"Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays 141-210

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Conservation Biology Research Paper

… Other valued of biodiversity to humans include the fact that rich environments provide heretofore unknown resources, such as new food products and medicines. Important medicinal discoveries such as the pain medications codeine and morphine were only discovered because they were natural defense mechanisms found in plants to prevent their consumption by herbivorous organisms.

Factors that threaten species persistence include: (1) degradation, destruction, and fragmentation of their natural habitats, (2) overexploitation of populations, (3) disease or a new predator's introduction, and (4) some natural or unnatural phenomena which upsets the balance within the ecosystem (Sadava 2011,-page 1247). Each of these factors could lead to endangerment of extinction of given populations.

6. Describe at least four strategies used by Conservation Biologists to protect Biodiversity.

a. Creating and maintaining nature preserves which emulate the natural habitats of the creatures that live within the preserve. These preserves will be built in regions which are close to the climate and terrain of the original ecosystem in the hope that the animals will be able to survive and thrive within the community.

b. Conservation biologists have used the legal system to ban chemicals, processes, and procedures which have been proven to negatively impact biodiversity. For example, conservation biologists have been instrumental in banning the use of chemical sprays such as DDT which are used by farmers to prevent insects from eating or bruising their crops. These insect sprays have not only decimated the insect population, but also impacted bird communities and cats in certain regions of the world because these secondary consumers eat the insects and are then themselves poisoned.

c. Implementing procedures to decrease carbon emissions, such as encouraging green processes either through social pressure or through legislative measures. This has included implementation of carpooling lanes and regional transit systems to lessen the amount of cars on the road which then release harsh chemicals into the environment both in the air and in the ground.

d. Conservation biologists have worked internationally to expand knowledge of endangered species and encourage cooperation between nations to protect various species. It is perceived as larger than a national problem and these scientists have been able to achieve a level of international cooperation unseen in other situations.

Works Cited

Fujikawa, T. & Dougherty, J. (2010). The value of biodiversity and its impact on human health.

David Suzuki Foundation.

Sadava, et al. (2011). Life: the Science of Biology Volume 2. 9th ed. Sinauer: Gordonsville, VA.

Sahney, S. & Benton, M. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.

Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological. 275(1636). 759-65.…… [read more]

Environmental Law Research Paper


Environmental law

Environmental law: The Endangered Species Act

The Endangered Species Act was passed in 1973 and was designed to help species in danger of becoming extinct as a result of "economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation" (ESA, 1973, Cornell). The Act only protects endangered and threatened species, not all wildlife. Endangerment is when a species is "in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range" while "threatened" means "a species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. All species of plants and animals, except pest insects, are eligible for listing as endangered or threatened" (ESA, 2013, FWS). One or more of the following five criteria must be met for a species to be protected under the provisions of the ESA: the species is faced with present or threatened destruction of its habitat; there is overuse of its habitat or of the species for "commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes;" the species has exhibited a decline due to disease or predators; inadequacy of existing regulations to protect the species; and/or other natural factors (ESA, 1973, Cornell).

The 1973 ESA is a reformation of the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966. The Act arose out of the budding environmental and conservation movement of the time, and has remained virtually unchanged since, with only very minor amendments (History, 2013, FSW). The most significant change regarding the law has been in relation to costs: "Originally the ESA wasn't supposed to consider financial concerns, something even the Supreme Court agreed" but the law changed in 1978 when Congress demanded to know the costs of protecting specific species (Vinzant 2009). Before he left office, George Bush issued an order that "federal officials didn't have to bother to consult with scientists when they decided whether logging or mining would impact a species on the brink of extinction" but this provision was quickly overturned by President Obama when he assumed office (Vinzant 2009).

By 1988, "Congress was requiring the Fish and Wildlife Service to complete recovery plans for each species, including recovery times and costs" although a study in 2006 "found only 20 of 107 plans…… [read more]

Zoos Are Categorically Utilitarian in Their Purpose Term Paper

… Zoos are categorically utilitarian in their purpose and function. Even when zoos participate in the preservation of species, education, consciousness raising, and fundraising, they are still performing a utilitarian function that precludes the individual rights of the animals therein. The zookeeper works on the principle of utility -- that it is useful to maintain an institution that promotes education and research, as well as promotes ecological integrity via the preservation of species. Most zookeepers would also claim that their facilities and their working procedures ensure the humane treatment and welfare of the animals; that animals are being treated well by being regularly fed, offered time to play and interact with others in their species, and not being harmed. Any restrictions to the animal's freedom is conceived of as being part of the "greatest good for the greatest number" utilitarian concept -- which in this case can even be extended to some species of animal such as those about to go extinct. If a zoo is preserving the endangered species and breeding them in captivity, then those programs restrict the individual freedoms of individual animals for the collective good of their entire species. Because he builds much of his animal ethic on utilitarianism, Peter Singer is far more likely than Tom Regan to acknowledge that zoos are -- or at least can be -- morally acceptable institutions.

Yet when zoos do things like put on entertainment shows, they are more blatantly exploiting the animals individually and collectively, for the utilitarian goal of profit-making and mass-market entertainment. The latter type of zoo is more obviously unethical than the former, and it also raises questions about the perceived utility of animals for human benefit. Both Peter Singer and Tom Regan would decry the type of zoo that puts on shows and allow their animals to mope in cages, but would do so for different reasons. Singer would claim that while the individual elephants being paraded around the…… [read more]

Biology Species D In Evolutionary Essay

… Microhabitats can, and often do, create rapid adaptive variation.

Part 10

A. The major limitations on the morphological concept of species is that there is often a large amount of phenotypic variability within a species; that organisms that can interbreed sometimes have different physical characteristics, and that it does not consider if individuals of a species can produce viable offspring. For biological concepts, many species do not reproduce sexually, and then are hard to apply to the biological concept since it emphasizes reproduction. In other words, in the biological concept, species are based not on physical similarity, but on fertility.

B. In this scenario, likely the morphological concept because the butterfly populations are distinct. In this manner, we could look at not just reproduction, but differences in body function, biochemistry, behavior and genetic make-up.

Part 11 - A clade is a group consisting of an ancestor and its decedents. Extinction rates can exceed speciation rates in clades based on a sharp change in diversity, climate, and habitat for a specific organism. This can be artificial (man-caused) or natural (weather, earthquakes, climate change, etc.). Certainly much of the basic mass extinctions are examples of this; 1) the Cretaceous-Paleocene Extinction Event about 65 million years ago in which 75% of all species became extinct; 2) the Triassic-Jurassic event about 200 million years ago when 70-75% of species became extinct. In #1, the boundary event was severe enough so that the majority of non-avian dinosaurs became extinct and mammals and birds emerged dominant; in #2 most non-dinosaurian archosaurs and large amphibians were eliminated, resulting is less terrestrial competition for the remaining species.

Part 12 -- You should check this with your text































Part B. Species 3 and 5

Part C. Species 2, 4 and 5

Part 13 - In vitro evolution may not involve the cells and therefore the results can have larger mutations; Molecular evolution is at the RNA, DNA and protein scale based on cellular structures. In vitro evolution produces new molecules, molecular evolution new combinations.

Part 14 -- Between fossil and molecular evidence, I would side with the molecular evidence due to the reliability of science and genetic definitions as opposed to outside variables (temperature, strata, location, etc.) of the physical fossil evidence.

Part 15 --…… [read more]

Fur From China Against Essay

… Since glimmers of hope is evidence, let each and everybody take action. For us to dismantle this fur trade as fast as possible, we should begin by showing it in our habits. Pledge never to buy fur from China, as well as encouraging the friends and family you have to take the same action. Majority of people are truly not heartless and they care for others and are willing to do the right thing. However most of these people are not aware of the cruelty behind the fur trim on their gloves or coats, while most of them tend to be misled by false labeling and fairy tales over fur farms, (Chiara Feddeck, 2012).

In case you have decided to stop, you should stop, there are fabulous fake furs, and it becomes very tricky to separate them from the real stuff, and as mention they deliberately mislabeled them. There are some other ways which might work of distinguishing them such as: closely looking at the substrate material, which might be leathery and skin-like (that one s real) on the other hand it might be woven like a rug (such is a fake one). Some people might opt to use flame test which still works. Taking a few strands that belong to the furry fibers of the garment then hold them over a small flame, if it is real fur, the smell will be like burning hair as well as leaving a strand of, well, burnt hair. However, many of the common synthetics, smell like burning plastic and melt to take the bead form just like plastic. Another way of distinguishing the fur is trying to push a pin through the base of the fur. In case it is the real one, there will be a leather backing hence becoming hard to force a pin through. A fake one will allow the pin to go through it easily. Moreover, you can as well blow on the fur for it to separates. A real fur will expose its layers of soft, almost wooly fur through which there is protruding longer hairs, while the backing should be leather. When it is fake, it will have a common single simple layer of almost identical hairs.


China fur has never proved worth buying for such a long time for there are still not definite rules and regulation that govern the fur trade so that the State can export a quality and look upon the manner of slaughtering that takes place in various part of the state. I have a feeling that after becoming aware of the malicious practices no fur from China will be bought as well as forming part of our garment or buying them.


Chiara Feddeck, (2012). Fur Is Not Fashionable: The Cruelty of The Fur Industry. Retrieved march 17, 2013 from http://www.witandfancy.com/2012/01/19/fur-is-not-fashionable-the-cruelty-of-the-fur-industry/

Steve Martindale, (2013). Best of PETA Prime: Help Shut Down the Chinese Fur Trade. Retrieved march 17, 2013 from http://prime.peta.org/2011/07/china

Graham, David,(2012). How Canada Gets Dog and Cat… [read more]

Synaptic Communication This Report Will Cover Essay

… Synaptic Communication

This report will cover the principles of synaptic communication of neurons throughout one's life and how that communication governs and influences communications with people and leads to certain behaviors. About four sources will be used to cover these topics. Some will cover neurons specifically while others will cover behavior.

Synapse Communication & Development

One major building block that neurons need to function and develop occurs during the initial formation of neurons. One such building block is the NMDA receptor, as referred to and studied by McAllister in 2007. The majority of mature glutamatergic synapses are in the neurons of the cortex on dendritic spines. The development and changes of these synapses occur both in utero and in vivo, with the latter referring to the time spent in the womb of the mother before birth (NIH, 2013).

For experiences and daily events to shape the form and function of synapses, there must be a processing of thousands of synaptic inputs and they must be translated into the appropriate changes in function. In short, if an impetus for change if fleeting dn by no means permanent, the chances that real and lasting change will result with the neurons and synapses is exceedingly unlikely (NIH, 2013).

One example of how synapses communication is through bidirectional communication between the synapse and the nucleus. This process regulates neuronal development and plasticity. The exact same process can be used to increase calcium levels in the post-synaptic cell. Calcium's role in biochemical transduction of sigans from the synapse to the nucleus is well-known in the scientific community (NIH, 2013)

To take the subject of neuron/synapse communication a bit further, a different site cites the use of the word "nerve" when discussion communication and that is deemed to be fitting given that nerves hold a vital role that involves a lot of communication. Neurons communicate over long distances by sending a series of signals call nerve impulses through a framework called the axons. These axons make up the tract of the nerve and serve as the conduit of the communication (IntroPsych, 2013).

The output from each axon arrives at an area call the synapse, as discussed above. At the point of the synapse, the neurons are separated by a tiny gap call the synaptic cleft. When a nerve impulse reaches the axon, a single neuron may send impulses or signals to thousands of other neurons. The dendrites and/or cell body of a single synapse or cell body (the axon of those points, usually) will possible receive the signal from the synapses and then react accordingly (IntroPsych, 2013).

When transmitters flow across a chemical synapse, there is one of two effects that will manifest itself. The first is that it will get excited and this will cause the neuron to possible fire off a signal of its own in sort of a cascading effect across the neurons and synapses. The other effect to have it inhibited by the signal it's receiving. Either way, the reactions from neuron's… [read more]

Bombadil and Treebeard in Middle-Earth Essay

… Several other characters in Tolkien's works are established as mysterious and explanations from the author are never forthcoming (McCloskey, 2002). About the Lord of the Rings, Tolkien did offer that he wrote the story clearly in terms of good and bad sides, of beautiful against ugliness, of kindness against ruthlessness (McCloskey, 2002). But the key point that Tolkien makes -- and that best explains Bombadil's puzzling behavior -- is the effect brought about by renouncing control and any desire of tangible things (McCloskey, 2002). In separating from the world such that he exists only as a watcher, Bombadil is free from the right and wrong duality (McCloskey, 2002). Indeed, the means of exerting power and control loose meaning and value to Bombadil (McCloskey, 2002).

Treebeard is a Middle-earth character who is the eldest member of the Ents species. Treebeard is regarded to live in the ancient Forest of Fangorn, and like the other inhabitants of forests he looks like a tree, having a rigid bodily structure and leafy hair. Treebeard ant the other Ents once roamed other forests of the Middle-earth, including the Misty Mountains, Mirkwood, Mordor, and the Blue Mountains. But when the Etnwives were driven out at the end of the Third Age, the Ents isolated themselves in the Forest of Fangorn. Treebeard was encouraged by Pippin and Merry to stop the Saruman from cutting down his trees, and so Treebeard led a war against Saruman and his Orcs to stop the carnage. If Bombadil can be characterized as quick and frivolous, Treebeard makes no haste. He has been characterized as something waking up from an ages long sleep after which he engages in slow, steady thinking considering the world suddenly revealed around him with the "same slow care it had given to its own inside affairs for endless years" (Tolkien, 1954).


Both Treebeard and Bombadil found ways to interact with the physical world around them. Bombadil is disengaged with the tangible world in the same way that a Buddhist monk might be; he does not engage in the rightness or wrongness of the world as he lives above it and beyond it. Treebeard manages the danger and conflict in the world, as would a tree in a storm -- bending, giving way, and yet winning the contest by surviving and by still being there at the end of the storm or the end of the battle.

The tension that exists between the characterization of Bombadil and Treebeard is the same tension that is evident when the concepts of heaven and earth are juxtaposed. Bombadil does not concern himself with earthly things, and he expresses the joy and free abandon that is characteristic of a small child -- or an angelic being. Treebeard carries the weight of the world -- antagonism and war, fear and treachery -- and they literally weigh him down, cause him to be slow moving, though not slow witted. Treebeard's pensive attitude is a result of his deep appreciation of the effects of… [read more]

Phyla and Parasites Ten Essay

… Also, they have no digestive tract which allows them to absorb food directly from the stomach.

Ascaris ~ Adapted with a sucker mouth and have no internal transportation. They need a host to survive. Its body is long and narrow which allows it to easily accommodate in the intestine of its host. It is also adapted to protect its skin against the chemicals of the host body. Also, the nervous system and sensory organs were simplified.

Platyhelminthes ~ They have adapted a thick body which protects them against the host body.

Their spines, suckers, and hooks developed to be attached and their organs which allow motion were removed.

Protozoa: Developed the ability to encysted which makes a thick, tough wall around itself and then enter a state of hibernation. Many of them avoid places which are inhospitable, such as where there is no oxygen.

Leech: Creates a cocoon for itself which is a protective covering. Adapted to be a hermaphrodite to help reproduction. Leech developed slow digestions and the ability to secrete hirudin which prevents blood clotting.

Nematode: Developed a pseudocoelom which has a body cavity lined with a mesoderm. This is a space for both circulation and internal organs. They move not with limbs but a hydrostatic skeleton.

Taenia Solium: The parasite developed an external cuticular epidermis, an adhesive organ, and no alimentary canal. Each segment has independent reproductive organs and does not have any external organs.

Entamoeba Histolytica: Developed the ability to tolerate the high temperatures within the host body and to avoid digestive chemicals.

Ischnocera: The parasite has evolved an elongated…… [read more]

Behavioral Training for Therapy Dogs Research Paper

… These are Animal Assisted Therapy and Animal Assisted Activities even thought researchers in the field of human-nonhuman animal studies have continually been criticized for lack of theoretical foundations (Brown, 2004, p.68). The human-companion animal bond is based on theories with three kinds of models that are considered as being akin to the human-animal attachments and relationships.

The Animal Assisted Therapy is a therapy service in which companion animals are part of the therapy of a patient. In this category, interactions with the therapy dogs are part of the plan of treatment developed by healthcare professionals to enhance the emotional and physical function of a patient. On the contrary, the Animal Assisted Activities therapy service basically entails the introduction of pets to withdrawn patients or individuals to stimulate communication. This is carried out because patients tend to feel comfortable around a friendly animal despite the lack of the need for trained professionals or absence of formal plan of treatment.

With regards to the current use of therapy and service animals has mainly included the concept of naming laboratory animals. Laboratory animals have been developed to constitute extra evidence of a personal relationship between humans and animals. These laboratories have training for regular procedures that can lessen personnel and animal stress. In the future of therapy and animal service, the administrators of animal research should search for opportunities to motivate the formation and sustenance of bonds between individuals and animals. This process should start with the initial employee interview and maintenance of the philosophy by providing for a final disposition of the animal in a humane way.


Bayne, K. (2002). Development of the Human-Research Animal Bond and Its Impact on Animal

Well-being. ILAR Journal, 43(1), 4-9. Retrieved from http://dels-old.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/43_1/v4301Bayne.pdf

Brown, S. (2004). The Human-Animal Bond and Self-Psychology: Toward a New

Understanding. Society & Animals, 12(1), 67-86. Retrieved from http://animalsandsociety.org/assets/library/528_s1214.pdf… [read more]

Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve: Restoring Essay

… Management and Restoration

Knowledge about the ecosystem's original structure and function continues to aid in the development of plans to restore the preserve to its initial state and manage its maintenance thereafter. Studies continuously run in conjunction with the restoration in order to bring the area back to its initial beauty and quality. Today, the trails of the preserve reveal a reemergence of the preserve's original ecosystem with native flora including warm-season grasses and native wildflowers growing in the area in droves once again (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). Additionally, where woodlands were once leveled to make way for agricultural dominance, today these woodlands are dominated by mixed Pennsylvania hardwoods and two wetland areas as existed before the area's agricultural emergence (VisitPhilly, 2012, p.1).

Species Interactions in Management and Restoration

Volunteers and restoration specialists alike continue to work diligently in the preserve to bring the area back to its original state by fostering the interactions of different species of flora and fauna in order to bring Gwynedd back to its original glory. Today, originally-found grassland birds including the Eastern Meadowlark, Northern Harrier, Eastern Bluebird and Woodcock cohabitate the area as they did prior to agricultural development as do animals such as the red fox and eastern flying squirrel (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). Where foreign crops once flourished, now thrive native grass meadows filled with big bluestem, little bluestem and Indian-grass as well as New York ironweed, purple coneflower and swamp milkweed as well as woodlands dominated by red oak, red ash and red maple (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). The Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve now exists in its former glory with its intended species' cohabitation, which is vital to ensuring the area survives and continues to flourish as nature intended.


Natural Lands Trust. 2012. "Gywnedd Wildlife Preserve." Web. Retrieved from:

http://www.natlands.org/preserves-to-visit/list-of-preserves/gwynedd-wildlife-preserve / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].

Visit Philly Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve." Philadelphia and the Countryside. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.visitphilly.com/outdoor-activities/philadelphia/gwynedd-wildlife-preserve / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].

Schuylkill River National and State Heritage Area Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd

Wildlife Preserve." Web. Retrieved from: http://www.schuylkillriver.org / Detail.aspx?id=170 [Accessed on 23 April 2012].… [read more]

Misfits, Written by Arthur Miller Essay

… Her love of animals and expression of horror at the cruelty of the west is naive yet touching. She is continually taken aback at Langland's callousness to animals. Her new relationship is almost destroyed when she sees Langland's real work: roping horses and making them submit so he can slaughter them. His entire life, Roslyn realizes, has been built upon cruelty. She feels that what she saw as her last chance at starting anew is lost. Guido offers to set the horses free for her if she will leave Langland for him, but that only further depresses her, as she sees it as evidence that men will only show kindness when they want something in exchange. She had also rejected Guido before because of the way he treated his late, pregnant wife, refusing to drive the woman to the hospital when she was in labor

The story ends on an idealistic, hopeful note -- Pearce sets the horses free, and after attempting to capture one of them, Langland eventually capitulates to Roslyn's demands. The ending suggests that some form of redemption is possible, although it is not clear how Langford and Roslyn will live together. If the two of them formed a new union, this could allow life to begin anew and enable Langford to redeem himself from his estranged relationship with his own children. This would also suggest that the traditional, lonely cowboy of the West is finally redeemed by domesticity, and taught to treat wild things with respect. But the overall tone of the film remains bleak, and the viewer is left with a sense that Roslyn and her lover are fantasizing rather than really talking about what will likely transpire in the near or far future.

Work Cited

The Misfits. Starring Marilyn Monroe and Clark Gable.…… [read more]

Maintenance Behavior Essay

… Maintenance Behavior

This report is based on the movie 'Furry Vengeance'. The movie concerns the building of a new habitat for human beings which is the task undertaken by a young real estate developer by the name Dan Sanders, who had convinced his wife and family to relocate to the project site. Dan's family was not happy about the move since it meant leaving their lives behind to come to live to this new remote place. The construction meant destroying the forests and the ecosystem. The angry animals in the forest ganged up to stop this destruction from happening. The animals are led by a clever raccoon to teach the developer a lesson about the consequences of man's encroachment and destruction to nature. In the end, the movie ends by the human beings deciding to build their homes away from the forest and building a conservatory around the forest. The movie has a mix of behaviors which are exhibited both by the animals and the human beings.


One of the positive behaviors that are seen is that of positivity. Positivity refers to the state of something or someone exhibiting a positive feeling. This is seen towards the end of the movie whereby the animals and the human beings agree to co-exist. The human beings, led by Dan Sanders, agree to leave the project and to build a conservatory. Sander's boss, Neal Lyman also came to the project site and after feeling the wrath of the retaliation of the animals, decided to abandon the project for later days. The project had led Sander's family to think of him as mad at some point and that he was taking the project extremely seriously than the way he was taking care of his family. When Dan decides to leave the project…… [read more]

Biology Summary a Population Essay

… I would begin my classification by identifying any and all anatomical features shared by both species which appear to hold the same function. By searching for homologies such as similar bone structure one can begin deducing whether or not the two species have evolved from a common ancestor. Caution is advised in this approach, however, due to the frequent occurrence of homoplasies, or similarities which have occurred along independent evolutionary lines. An example of the misleading nature of homoplasies can be found in the case of butterflies and birds. While both species share the common adaptation of winged flight, with the wings of both creatures even sharing a similar external appearance, the internal structure of each wing is wholly incongruent. This incongruence is highly indicative that both species evolved from independent ancestors, which is why a more thorough investigation must be undertaken.

When a rabbit eats the lettuce in your garden, all of the energy in the lettuce is used by the rabbit. Is this statement true or false? Defend your answer.

This statement is false because the theory of trophic dynamics holds that the energy of a producer is transferred to its consumer at a rate between 10 and 20%. Every organism transfers energy and converts it to biomass at varying levels of efficiency, meaning the lettuce will have already utilized much of its existing energy for the sake of growth before it is consumed by the rabbit.

A gardener puts a chemical into his/her garden that kills all of the decomposers. What would happen to the garden?

Without decomposers like earthworms, fungi and bacteria present in a garden ecosystem the complex links within the nutrient cycle would soon be irrevocably broken. Decomposers serve a unique and vital role in any ecosystem by helping to facilitate the removal of decaying plant and animal matter, so absent their presence a typical garden would become inundated with organic debris. Furthermore, without decomposers working to convert complex chemicals into essentials such as carbon and nitrogen, the soil…… [read more]

Marine Bioluminescence Term Paper

… A number of invertebrates also provide exceptional powers of regeneration and might be capable of regrowing the missing tissues. This occurrence takes place in almost all bioluminescent organisms that are large enough to recuperate from lack of tissues or skin… [read more]

Creature Contacts A) Shipman, Pat Article Critique

… I am interested in learning more on this fascinating topic after reading Shipman's article.

e) Man's interaction with animals was shown to be essential to human development. Shipman points out that human's learned predatory skills from observing animals. It is one explanation for the survival of the human race when early carnivores such as sabretooth cats, who were faster and heavier than man, became extinct when humans did not. Early cave art shows that man learned from animals and shared information about them with other humans, through drawings. Secondly, humans followed animals with respect to migratory patterns. Plant-eating humans could remain in one place; predatory humans had to expand their territory as they sought new hunting grounds. As humans domesticated animals, they also required more space so animals could graze.

f) The study of human evolution often focuses on the physical changes that man has undergone, including development of a larger brain, less body hair, and more erect stature. There is often considerable focus on the use of tools, the discovery of nature's elements, and the increasing sophistication of groups and their governance, from families to tribes and eventually to villages, cities and states. There has not been as much study of the human-animal connection, particularly with respect to the domestication of animals for the purpose of companionship. This article offers a window into another aspect of human evolution that augments the material already presented in the textbook.

Work Cited

Shipman, Pat. "Creature Contacts." New Scientist 210.2814 (2011). 32-36. Web. 11 Nov. 11.

Creature contacts. (cover story)

Shipman, Pat


New Scientist, 5/28/2011, Vol. 210 Issue 2814, p32-36, 5p


Subject Terms:

HUMAN-animal relationships

ANIMALS & civilization

DOMESTICATION… [read more]

Watersheds Netherlands Research Paper

… ¶ … medium sized watershed in Holland. We will look at the current water status of the Biesbosch National Park watershed. This examination will include considerations of water quantity, quality and supply and demand. Also, there have been several other… [read more]

Island Biogeography Theory Have Affected Essay

… Within the last few decades, however, it was discovered that whereas the theory on which those designs was built may have been heuristically beneficial, the equilibrium theory itself was scientifically full of holes, groundless, in fact, and therefore, impractical (ibid.). Instead of the notions of equilibrium, steady state, homogeneity, and stability that were thought to exist in nature on a constant level (e.g. Botkin, 1990), scientists discovered instead that many of our environmental designs and understandings of islands were built on myths and that nature instead was in constant imbalance and flux, patchy and arbitrary (Wu & Loucks, 1995) with stochastic and heterogeneity its prominent characteristics.

A new ecological paradigm has emerged called the hierarchical patch dynamics paradigm (HPDP) which now drives design in alternate ways (Wu, 2008). No longer are influences on the protected area (of, for instance, the reserve) considered nor is the heterogeneity for the internal areas controlled and supervised. There are allowed to be multiple sources for species and original disturbance patches are allowed to go unchecked (Jazen, 1983). No extra corridors are built, and check is no longer foisted on the intra-reserve corridor. Reserves are no longer islands. It is in this way that recent changes in the view of the applicability of island biogeography theory have affected the principles and practice of conservation design.


Botkin DB (1990) Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Janzen DH (1983) No park is an island: increase in interference from outside as park size decreases. Oikos, 41, 402 -- 410.

MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton

Wu, J. (2008). Changing perspectives on biodiversity conservation: from species protection to regional sustainability Biodiversity Science 16 (3): 205 -- 213

Wu J, Loucks OL (1995) From balance-of-nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: a paradigm shift in ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology, 70, 439 -- 466.

Wu J, Vankat JL (1991) A system dynamics model of island…… [read more]

Fluvial Landscape: Chino Hills State Research Paper

… Chino Hills State Park has several different kinds of vegetation in each of its major habitats. In the creek zones, cattail stands, as well as willow and sycamore woodlands with understories of wild rose, stinging nettle, and mule fat provide habitats for numerous animals. Live coast oaks are near the water sources, giving way to Southern California black walnut trees. The Tecate cypress is found in some parts of the park, specifically Coal Canyon. The park also features scrub and chaparral communities, which have coastal sage scrub, California sagebrush, California buckwheat, purple stage, laurel sumac, and toyon (California State Parks). The grass in the park provides a good example of invasive species. "Most of the grassland in the park is non-native annual European grasses that were introduced here during the early ranching years. However, grassland species native to California, such as purple needle grass and giant rye can be found among the annuals. An active grassland restoration program in the park is restoring native grassland to its more natural and dominant state" (California State Parks).

The climate in the park is typical of the climate in other parts of the Inland Empire area of California. The climate is temperate, so that it is warm in the summers, with temperatures usually in the 70s, and cool in the winter, with temperatures in the 50s. August is the warmest month of the year and January is the coldest month of the year, but temperatures are mild. Obviously, higher elevations experience broader temperature ranges. There is a moderate difference in daytime and nighttime temperatures. Rainfall is distributed throughout the year, but February tends to be wetter than other months. The area has relatively low humidity, but is not arid.

Chino Hills State Park's greatest natural resource may be its animal species diversity. Water Canyon Natural Preserve and Coal Canyon make up a biological corridor that allows wide-ranging species to range, despite human encroachment into their traditional range. This is critical because, otherwise, species that need large habitats become trapped in isolated patches, which threatens inner-species diversity, and can eventually lead to extinction. The animals that take advantage of this corridor most notably include bobcats and mountain lions, which may be observed in the park. Other animals that may be seen in the park include red-tailed hawks, turkey vultures, coyotes, deer, songbirds, and reptiles. Among the more than 200 species that live in the park, some of them are rare, threatened, or endangered (California State Parks).

Chino Hills State Park is an example of a human effort to preserve biological diversity. The park was created so that long-ranging species would have sufficient habitat to avoid extinction. This has helped encourage biological diversity in animal species, as well as plant species. As long as humans remain good stewards of this protected piece of land, some of the natural biological diversity in this area of California may remain protected, in spite of tremendous human expansion in the same area.

Works Cited

California State Parks. "Chino Hills… [read more]

Nursing Search and Rescue Dogs Essay

… These heavier-than-air particles, which hold this person's scent, will usually be close to the ground or on nearby foliage, so the trailing dog will frequently have its nose on the ground, different from the air scent dog (Dogs in Search… [read more]

Solicited in Connection the Presence Essay

… Unfortunately, the deer itself is almost extinct, and, therefore, it is incumbent upon ourselves to protect it. Following unregulated deer shooting in the 1930s, conservation ecologists have been working hard to protect the deer population. Experts estimate that approximately 30 million white-tailed deer exist in the United States alone. Unfortunately deer, beautiful and rare as they are, have multiplied to the extent that they can cause serious problems that include vehicular collision, vehicular damage, economic damage to farmer's crops (especially in corn and orchards), obstruction to reforestation, and destruction of native plants and animals in parks and natural areas. In suburban areas, deer are not help, too, often ruining landscape plants. Frustration of locals causes them to be hunted or trapped in order to relocate them. In many U.S. states and Canadian provinces, sharp shooting of deer is a common occurrence, but, as integral part of the ecosystem, the white-tailed deer must be protected at all costs.

Evaluating each of the Park's plans in formation and carefully reviewing their potential advantages and disadvantages, it seems to me that Plan B. would be the most beneficial to both park supervisors, tourists and, certainly, the deer population themselves. Alternative Action Plan B - non-lethal restraints in combination with Activity A and possibly supplemented by surgical sterilization would greater control be needed - would best serve to monitor the deer's eating habits. Whilst being the least controversial and most placating to the general public, this option would also serve to more effectively control the deer's actions.

It is my hope that this letter will be of some help to the park in question and that for your sake and ours, the white-tailed deer will be restrained from wreaking further damage

Again, thank your of the opportunity to comment on the Plan


Matthews NE et al. (2005). Evaluation of a trap-sterilize-release program for white tailed deer. Report for the Highland Park City Council www.wildcarebayarea.org/site/DocServer/Matthewsetal2005HighlandParkSterilizationReport

NPS.gov. Chapter 1 Purpose and Need for Action http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/1EIS.pdf;

NPS.gov. Chapter 2. Alternatives


NPS.gov. Chapter 3 Affected Environment


NPS.gov. Chapter 4 Environmental Consequences http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/4EIS.pdf

NPS.Gov. Chapter 9 Letters


NPS.gov. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

Final white-tailed deer management plan / environmental impact statement

Catoctin mountain park http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/0EIS.pdf

Rooney, TP & Waller, DM (2003) Direct and indirect effects of white-tailed deer in forest ecosystems, Forest Ec. & Manag, 181, 165-176

Russell, FL et al., (2001). effects of white-tailed deer on plants..: a review. Am. Midland Nat., 146, 1-26… [read more]

California Native Plant Term Paper

… California Native Plant

An Analysis of the a. manzanita

The manzanita is a perennial shrub of the ericaceae family, native to California. The manzanita enjoys its most active growth during the spring and summer months of the year. While different varieties of the Arctostaphylos manzanita offer varying distinctive characteristics (there are over forty different species of Arctostaphylos in California), the most common (the A. manzanita Parry) bears a white glandular flower and produces a "glabrous to hairy" fruit, 8-12 mm wide. Its ecological habitat is of the Outer and Inner North Coast Ranges, the Cascade Range Foothills, and the Sierra Nevada Foothills, the San Francisco Bay Area. This paper will discuss the Arctostaphylos manzanita in all of its varying aspects.

Aside from being an attractive addition to surroundings at or below an elevation of 1500 ft the A. manzanita does not offer much practical use in the way of berry or seed product, fodder product, or fuel or lumber product. It can be a valuable product for nurseries, but as far as providing edible or medicinal value, the A. manzanita has a low palatability for browsing and grazing animals, and zero palatability for humans. Its protein potential is also likewise low.

What then is the value of the A. manzanita? Depending upon which variety you obtain, the A. manzanita offers an aesthetic value that can compliment any native Californian setting. For example, the leaves of the A. manzanita Parry are erect petioles of 6-12 mm, with blades of 2-5 cm and 1-3.5 cm wide, usually in an oblong or oval aspect, with bright, shiny green surfaces, glabrous and smooth. The stems are twig-like and smooth and the white flowers hang upside down and are small (a quarter of an inch in length) and shaped like a cup. The bark of the somewhat crooked branches is reddish in color and the shrub can grow up to 15 ft in height. Some local tradition has it that the berries the shrub provides can be brewed into a cider, but when ingested in large quantities the fruit is likely to upset the stomach.

The Dr. Hurd manzanita tree is available in a one gallon container from Las Pilitas Nursery for $8.99. The Dr. Hurd manzanita is an evergreen hybrid shrub and is said to better suited to garden conditions than other manzanitas like the A. glauca. The Dr. Hurd also is well-suited to clay soil and can even survive in sandy soil. It is a drought tolerant plant and would work well in any xeriscaped setting. This particular hybrid was named for Dr. Cuthbert Hurd, in whose garden the plant was found -- most likely a cross between the A. manzanita and the A. stanfordiana. Apparently, these two species frequently occur in the Sonoma County region and often form new hybrids.

Other manzanitas of California (which can range in height from two inches to nearly twenty ft, depending on whether they exist in coastal or interior ranges -- the taller are found in… [read more]

Lorax Probably the Most Ideological Thesis

… Older people remembered the poverty and deprivation of the Great Depression when the majority of people were poor, hungry and unemployed. Only the big revival of industrial capitalism during the Second World War and Cold War had provided them with jobs, cars, houses and a bonanza of consumer goods. They were mystified by the behavior of the mystics, hippies and counterculture dropouts of the 1960s, who seemed to reject suburbia, materialism and the values of the Affluent Society in events like the first Earth Day in 1970. At the time at least, it seemed that this generation would bring about radical changes when it finally came into power, since so many of them claimed to have values similar to the Lorax rather than the Once-ler. Of course, this has not turned out to be the case, especially because the affluence that was taken for granted in the 1960s did not continue in the decades that followed. Economic concerns came to the fore again, even while many of the older smokestack industries moved offshore to Mexico or China, the demand for cheap, imported consumer goods remained. On the global scale, then, the question remains whether the warnings of the Lorax will ever be heeded.


Geisel, Theodore Seuss (Dr. Suess). The Lorax. Random House Books for Young Readers, 1971.

Geisel, Theodore Seuss (Dr. Seuss) The Lorax. You Tube cartoon animation, 1972.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5jnJdnQPr8&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzYRkGIQpOs… [read more]

Humans as a Concept Research Paper

… "

Furthermore, this cultural production results in subsequent cultural diversity, such that whales can be seen to exist in a social environment as robust as any human establishment. For example, "one of the best-known example of marine culture comes from… [read more]

Survival (Man vs. Wild) Published Essay

… "Turn, smell, listen, feel and then a sound, a small sound, an he looked up and away from the lake and saw the wolf. It was halfway up the hill from the lake, standing with its head and shoulders sticking out into a small opening, looking down on him with wide yellow eyes. He had never seen a wolf and the size threw him - not as big as a bear but somehow seeming that large. The wolf claimed all that was below him as his own, took Brian as his own" (120).

Buck, of course, is the central character of the Call of the Wild. And it is through Buck's eyes that we see humans and must ask -- what is the call of the wild? Is it the call to avarice? Is it the particular human trait of collecting more than needed? Certainly, the human capacity for love is great, as is their capacity for cruelty -- most did not see dogs as anything but possessions. Still, it seems that Buck came to understand that it was not all humans who were cruel -- that just as he was shoved into a tight, cold cage and starved there were some who would share their fire and meager provisions. Just as some would wield a club at the slightest provocation, others would act with respect and love. And, it is perhaps this capacity that separates the animal in humans and the human in animals? For Brian, in Hatchet, Brian must learn that it is through his own abilities, making a hatchet, for instance; that he will survive in the wild. He must learn that the wild is not to be feared, but respected. When he is rescued, he returns home a different person -- his respect for the wild, his trials and tribulations have made him see humanity in a different way; and, like Buck's journey, he may well wonder who is truly the civilized creature and what is the "civilized" world?

References:…… [read more]

Bear Globally Research Paper

… People that held a "strong positive attitude toward bears would likely: support actions favourable to bears, tolerate bear damage and maintain their position in case of conflict" (Krestser, 393-406). Experiences with a bear causing damage or approaching a family member, along with attitudes expressing concern about wildlife in general were the most closely related to determined perceptions and predicting interactions with black bears as negative (Krestser, 393-406).

Wildlife Management and Bear

Wildlife managers have a limited number of options of control to deal with human-bear problems. One strategy is to capture and relocate the bears to less populated areas. Another is lethal control, which often occurs when no other option is available but, it commonly results in negative public opinion toward the state wildlife officials or agencies. For more severe situations there are higher levels of support for more intensive agency action (Agee & Miller, 198-205). A high perception of risk from bears was associated with acceptance of lethal control. This suggest that information, educational approaches about bear behaviour and methods to reduce bear contact or damage may be successful in mediating the negative attitudes (Agee & Miller, 198-205).

As the human populations continue to expand further onto the natural landscape, human-wildlife interactions increase (Whittaker, 515-530). This can create conflict between the species that are losing their habitat and humans are living in, or using the resources in this area. Rural residents are often the people most affected and those who can most affect the successful management of these species as they share the same space and resources (Heberlein and Ericsson, 213-227).

In the past, the response to a human wildlife conflict has been to kill the species and destroy their habitat (Manfredo, 2008). How a person is affected in the human-wildlife conflict is related to how they view the particular wildlife as conflict arises from differences in values. The movement toward non-utilitarian has turned human-wildlife conflict into one between people and wildlife to one between people and institutions. For example, local residents can feel resentment towards conservation initiatives ore be negative toward managers due to impacts caused from wildlife and resist management options that do not impose a form of control (Treves, 383-396).


Agee, J and Miller, C. Factors contributing toward acceptable of lethal control of black bears in central Georgia, USA. Human dimensions of wildlife. (2009) 14: 198-205

Decker, S., Bath, A., Simms, A., Lindner, U. And Reisinger, E. The return of the king or bringing snails to the garden? The human dimesnsions of a proposed restoration of European Bison in Germany. Restoration Ecology. (2010). 18: 14-51.

Heberlein, T. And Ericsson G. Ties to the countryside: accounting for urbanites attitudes toward hunting, wolves and wildlife. Human Dimensions of Wildlife.( 2005) 10: 213-227.

Krestser, H., Curtis, P. And Knuth, B. Landscape, social and spatial influences on perceptions of human-black bear interactions in the Adirondack Park, NY. Human dimensions of Wildlife. (2009). 14: 393-406

Powell, R., Zimmerman, J. And Seaman, D.. Ecology and behaviour of North American Black Bears:… [read more]

Personal Statement Essay

… Personal Statement

It has been said, that a life without a goal can be compared with a traveler, who is sitting in a bus, but has still not decided about their destination. This is problematic, because not knowing where you are heading in life will increase the odds that you will end up wasting: money, time and energy (while not being able to enjoy the process). It is therefore, imperative for us to be clear about our goals to: achieve success and satisfaction. Becoming a veterinarian has been the ambition of my life since childhood. I have always found this career field highly appealing and interesting. However, I am also aware of the fact that I can achieve my goal of becoming a veterinarian, with the help of a scholarship to fund the tuition. If I am chosen, this would be a dream come true for me. As I can be able to peruse those interests that I have a deep passion for (without having to worry about financial issues).

What makes me an ideal candidate is: I have developed a close bond with animals since my early childhood. This is because of the financial problems in my family, where I had to spend my childhood working on a ranch. The experience helped me to learn about: the different types of animals and to see that I could make an impact in the world. I cannot forget the many sleepless nights, when I had to take care of those innocent creatures. As I would: dress up their wounds, bottle-feed the young and take care of the horses (with these being some of my responsibilities on the ranch). When I was working with the animals, I gained a greater appreciation for: life and an immense satisfaction with the work. At which point, I would always search for opportunities to: get close to some the animals and learn as much as possible about them. This is important, because this experience would help me, to see how I could make difference in the lives of these animals (giving me a sense of importance and compassion for my work).

As I grew up, I gained more knowledge…… [read more]

Endangered Species Act Research Paper

… With this kind of money, it is very important to ensure that the funds are being distributed property and that no malfeasance is occurring. Hill (1993) goes on to say that, "Taxonomic decisions not to list a species can result… [read more]

Conflict Between Human and Non-Human an Analysis of the Short Story the Elephants on Neptune Essay

… Conflict between Human and Non-human: An analysis of the short story "The Elephants on Neptune"

Ecological ethics:

Mike Resnick's short story "The Elephants on Neptune" and the Deep Ecology movement

Ecological ethics:

Mike Resnick's short story "The Elephants on Neptune"… [read more]

Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri Research Paper

… Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri

Vibrio species are gram negative rods that are facultative anaerobes and are mainly found in aquatic environments. Vibrio are distinct from the Enterobacteriaceae in that they react positively for oxidase and have polar flagella. They are… [read more]

Hairs and Fibers Lab Report

… Hair and Fiber Lab

In all hair samples (the human pulled and cut samples from head and body as well as the animal samples), it was fairly easy to identify the cortex, pigment granules, cuticles, and the medulla one the highest power of my rather rudimentary microscope. Using the magnifying glass was not nearly as effective; while the cortex and cuticle could definitely be seen with greater clarity, the medulla and pigment granules were much more difficult to discern. The medulla appears quite clearly as a darker area running through the middle of the human hair samples in a fairly solid line, though in the animal hair sample the medulla appears to be segmented, or appears in broken pieces rather than in the solid line as in the human samples. The cuticles could not be seen on the cut samples, but appeared largely similar in both the human and animal pulled samples, which is in contrast to the cortexes of the two different species of hair that contained very different patterns from each other. The colors of the human and animal hairs were very different, but the pigment granules themselves appeared to have fairly similar shapes.

Placing the hair and fiber samples on the flashlight did not lead to many hugely substantial differences in the observed color or shape of the strands. There did appear to be some difference in the color of the hair samples, which were lighter when placed on the flashlight but this is easily explained as a difference directly attributable to the difference in lighting. The outer parts of the hair strands, however, also appeared slightly more transparent, and the darker area of the medulla was more easily observable through the magnifying glass when the strands were placed on the flashlight than when they were simply observed on the paper. No real discernable differences were noted with the synthetic fiber that was examined on the flashlight, however.

Many of the identifying features of the hair can be seen…… [read more]

Invasive Plant Species in New York State Research Paper

… Invasive Plant Species in New York State

In fulfillment of the requirements for:

Invasive plant species are those plants in a geographic area that did not develop as a part of the local biomass, but that were introduced through the… [read more]

Improving the Endangered Species Act Essay

… ¶ … Improving the Endangered Species Act

Since its inception in 1973, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) had 109 species listed as endangered. Today there are at last count 1,500 endangered species that the ESA is designed to protect and ensure their long-term survival (Robbins, 2010). Like much of the legislation designed to protect endangered species of all types, the ESA has yet to reach its full potential. The effects of political infighting and a lack of focus on the goals of the ESA has marginalized its effectiveness over time (Robbins, 2010). So has the lack of focus on creating a cohesive strategy to ensure more species survive for generations to come. Presented in this paper are suggestions for improving the effectiveness of ESA from articles in class and from outside sources, and from observation and analysis.

Analysis and Recommendations

First, the ESA is excellent at cataloging species that are endangered, yet does little to define a strategy by species to protect them. The result is often an uncoordinated set of responses to endangered plants, animals, birds or fish going extinct. This approach to solving endangered specifics lacks a unified strategy, costs the government an exponentially higher amount of spending, and can be ineffective in accomplishing its primary goal. The need for a more effective framework for cross-department coordination is necessary if endangered species strategies are to be effective. Having this framework will get out of the drastic measures taken when a given species is about to go extinct. Second, the ESA has no definitions of the amount of habitat necessary for an endangered species to return above threatened species status. While the ESA grants access to private land for purposes of protecting an endangered or threatened species, it does not provide for guidance and strategy to government organizations as to when they should intervene. This is often up to Interior Department and other coordinating government agencies.

Fourth, the impacts of chemicals and…… [read more]

Art Formal Analysis Essay

… ¶ … Art Analysis -- Walter Anderson's Crabs

Figure 1- Blue Crabs, Walter Anderson

Walter Anderson was born in 1903 in New Orleans and grew up in a home surrounded by an appreciation for the arts. He attended private school, then the Parsons Institute of Design in New York City and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine arts. Earning a scholarship to study abroad he traveled throughout Europe and was particularly moved by the primitive cave art in Les Eyzies, France. He returned to the south, married, and went to work at his brother Peter's pottery company. In the 1930s he worked on the Works Progress Administration's Mural Project and began to be noticed as a muralist. However, in the late 1930s he began to experience severe depression and was institutionalized for a time, finally returning to an extremely productive period. Finally, in 1947 he left his family, lived alone in an isolated cabin on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. He spent 18 years using the materials, flora, and fauna of the area as inspiration and worked under primitive conditions, often sleeping in his boat for weeks at a time and enduring extreme weather conditions. He died at the age of 62 of lung cancer, and only by chance when cleaning his cottage were his very imaginative works discovered (The Life of Walter Inglis Anderson, 2009). We do not know exactly when Anderson conceived and painted his Crabs-2, but this painting was indicative of his obsession with color, primitivism, and nature.

Crabs 2 is a watercolor, approximately 8 1/2 X 11 on parchment paper. It is a simple drawing, two Southern Blue Crabs facing off for a battle or perhaps a mating ritual. Taken together, the crabs form a circle, or, more accurately, two individual arcs the envelope each other. There is really no single focal point, in fact the eye moves around the object, giving it a sense of movement within the frame. The color of the background is "sandy," obviously giving us the impression that this is meant to be natural in orientation.

While the overall schemata is one-dimensional, the coloration used gives the work a sense of depth; particularly if we not the dark blue and black shadings combined with the almost anatomical nature of the crabs. It is with this coloration and transparency that Anderson communicates the primitive nature of these animals, and the oneness with nature. In fact, if one looks at a few other actual "primitive" pieces of…… [read more]

Science and Culture Breakthroughs Research Paper

… Redefining Culture -- Chimpanzees and Hunting

One way human culture is often defined is the manner in which humans are able to manipulate their environment through external means -- tools. There are many instances of certain animal populations using pieces… [read more]

Dinosaurs and Massive Reptiles Are Gone Giant Term Paper

… ¶ … Dinosaurs and Massive Reptiles Are Gone

Giant, cold-water salamanders: Selective pressures and biodiversity

One of the great curiosities of the amphibian world is the large salamanders known as cryptobranchids. They appear to the naked eye more like prehistoric relics than the small, swift-moving salamanders with which most individuals are familiar. Of course, both large and small sizes can convey evolutionary disadvantages and advantages to a species. The giant salamanders of Asia and North America would once have been more difficult to be easily consumed as prey, unlike their smaller counterparts. Yet it is also more difficult today for these animals to find enough food to sustain them, and to conceal themselves from more intelligent predators such as humans. In the contemporary era, most amphibian species flourish when they can camouflage themselves in their environments, making a small size an advantage. But this was not always the case: during earlier phases of evolution, large sizes provided protection for these animals. However, as the biodiversity of warmer zones resulted in the creation of faster-moving and more skillful predators (including humans) the numbers of these creatures shrunk and they are now only found in colder regions.

The relatively lower biodiversity of colder environments may have reduced the threat of predators for the giant salamanders, hence their continued (albeit limited) existence today. Because of their scarcity, large amphibians are often called an evolutionary curiosity, a 'living fossil' like the hanzaki (Andrias japonicus) and the Chinese giant salamander (a. davidianus), and the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) of U.S.. "Creatures rather like these were certainly around when dinosaurs dominated life on land, and fossils of the family have been found much further afield than their current tight distribution - in northern Europe, certainly, where scientists presumed the lineages had gone extinct until tales of the strange Oriental forms made their way back to the scientific…… [read more]

Border Wall a Research Investigation Research Paper

… Border Wall

A Research Investigation of the Environmental Impact of the Border Wall in the LRGV

The problem of illegal immigration from Mexico and Latin America has produced what U.S. lawmakers view as a security risk. One resolution is the… [read more]

Conciliation for the Sake of Humanity Term Paper

… Conciliation for the Sake of Humanity

Certain controversies will never be resolved toward full acceptance of one side or another, because ethical or emotional considerations are involved. Animal research falls into this purview. At one extreme are those who give… [read more]

Most Dangerous Game Book Report

… Hunter or Hunted?

In his story, "The Most Dangerous Game," Richard Connell breaks down the stereotypes between man and beast. Throughout the novel he poses reason against instinct. Despite the seeming disparity between these two approaches to the world, Connell does not ultimately privilege rational thought. Rather, he shows that it is not rationality alone but man's dual nature that allows him to survive. In the story, it is oonly by embracing both elements that a man can be successful.

The opening scene sets up the dichotomy between rational thought and instinct that Connell seeks to counter. At first, Rainsford expresses a stereotypical affinity to the superiority of the rational mind. As a way of justifying his haunting of animals, Rainsford exclaims, "They have no understanding" (8). To invalidate the sailors' instinctual fear of General Zaroff's island, he says it is "pure imagination" and "superstition" (9). All of his statements discount irrational thought. Rainsford sees lack of reason, fancy, and unfounded belief as inferior. However, throughout the course of Connell's story, Rainsford not only displays these animal characteristics, but also relies heavily upon them for his survival.

Despite his seeming disapproval of instinctual interaction with the world, throughout the story Rainsford both relies on instinct and Connell likens him frequently to animals. Alone on the deck of the yacht, Rainsford's instincts dominate his experiences. His hearing is heightened. The reader is told how he, a man, has senses that are inscrutable: "his ears, expert in such matters" (9). Unlike humans, who experience the world primarily through sight, Rainsford's hearing is his dominant sense. Like an animal too, Rainsford is described as having agility and excellent balance: "He leaped upon the rail and balanced himself there" (9).

Throughout the story Rainsford relies, like an animal, on his instincts and senses to help him survive. Finding himself in immediate danger of dying after falling off the yacht, Rainsford relies on intuition to survive. He knows he must shed his clothes to stay afloat. Hiding from the general, Rainsford is warned of danger by the actions of other animals: "the cry of some startled bird" draws his attention (20). Before he even sees that it is the general approaching, Rainsford instinctually "flattened himself down on the limb" (20). Later on, elated by the possibility that the general fell victim to one of his traps, Rainsford "felt and impulse to cry aloud with joy" and "leaped up from his place of concealment"; his…… [read more]

Florida Manatee Conservation Efforts Term Paper

… ¶ … Florida Manatee Conservation Efforts

Saving the Gentle Giants of Florida

Gliding through the water on paddle-shaped fins, the manatee, otherwise known as the "sea cow," looks like a larger, more passive version of a seal. Adults can weigh… [read more]

Predators in Three Different Types of Ecosystems Thesis

… ¶ … predators in three different types of ecosystems. Research management strategies for predator control

Predators are a vital element in ecology, as they usually prevent their prey from thriving and growing in numbers uncontrollably. Evolution has made it possible for predators to adapt to various ecosystems from around the world. While a number of predators have been decimated and even brought to extinction by man (who is considered to be the planet's most competent predator), others have enjoyed a growth in population due to diverse beneficial factors.

Canid species are generally known to have the capacity to adapt to almost every environment, regardless of the harsh conditions that they come across. The largest member of the species in the present is the Gray Wolf, and, it is present in a lot of ecosystems, even though it is considered to be less adaptable than other members from the canid species. Gray wolves are presently spread in a wide variety of ecosystems, ranging from tundra to deserts. The Gray Wolf had once inhabited most of Eurasia and North America, its adaptableness having helped it survive the ice age. (Whyte Macdonald, David Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio)

Because of the fact that they can adapt to most environments, and, because of their sociability, wolfs are considered to be apex predators in all of the ecosystems that they live in. The broadening of human territory also meant that wolf territories became threatened, with wolves becoming extinct in certain areas. Experts today believe that the grey wolf is not in danger of extinction because the wolf population is considered as a total sum. However, when taking into account the recent data gathered from particular parts of the planet, one can find that while wolves thrive in certain areas, there are only a few dozen left in others. (Whyte Macdonald, David Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio)

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources is currently conducting programs that are meant to increase wolf population in the state. The authorities have decided that they have to prevent wolves from leaving their designed area, since this might lead to divergences between the animals and humans. Also, the living space for the wolves needs to be arranged so that it would provide the predators with everything that they require. (Wisconsin Departament of Natural Resources)

While conditions are critical in Wisconsin, with the wolf population being in danger of extinction, matters are rather different in other areas. Proper conditions such as large areas to inhabit and abundance in prey have lead to wolf numbers becoming alarming. In response, humans are inclined to intervene and to control wolf population, so that it would not affect ecosystems. The Yellowstone National Park authorities had reintroduced wolves into the park's ecosystem in 1995, hoping for the animals to reproduce and to increase in numbers. Indeed, wolves thrived in their new home, and, they've reached an impressive number in the present. However, their success has affected the ecosystem, with the elk population in the area being decimated as a result of… [read more]

How Do Human Activities Adversely Threaten Wildlife? Essay

… ¶ … human activities adversely threaten wildlife?

Impact of human beings on wildlife: The negative impact of the human animal on other animal species

All species impact one another in positive and negative ways -- overpopulation of one species, after all, can result in the depletion of another species, in the absence of predators that eat the dominant creature. However, the human species has proven particularly wily in manipulating its environment and protecting itself from normal population-reduction pressures. For example, humans can use their larger and more sophisticated brains to find ways to build highly technologically efficient homes. Humans can guard themselves within secure walls, can create medicine to combat natural diseases, and they can raise livestock and vegetation to enable their species to seldom or never suffer the ravages of famine. Water is purified and even humans born with certain natural disadvantages can be sustained with medical and technological support.

However, the human drive to seek food and shelter has not proven equally salutary to the world's wildlife. Global warming has rendered the earth less hospitable to animals such as the polar bear, which is dependant upon cold temperatures to survive. Pollution has also affected the ecosystem of aquatic life. According to CNN: "Freshwater species in both temperate and tropical regions fell by 29% between 1970 and 2003…despite covering only about 1% of the total land surface of the planet, inland waters…… [read more]

Biology Qs the Primary Source of Difficulty Thesis

… Biology Qs

The primary source of difficulty that researchers and biologists have had in classifying the protists results from the great diversity of the kingdom, including widely varying morphological and reproductive features. Determining when branches in the classification are called for and the degree of relation between the various protests is a difficult task, and currently the determination of classification is made largely on whether the protists are more animal-like (protozoa) or plant-like (algae) in their general appearance and functionality. Developments in DNA and RNA sequencing has led to the belief that this might not actually be the most accurate way to classify the protests from an evolutionary perspective, however, and that other relationships and/or divisions might exist that aren't yet fully understood by researchers. As similarities and differences in RNA molecules are identified, the classification of many protests is likely to change.


Generally, "algae" refers to more plant-like protozoa while "protozoa" refers to those that are more animal-like. Both algae and protozoa can be unicellular, though algae is often multicellular and/or lives in massive colonies. Algae generally create energy through photosynthesis, and while some protozoa such as phytoplankton photosynthesize as well, they often ingest other organic material to use for fuel.


Because all algae photosynthesize, the main difference used for classification of algae is their general morphology, which also relates to the environments where certain phyla are found. Members of the phylum Euglenophyta are motile, and can detect and move to areas of bright light to facilitate better photosynthesis. The phylum Bacillariophyta contains organisms with hard silica shells and not all are motile. Rhodophyta are red in color, generally multicellular, and grow on rocks. Cholorphyta are green and have cellulose walls, and come in unicellular and multicellular varieties. Phaeophyceae are brown algae that include the different kelp varieties; these algae are generally multicellular and live in marine environments.


Protozoa, the more animal-like species of the kingdom of protista, are generally classified by their method of movement. The Sarcodinians move by extending their cytoplasm and bunching up again; amoebas are a well-known example. The Zoomastagina propel themselves with long flagella, while the Ciliophora use small hair-like cilia to propel themselves in any direction. The final classification of the protozoa is the Sporozoa, which cannot actually move by themselves.


Though immobile like most plants, fungi do not photosynthesize or have cellulose walls; their cell walls contain chitin instead. Fungi grow from spores, which are essentially packages of cloned material from the…… [read more]

Why We Are the Only Primates That Can Swim Thesis

… Primates & Swimming

Do Primates Other Than Humans Swim?

"Why we are the only primates that can swim?" is a good point to raise, but it leaves the impression of being a trick question because humans are not the only primates that can swim. Although there are conflicting reports on whether or not certain primates really can swim, reliable research shows that several other primates are quite good swimmers, and those species will be reviewed in this paper.

First, the human part of the story: humans can swim but must be taught to swim. According to Bob Hopkins, swimming instructor at the Sussex County YMCA in New Jersey, humans in the water "naturally go vertical" because "all of our body density is in our legs" and humans' buoyancy is in the chest -- our lungs. Therefore, humans swim in a "non-horizontal position" and that creates a lot of resistance to forward movement through the water, Hopkins writes.

Hopkins, who was trained at the U.S. Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs and is certified by the American Swim Coaches Association and the National Interscholastic Swim Coaches Association, explains that swimming requires humans to "reprogram [our] neuro muscular memory" which, until humans hit the water, only knows dry land muscular activities.

Secondly, there are indeed primates that swim. The London Times reports that some naturalists are "shocked" when they see apes swim across a river in Borneo. In an April, 2008 piece, Lewis Smith writes that Orangutans had previously been thought of as non-swimmers, but on a research science trip to Borneo, scientists witnessed an Orangutan swimming across a wide river in order to get to "some of their favourite fruits at a conservation refuge on Kaja island" (Smith, 2008). Moreover, the Orangutan had not been identified previously as a swimmer, Smith adds, and the Orangutan that was being observed by the naturalists in Borneo (on Kaja Island) took a stick and stunned a fish before plucking it out of the water and eating it.

Unfortunately these apes are endangered, threatened with extinction, because of diminishing habitat.

Meantime author Loren Coleman, writing in the book Mysterious America: The Ultimate Guide to the Nation's Weirdest Wonders, Strangest Spots, and Creepiest Creatures (Coleman, 2007), insists that Orangutans do not swim. It is hard to know whether Coleman has even been to Borneo, or whether he's ever left the United States for that matter, but he insists (p. 211) in "pointing out that the orangutan of Borneo and Sumatra is constitutionally incapable of swimming the Mississippi or any other river, while our primate friends from the bottomlands seem to be able to do so without inordinate difficulty" (Coleman, p. 211).

Sounding self-assured, Coleman (p. 211) writes that "Most primates swim remarkably well, but authorities agree that anthropoid apes avoid water and cannot swim." Coleman doesn't mention what authorities he is alluding to, but he goes on to describe the fate of several chimpanzees who drown in various venues, including a chimp in the "moat of… [read more]

Killer Whale Communication Research Proposal

… Killer Whale Communication

Vocal communication is a vital aspect of the lives of Killer whales. Though several researches have shown their adaptability to interferences, serious disruptions to their aquatic vocal communication system would bear severe negative consequences.

Maintaining our marine… [read more]

Cheetahs the Magnificent Term Paper

… Once a cheetah has decided to attack prey, a "typical chase lasts less than one minute" (Ebsco). In addition to this, other aspects of the animal's physique make it a prime candidate for running and they are an "oversized liver, enlarged heart, wide nostrils, increased lung capacity" (Cheetah.com). The Smithsonian states that cheetahs are "built more like greyhounds than typical cats" (Smithsonian). These hidden aspects of the cheetah demonstrate how it has evolved over the centuries to become what it is today. These facts make the animal seem even more majestic to me because I found them so fascinating to begin with.

Other odd and interesting facts about cheetah that I did not know made me appreciate the animal even more. For example, I did not know that cheetah cannot retract their claws. This allows them to grab "additional traction" (Ebsco) when running. Their claws are also not as sharp as other large cats' claws. I also did not realize cheetah had such a wide variety when it came to their diet. I assumed that they ate birds, ostriches, rabbits, and smaller animals but I did not know that they also kill larger animals such as zebras and gazelles. In addition, the average cheetah eats "about six pounds (two kilograms) of meat each day" (Ebsco).

I would have thought that a cheetah would live a long life but as most websites indicated, man average cheetah might live around 15 years. Another interesting fact I read about the cheetah is "Cheetahs need only drink once every three to four days" (National Geographic). One of the saddest things I read that I did not know was that the greatest enemy to the cheetah is humanity. The saddest thing for me as I was conducting this research was looking at the pictures of cheetahs in captivity. While I know that this is the only way that I would ever have the opportunity to see a cheetah live, it made me sad to see them caged and so removed from their natural environment.

A found this research to be fun and informative. I love researching things and I have always loved the cheetah because of their beauty. They are graceful and, at the same time, ferocious. While this research was fun, I also discovered something else and that is my passion to see these animals live. Perhaps the saddest thing I read about them was the fact that there are so few of them left on the earth. The Smithsonian states that they are close to extinction. It would be a shame if we let these animals fall from existence just because they have lovely fur, because we are killing their prey or because we are running them away from their habitat because we must develop land. This research made me appreciate the animals even more but it also makes me want to speak out what is happening to them in their own habitat. We should strive to keep them alive not kill them… [read more]

Mekong River Delta the Management Term Paper

… Works Cited

Baird I.G. Mark S. Flaherty1 and Ian G. Baird2. Mekong River Fish Conservation Zones in Southern Laos: Assessing Effectiveness Using Local Ecological Knowledge. Environmental Management. Volume 36, Number 3 / September, 2005

Friederich, H. 2000. The biodiversity of the wetlands in the Lower Mekong Basin. Paper submitted to the World Commission on Dams, Presented at the Commission's East/Southeast Asia Regional Consultation, Hanoi, Vietnam. 26-27 February

Hoa, Le Thi Viet, Nguyen Huu Nhan, Eric Wolanski, Tran Thanh Congb, Haruyama Shigeko. The combined impact on the flooding in Vietnam's Mekong River delta of local man-made structures, sea level rise, and dams upstream in the river catchment

Kummu M., Varis, O. (2007) Sediment-related impacts due to upstream reservoir trapping, the Lower Mekong River. Geomorphology 85 (2007) 275-293

Nguyen, V.L., Ta, T.K.O., Tateishi, M., 2000. Late Holocene depositional environments and coastal evolution of the Mekong River Delta, southern Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 18, 427-439.

Ta, T.K.O., Nguyen, V.L., Tateishi, M., Kobayashi, I., Tanabe, S., Saito, Y., 2002. Holocene delta evolution and sediment discharge of the Mekong River, southern Vietnam. Quaternary Science Reviews 21, 1807-1819.

Tamura T. Yoshiki Saito," Sotham Sieng, Bunnarin Ben, Meng Kong, Im Sim, Sokuntheara Choup and Fumio Akiba Initiation of the Mekong River delta at 8 ka: evidence from the sedimentary succession in the Cambodian lowland. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 29 (2007) 585-592.

World Resources…… [read more]

Galapagos Islands Essay

… Galapagos

Since Charles Darwin published the Origin of the Species in 1859, the Galapagos Islands have been renown for their ecological diversity. The islands are also remarkable for their geographic terrain and volcanic activity. Officially part of Ecuador, the Galapagos… [read more]

Horse Slaughter in the United States Thesis

… Horse Slaughter


Introduction to the Range of Moral Perspective:

Human beings have hunted animals for food since the dawn of earliest civilization and have been raising them in captivity for work and for slaughter since… [read more]

Scientific Taxonomy and Earths Biodiversity Essay



In scientific terms, taxonomy refers to the science, laws or principles of animal and plant classification, especially in the fields of biology, zoology and botany and can be defined as "a process of classifying living organisms in specific established categories" (Smith, 2005, p. 56). According to Edward Thompson, taxonomic classification "begins with the broadest and most inclusive category and ends with the narrowest category" (2004, p. 63), much like an upside-down pyramid with a broad base at the top and an apex at the bottom, being kingdom to species or sometimes subspecies. In order of categorization, the categories are kingdom, phylum, subphylum, class, order, family, genus, species and finally subspecies; there are also sub-phylums, sub-classes, sub-orders and sub-families, due to various differences in shape, size and anatomy. In the kingdom of Animalia which includes all animals outside of plants, I have chosen the horse and the tiger (Mammalia), the beetle and the ant (Insecta), the pelican and the eagle (Aves) and the starfish and the sea urchin (echinoderms). As to characteristics, the horse and the tiger are warm-blooded, have hair, a four-chambered heart, are quadrupeds and bear their young alive; the beetle and the ant are multi-legged, have wings, an exoskeleton, antennae, compound eyes and are generally land-dwelling; the pelican and the eagle are warm-blooded, have wings and feathers, a beak, and are bipedal, while the starfish and sea urchin live in the ocean, have endoskeletons, are exothermic and breath much like fishes by taking oxygen from the water and expelling carbon dioxide.

There are three basic characteristics shared by all mammals -- they are warm-blooded endothermic), meaning that their body temperatures are controlled internally, have hair on their bodies and bear their young alive, rather than through egg-laying. The differences between the horse and the tiger are numerous, such as the horse has hooves (i.e., odd-numbered toes) rather than claws like the tiger; the horse is a herbivore (plant-eating) while the tiger is a carnivore (meat-eating), and the teeth of a horse are designed for grinding plants while the teeth of the tiger are designed to rip and tear away flesh. As to orders, the horse belongs to the order of Perissodactyla which pertains to "certain hoofed mammals with an odd number of toes," while the tiger belongs to the order of Felidae or feline cats…… [read more]

History and Present Status of the Black Bear in New Jersey Thesis

… American Black Bear

America long ago ceased being the more pristine wilderness it was when Europeans first arrived, and since that time, the history of the country has been a story of larger and larger populations pushing more into formerly… [read more]

Cnidarians Consist of Several Groups Research Proposal

… Cnidarians consist of several groups that sometimes are divided into four or six categories. Most agree, however, that Anthozoa (corals), Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellies), Hydrozoa (medusae, siphonophores, hydroids, fire corals) and Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) comprise the four main groups. Staurozoa (stalked jellyfish) and Polypodiozoa (a single specie: Polypodium hydriforme Ussow, 1885 - a parasite) may be added to the previous four. Their name comes from the Greek word "cnidos," meaning stinging nettle. Cubuozoa jellyfish have also been called "sea wasps."

All of these species are armed with stinging cells called nematocysts. They may have all inherited this characteristic from a single ancestor, yet as a group, cnidarians are extremely diverse and would not seem to be related at all. Some are attached to rocks, others float freely in the sea with stinging tentacles. Some have no tentacles, yet if touched emit stinging chemicals that are poisonous and may even kill a human who meets up with too many of them at one time. Another characteristic is common among them. They are all round, with parts of their body extending out from the center; they are "radially symmetrical." A third characteristic they all share is that they all have hydrostatic skeletons, whether or not they have mineralic or organic endoskeletons or exoskeletons (Shick 270).

The phyla Cnidaria live exclusively in water and are polyps, as the sea anemones, corals and medusae. Cnidaria, being polypoid or medusoid are biradially or radially symmetrical, and is uncephalized, with a single opening in its body, the mouth. Around the mouth are tentacles with microscopic capsules of stinging toxic nematocysts, which act offensively or defensively. This is what makes the phylum distinctive, this cnidae (or threads) (Fautin 5).

Sting of Cnidarians

The original reason for the sting is to capture and paralyze prey. The stinging cell is called a cnidocyte, which is located within a structure called a nematocyst. The nematocyst is the "stinger" and is shaped like a thread coiled and ready to strike and deliver the stinging toxin into the body of the prey. Some react to touch, others spring forward on their own, on an impulse from the animal which tells it to fire. Most deliver a smarting, harmless sting, but there are jellyfish which can deliver an extremely harmful dose of stings, which, with the wrong person, could become fatal. This form of fatality is common on the northern coast of Australia, where humans sometimes tangle with the jellyfish which live there in abundance. These jellyfish include the giant Lion's Main (Cenae Capillata), whose bell can reach 96 inches with tentacles as long as 98 feet in length. (Oceanside 3).

The capsule which contains the thread has a "hair trigger" which, when touched, makes the capsule explode as it shoots the poisonous thread out. The poison penetrates the prey or threatening animal and once it is poisoned, the tentacles of the cnidarian wrap around the prey and the prey is eaten with a mouth located in the very center of the… [read more]

Miser Play From Moliere Essay

… ¶ … ancient Greeks and Chinese philosophers were studying and writing about human nature in their writings. Thucydides found human nature to be main course of the aspects of politics. The world has changed a great deal since then and… [read more]

Yellowstone National Park Issue of Controlled Burning Term Paper

… Yellowstone

Controlled Burning at Yellowstone National Park: A burning debate

Controlled burning is a fairly routine part of park maintenance at Yellowstone National Park. Controlled burning has been used as a tool of wildlife conservation in the past, as a way of promoting a greater diversity and abundance of plants and animals in conservation parks such as Yellowstone. Controlled burning is seen as a way of being 'more' rather than less close or similar to nature and how nature regulates species diversity. "Most wildlife biologists (at least in the west) love to see small, controlled fires burning in areas of potential wildlife habitat -especially where a mosaic type burn can occur that leaves gaps in the burn of unburned fuel. These gaps provide the cover for wildlife that can still enjoy the benefits of the burn (new growth, nutrient release, etc.). Wildlife thrives on new growth after a controlled burn" (Albright 2000). Burning, responsibly controlled by fire officials, can make for a better environment for new plant and animal species.

However, the way that such practices are put into place at Yellowstone has been particularly controversial. During the 1980s, especially after a 1988 forest fire raged out of control at Yellowstone Park, many people opposed the controlled burn policy, particularly representatives of the forest and timber industry. "A let-burn policy is indeed defensible in a properly managed forest. But defenders of this hands-off approach refuse to acknowledge that Yellowstone was not a managed forest. Park officials, backed by the environmental community, did not permit dead and dying timber to be removed from Yellowstone. Rather than allow 150-year-old trees infested by dwarf mistletoe and mountain pine beetle to be periodically removed by harvest or by prescribed, controlled burns, Yellowstone managers mistakenly allowed dead wood to accumulate and the fire hazard to escalate," noted the President of the National Forest Products Association in 1988. Environmentalists were accused of having too much of a hands-off policy in terms of burning Yellowstone, and engaging in insufficient pruning, tree removal, and direction of how the burning was managed.

Of course, the forest industry had a profound economic interest in making such allegations. But in recent years, the increase in global temperatures of the past decades and frequent Western droughts has made the policy even more controversial. Why add fuel to the flames, one might ask, when the dangers of how unpredictable wind and weather patterns make forest fires, even so-called controlled forest fires, so difficult to manage? Controlled burns can rapidly devolve into uncontrolled burns. "What really created our problem is three different major wind shifts," said the fire crews after an unexpected shift in winds caused an April 2008 fire to rage out of control, leading to the forced evacuation of 40 to 50 homes in the area near the park (Shay & Johnson 2008). Although no one was injured, the lack of precipitation that made containment of the fire difficult to control caused local officials to criticize the choice of time and place… [read more]

Siberian Husky the Tamed Wolf Term Paper

… Animals - Siberian Husky


Background and History of the Siberian Husky:

The Siberian Husky is a working dog bred primarily for its pulling strength, physical endurance, and resistance to extreme cold. The breed was… [read more]

Wildland Recreation Management Trends Term Paper

… Recreation and Leisure

Forest health and restoration

There is a plethora of evidence from studies on environmental research to suggest that healthy forests are of vital importance to the balance in nature and ultimately for human existence. Forests not only… [read more]

Theory of Island Biogeography Term Paper

… ¶ … Island Biogeography & Uneven Distributions of Species

The theory of island biogeography explains the uneven distributions of species population in islands, or why some islands have more diverse numbers of species than other islands. The theory suggests that the number of species an island reflects a balance between the rate at which new species occupy it and older species become extinct. Resources are limited in nature and because the resources of an island are particularly limited, "as the number of resident species increases, the smaller and more prone to extinction their individual populations are likely to become. The rate at which additional species will establish populations will be high when the island is relatively empty, and the rate at which resident populations go extinct will be high when the island is relatively full" (Ehrlich, Dobkin & Wheye 1988). Also, according to the theory of metapopulations it is more likely for a species to survive if it is spread out into large areas, to reduce the likelihood the species will be decimated by a change in geological fortunes ("A Short Introduction to Metapopulation Models and GIS," RAMAS: Ecological and Environmental Software, 2008).

The theory of island biogeography is helpful in explaining why there is more biodiversity in larger…… [read more]

Shark Abuse Term Paper

… Ethics & Sharks


The concept of human sensitivity toward non-human animals has taken a long time to develop and in many respects, still lags far behind other moral concerns. In much of modern Western… [read more]

Evolution of Color Vision in Vertebrates Term Paper

… Color Vision

Evolution of Color Vision in Vertebrates

Color Vision is one of the most striking and somewhat mysterious developments in the evolutionary progress of vertebrates. While most of us take it for granted and probably view it as a… [read more]

Parrots Are at the Top Term Paper

… Parrots Are at the Top of the Species Chain

We parrots are sometimes underestimated by our ignorant caretakers, humans. Many times we are overlooked as simple pets; that our very existence depends on the resourcefulness of the human race. However, this view is entirely wrong. We, as parrots, are intelligent, resourceful, dangerous, and most importantly, at the top of the species chain.

All bird species predate humans, and all mammals for that matter, by millions of years. Sometimes humans forget that our ancestors walked the earth with the dinosaurs. Most humans, who like to think they own us as pets, forget that our origins trace back around seventy million years. In fact, many human scientists don't even know for sure when or how our first ancestor came about, and they call us inferior. Now, these ancestors to all bird species became more and more developed as the years rolled on. Around fifty million years ago is when our species, Psittaciformes to be more specific, began appearing in the ancient lands of what mankind now refers to as "Europe." We continued to develop, and around twenty million years ago our ancestors were almost identical to what we are today. Humans call these our "modern ancestors."

So now that we have proven our superiority in longevity, what else makes us the top species? Well, first of all we have a superior body build which reduces the need for man-made tools in order to survive. While humans have little strength and natural weapons or tools to help them survive, we are built by nature to innately have everything we need from birth. We have strong curved beaks which act as several tools for our survival. We use our beaks to break open food, as natural weapons for defense and offense, as well as to formulate our methods of communication. Humans weren't born with knives for fingers, but we were genetically inclined to survive without such tools. Our beaks are definitely our most important survival tool, for they act as defense as well as a method of satisfying our hunger in the harsh terrain of the jungle and elsewhere. Along with our genetically superior beaks, we also have strong longs with sharp claws on our feet. These also serve as natural tools, and can be used as weapons along with tools to break open food sources. These claws also help us maintain balance when perched high up in the trees, where the view is amazing and we are far above any dangerous predators.

That last point leads me into the discussion of our greatest natural asset, our wings. Our wings are much better than having fingers, for they allow us to soar above the dangerous flat lands while enjoying the view of the gods. For centuries, humans have envied our ability to fly; therefore, jealousy may be one of the main reasons they are so quick to label us as inferior. However, our wings allow us to travel to places they can only dream… [read more]

Arctic FOX Term Paper

… ¶ … ARCTIC FOX (National Geographic, online at http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/Animals/mammals/arctic-fox.html,2008)

Understanding the Arctic Fox

Peripheral to the concern and implications of the melting artic regions is the concern about the wildlife supported by the region. What will become of the polar… [read more]

Value of Maintaining Natural Ecosystems: Preservation Term Paper


The objective of this work is to compare and contrast the practices of Preservation and Conservation as they relate to the maintenance of ecosystem. The concept of 'natural regulation' will be discussed and examples from Maryland will be provided.

The difference between what constitutes conservation and what constitutes preservation is a difference often misunderstood by many. This work seeks to establish precisely what the difference between conservation and preservation is through examining information related to the forests in the State of Maryland.


The work of Patrice Jastrzembski entitled: "Maryland's Forests: Conservation vs. Preservation" relates that there is discrepancies over the word conservation in terms of its definition. It is generally agreed among that the word 'conserve' "means to use something wisely." (Jastrzembski, nd) Jastrezembski states most people consider "conserving our forests" means to use forest and forest products wisely, but to others, conserving forests means to preserve or set aside. These two interpretations of the term 'conserve our forests' are completely opposite one another." (Jastrzembski, nd) While the belief is held that forest management initiatives are harmful and currently the "trend is to let nature take its course...Forest managers and their proponents disagree." (Jastrzembski, nd) Forest managers and others hold the belief that utilization of the forest for wood and paper products are not necessarily harmful to the forest. These individuals believe that thinning the forests allow for the trees left to grow larger and stronger reducing the risks for insect and disease problems in the forest and as well bringing about a reduction in risk for forest fires.


In the work entitled: "Maryland Forests: Sustainability" it is stated that more than 14,000 people in…… [read more]

Animal Cruelty Term Paper

… ¶ … cruelty, and thereafter apply the meaning to animals, and the ways in which cruelty is meted out to them by scientists and researchers. The history of using animals for experimentation will be analyzed, and then, the British Cruelty… [read more]

Shark Attack: Realistic Fears or Hysteria? Term Paper


Under the stillness of even the calmest of seas an age-old drama plays out. Countless times, a creature designed for locating, stalking, chasing, and then tearing into living flesh closes in on its doomed prey. Its efficient design, mouth filled with teeth meant to sink into its prey and never let go, and its swimming speed, agility, and intelligence all but ensure hunting success. After a brief chase, a shark catches up to its prey, its jaws clamp down tightly, and it is all over: just in the same way that the bottle nosed dolphin that humans adore captures another helpless herring in its mouth.

Dolphins, sharks, and most other aquatic creatures either hunt other species for food, or they are hunted themselves. As often as not, animal species are both hunters and hunted. Human beings tend to view sharks very differently from other aquatic species, based more on the fact that we sometimes end up on their menu. The idea of being food for another creature, according to the human mind set, creates our distinction between animals that are predatory hunters and those that are not. To a herring, the common dolphin is a dreaded predatory killer; to us it is a playful intelligent mammal that deserves our protection. Would we feel the same way about dolphins if there was no difference in their personality or character but instead they were the size of a whale who sometimes possibly mistakes human beings for tuna? Chances are we would fear dolphin attacks as much as we fear shark attacks and our characterization of dolphins would incorporate vocabulary like "ruthless," "deadly," and "cold-blooded" despite its mammalian nature.

Like dolphins, tuna, swordfish, and many other large predatory aquatic species sharks must locate and consume other creatures to survive. To guarantee their survival they have evolved over time physiologically and behaviorally to adapt to their environment and master the art of hunting. Unlike the other aquatic species, we fear attack from sharks disproportionately to the actual risk, simply due to the fact that some of them are large enough to mistake us for their prey under the right circumstances. "Our characterization of sharks as ruthless killers intent on consuming us reflects our emotional response to the concept of being eaten alive than reality" (Ellis, 1989).

Perceptions about the danger of shark attack are extremely susceptible to media publicity and their resulting hysteria. The Summer of 2001 had actually been dubbed the summer of the shark" after several attacks, mainly as a result of the publicity associated with one or two victims. Time…… [read more]

Extinction of Just One Species of Animals Has Devastating Effects on Our Ecosystem Term Paper

… Extinction and the Ecosystem

The ability of a species to survive the extinction of another depends on its ability to adapt. Omnivores fair better than those with a limited range of food. When a single food source disappears from the… [read more]

Marketing Plan for Opening a Doggie Day Care Term Paper

… Marketing Plan for Opening a Doggie Day Care

City Paws: The Daycare with a Heart

Profile of Other Doggie Daycare Facilities in Boston Area.

In spite of, or perhaps because of, its highly urbanized setting, Boston is home to the… [read more]

Moby Dick -- Ahab's Whale of Malice Term Paper

… Moby Dick -- Ahab's Whale of Malice, Ahab's Whale of Nothingness

One of the most attractive, yet mad aspects of the character of Ahab in Herman Melville's Moby Dick is the way that Ahab seems to attribute morality and intelligent… [read more]

Sustainability of Yosemite National Park Term Paper

… Yosemite Sustainability

Yosemite National Park is one of the most prized natural areas not
only in the United States, but the world. With beautiful forests,
waterfalls, mountains, and wildlife it is a treasure for visitors today and
it should be a treasure for future generations. Fifty years from now,
Yosemite National Park should be preserved as a place of natural beauty for
visitors as it is a popular place today and should remain so. However,
general tourists must be responsible in their actions to ensure the park
remains in pristine condition.
Thee first step to retaining and sustaining the natural environment
and resources of Yosemite National Park is to ensure that each tourist has
maximum respect for what he or she is about to visit. Thus, each tourist
should be grateful for the opportunity to visit Yosemite and should respect
its natural aspects. Newsletters and welcome letters, signs, and park
rangers should encourage the tourist to understand the wonders he or she is
being permitted to visit and should encourage an attitude of respect
towards nature. Visiting the park should be a privilege, and not an
entitlement, and the park officials should do their best so this attitude
can be shared to the general tourist. The general tourist must read these
notices, follow the signs, and learn the rules of the park.
But then it is up to the general tourist to follow the rules and
treat the park with the respect it deserves. This means making his or her
presence known as little as possible. Leave nature untouched and do not
infringe on the wildlife. Do not damage nature, but have respect for it.
There are actions that can be taken that will go a long way towards
sustaining the environment. For example, when hiking a tourist can stay on
the marked trails as going off the trail damages the natural wildlife. A
tourist should not feed the wildlife either as the food may not only be bad
for the wild animal, but it could break the natural cycle in which the park
is trying to protect. Trash should be thrown away as if everyone left a
piece of trash,…… [read more]

Bark Scorpions of the Southwest Term Paper

… Bark Scorpions of the Southwest

The Bark Scorpion only averages from one to three inches long -- yet in the 20th century, the sting of the bark scorpion killed more people in Arizona than the all types of poisonous snakes within the state grouped together (Gouge et.al, 2007; "Bark Scorpion," Arizona Highways Magazine. 2005). In this century, thanks to increasing awareness of the deadly nature of the sting of this creature, no one has suffered a fatal attack, and it has been thirty years since a documented fatality has been recorded in Arizona. However, it is important for everyone who may come into contact with a Bark Scorpion to be aware of the terrible risks posed by the scorpion to humans, and to gain a sense of its habits. Even when it is not fatal, the sting of a Bark Scorpion can pose a serious risk to humans.

The Bark Scorpion is especially dangerous to infants and small children, and has most often attacked humans who were picking up firewood or rocks. The scorpion likes to find shelter from larger predators like birds in such concealed areas, and to shelter from the sun during the day. The animal's official name comes from the scorpion's habit of seeking shelter beneath the underside of wood pieces, but it is also known as the Crevice Scorpion because it also hides in the crevices of trees and stones (Gouge et al., 2007).

Although scorpions as a whole "are commonly thought of as desert animals" they may be found in grasslands and savannahs, forests, and caves, but the Bark Scorpion is most common the desert states of the U.S. including California, Arizona, Nevada, southern Utah, and southwestern New Mexico and the Baja Peninsula (Gouge et al., 2007). Bark Scorpions, like all scorpions are classified as venomous arthropods in the class Arachnida, the same class that includes poisonous and nonpoisonous spiders. Scorpions have an elongated two-parted body and a segmented tail tipped with a stinger. They have four pairs of legs with pliers-like pincers on the end. These pinchers are used for grasping. The body's two parts are called the cephalothorax and the abdomen. The cephalothorax is covered above by a head shield "that usually bears a pair of median eyes and 2 to 5 pairs of lateral eyes at its front corners" (Gouge et.al, 2007). On its underside, the scorpion has pectines or feelers "used to sense the texture and vibration of surfaces....The abdomen consists of 12 distinct segments, with the last five forming the metasoma" or 'tail.' At the end of the abdomen is the telson, "which is a bulb-shaped structure containing the venom glands and a sharp, curved stinger to deliver venom" (Gouge et.al, 2007).

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