Study "Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays 111-165

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Zoos the History of Zoos Is Entwined Essay

… Zoos

The history of zoos is entwined with the history of human civilizations. Zoos represent the relationship between human beings and their natural environment, and especially between human beings and other animals. The very existence of zoos, and their predecessors… [read more]

Environmental Settings of the Cambrian Explosion Thesis

… Environmental Settings of the Cambrian Explosion

The objective of this work is to examine the development of natural environments alongside the evolution of life throughout the Cambrian explosion. This work will focus on beginnings of life, their natural environments and… [read more]

Bacterial Source Tracking and Total Maximum Daily Load Research Proposal


Microbial Source Tracking lacks a methodology that is appropriate in the tracing of bacterial contamination in the environment resulting in the identification and control of these pollutant sources which affects the decision-making… [read more]

Animal Liberation Research Proposal

… ¶ … Animal Liberation by Peter Singer

In Animal Liberation, Peter Singer presents a convincing argument against the continued exploitation of animals used for scientific research and for human consumption. My beliefs on the issues have always been very similar to Singer's.

The principal basis for Singer's suggestion that lack of concern for animal suffering is unethical and immoral is the overwhelming evidence that animals experience physical pain as acutely as humans. Specifically, the only significant difference between human suffering and animal suffering is that animals cannot communicate their responses to us through verbal language.

However, as Singer points out in his strongest arguments, neither can human infants, or for that matter, deaf mutes. Nevertheless, nobody refutes the idea that human beings experience pain regardless of whether or not they can communicate through language. As Singer explains, there is no doubt as to the substantial similarity between many elements of animal physiology and function and human physiology and function; in fact, that is precisely why animal experiments are relevant to human medical research.

Likewise, animals display nearly identical reactions to painful stimuli as humans in every other respect besides linguistic expression.

Singer also offers the findings of animal behaviorist studies, as well as anecdotal evidence of wildlife experts, documenting the extent to which so-called "higher animals" are apparently capable of suffering from non-physical pain that is considered emotional trauma in humans. One of Singer's most interesting arguments is that relating to speciesism, the concept that humans tend to view moral issues subjectively, in that concerns that are, in fact, virtually identical as between humans and animals are only taken seriously to the extent they pertain to humans. In that regard, Singer reminds us that the very same distinctions that supposedly justify certain conduct toward other animals is identical to various moral beliefs once used to justify human slavery, exploitation, and other aspects of racism, even within the human species.

Singer criticizes both the use of animals for medical experimentation and the manner in which the modern farming industry raises animals for human consumption, but does not adequately detail the fundamental moral basis for distinguishing morally justifiable forms of scientific experiments…… [read more]

Parthenogenesis Is the Development or Growth Term Paper

… Parthenogenesis is the development or growth of an organism in which fertilization does not occur between complimentary sex cells. It is a form of asexual reproduction where an unfertilized gamete begins to develop into the full-grown organism. It is fairly common in the less complex forms of species in the animal kingdom up through the Insect class, but becomes much less common thereafter. While the mechanisms involved in the process are not completely understood, parthenogenesis develops an offspring with almost identical genetic markers as the parent, very similar to the development of a clone, but with only one sex producing the phenomena. While certain worms and insects have this trait in common, a few kinds of amphibians, reptiles, and birds can also reproduce parthenogenetically. ("Parthenogenesis") However, mammalian embryos derived experimentally in this manner have thus far died within a period of days. (Kim, 483)

Parthenogenesis is used by organisms to exploit certain environmental circumstance. In the case of aphids they often use parthenogenesis to reproduce in larger numbers when supplies of food are abundant. Many organisms that use this method…… [read more]

Arguments Against Testing Drugs on Animals Term Paper

… ¶ … drug testing on animals. Using animals for drug testing and development may have had a purpose at one time, but with advances in science and technology, it no longer has a place in modern drug development techniques. Using animals in drug testing is cruel, and it should be outlawed.

Many people and federal agencies condone the use of animal testing because they maintain it helps save lives. For example, the "FDA's position on animal testing is straightforward and consistent: The use of animal tests by industry to establish the safety of regulated products is necessary to minimize the risks from such products to humans."

However, over the years, this position has been modified because of the outcry of many citizens who believe animal testing is cruel and abusive, and it should be stopped. Modern research indicates there are many other ways to accomplish drug testing without harming animals.

As we learn more about diseases and illness, it is becoming clearer that many health concerns can be aided by behavior modification. One writer states, "Improvement in health is likely to come in the future, as in the past, from modification of the conditions that lead to disease, rather than from intervention in the mechanism of disease after it has occurred."

Many conditions today have their origins in diet and lifestyle, such as high cholesterol, adult-onset diabetes, and others. Scientists urge diet and exercise changes to help these diseases, and animal testing does not need to occur in these cases. Research and scientific thought will surely find more causes such as these in the future, lessening the need for animal testing at all.

Another important argument against using animals in drug testing is the results. Most animals react far differently to diseases and drugs than humans do. One author notes, "Research results are relevant only to the species under tests and concern for the risk of misleading predictions, since humans and animals often respond quite differently to drugs and disease." Thus, using animals in testing may actually skew the results, and the drugs may not be as effective as first thought, or they might be too potent.

Finally, many animal tests have been eliminated because they have been shown to be ineffective,…… [read more]

De Waal and Kummer Term Paper

… De Waal and Kummer

What do Kummer and de Waal describe as the major ecological (environmental and social) conditions altered by captivity?

Observing primates in zoos proved to have significant limitations. Kummer notes that zoos' practices of keeping only one… [read more]

Environmental History Thoreau Muir Leopold and Carson Term Paper

… Environmental Science

Four pivotal people - whose collective positive impact on the environment and on society's understanding of the natural world is powerful - are featured in this paper. They are John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Henry David Thoreau, and Rachel… [read more]

Wildlife Attractions Animal Term Paper

… Indeed many people visit zoos and other wildlife attractions and there is great potential to teach the public about wildlife welfare in conservations (Animal Ethics Clarifier). This can be done through information plaques near animal exhibits and through explanations given… [read more]

Snake River Term Paper

… Snake River is part of the larger Columbia River system. The natural ecology of the Snake River has been altered by the placement of dams on the river, altering the way Salmon move through the entire region and raising a… [read more]

Animal Senses Herman, Pack Term Paper

… In short, the dolphin turned out to be smart enough to assess new situations instantly and use whatever skills/abilities it needed to obtain correct information and further, to use its prior training to let the researcher know its answer. Still,… [read more]

Why Animals Should Be Spayed Neutered Term Paper

… Spaying and Neutering Pets

Spaying and Neutering -- the least costly alternative to you, your pet, and to society

Why you should spay or neuter your pet

Attention getter -- common misconception

Subvert Common Misconception

Why spaying and neutering good… [read more]

Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff, and Mccarthy, Susan Term Paper

… Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff, and McCarthy, Susan. When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. 1995: Delacorte Press.

In the prologue of this book, Massan explains that scientists have been carefully trained to believe that animals do not experience emotions. He… [read more]

Narrative of the Life of an American Term Paper

… Narrative of the Life of an American Slave: The Use of Animal Metaphors, Images, And Comparisons by Its Author

Today, we live in a world where we usually encounter animals as pets or as cellophane wrapped packages in the meat… [read more]

Environmental Effects on Species Habitats Term Paper

… o. occidentalis)

California black rail

Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus

California clapper rail

Rallus longirostris obsoletus

California condor

Gymnogyps califonianus

California least tem

Sterna albifrons browni (=Sterna antillarum browni) golden eagle

Aquila chrysaetos greater sandhill crane

Grus candadensis tabida light-footed clapper rail… [read more]

Life Forms in the World Term Paper

…" They are the ancestors of the sponges, "and of all the protoctists, it the choanoflagellates that are the most likely ancestors of animals ("


Choanoflagellates are protists and are related to both fungi and animals. These single-cell organisms are believed to be early ancestors to sponges and animals.

Works Cited

(Choanoflagellates. (accessed 10 November, 2003).


(Introduction to the Choanoflagellates. (accessed 10 November, 2003).


(Protists. (accessed 10 November, 2003).


(Protists. (accessed 10 November, 2003).


(Protists. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

(Survey of Organismal Diversity. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

).… [read more]

Wild Species Term Paper

… Wild species and the people, who depend on them, are being increasingly at risk, since the diversity of nature is disturbed and ecosystems are being degraded and fragmented. By means of changes that would be created artificially, the delicate balance… [read more]

Animals Have Rights? Tabor Term Paper

… Bair.

Machan states that animals and humans are fundamentally different, and that one of those fundamental differences is the ability to make moral decisions. However, he bases his argument more on the presence of self-consciousness than on reality. Animals rarely, if ever, kill except for food or self-defense. Humans, on the other hand, kill other humans for a number of unethical, morally unjust reasons. Animals, because they would never perform such actions, could be considered morally superior to human beings. Machan's conclusion is correct: animals and humans are different. However, that difference is due more to brain functions and not morality.

The main ethical principle used by the author is the "respect for persons." Machan argues that human autonomy is superlative to any other ethical notion. While Machan sounds utilitarian at times, especially in regards to his views on animal testing, his utilitarianism is limited to human beings and does not extend to other sentient beings. While Machan urges people to develop moral virtues so as to not grossly mistreat animals, his argument is not virtue-based.

While I agree that human beings are superior to animals because of our greater brain capacity, I do not believe that animals are undeserving of protection. Animals may not be able to think rationally, but they are still sentient beings. To assume that animals are inferior might be a fallacy; because human beings have a deplorable record of mistreating both animals and fellow humans, it seems that human beings can be considered inferior to animals on a number of accounts. I do, however, agree that using animals to benefit human beings is acceptable in some instances. Those instances are basically the same for humans and for animals: food and self-defense. To abuse and exploit the animal kingdom is a fundamentally…… [read more]

Warm-Blooded vs. Cold-Blooded Animals Term Paper

… Many cold-blooded animals shiver, like warm-blooded animals, to stay warm when they are in a cold area. Fish move to deeper waters during the colder months or migrate to different areas. Often fish have a special protein in their blood that helps them to survive frigid temperatures. Many cold-blooded animals hibernate during the winter.

After discovering the difference between warm-blooded and cold-blooded creatures, I watched how my gecko and dog responded to changes in temperature. It was fascinating to discover that they acted accordingly with my research. Also, I found that both animals were able to adjust to changes. This raised the question: Is it better to be a warm-blooded animal or a cold-blooded animal?

Warm-blooded enjoy many advantages that cold-blooded animals do not. For example, warm-blooded animals are able to stay active in cold environments, while cold-blooded animals become extremely sluggish in the cold. Because they depend on their own bodies for temperature control, warm-blooded animals can live nearly anywhere on Earth, while cold-blooded animals would find it very difficult to survive in arctic regions or on high mountains. Unlike cold-blooded animals, war-blooded animals do not need to be warm to find a mate and reproduce, so they can mate anywhere.

On the other hand, cold-blooded animals enjoy their own advantages. For example, they need less energy to survive than their warm-blooded friends. Mammals and birds need a great deal of food and energy to survive, while cold-blooded animals can live on much less. If food is scarce, cold-blooded animals can keep their body temperatures low to survive. Warm-blooded animals do not have this option. In addition, warm-blooded animals are more prone to infections than cold-blooded animals. The constantly changing body temperatures of cold-blooded animals make it hard for viruses and bacteria to survive.

My research led me to the conclusion that both warm-blooded and cold-blooded have equal advantages than enable them to survive. When hearing the differences between warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, I initially though that I would prefer to be cold-blooded than warm-blooded. However, after weighing the options, I changed my mind. As a cold-blooded animal, if my environment got too hot, then I would feel hot outside and inside my body right away. As a warm-blooded animal, if my surroundings become hot, I would only feel the heat from the outside, but my whole body's temperature will not instantly increase. I would have greater control. However, if I were a cold-blooded creature, I would be able to survive longer without food and be less prone to infections. Both animals seem to have equal advantages.


Daniels, Patricia. Warm-Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1983

Daniels, Patricia. Cold Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1986.

The Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Dimensions,…… [read more]

Maldive Shark, by Herman Melville Term Paper

… On the contrary, for a species to survive, they must adapt to their ever-changing surroundings, and the pilot fish has clearly done this, and now resides comfortably with the shark.

The pilot fish and the shark are "friends" in that they share the same "neighborhood," but they are animals, and thus do not recognize the friendship, what they recognize is survival, and they each rely on the other to survive. The beauty of the relationship is that somehow they figured out what the other needed, and a way to provide it, while still surviving. It is a beautiful thing in nature that allows animals to help and nurture each other without really recognizing the fact. The benefit of life is living, which is much preferable to being eaten by the "great maw" of the shark. Another benefit is the ability to pass on the learned knowledge of survival to progeny, thereby lengthening the lifespan of…… [read more]

Environmental Themes in Grapes Term Paper

… The Everglades would be confined to one million acres within the levees and the shallow marsh of Everglades National Park (Douglas, 1997).

This federal act called for the control of water levels though a network of pumps and roughly 1,400… [read more]

Beauty and Life Term Paper

… "It is a wondrous spectacle, but within a decade, scientists fear, most migratory monarchs may vanish from North America -- victims of human stupidity and greed" (Darrach 1993). Every year hundreds of millions of monarchs migrate from Mexico to Canada.… [read more]

Nineteenth Century Physiologist Claude Bernard Term Paper

… " The experiments involved cruel and heartbreaking methods to obtain results. Experiments like these are fundamentally wrong. It can be equated to the Nazi's during the Second World War conducting experiments on humans to improve the life of other humans. (Newton & Lyons, 2001) These experiments are sadistic and they should be stopped as quickly as possible.

There are better ways for finding the effect of lifestyle even on animals. Better records can be kept of veterinary visits or medical treatments that are conducted for the benefit of animals. This data can be then synthesized to obtain any trends and observations in the data collected.

The John Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing was set up 20 years ago in the U.S. It is devoted to investigating and developing alternatives to animal testing. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Paris-based club of the world's richest 29 nations decided to abolish the LD50 -- Lethal Dose50 (50% of the dose of a substance required to cause death) test in 2000.

Are humans superior to animals? Does this superior attitude allow man to do what he likes to animals? Animals do have a lot in common with human beings -- physiologically and emotionally. If animals can be used to help understand human beings then at some level we do consider them our equal, and we do assume that they have the same behavioral patterns as humans. Claims of non-awareness of the feeling that animals have cannot give man the right to use animals as they like.

Jeremy Bentham states that the question of whether animal can reason or whether they can talk is not important but whether animals can suffer and no matter what is said they do. He defined the "prerequisite for having interests...if a being suffers there can be no moral justification for refusing to take the suffering into consideration" (Singer 1979:31); he called this "principle of consideration of interests."

Many scientists are now questioning the results got from the experiments done on animals. Various factors, such as the stress induced by caging animals can change the behavior and the biochemical makeup of animals. No experimentation carried out on one species in an environment other that its own natural habitat be extrapolated to any other, including man.

Man should realize the importance of other animal species. People might try to deny that animals are similar to us -- animals have no feeling and emotions. A paradox indeed! If animals are so different how then can they be then used to determine how man functions? If results based on animal experimentation is considered valid for humans are we under no obligation to treat them justly and fairly since they are more similar to us than we claim them to be. How can we ignore their sufferings?


Animal Experimentation: Sadistic Scandal." 18 April 2002.

Brecher, Arie. Speech at the International Congress of Doctors Against Vivisection, Italian Parliament, November 8, 1989. Reprinted in the International Foundation Report… [read more]

Benefits of Spaying and Neutering Pets Term Paper

… Spay Neuter

Dogs, cats, and other companion pets like rabbits and pot-bellied pigs bring great joy to their owners. The benefits of caring for a dog and cat are immeasurable. However, with pet ownership comes a responsibility to care for… [read more]

Theme of the Greenbelt Policy Research Paper

… They are also known to help in the fight against global warming and help the earth retain its earlier natural form in terms of the climate and weather (West L., 2014). Texas needs to be actively involved in the protection of the natural environment hence the passing of this law will significantly put Texas on the map of those regions that are concerned about nature and the global warming challenge.

The green belts are also known for the fundamental part that they play in the protection of wild animals as well as the plants that are found therein. Since the areas covered by the city are often busy section with activities going on, noises from the busy schedules of people, exhaust fumes that make it difficult for birds to inhabit the region, the green belts are the only sections that can be a refuge for the wild animals that are in the region. The human-wildlife conflict is significantly reduced by the existence of these greenbelts hence needs to be encouraged and indeed put to be a law in all the cities in Texas (Kamau David, 2013). There is ned to have people around the city to turn to conservation instead of getting into activities that will act to encourage conflict between human beings and the wild animals that shall have been displaced from the destroyed natural green belts and hence forced to get into the human habitats or clash with human in the process of being driven from their natural habitats (Kuschk, 2012).

The rural areas that surround the cities are also at risk once the cities are left unchecked and expand or sprawl wantonly. The green belts hence are known to protect the character of rural areas that might otherwise be taken over by expanding suburbs. There is no better way to protect the rural areas from being changed totally hence lose their identity or even worse still be completely destroyed by the sprawling cities than the use of green belts. The rural areas are known to be characterized by the natural lifestyle, no high-rise buildings, natural conservation and care for the natural environment and the animals therein. If the greenbelts are destroyed, then even the rural areas that exist behind the greenbelt will be predominantly exposed to the destructive force and nature of the city, with streams that they sue being exposed to high risks of getting dry as was the case in Kenya (The Green Belt Movement, 2014). Texas is largely known to be rural in nature hence there is no where else in the U.S. that this greenbelt law needs to be passed than in Texas in order to ensure safety of the rural areas and effectively conserving the identity of Texas.

There is no better time to have the greenbelt law implemented in Texas cities than now since this will help curb the challenges that are faced not only by Texans but by extension the surrounding states. This will also help in setting a precedence… [read more]

Introducing a Pet-Feeding Device for Dogs Marketing Plan

… Figure 1. Lentek 6-Day Automatic Pet Dish


Three competitors that offer some type of automatic pet food dispensers are described in Table 2 below.

Table 2

Current automatic pet food dispenser vendors



Lentek 6-Day Automatic Pet Dish ( / Lentek-6-Day-Automatic-Pet-Dish/dp/B00006JHRE)

* Automatic six-day pet dish ideal during week-long vacations

* Selectable feeding intervals of 6, 12 or 24 hours

* Each compartment holds 2/3 cup dry or 5-1/2 ounces wet food

* Accurate timer; lid rotation stops if resistance is felt

* Includes removable lid and two inserts; uses one 9-volt battery.

PetSafe Eatwell Automatic Pet Feeder (

* 5-compartment dish for meals up to 5 days with a portion size of 1 cup each.

* Rotating serving dish brings food to pet.

* Electronic timer allows you to set the times each new meal is presented.

* Dishwasher-safe food tray.

* Airtight compartments keeps food fresh.

* Electronic timer selectable to one or more meals per day.

Uses four (4) D-cell batteries (not included).

4 Meals Tray Automatic Pet Feeder Electronic Programmable Dry/Wet Food Dog Cat Feeder w / LCD display

* Record a personal message for your pet

* Built in clock with easy to read LCD

* User programmable feeding times

* 4 Separate large food trays, prefect for dry or wet pet food.

* Keeps pets on a regular feeding schedule


Marketing Strategy

Caninantics intends to begin marketing Pooch Pantry and then branching into other canine accessories by the end of the year.



The start-up costs for the venture will come from the following sources:


Owner/operator/inventor funding from savings:






Bank loan:




It is important for start-ups such as Caninantics to have formal internal controls in place to ensure that their organizational strategies remain closely aligned with their mission, values and goals (Adler, 2009).


Adler, J. (2009, December 2). Start-ups, too dependent on realty, swell failures. American Banker, 173(231), 1.

Facts about pet ownership. (2014). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Retrieved from…… [read more]

Lonesome George, Martha, and the Black Rhinoceros Research Paper

… Black Rhinoceros / Extinction

Imagining Extinction:

The Black Rhinoceros and the Last of the Race

This paper intends to discuss the idea of extinction. Such discussion necessarily entails a certain amount of scientific discourse, but in particular I would like… [read more]

Hear Me? See Me? Introduction

… Cross modal effects take place not only in humans but in chimpanzees as well. Because chimpanzees are so similar to homo sapiens, the presence of cross modality is something that is totally understandable. The question that could be asked is… [read more]

Plant Biology Shoot Architecture Enhances Essay

… In terms of plant root systems, for example, soil teems with various bacteria and fungi. In numerous cases, these have evolved together, so that the bacteria or fungi assist the plant and in return increase their own nutritional intake. With bacteria, the process is generally known as "nitrogen fixation." The bacteria that grow around the root systems provide a source of fixed nitrogen which is used by the plant in the formation of chemical compounds. The process occurred when the bacteria, which are anaerobic and thus undergo respiration in an environment with no oxygen -- the bacteria provide the plant with nitrogen while in turn the plant protects the bacteria from oxygen.

A different sort of symbiotic relationship occurs between plant root systems and fungi. Mycorrhizae -- which literally means "fungus roots" -- are in essence a symbiotic arrangement of root systems with underground fungus. The fungus has a safe place to live and is supplied with sugar by the host plant, but in return the fungus is beneficial for the plant with which it has the relationship. The fungus spreads and grows in a way that expands the plants overall area for water absorption and ultimately can select specific chemicals (like phosphates) which are useful for the plant. The fungus has also evolved to produce other compounds that are beneficial to the plant in other ways -- either to increase root growth or to produce antibiotic agents that protect the plant from hostile bacteria.

One final and particularly unusual form of co-evolution is involved in carnivorous plants. These plants -- such as the famous Venus flytrap -- live in swampy environments with acidic soil which lacks adequate nitrogen. The plant has evolved in some way to attract the insect or small animal, and then essentially "digests" it by secreting chemical compounds that break down the animal organism into its consitutent parts -- thus providing the plant with the nitrogen it fails to get through its root system. This is not precisely symbiosis, of course, because it is not beneficial to both the Venus flytrap and…… [read more]

Taxonomic Categories Research Paper

… Taxonomic Categories

There are 9 animals in nine different Phyla. Be sure to look at every page.



Dichotomous Key (steps)



Organism is multicellular

Does it have exo or endo skeleton? NO

Is organism asymmetrical (sponge). NO

Is organism transparent? YES

It is jelly fish.

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Subphylum: Medusozoa


Does it have endo-skeleton or exo-skeleton? EXO

Does it have Shell? YES.

Does it have foot? YES.

It is a snail

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca



Does it have any skeleton? NO

Found on land? YES?

Does it have symmetrical smooth body? YES

Does it have a segmented body? YES

It is an earthworm

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Annelida




Terrestrial or non-terrestrial? TERRESTRIAL

Flies or crawls or walk? FLIES

Has fur and spinal cord? NO

Has antenna? YES

5) Has hind wing? YES

6) it is a butterfly

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Insecta


1) Terrestrial or non-terrestrial? NON-TERRESTRIAL

2) Has endo or exo skeleton? EXO

3) Body symmetrical? NO

4) it is a sponge

Kingdom: Animalia

Subkingdom: Parazoa Phylum: Porifera


1) Terrestrial or non-terrestrial? NON-TERRESTRIAL

2) Has endo or exo skeleton? EXO

3) Body is symmetrical? YES RADIAL

4) Does it have feet? Yes

5) Body smooth or spiny? SPINY

6) it is a star fish.

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata



Class: Asteroidea



1) Multicellular hence it is either plant or animal

2) Lacks chlorophyll hence it is animal

3) Has skeleton hence Chordata

4) Has feathers and flies hence it is aves

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Aves


Image Rights: Allen G.

Collins and the UC Museum of Paleontology


1) Does it have a skeleton? NO

2) Is the body symmetrical? YES

3) Is the round or cylinder like? NO

4) Found on land or water? POND WATER

5) Can it see? YES

6) it is a lukeworm

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Platyhelminthes


Image Rights: Courtesy of University of Minnesota


1) Has skeleton? NO

2) Found on land? YES

3) Body round? YES

4) Body smooth? YES

5) Body is segmented? NO

6) it is a…… [read more]

Conservation Biology Research Paper

… Other valued of biodiversity to humans include the fact that rich environments provide heretofore unknown resources, such as new food products and medicines. Important medicinal discoveries such as the pain medications codeine and morphine were only discovered because they were natural defense mechanisms found in plants to prevent their consumption by herbivorous organisms.

Factors that threaten species persistence include: (1) degradation, destruction, and fragmentation of their natural habitats, (2) overexploitation of populations, (3) disease or a new predator's introduction, and (4) some natural or unnatural phenomena which upsets the balance within the ecosystem (Sadava 2011,-page 1247). Each of these factors could lead to endangerment of extinction of given populations.

6. Describe at least four strategies used by Conservation Biologists to protect Biodiversity.

a. Creating and maintaining nature preserves which emulate the natural habitats of the creatures that live within the preserve. These preserves will be built in regions which are close to the climate and terrain of the original ecosystem in the hope that the animals will be able to survive and thrive within the community.

b. Conservation biologists have used the legal system to ban chemicals, processes, and procedures which have been proven to negatively impact biodiversity. For example, conservation biologists have been instrumental in banning the use of chemical sprays such as DDT which are used by farmers to prevent insects from eating or bruising their crops. These insect sprays have not only decimated the insect population, but also impacted bird communities and cats in certain regions of the world because these secondary consumers eat the insects and are then themselves poisoned.

c. Implementing procedures to decrease carbon emissions, such as encouraging green processes either through social pressure or through legislative measures. This has included implementation of carpooling lanes and regional transit systems to lessen the amount of cars on the road which then release harsh chemicals into the environment both in the air and in the ground.

d. Conservation biologists have worked internationally to expand knowledge of endangered species and encourage cooperation between nations to protect various species. It is perceived as larger than a national problem and these scientists have been able to achieve a level of international cooperation unseen in other situations.

Works Cited

Fujikawa, T. & Dougherty, J. (2010). The value of biodiversity and its impact on human health.

David Suzuki Foundation.

Sadava, et al. (2011). Life: the Science of Biology Volume 2. 9th ed. Sinauer: Gordonsville, VA.

Sahney, S. & Benton, M. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.

Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological. 275(1636). 759-65.…… [read more]

Environmental Law Research Paper


Environmental law

Environmental law: The Endangered Species Act

The Endangered Species Act was passed in 1973 and was designed to help species in danger of becoming extinct as a result of "economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation" (ESA, 1973, Cornell). The Act only protects endangered and threatened species, not all wildlife. Endangerment is when a species is "in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range" while "threatened" means "a species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. All species of plants and animals, except pest insects, are eligible for listing as endangered or threatened" (ESA, 2013, FWS). One or more of the following five criteria must be met for a species to be protected under the provisions of the ESA: the species is faced with present or threatened destruction of its habitat; there is overuse of its habitat or of the species for "commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes;" the species has exhibited a decline due to disease or predators; inadequacy of existing regulations to protect the species; and/or other natural factors (ESA, 1973, Cornell).

The 1973 ESA is a reformation of the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966. The Act arose out of the budding environmental and conservation movement of the time, and has remained virtually unchanged since, with only very minor amendments (History, 2013, FSW). The most significant change regarding the law has been in relation to costs: "Originally the ESA wasn't supposed to consider financial concerns, something even the Supreme Court agreed" but the law changed in 1978 when Congress demanded to know the costs of protecting specific species (Vinzant 2009). Before he left office, George Bush issued an order that "federal officials didn't have to bother to consult with scientists when they decided whether logging or mining would impact a species on the brink of extinction" but this provision was quickly overturned by President Obama when he assumed office (Vinzant 2009).

By 1988, "Congress was requiring the Fish and Wildlife Service to complete recovery plans for each species, including recovery times and costs" although a study in 2006 "found only 20 of 107 plans…… [read more]

Zoos Are Categorically Utilitarian in Their Purpose Term Paper

… Zoos are categorically utilitarian in their purpose and function. Even when zoos participate in the preservation of species, education, consciousness raising, and fundraising, they are still performing a utilitarian function that precludes the individual rights of the animals therein. The zookeeper works on the principle of utility -- that it is useful to maintain an institution that promotes education and research, as well as promotes ecological integrity via the preservation of species. Most zookeepers would also claim that their facilities and their working procedures ensure the humane treatment and welfare of the animals; that animals are being treated well by being regularly fed, offered time to play and interact with others in their species, and not being harmed. Any restrictions to the animal's freedom is conceived of as being part of the "greatest good for the greatest number" utilitarian concept -- which in this case can even be extended to some species of animal such as those about to go extinct. If a zoo is preserving the endangered species and breeding them in captivity, then those programs restrict the individual freedoms of individual animals for the collective good of their entire species. Because he builds much of his animal ethic on utilitarianism, Peter Singer is far more likely than Tom Regan to acknowledge that zoos are -- or at least can be -- morally acceptable institutions.

Yet when zoos do things like put on entertainment shows, they are more blatantly exploiting the animals individually and collectively, for the utilitarian goal of profit-making and mass-market entertainment. The latter type of zoo is more obviously unethical than the former, and it also raises questions about the perceived utility of animals for human benefit. Both Peter Singer and Tom Regan would decry the type of zoo that puts on shows and allow their animals to mope in cages, but would do so for different reasons. Singer would claim that while the individual elephants being paraded around the…… [read more]

Biology Species D In Evolutionary Essay

… Microhabitats can, and often do, create rapid adaptive variation.

Part 10

A. The major limitations on the morphological concept of species is that there is often a large amount of phenotypic variability within a species; that organisms that can interbreed sometimes have different physical characteristics, and that it does not consider if individuals of a species can produce viable offspring. For biological concepts, many species do not reproduce sexually, and then are hard to apply to the biological concept since it emphasizes reproduction. In other words, in the biological concept, species are based not on physical similarity, but on fertility.

B. In this scenario, likely the morphological concept because the butterfly populations are distinct. In this manner, we could look at not just reproduction, but differences in body function, biochemistry, behavior and genetic make-up.

Part 11 - A clade is a group consisting of an ancestor and its decedents. Extinction rates can exceed speciation rates in clades based on a sharp change in diversity, climate, and habitat for a specific organism. This can be artificial (man-caused) or natural (weather, earthquakes, climate change, etc.). Certainly much of the basic mass extinctions are examples of this; 1) the Cretaceous-Paleocene Extinction Event about 65 million years ago in which 75% of all species became extinct; 2) the Triassic-Jurassic event about 200 million years ago when 70-75% of species became extinct. In #1, the boundary event was severe enough so that the majority of non-avian dinosaurs became extinct and mammals and birds emerged dominant; in #2 most non-dinosaurian archosaurs and large amphibians were eliminated, resulting is less terrestrial competition for the remaining species.

Part 12 -- You should check this with your text































Part B. Species 3 and 5

Part C. Species 2, 4 and 5

Part 13 - In vitro evolution may not involve the cells and therefore the results can have larger mutations; Molecular evolution is at the RNA, DNA and protein scale based on cellular structures. In vitro evolution produces new molecules, molecular evolution new combinations.

Part 14 -- Between fossil and molecular evidence, I would side with the molecular evidence due to the reliability of science and genetic definitions as opposed to outside variables (temperature, strata, location, etc.) of the physical fossil evidence.

Part 15 --…… [read more]

Fur From China Against Essay

… Since glimmers of hope is evidence, let each and everybody take action. For us to dismantle this fur trade as fast as possible, we should begin by showing it in our habits. Pledge never to buy fur from China, as well as encouraging the friends and family you have to take the same action. Majority of people are truly not heartless and they care for others and are willing to do the right thing. However most of these people are not aware of the cruelty behind the fur trim on their gloves or coats, while most of them tend to be misled by false labeling and fairy tales over fur farms, (Chiara Feddeck, 2012).

In case you have decided to stop, you should stop, there are fabulous fake furs, and it becomes very tricky to separate them from the real stuff, and as mention they deliberately mislabeled them. There are some other ways which might work of distinguishing them such as: closely looking at the substrate material, which might be leathery and skin-like (that one s real) on the other hand it might be woven like a rug (such is a fake one). Some people might opt to use flame test which still works. Taking a few strands that belong to the furry fibers of the garment then hold them over a small flame, if it is real fur, the smell will be like burning hair as well as leaving a strand of, well, burnt hair. However, many of the common synthetics, smell like burning plastic and melt to take the bead form just like plastic. Another way of distinguishing the fur is trying to push a pin through the base of the fur. In case it is the real one, there will be a leather backing hence becoming hard to force a pin through. A fake one will allow the pin to go through it easily. Moreover, you can as well blow on the fur for it to separates. A real fur will expose its layers of soft, almost wooly fur through which there is protruding longer hairs, while the backing should be leather. When it is fake, it will have a common single simple layer of almost identical hairs.


China fur has never proved worth buying for such a long time for there are still not definite rules and regulation that govern the fur trade so that the State can export a quality and look upon the manner of slaughtering that takes place in various part of the state. I have a feeling that after becoming aware of the malicious practices no fur from China will be bought as well as forming part of our garment or buying them.


Chiara Feddeck, (2012). Fur Is Not Fashionable: The Cruelty of The Fur Industry. Retrieved march 17, 2013 from

Steve Martindale, (2013). Best of PETA Prime: Help Shut Down the Chinese Fur Trade. Retrieved march 17, 2013 from

Graham, David,(2012). How Canada Gets Dog and Cat… [read more]

Synaptic Communication This Report Will Cover Essay

… Synaptic Communication

This report will cover the principles of synaptic communication of neurons throughout one's life and how that communication governs and influences communications with people and leads to certain behaviors. About four sources will be used to cover these… [read more]

Bombadil and Treebeard in Middle-Earth Essay

… Several other characters in Tolkien's works are established as mysterious and explanations from the author are never forthcoming (McCloskey, 2002). About the Lord of the Rings, Tolkien did offer that he wrote the story clearly in terms of good and bad sides, of beautiful against ugliness, of kindness against ruthlessness (McCloskey, 2002). But the key point that Tolkien makes -- and that best explains Bombadil's puzzling behavior -- is the effect brought about by renouncing control and any desire of tangible things (McCloskey, 2002). In separating from the world such that he exists only as a watcher, Bombadil is free from the right and wrong duality (McCloskey, 2002). Indeed, the means of exerting power and control loose meaning and value to Bombadil (McCloskey, 2002).

Treebeard is a Middle-earth character who is the eldest member of the Ents species. Treebeard is regarded to live in the ancient Forest of Fangorn, and like the other inhabitants of forests he looks like a tree, having a rigid bodily structure and leafy hair. Treebeard ant the other Ents once roamed other forests of the Middle-earth, including the Misty Mountains, Mirkwood, Mordor, and the Blue Mountains. But when the Etnwives were driven out at the end of the Third Age, the Ents isolated themselves in the Forest of Fangorn. Treebeard was encouraged by Pippin and Merry to stop the Saruman from cutting down his trees, and so Treebeard led a war against Saruman and his Orcs to stop the carnage. If Bombadil can be characterized as quick and frivolous, Treebeard makes no haste. He has been characterized as something waking up from an ages long sleep after which he engages in slow, steady thinking considering the world suddenly revealed around him with the "same slow care it had given to its own inside affairs for endless years" (Tolkien, 1954).


Both Treebeard and Bombadil found ways to interact with the physical world around them. Bombadil is disengaged with the tangible world in the same way that a Buddhist monk might be; he does not engage in the rightness or wrongness of the world as he lives above it and beyond it. Treebeard manages the danger and conflict in the world, as would a tree in a storm -- bending, giving way, and yet winning the contest by surviving and by still being there at the end of the storm or the end of the battle.

The tension that exists between the characterization of Bombadil and Treebeard is the same tension that is evident when the concepts of heaven and earth are juxtaposed. Bombadil does not concern himself with earthly things, and he expresses the joy and free abandon that is characteristic of a small child -- or an angelic being. Treebeard carries the weight of the world -- antagonism and war, fear and treachery -- and they literally weigh him down, cause him to be slow moving, though not slow witted. Treebeard's pensive attitude is a result of his deep appreciation of the effects of… [read more]

Phyla and Parasites Ten Essay

… Also, they have no digestive tract which allows them to absorb food directly from the stomach.

Ascaris ~ Adapted with a sucker mouth and have no internal transportation. They need a host to survive. Its body is long and narrow which allows it to easily accommodate in the intestine of its host. It is also adapted to protect its skin against the chemicals of the host body. Also, the nervous system and sensory organs were simplified.

Platyhelminthes ~ They have adapted a thick body which protects them against the host body.

Their spines, suckers, and hooks developed to be attached and their organs which allow motion were removed.

Protozoa: Developed the ability to encysted which makes a thick, tough wall around itself and then enter a state of hibernation. Many of them avoid places which are inhospitable, such as where there is no oxygen.

Leech: Creates a cocoon for itself which is a protective covering. Adapted to be a hermaphrodite to help reproduction. Leech developed slow digestions and the ability to secrete hirudin which prevents blood clotting.

Nematode: Developed a pseudocoelom which has a body cavity lined with a mesoderm. This is a space for both circulation and internal organs. They move not with limbs but a hydrostatic skeleton.

Taenia Solium: The parasite developed an external cuticular epidermis, an adhesive organ, and no alimentary canal. Each segment has independent reproductive organs and does not have any external organs.

Entamoeba Histolytica: Developed the ability to tolerate the high temperatures within the host body and to avoid digestive chemicals.

Ischnocera: The parasite has evolved an elongated…… [read more]

Behavioral Training for Therapy Dogs Research Paper

… These are Animal Assisted Therapy and Animal Assisted Activities even thought researchers in the field of human-nonhuman animal studies have continually been criticized for lack of theoretical foundations (Brown, 2004, p.68). The human-companion animal bond is based on theories with three kinds of models that are considered as being akin to the human-animal attachments and relationships.

The Animal Assisted Therapy is a therapy service in which companion animals are part of the therapy of a patient. In this category, interactions with the therapy dogs are part of the plan of treatment developed by healthcare professionals to enhance the emotional and physical function of a patient. On the contrary, the Animal Assisted Activities therapy service basically entails the introduction of pets to withdrawn patients or individuals to stimulate communication. This is carried out because patients tend to feel comfortable around a friendly animal despite the lack of the need for trained professionals or absence of formal plan of treatment.

With regards to the current use of therapy and service animals has mainly included the concept of naming laboratory animals. Laboratory animals have been developed to constitute extra evidence of a personal relationship between humans and animals. These laboratories have training for regular procedures that can lessen personnel and animal stress. In the future of therapy and animal service, the administrators of animal research should search for opportunities to motivate the formation and sustenance of bonds between individuals and animals. This process should start with the initial employee interview and maintenance of the philosophy by providing for a final disposition of the animal in a humane way.


Bayne, K. (2002). Development of the Human-Research Animal Bond and Its Impact on Animal

Well-being. ILAR Journal, 43(1), 4-9. Retrieved from

Brown, S. (2004). The Human-Animal Bond and Self-Psychology: Toward a New

Understanding. Society & Animals, 12(1), 67-86. Retrieved from… [read more]

Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve: Restoring Essay

… Management and Restoration

Knowledge about the ecosystem's original structure and function continues to aid in the development of plans to restore the preserve to its initial state and manage its maintenance thereafter. Studies continuously run in conjunction with the restoration in order to bring the area back to its initial beauty and quality. Today, the trails of the preserve reveal a reemergence of the preserve's original ecosystem with native flora including warm-season grasses and native wildflowers growing in the area in droves once again (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). Additionally, where woodlands were once leveled to make way for agricultural dominance, today these woodlands are dominated by mixed Pennsylvania hardwoods and two wetland areas as existed before the area's agricultural emergence (VisitPhilly, 2012, p.1).

Species Interactions in Management and Restoration

Volunteers and restoration specialists alike continue to work diligently in the preserve to bring the area back to its original state by fostering the interactions of different species of flora and fauna in order to bring Gwynedd back to its original glory. Today, originally-found grassland birds including the Eastern Meadowlark, Northern Harrier, Eastern Bluebird and Woodcock cohabitate the area as they did prior to agricultural development as do animals such as the red fox and eastern flying squirrel (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). Where foreign crops once flourished, now thrive native grass meadows filled with big bluestem, little bluestem and Indian-grass as well as New York ironweed, purple coneflower and swamp milkweed as well as woodlands dominated by red oak, red ash and red maple (Natural Lands Trust, 2012, p.1). The Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve now exists in its former glory with its intended species' cohabitation, which is vital to ensuring the area survives and continues to flourish as nature intended.


Natural Lands Trust. 2012. "Gywnedd Wildlife Preserve." Web. Retrieved from: / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].

Visit Philly Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve." Philadelphia and the Countryside. Web. Retrieved from: / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].

Schuylkill River National and State Heritage Area Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd

Wildlife Preserve." Web. Retrieved from: / Detail.aspx?id=170 [Accessed on 23 April 2012].… [read more]

Misfits, Written by Arthur Miller Essay

… Her love of animals and expression of horror at the cruelty of the west is naive yet touching. She is continually taken aback at Langland's callousness to animals. Her new relationship is almost destroyed when she sees Langland's real work: roping horses and making them submit so he can slaughter them. His entire life, Roslyn realizes, has been built upon cruelty. She feels that what she saw as her last chance at starting anew is lost. Guido offers to set the horses free for her if she will leave Langland for him, but that only further depresses her, as she sees it as evidence that men will only show kindness when they want something in exchange. She had also rejected Guido before because of the way he treated his late, pregnant wife, refusing to drive the woman to the hospital when she was in labor

The story ends on an idealistic, hopeful note -- Pearce sets the horses free, and after attempting to capture one of them, Langland eventually capitulates to Roslyn's demands. The ending suggests that some form of redemption is possible, although it is not clear how Langford and Roslyn will live together. If the two of them formed a new union, this could allow life to begin anew and enable Langford to redeem himself from his estranged relationship with his own children. This would also suggest that the traditional, lonely cowboy of the West is finally redeemed by domesticity, and taught to treat wild things with respect. But the overall tone of the film remains bleak, and the viewer is left with a sense that Roslyn and her lover are fantasizing rather than really talking about what will likely transpire in the near or far future.

Work Cited

The Misfits. Starring Marilyn Monroe and Clark Gable.…… [read more]

Maintenance Behavior Essay

… Maintenance Behavior

This report is based on the movie 'Furry Vengeance'. The movie concerns the building of a new habitat for human beings which is the task undertaken by a young real estate developer by the name Dan Sanders, who had convinced his wife and family to relocate to the project site. Dan's family was not happy about the move since it meant leaving their lives behind to come to live to this new remote place. The construction meant destroying the forests and the ecosystem. The angry animals in the forest ganged up to stop this destruction from happening. The animals are led by a clever raccoon to teach the developer a lesson about the consequences of man's encroachment and destruction to nature. In the end, the movie ends by the human beings deciding to build their homes away from the forest and building a conservatory around the forest. The movie has a mix of behaviors which are exhibited both by the animals and the human beings.


One of the positive behaviors that are seen is that of positivity. Positivity refers to the state of something or someone exhibiting a positive feeling. This is seen towards the end of the movie whereby the animals and the human beings agree to co-exist. The human beings, led by Dan Sanders, agree to leave the project and to build a conservatory. Sander's boss, Neal Lyman also came to the project site and after feeling the wrath of the retaliation of the animals, decided to abandon the project for later days. The project had led Sander's family to think of him as mad at some point and that he was taking the project extremely seriously than the way he was taking care of his family. When Dan decides to leave the project…… [read more]

Biology Summary a Population Essay

… I would begin my classification by identifying any and all anatomical features shared by both species which appear to hold the same function. By searching for homologies such as similar bone structure one can begin deducing whether or not the two species have evolved from a common ancestor. Caution is advised in this approach, however, due to the frequent occurrence of homoplasies, or similarities which have occurred along independent evolutionary lines. An example of the misleading nature of homoplasies can be found in the case of butterflies and birds. While both species share the common adaptation of winged flight, with the wings of both creatures even sharing a similar external appearance, the internal structure of each wing is wholly incongruent. This incongruence is highly indicative that both species evolved from independent ancestors, which is why a more thorough investigation must be undertaken.

When a rabbit eats the lettuce in your garden, all of the energy in the lettuce is used by the rabbit. Is this statement true or false? Defend your answer.

This statement is false because the theory of trophic dynamics holds that the energy of a producer is transferred to its consumer at a rate between 10 and 20%. Every organism transfers energy and converts it to biomass at varying levels of efficiency, meaning the lettuce will have already utilized much of its existing energy for the sake of growth before it is consumed by the rabbit.

A gardener puts a chemical into his/her garden that kills all of the decomposers. What would happen to the garden?

Without decomposers like earthworms, fungi and bacteria present in a garden ecosystem the complex links within the nutrient cycle would soon be irrevocably broken. Decomposers serve a unique and vital role in any ecosystem by helping to facilitate the removal of decaying plant and animal matter, so absent their presence a typical garden would become inundated with organic debris. Furthermore, without decomposers working to convert complex chemicals into essentials such as carbon and nitrogen, the soil…… [read more]

Marine Bioluminescence Term Paper

… A number of invertebrates also provide exceptional powers of regeneration and might be capable of regrowing the missing tissues. This occurrence takes place in almost all bioluminescent organisms that are large enough to recuperate from lack of tissues or skin… [read more]

Creature Contacts A) Shipman, Pat Article Critique

… I am interested in learning more on this fascinating topic after reading Shipman's article.

e) Man's interaction with animals was shown to be essential to human development. Shipman points out that human's learned predatory skills from observing animals. It is one explanation for the survival of the human race when early carnivores such as sabretooth cats, who were faster and heavier than man, became extinct when humans did not. Early cave art shows that man learned from animals and shared information about them with other humans, through drawings. Secondly, humans followed animals with respect to migratory patterns. Plant-eating humans could remain in one place; predatory humans had to expand their territory as they sought new hunting grounds. As humans domesticated animals, they also required more space so animals could graze.

f) The study of human evolution often focuses on the physical changes that man has undergone, including development of a larger brain, less body hair, and more erect stature. There is often considerable focus on the use of tools, the discovery of nature's elements, and the increasing sophistication of groups and their governance, from families to tribes and eventually to villages, cities and states. There has not been as much study of the human-animal connection, particularly with respect to the domestication of animals for the purpose of companionship. This article offers a window into another aspect of human evolution that augments the material already presented in the textbook.

Work Cited

Shipman, Pat. "Creature Contacts." New Scientist 210.2814 (2011). 32-36. Web. 11 Nov. 11.

Creature contacts. (cover story)

Shipman, Pat


New Scientist, 5/28/2011, Vol. 210 Issue 2814, p32-36, 5p


Subject Terms:

HUMAN-animal relationships

ANIMALS & civilization

DOMESTICATION… [read more]

Watersheds Netherlands Research Paper

… ¶ … medium sized watershed in Holland. We will look at the current water status of the Biesbosch National Park watershed. This examination will include considerations of water quantity, quality and supply and demand. Also, there have been several other… [read more]

Island Biogeography Theory Have Affected Essay

… Within the last few decades, however, it was discovered that whereas the theory on which those designs was built may have been heuristically beneficial, the equilibrium theory itself was scientifically full of holes, groundless, in fact, and therefore, impractical (ibid.). Instead of the notions of equilibrium, steady state, homogeneity, and stability that were thought to exist in nature on a constant level (e.g. Botkin, 1990), scientists discovered instead that many of our environmental designs and understandings of islands were built on myths and that nature instead was in constant imbalance and flux, patchy and arbitrary (Wu & Loucks, 1995) with stochastic and heterogeneity its prominent characteristics.

A new ecological paradigm has emerged called the hierarchical patch dynamics paradigm (HPDP) which now drives design in alternate ways (Wu, 2008). No longer are influences on the protected area (of, for instance, the reserve) considered nor is the heterogeneity for the internal areas controlled and supervised. There are allowed to be multiple sources for species and original disturbance patches are allowed to go unchecked (Jazen, 1983). No extra corridors are built, and check is no longer foisted on the intra-reserve corridor. Reserves are no longer islands. It is in this way that recent changes in the view of the applicability of island biogeography theory have affected the principles and practice of conservation design.


Botkin DB (1990) Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Janzen DH (1983) No park is an island: increase in interference from outside as park size decreases. Oikos, 41, 402 -- 410.

MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton

Wu, J. (2008). Changing perspectives on biodiversity conservation: from species protection to regional sustainability Biodiversity Science 16 (3): 205 -- 213

Wu J, Loucks OL (1995) From balance-of-nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: a paradigm shift in ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology, 70, 439 -- 466.

Wu J, Vankat JL (1991) A system dynamics model of island…… [read more]

Fluvial Landscape: Chino Hills State Research Paper

… Chino Hills State Park has several different kinds of vegetation in each of its major habitats. In the creek zones, cattail stands, as well as willow and sycamore woodlands with understories of wild rose, stinging nettle, and mule fat provide… [read more]

Nursing Search and Rescue Dogs Essay

… These heavier-than-air particles, which hold this person's scent, will usually be close to the ground or on nearby foliage, so the trailing dog will frequently have its nose on the ground, different from the air scent dog (Dogs in Search… [read more]

Solicited in Connection the Presence Essay

… Unfortunately, the deer itself is almost extinct, and, therefore, it is incumbent upon ourselves to protect it. Following unregulated deer shooting in the 1930s, conservation ecologists have been working hard to protect the deer population. Experts estimate that approximately 30… [read more]

California Native Plant Term Paper

… California Native Plant

An Analysis of the a. manzanita

The manzanita is a perennial shrub of the ericaceae family, native to California. The manzanita enjoys its most active growth during the spring and summer months of the year. While different… [read more]

Lorax Probably the Most Ideological Thesis

… Older people remembered the poverty and deprivation of the Great Depression when the majority of people were poor, hungry and unemployed. Only the big revival of industrial capitalism during the Second World War and Cold War had provided them with jobs, cars, houses and a bonanza of consumer goods. They were mystified by the behavior of the mystics, hippies and counterculture dropouts of the 1960s, who seemed to reject suburbia, materialism and the values of the Affluent Society in events like the first Earth Day in 1970. At the time at least, it seemed that this generation would bring about radical changes when it finally came into power, since so many of them claimed to have values similar to the Lorax rather than the Once-ler. Of course, this has not turned out to be the case, especially because the affluence that was taken for granted in the 1960s did not continue in the decades that followed. Economic concerns came to the fore again, even while many of the older smokestack industries moved offshore to Mexico or China, the demand for cheap, imported consumer goods remained. On the global scale, then, the question remains whether the warnings of the Lorax will ever be heeded.


Geisel, Theodore Seuss (Dr. Suess). The Lorax. Random House Books for Young Readers, 1971.

Geisel, Theodore Seuss (Dr. Seuss) The Lorax. You Tube cartoon animation, 1972.… [read more]

Humans as a Concept Research Paper

… "

Furthermore, this cultural production results in subsequent cultural diversity, such that whales can be seen to exist in a social environment as robust as any human establishment. For example, "one of the best-known example of marine culture comes from… [read more]

Survival (Man vs. Wild) Published Essay

… "Turn, smell, listen, feel and then a sound, a small sound, an he looked up and away from the lake and saw the wolf. It was halfway up the hill from the lake, standing with its head and shoulders sticking out into a small opening, looking down on him with wide yellow eyes. He had never seen a wolf and the size threw him - not as big as a bear but somehow seeming that large. The wolf claimed all that was below him as his own, took Brian as his own" (120).

Buck, of course, is the central character of the Call of the Wild. And it is through Buck's eyes that we see humans and must ask -- what is the call of the wild? Is it the call to avarice? Is it the particular human trait of collecting more than needed? Certainly, the human capacity for love is great, as is their capacity for cruelty -- most did not see dogs as anything but possessions. Still, it seems that Buck came to understand that it was not all humans who were cruel -- that just as he was shoved into a tight, cold cage and starved there were some who would share their fire and meager provisions. Just as some would wield a club at the slightest provocation, others would act with respect and love. And, it is perhaps this capacity that separates the animal in humans and the human in animals? For Brian, in Hatchet, Brian must learn that it is through his own abilities, making a hatchet, for instance; that he will survive in the wild. He must learn that the wild is not to be feared, but respected. When he is rescued, he returns home a different person -- his respect for the wild, his trials and tribulations have made him see humanity in a different way; and, like Buck's journey, he may well wonder who is truly the civilized creature and what is the "civilized" world?

References:…… [read more]

Bear Globally Research Paper

… People that held a "strong positive attitude toward bears would likely: support actions favourable to bears, tolerate bear damage and maintain their position in case of conflict" (Krestser, 393-406). Experiences with a bear causing damage or approaching a family member, along with attitudes expressing concern about wildlife in general were the most closely related to determined perceptions and predicting interactions with black bears as negative (Krestser, 393-406).

Wildlife Management and Bear

Wildlife managers have a limited number of options of control to deal with human-bear problems. One strategy is to capture and relocate the bears to less populated areas. Another is lethal control, which often occurs when no other option is available but, it commonly results in negative public opinion toward the state wildlife officials or agencies. For more severe situations there are higher levels of support for more intensive agency action (Agee & Miller, 198-205). A high perception of risk from bears was associated with acceptance of lethal control. This suggest that information, educational approaches about bear behaviour and methods to reduce bear contact or damage may be successful in mediating the negative attitudes (Agee & Miller, 198-205).

As the human populations continue to expand further onto the natural landscape, human-wildlife interactions increase (Whittaker, 515-530). This can create conflict between the species that are losing their habitat and humans are living in, or using the resources in this area. Rural residents are often the people most affected and those who can most affect the successful management of these species as they share the same space and resources (Heberlein and Ericsson, 213-227).

In the past, the response to a human wildlife conflict has been to kill the species and destroy their habitat (Manfredo, 2008). How a person is affected in the human-wildlife conflict is related to how they view the particular wildlife as conflict arises from differences in values. The movement toward non-utilitarian has turned human-wildlife conflict into one between people and wildlife to one between people and institutions. For example, local residents can feel resentment towards conservation initiatives ore be negative toward managers due to impacts caused from wildlife and resist management options that do not impose a form of control (Treves, 383-396).


Agee, J and Miller, C. Factors contributing toward acceptable of lethal control of black bears in central Georgia, USA. Human dimensions of wildlife. (2009) 14: 198-205

Decker, S., Bath, A., Simms, A., Lindner, U. And Reisinger, E. The return of the king or bringing snails to the garden? The human dimesnsions of a proposed restoration of European Bison in Germany. Restoration Ecology. (2010). 18: 14-51.

Heberlein, T. And Ericsson G. Ties to the countryside: accounting for urbanites attitudes toward hunting, wolves and wildlife. Human Dimensions of Wildlife.( 2005) 10: 213-227.

Krestser, H., Curtis, P. And Knuth, B. Landscape, social and spatial influences on perceptions of human-black bear interactions in the Adirondack Park, NY. Human dimensions of Wildlife. (2009). 14: 393-406

Powell, R., Zimmerman, J. And Seaman, D.. Ecology and behaviour of North American Black Bears:… [read more]

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