been an eyesore for many and those with children might actually be wary of it because of all the thorns. But cacti have also survived the evolutionary process just like any other plant.

It all started with Pollan's own garden where he saw a bumble bee and wondered about its role in the world: "I happened to be sowing rows in the neighborhood of a flowering apple tree that was fairly vibrating with bees. And what I found myself thinking about was this: What existential difference is there between the human being's role in this or any) garden and the bumblebee's?" (p.3). At first, this appear a strange comparison and the author admits that it does. But he encourages us to think again; think about the role of these plants and why is it that we choose one plant over the other? This is where natural selection steps in.

While I have my reservations about author's hypothesis that a plant would make us take care of them, I still cannot disagree with the notion that there is a greater force that makes us choose one plant and not the other. It acts on our senses… [read more]

Environmental History Conjectures on a Paleolithic Idea of Wilderness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (628 words)
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Environmental Science

Oelschlaeger argues that Paleolithic humans held a variety of beliefs related to how they lived their lives, including those below:

that irrespective of place, nature was home

Prehistoric humans had a culture but did not think about their culture. They developed beliefs about their world but did not think of themselves as separate from their world. They saw themselves as a part of the nature around them. They were present in the world just as trees, rocks, plants and other animals were. To have a consciousness of culture would have meant that they were separate from the rest of the world around them (Oelschlaeger, p. 11-12). Their sense of being part of the world is demonstrated by their use of totems for family groups. That tied them to nature, and it was that totemic that identified them as "home." Home was wherever they were at the time, and their tie to nature was present wherever they were. They did not define any one place as "home" because they did not stay in one place, except within nature (Oelschlaeger, p. 13).

A that they regarded nature as intrinsically feminine

Prehistoric humans saw that they found everything they needed within nature to meet their physical needs. They saw a similarity to the way nature sustained them and the way a mother nurses her baby to sustain the baby. They came to think of nature as a "Magna Mater," because they believed that Nature would provide for them just as a mother takes care of her baby (Oelschlaeger, p. 16).

A that they thought of nature as alive

The belief that nature provides for human sustenance leads to the idea that nature is "alive and responsive" Oelschlaeger, p. 16). This made life for humans an interactive existence with the world around them, and meant that they should support each other (Oelschlaeger, p. 18). This meant…… [read more]

Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and Anxiety in the Canine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and Anxiety in the Canine

Anyone who has ever owned a dog that was scared of certain events, objects or people can readily testify to how profound the fear can be in various breeds of canines. In fact, more than half of Americans own dogs today, and the number continues to increase. The symptoms of such… [read more]

Birds Belong to the Aves Classification Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Birds belong to the Aves Classification in biology and live virtually anywhere in the world. They are amniotes (animals whose eggs are protected from drying out), a group that includes mammals, dinosaurs and reptiles). There are approximately 9,000 species, divided into 24 orders and 146 families (which include, for example, Anseriformes (ducks), apodiformes, caprimulgiformes, charadriiformes, ciconiformes, columbiformes, coraciiformes, cucliformes, falconiformes, galliformes, gaviiformes, and so on). Birds are warm-blooded vertebrate animals that are covered with feathers, have wings, a beak, and no teeth. Feathers are actually modified scales. (Enchanted 1)

There are different types of feathers, depending on that the bird is and what the featheres are used for. There are flight feathers that grow in the wings and tail. There are feathers that cover the rest of the body on the surface that are used for protection against water and other elements. These feathers are often brightly colored in the male birds to attract the female of the species, and duller in females, to camouflage her when she nests. There are feathers that act as thermal insulation; soft, downy feathers that grow close to the skin and keep out the heat or cold.

A bird's body is supported by a skeleton in which many bones are fused together or are absent. Their bones are strong, hollow and light-weight. They have powerful flight muscles.

Birds have a one-way breathing system. Theirs is a unique system in which air follows a one-way route through the respiratory system. This system is unlike our lungs, in which the air backtracks where it came from. Their system of respiration (breathing) is very efficient - much more efficient than our system. Two relatively small lungs where gas exchange occurs, are augmented by bellows-like air sacs (where no gas exchange occurs). These air sacs keep the lungs inflated even when the bird is exhaling. (Enchanted 1)

They also need a strong circulatory system, including a powerful heart in order to circulate the oxygen. A bird's heart beats much faster than our heart does. A hummingbird's heart beats about 1,000 times each minute; a human's heart beats about 60-90 times each minute. (Enchanted 1)

Birds usually eat insects (insectivores), though there are carnivores who eat meat, such as owls and eagles. Some birds are herbivores and eat only plants, such as hummingbirds, grouse and Canadian geese. Others are omnivores and eat plants and meat. Some tropical birds, such as the toucan, eat only fruit (fructivores). They use their keen eyesight to find food and beaks and claws to get, hold and bite their food. The fact that many birds eat insects helps control…… [read more]

Cheetahs the Magnificent Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,194 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Once a cheetah has decided to attack prey, a "typical chase lasts less than one minute" (Ebsco). In addition to this, other aspects of the animal's physique make it a prime candidate for running and they are an "oversized liver, enlarged heart, wide nostrils, increased lung capacity" (Cheetah.com). The Smithsonian states that cheetahs are "built more like greyhounds than typical cats" (Smithsonian). These hidden aspects of the cheetah demonstrate how it has evolved over the centuries to become what it is today. These facts make the animal seem even more majestic to me because I found them so fascinating to begin with.

Other odd and interesting facts about cheetah that I did not know made me appreciate the animal even more. For example, I did not know that cheetah cannot retract their claws. This allows them to grab "additional traction" (Ebsco) when running. Their claws are also not as sharp as other large cats' claws. I also did not realize cheetah had such a wide variety when it came to their diet. I assumed that they ate birds, ostriches, rabbits, and smaller animals but I did not know that they also kill larger animals such as zebras and gazelles. In addition, the average cheetah eats "about six pounds (two kilograms) of meat each day" (Ebsco).

I would have thought that a cheetah would live a long life but as most websites indicated, man average cheetah might live around 15 years. Another interesting fact I read about the cheetah is "Cheetahs need only drink once every three to four days" (National Geographic). One of the saddest things I read that I did not know was that the greatest enemy to the cheetah is humanity. The saddest thing for me as I was conducting this research was looking at the pictures of cheetahs in captivity. While I know that this is the only way that I would ever have the opportunity to see a cheetah live, it made me sad to see them caged and so removed from their natural environment.

A found this research to be fun and informative. I love researching things and I have always loved the cheetah because of their beauty. They are graceful and, at the same time, ferocious. While this research was fun, I also discovered something else and that is my passion to see these animals live. Perhaps the saddest thing I read about them was the fact that there are so few of them left on the earth. The Smithsonian states that they are close to extinction. It would be a shame if we let these animals fall from existence just because they have lovely fur, because we are killing their prey or because we are running them away from their habitat because we must develop land. This research made me appreciate the animals even more but it also makes me want to speak out what is happening to them in their own habitat. We should strive to keep them alive not kill them… [read more]

Behavioral Training for Therapy Dogs Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (665 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These are Animal Assisted Therapy and Animal Assisted Activities even thought researchers in the field of human-nonhuman animal studies have continually been criticized for lack of theoretical foundations (Brown, 2004, p.68). The human-companion animal bond is based on theories with three kinds of models that are considered as being akin to the human-animal attachments and relationships.

The Animal Assisted Therapy is a therapy service in which companion animals are part of the therapy of a patient. In this category, interactions with the therapy dogs are part of the plan of treatment developed by healthcare professionals to enhance the emotional and physical function of a patient. On the contrary, the Animal Assisted Activities therapy service basically entails the introduction of pets to withdrawn patients or individuals to stimulate communication. This is carried out because patients tend to feel comfortable around a friendly animal despite the lack of the need for trained professionals or absence of formal plan of treatment.

With regards to the current use of therapy and service animals has mainly included the concept of naming laboratory animals. Laboratory animals have been developed to constitute extra evidence of a personal relationship between humans and animals. These laboratories have training for regular procedures that can lessen personnel and animal stress. In the future of therapy and animal service, the administrators of animal research should search for opportunities to motivate the formation and sustenance of bonds between individuals and animals. This process should start with the initial employee interview and maintenance of the philosophy by providing for a final disposition of the animal in a humane way.


Bayne, K. (2002). Development of the Human-Research Animal Bond and Its Impact on Animal

Well-being. ILAR Journal, 43(1), 4-9. Retrieved from http://dels-old.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/43_1/v4301Bayne.pdf

Brown, S. (2004). The Human-Animal Bond and Self-Psychology: Toward a New

Understanding. Society & Animals, 12(1), 67-86. Retrieved from http://animalsandsociety.org/assets/library/528_s1214.pdf… [read more]

Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve: Restoring Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (711 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Management and Restoration

Knowledge about the ecosystem's original structure and function continues to aid in the development of plans to restore the preserve to its initial state and manage its maintenance thereafter. Studies continuously run in conjunction with the restoration in order to bring the area back to its initial beauty and quality. Today, the trails of the preserve reveal a reemergence of the preserve's original ecosystem with native flora including warm-season grasses and native wildflowers growing in the area in droves once again (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). Additionally, where woodlands were once leveled to make way for agricultural dominance, today these woodlands are dominated by mixed Pennsylvania hardwoods and two wetland areas as existed before the area's agricultural emergence (VisitPhilly, 2012, p.1).

Species Interactions in Management and Restoration

Volunteers and restoration specialists alike continue to work diligently in the preserve to bring the area back to its original state by fostering the interactions of different species of flora and fauna in order to bring Gwynedd back to its original glory. Today, originally-found grassland birds including the Eastern Meadowlark, Northern Harrier, Eastern Bluebird and Woodcock cohabitate the area as they did prior to agricultural development as do animals such as the red fox and eastern flying squirrel (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). Where foreign crops once flourished, now thrive native grass meadows filled with big bluestem, little bluestem and Indian-grass as well as New York ironweed, purple coneflower and swamp milkweed as well as woodlands dominated by red oak, red ash and red maple (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). The Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve now exists in its former glory with its intended species' cohabitation, which is vital to ensuring the area survives and continues to flourish as nature intended.


Natural Lands Trust. 2012. "Gywnedd Wildlife Preserve." Web. Retrieved from:

http://www.natlands.org/preserves-to-visit/list-of-preserves/gwynedd-wildlife-preserve / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].

Visit Philly Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve." Philadelphia and the Countryside. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.visitphilly.com/outdoor-activities/philadelphia/gwynedd-wildlife-preserve / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].

Schuylkill River National and State Heritage Area Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd

Wildlife Preserve." Web. Retrieved from: http://www.schuylkillriver.org / Detail.aspx?id=170 [Accessed on 23 April 2012].… [read more]

Synaptic Communication This Report Will Cover Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Synaptic Communication

This report will cover the principles of synaptic communication of neurons throughout one's life and how that communication governs and influences communications with people and leads to certain behaviors. About four sources will be used to cover these topics. Some will cover neurons specifically while others will cover behavior.

Synapse Communication & Development

One major building block that neurons need to function and develop occurs during the initial formation of neurons. One such building block is the NMDA receptor, as referred to and studied by McAllister in 2007. The majority of mature glutamatergic synapses are in the neurons of the cortex on dendritic spines. The development and changes of these synapses occur both in utero and in vivo, with the latter referring to the time spent in the womb of the mother before birth (NIH, 2013).

For experiences and daily events to shape the form and function of synapses, there must be a processing of thousands of synaptic inputs and they must be translated into the appropriate changes in function. In short, if an impetus for change if fleeting dn by no means permanent, the chances that real and lasting change will result with the neurons and synapses is exceedingly unlikely (NIH, 2013).

One example of how synapses communication is through bidirectional communication between the synapse and the nucleus. This process regulates neuronal development and plasticity. The exact same process can be used to increase calcium levels in the post-synaptic cell. Calcium's role in biochemical transduction of sigans from the synapse to the nucleus is well-known in the scientific community (NIH, 2013)

To take the subject of neuron/synapse communication a bit further, a different site cites the use of the word "nerve" when discussion communication and that is deemed to be fitting given that nerves hold a vital role that involves a lot of communication. Neurons communicate over long distances by sending a series of signals call nerve impulses through a framework called the axons. These axons make up the tract of the nerve and serve as the conduit of the communication (IntroPsych, 2013).

The output from each axon arrives at an area call the synapse, as discussed above. At the point of the synapse, the neurons are separated by a tiny gap call the synaptic cleft. When a nerve impulse reaches the axon, a single neuron may send impulses or signals to thousands of other neurons. The dendrites and/or cell body of a single synapse or cell body (the axon of those points, usually) will possible receive the signal from the synapses and then react accordingly (IntroPsych, 2013).

When transmitters flow across a chemical synapse, there is one of two effects that will manifest itself. The first is that it will get excited and this will cause the neuron to possible fire off a signal of its own in sort of a cascading effect across the neurons and synapses. The other effect to have it inhibited by the signal it's receiving. Either way, the reactions from neuron's… [read more]

Fur From China Against Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,032 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Since glimmers of hope is evidence, let each and everybody take action. For us to dismantle this fur trade as fast as possible, we should begin by showing it in our habits. Pledge never to buy fur from China, as well as encouraging the friends and family you have to take the same action. Majority of people are truly not heartless and they care for others and are willing to do the right thing. However most of these people are not aware of the cruelty behind the fur trim on their gloves or coats, while most of them tend to be misled by false labeling and fairy tales over fur farms, (Chiara Feddeck, 2012).

In case you have decided to stop, you should stop, there are fabulous fake furs, and it becomes very tricky to separate them from the real stuff, and as mention they deliberately mislabeled them. There are some other ways which might work of distinguishing them such as: closely looking at the substrate material, which might be leathery and skin-like (that one s real) on the other hand it might be woven like a rug (such is a fake one). Some people might opt to use flame test which still works. Taking a few strands that belong to the furry fibers of the garment then hold them over a small flame, if it is real fur, the smell will be like burning hair as well as leaving a strand of, well, burnt hair. However, many of the common synthetics, smell like burning plastic and melt to take the bead form just like plastic. Another way of distinguishing the fur is trying to push a pin through the base of the fur. In case it is the real one, there will be a leather backing hence becoming hard to force a pin through. A fake one will allow the pin to go through it easily. Moreover, you can as well blow on the fur for it to separates. A real fur will expose its layers of soft, almost wooly fur through which there is protruding longer hairs, while the backing should be leather. When it is fake, it will have a common single simple layer of almost identical hairs.


China fur has never proved worth buying for such a long time for there are still not definite rules and regulation that govern the fur trade so that the State can export a quality and look upon the manner of slaughtering that takes place in various part of the state. I have a feeling that after becoming aware of the malicious practices no fur from China will be bought as well as forming part of our garment or buying them.


Chiara Feddeck, (2012). Fur Is Not Fashionable: The Cruelty of The Fur Industry. Retrieved march 17, 2013 from http://www.witandfancy.com/2012/01/19/fur-is-not-fashionable-the-cruelty-of-the-fur-industry/

Steve Martindale, (2013). Best of PETA Prime: Help Shut Down the Chinese Fur Trade. Retrieved march 17, 2013 from http://prime.peta.org/2011/07/china

Graham, David,(2012). How Canada Gets Dog and Cat… [read more]

Biology Species D In Evolutionary Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (863 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Microhabitats can, and often do, create rapid adaptive variation.

Part 10

A. The major limitations on the morphological concept of species is that there is often a large amount of phenotypic variability within a species; that organisms that can interbreed sometimes have different physical characteristics, and that it does not consider if individuals of a species can produce viable offspring. For biological concepts, many species do not reproduce sexually, and then are hard to apply to the biological concept since it emphasizes reproduction. In other words, in the biological concept, species are based not on physical similarity, but on fertility.

B. In this scenario, likely the morphological concept because the butterfly populations are distinct. In this manner, we could look at not just reproduction, but differences in body function, biochemistry, behavior and genetic make-up.

Part 11 - A clade is a group consisting of an ancestor and its decedents. Extinction rates can exceed speciation rates in clades based on a sharp change in diversity, climate, and habitat for a specific organism. This can be artificial (man-caused) or natural (weather, earthquakes, climate change, etc.). Certainly much of the basic mass extinctions are examples of this; 1) the Cretaceous-Paleocene Extinction Event about 65 million years ago in which 75% of all species became extinct; 2) the Triassic-Jurassic event about 200 million years ago when 70-75% of species became extinct. In #1, the boundary event was severe enough so that the majority of non-avian dinosaurs became extinct and mammals and birds emerged dominant; in #2 most non-dinosaurian archosaurs and large amphibians were eliminated, resulting is less terrestrial competition for the remaining species.

Part 12 -- You should check this with your text































Part B. Species 3 and 5

Part C. Species 2, 4 and 5

Part 13 - In vitro evolution may not involve the cells and therefore the results can have larger mutations; Molecular evolution is at the RNA, DNA and protein scale based on cellular structures. In vitro evolution produces new molecules, molecular evolution new combinations.

Part 14 -- Between fossil and molecular evidence, I would side with the molecular evidence due to the reliability of science and genetic definitions as opposed to outside variables (temperature, strata, location, etc.) of the physical fossil evidence.

Part 15 --…… [read more]

Taxonomic Categories Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (709 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Taxonomic Categories

There are 9 animals in nine different Phyla. Be sure to look at every page.



Dichotomous Key (steps)



Organism is multicellular

Does it have exo or endo skeleton? NO

Is organism asymmetrical (sponge). NO

Is organism transparent? YES

It is jelly fish.

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Subphylum: Medusozoa


Does it have endo-skeleton or exo-skeleton? EXO

Does it have Shell? YES.

Does it have foot? YES.

It is a snail

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca



Does it have any skeleton? NO

Found on land? YES?

Does it have symmetrical smooth body? YES

Does it have a segmented body? YES

It is an earthworm

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Annelida




Terrestrial or non-terrestrial? TERRESTRIAL

Flies or crawls or walk? FLIES

Has fur and spinal cord? NO

Has antenna? YES

5) Has hind wing? YES

6) it is a butterfly

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Insecta


1) Terrestrial or non-terrestrial? NON-TERRESTRIAL

2) Has endo or exo skeleton? EXO

3) Body symmetrical? NO

4) it is a sponge

Kingdom: Animalia

Subkingdom: Parazoa Phylum: Porifera


1) Terrestrial or non-terrestrial? NON-TERRESTRIAL

2) Has endo or exo skeleton? EXO

3) Body is symmetrical? YES RADIAL

4) Does it have feet? Yes

5) Body smooth or spiny? SPINY

6) it is a star fish.

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata



Class: Asteroidea



1) Multicellular hence it is either plant or animal

2) Lacks chlorophyll hence it is animal

3) Has skeleton hence Chordata

4) Has feathers and flies hence it is aves

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Aves


Image Rights: Allen G.

Collins and the UC Museum of Paleontology


1) Does it have a skeleton? NO

2) Is the body symmetrical? YES

3) Is the round or cylinder like? NO

4) Found on land or water? POND WATER

5) Can it see? YES

6) it is a lukeworm

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Platyhelminthes


Image Rights: Courtesy of University of Minnesota


1) Has skeleton? NO

2) Found on land? YES

3) Body round? YES

4) Body smooth? YES

5) Body is segmented? NO

6) it is a…… [read more]

Conservation Biology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (882 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Other valued of biodiversity to humans include the fact that rich environments provide heretofore unknown resources, such as new food products and medicines. Important medicinal discoveries such as the pain medications codeine and morphine were only discovered because they were natural defense mechanisms found in plants to prevent their consumption by herbivorous organisms.

Factors that threaten species persistence include: (1) degradation, destruction, and fragmentation of their natural habitats, (2) overexploitation of populations, (3) disease or a new predator's introduction, and (4) some natural or unnatural phenomena which upsets the balance within the ecosystem (Sadava 2011,-page 1247). Each of these factors could lead to endangerment of extinction of given populations.

6. Describe at least four strategies used by Conservation Biologists to protect Biodiversity.

a. Creating and maintaining nature preserves which emulate the natural habitats of the creatures that live within the preserve. These preserves will be built in regions which are close to the climate and terrain of the original ecosystem in the hope that the animals will be able to survive and thrive within the community.

b. Conservation biologists have used the legal system to ban chemicals, processes, and procedures which have been proven to negatively impact biodiversity. For example, conservation biologists have been instrumental in banning the use of chemical sprays such as DDT which are used by farmers to prevent insects from eating or bruising their crops. These insect sprays have not only decimated the insect population, but also impacted bird communities and cats in certain regions of the world because these secondary consumers eat the insects and are then themselves poisoned.

c. Implementing procedures to decrease carbon emissions, such as encouraging green processes either through social pressure or through legislative measures. This has included implementation of carpooling lanes and regional transit systems to lessen the amount of cars on the road which then release harsh chemicals into the environment both in the air and in the ground.

d. Conservation biologists have worked internationally to expand knowledge of endangered species and encourage cooperation between nations to protect various species. It is perceived as larger than a national problem and these scientists have been able to achieve a level of international cooperation unseen in other situations.

Works Cited

Fujikawa, T. & Dougherty, J. (2010). The value of biodiversity and its impact on human health.

David Suzuki Foundation.

Sadava, et al. (2011). Life: the Science of Biology Volume 2. 9th ed. Sinauer: Gordonsville, VA.

Sahney, S. & Benton, M. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.

Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological. 275(1636). 759-65.…… [read more]

Environmental Law Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Environmental law

Environmental law: The Endangered Species Act

The Endangered Species Act was passed in 1973 and was designed to help species in danger of becoming extinct as a result of "economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation" (ESA, 1973, Cornell). The Act only protects endangered and threatened species, not all wildlife. Endangerment is when a species is "in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range" while "threatened" means "a species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. All species of plants and animals, except pest insects, are eligible for listing as endangered or threatened" (ESA, 2013, FWS). One or more of the following five criteria must be met for a species to be protected under the provisions of the ESA: the species is faced with present or threatened destruction of its habitat; there is overuse of its habitat or of the species for "commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes;" the species has exhibited a decline due to disease or predators; inadequacy of existing regulations to protect the species; and/or other natural factors (ESA, 1973, Cornell).

The 1973 ESA is a reformation of the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966. The Act arose out of the budding environmental and conservation movement of the time, and has remained virtually unchanged since, with only very minor amendments (History, 2013, FSW). The most significant change regarding the law has been in relation to costs: "Originally the ESA wasn't supposed to consider financial concerns, something even the Supreme Court agreed" but the law changed in 1978 when Congress demanded to know the costs of protecting specific species (Vinzant 2009). Before he left office, George Bush issued an order that "federal officials didn't have to bother to consult with scientists when they decided whether logging or mining would impact a species on the brink of extinction" but this provision was quickly overturned by President Obama when he assumed office (Vinzant 2009).

By 1988, "Congress was requiring the Fish and Wildlife Service to complete recovery plans for each species, including recovery times and costs" although a study in 2006 "found only 20 of 107 plans…… [read more]

Zoos Are Categorically Utilitarian in Their Purpose Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Zoos are categorically utilitarian in their purpose and function. Even when zoos participate in the preservation of species, education, consciousness raising, and fundraising, they are still performing a utilitarian function that precludes the individual rights of the animals therein. The zookeeper works on the principle of utility -- that it is useful to maintain an institution that promotes education and research, as well as promotes ecological integrity via the preservation of species. Most zookeepers would also claim that their facilities and their working procedures ensure the humane treatment and welfare of the animals; that animals are being treated well by being regularly fed, offered time to play and interact with others in their species, and not being harmed. Any restrictions to the animal's freedom is conceived of as being part of the "greatest good for the greatest number" utilitarian concept -- which in this case can even be extended to some species of animal such as those about to go extinct. If a zoo is preserving the endangered species and breeding them in captivity, then those programs restrict the individual freedoms of individual animals for the collective good of their entire species. Because he builds much of his animal ethic on utilitarianism, Peter Singer is far more likely than Tom Regan to acknowledge that zoos are -- or at least can be -- morally acceptable institutions.

Yet when zoos do things like put on entertainment shows, they are more blatantly exploiting the animals individually and collectively, for the utilitarian goal of profit-making and mass-market entertainment. The latter type of zoo is more obviously unethical than the former, and it also raises questions about the perceived utility of animals for human benefit. Both Peter Singer and Tom Regan would decry the type of zoo that puts on shows and allow their animals to mope in cages, but would do so for different reasons. Singer would claim that while the individual elephants being paraded around the…… [read more]

Bombadil and Treebeard in Middle-Earth Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Several other characters in Tolkien's works are established as mysterious and explanations from the author are never forthcoming (McCloskey, 2002). About the Lord of the Rings, Tolkien did offer that he wrote the story clearly in terms of good and bad sides, of beautiful against ugliness, of kindness against ruthlessness (McCloskey, 2002). But the key point that Tolkien makes -- and that best explains Bombadil's puzzling behavior -- is the effect brought about by renouncing control and any desire of tangible things (McCloskey, 2002). In separating from the world such that he exists only as a watcher, Bombadil is free from the right and wrong duality (McCloskey, 2002). Indeed, the means of exerting power and control loose meaning and value to Bombadil (McCloskey, 2002).

Treebeard is a Middle-earth character who is the eldest member of the Ents species. Treebeard is regarded to live in the ancient Forest of Fangorn, and like the other inhabitants of forests he looks like a tree, having a rigid bodily structure and leafy hair. Treebeard ant the other Ents once roamed other forests of the Middle-earth, including the Misty Mountains, Mirkwood, Mordor, and the Blue Mountains. But when the Etnwives were driven out at the end of the Third Age, the Ents isolated themselves in the Forest of Fangorn. Treebeard was encouraged by Pippin and Merry to stop the Saruman from cutting down his trees, and so Treebeard led a war against Saruman and his Orcs to stop the carnage. If Bombadil can be characterized as quick and frivolous, Treebeard makes no haste. He has been characterized as something waking up from an ages long sleep after which he engages in slow, steady thinking considering the world suddenly revealed around him with the "same slow care it had given to its own inside affairs for endless years" (Tolkien, 1954).


Both Treebeard and Bombadil found ways to interact with the physical world around them. Bombadil is disengaged with the tangible world in the same way that a Buddhist monk might be; he does not engage in the rightness or wrongness of the world as he lives above it and beyond it. Treebeard manages the danger and conflict in the world, as would a tree in a storm -- bending, giving way, and yet winning the contest by surviving and by still being there at the end of the storm or the end of the battle.

The tension that exists between the characterization of Bombadil and Treebeard is the same tension that is evident when the concepts of heaven and earth are juxtaposed. Bombadil does not concern himself with earthly things, and he expresses the joy and free abandon that is characteristic of a small child -- or an angelic being. Treebeard carries the weight of the world -- antagonism and war, fear and treachery -- and they literally weigh him down, cause him to be slow moving, though not slow witted. Treebeard's pensive attitude is a result of his deep appreciation of the effects of… [read more]

Phyla and Parasites Ten Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (534 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Also, they have no digestive tract which allows them to absorb food directly from the stomach.

Ascaris ~ Adapted with a sucker mouth and have no internal transportation. They need a host to survive. Its body is long and narrow which allows it to easily accommodate in the intestine of its host. It is also adapted to protect its skin against the chemicals of the host body. Also, the nervous system and sensory organs were simplified.

Platyhelminthes ~ They have adapted a thick body which protects them against the host body.

Their spines, suckers, and hooks developed to be attached and their organs which allow motion were removed.

Protozoa: Developed the ability to encysted which makes a thick, tough wall around itself and then enter a state of hibernation. Many of them avoid places which are inhospitable, such as where there is no oxygen.

Leech: Creates a cocoon for itself which is a protective covering. Adapted to be a hermaphrodite to help reproduction. Leech developed slow digestions and the ability to secrete hirudin which prevents blood clotting.

Nematode: Developed a pseudocoelom which has a body cavity lined with a mesoderm. This is a space for both circulation and internal organs. They move not with limbs but a hydrostatic skeleton.

Taenia Solium: The parasite developed an external cuticular epidermis, an adhesive organ, and no alimentary canal. Each segment has independent reproductive organs and does not have any external organs.

Entamoeba Histolytica: Developed the ability to tolerate the high temperatures within the host body and to avoid digestive chemicals.

Ischnocera: The parasite has evolved an elongated…… [read more]

Misfits, Written by Arthur Miller Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (628 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Her love of animals and expression of horror at the cruelty of the west is naive yet touching. She is continually taken aback at Langland's callousness to animals. Her new relationship is almost destroyed when she sees Langland's real work: roping horses and making them submit so he can slaughter them. His entire life, Roslyn realizes, has been built upon cruelty. She feels that what she saw as her last chance at starting anew is lost. Guido offers to set the horses free for her if she will leave Langland for him, but that only further depresses her, as she sees it as evidence that men will only show kindness when they want something in exchange. She had also rejected Guido before because of the way he treated his late, pregnant wife, refusing to drive the woman to the hospital when she was in labor

The story ends on an idealistic, hopeful note -- Pearce sets the horses free, and after attempting to capture one of them, Langland eventually capitulates to Roslyn's demands. The ending suggests that some form of redemption is possible, although it is not clear how Langford and Roslyn will live together. If the two of them formed a new union, this could allow life to begin anew and enable Langford to redeem himself from his estranged relationship with his own children. This would also suggest that the traditional, lonely cowboy of the West is finally redeemed by domesticity, and taught to treat wild things with respect. But the overall tone of the film remains bleak, and the viewer is left with a sense that Roslyn and her lover are fantasizing rather than really talking about what will likely transpire in the near or far future.

Work Cited

The Misfits. Starring Marilyn Monroe and Clark Gable.…… [read more]

Biology Summary a Population Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


I would begin my classification by identifying any and all anatomical features shared by both species which appear to hold the same function. By searching for homologies such as similar bone structure one can begin deducing whether or not the two species have evolved from a common ancestor. Caution is advised in this approach, however, due to the frequent occurrence of homoplasies, or similarities which have occurred along independent evolutionary lines. An example of the misleading nature of homoplasies can be found in the case of butterflies and birds. While both species share the common adaptation of winged flight, with the wings of both creatures even sharing a similar external appearance, the internal structure of each wing is wholly incongruent. This incongruence is highly indicative that both species evolved from independent ancestors, which is why a more thorough investigation must be undertaken.

When a rabbit eats the lettuce in your garden, all of the energy in the lettuce is used by the rabbit. Is this statement true or false? Defend your answer.

This statement is false because the theory of trophic dynamics holds that the energy of a producer is transferred to its consumer at a rate between 10 and 20%. Every organism transfers energy and converts it to biomass at varying levels of efficiency, meaning the lettuce will have already utilized much of its existing energy for the sake of growth before it is consumed by the rabbit.

A gardener puts a chemical into his/her garden that kills all of the decomposers. What would happen to the garden?

Without decomposers like earthworms, fungi and bacteria present in a garden ecosystem the complex links within the nutrient cycle would soon be irrevocably broken. Decomposers serve a unique and vital role in any ecosystem by helping to facilitate the removal of decaying plant and animal matter, so absent their presence a typical garden would become inundated with organic debris. Furthermore, without decomposers working to convert complex chemicals into essentials such as carbon and nitrogen, the soil…… [read more]

Marine Bioluminescence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,296 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


A number of invertebrates also provide exceptional powers of regeneration and might be capable of regrowing the missing tissues. This occurrence takes place in almost all bioluminescent organisms that are large enough to recuperate from lack of tissues or skin as a result of an attack.


Common between cephalopods, fishes and crustaceans, counter illumination is one of the kinds… [read more]

Island Biogeography Theory Have Affected Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (812 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Within the last few decades, however, it was discovered that whereas the theory on which those designs was built may have been heuristically beneficial, the equilibrium theory itself was scientifically full of holes, groundless, in fact, and therefore, impractical (ibid.). Instead of the notions of equilibrium, steady state, homogeneity, and stability that were thought to exist in nature on a constant level (e.g. Botkin, 1990), scientists discovered instead that many of our environmental designs and understandings of islands were built on myths and that nature instead was in constant imbalance and flux, patchy and arbitrary (Wu & Loucks, 1995) with stochastic and heterogeneity its prominent characteristics.

A new ecological paradigm has emerged called the hierarchical patch dynamics paradigm (HPDP) which now drives design in alternate ways (Wu, 2008). No longer are influences on the protected area (of, for instance, the reserve) considered nor is the heterogeneity for the internal areas controlled and supervised. There are allowed to be multiple sources for species and original disturbance patches are allowed to go unchecked (Jazen, 1983). No extra corridors are built, and check is no longer foisted on the intra-reserve corridor. Reserves are no longer islands. It is in this way that recent changes in the view of the applicability of island biogeography theory have affected the principles and practice of conservation design.


Botkin DB (1990) Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Janzen DH (1983) No park is an island: increase in interference from outside as park size decreases. Oikos, 41, 402 -- 410.

MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton

Wu, J. (2008). Changing perspectives on biodiversity conservation: from species protection to regional sustainability Biodiversity Science 16 (3): 205 -- 213

Wu J, Loucks OL (1995) From balance-of-nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: a paradigm shift in ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology, 70, 439 -- 466.

Wu J, Vankat JL (1991) A system dynamics model of island…… [read more]

Lorax Probably the Most Ideological Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,550 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Older people remembered the poverty and deprivation of the Great Depression when the majority of people were poor, hungry and unemployed. Only the big revival of industrial capitalism during the Second World War and Cold War had provided them with jobs, cars, houses and a bonanza of consumer goods. They were mystified by the behavior of the mystics, hippies and counterculture dropouts of the 1960s, who seemed to reject suburbia, materialism and the values of the Affluent Society in events like the first Earth Day in 1970. At the time at least, it seemed that this generation would bring about radical changes when it finally came into power, since so many of them claimed to have values similar to the Lorax rather than the Once-ler. Of course, this has not turned out to be the case, especially because the affluence that was taken for granted in the 1960s did not continue in the decades that followed. Economic concerns came to the fore again, even while many of the older smokestack industries moved offshore to Mexico or China, the demand for cheap, imported consumer goods remained. On the global scale, then, the question remains whether the warnings of the Lorax will ever be heeded.


Geisel, Theodore Seuss (Dr. Suess). The Lorax. Random House Books for Young Readers, 1971.

Geisel, Theodore Seuss (Dr. Seuss) The Lorax. You Tube cartoon animation, 1972.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5jnJdnQPr8&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzYRkGIQpOs… [read more]

Bear Globally Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,190 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


People that held a "strong positive attitude toward bears would likely: support actions favourable to bears, tolerate bear damage and maintain their position in case of conflict" (Krestser, 393-406). Experiences with a bear causing damage or approaching a family member, along with attitudes expressing concern about wildlife in general were the most closely related to determined perceptions and predicting interactions with black bears as negative (Krestser, 393-406).

Wildlife Management and Bear

Wildlife managers have a limited number of options of control to deal with human-bear problems. One strategy is to capture and relocate the bears to less populated areas. Another is lethal control, which often occurs when no other option is available but, it commonly results in negative public opinion toward the state wildlife officials or agencies. For more severe situations there are higher levels of support for more intensive agency action (Agee & Miller, 198-205). A high perception of risk from bears was associated with acceptance of lethal control. This suggest that information, educational approaches about bear behaviour and methods to reduce bear contact or damage may be successful in mediating the negative attitudes (Agee & Miller, 198-205).

As the human populations continue to expand further onto the natural landscape, human-wildlife interactions increase (Whittaker, 515-530). This can create conflict between the species that are losing their habitat and humans are living in, or using the resources in this area. Rural residents are often the people most affected and those who can most affect the successful management of these species as they share the same space and resources (Heberlein and Ericsson, 213-227).

In the past, the response to a human wildlife conflict has been to kill the species and destroy their habitat (Manfredo, 2008). How a person is affected in the human-wildlife conflict is related to how they view the particular wildlife as conflict arises from differences in values. The movement toward non-utilitarian has turned human-wildlife conflict into one between people and wildlife to one between people and institutions. For example, local residents can feel resentment towards conservation initiatives ore be negative toward managers due to impacts caused from wildlife and resist management options that do not impose a form of control (Treves, 383-396).


Agee, J and Miller, C. Factors contributing toward acceptable of lethal control of black bears in central Georgia, USA. Human dimensions of wildlife. (2009) 14: 198-205

Decker, S., Bath, A., Simms, A., Lindner, U. And Reisinger, E. The return of the king or bringing snails to the garden? The human dimesnsions of a proposed restoration of European Bison in Germany. Restoration Ecology. (2010). 18: 14-51.

Heberlein, T. And Ericsson G. Ties to the countryside: accounting for urbanites attitudes toward hunting, wolves and wildlife. Human Dimensions of Wildlife.( 2005) 10: 213-227.

Krestser, H., Curtis, P. And Knuth, B. Landscape, social and spatial influences on perceptions of human-black bear interactions in the Adirondack Park, NY. Human dimensions of Wildlife. (2009). 14: 393-406

Powell, R., Zimmerman, J. And Seaman, D.. Ecology and behaviour of North American Black Bears:… [read more]

Endangered Species Act Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,199 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


With this kind of money, it is very important to ensure that the funds are being distributed property and that no malfeasance is occurring. Hill (1993) goes on to say that, "Taxonomic decisions not to list a species can result in the tragedy of a species' extinction; but poor taxonomic decisions inappropriately listing a species can result in a misallocation… [read more]

Seaworld Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,923 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Suburbs offered the pretence of rural life to those with no penchant for the hard work of real rural life: Little could be more distant than the hard work of farming than the ranch-style home with a two-car garage. Suburbs thus seemed to allow people to avoid both the deficits of the city and of the country. In fact, however, this was hardly the case. Suburbs brought many of the ills of the city along with them as well as producing their own particular ills.

In precisely the same way, Seaworld offers the pretense of wilderness to those who do not really want to get their feet wet or muddy. It would in fact probably be impossible to get your feet muddy at Seaworld given that even the dirt there seems unnatural.

Seaworld's official website argues that the park is committed to providing "an enthusiastic, imaginative, and intellectually stimulating atmosphere to help students and guests develop a lifelong appreciation, understanding, and stewardship for our environment."

The park's organizers plan to do this through the following steps:

To instill in students and guests of all ages an appreciation for science and a respect for all living creatures and habitats.

To conserve our valuable natural resources by increasing awareness of the interrelationships of humans and the environment.

To increase students' and guests' basic competencies in science, math, and other disciplines.

To be an educational resource to the world.

And no doubt in many ways it performs these functions at least to some extent. But it does so within the context of a highly regimented capitalistic and artificial structure. The theme park's website, the brochures that are available at the part itself and the shtick that the announcers at different sites go through all emphasize the company's dedication to protecting animals and doing environmental research.

But no where is the amount of money spent on conservation tallied against the profits that the company is raking in. Calls to the public information office on this issue proved pointless: A company spokeswoman would only say that it was "impossible to calculate all of the many ways that the park and its employees work to help animals."

Works Cited

Hrinko, Alexis. Interview, April 15, 2001. http://www.seaworld.org/infobook.html

Kincaid, Jamaica. My Garden (Book). New York: Farrar Strauss, 2001.

Stanley, Nick. Being Ourselves for You: The Global Display of Cultures, London: Middlesex UP, 1998.

Roberts, Anji. Interview. April 15, 2001.

Roberts, personal communication.

Hrinko, personal communication.

Stanley 19-26. http://www.seaworld.org/infobook.html… [read more]

Riparian Buffer Management Current Knowledge Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,928 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For example, they might not have considered the impact of the soil type, slope, and habitat requirements of a particular area on the effectiveness of a given buffer. To correct this inefficiency, the Division of Soil and Water Conservation's, Delaware Riparian Buffer Initiative will result in the development of comprehensive site-specific riparian buffer criteria. The designs are being developed using an ArcView geographic information system (GIS) application. This Riparian Buffer Analysis System (RBAS) combines layers of information (soil types, vegetation, endangered species) about a particular area for the future Riparian buffers, which are a critical component of watershed protection and restoration throughout Delaware (DDNR, 2000).

We have understood the important role that Riparian Buffer systems play in the conservation of out watershed and environment. Programs in the past have been strong in theory and weak in execution. New technologies and research now help us to understand more of the mechanics of how a riparian buffer system works. In the future this new technology and information will help us to design and implement better riparian buffer systems along the nation's waterways. Better education will help us to establish and maintain the buffer systems already in place. By working closely with urban and rural communities we can help to protect and preserve our precious resources for future generations.

Works Cited

D.C. Environmental Management Council (DCEMC) Dutchess County Planning & Development. Poughkeepsie, NY. 2001. ww.dutchessny.gov Accessed May, 2002.

Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DDNR). Delaware

Riparian Buffer Brochure. October 2000.

Maille, Peter. Science and Society Series, Number 1 April, 2001 Cacapon Institute, Highview,


Roberts, Dr. Mark Herbaceous Layer Diversity and Stand Structure in Partial Cuts, Riparian

Buffers and Tree Islands. University of New Brunswick Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management. 2001.

Sneider, R.L. Streamside Management -- Do's and Don't's, Cornell Cooperative Extension, 1998.

Sneider, R.L. Streamside Protection -- Why Bother, Cornell Cooperative Extension, 1998.

Tjaden, Bob and Glenda M. Weber. Riparian Buffer Management Riparian Buffer Systems

Maryland Cooperative Extension, Publication FS733. 1998.

Tjaden, Bob and Glenda M. Weber. Riparian Buffer Management: Soil Bioengineering or Streambank Restoration For Riparian Forest Buffers. Maryland Cooperative Extension,

Publication FS729. 1999

U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service. Guidelines for Streambank

Restoration. Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission. Sept., 1994. "Soil

Bioengineering for Upland Slope Protection and Erosion Reduction." 1992. Engineering Field Handbook, Chapter 18.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 1997 Riparian Forest Buffer Manual. How…… [read more]

Return of the Gray Wolf Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"We made the right choice to... bring these animals back from the brink of extinction," said Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt, in announcing that the animals have rebounded enough to warrant their reclassification in virtually all of the country (Hebert, 2000). "

In a recent report it was concluded that the release and re-introduction of the Gray Wolf to the lower 48 states within the last twenty five years has been a huge success. The group that has worked to bring the species back from the brink of extinction now has a national vision (Releases, 1999). One recent report however, cautions against relisting or unlisting the wolves from the endangered list to soon. "Places for Wolves: A Blueprint for Restoration and Long-Term Recovery in the Lower 48 States." Bob Ferris, director of the Species Conservation Division at Defenders, is the lead author (Releases, 1999). In 1974, wolves were listed under the ESA as endangered in all 48 states but Minnesota, where they were listed as threatened. Although listed nationally, the species recovery efforts have been handled on a piecemeal basis, regionally (Releases, 1999)."

The lack of a national vision may cause the wolves to become endangered again according to experts. They believe that a national plan to maintain the current success is the key to being sure the wolves continue to climb in numbers so that they do not slide back to the endangered zone in the future years.

Recent reports of Gray Wolves being shot by campers and other tales of the demise of wolves individually have experts sure that a slow phase out from the endangered list is more prudent than an all at once removal would be (Uhlenbrock, 1998).


The public as a strong virile animal has long since viewed the Gray Wolf. They have been used in horror movies as well as westerns to denote fear and violence. In reality however the Gray Wolf became close to extinction in the 1950's in the lower 48 states. Massive efforts have been focused on re-introducing them to the lower 48 and the success of those efforts have been described as extraordinary by many in the field. Today there are virtually thousands of gray wolves roaming the plain sand hills of many states but the effort cannot end here. It is important to continue on a national level for the program to remain strong and the future of the gray wolf to remain successful.



Hebert, Josef. H.(2000). Gray Wolf Makes Remarkable Recovery. AP Online, 07-11-2000.

Uhlenbrock; Tom (1998).Of The Post-Dispatch, GRAY WOLF SHOT BY CAMPER IN…… [read more]

Tale of a Shaman's Apprentice Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,813 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


In addition to the above, the explanation of studying the Amazon forest and the reason not to consider the remaining two rain forest regions (Plotkin: 5) comes late in the book. Hence, excluding a few parts, Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice is soundly organized in the presentation of its contents.


Reading through the enthralling book and analyzing the well-organized contents of the monograph, it is evident that the book provides sufficient matter on the concerning issue of preservation and management of the various valuable resources of the rain forests. It is not only statistically well written; Plotkin uses easy-to-understand language and creative writing skills to entertain readers of all classes and age. It is not one of those too-intricate-to-comprehend kinds of a book. It is profitable for both the students and teachers as well as for the conservation-oriented organization, research societies and a common man interested in learning about the plant life and the significance of preserving it. However, there are some parts of the book that I have found far more enlightening and helpful as well as relevant to the topic than the remaining material in the book. I found Plotkin's description of his Harvard night museum reserved for the students of ethno botany lectures and his distinguish interest in plants and animals than in opposite sex and alcohol both revealing and entertaining. All in all, the book is highly informative, gripping and entertaining piece of writing that addresses various neglected issues that must be examined in order to reduce health related problems of the human race.

Works Cited

Plotkin M. Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice: An Ethno Botanist Searches For new…… [read more]

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