"Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays

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Environmental Ethics the Natural World Has Taken Term Paper

4 pages (1,303 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Environmental Ethics

The natural world has taken approximately 4.5 billion years to reach the form we currently see today. All the diversity of life we are currently familiar with gradually sprang from the first single-celled organisms -- human are no exception. The biological processes of natural selection and sexual selection have ultimately resulted in some of the most beautiful and interesting plants and animals that could ever be imagined. As part of this process, humans -- as observed from an objective perspective -- could almost be thought of as a plague. We have descended on the land like locusts, devoured and destroyed everything in our path, with completely no concern outside of our own sustenance. On a geologic timescale humans are hardly worth mentioning; even the most generous estimates place the origin of modern man to 2 million years ago. By comparison to the millions of organisms that came before us, our success has been extremely short-lived and, like locusts, self-destructive.

The manner by which humans utilize the earth's resources is not only detrimental to the survival of other species, but also to our own. For example, the worldwide use of oil as a source of energy is growing exponentially; as humans drill deeper and in more locations the world's wildlife is pushed aside in the name of profit. Additionally, global warming threatens to permanently alter our climate, further risking the natural world and our own survival. As if that were not enough, the use and drilling of oil is increasing at a time when it should be decreasing. It has been recognized that oil is a finite resource that will eventually run out, and in so doing, threaten very the fabric of civilization: this aspect of human negligence is directly analogous to a plague. Even with a level of consciousness far beyond all the organisms that came before us, and even though we know our current practices will lead to eventual disaster, humans continue to behave in a manner concerned with only immediate benefits.

Doubtlessly, some could make the argument that this sort of behavior is perfectly aligned with the principles of evolution; namely, that organisms behave in their own, immediate self-interest. Extending this notion to humans, it should be anticipated that we expend all of our natural resources before we implement new solutions, and also, that we be unconcerned with competing species. This is a strong argument. There is no way to directly refute this sort of perspective, but I am sill inclined to take issue with it. It appears that this outlook on life is a mere justification for practices and institutions that are already in place, and therefore, are reluctant to change their ways. I would argue that humans are, debatably, the first organisms on earth to possess a high level of deductive reasoning, and that we also have an innate appreciation for beauty and the value of that beauty. Because of this, humans should be concerned with other species of life; they possess inherent value… [read more]

Merostomata Horseshoe Crabs Term Paper

3 pages (1,045 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Merostomata- Horseshoe Crabs

The history of the Horseshoe Crab is one of confusion, the traditional association of the coruscations has given them their common name, yet with more close analysis the association is clearly only a loose one.

At one time they were considered true crustaceans, thus the name "crab." However, these dark brown Arthropods that we usually have in our popular touch tank are only distantly related to such crustaceans as the true crabs, shrimps and lobsters. By examining their underside, we can clearly see many similarities between the horseshoe crabs, members of the class Merostomata, and spiders, scorpions and ticks, which belong to the class Arachnida. (Sturtevant 2004)

The formal name for the American species is Limulus polyphemus. Additionally, historical confusion about the species is its age. It is often called a living fossil yet it has no fossil record whatsoever.

While we sometimes see the horseshoe crab referred to as a "living fossil," it is more appropriate and factual to eschew such an oxymoron, since Limulus polyphemus has no fossil record whatever. The genus Limulus ranges back only about 20 million years, and, therefore, is not so old as was thought at one time. (Sturtevant 2004)

Though much older relative of today's horseshoe crabs are known to have been present on the American continent about 520 million years ago.

A judging from fossils found in the Burgess Shales of British Columbia, Canada. While these relatives and their descendants enjoyed a phenomenal evolutionary success, surviving environmental changes that led to the rise and fall of the dinosaurs, they did not undergo great diversification. Actually a modest four species grouped into three genera inhabit the earth today. (Sturtevant 2004)

The relatively small set of species associated with the horseshoe crab name are relegated in relatively small numbers to only a few regions of the world, waterways.

Our Limulus is only found along the entire Atlantic coast from Maine south and along the Gulf of Mexico as far as the Yucatan. The other two genera are found along the coast of southeast Asia and adjacent islands such as Japan. (Sturtevant 2004)

Another notable fact about the horseshoe crab is that like humans it has no natural enemies and therefore lives in relative peace, at the will of the retention of its specialized habitat. The habitat of the Merostomata class is largely associated with its life cycle.

Spawning adults prefer sandy beach areas within bays and coves that are protected from wave energy. Beach habitat also must include porous, well-oxygenated sediments to provide a suitable environment for egg survival and development. Differences between coarse- and fine-grained sand, as well as how rapidly the sand drains, affect nest-site selection and nesting synchrony. The preferred sites are usually located next to large intertidal sand flat areas, which provide protection from wave energy and an abundance of food for juveniles.

The eggs, juveniles and adults also thrive in highly salient water.

Horseshoe crabs use different habitats at different life stages. For example, protected beaches… [read more]

Reproductive Biology of Rotifers Term Paper

8 pages (2,090 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Bdelloid Rotifer Reproduction

Rotifers are, perhaps, one of the most interesting phyla of microscopic pseudocoelomate animals on the face of the planet. Each tiny animal is approximately 0.1-0.5 mm in length and are found in freshwater around the globe, and in saltwater in certain areas. The name rotifer is derived from Latin meaning 'wheel bearer', and was spawned due to… [read more]

Insect Camouflage L. Jones Term Paper

7 pages (2,068 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… One only had to sit down quietly however and to wait patiently for a few minutes before the water seemed to become alive. First the fishes start to emerge from below overhanging rocks or grasses, then the backswimmers and whirligigs resume their frantic surface activities. Next a large leaf floats by - but if you try to pick it up it bites! At least, this is the case if it is the giant water bug - I have no records of biting water scorpions as yet.

Of course, no discussion of camouflage using insects can be complete without a description of a spider species. Again, in Arabia there are several examples. However, two of the best know are the sand spider, which blends in so closely with the sand that it is almost impossible to detect, as well as the Yellow Crab Spider, which lies in wait in the middle of yellow sunflowers, awaiting the much larger pollinating bees to land within their grasp.

Finally, one of the most striking examples Jungbloed encountered within her Arabian study is found in the "huge" caterpillar of the oleander hawk moth. She relates, "Even when you know what to expect the sudden appearance of enormous eyes and the split second transformation of a peacefully munching long caterpillar into a scrunched up green ball with huge staring blue eyes is startling."

Of course, one need not venture to the oases and wadis of Saudi Arabia to find good examples of insect camouflage and mimicry. According to Jerry Powell, in his book, "California Insects," the Band Winged Grasshopper has an uncanny ability to blend into surrounding rocks, and is often only detected in flight, when its contrasting hind wing color, or in its "cracking noise" (Powell, 1981).


Insect camouflage and mimicry is an exciting aspect of biological study. Not only is it striking how a particular insect can adapt to resemble other objects or organisms to avoid becoming prey, or to allow for ease of "catching" prey, but it is also interesting the degree of success these organisms enjoy due to their efforts. Indeed, many would argue that it is the very success of the insect world that spawned human camouflage technology for use in warfare. However, despite all of humankind's best efforts, they have yet to achieve the skill and efficiency the insect world utilizes its camouflage abilities -- so much so that even in today's world many insect species can evade even the most trained human eye. Insect camouflage and mimicry is yet another example of the amazing diversity of the biological world.


Brewer, Jerry. 2000. Insect Mimicry. Web site. http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/entomology/topics/mimicry.htm

Castner, James L. (1998). Please Don't Eat the Katydids. International Wildlife. May 15, 1998. Retrieved on August 17, 2004, at http://www.bugbios.com/entophiles/phasmida/index.html

Hilda Simon, (1968). Insect Masquerades. New York, Viking Press.

Jongbloed, Marijcke. (1999). Disappearing Acts: natures camouflage artists. Arabian Wildlife Journal. Vol. 2. Issue 1. Retrieved on August 17, 2004, from, http://www.arabianwildlife.com/archive/vol2.1/cama.htm

Manning, Julie. (1997). Insect Camouflage. Retrieved on August… [read more]

Coastal Animals Sea Turtles (Seaworld Term Paper

8 pages (2,735 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… They often opportunistically feed. They follow trawlers. Fishermen often feed dolphins. Unlike bottlenoses, speckled dolphins are not as sociably disposed to man. They do not approach boats and it is difficult for humans to approach them.

There is evidence that speckled dolphins will typically become friendlier over time. There is anecdotal evidence that a dolphin Scar and her calf Junior… [read more]

Neutering Dogs: IT's a Good Term Paper

2 pages (652 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… One has but to see a sick or injured dog limping down the street to see the horrible tragedy of this situation.

In addition to the suffering of the animals that are allowed to reproduce without limit, is the significant human suffering that can result as well. After all, dogs not only can carry very serious diseases, including rabies, fleas and lice, as well as possibly spread other diseases due to their disturbance of trash cans and garbage bags, but allowing overpopulation to result in large numbers of stray dogs can result in dog attacks on adults as well as children (on whom, such an attack can prove to be fatal). Further, in addition to disease, large numbers of stray dogs can also cause traffic accidents, attacks on other domesticated animals, especially cats, and can reduce the appeal of those neighborhoods plagued by roving bands of snarling dogs.

In conclusion, although neutering of dogs does have some drawbacks, the importance of which varies depending upon the individual, its benefits outweigh those drawbacks significantly. True, neutering does cause physical pain for the dog, as well as other physiological changes in disposition and body composition. However, the negative aspects of not neutering one's dog are tremendous. After all, anyone who complains of the suffering of dogs undergoing the neutering procedure, should go to any small village in Mexico, and note the more extreme suffering of sick dogs without veterinary care, the sad plight of their hungry, gaunt bodies, the horrible smell of garbage strewn everywhere, as well as the fear of walking alone after dark without an arsenal of stones. Yes, neutering is harsh -- especially to the males among us. However, to neglect the importance of controlling the population of dogs is harsher still. Not only dogs, but the human population will suffer as well. To allow that is unacceptable in the extreme.… [read more]

Funny Term Paper

2 pages (904 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… That humans are insensitive is further explored by the cat in the minutest details. For example, when the Schoolteacher decides to paint the cat, and the cat needs a bathroom break, the human fails to understand that the cat was not being thoughtless of the human's need to paint, but simply needed to relieve himself. Still, he had interfered with the human's program and was cursed at for it. The Schoolteacher didn't know many curses; the Schoolteacher, it seems isn't really very good at much of anything, as is apparent from the cat's descriptions. It is ironic, then, that this relatively passionless, talentless man should be the unwitting savior of the cat, simply because he has no particular enthusiasm to do otherwise. He passively allows the cat to stay, so much so that he fails to bestow on it a name. Through the cat, the reader learns that the Schoolteacher is the most ordinary, most colorless of humans and it is only through his total lack of active human attributes that we learn at base what a human life is. It is shapeless and colorless, unless one applies the color and paint one's self.

Still, the Schoolteacher explores many kinds of self-expression; the cat merely observes them, especially through the character Kuro, the rickshawman's cat. Kuro, like the Schoolteacher's trickster friend, engages his world and tries to best it through cunning and strength of a certain kind. With the Schoolteacher's friend, one is not quite sure when to believe him, and when not to. It is the same with Kuro. The cat is fat, to be sure, but seems unwell. Perhaps the nameless cat concludes that catching rats for another's gain is not a good way to live. Perhaps the schoolteacher thinks that catching people out in practical jokes is equally valueless. The Schoolteacher himself is not ruthlessly honest, of course, pretending to have a hard job but actually snoozing as much as anything else. And that behavior is, perhaps, mimicked by his nameless cat. Not a bad life, the cat might say. Not exciting, not overly packed with 'goodies,' but then, neither the cat nor the schoolteacher has any particularly valuable cat or human talent.

Perhaps the final irony is in the final line. The cat has resigned himself to living with the Schoolteacher as a cat without a name. But names carry meaning, and what is simply a condition of cat-ness in this household might be metaphoric for the condition of human-ness being explored by Soseki. Were the roles reversed, the Schoolteacher might have written a similar line; "I have resigned myself to living in the world as a human without a…… [read more]

Fantastical Voyage in Gulliver's Travels Essay

5 pages (1,567 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Both groups serve as hyperbolic descriptions of the human race by Jonathan Swift.

Ironically, Gulliver fails to realize that the Houyhnhnms, however much Gulliver idealizes them, share many traits in common with human beings. Swift makes sure his readers can perceive those similarities. For instance, throughout the section, the Houyhnhnms oppress the inferior Yahoos and later wish to decimate their population. When they learn that human culture is essentially a reversal of life in Houyhnhnm country, they suggest castration as a means to end the Yahoo race. In fact, by creating a world that reverses the role of human and horse, Swift draws attention to the many flaws inherent in human society. That animals represent the noblest ideals of humankind is a stark vision of human nature.

Although the Yahoos do not exhibit any redeeming qualities and cannot be taught as humans can, Gulliver starts to imagine all human beings as being as brutish and offensive as the Yahoos. Gulliver does not want to return to England, a world populated solely by Yahoo-like humans. Swift intends to associate human beings primarily with the Yahoos, as the reader is encouraged to sympathize with Gulliver's experiences and perceptions. Furthermore, the physical similarities between Yahoo and human show that we more closely resemble those brutes than the noble Houyhnhnms. However, on a subtler level, Swift derides Gulliver's blindness to the truth of human nature. Gulliver idealizes the Houyhnhnms to the point that he ostracizes himself from his own race. Moreover, Gulliver fails to fairly judge the Houyhnhnms as lacking passion, creativity, and…… [read more]

Marine Life Extinction Caused Term Paper

6 pages (1,669 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… "A major study in Nature last month reported that fully 90% of large, predatory fish populations, including tuna and marlin, have disappeared, mostly due to over-fishing and destructive fishing methods" (Bowen, 2003).

Furthermore, assessing the global situation of marine ecosystems and drawing up stringent guidelines against over-fishing is not enough. Marine species need to come under fishing embargos (as in the case with whaling) that prevent all nations from fishing a species until there is physical proof that populations have improved. If a species is given a chance within its own ecosystem to improve, this will affect other areas of its food chain.

As a result, other population numbers will come under threat of over-population and predators. It is therefore, imperative that an awareness and educational plan is structured to not only make the public aware of the desperation of certain species to survive, but that within the fishing industries harsh fines are implemented to curb over-fishing of 'embargo' protected species.

Above any other form of preventing over-fishing, public awareness speaks volumes. If there is a decline in demand, then the fishing industry will have no need to fish a particular population. Over-fishing is an issue for everyone, regardless of if they eat seafood or not, because the ocean ecosystem is a large part of our natural ecosystem. Once it disappears, so too do we.


Conservationists warn grey nurse shark faces extinction. ABC News Online, 18th March 2003. Retrieved from: ABC Sci-Tech, http://abc.net.au/news/scitech/2003/03/item20030310000128_1.htm

Troubled Waters. Environment Magazine, Issue: September 2003, Excerpted from: Pew Oceans Commission press release, 4 June; and Science, 6 June. (S.B.) (Online copy available at: (www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1076/7_45/107217742/print.jhtml)

Bowen, L. World's leading scientists issue unprecedented plan for protecting ocean and marine life EurekAlert newsletter, 3 June, 2003.

Harder, B. Catch zero: what can be done as marine ecosystems face a deepening crisis? Science News, July 26, 2003. (Online Edition, retrieve copy from: (www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1200/4_164/106423567/print.jhtml)

Raloff, J. Wanted: Reef Cleaners

Science News, Issue: August 25th, 2001.

Online article: (www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1200/8_160/78545497/print.jhtml)

Ramsayer, K. Has whaling driven orcas to a diet of sea lions? Science News, Sept 27, 2003. (online edition at website and found also at: (www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1200/13_164/108913880/print.jhtml)… [read more]

Brine Shrimp Term Paper

5 pages (1,824 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Despite current harvest restrictions and the aforementioned resiliency of brine shrimp, there's concern for the brine shrimp this is a controversial issue around Great Salt Lake. The salinity, or percentage of salt dissolved in the Great Salt Lake, varies greatly depending on annual amounts of precipitation vs. evaporation. Brine shrimp populations vary depending on the amount of salinity in the water. If salinity falls below 6%, brine shrimp eggs sink to the bottom of the lake where they cannot hatch. This happens as large amounts of fresh water enter the lake. When salinity levels exceed 25%, the shrimp eggs remain suspended on the surface of the water. Brine shrimp eggs, or cysts, recovered by a drilling company near the Great Salt Lake were carbon dated to be 10,000 years old. Some of these cysts were placed in a salt water environment and were able to be hatched even though they are 10,000 years old.

One of the popularity of brine shrimp is that they can be grown in homes without too much effort. They are resilient and hardy. There are many sources on the Internet that advertise from selling brine shrimp eggs to entire mini hatcheries. The optimal conditions for hatching artemia are at 25 degrees C, a salinity of 5 ppt (parts per thousand), heavy continuous aeration, constant illumination, pH [HIDDEN] Good circulation is essential to keep the cysts in suspension. Separating nauplii from their shells may be desirable for several reasons. Cyst shells are indigestible and can lodge in the gut of predators causing fatal obstructions, and the shells have been speculated to be a source of heavy bacterial contamination. Decapsulation is accomplished in four steps: re-hydrating the cysts, treating with the decapsulation solution, washing and deactivating the residual chlorine, and the hatching of the embryos.

Brine shrimp are an important part of our ecology. They…… [read more]

Finance and Financial Entrepreneurship Term Paper

34 pages (11,684 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Pacific Lumber did not clear cut. It generally left standing 30 to 50% of the timber in a harvested area. This created a natural canopy break for new growth, while keeping much of the soil stable, thus increasing the forests growth potential. Like the trees, the company was also very generous to its employees. Pacific Lumber provided housing at below… [read more]

Snakes Have Been Interesting Term Paper

3 pages (898 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… However, snakes need special care, partly because they are so unique and partly because their life in captivity is very different than the life they would have had in the wild. Although many pet snakes are bred in captivity, they are still wild animals with the needs of wild animals. In addition, they are predators, and owners should think about how large a predator they are willing to have in their home in, say, ten years. Potential snake owners need to know that if their cute, squirmy reptile turns into a giant predator, few people will want the snake, and zoos typically do not take snakes that have lived as pets.

Snakes in the wild move about from environment to control their body temperature. During the hottest part of the day they will seek shade, and on cool days, they will sit on a rock in the sun, gathering heat from both the sun's rays and the warmed rock. Unfortunately, snakes sold commercially are often shipped without consideration of their special environmental needs, and many die. Responsible owners should ask dealers about how humanely the animals were treated prior to their arrival at the pet shop and avoid shop owners who do not know, so they do not contribute to animal cruelty by accident.

Owners also need to learn about the variety of snake they have and how to care for it. In the wild, a snake that becomes sick and injured becomes part of the food chain, but once a person has taken an animal on as a pet, he or she is responsible for its health and safety. It can be hard to look at a snake and realize from its appearance that it needs medical attention.

Potential snake owners should be especially careful about exotic or rare varieties. The snake may have been poached - illegally taken from its environment. If the snake is rare, it may be hard to find good information about its environment and food needs. Snakes bred in captivity, for instance, can learn to eat dead animals, but wild snakes will only eat prey that is alive. They won't recognize dead animals as food. Exotic snakes may have very specialized environmental needs, and putting such a snake in the wrong kind of cage with the wrong temperature may kill it or leave it chronically sickly, and the owner might never know.

Snakes in the wild may or may not live a long life, but the length of its life will depend on natural forces. Once a person has taken a snake as a pet, he or she is responsible for…… [read more]

Biodiversity the Natural Environment Term Paper

4 pages (1,180 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… In my opinion, this observation can be extended to other areas of the environmental debate. If science is not definitive, how are we to proceed in the environmental debate? It is clear to me that this debate represents a complex interplay of ethical considerations and empirical evidence.

My concern is that the Lomborg ethos has "maximize profits" as the prime directive and that this is coloring the interpretations of the data. Could it not be argued that a more biblical, stewardship approach to managing the environment is a legitimate alternative ethos? What is the appropriate ethical framework in which to evaluate the data generated in the debate on the environment? This question, I feel, is not addressed in The Skeptical Environmentalist.(Lomborg Bjorn The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the real state of the world..)

It is clear that the skepticism of the environmental movement advocated by Lomborg is a double-edged sword -- the same skepticism needs to be applied to The Skeptical Environmentalist. I think that it is necessary to acknowledge that an honest evaluation of empirical evidence is essential in defining the parameters of the debate, but that ethical yardsticks will also be part of the equation and may even color our interpretations.

A accept that biodiversity is important, but what can we or for that matter I do to protect it is a matter for contention. In general, you can think about how decisions are made when it comes to using the environment. We need to work with governments and industry to discuss not just economic principles, but also ethical and spiritual values. It bascially boils down to what do we want for our children and their children and the legacy we want to leave for them.

We can continue to study animals and plants to discover first, what exists, and then, what needs protection. We can try to improve the scientific understanding of the public.

We can set aside areas like parks and ecological reserves where ecosystems and wildlife are not disturbed. We can look at the big picture and concentrate on preserving entire habitats and ecosystems rather than single species. Species cannot exist without a place to live.

We can act thoughtfully and with respect for those around us and those who follow us. Part of this would be to assess possible effects on the environment (now and in the future) before large-scale projects, such as dams and forest clearing, are allowed to proceed. Partnerships such as the one in Nova Scotia between N.F. Douglas, Kejimkujik National Park and the Smithsonian Institution give us great hope for the future, and our ability to achieve sustainability. (Dr. Gretchen C. Daily Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems)

We can learn to make more conservative, even frugal, use of the environment for such things as shelter, food and medicines. That is, we can learn how to use resources in a sustainable fashion. We can foster an attitude of stewardship of our world's resources.

If we can do that, we will… [read more]

Tale of a Shaman's Apprentice Term Paper

6 pages (1,813 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… In addition to the above, the explanation of studying the Amazon forest and the reason not to consider the remaining two rain forest regions (Plotkin: 5) comes late in the book. Hence, excluding a few parts, Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice is soundly organized in the presentation of its contents.


Reading through the enthralling book and analyzing the well-organized contents of the monograph, it is evident that the book provides sufficient matter on the concerning issue of preservation and management of the various valuable resources of the rain forests. It is not only statistically well written; Plotkin uses easy-to-understand language and creative writing skills to entertain readers of all classes and age. It is not one of those too-intricate-to-comprehend kinds of a book. It is profitable for both the students and teachers as well as for the conservation-oriented organization, research societies and a common man interested in learning about the plant life and the significance of preserving it. However, there are some parts of the book that I have found far more enlightening and helpful as well as relevant to the topic than the remaining material in the book. I found Plotkin's description of his Harvard night museum reserved for the students of ethno botany lectures and his distinguish interest in plants and animals than in opposite sex and alcohol both revealing and entertaining. All in all, the book is highly informative, gripping and entertaining piece of writing that addresses various neglected issues that must be examined in order to reduce health related problems of the human race.

Works Cited

Plotkin M. Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice: An Ethno Botanist Searches For new…… [read more]

Return of the Gray Wolf Term Paper

3 pages (900 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… "We made the right choice to... bring these animals back from the brink of extinction," said Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt, in announcing that the animals have rebounded enough to warrant their reclassification in virtually all of the country (Hebert, 2000). "

In a recent report it was concluded that the release and re-introduction of the Gray Wolf to the lower 48 states within the last twenty five years has been a huge success. The group that has worked to bring the species back from the brink of extinction now has a national vision (Releases, 1999). One recent report however, cautions against relisting or unlisting the wolves from the endangered list to soon. "Places for Wolves: A Blueprint for Restoration and Long-Term Recovery in the Lower 48 States." Bob Ferris, director of the Species Conservation Division at Defenders, is the lead author (Releases, 1999). In 1974, wolves were listed under the ESA as endangered in all 48 states but Minnesota, where they were listed as threatened. Although listed nationally, the species recovery efforts have been handled on a piecemeal basis, regionally (Releases, 1999)."

The lack of a national vision may cause the wolves to become endangered again according to experts. They believe that a national plan to maintain the current success is the key to being sure the wolves continue to climb in numbers so that they do not slide back to the endangered zone in the future years.

Recent reports of Gray Wolves being shot by campers and other tales of the demise of wolves individually have experts sure that a slow phase out from the endangered list is more prudent than an all at once removal would be (Uhlenbrock, 1998).


The public as a strong virile animal has long since viewed the Gray Wolf. They have been used in horror movies as well as westerns to denote fear and violence. In reality however the Gray Wolf became close to extinction in the 1950's in the lower 48 states. Massive efforts have been focused on re-introducing them to the lower 48 and the success of those efforts have been described as extraordinary by many in the field. Today there are virtually thousands of gray wolves roaming the plain sand hills of many states but the effort cannot end here. It is important to continue on a national level for the program to remain strong and the future of the gray wolf to remain successful.



Hebert, Josef. H.(2000). Gray Wolf Makes Remarkable Recovery. AP Online, 07-11-2000.

Uhlenbrock; Tom (1998).Of The Post-Dispatch, GRAY WOLF SHOT BY CAMPER IN…… [read more]

Riparian Buffer Management Current Knowledge Term Paper

6 pages (1,928 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… For example, they might not have considered the impact of the soil type, slope, and habitat requirements of a particular area on the effectiveness of a given buffer. To correct this inefficiency, the Division of Soil and Water Conservation's, Delaware Riparian Buffer Initiative will result in the development of comprehensive site-specific riparian buffer criteria. The designs are being developed using an ArcView geographic information system (GIS) application. This Riparian Buffer Analysis System (RBAS) combines layers of information (soil types, vegetation, endangered species) about a particular area for the future Riparian buffers, which are a critical component of watershed protection and restoration throughout Delaware (DDNR, 2000).

We have understood the important role that Riparian Buffer systems play in the conservation of out watershed and environment. Programs in the past have been strong in theory and weak in execution. New technologies and research now help us to understand more of the mechanics of how a riparian buffer system works. In the future this new technology and information will help us to design and implement better riparian buffer systems along the nation's waterways. Better education will help us to establish and maintain the buffer systems already in place. By working closely with urban and rural communities we can help to protect and preserve our precious resources for future generations.

Works Cited

D.C. Environmental Management Council (DCEMC) Dutchess County Planning & Development. Poughkeepsie, NY. 2001. ww.dutchessny.gov Accessed May, 2002.

Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DDNR). Delaware

Riparian Buffer Brochure. October 2000.

Maille, Peter. Science and Society Series, Number 1 April, 2001 Cacapon Institute, Highview,


Roberts, Dr. Mark Herbaceous Layer Diversity and Stand Structure in Partial Cuts, Riparian

Buffers and Tree Islands. University of New Brunswick Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management. 2001.

Sneider, R.L. Streamside Management -- Do's and Don't's, Cornell Cooperative Extension, 1998.

Sneider, R.L. Streamside Protection -- Why Bother, Cornell Cooperative Extension, 1998.

Tjaden, Bob and Glenda M. Weber. Riparian Buffer Management Riparian Buffer Systems

Maryland Cooperative Extension, Publication FS733. 1998.

Tjaden, Bob and Glenda M. Weber. Riparian Buffer Management: Soil Bioengineering or Streambank Restoration For Riparian Forest Buffers. Maryland Cooperative Extension,

Publication FS729. 1999

U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service. Guidelines for Streambank

Restoration. Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission. Sept., 1994. "Soil

Bioengineering for Upland Slope Protection and Erosion Reduction." 1992. Engineering Field Handbook, Chapter 18.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 1997 Riparian Forest Buffer Manual. How…… [read more]

Seaworld Term Paper

7 pages (1,923 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Suburbs offered the pretence of rural life to those with no penchant for the hard work of real rural life: Little could be more distant than the hard work of farming than the ranch-style home with a two-car garage. Suburbs thus seemed to allow people to avoid both the deficits of the city and of the country. In fact, however, this was hardly the case. Suburbs brought many of the ills of the city along with them as well as producing their own particular ills.

In precisely the same way, Seaworld offers the pretense of wilderness to those who do not really want to get their feet wet or muddy. It would in fact probably be impossible to get your feet muddy at Seaworld given that even the dirt there seems unnatural.

Seaworld's official website argues that the park is committed to providing "an enthusiastic, imaginative, and intellectually stimulating atmosphere to help students and guests develop a lifelong appreciation, understanding, and stewardship for our environment."

The park's organizers plan to do this through the following steps:

To instill in students and guests of all ages an appreciation for science and a respect for all living creatures and habitats.

To conserve our valuable natural resources by increasing awareness of the interrelationships of humans and the environment.

To increase students' and guests' basic competencies in science, math, and other disciplines.

To be an educational resource to the world.

And no doubt in many ways it performs these functions at least to some extent. But it does so within the context of a highly regimented capitalistic and artificial structure. The theme park's website, the brochures that are available at the part itself and the shtick that the announcers at different sites go through all emphasize the company's dedication to protecting animals and doing environmental research.

But no where is the amount of money spent on conservation tallied against the profits that the company is raking in. Calls to the public information office on this issue proved pointless: A company spokeswoman would only say that it was "impossible to calculate all of the many ways that the park and its employees work to help animals."

Works Cited

Hrinko, Alexis. Interview, April 15, 2001. http://www.seaworld.org/infobook.html

Kincaid, Jamaica. My Garden (Book). New York: Farrar Strauss, 2001.

Stanley, Nick. Being Ourselves for You: The Global Display of Cultures, London: Middlesex UP, 1998.

Roberts, Anji. Interview. April 15, 2001.

Roberts, personal communication.

Hrinko, personal communication.

Stanley 19-26. http://www.seaworld.org/infobook.html… [read more]

San Antonio's Transition to a No-Kill Shelter Research Proposal

3 pages (968 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Homeless Dogs and Cats in San Antonio

Pet overpopulation is, oftentimes, an invisible community problem. This is true in San Antonio, where many people fail to understand how significant the pet overpopulation problem is. People in middle-class neighborhoods in San Antonio oftentimes have no idea that there are so many homeless dogs and cats in the city. In fact, they may engage in behaviors that encourage pet overpopulation, without realizing that they are contributing to the problem. In many neighborhoods that are not as affluent, homeless dogs and cats are not an invisible problem; they can be seen on street corners and in yards, creating health and safety risks, not only for themselves, but for the people and pets that live in those neighborhoods. Pet overpopulation is literally a life and death struggle; thousands of companion animals are euthanized every day in America, not because there is anything wrong with them, but because there are simply far more homeless pets than there are people to adopt them. San Antonio, like some other cities, has made a tremendous effort to reduce the homeless pet population and reduce euthanasia rates among companion animals.

To truly understand the problem, one must look at San Antonio in 2006, when it had "

the third largest euthanasia rate of pets per capita in the country, with more than 50,000 euthanized annually" (SAAFDN). In fact, " Less than 10% of the dogs and cats impounded at the City of San Antonio's Animal Care Services (ACS) shelter made it out alive via adoption, transfer to rescue groups or returned to owners (collectively known as "live release")" (SAAFDN). In addition to animals that were impounded, there were neighborhoods that were plagued by roaming animals, which not only created health problems for the residents, but also desensitized many of them to the plight of homeless dogs and cats. It was then that San Antonio made a commitment to transition to a no-kill environment.

One of the most important tools for reducing the homeless dog and cat population is spaying and neutering companion animals. A single unneutered dog or cat and its offspring can create thousands and thousands of puppies or kittens within a very short time period. Furthermore, even if a pet owner places each of those puppies and kittens with a responsible owner and those owners then spay or neuter the pets, every animal placed in a home from an unplanned litter takes the spot of an animal that could have been adopted from a shelter and is at risk of euthanasia. This is true even of dogs and cats that are purebred. First, shelters are full of purebred dogs and cats that are homeless. Second, most purebred dogs and cats that have been bred as companion animals do not have the breed characteristics that mean that breeding them is necessary to improve or maintain breed standards.

In addition to spaying and…… [read more]

Changes in Stream Channel Essay

4 pages (1,219 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… During the floods, the boulders are brought downstream by the raging waters. This activity also brings downstream gravel and sand most likely from all the way up at the Burrard inlet. The presence of boulder layer at the top of the cliff which are similar to those in the canyon is an indication of the ancient level of the river at the times when the river flowed at that high level and the flat surface was the ancient floodplains before the river curved the surface to be at the lower level it is today.

Evidence of glaciation in the Canyon

The Lynn Canyon has spectacular geographical features with the canyon presenting the major glaciation processes and at the base of the canyon a Coast Mountain Range that was formed due to volcanic activity that is estimated to have taken place 10 million years ago. Then the isostactic adjustment also further raised the volcanic range to be above the sea level hence completing the orogenic process and the exposed igneous dike is an evidence of this (Geocaching, (2013). This presents a unique combination of numerous geographical activities in the same region. Following the formation of the coast range, there occurred three glacial and inter-glacial periods that eroded the coast range to the present form.

The Lynn Canyon underwent three significant periods of glaciation with the recent one that shaped it to the current status taking place 20,000 to 10,000 years ago. It was during this period that the U-shape valley of the canyon was formed, changing the previous nature of the North shores that used to be large bays and had high elevations. This was as a result of a 2km thick ice and one of the evidences of this glaciation are the erratic rocks that were picked up and deposited along the canyon as the glacier moved into the Pacific ocean. Yet another evidence of this glaciation is the deposits of till and peat that are located near the suspension bridge (Geocaching, 2013).

Apart from the U-Shape valley, there are other evidences of the glacial activities such as the deposition of the glacial till as well as the tongue silt. At the same time, the inter-glacial fluvial activity eroded the surrounding topography forming the rounded boulders and the Lynn Valley box canyon. Also during this time, the depositing involved the alluvium as well as peat layers in the Lynn canyon.

There are also glacial erratic, glacial lake deposits and raised sea level benches all of which are evidence of glaciation that took place thousands of years ago. Yet another strong evidence of glaciation is the presence of sand along the banks of the river that have no vegetation which was brought about by the marine glacial process. The glaciation process hence left the region with sandy escarpments to the present times. The layers of sand that are evident in the Canyon or the facies is yet another evidence of glaciation due to the distinct physical characteristics that the layers of… [read more]

Environmental Science Essay

2 pages (717 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Another thing is that once some nonnative species have established themselves in an area it becomes very difficult to get rid of them and in some occasion it is impossible to remove them (Manchester & Bullock, 2001). The introduction of non-native species in an area leads to detrimental ecological impacts such as decline in biodiversity as well as leading to climatic change which can result to an increase in the susceptibility of the environment to invasion of various ecosystems in an area. With all this it means that introduction of non-native species in an area eventually leads to the threatening of native species which often leads to their extinction and being wiped out from the face of the earth completely.

Having seen the negative impact of non-native species been introduced in an area we have to come up with methods that can be used to prevent the invasion or introduction of these non-native species in an area. These are methods which can be used to maintain and sustain the native land in order to avoid putting pressure on the diversity that is already in existence. Some of the methods include coming up with legislations against introduction of non-native species in an area where there are native species so as to alter the native diversity that exists in that area. Another thing is ensuring that the native species are protected against people who destroy them. This is through putting outs strict legislation and consequences on anyone who is found destroying native species.at the same time we should ensure that we maintain this native species by avoiding hybridization with non-native species so that they remain pure. The local communities in the area should be sensitized on the importance of maintaining and sustaining the native species. They should be made to see the benefits of these native species and thus know the importance of protecting them and avoiding their depletion (Manchester, & Bullock,2001)


Manchester, S. & Bullock, J. (2001). The Impacts of Non-native Species on UK Biodiversity and the Effectiveness of Control. Journal of Applied ecology. Retrieved March 26, 2014 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2000.00538.x/full… [read more]

Natural Europe Essay

2 pages (706 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… The other most interesting point was the amber that was found along the shoreline. The documentary discussed the rise of the mammals in subtropical forests. Much like the giant insects of the rainforests back 300 million years ago, these mammals came to dominate the area after some massive changes, specifically the fall of the dinosaurs. The hair found inside the ancient amber revealed the presence of mammals and their subsequent dominance.

The tapirs, miniature horses, anteaters, and carnivores were of interest because of the history Europe has with horses. Horses were and still are a very important part of Europe for millennia as it provided a means of transportation and economy. To see their origin story within this documentary was great. It also provided a sense of cyclical scale as these events were always triggered by a cataclysmic rise and fall.

The fact that the mammals evolved so rapidly and became so diverse shows how Europe's landscape provided the means for which the mammals could thrive. Additionally the splitting of North America and Iceland, creating the Atlantic Ocean, could provide explanation as to how certain species of animals existed in North America as they did in Europe. Looking at the way Europe came to be and then split up, and then merged again all shows how necessary it was for Europe as it is today, to undergo continual movement and thusly adaptation.

In conclusion, this was a great documentary. What was interesting in the documentary were several things. First, the animals changed and either evolved or died off due to the turbulent activity of the continent. New oceans formed giving rise to the birth of North America. Coal came from the remains of a once lush and dense rainforest populated by giant bugs. Lastly, pieces of ancient amber hold the secrets of the world millions of years ago. This is all a part of Europe's natural history and it makes for one of the most fascinating and exciting stories.

Works Cited

"BBC Europe A Natural History 1 Genesis." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Dec. 2011. Web. 5 Mar. 2014. .

Lindahl, Kai. Europe, a…… [read more]

Fairytale Long Ago and Far Creative Writing

3 pages (986 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… He descended slowly, careful not to make any noise. As he reached the ground he saw the whole picture and shivered. There was no time to wait. The ogres were almost ready to take Victoria and throw her into the burning flames. Using his special powers that enabled him to go invisible, but only to help others, he went invisible, flew over them and quickly grabbed the girl before they could tell there was more than a gust of wind. He took her safely to the castle and the royal head were able to enjoy her mother's special woolen fabric. The stable boy saw that she came riding on his pony, but he said nothing.

The next time her mother sent her to he castle, this time with some special fruit from their orchard, the girl used the flute the pony gave her to call him whenever she was in need. From that day on, she called Messy Hair every time she had to cross the forest and reach the castle.

The king and queen were old and they had no children. They were afraid they were going to leave the country in disarray once they were gone. One day, the king looked over his shoulder and saw the gaze the stable boy gave to the little girl who came from across the forest. He also saw that she blushed and seemed to enjoy it. He told the story to his wife, the queen. Together they made a plan. They both loved the boy as well as Victoria and found them perfect for each other. They were two beautiful people in love who knew their fellow countrymen well and loved their country more than anything on earth. More importantly, they loved their jobs, they were loyal and trustworthy and they respected every living thing on earth. Who could be better suited to replace the king and queen but Victoria and the stable boy? Thus, the king told Messy Hair in big secrecy about their plans and asked him what he thought about them. Messy Hair congratulated them for their wise choice and helped them prepare a big feast to celebrate their marriage. Victoria and the stable boy were thrilled and overwhelmed. They never thought someone as important as the king and queen could ever notice a creature as humble as them.

The stable boy formally asked Victoria's hand from her parents across the forest. These were happy to give them their blessing. At their wedding, the king and queen announced that they were old enough to retire and let Victoria and the stable boy lead the country. They brought their parents to the castle to live with them and Messy Hair was always at their side to counsel them and show them the path whenever they seemed lost. They lived happily…… [read more]

Gould's and Mayr's Biological Species Research Paper

3 pages (955 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… What the study points out to and what one can understand from examining what is happening in the present, is that, while extinction is not probable in the very short-term, it is very likely in the medium term, because all the elements that would cause such extinction are there.

A sixth mass extinction could mean the disappearance of mankind, perhaps the most important way in which this extinction would differ from others. Similarly as in the past, it would also mean the survival of adaptive organisms, perhaps smaller ones, that are able to transform the negative chemical reactions into positive effects for their bodies.

3. The large number of studies about whether hybrids should be included under the Endangered Species Act and, if so, in what form, shows that this is a difficult discussion. The primary obstacle and element of difficulty is given by the fact that, as Hill (1993), showed, it is still a problem to define a clear and limited set of criteria defining the term "species."

The issue of including hybrids under the protection on the act started with the passage of the act itself, in 1973, when there was no mention of hybrids. In 1977, the hybrids were introduced, only to be taken out in 1983. An intercross policy was proposed in relation to hybrids, in the 1990s, still pending approval or disapproval. Things seem to be as complicated as ever.

With this in mind, awarding the red wolves an endangered species status is, in fact, related, as much to them being considered hybrids or not as to hybrids being protected under the act. As Hill (1993) notes, the red wolf can be included, from a taxonomic perspective, in four potential categories: full species, subspecies of the gray wolf, subspecies of the coyote, or a hybrid. One could not that in three out of these four categories, the red wolf would be categorically included under the protection of the Act and that only in one situation, the hybrid, this issue is still under discussion.

So, it is really not very clear whether the red wolf is actually a hybrid and there is a significant probability that it is not. As long as there is still a strong debate on whether to include hybrids under the protection of the act (or not), the red wolf should be included, since there is a strong scientific debate that supports the idea that the red wolf is not a hybrid.


1. Stamos, David, (2011). Evolution and the Big Questions: Sex, Race, Religion, and Other Matters. John Wiley & Sons

2. Barnosky, A. et al. (2011). Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? 3 MARCH 2011 | VOL 471 | NATURE | 51-55…… [read more]

Confluence: A River, the Environment Discussion and Results Chapter

2 pages (517 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Confluence: A river, the environment, politics & the fate of all humanity by Nathaniel Tripp

The flow of the river and the sediment it carries can be both beneficial and harmful depending on the amount and context. To what degree is this a cyclical, natural phenomenon and to what degree is it the result of human land use patterns within a river's watershed? Discuss the pros and cons of human attempts to manage river flows. Give examples from the book.

One interesting association that the author makes is that wherever the resources are rich, such as the great Amazon basins, the Mississippi Delta, and the coal seams of Appalachia, the people are kept poor. Even when the rivers have become healthier, the full ecosystem does not always share in its wealth. When people began to use rivers for agricultural purposes, the management of the rivers systems began. Although this represented a turning point from the hunter-gather type of organizations to the more stable farming communities, the more that the river was managed, the more harm that was done to it. Part of the nature of the river is to both unite and divide. The resources of the river were used to follow profits, while the benefits of these resources often overlooked those who were closest to the river in the first place.

b. Discuss the author's appointment to the Connecticut River Joint Commission. How do you think his time on the commission shaped his views? Was his appointment politically driven - why or why not?

It seems like…… [read more]

California Water Resources Essay

4 pages (1,169 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… California Water

Water Resources in California

The California state water system has a plethora of interesting features and dynamics that are complex and the hydrology continues to evolve. Although there have been massive projects to harness the water in the state and deliver to the areas that need it, such as urban or agricultural centers, there have been many consequences to these actions. The water is steadily degrading throughout the entire system and the construction of the system itself has caused many environmental problems as well as the loss of natural habitats; in fact, roughly ninety-five percent of the state's wetlands have already been lost -- forever. Furthermore, one of the most alarming factors is that the system of California's water distribution system has been built on a precipitation model that is becoming increasingly irrelevant. Climate change is predicted to heavily influence these patterns in the future and the entire water distribution system may have to be altered to meet these challenges.

Background on California's Hydrologic Cycle

The term hydrology refers to the science that encompasses the occurrence, distribution, movement, and properties of the earth's waters, and their relationship with the environment within each phase of the hydrologic cycle[footnoteRef:1]. The hydrologic cycle begins with evaporation as heat changes liquid water into gas, and ends in condensation as it cools and returns to the earth. The precipitation becomes runoff and collects in some body of water depending on where it flows. Much of the water will eventually end up in an aquifer which is an underwater storage area for water. [1: (Hyslop and Wu 141)]

California's statewide participation is approximately 58 centimeters which equals 200 million acre-feet of water that is dropped however this is not distributed equally across the state. Approximately seventy five percent of the runoff goes north of Sacramento[footnoteRef:2]. The 78 maf that occurs on a yearly average is used for environmental (46%) uses, agricultural uses (46%), and urban use (11%). However, this figure is only an average and can fluctuate considerably throughout the years. One of the primary factors that influence these levels is periods of drought in which rainfall does not meet the average levels. Floods on the other hand can be caused by excess rainfall that can cause a significant amount of damage as the runoff is too much to be absorbed and causes impromptu rivers and streams that can damage natural and human structures. Too little waterfall can result in dry conditions in which wildfires can occur. The level of water fall is vital to California's well-being. [2: (Hyslop and Wu 144)]

Figure 1 - CA Hydrologic Cycle (Garver)

California's Hydrology

The Central Valley contains three hydrologic regions. In the north end of the state, the Sacramento River Region drains the northern half of the Central Valley, which still represents a major agricultural area. The Sacramento River carries almost a third of the entire state's runoff and receives most of its runoff from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range. The next… [read more]

Marine Mammals Essay

2 pages (616 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Possible conflicts between marine mammals and humans -- if they are understood after careful examination (through necropsy) -- can lead to "appropriate measures" to resolve those conflicts (16).

Describe the steps of a pinniped necropsy

The first step is to determine which "code" applies (how far along in the process of decomposition has the animal gone?); and next, it must be estimated as to how well nourished the animal appear to have been (prior to its demise)? Questions / issues to be considered include: a) Is it a male or female; b) are the eyes discolored; c) are their lesions or parasites -- and what is the color of the discharge from nostrils; d) all abnormalities must be examined and documented, including abscesses, wounds, and possible injuries due to fishing gear; and e) fur, skin, genital aperture, and anus must be closely examined and recorded (32).

Next, skin must be removed (a 2-inch piece) near the left rear flipper and the lower left jaw should be removed (this gives the life history of the animal). The blubber, muscle and skin must be removed, and once that is done, the front flippers should be removed. The lymph node needs to be carefully scrutinized, the Thymus should be investigated, a propane torch should be used to sear the body and a blade so "uncontaminated bacterial and viral samples" can be assured. The rib cage must be removed and the lungs, heart and other internal organs need to be assessed.

What tissues are sampled -- for what purpose?

It is important to examine brain tissue (for the presence of lesions or worms) (51); also male testes' tissues, kidneys' tissues, liver tissues and tissues from the lungs must be obtained for life history and for signs of contamination.

Works Cited

Section One and…… [read more]

Five Step Approach Essay

2 pages (867 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Five Step Approach: The Case of Bison in Yellowstone National Park

There is definitely a clear problem here. Every time the population of Bison would rise to healthy levels once again, citizens in near by Montana would reduce the heard again back down to dangerous levels through hunting. This constantly placed the Bison in danger because they were not allowed the chance to gain enough numbers to be able to suffer losses from hunting in near-by Montana. Although Yellowstone Park does not rest in Montana, it is close to its borders. As such, Bison often travel outside the safety of the park and on to Montana lands, where they are in danger of being hunted. Essentially, there was no effective cooperation between park officials and Montana fish and game officials to make sure that the number of Bison shot on Montana soil each year did not get too far out of hand. This problem was thus affecting a number of stakeholders on top of the actual Bison being slaughtered. For one, it impacted the environmentalists and park officials who were working so hard to protect the species. On the same note, it was affecting all of the American population who identify this great beast with a mythical image of the American past. Without the chance to see Bison first hand, many Americans will loose a sense of that past. Yet, still, the citizens of Montana who were slaughtering the Bison for meat, especially in harsh winters like the one from 1995 to 1996 would also be affected because they needed some source of protein out in the wilderness and protection of their grazing lands for their own cattle. Restricting the hunting of Bison too much might endanger them as well. As such, it is clear that a good middle ground was needed to ensure that safety and welfare of the Bison, without endangering the citizens who needed the food during harsh Montana winters. Also, the area has bear, mountain lion, and wolf populations that are also at stake. Hunting Bison too much might endanger a source of food for the bear species, and thus endanger more than one animal in the park proximity.

In order to find a solution for this problem, it is important to establish criteria to evaluate alternatives. First and foremost, the level of healthy Bison population needs to be understood. The numbers at which the entire population becomes at risk must be defined so that subsequent policy can enforce hunting restrictions that allows for a healthier hunting of the population without endangering the species, which has had…… [read more]

Consequences of Artificial Lighting on Bats and Ecology Research Paper

10 pages (3,253 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… Artificial Lighting -- Impacts on Bats

When Thomas Edison introduced the incandescent light bulb in 1879, it was seen as an enormously helpful technology. Little did Edison know that by 2013 environmentalists, naturalists, and medical professionals would consider "…light pollution to be one of the fastest growing and most pervasive forms of environmental pollution" (Chepesiuk, 2009). Light pollution is known… [read more]

Walking Home From Work Essay

2 pages (586 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … walking home from work on the same road that I used every day until that moment and tiredly contemplating my condition. I tend to be philosophical when I am in such situations, as I try to look back and figure all of the events that led to me being happy and sad at the same time. I was everything I ever wanted to be, but I felt I was insignificant in the great scheme of things. I basically wanted the world to appreciate me for who I was and I actually felt I was not a part of the 'masses'. Dogs. There were a bunch of stray dogs in my way looking fiercely at me as if I was their enemy.

I am particularly fond of dogs, but I feel that it would be wrong for me to support them, taking into account that they suffer greatly on the streets as a result of society's tendency to persecute them. So when I came across this puppy staying alongside of the other dogs I felt that it was up to me to help it. I picked it up and I took it to the local dog shelter (it was just around the corner), as I heard that people often adopt dogs from that place. I figured no one would be as ignorant as to leave such a cute puppy live in a dog shelter.

As I entered the shelter I saw several puppies that looked just like the one I picked up locked up and screaming for their mommy as they struggled to get out. The manager immediately walked up to me and said:

"There's that little bastard. It just escaped like an hour ago and I was furious that I was…… [read more]

Ring of Fire Case Study

2 pages (597 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… In fact, reports speculate that once mining is complete, the area would be an ideal area for moose, because the new horticulture would likely consist of bushes as opposed to trees.

The final issue that must be considered is the impact the mine would have on local wildlife. Many animals call the boreal forest home including the snow elk, snow fox, and Atlantic salmon. Animals are sensitive to their surroundings, especially when new things are introduced into the environment. There are two new impacts that the mine would produce. The first impact is that of noise. Mines are no longer dug into the faces of mountains. Instead, modern mines are dug directly into the ground by blowing out the rock layers, crushing the rock, and dumping it back into the environment. This entire process is extensively noisy and would likely cause all wildlife within earshot to relocate to quieter, safer parts of the forest.

The second impact on the animals is safety. Along with the mine, there are also plans to build multiple roads to make transport easier. Roads bring traffic into areas where once there was none. Before long, animals such as fox and deer begin exploring the road and inadvertently are struck. Additionally, if there are herds that migrate to the area, the roads will likely re-route their migratory paths.

Before such an ambitious project as a mine is started, there must be a full analysis of the possible environmental implications. If it is found that the mine would be too destructive and the results could not be mitigated, then it is in the best interest of the nation to halt the mining and find a better solution. When both humans and animals are at risk, all precautions should be taken to ensure the safety of…… [read more]

Controversy Regarding Cats and Dogs Essay

2 pages (636 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… In addition to making it possible for people to understand the importance of having animal rescue organizations involved in saving animals consequent to catastrophes, the hurricane also enabled society to understand more about the importance of neutering. With most of the animals that escaped after the hurricane not being neutered or spayed, cat and dog populations experienced rapid growth (Hurricane Katrina Animal Rescue: IFAW Saves Dogs and Cats).

Overpopulation is a significant problem when considering cats and dogs and both animal lovers and those who are indifferent toward them are likely to agree to this issue. Large amounts of finances are being poured into animal shelters and people are largely responsible for the fact that overpopulation exists in the first place. As a consequence, it is very important for the masses to understand that they need to take care that their animals do not produce unwanted litters and that they do not contribute to the number of homeless pets (Anchel, 50).

It is surely worrying that in spite of the fact that many individuals claim to love animals, they have a limited understanding concerning the attitudes that they need to employ toward them. Individuals need to be provided with extensive education with regard to raising animals, taking into account that this is going to improve general conditions and that cats and dogs will then come to live in better conditions, both for them and for society in general.

Works cited:

Anchel, Marjorie, "Overpopulation of Cats and Dogs: Causes, Effects, and Prevention: Proceedings of a Conference, New York City, September 11 & 12, 1987," (Fordham Univ Press, 1990)

Knight, Sara, and Herzog, Harold, "New Perspectives on Human-Animal Interactions: Theory, Policy and Research," (John Wiley & Sons, 01.09.2009)

"Hurricane Katrina Animal Rescue: IFAW Saves Dogs and Cats," Retrieved November 17, 2012, from the IFAW…… [read more]

Wilderness Growing Up Gazing Essay

2 pages (732 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Here, Williams also finds it difficult to digest the Cronon argument that wilderness is something dysfunctional. William's description of seeing the formaldehyde shark and comparing that "sculpture" to the art world made perfect sense to me. I have grown up surrounded by art, and by thinkers who view the world through the same lenses that Williams does in "A Shark in the Mind." Ultimately, Williams states, "I cannot live without art. I cannot live without wilderness," (2). Wilderness is an aesthetic, claims Williams. And what is wrong with that? It is precisely this aesthetic that I perceived when my family and I would visit the Antalya coast or the interior of Anatolia, or when we would tread on the travertine of Pamukkale. Who cares what it is called: wilderness or not?

Then, reading Zwinger's "A Desert World," I finally got what Cronon was trying to say. In America, wilderness zones are segregated on a physical and spiritual level. There is a prevailing sense of guilt that people have somehow tainted God's great creation and now have a responsibility to protect that creation by acting in a paternalistic and overprotective manner towards it. I thought about all the places I have visited, which inspired me the way the mystical desert inspired Zwinger, and I realized that never had I considered feeling like I was trespassing on some kind of sacred ground. Even when I felt elevated or uplifted, my heart and soul came closer to the sentiments expressed by Williams. Wilderness is certainly a human construction, as Cronon carefully points out. And that's just fine with some of us. There is no need to do away with that construction, but it helps to understand that our cultural values, beliefs and worldviews have a strong bearing on how we organize our universe into natural and urban spaces, sacred and profane.

Works Cited

Cronon, William. "The Trouble with Wilderness." Retrieved online: http://www.williamcronon.net/writing/Trouble_with_Wilderness_Main.html

Williams, Terry Tempest. "A Shark in the Mind of One Contemplating Wilderness." The Nation. 11 Nov 1999. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/shark-mind-one-contemplating-wilderness?page=0,0#

Zwinger, Ann. "A Desert World."… [read more]

Photosynthesis Lab This Experiment Was Carried Out Term Paper

4 pages (992 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Photosynthesis Lab

This experiment was carried out in order to develop and understanding and appreciation of photosynthesis, the mechanism on which almost all of the internal energy needs of living organisms depends, and to measure the rate of photosynthesis and some of the factors influencing this rate. Segments of spinach leaf were placed in conditions that caused them to undergo photosynthesis in a controlled and observable environment, enabling the observation of the process and of influences upon the rate of reaction occurring within the spinach leaf in light of environmental changes. Specifically, this experiment measured the proximity of the spinach leaf segments to their light source and its impact on the rate of photosynthesis, with the initial assumption that the closer the leaf segments were to this light source, the faster the photosynthesis would occur. The experiment showed that the reverse was actually the case, and when the spinach leaf segments were moved closer to the light source the rate of photosynthesis was approximately 50% longer. Possible reasons for this result and methods for further experimentation are discussed.


Though human beings most if not all of the animal kingdom consists of heterotrophs -- organisms that must eat things (typically other organisms) in order to survive -- almost all life is ultimately dependent on the work of autotrophs -- organisms that use sunlight and/or other environmental (that is, inorganic) sources (Kent, 2000). The most common form of autotrophy is photosynthesis, the process by which most plants convert sunlight into usable energy stored in the form of carbohydrates (Kent, 2000). Through a series of complex chemical steps, incoming sunlight is first converted to chemical energy, and then in a second reaction that is not itself light-dependent this chemical energy is used to create a carbohydrate -- a simple sugar -- which contains energy in the form of certain molecular bonds that can be broken to release this energy (Kent, 2000; Dalton, 2012). Photosynthesizing plants make up the foundational level of any food chain; organisms higher on the chain must eat these plants and/or other organisms that have themselves eaten these plants in order to obtain the energy they need, and in this way the process of photosynthesis is vital to almost all life on the planet (Kent, 2000; Dalton, 2012).

This research set out to determine how the distance between plant matter and the light source it is using affects the rate of photosynthesis it achieves, utilizing a controlled environment in which spinach leaf segments are exposed to light and the chemical changes they undergo as a result of photosynthesis is indirectly measured. By keeping all other variables in the experiment consistent across two trials but by adjusting the space between the light source and the spinach leaf segments, the impact that this distance has on photosynthesis rates can be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that the closer the spinach leaf segments are to the light source the faster the photosynthesis reaction will happen, as more of the…… [read more]

Forest Ecosystems Are Functioning Units That Contain Lab Report

2 pages (580 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Forest ecosystems are functioning units that contain both biotic (plants, animals, and microorganisms) and abiotic (air, water, rocks, energy) factors. Forest ecology is the study of the interactions between the organisms in a forest and the interactions between these organisms and their nonliving environment.

In this assignment, you will:

Design a unique simple, imaginary forest ecosystem with several species.

Determine the interrelations between the species inhabiting the ecosystem and their physical environment, including species niche and reproductive habits.

Apply a disturbance to your forest ecosystem and anticipate the impact that such a stress would have on the organisms living in the ecosystem.

Suggest options to mitigate the impact of the disturbance.

You are to design a FOREST ecosystem. Your ecosystem should be imaginary but your species must actually exist in a forest somewhere on earth. Be sure to take into consideration the conditions associated with species endangerment while you plan your ecosystem:

1. Limited Range: Species is found in only a small, specific area.

2. Small Population or Rarity: Species is rare within its range. High level consumers are usually rare. Other species may also have small populations.

3. High Specificity: Species has very specific requirements for:

food (e.g. Pandas only eat bamboo; animals which eat only one type of food, or a few specific foods, are prone to extinction if the food supply disappears.);

reproduction (e.g. Spotted Owls only nest in old coniferous tree hollows, rabbit fleas use female rabbit reproductive hormones and don't make their own);

habitat (e.g. there are fungi which are found only in gopher tortoise burrows); etc.

4. High Sensitivity: Species is extremely vulnerable to environmental disturbances. Examples include:

Birds are very sensitive to DDT and related pesticides which cause thinning of their eggshells. Compare…… [read more]

Biology Zebra Mussels Essay

2 pages (818 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The Tarrant Regional Water District is also performing spot checks on its lakes and plans more boater education at fishing tournaments this spring. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is also trying to instruct boaters on area corps lakes and how to stop to spread of Zebra Mussels (Hanna, 2012).

If someone boats in zebra mussel infested water, they should dry their boat for five days or clean it thoroughly with hot water that is at least 140 degrees F. If hot water is not accessible, a ten percent bleach solution can be utilized to kill any zebra mussels that are present but unique safety measures must be taken to correctly disposed of the bleach. Bait should not be carried from infested waters to other waters. Instead, unused bait should be poured onto dry land. One should never release bait into the water, and shouldn't' take bait from one water sources to use in another. "Anglers who wade to fish and duck hunters should clean their boots after leaving an infected lake" (Preventing Their Spread, 2009).

Despite these efforts it appears that the tragedy is spreading. Three years after the detection that zebra mussels had established themselves in Lake Texoma, the disparaging invasive species has been found in Lake Ray Roberts north of Denton. This is only the second lake in Texas in which the zebra mussels have been found, and the first in the Trinity River basin. Regrettably, from an ecological and financial standpoint, this is very bad news. For a multitude of reasons the repercussions of this discovery are considerable to Texas waterways and their future (Zebra Mussels Found in Lake Ray Roberts, 2012).


Hanna, B. (2012). Zebra mussel DNA confirmed in several North Texas reservoirs. Retreived from http://www.star-telegram.com/2012/03/06/3789710/zebra-mussel-dna-confirmed-in.html

Hello Zebra Mussels Goodbye Texas Boating. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.texasinvasives.org/action/spreadword_creatives/zebramussels_checklist.p df

Preventing Their Spread. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.kdwpt.state.ks.us/news/Fishing/Aquatic-Nuisance-Species/Aquatic-


Schutze, J. (2012). Zebra Mussel Threat to Texas Lakes is Misunderestimated. Retrieved http://blogs.dallasobserver.com/unfairpark/2012/01/zebra_mussel_threat_to_texas_l.p hp

Thomas, J. (2012). State Relaunches Zebra Mussel Awareness Campaign. Retrieved from http://dfw.cbslocal.com/2012/05/24/state-relaunches-zebra-mussel-awareness-campaign/

Zebra Mussels Found in Lake Ray Roberts. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/newsmedia/releases/?req=20120718a… [read more]

Plants and Humans Essay

2 pages (656 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… All animals, including humans, need to feed on plants, which provide the energy necessary for survival. "Without plants…there would be no energy for animals or other no photosynthetic organisms." (Berg, 2008, p.66) Plants convert sunlight into energy, which they use to absorb inorganic compounds from the environment and change them into organic ones which are stored in the plant. There are four groups of organic macromolecules, also called organic compounds, that can be found in plants: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. (Berg, 2008, p.31) Carbohydrates and lipids are macromolecules that plants both utilize as fuel, and as the foundation for the formation of other more complex compounds like proteins and nucleic acids. Humans, like all living organisms, also need organic compounds for their survival, and the plants provide them. In other words, the plants that humans eat, or are eaten by other animals that are in turn eaten by humans, provide the organic macromolecules needed for human life.

Plants play an important role in the survival of the human race, as well as all other animals on the planet. Plants provided the oxygen that created the environment that has shaped human evolution; and they continue to cleanse the atmosphere of carbon dioxide and provide the oxygen needed for continued survival. In addition to giving humans the very air that they breathe, plants also are the main supply of chemical energy for humans in the way of food. And finally, plants provide humans with the organic macromolecules that they need, not only for their energy requirements, but also as the building blocks for the creation of proteins and nucleic acids. Without a doubt, there could be no humans if it were not for the existence of plants.


Berg, Linda. (2008). Introductory Botany: Plants, People, and the Environment.

Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education. Print.

Ke, Bacon. (2003). Photosynthesis: Photobiochemistry and Photobiophysics. New York:…… [read more]

Reintroduction of Wolves in Idaho Research Paper

12 pages (3,733 words)  |  Turabian Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This move was strongly supported by a majority of the residents of Idaho despite the fact that it conflicted with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service guidelines which stipulated that the "population of wolves was to be more than 100 species to be delisted from the endangered species" (Cockerham 2012). The Governor claimed that the… [read more]

Forest Fires and Suppression Research Paper

8 pages (2,754 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 13

… S.A. along with ground and aerial patrols that scavenge the area every few hours. In addition to those, public service hotlines are established so that anyone can report suspected fires to the appropriate authorities. In modern times, electronic systems of detection have gained more popularity as human methods can be faulted and fatigued. These are fully or semi-automated systems such… [read more]

Parents, I Have the Fondest Essay

3 pages (874 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… More to the point, as President I have to promise my people something and attempt to make better than the current president or his predecessors. So now I'm trying to woo my pet to my cause. How can he/she/it help me? More to the point, how can I persuade him o help me?

Well, we often say that the country is going to the dogs. These are empty promises that past individuals have made and the dogs, according to what my own dog has informed me, are frustrated that earthlings (i.e. humans) fail to keep their promise. Apparently, they lie. If the country is going to the dogs, and they have opined this time and time again, then why is this state of affairs not occurring.

This is where I come in. I bend down on one knee and solemnly affirm to my pet, the Shig-Growling dog that, not only will America go to the dogs, but it will go to the dogs forever and ever. And it will go to his breed.

Being diplomatic, I realize that I have to also persuade the normal and sub-normal citizens of the U.S.A. -- i.e. us mortals -- of my category of reasoning and the wisdom behind it. How to do so?

The answer again is simple.

Politicians stand up and talk. We know to disbelieve them. Every Aye is a nay, and we learn to flip over their words as quickly as pancakes and to read the reverse.

Presidential candidates have, in the past, stood up and clamored that the country will go to Men. Big Men. Great Men. Super-human, triple-human individuals as big and delectable as a MacDonald's beef burger. The country disbelieves them and states that the nation will go to dogs. I will stand up and promise that the nation will go to the dogs and the people, seeing me as politician, will disbelieve me. Ha, they will think, he is the first who has promised that a superior, remarkable human will lead the country. Our votes, accordingly, go to him.

Hence, my dear dog, you will ascend to the throne and once ascended to the throne (or to Lincoln's bed in the White House), I will be your vice-president and none can accuse me of lying. For I only told the truth.

Now you can see why I need to become the next president. None will be better than me. Destination, or dog-karma, calls for it.… [read more]

Species of California (Common Teasel) Research Paper

4 pages (1,304 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… al.).

Teasel is an aggressive species with no natural enemies or consumers to temper its growth and proliferation. If it is permitted to establish itself in savannah or prarie regions, it can easily thrive and become dominant by out-competing other, native species of vegetation. A single teasel plant can produce more than two thousand seeds in its life cycle, and each seed is capable of remaining dormant in the ground for two years or more before germinating. Seed germination rates are typically high, in the range of 30-80%. Due to their similarity in growth patterns, teasels have been compared to dandelions as invasive species ("Invasive species").

Management of unwanted teasel growth can take the form of mechanical or chemical controls. Cutting, extraction and burning are common mechanical solutions. Small teasel infestations can be controlled by trimming the plants below the crown. Large infestations in crop growing areas can be managed by trimming the plants while they are still young, in the rosette stage. Seed production can be thus prevented by preventing the plants from reaching the flowering stage. Due in part to the generally moist habitats teasel tends to grow, burning is a difficult method of control for this species. Even in non-aqueous growth areas, the high density of teasel rosettes and stalks limits the ability of fire to spread, or to achieve temperatures sufficiently high to be lethal to plant tissues. Furthermore, burning methods are impractical along roads and highways with vehicular traffic, which are common areas of infestation (Gucker).

Herbicide-based solutions also exist, but are limited in their effectiveness and therefore less commonly used. Herbicidal chemicals including Triclopyr or Glyphosate can be applied to teasel leaves and stems at a 2% concentration level. This method can be effective if applied in advance of the plant reaching the bolting or flowering stalk stage. If the herbicide is applied after this stage, limited control may be possible but seed production may still occur, rendering this a temporary or partial solution. As teasel tends not to grow back if it is removed before the seed-setting stage, cutting is the preferred method of control, where practical and possible (DiTomaso et. al.).

Another interesting feature of teasel is its apparent behavior as a carnivorous plant. Wild plants are known to enhance their growth and reproductive capacity by utilizing the supplementary phosphorus and nitrogen that can be extracted from animal remains. This phenomenon, known as carnivory, has been observed in the form of wild common teasel species capturing invertebrate organisms and insects within the rain water-filled basins formed by the base of their leaf clusters. Whereas it is not yet established whether Dipsacus employs active or exclusively passive measures to lure and trap its animal prey, early experimental results suggest that it does gain nutrients and increased fitness from this food source. The results observed include an increase in seed production, as well as an elevated ratio of seed mass to the overall biomass of the organism (Shaw et. al.).

In this paper, we… [read more]

New Earth, Chapter 1: The Flowering of Human Consciousness Book Report

2 pages (652 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … spiritual author Eckhart Tolle's latest book, "A New Earth," Tolle elaborates on the ideas he developed in the spiritual classic, "The Power of Now." The key theme is that you are not your mind. You are something much greater than your mind. The mind is merely an instrument of your body that you falsely identify with, believing your mind's activity to be "you." This process of mind-identification results in a false sense of self, referred to as the ego.

In A New Earth, Tolle expands the scope of the original book. In A New Earth, Tolle's aim is not only to help individuals correct their own spiritual deficiencies, but to explain the world's major problems as outgrowths of this deep-set spiritual deficiencies. He reveals the connection between ego-identification and war, economic exploitation, and the destruction of our environment.

For Tolle, the conflicts in the world are merely reflection of our own inner conflicts, created by our false sense of self. We look through the world through the prism of the "self," a "self" which is separate from the universe that it exists in. Because of this false view, we feel constantly threatened by our environment: people, animals, and Mother Earth itself. This false self gives birth to self-interest and self-preservation, which is the root of all violence and exploitation.

Tolle explains that the human race has evolved, through the effects of mind-identification, into a highly destructive and miserable species. Humans are the only species which can think. Animals and plants, on the other hand, cannot think, they can only be. This state of being is what human beings have lost through identification with the mind.

The development of our thinking faculties, Tolle explains, is the true meaning of the parable of Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve existed in a state of grace, a state of "pure being," blissful and perfect. They fell from grace when they ate of the forbidden fruit, when they…… [read more]

Evolution and Adaptation Essay

2 pages (580 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… They are found in almost all parts of the universe except in Greenland and the Antarctica.

Since the owl is a predator and has much of its life active at night, there are several adaptations that is has developed over the years to enable it to be a good hunter and for its survival, these adaptations are in form of the vision, hearing, flight and the mode of flight.

Vision; the owl has its eyes located at the front of the head in a shallow dish like depression to enable it to collect the maximum amount of light emanating from the target. They are able to rotate their head at 270 degrees hence giving it the wider view spectrum. The owl also has disproportionate large eyes in comparison to their skull relative to other birds as well as the eyes being tubular in shape. Due to this tubular shape of the eyes, they cannot be rotated as in other birds but the owl uses the 270 degrees head swivel without necessarily moving the torso. This will also keep the bird still and silent not to arouse a potential prey.

Flight; most owls have the ability to fly without producing any sound. This is due to the serrations that are found along their feathers that minimize the rattling of the feathers while on flight hence giving them an advantage over the prey that may be depending or hearing for identification of any predators in the dark (Deane, P. Lewis, 2005). The surface of the feathers mainly used in flight is covered with velvet like structure which helps in the absorption of the sound of the wing while it is… [read more]

Arguments and Water Usage Essay

2 pages (635 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Water Usage in CA

An Argument for Natural Flora and Better Water Usage

While water usage may be restricted in Los Angeles, it is a problem that cannot necessarily be said to be either right or wrong. Obviously there are going to be some points that support such a decision and other points that do not. What we should rather discuss is a way to solve the problem: we should not get distracted by hyperbole and self-righteous ideologies. Rather, we should ask ourselves: how can we help Los Angeles to deal with the water problem? How can one address the needs of the citizens of LA?

At the same time, I do not think we should be fining people who have green lawns. Green lawns, for one thing, are aesthetically pleasing -- and as we all have human nature, the things with which we surround ourselves have a direct impact on our lives and how we live. If we let everything around us die, our mental and spiritual aspect is sure to be affected. It is better to cultivate our gardens, and take care of our property -- even at the expense of "wasting" water. We should not think of it as "waste" but as proper upkeep. Our gardens deserve to be kept properly -- our land should look as beautiful as we can make it. That beauty is a reflection of what we desire for ourselves.

England, for example, is like one big garden. It is a very pleasant place to visit: everything is picturesque and proper. The English have a very cultivated way about them: an air that suggests refinement and culture. What we lack in our own ways may be made up for if we only took the time to show a little more care and pride in the way we treat our surroundings. This may be one reason why people plant lawns and…… [read more]

Buy Your Dog Essay

2 pages (752 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… If a dog has a severe or congenital condition, the owner must often make the decision to either treat the dog for an expensive illness like hip dysplasia or euthanize it if it cannot be saved (Buying dogs in pet stores, 2011, Dog Guide). Dogs in puppy mills and pet stores are often kept in cages which force them to remain in close contact with their own feces. Not only are these metal cages hurtful to the dog's paws -- they also make housebreaking more difficult because the dogs are in constant contact with their own waste, violating their natural instincts.

Instead of using your dollars (often a considerable sum, for a purebred or a 'designer' crossbred like a cockapoo) to fuel an industry based in animal cruelty, it is better to rescue one of the countless animals in shelters that need home. For families that desire a dog of a specific size and temperament, there are many breed 'rescue' organizations committed to placing dogs of specific breeds that are in desperate need of good homes. If someone feels that he or she 'must' have a purebred dog that is still a puppy, choose a reputable private breeder who allows for an inspection of the parents before purchase. Because they do not proceed through a 'middleman' broker, reputable breeders often charge less than pet stores, and most breed dogs as a hobby, not as their primary means of income. "With every dollar spent on a pet store puppy, a mill is driven to produce another litter of dogs in deplorable conditions" (Buying dogs in pet stores, 2011, Dog Guide). Do not fuel this industry when you buy a dog, no matter how much the 'doggie in the window' may tug at your heartstrings.


Animal euthanasia. (2011). American Humane Society. Retrieved July 11, 2011 at http://www.americanhumane.org/animals/stop-animal-abuse/fact-sheets/animal-shelter-euthanasia.html

Buying dogs in pet stores. (2011). Dog Guide. Retrieved July 11, 2011 at http://www.dogguide.net/pet-store-dogs.php

What is a puppy mill? (2011). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Retrieved July 11, 2011 at http://www.aspca.org/fight-animal-cruelty/puppy-mills/what-is-a-puppy-mill.aspx… [read more]

Plummer, CE, Kallberg, Me, Gelatt Article Review

3 pages (905 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… That dog had one of the most difficult cases and when one of his glands, he had both eyes operated on, slipped back, the owners refused a second procedure and dropped out of the study. There was only one strange anomaly which the authors had to deal with; one of the dog's third eyelid's cartilage developed a fold which had to be cut off. As the gland remained in place with seemingly no effects whatsoever, this anomaly was disregarded.

The authors have concluded that their new procedure is an improvement over previous procedures in so much as it neither removes the gland, causing dry-eye problems, nor stuffs it away where it could cause a cyst. They do admit that this new procedure does require more complicated as well as more delicate suturing, but also claim that with proper training, this procedure, once mastered, can be performed in a matter of minutes. They also admit that their study group was small, only ten dogs with only fifteen procedures performed, and do not really have any answer to that.

This paper not-so-simply described a new surgical procedure to treat prolapsed glands in the third eyelids of dogs;, and it's mostly positive results: the glands could be surgically put back in placed, confusingly referred to as "replaced," without damaging the gland's ability to produce tear fluids. This paper did not really describe a scientific experiment, just the results of a new procedure. Those involved in the study tried their procedure on every dog, there was no control group, or did there seem the need for there to be one. The only discovery this study made was whether a more complicated and delicate stitching of the gland would be better that stitching it inside a piece of tissue, or simply cutting it off altogether. This study seemed only to measure the amount of success, not whether the procedure would be success or not. It was more of a description of an improved technique for putting a prolapsed gland back into place, than an actual experiment.

One of the best aspects of this article was the authors' great care to describe the procedure in, what some may call excruciating detail, but what the more educated mind calls exquisite detail. No one familiar with the anatomy of the eye of a dog could finish reading this article without a very good understanding of exactly how to perform this procedure. The author's were very good at describing their procedure to the reader.


Plummer, CE, Kallberg, ME, Gelatt, KN, Barrie, KP, and Brooks, DE. 2008. Intranictitans tacking for replacement of prolapsed gland of the third eyelid in dogs.…… [read more]

Local and Surrounding Ecologies and Environments Essay

3 pages (1,056 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Arlington, Virginia -- Environment & Ecology

Situated across the Potomac River from the nation's capitol, and close to the sprawling Chesapeake Bay, Arlington, Virginia is proud of its natural history heritage and boasts many ecological places and environmental venues that are outstanding and are being monitored, maintained and preserved. Better known for the Pentagon, the Arlington National Cemetery, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, the U.S. Marine War Memorial and its proximity to Washington D.C., Arlington is in fact a dynamic destination for outdoor activities, hiking, birding, and many other activities related to the natural world. Arlington County is 25.9 square miles in size and averages 8,407 people per square mile.

Ecologies and Environments in Arlington -- While not directly abutting the bay, Arlington is part of the enormous Chesapeake Bay Watershed, which is the largest and the most diverse estuary in North America, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Bay is extremely valuable to Arlington, Arlington County, the state or Maryland and other nearby regions and states, including Pennsylvania and West Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay is 200 miles long and features more than 11,000 miles of "tidal shoreline, and is fed by 100,000 creeks, streams and rivers," the EPA documents explain.

The entire watershed of the Chesapeake Bay encompasses 64,000 square miles. The economic benefits of the Bay to the nearby population, including Arlington, add up to more than $33 billion annually, the EPA. Flowing right past Arlington and into the Chesapeake Bay is the Potomac River, offering relaxation, recreation, fishing, and historical linkages with the founding of the United States. One well-known historical site on the Potomac ecology is the Fort C.F. Smith Park, right on the river that offers 19 acres with meadows, forests, and gardens. The park is located at the juncture between the "physiographic provinces of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain," featuring a diversity of wildlife, habitats, and exotic tree species" (www.Arlingtonva.us). Another park along the Potomac ecology is the Potomac Overlook Regional Park, 70 acres of trails, gardens, and woodlands.

Factors that distinguish Arlington's local ecology and environment -- Arlington has numerous forested areas in the midst of a thriving, bustling metropolis. Gulf Branch Park (5.4 acres of hardwood forest); Donaldson Run Park (30.22 acres, hardwood, oak, hickory forest); Windy Run Park (7.5 acres, oak forest); Glencarlyn Park (2.6 acres acidic oak hickory forest); Long Branch / Glencarlyn Park (49.67 acres, oak hickory forest); Arlington Forest Park (1 acre); and Barcroft Park (24 acres, wetlands, 23 springs, it is the most ecologically significant natural site owned by Arlington County) (Natural Resources Management Plan).

Arlington is presently taking an inventory of its large trees, and now has identified 53 that are "champions of Arlington" (enormous trees up to 300 years of age) and 32 that are "state champions" (also very large, protected trees). Arlington County plants over 1,200 trees a year.

How have human activities affected the ecosystems in and around Arlington? First, the Chesapeake Bay is polluted to the point of being… [read more]

Adaptive Radiation of Island Plants Article Review

2 pages (623 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Radiation of Plants

Adaptive Radiation in the Genus Aeonium

Tropical islands are frequently distinct habitats for the expansive growth and proliferation of a diversity of flora and fauna. As the article by Jorgensen & Olesen (2001) indicates, much of this is generally attributed to the phenomenon of adaptive radiation whereby species derived from a common genetic strand take on differing morphological and phenotypic characteristic according to the survival needs precipitated by the specifics of their respective environmental surroundings. However, Jorgensen & Olesen suggest that this assessment is based largely on indirect evidence with more direct evidence of the phenomenon still somewhat scarce. Engaging an examination of certain species of flora found in the Hawaiian and Canary Islands, the article considered here points out that in light of the largely indirect nature of existing evidence, it may be reasonable to deduce that some level of hybridization is also responsible for the speciation of different plants derived from a common lineage.

The study centers particularly on the genus Aeonium, which the researchers identify as the largest plant radiation found in the Canary Island system. (p. 29) According to Jorgensen & Olesen, there is a particular interest in the way that such a genus might proliferate and differentiate within the confines of a contained expanse such as an island. Accordingly, the researchers note that "within these restricted areas, numerous plant genera contain a considerable number of endemic species. Such island radiations are of particular interest because, unlike many continental plant groups, they have radiated within a very restricted geographic area and their relatively recent rapid radiation can be demonstrated through the geological history of the islands." (p. 29)

The article goes on to observe that certain common traits have proliferated through the Aeonium species and provide us with a basis for observing their shared evolutionary origins. Among these traits, the article refers to woodliness,…… [read more]

Lake Baikal and the Endemic Species Created by Unique Conditions Research Paper

10 pages (2,674 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… ¶ … world's oldest, largest and deepest lakes, Lake Baikal in Siberia hosts an incredible array of endemic plants and animals. Created more than 25 million years ago, Lake Baikal remains geologically active today. Throughout the 20th century, though, the push for industrialization in the former Soviet Union contributed to the pollution of the lake, threatening both the flora and… [read more]

Gorges Dam Term Paper

3 pages (909 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Gorges Dam Project

Assessing the Environmental Impact of the Three Gorges Dam Project

Costing $24B and having the dimensions that rival one of the American Great Lakes (Salazar, 2000) the Three Gorges Dam Project displaced 1.2 million people and forced the relocation of 116 cities and towns, the redistricting of a province and near extinction of thousands of plants and animals. The dam is the largest in the world by a wide margin, with a length of 7,661 feet, 607 feet tall and a base width of 377 feet containing the Yangtze River (Salazar, 2000). When the dam was built, people relocated for the project were paid as little as $7 a month in compensation for having their land taken for this project. The socioeconomic impact alone has re-ordered the Chinese economy, yet the combination of these factors and the environmental costs are threatening the highest growth economic region of China just up-rive in Shanghai. The environmental impact has been even more significant with a complete re-ordering of the ecosystems that had prior to the dam being built, flourished in this region of China.

Systematic Analysis of the Three Gorge River Dam Environmental Impact

To fully appreciate the environmental impact of the Three Gorge Dam project the ecosystems that rely on this region of China need to be taken into account. Most prevalent of all ecosystems in the area are the plants, trees, shrubs and animal life (Alberts, Alberts, Bloom, LaFlamme, Teerikangas, 2004). Chinese officials never realized how interlinked the ecosystems for plants and wildlife are to their most prosperous region of the country, Shanghai, which today is seeing water quality diminish and the emergence of water-borne diseases due to the water stagnation (Alberts, Alberts, Bloom, LaFlamme, Teerikangas, 2004). Not seeing how intertwined these natural ecosystems are with the balance necessary to keep Shanghai healthy is now becoming even more visible throughout the region as a result of the massive dam.

The dam has also jeopardized the quality and abundance of fish throughout the entire region, from Shanghai northward. This is one of the primary sources of protein for millions of Chinese who live along the banks of the Yangtze River. The dam has been responsible for 25 of the river's 177 unique fish indigenous to the Yangtze River entering extinction status due to being overfished. The dam has virtually cot off the fish ecosystem, slicing it in two, leaving one side to be overfished and other downstream to prosper. The dilemma the Chinese government faces is that the majority of citizens live on the side where salt water feeds in from the ports near Shanghai. This results not only in overfishing but contamination of fish eggs from fresh water fish and…… [read more]

Non-Surgical Sterilization of the Dog Research Paper

3 pages (1,001 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Non Surgical Sterilization of the Dog:

For many decades, the surgical sterilization of the dog has been the major initiative used to stop the unnecessary breeding of dogs. The surgical sterilization of dogs has resulted in the invention of various techniques and procedures including the increasing recognition of the sterilization of both kittens and puppies as well as the of mobile sterilization vehicles. In various animal shelters where neutering and spaying has been used, there has been a significant reduction of the number unnecessary dogs, puppies, kittens and cats. However, these surgical sterilization methods have not been effective in terms of targeting untamed population of dogs and communities that are difficult to reach (Zawistowski, n.d.). This untamed population and communities would be easier to reach if non-surgical sterilization of dogs was available and utilized.

Due to this need, a significant work and effort has been put to develop non-surgical sterilization methods in the last couple of decades. These efforts of developing non-surgical sterilization of the dog have also been largely because of the fact that affording the cost spaying and neutering have been next to impossible for many people as well as the restricted access to veterinary care (Singer, 2010). While many researchers have come close to identifying the non-surgical sterilants and contraceptives of pets, much of their early work and innovative ideas have been frustrated by the shortage of funds. Most of the contraceptives and sterilization products that are available for veterinary use today are non-surgical regardless of the fact that they have serious side-effects. In light of these traditional surgical techniques and procedures, identifying secure and effective non-surgical techniques and procedures has been a big challenge. Nonetheless, immunocontraception has been the most significant non-surgical sterilization research and method in the past decade.


This is considered as the main non-surgical method of controlling unnecessary breeding in animals including dogs and involves the use of the body's own immune system to hinder fertility. The method neutralizes and hinders the usual reproductive process of an animal by introducing exogenous reproductive proteins through injection making the animal to produce antibodies. There are several immunocontraceptives targets that include zona pellucida which is the covering on the egg or oocyte that the sperm connects to during fertilization (Tasker, n.d.). This hinders the sperm from connecting to the oocyte and as a result prevents the possibility of fertilization occurring.

The other immunocontraceptive means is the inhibition of reproductive hormones i.e. either the oestrogen or testosterone by preventing the gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). As the main non-surgical sterilization method, immunocontraception is mainly advantageous because it is appropriate for oral administration and does not need animal capture. While the availability of these immunocontraception products is increasing, there has also been a greater interest in the research of identifying non-surgical sterilants. This search has significantly increased after the Alliance for Contraception in Cats and Dogs got a huge funding from the Michelson Prize and Grants in Reproductive Biology. The alliance is mandated with the task of controlling…… [read more]

Primate Characteristics Anthropoids: In Allen's Swamp Monkey Essay

3 pages (867 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Primate Characteristics


In Allen's swamp monkey the genitalia is unpronounced and estrus and menses is unknown as well as the breeding season. The male appears to be larger and is sexually dimorphic. There does not appear to be differences in coat color. The species is a quadruped. The arms appear to be longer. The thumbs and big toes are opposable and no tail. It appears to have nails. They probably spend more time on the ground in their natural habitat. It has a small tail and appears to use the tail the same in captivity as in the wild. The Lincoln Park Zoo exhibit differs from its natural environment.

Francois' langur does not appear to be sexually dimorphic and genitalia unpronounced without much difference in coat color. The species is primarily arboreal. Males do not appear to be larger. Arms are longer. Species is a quadruped. The thumbs and big toes are opposable and no tail. It appears to have nails. It looks like the Lincoln Park exhibit is similar to its natural habitat. It has a small tail and appears to use the tail the same in captivity as in the wild. The genitalia appear to be unpronounced. The Lincoln Park Zoo exhibit differs from its natural environment.

Bolivian gray titi monkey does not appear to be sexually dimorphic. It has fingernails on the toes only. It does not appear to be sexually dimorphic. It has a prehensile tail and is arboreal. It appears to use its tail in captivity as it does in the wild. They appear to use the tail the same in captivity as in the wild. The genitalia appear to be unpronounced. The Lincoln Park Zoo exhibit is set up similar to its natural environment.

The gibbon has not tail as it is a lesser ape. It is mainly arboreal. The thumbs are not as opposable as a human being. They seem to use the tail the same in captivity as in the wild. The genitalia appear to be unpronounced. They do not seem to be sexually dimorphic. They have nails. The arms are longer. The Lincoln Park Zoo exhibit differs from its natural environment.

The chimpanzee is both terrestrial and arboreal. The thumbs are not as opposable as a human being. The genitalia appear to be unpronounced. They do seem to be sexually dimorphic. They have nails. The arms and legs are equal length. The Lincoln Park Zoo exhibit differs from its natural environment.

The gorillas are mainly terrestrial. The thumbs are not as opposable as a human being. The genitalia appear to be unpronounced. They…… [read more]

1994 and 1998 Floods (Natural Disasters) Research Proposal

20 pages (5,800 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 40

… ¶ … 1994 and 1998 Floods (Natural Disasters) on Albany State University and Albany, Ga. Additionally, creation and implementation of a disaster response plan for future Flooding (natural disasters) in the area

Effects and Response of Major Disasters at a HBCU-Albany State University

Michael V. Fleming

A Proposal for the Capstone Research Project

Research Design and Data Analysis

Dr. Veronica… [read more]

Horseshoe Crabs Term Paper

2 pages (934 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Horseshoe Crabs

According to the Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (2009) horseshoe crabs are large primitive marine arthropods related to the spider. They are distinguished by a heavy dark brown exoskeleton or carapace, which is doomed and shaped like a horseshoe. Their body is divided into a broad flattened semicircular front part, the prosoma, a tapering middle part, the opisthoosma, and a pointed spiky tail like part, the telson. They have no jaws, and the mouth is flanked by a pair of pincer like chelicera that are used to crush worms and other invertebrates taken as food. Five pairs of walking legs attached to the prosoma enable the animals to swim awkwardly or burrow through the sand or mud. The respiratory organs are called book gills and are unique to horseshoe crabs. Each book gill is made of about 100 thin leaves, or plates; these are fitted like pages of a book onto one pair of flap like appendages on the opisthosoma. Rhythmic movement of the appendages circulates water over the gill surfaces and drives blood into and out of the gill leaves. They first appeared in the Upper Silurian period, and a number of fossil species have been described. Five species still survive; four of these are found along the Pacific coast of Asia. The American species, Limulus Polyphemus, is common along the Atlantic coast from Nova Scotia to Florida. They live in shallow water, preferring soft or sandy bottoms, and reach a maximum length of nearly 2 ft.

National Geographic (1999) reports horseshoe crabs resemble fossilized trilobites and eurypterids of the Paleozoic era. They have changed little since an ancestor was fossilized 150 million years ago. Spawning crabs swarm Delaware Bay beaches in spring, fueling an egg-eating frenzy of gulls and migratory birds. Fishermen kill crabs for bait. Studies suggest that populations are dropping, leading some states to restrict harvests. By decoding their visual system, researchers have learned much about human sight. Crabs are also bled to extract a reagent used to test drugs and medical devices for contamination.

Horseshoe crabs are members of the phylum Arthropoda, arthro meaning joint and poda meaning foot. This is the most numerous phyla of all living organisms in both number of species and number of individuals. Conservative estimates are that well over one million species of insects exist. As far as individuals are concerned there are more ants than anything else, and there are more kinds of beetles than any other species. Between 40 and 50% of all insect species are beetles. There are more insects than all other animals and plants combined (Carter, 1997).

Arthropods have segmented bodies covered by an exoskeleton made from chitin and other chemicals. The exoskeleton serves as protection and provides places for muscle attachment. Because their exoskeleton doesn't grow with them Arthropods must molt.…… [read more]

Dangerous Game by Richard Connell Essay

4 pages (1,251 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell and "The Destructors" by Graham Greene

Both stories demonstrate the strength of power and the diverse people who use power to their own good.

"The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell and "The Destructors" by Graham Greene each contain a character eager to control others to get what he wants.

Zaroff creates a world in which he is the ruler.

Trevor seeks to rule within his own group of peers.

Both characters are destructive and extremely successful at what they do.

Zaroff spends his life hunting up the food chain until he meets his match.

Trevor destroys what makes him angry or what he does not understand

Both authors present characters whose motivations can be determined from the text to a certain extent.

Rainsford has no choice but to be an excellent opponent but we cannot guess his fate.

b. Trevor is wildly successful at his task yet we cannot know his fate.

Power is an amazing force because it can push people to do many things. Some of these things are heroic and noble while others are not. Power can drive people to help feed starving children or it can drive people to devise devious schemes in order to get what they want. Two stories that delve into how power shapes the character of man are "The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell and "The Destructors" by Graham Greene. Power and control undoubtedly motivate Zaroff and Trevor. Both characters use power to further their own pleasure in life even if it means deadly or destructive behavior. Both characters are shaped by events and each author has allowed us to predict some character motivation from the text. However, each story does keep us guessing about the protagonist's fate. These stories demonstrate the strength of power and the diverse people who use power to their own good.

Each story contains a character eager to control others to get what he wants. In Connell's "The Most Dangerous Game," Rainsford and General Zaroff are the main characters. They are intelligent men who love the sport of hunting. Rainsford and Zaroff have similar characteristics in that they both enjoy the game of hunting with little regard for the hunted. We see this about Rainsford early in the story when he expresses no concern for the jaguar when hunting. He is implicit when he states that the animals have no understanding of what is happening to the while being hunted. Similarly, Zaroff has little regard for the hunted. In fact, he experiences difficulty finding sport worthy of his hunt. Man is the only animal that possesses enough cunning to keep him entertained and challenged. On the island, Zaroff establishes his idea of a perfect world. His intricate system and aristocratic lifestyle illustrate how he is perhaps one of the most dangerous types of people: wealthy and mentally unstable. His manners are quite civilized but his humanity falls incredibly short. In "The Destructors," the main character is Trevor, who… [read more]

Can We Prevent Species Extinction Lab Report

2 pages (712 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Prevent Species Extinction?

The modern society and the technological progresses it experiences are to a large degree responsible for the fact that numerous species become extinct. It is a dilemma for most of the general public whether or not they can do anything in order to prevent species from becoming extinct. In their attempt to come up with a solution to put an end to species extinction, people have discovered that there are a series of factors that can influence a species' chances of survival. Even if it risks extinction, scientists proved that a species can thrive in an environment if the right number of individuals is introduced and if the land they are provided with is satisfactory.


While it is difficult to deal with a species on the verge of extinction, it is especially difficult for society to find an answer to the situation currently experienced by the Grizzly Bear population. In spite of the fact that the grizzly bear could be found in large numbers in territories across North America, there are presently little individuals from the species residing in the northern Rocky Mountains. Alarmed by the decreasing number of grizzlies, wildlife biologists got actively engaged in determined what caused this and how it could be prevented.

One of the first things wildlife biologists discovered was that grizzlies would have more chances of populating a nature reserved if the number introduced was higher than 20 individuals. Also, it became obvious that bears would increase in numbers if the nature reserve they lived in were to be added new bears were introduced at a certain interval.

The survival and welfare of Grizzly bears largely depends on the territory they inhabit, since when compared with most carnivores, this species needs a lot of room. In order for a grizzly bear population to have even the smallest chances for survival over several years, it would require at least half of the normal area of land an adult female uses.

Material and methods:

In an attempt to discover important information to assist them in creating a suitable environment for the grizzly bear population to be…… [read more]

Evolutionary Adaptations in Snakes Term Paper

2 pages (619 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Evolutionary Adaptations in Snakes

One of the most fascinating aspects of snakes is their ability to swallow prey that appears (to us) to be impossibly large in relation to the dimensions of their heads. Other snake-like organisms such as caecilians, glass lizards, and sirens lack this ability, raising logical questions about how and why this adaptation evolved exclusively in snakes. Physiologically, there are specific morphological and behavioral mechanisms responsible for this feeding behavior: the snake's quadrate bone connecting the jaws allows distention of the entire joint; the two sides of the lower jawbone are connected in the middle by muscle instead of inflexible bone, and the snake's teeth are recurved to hold prey in place during swallowing and to allow the snake to "walk" its jaws over prey items one side at a time. The absence of similar features in other related species is likely attributable to the fact that these specialized evolutionary adaptations were largely driven by the unique hunting and killing mechanisms that removed the usual limitations of the size of prey in relation to the size of the predator's body and head.

Morphological and Behavioral Mechanisms

To accomplish the feat of swallowing prey items substantially larger than the snake's head, the snake has evolved three specific morphological and behavioral adaptations. Snakes have evolved the ability to open their mouths much wider than their heads by virtue of the anatomical mechanism of a specialized quadrate bone attaching the upper and lower jaw (Carr, 1993; Gould, 1991; Gould, 1995). More particularly, this allows them to unhinge their jaws at the connection to open their mouths almost a full 180°. Generally, the snake uses this ability to swallow any prey that is larger than it would be capable of swallowing without this adaptation.

Similarly, the snake's lower jaw is not solid bone; rather, the left and right halves are…… [read more]

Writing Competency Test Going to the Birds Essay

3 pages (1,109 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Writing Competency Test

Going to the Birds:

The Effect of Human Interference on Bird Survival

As a child, I loved the Sesame Street character Big Bird. He was huge but not threatening, and showed as much curiosity about the world as I did. In fact, Big Bird has been one of the most popular figures on Sesame Street since its creation, and it's no wonder. Birds have held a special spot in the hearts and minds of humans for millennia. We have kept them as pets, we have raised and hunted them for food, we have dreamed of flying among them. They have been used to symbolize wisdom, peace, and freedom. Despite this fascination, however, we often ignore them when their needs conflict with our own. Too often, the survival of a bird species rests on whether or not we care to take an interest in them at the right time. Many times this interest comes too late, or not at all.

Such was the case with the passenger pigeon. An article on Ecotopia.org describes the fall of the passenger pigeon due to "human greed and our capacity for mindless destruction." While it was once the most populous bird in North America, it was wiped to extinction within a hundred years from overhunting and the destruction of their habitat. Unfortunately, too many hunters early in the 19th century held the attitude of John James Audubon, that the birds were simply too numerous to go extinct from anything but "the gradual diminution of our forests" (qtd. In Ecotopia).

At the time, Audubon could not conceive of the disappearance of the forests and therefore could not see any real danger to the pigeon population, but he was gravely underestimating the destructive power of human greed and ignorance. While hunters cannot deny the role hands-on role that they play in the destruction of a species, developers and loggers are less likely to take the blame for extinction since it is merely an unintended consequence of their actions, not the ultimate goal. If the blood of these birds and other animals were literally on their hands the way that it is for hunters, then perhaps they would be more aware and take more responsibility for the havoc they wreak on these populations, but as it stands it is simply too easy for them to turn away from the consequences of their actions and to deny accountability.

This callousness about habitat destruction also led to the near-extinction of the ivory-billed woodpecker, a species once strong but now so rare that it has until recently been considered legendary. In his review of Tim Gallagher's the Grail Bird, Mark Barrow attributes the disappearance of the ivory-billed woodpecker to commercial logging that continued "despite the best efforts of Audubon officials" and with the full knowledge that continued clearing would make the species extinct (36). Though a few members of the species ended up surviving against incredible odds, their only hope for the future lies in the concerted efforts… [read more]

World Without Cetaceans Term Paper

4 pages (1,735 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … Cetaceans

The feeling that this movie (the Cove) brings to peoples heart is obvious unless your heart is made of stone that you are unlikely not to be unaffected by it, when it displays how malevolence man has proved to be. In deed the mind get boggles when you think through if truly the picture comes to the… [read more]

Environmental Issue in Florida Research Paper

5 pages (1,693 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Environmental Issue in Florida

Florida, the sunshine state, and vacation destination for millions of tourists, from around the world. It is paradise, as many will call Florida, and it is a great place to live during the winter month. During the time between November and May millions of people coming to Florida every year, just to go away from the… [read more]

Pet Adoption Adopting a Pets Essay

3 pages (1,229 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Pet Adoption

Adopting a Pet

Pets are a mainstay of the American household. Not everyone has a pet, of course, but so many do that having a pet is almost normative. Pets are found in homes of the young and elderly alike. Even many of those who do not have pets have had experience with them growing up. I've noticed that mostly there are "cat" people and "dog" people, although there are those who prefer less conventional pets like lizards, birds, or snakes. For me, lizards and snakes are out of the question since I'm afraid of any kind of reptile. it's an irrational fear, but I can't help it and I accept that others are different. Recently, I've come to the belief that it is one's duty to adopt a pet. This is based on an article I read about neglected animals that need a home. It wouldn't be ethical not to do my part to help these animals. In compassion I can at least take one in. Who knows what the benefits will be? What remains is to decide whether to get a cat, a dog, or a bird. After lots of thought, I've finally decided that the best option for me is to adopt a dog.

There are good reasons to adopt a bird. They sing beautifully for one thing, and that can really brighten up each day. A woman I knew had several birds that she kept on her landing as "good luck charms," she told me. I didn't know what to do with that superstition, but she treated them well and got joy from them. My grandmother used to feed the wild birds from her front porch. They were beautiful as they swooped down to gather the food she laid out. Can you ever tire of looking at colorful feathers? Birds have interesting habits -- things like head bobbing and skittering. I love birds. Yet I believe birds should stay in the wild. They are not creatures to be domesticated. You can only keep a bird if you put it in a cage. Otherwise it will try to fly away and may bang into windows and hurt itself. I don't want my pet to hurt itself. Nor do I want to lock it up behind metal bars like a prison. It just doesn't seem natural to put birds in cages like that. I couldn't justify it. Birds need to be free to fly. They shouldn't have clipped wings. Often they die early, I've been told. I want a lasting pet. I know a bird would be cheaper than a cat or dog, but expense is not my main concern. What matters is that a pet can be free to be what it is. I'm not interested in enslaving a creature. As much pleasure as I would get out of a bird, I believe it would make me sad to see it perched there without being able to fly to a treetop, no matter how much… [read more]

Bass Fishing Research Paper

2 pages (526 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Bass Fishing

"There's a fine line between fishing and just standing on a dock holding a pole like an idiot." -- Comedian Steven Wright

Understanding Bass Fishing

Bass fishing can be a tremendously enjoyable and rewarding experience. In addition to bringing one closer to the natural world, it provides an opportunity to learn about the behaviors of animals in the wild and to apply specific knowledge about wildlife species in a challenging activity. Decades of experience have suggested various important principles and methods for ensuring a successful bass fishing experience. To many who enjoy bass fishing as a sport, they appreciate the fact that it allows the thrill of hunting without causing serious harm to the prey. On the other hand, many pursue bass fishing "for keeps" and get more satisfaction from catching their food than from buying it in processed form.

Principle #1 -- Using Climate Knowledge to your Advantage

Generally, Bass prefer cooler water and are most likely to be found in shaded areas or wherever any conditions allow significantly cooler water temperatures than the larger body of water.

To take full advantage of this principle, one should become familiar with the patterns of direct sunlight that result from the surrounding terrain. Over the course of a day, certain areas receive significantly less solar radiation than others; often, this is where Bass congregate the most.

Principle #2 -- Using Terrain Knowledge to your Advantage

Generally, Bass prefer the shelter of underwater vegetation and they particularly seem to like the shelter of submerged trees and overhanging rocks. In addition to…… [read more]

Marine Stewardship Term Paper

2 pages (590 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Roles and Pitfalls in the Marine Stewardship Council

Unilever's role in the Marine Stewardship Council was as a direct industry leader, providing direct financial incentives to commercial fishing operations for incorporating sustainable and environmentally sound fishing practices into their activities. As the leading purchaser of commercial fish in the world market, Unilever was in a unique position where action was required of them in order to change the world's fishing situation. This also put Unilever in a better position to effect change than any other company or organization, and though its buying practices and funding of research and marketing campaigns the conglomerate aimed to do exactly that. In general, Unilever's role in the joint Marine Stewardship Council venture with the World Wildlife Fund can be seen as one of direct practicality and economic impact in its influence over the fishing industry (Radler 2000).

The World Wildlife Fund, meanwhile, brought its experience and its legitimacy to the partnership, providing an authoritative and compelling voice to final consumers and other environmental regarding the better practices that went into catching fish that carry the MSC label. The World Wildlife Fund also has significant funding operations, of course, but they pale in comparison to Unilever's financial clout, and of course the Wildlife Fund does not purchase or distribute commercially caught fish. it's role in the Marine Stewardship Council was therefore of a less directly practical nature, and was more intangible in nature. The legitimacy and clarity of purpose that the WWF's partnership in the MSC created is essential to the success of the MSC's mission and the acceptance of the organization in the fishing industry, among consumers, and in the environmental movement (Radler 2000).

The major pitfall that both of the partners in the Marine Stewardship Council face…… [read more]

Dolphin in Japan Research Paper

2 pages (602 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Environmental Ethics

The Japanese Dolphin Harvest

In Japan, dolphin and whale meat have been traditional food for many centuries. In Western culture, dolphin and whale have come to be regarded with much greater respect and consideration, largely because of the complexity of their family structure, their sophisticated communications, and their capacity for interspecies social relationships and bonding with human beings. In that light, it is a horrible moral atrocity that the Japanese brutally trap and slaughter terrorized intelligent and sentient creatures such as dolphin with absolutely no regard for their suffering. According to one account:

"In a typical hunt the fishermen pursue pods of dolphins across open seas, banging metal poles together beneath the water to confuse their hypersensitive sonar. The exhausted animals are driven into a large cove sealed off by nets to stop them escaping and dragged backwards into secluded inlets the following morning to be butchered with knives and spears."

However, as brutal as the spectacle appears to us, the Japanese regard their slaughter of dolphin much the same as North Americans have traditionally raised cattle for slaughter and hunted game for both food and sport. North Americans also hunted bison to extinction, hunted whale well into the 20th century, and still fish for tuna and other game fish. The fact that we have greater sympathy for certain species of animals seems unfair, even racist, to the Japanese whose way of life depends of dolphin fishing:

"I think we are the victims of a form of racism & #8230; Westerners slaughter cattle and other animals in the most inhumane ways imaginable, but no one says a word. Why is it that only Japan gets this kind of treatment?"

Ultimately, it is difficult to impose Western moral values about the treatment of animals except as it is…… [read more]

Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia Thesis

10 pages (2,674 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia

The Tonle Sap Lake is an enormous resource located in roughly the western middle of Cambodia. In fact it is the "most important inland wetland in Southeast Asia," according to the Cambodia National Mekong Committee report, "Policy and Strategy for the Tonle SAP Biosphere Reserve" (2007). This paper will review the resources of the lake,… [read more]

Evolution of Jaws in Fish Essay

3 pages (1,004 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Evolution of Jaws in Fish

"Fish are incredibly successful, they are numerous and have a huge variety of adaptations. They are successful in every water filled habitat," (Kagle 1997:1). In fact, the group of species inhabitants almost every available water filled environment and has successfully adapted to eating a multitude of food sources. The evolution of the jaw within fish was a key factor in the success of the species, and influenced a wide variety of evolutions in fish morphology.

Fish are one of the most successful species on the planet. The evolution of successful jaws has proven an advantage to other extant fish, which took an evolution of jawless morphology. In the end, the evolution of the jaw within fish has allowed a huge diversification among species that is based primarily on functional behaviors that work in synergy with each species' environment. Fish are now the most common vertebrate, with over 24,000 species known to man. All of these individual species of fish has individual adaptations to their morphology that is influenced specifically from their unique external environments and habitats (Kagle 1997:1). The earliest known jawless vertebrate fish was the Anaspis out of the Upper Cambrian period over 500 million years ago (Kagle 1997:1). Jawless fish adapted to their environments and evolved to feed through sucking or filter feeding. Research has shown that "These fish were often extremely armored in order to help them protect themselves," (Kagle 1997:1). Yet, jawless fish proved much less successful then their mutant counterparts who developed jaws. In fact, most are now extinct.

The evolution of the jaw was a key feature in the success of fish around the world. Most fish evolved their bone and jaw structures during the period of three and a half to five million years ago (Kagle 1997:1). Jawed fish evolved out of the earlier jawless species from pre-historic times. The actual evolution of jaws stemmed from the internal gill structure which was framed by small bones; "jaws evolved from gill arches which are the bony parts between gill slits," (Kagle 1997:1). This is evident through the examination of fossils and primal species of fish which show their jaw lines matches up with the arches of the gills. The small bones of the gills then eventually morphed to become a permanent feature of fish anatomy, "It is thought that a gill arch in the agnation became fused to its skull," (Kagle 1997:1). Jaws in fish were one solid evolutionary step, rather than the series of developments which took much longer in other life forms. Many within the research community have posited the idea of a rapid changed caused by dramatic mutations; "Molecular biologists have even suggested that the origin of jaws was so profound that it must have been associated with a dramatic genome duplication event," (Benton & Harper 2009:435). However the process enveloped, it proved incredibly successful for the propagation and survival of the species. According to research, "The evolution of the jaw is incredibly important because it… [read more]

Cloning and Its Details Term Paper

4 pages (1,304 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… "

However, there are still moral and ethical issues regarding therapeutic cloning, and that helps develop misunderstanding and distrust of the idea of cloning and stem cell research. Many scientists believe that someday, humans could become almost "immortal" if stem cell research develops to its full potential, so there are many reasons to ensure that research continues in these areas.

Cloning and stem cell research are intertwined, but cloning is involved with other related topics, as well. One topic is animal cloning, both agricultural and pet cloning. Scientists believe that cloning agricultural animals, such as Dolly, will ultimately create healthier, safer animals for human consumption. Another author notes, "In judging the ethics of cloning animals that will be healthier to eat or will advance science or medicine, there is a natural argument to be made that the technique will serve the greater human good."

In addition, an expert in agricultural cloning writes, "Breeders can produce better and safer food by cloning rare animals that produce leaner meat, for example, or are especially resistant to common livestock diseases. Researchers in Asia have even cloned a cow that appears to be resistant to mad cow disease."

However, at least one firm is engaging in pet cloning. Their first cat was delivered to a client in 2004, and they expanded to dog cloning in 2005. Many critics believe this is going too far, and that ethically, cloning pets is far removed from the "greater human good." The price tag is steep as well. In 2004, the cost to clone a cat was $30,000.

In addition, studies show that many cloned animals do not live as long and their naturally born counterparts. Author Fiester continues, "In one study of cloned pigs, researchers reported a 50% mortality rate for the live offspring, with five out of ten dying between three and one hundred and thirty days of age from ailments including chronic diarrhea, congestive heart failure, and decreased growth rate."

Animal rights activists point to this research as data that shows cloning is actually cruel to animals, and it makes them suffer without any merit. However, the FDA has approved animal cloning; saying cloned animals are safe for human consumption, and many experts believe that as well.

Politically, the cloning issue is supercharged for debate. There have been numerous attempts to lift the current ban on funding stem cell research by the government. A reporter notes, "The debate precluded a scheduled vote in the House today on a bill to lift a federal ban on federal funding for new lines of human embryonic stem cells, despite the threat of a presidential veto."

There is speculation the current administration may lift that ban, but that has not been confirmed yet.

In conclusion, the implications of cloning are far reaching. It may lead to innovations and technologies in medicine that can help cure some of the most debilitating and fatal illnesses known to humans. It is an emotionally charged issue with moral and ethical implications, so it… [read more]

Grandfather My Grandpa Was a War Hero Essay

2 pages (684 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Grandfather

My grandpa was a war hero. But much more than that, he was my hero and a wonderful grandpa. To me he was a man's man. I'm not saying he was a macho, beer-drinking guy who bragged about his feats as a male and had an ego as big as all outdoors.

No, my grandpa was a real man. He was highly decorated in WWII and was recommended for the Congressional Medal of Honor, but I didn't know it until I was working on a sixth grade world geography project when I started asking him questions. Even then, it took a few questions to get it out of him. He didn't have to brag about his life in the Army and pump up his ego. What was important to him was that he had served his country well, and he wanted to teach me integrity, and confidence and respect.

His favorite activities involved family. He took me to Wal-Mart to buy my first fishing pole when I was seven years old. While we were there we must have met half the people in the store, and they all knew Grandpa, shook his hand, and chatted for a few minutes. I was amazed at how many people Grandpa knew, and it was obvious even to a seven-year-old that they thought highly of him.

Then the next morning, almost before the sun came up, Grandpa woke me and took me on my first fishing trip. Grandma had packed us delicious sack lunches, topped off with some of her home-baked cookies, and off we went to the lake.

I caught a real monster fish that day. I was so very proud of it, and so was Grandpa. But I caught something else that day that, as I grow older, I remember even more. I caught Grandpa's enthusiasm for life; and I hope I caught just half of his integrity, and honesty. We also caught too many fish, and he even showed me respect for them when he explained that we shouldn't keep…… [read more]

Buildings in the Complex Where I Work Essay

2 pages (575 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … buildings in the complex where I work. There, you will find a stream that cuts through the land. I find this a remarkable spot in the center of the west side of town because this part of the city is generally very busy and congested. The stream circles around and through a small patch of trees behind the buildings. Because the area is secluded, not many people visit it, which makes it ideal for escaping the rigors of the real world. I call this my own little happy place, especially when work is giving me stress.

Between these ten story buildings is a stream that has a walking trail that winds through the trees behind and across the stream. Even the bridge that crosses the stream is beautiful. It is one of those arching ones that looks like it should belong in a painting. It's been there awhile because there is moss along the edges of the wood. The trail disappears into the patch of trees and looking at it creates a sense of wonder as to what is inside the trees. Even on cloudy or cold days, this place is calm and quiet.

The best aspect of this are is nice as I can go there almost every day. While this location is in the middle of a bustling part of town, it is rarely known because it is on a piece of land that is lower than the parking lot. Only if you drive up to the back edge of the parking lot, can you see the stream. On particularly bad days, I go to the stream on my breaks and at a lunch. I can take my laptop or I just take…… [read more]

Evolution and History of Fire Science in the United States Thesis

5 pages (1,321 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Evolution and History Of Fire Science in the United States

The work of Gregory H. Aplet (2006) entitled: "Evolution of Wilderness Fire Policy" published in the International Journal of Wilderness states that ecosystems have been "shaped by fire" and as well wilderness policy "has been affected by fire policy..." (Aplet, 2006, p.9) It is related by Aplet that the Wilderness Act and "subsequent wilderness bills have addressed fire, and policy has evolved to recognize the free play of fire as a natural process. Similarly fire policy has evolved to accommodate the peculiar demands of wilderness." (Aplet, 2006, p.9) This process was one of 'co-evolution' and Aplet relates that its origin is in the '...confluence of ecological thought and wilderness philosophy that occurred in the late 20th century. For most of the century, fire was considered a universal threat to people, resources, and wildlands." (2006, p.9)


In 1986 the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) was established for the purpose of making provision of a voluntary basis for technical information and standards as well as making recommendations for procedures and practices concerning fire safety. (Leong, nd, p. 1)


Aplet relates that the realization of fire as playing a critical role in "sustaining species and maintaining the character of ecosystems" was realization through the "observations of foresters like Aldo Leopold (1924) and Elers Koch (Arno and Fiedler 2005) added to the research of scientists such as Harold Weaver (1943) and Herb Stoddard (1935)..." (Aplet, 2006, p.9) According to applet a panel of ecologists in 1963 "...responded to the National Park Service's request for a management review with the suggestion that "The goal [of park management] is to maintain or create the mood of wild America" (Leopold et al. 1963).

They recommended fire be restored to the national parks. Passage of the Wilderness Act in 1964 represented the culmination of the "fight for the freedom of the wilderness" begun by John Muir and sworn to by Robert Marshall (1930) and the other founders of the Wilderness Society in 1935." (2006, p.9)

The Wilderness Act states that wilderness retains "its primeval character and influence [and] generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature." (Aplet, 2006, p.10) Forces of nature quite clearly includes that of fire.


Wilderness fire policy was first realized as being needed in 1910 when millions of acres were burned in the states of Idaho and Montana in which 86 people were killed and entire communities were decimated. Because of the horror and loss of life and homes in the 1910 fires the policy was one of "intolerance and all-out suppression of fire throughout most of the 20th century." (Aplet, 2006, p.10)


Finally in 1968 a shift in policy occurred with the National Park Service and in 1978 the USDA Forest Service followed with policy that would allow some natural fires to burn… [read more]

Why Is it Important to Calculate Flow Discharge Flood Water? Thesis

2 pages (640 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … calculate flow discharge?..(flood water)

Streamflow: Why it is important to measure it

Often, during a severe rainstorm or other water event, a news announcer or spokesperson for the government will proclaim that the river is expected to crest at a peak of a particular foot interval ("How streamflow is measured," USGS, 2008). He or she will warn nearby inhabitants that an evacuation may be necessary, or for individuals to avoid a particular area because it is prone to flooding. The interval the announcer is referring to is the stream stage, and although some people might take for granted the fact that we have such knowledge about the likelihood of flooding, streamflow and stream stages are carefully calculated figures, monitored by scientists. Also, stream flow is something that must be recalculated on a frequent basis, to allow for inevitable environmental changes that can affect areas near water.

"Stream stage (also called stage or gage height) is the height of the water surface, in feet, above an established datum plane where the stage is zero. The zero level is arbitrary, but is often close to the streambed" ("How streamflow is measured," USGS, 2008). Streamflow, or water discharge, is the volume of water flowing past a fixed point in a fixed unit of time, expressed in a value of cubic feet per second (ft3/s). When plotted on a graph, stream stage and streamflow have a clear relationship. "This chart, known as a rating curve, shows that there is a relation between stream stage and streamflow. The stage-streamflow relation is used to relate water level to an associated streamflow. The rating curve for a specific stream location is developed by making successive streamflow measurements at many different stream stages to define and maintain a stage-streamflow relation. These streamflow measurements and their corresponding stages are then plotted on a graph. Continuous streamflow throughout the year can be determined from the rating curve and…… [read more]

Dinosaurs the Topic Must Be Related Thesis

2 pages (723 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Dinosaurs

The topic must be related to the asteroid theory of dinosaur destruction: Fossil and geological evidence

What killed the dinosaurs? This question has obsessed paleontologists and laypeople alike. One dramatic and popular theory is that a massive asteroid's collision with the earth was the source of the destruction of 65-70% of the entire planet's species, including the dinosaurs, 65 million years ago. A crater 112-mile-wide called Chicxulub was discovered in 1978 in Mexico's northern Yucatan that "suggested a massive extra-terrestrial impact" (New blow against dinosaur-killing asteroid theory, geologists find, 2009. National Science Foundation). Scientists discovered levels of iridium 30 times higher than normal around the layer of sedimentary rock laid down at the time of the dinosaur's extinction. The metal, while rare on Earth, is common in asteroids (Hypothesis: Asteroid impact, 2009, PBS). The impact of a giant asteroid may have created massive tsunamis and clouds of carbon gasses. The clouds would have blocked the sun's rays, rapidly cooling the earth to such an extreme many animals rapidly became extinct, including the cold-blooded dinosaurs. The greenhouse gases created by the impact may have then caused temperatures to skyrocket above pre-impact levels, again bringing death and destruction from temperature extremes to many more species (Hypothesis: Asteroid impact, 2009, PBS).

Yet researchers have found little evidence of massive, immediate species extinction in the Yucatan. Between four and nine meters of sediments were deposited at about two to three centimeters per thousand years after the impact. 52 species were present in sediments below the impact layer and the same 52 were still present in layers above. "The mass extinction level can be seen in the sediments [well] above this interval" (New blow against dinosaur-killing asteroid theory, geologists find, 2009. National Science Foundation). "Advocates of the Chicxulub impact theory suggest that the impact crater and the mass extinction event only appear far apart in the sedimentary record because of earthquake or tsunami disturbance that resulted from the impact of the asteroid (New blow against dinosaur-killing asteroid theory, geologists find, 2009, National Science Foundation). But the problem with the post-impact tsunami interpretation "is that this sandstone complex was not deposited over hours or days by…… [read more]

Building a Duck Nest and Protecting Wetlands for Waterfowl Preservation Research Proposal

6 pages (1,692 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Waterfowl Preservation

Improvements in wetland habitat will increase duck and goose populations over the long-term"

Reports of Duck Nesting Success ¶ 7).

Wetland Dependent Wildlife

Over the long-term, in time, Dave Schad, the director of Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Fish and Wildlife Division, stresses, efforts from the management of waterfowl will contributing to increasing the duck… [read more]

Forestry Fire Ecology and Fire Management of the Ponderosa Pine Forest Cover Term Paper

8 pages (2,773 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Fire Ecology in Ponderosa Pine Forests

The Ponderosa Pine forests of the western United States are a spectacular site to see. However, as one listens to the wind rustle through the needles high above and listens to the songbirds sing, it is easy to forget the intimate relationship of the pine forest with fire. Fire is a constant mechanism of… [read more]

US Endangered Species Act Research Proposal

12 pages (3,752 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 20

… Endangered Species Act

US Endangered Species Act: An Annotated Bibliography

Preserving our biological heritage in an important issue for all of humanity. For various reasons many species of plants and animals are in danger of extinction (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SEC 2, 1973). These plants and animals serve many purposes in our world. They are important for the beauty… [read more]

Status and Distribution of Fish Thesis

3 pages (958 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Status and Distribution of Fish in an Acid-Impacted

Watershed of the Northeastern United States (Hubbard Brook, NH)"

Warren, Dana; Likens, Gene; Buso, Donald; and Kraft, Clifford

The authors of this study noticed that of at least three species of fish in the water system studied (the Hubbard Brook in New Hampshire specifically), only one was remaining in 2008. The three species known to be found in the water system in 1960 -- and there may have been others -- were the Cottus cognatus, or Slimy Sculpin, the Rhinichthys atratulu, commonly known as the Blacknose Dace, and the Salvelinus fontinalis, better known in the area as the Brook Trout. Of these three known species, only the last, the Brook Trout, remains in the Hubbard Brook today. During the 1970s the river system experienced a period of increased acidification from acid rain. Former studies have shown that both chronic--long-term -- and episodic acidification of water systems can have a huge impact on fish populations. Even when certain individuals in a population survive episodic acidification and repopulate the area, population numbers remain lower than they were before the episode of acidification took place, even when the water returns to normal pH levels.

It is the author's hypothesis that a period of acidification in the 1970s is responsible for destroying the fish population in the Hubbard Brook. Based on earlier studies, they were confident that the surviving species -- the Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, and the Slimy Sculpin, Cottus cognatus, were some of the most acid-resistant species of fish in the North Temperate Zone water systems. The reason that the authors hypothesize that increased acidification was the main cause of the departure of the Cottus cognatus from Hubbard Brook despite the species known resistance and adaptability to increased acidity is that this species, when the population is taken as a whole, has a more limited range of movement than the Salvelinus fontinalis, which would give the former less access to refuges (where acid levels remained the same or did not climb as drastically). This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that other studies have shown the Slimy Sculpin (Cottus cognatus) are frequently absent from water systems that have experienced water systems that experience periodic acidification. In addition, the timing of acidification can affect the reproduction process and abilities of the Slimy Sculpin, especially when acidification occurs in the spring.

Because freshwater fish are generally the apex predators of their ecosystems, removing them from an ecosystem can have a huge effect on other parts of the ecosystem. For instance, fish often eat insects. Insects are generally not water dwelling creatures (with some exceptions), so they would not be directly affected by the acidification of the water system, as the fish in the same system are. This means that insect populations will not decline the same way that fish populations do when acidification…… [read more]

Wildland Recreation Term Paper

3 pages (1,075 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Wildland Recreation

There is an increasingly comprehensive body of literature outlining the role that fire plays in the forest ecosystem. Several sources tie the role of fire to some of the present issues in our national parks and forests today; and illustrate how controlled or prescribed burns can be a positive tool in the practice of forest management.

B.M. Kilgore outlined in a 1970 article in National Parks and Conservation Magazine research that proves periodic light fires play a vital role in the conservation of forests. He relates this finding to the recognition that suppression of fire represented a hazard in Sequoia NP, and that it had been found that burning debris on the forest floor reduced the chance of a major fire.

In a follow-up article in Naturalist in 1972, Kilgore outlines the natural role of fire in wild lands. He illustrates this with examples of the impact of fire on several types of trees. The article also outlines seven ways in which fire is significant: it cycles nutrients; prepares a seedbed; provides favorable conditions for wildlife; prepares a mosaic of age classes & vegetation types; it sets back succession; it reduces the possibility of attack by insects; and it reduces the risk of fire hazard.

The 2007 press release from the Forest Service Unit at the Coronado NF outlined some of the dangers of fire suppression, including many trees competing for limited resources; trees becoming unhealthy; and an increase in fire danger from an increase in debris on the forest floor. Fire policy in the Coronado NF, the article continues, is influenced by the role that fire would play in the absence of human intervention; and the departure that present conditions represent from the historical conditions. By factoring these into prescribed burn plans, the Forest Service hopes to achieve the best possible results in its prescribed burn program.

JP Ferguson, writing in Fire Management Today in 2005, outlines five keys to success in building a prescribed fire program. They are: breaking the suppression mindset that many old-school fire managers have; better training programs; seeing the big picture rather than focusing strictly on short-term outcomes; expanding the burning window; and getting individuals into the fire program who have the drive, vision and desire to implement successful prescribed fire programs.

In a 1982 article in Bioscience, W.H. Romme and DH Knight discuss the change in landscape patterns, and how these affect natural features. Landscape patterns are intrinsically important to the ecosystem of any national park and have a direct impact on plant diversity. This is important for the discussion of planting and planning after the controlled or prescribed burn.

In a 2005 article in National Parks Magazine, S. Kirkwood outlines how regrowth after a fire begins immediately. As more sunlight and rainfall reach the ground, grass and flowers quickly sprout from the soil, which has been enriched with ash.

Turner, Hargrove, Gardner and Romme analyze in the Journal of Vegetation Science the relationship between heterogeneity and fire size. This work… [read more]

Wilderness Act of September 3, 1964 Term Paper

4 pages (1,226 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Wilderness Act of September 3, 1964. Specifically it will discuss the Act's benefits to wildland recreation and the costs of the Act. The Wilderness Act of 1964, often referred to as simply the "Wilderness Act," was a sweeping act that created the National Wilderness Preservation System and helped raise American awareness regarding the nation's parks and wildlands. Maintaining and managing these wilderness areas can be challenging, but they benefit the public in many ways, and ensure Americans will always have some wild places left to enjoy, discover, and treasure.

The Wilderness Act created a new way of preserving lands throughout the nation, and has created millions of acres of new, protected wilderness. Managing our recreational wildlands offers a multitude of benefits. First, it preserves wild areas, endangered areas, and rare plants and wildlife located in those areas. Next, there are a myriad of recreational opportunities available in the nation's wilderness areas, from hiking and bird watching to boating, camping, and many other outdoor activities. Most of these areas are protected from development, but they can still sustain light recreational uses, and they provide an outlet for Americans to get out and enjoy the "great outdoors."

What may be even more important is how wilderness areas are created. Wildland managers can recommend wilderness areas to Congress, and often wildland management groups, such as the U.S. Forest Service or the National Park Service work together to create recommendations for areas they are already familiar with. Because the managing agencies manage each wilderness area, rather than a separate wilderness management group, the agencies are already familiar with the area, and they know why it should be protected from development and remain a wilderness. Since only Congress can designate a wilderness area, it is imperative that those who recommend wilderness lands for inclusion understand the merits of designating wilderness, and those who manage wildlands understand the nuances of the lands around them, and what makes them uniquely qualified to become a wilderness area.

Another positive aspect for managers of these wilderness areas is the many benefits the wilderness creates, and not just for the public. For example, designated wilderness areas are a treasure trove of scientific study, and the studies conducted there give information vital for protecting our ecosystems in the future. They provide educational benefits, as well, teaching the public about the positives of maintaining wilderness areas, and even providing health benefits such as clean air, water, and other ecological benefits for people and the animal world. Creating wilderness areas that the public can enjoy in their wild states has helped recreational managers share the wonder of the wildlands with the public, and has made educating the public a little easier. When the public experience the wilderness, they tend to appreciate it more, and want to take care of it, as well, and that makes recreational managers jobs just a little bit easier.

The negatives of the Act can be catalogued as difficulties in administration, designation, and management of these wild… [read more]

Disappearing Wetlands an Ecosystem in Crisis Term Paper

8 pages (2,443 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Disappearing Wetlands of the United States

Wetlands, they are not the most attractive of natural resources and few have attained anything like the status of the Grand Canyon or Niagara Falls, but they are some of the most crucial environments for both the humans that surround them and the life that inhabits them. Most people generally regard wetlands as wastelands,… [read more]

Earth History Term Paper

5 pages (1,656 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Large Mammal Extinction

Ice Age Large Mammal Extinction

The end of the last ice age was marked by the extinction of hundreds of species of large mammals. Whether this extinction occurred in the late Pleistocene or the early Holocene era is a subject of debate, but it seems clear that these mass extinctions happened at approximately the same time as… [read more]

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