"Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays

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Wildfire Ecology and the Shortleaf Pine Term Paper

10 pages (2,898 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… Shortleaf Pine

Forest fires have become a daily event in the United States, whether those fires are prescribed or wildland fires. However, the effects of those fires are often overlooked or misjudged, due to the rapid regrowth of vegetation and to the variations of effect on different species of tree life. While vegetation is certainly the life form primarily affected… [read more]

Parasitology Clonorchis Sinensis Term Paper

6 pages (2,505 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Biology

Life is Great: "A Day in the Life of Clonorchis Sinensis"

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of biology. Specifically it will contain a creative account of clonorchis sinensis (the Chinese liver fluke). Chinese liver flukes are extremely common worm parasites that live in the bodies of their hosts, often humans. One journal… [read more]

Environment Economics Term Paper

13 pages (3,454 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… Toxic Waste

Feasibility of Market Approaches to Pollution Control on the Olifants River, South Africa

Introduction significant portion of the mining, agricultural, and power generation requirements of South Africa is currently managed with water from the Olifants River. Because of the very real problem of drought in the region, it is crucial that the water resources that available from the… [read more]

Seed Types and Seed Dispersal Mechanisms of Herbaceous Plants Term Paper

4 pages (1,229 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Seed Dispersal Methods

Birds and Their Role in Seed Dispersal Mechanisms

Biodiversity is the key to the survival of many ecosystems. Plant dispersal mechanisms play a major role in maintaining the balance within those ecosystems. Herbaceous plants are the key to maintaining a variety of play and animal life. The following will explore seed dispersal mechanisms in three different plant communities. It will focus on the role of birds and the maintenance of plant biodiversity.

Ecosystem are dependent on many different factors in order to survive Theses ecosystems are maintained by the interactions of climatic conditions, vegetative growth, and the number of animals with the community to consume the plants. Seed dispersal is one of the most important of the ecosystem processes.

Seed dispersal in depends on animals. It depends on the animal's diet, habitat, numbers, and pattern of movement through the forest (Wescott, 2007). The length of time that the animal retains the seeds and the pattern of their movement determines plant dispersal in the rain forest. It also depends on whether the landscape is continuous or fragmented. These processes have a dramatic impact on the structure plant and animal communities. Seed dispersal effects the dynamics of the plant and animal communities that live within the area.

Monocrop Plant Community

Tree plantations in China have been established in China that consist of primarily a single exotic species. These are typically closed canopy systems established on lands that have been reforested since the 1950s (Elsa et al., 2005). Analysis of understory species composition demonstrated that there were differences in the understory based on the primary species of the planting. The plantings consisted of single species: Acacia confusa, Lophostemon confertus, Melaleuca quinquenervia. The sample also contained some mixed-plantings. It was found that Lophostemon had generally poor native plant colonization when compared to natural forests and other types of plantations (Elsa et al., 2005).

Differences between these plantations was dependent upon pre-existing site conditions. In plantations that were isolated from natural seed sources, native woody plant colonization was poor. Bird dispersed shrubs were the most abundant, while other native woody plants were poorly dispersed (Elsa et al., 2005). Seed availability in degraded tropical landscape suffered significantly in the absence of fauna to disperse seeds (Au, Corlett, & Hau, 2006). Seed availability was found to be the key limiting factor in the establishment of biodiversity in these areas. (Au, Corlett, & Hau, 2006).

Seeds collected with in a grassland sight in China revealed the following seed populations.

Plant Type

Number of Seeds/Meter

Percentage of Total

Female Eurya Chinensis

Isolated trees

Male isolated shrubs

All of these seeds appeared to have been dispersed by falling to the ground underneath the plant. In this area, the shrub land revealed a higher total seed count than the forest, with 558 seeds/m2 in the shrub land and 129 seeds/m2 in the forest. The grassland only revealed 47 seeds/m2 (Au, Corlett, & Hau, 2006).

However, there were differences in the number of taxa between these three communities. The… [read more]

Unforgettable Childhood Experience Term Paper

3 pages (1,167 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Unforgettable Childhood Experience


When I was in seventh grade, I bought a pet mouse from a local pet store and quite unoriginally, named him "Mickey." Many people think of mice the same way they think of cockroaches, but the tame ones bred for sale in pet stores are actually quite trainable, cute, and very devoted as parents. They vary, of course, in their intelligence and temperament, but if you happen to get a relatively bright one, they make surprisingly fun little pets - perfect for kids like me who liked animals but couldn't have a dog or a cat of their own.

A witnessed a perfect example of how unfair a reputation mice have my school science fair, when I setup my little exhibit consisting of my entire network of a plastic Habitrail ™ cages from home. It was a futuristic-looking little plastic city with transparent yellow tubes connecting clear plastic cages with exercise wheels, ladders, and little penthouses sitting atop vertical tubes in which the mice could scramble up and down.

A secretary from the principal's office was playing with one of Harry's mice, letting it climb through her cupped hands, even holding it right up to her face to tell him how cute he was. It hadn't even occurred to us that she might not know it was a mouse, but then she asked whether he was a gerbil or a hamster. The instant I told her that the animal in her hand was a mouse she screamed, dropped Mickey to the floor and shuddered from the realization that she almost kissed a mouse.

Mickey learned very quickly to come to my hand and climb on to it as soon as I opened his cage. He would come flying up the tube leading to the highest penthouse as soon as he saw me approach and hop right out when I opened up the top. When I put him down on the floor he would just walk his way around, exploring the room, usually climbing back into my open hand as soon as I presented it to him. When I gave him one hand after the other, he would run endlessly as though I were his human exercise wheel. Other times he would just grab onto my pants leg and scurry all the way up my body because he had learned that I kept nuts and some other treats for him in my shirt pocket.

He would take paper and cloth from my hand to shred into insulation for the plastic penthouse he had established as his sleeping quarters. When his bedding looked like it was getting too flat, I used to offer him little pieces of brown paper, or cotton, or tissue paper, and he would select whichever one he wanted. He seemed happiest with it when there was so much material stuffed in there that he slept completely covered on all sides as… [read more]

Hardest Decision I Ever Made Toby Term Paper

1 pages (484 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Hardest Decision I Ever Made

Toby was the first dog I ever raised from a puppy, after I adopted him from the local shelter. He was a friendly, gentle Black Labrador Retriever who loved Frisbees, tennis balls, and sleeping next to the fireplace. Ever since he was a puppy, he was friendly to everybody he ever met, including other animals of every kind. He seemed to know, instinctively, whenever someone was afraid of him, because as soon as anybody hesitated on his friendly approach, he would stop in his tracks and lie down in front of them; propped up on his elbows, he would slowly creep the rest of the way to them until they reached down to pet him. As soon as they did, he would pop back up and rub himself all over them. Sometimes, they were still scared, but by then it was too late, because they were already friends. Toby seemed to know that infants, both human and non-human, were helpless, because he was even more gentle with them. Likewise, with small children, Toby would stay on his elbows or roll over completely onto his back for them, which always made them laugh. He was just as gentle with smaller animals and during his lifetime, won over the affections of numerous cats and unfriendly little dogs who hissed or barked at him, or in some cases, even bit him without provocation of any kind.

When Toby…… [read more]

Trinity River Pollution Term Paper

5 pages (1,364 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … Trinity River

An Environmental Study

One of the most applauded changes to come about in the age of environmental awareness is that people actually began appreciating the aesthetic, athletic, and social value of urban and rural waterways. Seldom do we find rivers and streams that are ignored and allowed to run polluted, especially in urban areas. Cities like Chicago, Baltimore, Cleveland and beach areas like Ocean City, Maryland, Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina; all of these places have invested heavily in their lake fronts and beaches and expend a lot of taxpayer money to keep these water areas clean and attractive because they draw tourists and serve as areas of social recreation for city residents. Unfortunately, not all urban water systems are "up-to-date."

The Trinity River system in Dallas, Texas is one such system that tends to be the focus of revitalization. The river has a long history of pollution and neglect, and today stands as a reminder of our not too distant past when people took for granted natural resources and lived against nature rather than with nature. In 1998 Dallas taxpayers voted on a massive and expensive proposal aimed at, among other things, revitalizing the Trinity River. That proposal succeeded and work commenced to reverse the damage done to not just the Trinity River system, but to Dallas' inner city so that it could be revitalized to accommodate "intown" living.

Looking at a map, the Trinity River has three branches; the East Fork, the Elm Fork, and the West Fork. A smaller stream that runs from the Trinity is Clear Fork. The revitalization program, once begun, would involve a series of levees that would spawn lakes. The idea was that the plan would.".. turn this comparatively drab city into a beautiful attraction that will draw millions of dollars in tourism." The cost of the river project was estimated at $246 million.

There were opponents to the plan, and the issues on the opposing side were valid concerns. First, the Trinity River system had been badly polluted, especially during the past century and $246 million to revitalize the system was a conservative if not underestimated figure. Indeed it was, as of 2000, the estimated revitalization of the river in Dallas alone stands at 1.2 billion dollars, including parks, bridges, and a forest preserve.

The history of the Trinity River is one that goes back to the earliest colonial period of Texas, and before that to the period when American Indians referred to the river as Arkikaso. In 1867 the river was called "River of the Canoes," denoting that by that time the river, like most American rivers during the period, had become a highly traveled avenue of access through an unsettled land. In 1690 the river was called Trinity, having been blessed with the name by the Spaniards.

The river is 423 miles long from its point of origin at the points of Elm and West Forks, and it runs through Texas only, which makes it the longest… [read more]

Yellow River in China Term Paper

7 pages (2,517 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Yellow River of China

The People's Republic of China as part of East Asia is south of Mongolia and the Siberian land mass, west of the Korean Peninsula and insular Japan, north of Southeast Asia and east of Central South Asia. It has a total land area of nearly 10 million square kilometers

China has a total area… [read more]

Pet and Dog Business Term Paper

10 pages (3,289 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Pet business [...] business in America in general and doggie day care services in particular. The pet business in America is booming, and shows no signs of slowing down anytime soon. Americans are in love with their pets, and they are spending record amounts to prove it. Doggy day care is one of the most popular pet businesses,… [read more]

Horse Boarding or Neglect Term Paper

4 pages (1,556 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Abuse of Horses

Boarding Horses vs. Neglect of Horses

Human beings would not be as far advanced as they are today if it were not for the presence of animals, in particular, animals that can be and have been over the centuries domesticated. The most important domesticated animals that have helped humanity over the years are dogs and horses, according… [read more]

Cogito Ergo Sum, Descartes' Famous Argument Term Paper

2 pages (518 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Cogito ergo sum, Descartes' famous argument for existence, seems to be the defining human maxim. While any number of ethical principles are relevant to a human's approach to its environment, the fact remains that humans are the only species with the will and capacity to formulate such an approach. and, though most species are far less environmentally destructive in their habits, those same species also have no compunction against causing the extinction of other species.

As evolutionary latecomers, humans have a duty to observe the precedent set by previous species. In the past, survival has been the universal law. The species that can most effective apply their abilities to survival, adaption, and propagation have historically been the most successful.

At the same time, those species were not -- and are not -- at war. Predator and prey relationships notwithstanding, animals and plants will battle for resources, but not against each other. It is a purely human invention to kill without purpose.

In other words, the precedent set for humanity is this: see to your own. If a symbiotic relationship turns parasitic, no thread of loyalty exists to protect the parasite; only its ability to survive, adapt, and propagate. All actions are justified under the law of survival.

Accepting this precedent would not, however, give humans free license to wantonly destroy the environment; indeed, it would mandate the opposite. Because humans are dependant on the environment to provide resource and are endowed with minds capable of environmental husbandry, adherence to the set precedent would imply a significant effort to maintain…… [read more]

Regulatory Law With Regard to the Endangered Term Paper

2 pages (692 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … regulatory law with regard to the Endangered Species Act of Tennessee. The writer explores the case study done to examine the law and its application and then provides the opinion that the study was well done and provided insight to the question.

Few people are aware of the plight of fresh water mussels in America, but a recent study into the compliance of the regulatory law regarding fresh water mussels did indicate that the laws are being under-enforced which puts the mussels in significant danger of extinction.

The Endangered Species Act is still one of the most hotly debated environmental laws in the United States. Advocates of the law believe it is the only strong law available to prevent mass extinction of endangered species, while opponents of the law believe it is a legal dance that provides many loopholes to prevent big business and other profitable entities from having to comply (Biber, 2002).

This research used a case study to determine the strength of the law when it comes to fresh water mussels and their protection.

The study begins by examining the differences between fresh water and salt water mussels. It discusses the similarities and differences in the two species and goes into detail about the endangerment of the fresh water mussel (Biber, 2002).

It alludes to the fact that the survival and birth of a fresh water mussel is often times almost impossible but for those that do survive the result can be a mussel that lives for several decades.

The study explores the dangers of extinction and discusses the wide range of threats the mussels face through over harvesting by humans and other animals.

The study then goes on to explore and explain the current Endangered Species Act that was passed in 1973 by the United States Congress (Biber, 2002).

The Act allows the government to list a species as endangered or threatened depending on its criteria as laid out by the Act to determine a classification and level of threat to that species.

The study concluded that there are agencies and…… [read more]

Observed Comparative Morphology Term Paper

3 pages (864 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Morphology

Bottle-Nosed Dolphins and Great White Sharks

Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone and/or a spinal column that supports their body. The interlocking units of the backbone are called vertebrae. Not only does the backbone support the entire body, it also anchors the limbs. Animals that are vertebrates include fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals and various insects. The backbone can be inside the body or on the outside part of the body. Of all of the animals in the world, vertebrates only make up about 2% of all animal species. This paper will discuss the comparative morphology between two vertebrates: a dolphin and a shark.

Dolphins are mammals that can be found in the oceans around the world. Dolphins are mammals of the order Cetacean and the families Plantanistidae and Delphinidae and include about 50 species. Most dolphin species are about 6 feet in length, the males averaging 4 to 8 inches longer than females. The longest dolphin, the bottle-nose dolphin, can reach over nine-feet in length and weight up to 440 pounds. The smallest dolphin species is the buffalo which is found in the Amazon River. The Buffalo dolphin rarely grows over 3.9 feet or weighs more than 66 pounds. There are more than 32 different types of dolphins in total and they are closely related to whales and porpoises. Dolphins have very powerful streamline bodies with strong backbones that are able to propel the swiftly and quickly through the waters of the ocean. One particular dolphin is the bottle-nosed dolphin. Bottle-nosed dolphins are named for their snouts, which distinctly set off from the head, like the neck of a bottle. The animals are generally dark gray or black above, with a lighter belly. The length of an adult varies, from 6 and a half feet to 13 feet. Bottle-nosed dolphins have a prominent, curved dorsal fin with a thin trailing edge that readily tatters. Bottle-nosed dolphins are coastal in most areas and remain in groups less than 20, although off shore varieties also exist in many places and, in deep water, groups can be as large as 200. Some populations make seasonal migrations. Bottle-nosed dolphins are often considered the most adaptable of the cetaceans because they live amid industrial activity around harbors and ship channels in many parts of the world.

Bottle-nosed dolphins have very particular eating habits. They feed on many different types of prey, including shrimp, squid, other invertebrates, and fishes. The dolphins feed by nosing into near- shore rocky crevasses, by chasing fish onto mud banks and snapping them up while they are beached,…… [read more]

Marine Organism Common Name: Dolphin Scientific Term Paper

1 pages (305 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Marine Organism

Common Name: Dolphin

Scientific Name: Delphinus Delphis (short-beaked)

Or Delphinus Capensis (long-beaked)

Life Span: 25-65 years

Size and Description

Common dolphins weigh about 135 kilograms and their length can be from 7.5 to 8.5 feet (ACS Online). Short-beaked and long-beaked dolphins have few differences in terms of their physical description. The short-beaked dolphins are heavier than the long-beaked dolphins. Moreover, the former has larger fins and flippers than the latter. The fins of dolphins are triangular in shape, black to gray in color, and located at the middle of the back. Common dolphins come in different body colors. The back part can be black or pink with a mixture of gray areas. The belly part is usually white in color.

Habitat and Environment

Dolphins can be found in tropical warm waters. Short-beaked dolphins are more common in offshore waters while the long-beaked dolphins are mostly found in the coastal waters.…… [read more]

Yellow River in China Term Paper

6 pages (2,077 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Yellow River in China

The Yellow River (also known as "Huang He" in Chinese) is the second largest river in China after the Yangtze River and the fifth largest in the world. The River occupies an extremely important place in the Chinese history as the Yellow River basin is the birth-place of the northern Chinese civilizations, which was… [read more]

Philosophy Divorce Among the Gulls Term Paper

1 pages (360 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… They do not think about the pain these animals suffer, and/or they do not care. This article made these people seem cruel and unusual, but the author makes it clear that he knows many people that still do these practices, and it is not uncommon at all.

I did not like reading this essay at all, it was painful and gross. Some of the things they did to the animals seemed cruel and heartless, and it made me wince to read this. I think the author is correct, that many scientists become inhumane and even cruel in the name of science and scientific discovery. They do not think about the animals and how the experiments must hurt them. The author says these scientists have "no compassion or empathy, no remorse or guilt." I believe him, and I think this article shows that science can be very cruel. Now I understand a little more why animal activists fight for animal rights. If I saw things like this in the lab, I think I would fight for them too.… [read more]

American Environmental History Term Paper

7 pages (2,134 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Environmental History

In "The Trouble with Wilderness," William Cronon illustrates the cultural biases inherent in the very term "wilderness" and shows how those biases may be at the heart of the modern environmental movement. "The time has come to rethink wilderness," Cronon suggests (p. 379). Before the Industrial Revolution, the term wilderness referred to a barren wasteland, a place that… [read more]

Comparative Group Process Term Paper

2 pages (656 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Group Processes

The four-way chat came to the final conclusion regarding the eight main questions:

Define the majority and minority populations -- similarities and differences?

The majority population was that of mammals, the minority populations consisted of fish and frogs.

Relationship between three populations

The mammals were the superior or dominant leadership group. The frogs were accepted by mammals, but subordinate in power. Both mammals and frogs ate the least powerful group in the society, the fish.

Most powerful and evocative societal symbol

The most powerful symbol was that of the life-sustaining water, which also housed the fish, the source of food for the mammals and frogs.

Three acts with highest penalty

Soiling or damming up the water source or killing one's own kind were the highest offenses.

Three sociocultural rules govern social behavior

The mammals and fish were at war, the frogs were required to address all mammals as sir, and easy access to the water supply was determined by monetary power.

Three sociocultural rules govern private behavior

The mammals were stubborn and individualistic. The frogs were peacemakers, and the fish were weaker than both of the other groups.

Review of Experience: Group leader

SkItLeS515 emerged as the dominant group force, demanding that the classes of the society be animal-related, and setting the half-humorous tone of the entire session. For example, early on when pmgrnteBIRD discussed the notions of societal rules, SkItLeS515 immediately mentioned the right to "party." SkItLeS515 tended to come up with the first idea, and other group members would either agree or disagree with SkItLeS515, motivating SkItLeS515 to direct the discussion's content, whether SkItLeS515 actually 'won' the debate point or not.

Other group roles

PmgrnteBIRD emerged as a kind of 'me-too' voice, constantly affirming what the leader SkItLeS515 said, or altering its content slightly, but still following along without substantially disagreeing. MastrBettyPain18 came up with good ideas about acts that invoked penalties, but remained a more passive presence, only occasionally chiming in.…… [read more]

Dangerous Game by Richard Connell Term Paper

2 pages (557 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… " And his reversal of roles (i.e., from hunter to hunted) gave way to the emergence of the second kind of conflict in the story -- that of human against human. The game shifted from Rainsford vs. The jaguar (and other animals hunted) to Rainsford (as the hunted) and Zaroff (as the hunter). In this conflict, Rainsford was able to experience "how a jaguar feels," how it feels to be the one hunted. Though Connell did not explicitly show Rainsford's reflection of his erroneous judgment and view of hunting, the hunting game he and Zaroff played deep in the jungle of Ship-Trap Island made Rainsford realize that there was morality embedded in the dangerous game of hunting. Zaroff was the perfect example of humanity insensitivity and utter disregard for other living beings: his insatiable need to hunt and kill animals led to further craving for death, and this time, to kill more intelligent, rational beings -- humans. From these conflicts, Rainsford's role reversals became full-circle.

Using the sea and jungle as settings for the story helped demonstrate the feelings of freedom and 'incarceration' that Rainsford had experienced. The sea signified his freedom and control, where he was away from any peril and assuming power and control because he still had the role of the hunter. However, upon reaching Zaroff's island, he became imprisoned and forced to participate in a game that can lead to his death. It was also in the jungle where he became the hunted, making him realize how a jaguar feels when hunted. Once again, like the use of conflict, setting had reiterated the role reversal that occurred in Connell's "The Most Dangerous…… [read more]

Living Organisms Are Subdivided Term Paper

6 pages (2,056 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… They are ubiquitous in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments, where they often outnumber other animals in both individual and species counts, and are found in locations as diverse as Antarctica and oceanic trenches.

E. Phylum Aves

Grasshopper Sparrow

Scientific Classification















The Grasshopper Sparrow can be found in huge grassy fields. It has a circular beak about 4.5 inches long. It has brownish and white on the stomach. It feeds on the ground and insects.

F. Phylum Platyhelminthes


Scientific Classification










The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek "platy": flat; "helminth": worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. With about 20,000 species, they are largest phylum of Acoelomates. Flatworms are found in marine, freshwater, and even damp terrestrial environments. Most are free-living forms, but many are parasitic on other animals. There are four classes: Trematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Turbellaria.


Lichens are made up of two, and some times three, different organisms from three different Kingdoms, which form a symbiotic relationship with each other for their mutual survival.

The dominant member is an ascomycetous fungus (Kingdom Fungi), which is capable of making its own food. The fungus forms the visible portion of lichen inside of which, and protected by them, are cells of an algae (kingdom Protista) or some times cyanobacteria (Kingdom Monera), once known as blue-green algae. Some lichen can consist of all three organisms at once.

The algae provide nutrients, as they contain the pigment chlorophyll, which it uses during photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates the same way as green plants do. Thus the fungus obtains nutrients from the algae; the fungal tissue in turn provides shelter for the algae allowing it to grow in harsh conditions such as rock surfaces where it would otherwise be destroyed.

Sexual Dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is a condition where the two sexes of one species look differently. One rare example of sexual dimorphism in the reptiles is the presence of vestigal hind legs, consisting of a pelvis and femurs forming an anal spur in adult males. Another common example is an animal's size. For example, in some species, especially amongst mammals, the male is larger that the female. Sexual dimorphism is yet another important aspect of sexual selection and evolution itself. One example is that of body weight which can come as a result of sexual competition.

URL for the Pictures




http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/fungi/basidiomycetes/boletales/sp-1.jpg http://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Piptoporus_betulinus.htm






http://www.backyardnature.net/snail& sl.htm







http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichen… [read more]

Largemouth Bass Term Paper

4 pages (1,759 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Largemouth Bass

The waterways in America are loved as they provide a useful place of stay for the plants and many types of animals. The plants and animals are different in different types of speeds of movement of water - some prefer the fast moving water in the middle of the river, while others prefer the relatively still water in… [read more]

John Muir, Gifford Pinchot Term Paper

4 pages (1,425 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Ultimately, Pinchot believed the world was made for man to use, and Muir felt it was not, and this would form the very basis of the eventual and long-lasting disagreement between the two men.

Muir tried to educate the public about the disappearing wilderness, and how it needed to be saved, while Pinchot ultimately believed the public lands belonged to… [read more]

Farmed' and Naturally Bred Salmon Term Paper

4 pages (1,470 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… For example, bears and many birds feed on the salmon. If the salmon disappear, these animals could also disappear, and their lives are intermingled with the forests and lands where they live. If they die off, other plants and animals may eventually die off, and then others, who no longer face their natural predators, might grow and overtake the area,… [read more]

Carbon Trading Term Paper

16 pages (4,229 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … carbon trading. The writer examines whether corporate carbon trading can effectively save the rainforest. Within that context the author explores current environmental law and argues that they will lead to a demand on businesses to reduce or offset their co2 emissions. The writer discusses the difficulty that many businesses will have complying with the law and restrictions. In… [read more]

Saving the Rainforests Term Paper

5 pages (1,490 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Saving the Rainforests

Tropical rainforests are dense, wet forests, found in high rainfall regions close to the equator. The high rainfall (at least 100 inches annually) and steady warm temperatures produce luxurious forest growth. Rainforests used to cover 14% of the Earth's land. Now they cover less than 6%. Most of the rainforests have been destroyed in the last 50… [read more]

Narration Undergoing 'Kafkan Metamorphosis Term Paper

3 pages (994 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Thus, he became quickly estranged from his family simply because he was not able to convey his feelings and thoughts to them. Worth noting, however, is how Kafka utilizes communication as an implicit quality that Gregor and his family never had, even before he metamorphosed into an insect. This is evident when the author narrates Gregor's thoughts about his family: "What a quiet life the family leads,' Gregor said to himself, and while he stared ahead into the darkness, he felt very proud of himself for having been able to provide his parents and sister with a life like that, in such a beautiful apartment. But what if now all the peace, all the prosperity, all the contentment were to come to a fearful end?" (25).

These thoughts demonstrate how Gregor had given his life to provide comfort for and support his family. Indeed, he became valuable to his family only because he was able to provide for them; when he became an insect and remained unable to communicate with his family, he became a useless creature that became the subject of shame and embarrassment. With his metamorphosis, Gregor had not only changed from being human to an insect, but has also shifted from being the Samsa's subject of importance to rejection. Thus, Gregor's inability to communicate reiterated the kind of relationship he had with his family, wherein affection and importance meant only in terms of his capability to provide for them.

Though the metamorphosis had only resulted to grave results concerning Gregor's psyche, the Samsa family had evidently gained a lot from it. Through Gregor's metamorphosis, the family realized that they have come to terms that Gregor had left them for good, and that they must now learn to support themselves. They should not dwell on romantic and memorable thoughts of Gregor; his departure only meant that he can no longer support his family's finances for some reason. The Samsa family's decision to give up the apartment they live in and move on to a cheaper and smaller one is just one of the many steps of change that they finally had to face. In this event, Gregor also metamorphosed fully into an insect, undergoing its life cycle, dying eventually, satisfied that the unfortunate that is his metamorphosis had already resulted to something good, after all, far better than what would have happened had he not 'left' his human self behind to give way to his change as an insect: "He recalled his family with affection and love. His opinion about the necessity for him to disappear was, if possible, even firmer than his sister's. He remained in this state vacant and peaceful contemplation until the tower clock struck the third of the morning hour ... Then his head involuntarily sank down altogether, and his last breath issued faintly from his nostrils" (49).

Work cited

Kafka, F. (1996). "The Metamorphosis." In The Metamorphosis and Other…… [read more]

Wild Life Conservation Term Paper

7 pages (2,175 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Controversy Over Zoos

Most people have fond memories of going to the zoo as children to see the animals. Younger people probably remember clean places with no barred cages and some attempt at a natural setting for the animals. Older people will remember row on row of small cages with metal bars where animals had little to do except to… [read more]

Topography of Louisiana Encompasses Term Paper

6 pages (1,896 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Both loblolly and slash pine have grown in predominance, even as the longleaf pine region has shrunk, because the former are well suited to growth on cut-over lands. Oak-pine forests are situated in the northwest corner and on the border of the western longleaf-slash pine region. An oak-hickory forest grows on the bluffs along the western edge of the Florida Parishes. Finally, an oak-gum-cypress forest region occupies the Mississippi and Red River alluvial valleys and along the valleys of other watercourses. Some regions have little if any forested areas today. The southwestern prairies and the coastal marshes are not naturally forested areas. Instead, they sustain natural grasses such as bluestem, broom sedge, water grass, and switchgrass, with trees following watercourses across the prairies or clumped on elevated portions of the marshes.

Small mammals such as mink, raccoon, opossum, and skunk occupy the woodlands. Deer and wildcat are found in the wooded swamp country. Alligators are confined to the bayous and marshes. Birdlife is especially diverse; wild ducks and geese winter in south Louisiana, where the brown pelican is also found. Fish life is plentiful, and includes, bass, sunfish, and catfish among the most common freshwater varieties. The Gulf of Mexico provides commercial fishers with tarpon, pompano, and menhaden.

Louisiana has a humid subtropical climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Average annual temperatures range from about 69° F. In the south to about 65° F. In the west and north. The high summer temperatures, generally throughout the state, are usually accompanied by high humidity and frequent rainfall. The recorded temperature in the state has ranged from -16° F. In 1899 to 114° F. In 1936. Louisiana receives adequate rainfall throughout the year. Annual precipitation ranges from about 50 inches in the north to more than 60 inches in the south. Rainfall totals are often increased as a result of hurricanes that may strike the coast of Louisiana in late summer and early autumn.


3. Buchanan, W.C. Louisiana Geography, 1-6. Oklahoma City: Harlow Publishing Company, 1957.

4. Espenshade, Edward B., Jr., ed. Goode's World Atlas, xvi, 2-3, 91, 108-109, 125, 126, 128-29. 17th ed. Chicago: Rand, McNally, 1986.

5. Kniffen, Fred B., and Sam Bowers Hilliard, Louisiana: Its Land and People, 11-16, 18-19, 1968. Rev. ed. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987.

6. Newton,…… [read more]

Problem of Overfishing in Deep Sea Fisheries Term Paper

5 pages (1,492 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Sea Fishing

Environmental Effects Over fishing Deep Sea Fisheries

The environmental impacts of deep sea over fishing are many, including detrimental reductions in fishing species/populations. Over fishing can result in a modified community species composition and reduced genetic diversity through "selective targeting on species and particular size classes" (Shotton, 2003).

Over fishing has the greatest impact on the… [read more]

Greyhound Racing Term Paper

5 pages (1,747 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Greyhound Racing:

The case for its abolition

The use of animals of varying species has long been an accepted practice in all societies -- from the oxen used to plow fields in India, to the use of horses in the American West, to the use of various livestock for food. However, the use of animals as entertainment, be it in… [read more]

Build a Fire by Jack Essay

3 pages (1,168 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… .. " (London). He is not kind to the dog, and so, he turns the dog against him when the dog could have become an ally and a friend. As the dog becomes more sympathetic to the reader, the man becomes less so. London notes that he did not listen to people who tried to tell him the dangers of what he was doing. "That man from Sulphur Creek has spoken the truth when telling how cold it sometimes got in the country. And he had laughed at him at the time!" (London). Yet, continually through the story, the dog's instinct tells it they are in danger, and that he should prepare himself for the worst.

The lessons in this story are many, and another interesting factor in the story is the dog, who turns out to be much smarter than the man is. The dog knows how to survive in the wilderness, and the man could have learned from him, but chose not to. The dog is cunning and experienced, while the man is not, and the dog is really the main character in the story. The man is secondary, and that is why it is not surprising when he dies. London has led up to that moment from the very beginning of the story, when he paints the man as an inexperience newcomer who is not very intelligent. The dog, however, is intelligent, and London shows that from the beginning, too. He writes, "The animal was depressed by the tremendous cold. It knew that it was no time for traveling" (London). Throughout the story, London uses the dog to indicate just how difficult the situation is, and just how stupid the man is for ignoring it. He is the exact opposite of the man, and he is more sympathetic than the man is, and so, when the man dies but the dog lives, the story end satisfactorily. The man has never become sympathetic to the reader; so to have it end any other way would not have made sense, particularly when London used the entire story to build up to the ending that he creates as inevitable (and unavoidable, if the man had listened to those who knew better). Showing the dog trotting up the trail also shows that man may not be able to beat the elements, but animals can, and that is why the animals can survive in the forest, while man often cannot.

In conclusion, the traveler dies because he is human. He is arrogant to believe that he can travel when others would never think of traveling. He even thinks to himself, "All a man had to do was to keep his head, and he was all right" (London). He is even more arrogant to travel with only a lunch, and no supplies in case of accident or storm. He is stupid because he ignores the signs around him, even the clues that his dog gives him -- that it is too cold to… [read more]

Manatees the Endangered Term Paper

6 pages (2,113 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Naturally, human beings cannot protect manatees from everything that is dangerous to them and their efforts must be focused on protecting manatees from the things that can be avoided.

Efforts must be focused on protecting these manatees from human intervention and much of this has already been done by ensuring that boats must slow down in protected areas and by keeping some areas completely off-limits to recreational boaters (Verdon, 91). This does not mean that boats will always stay out of these areas or always obey the speed limit, however, and therefore it seems that there would be other things that could be done to protect these slow-moving and gentle creatures. If there is more that can be done, however, most researchers and scientists have not yet found it. It appears that the manatees in general must be left to deal with things in their own way and can only be protected to a certain extent. Some protection for these creatures is certainly better than no protection at all but they are still in extreme danger of extinction if their population numbers do not begin to increase.

As has been mentioned, some of the individuals that are actively involved in the protection of manatees are extremely concerned about the possibility of downgrading their status from endangered to threatened because they feel that this will allow for complacency in the public. In general, the difference between the two statuses is only a matter of how things are worded and therefore semantics can cause these manatees a great deal of problem. Studies that have been done into the manatee problem indicate that over the next forty-five years the manatee population could be reduced by over 50% (Verdon, 92). If this is the case then there will only be approximately 1500 manatees left fifty years from now.

Naturally, these estimates may be somewhat off but the alarming number of manatees that are being killed by recreational boats each year indicate that it is likely that the manatee population will be reduced quite strongly (Gerstein, 156). This is especially true if the manatees are taken off of the endangered species list because there are possibilities that some of the protections that the manatees currently enjoy will no longer be available to them. Those that talk about taking the manatees off the list say that the protections will remain in place and that may be true for the time being but for how long will these protections remain in place for the manatees?

This is the real issue that must be addressed by those that are looking at removing these creatures from the endangered species list and listing them only as threatened. These individuals must look at what they are doing and what kind of effect this reduction in status may have on the manatee. It is also likely that these individuals should look at what has happened to other species when their status has been changed to see if there are any patterns that… [read more]

Phylum Arthropoda Term Paper

3 pages (1,103 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … Phylum of arthropoda [...] this phylum to the reader, including general characteristics of the phylum, an overview of the taxonomy within the phylum, the number of organisms within the phylum, were these organisms live, their ecological or economic importance and any interesting facts about organisms within the phylum. Arthropoda are some of the most diverse and interesting organics on our planet and just about everyone knows what they are. This phylum is made up of spiders, insects, crustaceans, scorpions, and centipedes.

A phylum is a family of organisms that are somehow related, and this phylum is made up of animals with multiple legs, like spiders, crustaceans, scorpions, and such. There are more of this family than any other on Earth, and many of them are still waiting to be discovered. Some of this diverse group helps us live by containing (eating) other insects and phylum, while other members of this group have caused some of the most devastating diseases on earth, such as the fleas that caused the Black Death (Plague) in Europe in earlier centuries (Myers).

These organisms all share some general characteristics. Arthropods have segmented bodies that are proportioned and equal. This segmentation shapes outward and internal formation. Some segments show different patterns and are joined to form specific body regions called tagmata; these sections of the body include the head, thorax (main body) and abdomen (stomach area), and this kind of joining is called tagmosis. Their bodies are covered with a hard shell or "cuticle," that is usually made up of proteins and chitin, which is a very hard, protective surface (the cuticle is called an exoskeleton). This hard outer shell protects the softer segmented bodies underneath. A good example of this type of hard outer shell is on many beetles, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters, who are a subspecies of this phylum (Myers and Waggoner). This chitin "body armor" is jointed so the animals can move underneath it, and this jointed body, and their jointed legs, gives the phylum its name: arthropod means "jointed feet" (Waggoner). Their muscles are joined to the shell, which helps the animals move more easily. Interestingly, the arthropoda do not have internal spines, their shell is their skeleton (exoskeleton) on the outside. This skeleton is generated (secreted) by the animal, and is replaced as the animal grows larger, because the skeleton cannot grow with the animal. So, the animal sheds the old exoskeleton, and makes a new one when it is necessary.

Internally, the arthropods have a circulatory system of blood vessels and a heart, they have a nervous system, and they have a brain, respiratory (breathing) system, and digestive system (Ramel). Their bodies are not as advanced as those of humans are, but they are more advanced than fossils that have been found of similar animals in ancient times (Ramel).

The arrangement of animals in this phylum is quite varied. These creatures are usually divided into four classes: Trilobita (trilobites, which are now extinct, but the… [read more]

Ecology of Easter Island Term Paper

5 pages (1,458 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Gradually they began cutting trees down faster than the trees could regenerate, aggravated at least some by both the action of rats eating or damaging seeds and by the decline in the bird population, which decreased cross-pollination. Forests were also cut down for farming land. As the forests declined the supply of water changed. Soil eroded. Art work from the… [read more]

Hominids in the African Region Term Paper

1 pages (388 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … hominids in the African region 4.5 to 5.5 million years ago in terms of survival relative to the environment of Africa at that time. Further to provide a reason why a species of the bipedal would have advantages over a quadruped and to name those advantages. Finally to discuss whether there was only one or possibly many advantages to this feature.

In the African region approximately 4.5 to 5.5 million years ago two type individuals existed in the increasingly arid grassland environment of Africa. One of the individual types had larger canines and smaller molars with thinner enamel while the other had smaller canines and molars with thicker enamel. The individual with smaller canines and smaller molars with thicker enamel had the advantage in that as the arid grasslands grew and the forest shrank this individual would have adapted to eating green things such as grass like substances. The individual, with the larger canines and molars, would be a meat-eater. The meat-eater would have a harder time locating sustenance as many of the animals would move away from the dryer grasslands to where moisture was easier found as well as the lack…… [read more]

Dogs Verses Cats Term Paper

3 pages (768 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Companionship is equally important to both cat and dog owners, however, there are differences regarding behavior and health issues (State pp). Dog owners are nearly twice as likely, 2.3 compared to 1.6, to visit the veterinarian than cat owners (State pp). The top three behavior problems experienced with dogs are barking and growling, 17%, jumping on people, 13%, and begging for food, 11% (State pp). The top three behavior problems with cars are clawing the furniture, 20%, climbing on furniture or counters, 16%, and eliminating in the house outside the litter box, 10% (State pp).

The top method of handling their pet's behavior problem for both cat and dog owners use disciplining or scolding their pet (State pp).

Health problems vary regarding health issues of dogs and cats (State pp). The three greatest health problems for dog owners are fleas and ticks, ear infections and allergies (State pp). The three single greatest health problems for cat owners are hairballs, fleas and ticks and urinary tract infections (State pp).

Perhaps the issue of elimination is one of the largest differences regarding maintenance between dogs and cats. Dogs must have accessibility to the outdoors, either a backyard or routine walks by the owner several times a day (State pp). Cats on the other hand are generally inside creatures and therefore must be provided with a litter box, which by the way must be kept clean and sanitary (State pp).

Both dogs and cats must be groomed regularly, including bathing, brushing, and nail clipping. And both pets require access to water and food at all times and a cautious eye for health problems (State pp).

More than 90% of both dog and cat owners report hugging and playing with their pet daily (State pp). It seems that no matter whether one owns a dog or a cat, it is the companionship and unconditional love that pets provide that is important.

Works Cited

Health Benefits of Pet Ownership." http://www.rctc.edu/program/btec/pub/spring2001/lotteson-1/

The Health Benefits of Owning Pets." http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/text2-18-2002-11780.asp

The State of the American Pet Highlights." http://www.purina.com/institute/survey_highlights.asp… [read more]

Lifestyle of the Ichthyosaurs Term Paper

11 pages (3,108 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Locomotion

Fish-shaped ichthyosaurs resemble mackerel sharks and these characteristics suggest thunniform or tuna-like swimming.

Mackerel sharks, of which the Great White is an example, swim by holding the body still and moving the tail. Some fish undulate the entire body in order to swim, like eels do. Early, lizard-shaped ichthyosaurs seemed to swim in an undulatory way. Fish-shaped ichthyosaurs, it… [read more]

Conservation Value of Semi-Natural Oak Term Paper

4 pages (1,247 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… In addition by being conservation-worthy, these woodlands are also valuable as recreational and tourist areas. The value of these areas has increased in relation to their scarcity in the face of increased urbanization

As wooded areas have become scarcer in relation to numbers of people in the country, and the relative rarity of large blocks of undeveloped natural land has increased, the value of existing woodlands to provide recreational opportunities has increased. Such areas are especially critical near cities where opportunities to experience natural landscapes are so limited. (ibid)

Other aspects that make these areas so important for conservation are the utilization of the woodlands for "hiking, hunting, and wildlife viewing; the presence of these areas can improve the quality of life for nearby residents by providing a desirable visual landscape. Trees enhance the beauty of the countryside and can screen housing developments or industrial complexes. " (Ibid) These woodland areas also help filter out pollution in the environment. Another important aspect that affects conservation is employment in the areas.

While the value of the actual wood products that are extracted from woodlands is often relatively small compared to the other values these areas provide, ensuring a continual supply of wood products through planting programs also provides employment and helps sustain rural economies." (ibid)

However, one essential aspect from a conservation point-of-view is the fact that the woodlands are a critical wildlife habitat. Many animals are dependent for their existence on the shelter and food that the woodlands provide. This means that change in the habitat has a subsequent affect on the presence and abundance of the various species of animals in that area. Another important factor is that, unlike agricultural areas, woodlands have wide structure diversity and provide a wide variety of "habitual elements" that can provide for and support a greater number of species. (ibid)

There are a number of areas that require urgent conservation efforts. One of the areas that have declined in recent years is the Greater Manchester area, which is not classified as a scarce habitat; and another area of concern is the semi-natural oak woodlands of the Quantocks, These are nationally important wildlife habitats and rich in species, including Red Deer. Grazing has declined over the years. (The countryside Agency) An area that has great conservation value is the Glentrool Oakwoods, which is a complex mix of ancient and semi-natural oak woodland. This area has recorded "36 breeding bird species... And a nest box scheme was established in the early 1970s to encourage the breeding of the Pied Flycatcher. Red squirrel is well established. Pine Martin was re-introduced into the Caldons in 198081. Bat box monitoring has taken place since 1991 and four species of bat have been recorded." (Glentrool)

Continued conservation in these areas is important as the conservation value is high and the nurturing and resuscitation of some of the area has become an important necessity. The measures that are being taken include strategies for developing mixed woodland or reversion to open… [read more]

Mammals Cloning to Preserve Term Paper

5 pages (1,649 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… While the Act supports laboratory methodology to a strong degree, better criteria needs to be provided for controlled propagation under the Act. Genetic cloning is a means of maintaining genetic variability. It is a useful method of reintroducing lost numbers of a species like the giant panda, or an extinct species like the wooly mammoth, to the population with no adverse affect on the current population. However, habitat conservation efforts must also accommodate for the new arrivals, and the ethics of individual animal loss to save a species must still be evaluated and overseen by the Fish and Wildlife Service. But if the end result is that cloning can save an entire species from extinction, even if some negative affects may be incurred as cloning is perfected, should it not be considered and implemented if the overall results are favorable for conservation of endangered animals like the giant panda?

According to the World Wildlife Fund, it is estimated that about 20% of all present day species could be extinct by the year 2025. While conservation efforts under the Endangered Species Act aimed at captive breeding programs, reintroduction, and habitat management are being conducted, new methods of species preservation must be supported. Scientific methods like genetic cloning through interspecies transfer to produce viable young should be considered in the overall endangered animal protection plan, and the broad sense of the term "risk" (as applied to limiting the use of presently endangered individuals to save their entire species) needs to be reconsidered and explained to allow advances in scientific technology that may possibly recover entire animal populations.


Endangered Species Act of 1973." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. June 1994. http://endangered.fws.gov/policy/pol003.html

Hawes, A. & M. Huy. "Giant Pandas." Smithsonian National Zoological Park. 2001. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/GiantPandas/

Lanza, Robert P., Dresser, Betsy L. & Philip Damiani. "Cloning Noah's Ark." Scientific

American. 19 Nov. 2000.

Stewart, Melissa. "Cloning Hit or Miss? (First attempt at cloning to preserve an endangered species fails as the wild Asian ox calf died in two days)." Science World. 26,…… [read more]

Domestication of Dogs Over Ten Term Paper

2 pages (933 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… " (Steinman) People who previously traveled extensively or spent most of their free time away from the home will need to adapt to the dog or cat at home that needs attention. Cleaning the home may take more time and labor due to pet hair and paw prints. Owners that become frustrated with the effort of animal-care may become resentful of the pet.

Perhaps the most important obligation of a pet-owner is that they love and respect their companion animal. "The sad truth is, not everyone loves animals. Ask any animal control officer about the animals found bruised, bloodied, and emaciated; the litters of puppies and kittens rescued from taped-up boxes alongside highways, or from sealed plastic garbage bags thrown into lakes and rivers; the animals abandoned because they "bark too much," or because they are aging, or because the family is moving." (PETA) The mindset that animals are possessions instead of family members leads to the abuse and neglect of domesticated animals. People should not own animals to be guard-dogs or status symbols. "In almost every rescue we have done, from puppies abandoned on the side of the road, to dogs emancipated from fighting rings, to cats subjected to physical torture, the core problem has been traced back to this: the person who inflicted this abuse did not respect the animal as an individual. Those who truly love an animal will overcome all other odds to provide for them." (Steinman) Even a person who goes through the proper motions to care for their pet may wind up with an anti-social or depressed animal if that animal has not been shown proper love and affection.

Companion animals have shown humans unmeasurable amounts of loyalty and dedication over the centuries, and in turn it has become common practice among most people in our society to have a pet. However, as rewarding as pet ownership can be, people must be willing and able to dedicate themselves to properly providing for their pet's every physical and emotional need. There are people who are not able to make the often selfless decisions necessary when caring for an animal due to circumstances beyond their control, as well as people who will consistently make the most selfish decision possible due to their personal disrespectful view of animals. Those individuals who would not provide a safe, secure, and healthy home for an animal should not become pet owners.


PETA. "Companion Animals: Doing What's Best for Them." Fact Sheet. 2003. Accessed Online 25 November 2003. Available at http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsc19.html

Pet adoption"

City of Pasadena, Texas. 29 Apr 1999. Accessed Online 25 November 2003. Available at http://www.ci.pasadena.tx.us/pet.htm

Steinman, Moco. Personal Interview. 25 November 2003.… [read more]

1988 Fire at Yellow Stone Term Paper

7 pages (2,109 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… The flames cleared the way for regrowth. In the springs and summers after the fires, wildflowers have bloomed in new meadows. New bushes and shrubs have sprung up, and tree seedlings have begun to grow. Animals are feasting on their new bounty of food. Eventually, lodgepole forests will carpet the landscape. Despite human intervention, great fires probably will return again to Yellowstone and the cycle of flames and regrowth will repeat itself.

One of the lessons of 1988 was that fires help nourish a healthy park for plants and animals. Since 1989, authorities have been setting small controlled burns to clear away undergrowth. They also have been stressing the inevitability and necessity of fire. Today, bare trees still stand like burned matchsticks waiting to be blown over, but Yellowstone has bounced back. Green saplings sprout from the forest floor and the volcanic soil bursts forth with a heavy growth of lodgepole pine, aster, elk sedge, lupine and other plant life. In another 10 years, vegetation may be 10 times as diverse as it was in 1988. (Hanson, Brooks, Atmospheres: Not so fired up. Science, 03-24-2000)

The Yellowstone National Park was on the road to recovery soon after the fire across the entire Yellowstone National Park; tens of millions of trees have sprung from the ashes of what America and the world assumed was an ecological disaster. A decade after walls of flame roared through more than one-third of the park's 2.2 million acres, Yellowstone's rebirth, swift and vigorous, continues to impress scientists and amaze near-record throngs of tourists. Yellowstone today is a gigantic laboratory of scientific study and public education about the beneficial effects of wildfire on the land and its inhabitants. Park officials even are studying whether to set controlled burns to clear out more deadwoods and other volatile "fuel" in areas missed by the 1988 blazes. Intentionally lighting such "prescribed" fires inside the park would be a Yellowstone first. Biologists, ecologists and scientists from across the country are conducting at least 150 different studies related to the fires' aftermath. They monitor insects, plants and animals. They examine swamps, streams, meadows and forests. They even study the lowly lichen, growing slowly in blotches on forest rocks. (E.N. SMITH Associated Press Writer, Ten years after fires, Yellowstone National Park prospers, AP Online, 06-20-1998)

Park managers are low-key today about the fires. No anniversary observance is planned. They were angry in 1988 by alarming news accounts of vast devastation. They endured fiery criticism from national politicians and residents and businesses in nearby tourist towns threatened by the fires. Tourism suffered, but no homes were lost. Over time, Yellowstone officials felt vindicated by the landscape's quick healing and a boom in tourist traffic. But they're also required to be more cautious now about how and how long to let fire burn. Like geysers, earthquakes, bears and bison, the fires have become just another part of Yellowstone's natural history. A few roadside plaques discuss the blazes. And an exhibit and film at the… [read more]

Extinction Theory and Its Impact Term Paper

4 pages (1,113 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Human beings today differ in that they are much more technologically advanced. What has set the human population apart from other forms of life is the ability to manipulate and build tools against the difficulties presented by the environment.

This ability has however also had some catastrophic consequences. Inherent in human intelligence is also the ability to destroy itself. Many of the environmental crises faced by all life on earth today are the result of the human effort to simplify life. Pollution and global warming are for example effects directly related to technological advances. These in themselves predict future tragedy and the possibility of extinction without the help of natural killing mechanisms or indeed extraterrestrial projectiles.

It can be argued that mass extinction is possible, even today, as it was during the time of the dinosaurs. There are three possibilities, if the above is taken into account. First, it is possible that an asteroid of vast proportions can collide with the earth, resulting in the mass extinction of several life forms, including human beings. The exact consequences listed by Alvarez have however proved to be inconclusive by further scientific study. A second possibility is of course the fact that changing dynamics on earth and the consequent bioevolution could prove fatal to the human race. Human beings are however very advanced technologically. Passively waiting for slow earth-induced extinction is a somewhat fantastic notion. Much more realistic is the third possibility - that human greed and ignorance may prove fatal to a race that is much too clever for its own well being.

There is however hope. While mass extinction on earth is certainly possible, one can say that it is not very likely. The reason for this is the very intelligence inherent in the human mind that can be so destructive. This intelligence can also be extremely beneficial. This can be considered in terms of all three extinction possibilities mentioned above.

In terms of Alvarez's theory, programs are implemented at NASA to scan outer space for possible threats to life on earth in the form of meteors or asteroids. In this way preparations can be made when this possibility makes itself known to NASA's instruments. In terms of the dynamics on earth, new ways are constantly implemented to make the environment more habitable to men and women. In this way also biological science can be used to manipulate the environment to the benefit of mankind rather than its demise. Finally, in terms of self-destruction, there is an increasing awareness of human activity and its adverse consequences for the environment. There is also an increasing awareness of the interaction between the environment and the life lived by human beings. Thus, technology is applied not only to simplify life, but also to help in rehabilitating the environment. Human beings are realizing the possibility of extinction in this way and thus are implementing strategies to make life more sustainable.

Combined with the will to survive therefore, human technology enables at least a lesser possibility… [read more]

Humans on Ecology- Deforestation Term Paper

6 pages (2,049 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… This prevents flooding or drought conditions. The rainforests play the role of tropical watersheds as they save all the water for later. The trees also form canopies to prevent the soil from being desiccated and provide a good cover. Water is conserved due to the shade cover provided by the trees which reduces the chances of evaporation. The roots of the trees reduce the chances of compaction, erosion and desiccating. Deforestation contributes to erosion, floods, shortage of rainfall and water supplies. When forests are cleared they are exposed to the intense heat of the tropical sun and sometimes by the force of the torrential rains. The soil starts to degrade and is no longer fit to grow trees. Once a forest has been denuded it ruins the environment forever. There are a lot of chances that the forest might not re-grow to its former glory, thus destroying the ecosystem. Erosion also occurs due to deforestation as rains wash away the topsoil which had been protected by the canopy.

The watersheds are destroyed as they no longer have a grip on the soil and it can no longer absorb rainwater in the soil. This creates a shortage of water. With a shortage of rainwater, there is a fluctuation in drinking water. It creates a drought like situation and can also put the health of communities at risk as the other sources of water carry diseases. Sometimes it can backfire and create huge floods after a series of torrential rains. With the loss of topsoil due to erosion, water can't be stored within the soil and its let loose. When the forests are destroyed it contributes to the shortage of rainfall as more carbon dioxide is released into the air. Due to the scarcity of clean water a lot of epidemics occur in the area. With water lying stagnant, it attracts major epidemics such as malaria. The malaria epidemics in the Amazon rainforest are very deadly and fatal in some cases. This is due to the fact that there are no forests to prevent such epidemics. The rainforests contains plants which either feed on insects or prevent them from spreading out. Due to the destruction of a food chain, such problems are hard to prevent.

Strip mining is a factor which contributes to the deforestation in the Amazon. Thousands of acres of land are lost to mining every year. This results in pollution of the lands and water supplies. This is because there the rainforest is next to the Amazon River which runs for hundreds of miles. Polluting elements such as oil and mercury contaminate the water and are carried off to long distances. This contributes to mercury poisoning of animals and human beings.


The rainforests should not be denuded and should be preserved for the future of our planet. The more we destroy it the more we are ruining the future for our future generations. The government of Brazil should take steps to prevent this problem from accelerating into a… [read more]

Primates Are More Cognitively Advanced Term Paper

7 pages (2,401 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Vocalizations of apes contain semantic detail about social relations as well as external threats. Chimpanzees give food-calls in the wild that attract others; in captivity they can lead others to hidden food, and convey its quality. Apes deliberately deceive others, concealing both food and sex and even fake facial expressions or erections. The capacities to give or withhold information and… [read more]

Cod Written by Mark Kurlansky Term Paper

6 pages (1,913 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… It's no fish ye're buying: it's men's lives." -- Walter Scott, The Antiquary (1816) - quoted in "Cod" by Mark Kurlansky

In Cod, Kurlansky blends political and economic history with small highlights into cultural and cooking traditions with so many cooking recipes. This book is politically and culturally a very good source of information.

Once the population of codfish was abundant that explorers use to dip baskets into the ocean to catch them. But the fact is that for hundreds of years people did not value their presence thinking that the millions of eggs laid by female cod would mean millions of fish for man to eat -- and make money out of. The good population of cod and the fact that they could be easily dried and preserved was a source of encouragement for the Vikings to cross the cold Atlantic Ocean to America. In fact Christopher Columbus and the other explorers were dependant on this staple diet. Once the source of the invention of frozen food, and an inspiration of the modern efficient fishing systems, is now threatening the laws of the seas. This is just a reminder of the distressing effect man has had on our earth.

Fishiest of all fishy places was the try pots, which well deserves its name; or the pots there were always boiling chowders. Chowder for breakfast, and chowder for dinner, and chowder for supper, till you begin to look for fish-bones coming through your clothes... There was a fishy flavor to the milk too, which I could not account for, till one morning happening to take a stroll along the beach among some fishermen's boats, I saw Hosea's brindled cow feeding on fish remnants, and marching along the sand with each foot in a cod's decapitated head." -- Herman Melville, "Moby Dick" (1851) - quoted in "Cod" by Mark Kurlansky (1997)

Kurlansky made brilliant use of the collections of quotations by other people. The book itself is very interesting because of the incorporation of maps, old photos of fishing activity, quotes concerning codfish from literary personalities like Cervantes, Melville, W.B. Yeats, Thoreau, Daniel Webster, and others. The recipes that have been sprinkled throughout the book from the 1300s to the present from various countries around the world along with occasional original points-of-view make…… [read more]

Beagle Firstly Named Term Paper

3 pages (1,005 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Beagles, when in 2001 made on fifth position climbed slightly into fourth most popular pick, with 44,610 registrations. Beagle was also registered as the most popular in hound category (Lieber, 2002. pars. 2-5).

American Kennel Club set two major varieties for good beagle breed: the 13-inch and 13-15 inches height. Beagles exceeding the number will not be qualified for ranking. In England, beagles are categorized in one class of maximum height of 16 inches. Basically, beagles are short, weighing between 18 to 30 pounds, with ears on the sides of the head (Dawn, 2002). They come in various assorted colors, from white, brown to black, and shorthaired coat with convenience in daily care.

A beagle breed quality is justified upon several factors, based on the American Kennel Club standard:

a. Head: Good beagle has elongated head, large and full cranium. The ears should be large, low, long as reaching the nose, skull is flat, nose turning up and open, eyes sharp and lovable, the front part of ears turns into cheeks, no flews.

b. Body: Neck straight up, clean, no folds of skin, some additional wrinkles at the jaws, short and thick neck. Shoulders should be muscular, not too fatty and not too much bones, chest broad but should not mixed up with shoulder broadness. Back should also look strong; body slightly curved backward with adequate lungs room and flat ribs.

c. Feet: Feet should be proportional to the body, with strong and firm pad, strong muscles.

d. Coat: medium length, hard coat like common hound. Soft coat and thin hair are not accepted.

e. Tail: Should be high, little arched. Long tail is not accepted.

Beagle is potential for pure breeding business, as long as the breeder always keeps the original positive characteristics of the bred. The better quality the pure breed is, the more the dog shows its potential. The dog is a good friend for children and family, as well as for inspection functions and ability to help the disabled. Beagle is ideal for a pet, since it meets the requirement to be cooperative with people, intelligent enough to be trained, only requires simple care and not sophisticated grooming, quite beautiful and well-mannered (after purposeful training) for contest performance.

Works Cited

American Kennel Club. Beagle Hound Group Breed Standard. 2003. American Kennel Club. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://www.akc.org/breeds/recbreeds/beagle.cfm

Dupris, Malcolm. A History of The Beagle. BarkBytes.com. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://www.barkbytes.com/history/beagle.htm

Hubrecht, Robert C. Enrichment In Puppyhood and Its Effect on Later Behavior of Dogs. Laboratory Animal Science 45 (1995): 70-75.

Lieber, Alex. The Most Popular Dog Breeds of 2002. (2002). Pet Place.com. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://petplace.netscape.com/articles/artShow.asp?artID=5103

Parr, Ellen and Sharon Reid. Beagles. May 15, 1998. K9 Web. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://www.k9web.com/dog-faqs/breeds/beagles.html#history

Rice, Dan. The Beagle Handbook (Barron's Pet Handbooks). Barrons Educational Series. 2000. pp. 1-4.

Ruben, Dawn. Choosing a Beagle. (2002). Pet Place.com. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://petplace.netscape.com/articles/artShow.asp?artID=2383… [read more]

River Runs Term Paper

4 pages (1,454 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Because Jacobs emphasizes that degredation is the worst aspect of slavery by printing this on the cover of her narrative, the river offers the only means to escape this psychological torture. The river is also a means to escape physical torture, as the woman in Chapter XXIII was ordered to be "stripped and whipped," (184). Therefore, the woman escaped both… [read more]

Sexual Selection Is a Form Term Paper

2 pages (630 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Examples of intersexual selection refers to displays of courtship and plumage. (Starr 184-185)

Animals respond to color, form, pheromones, and touch; all elements that can be shaped by a personal bias. One theory that deserves attention is Fisher theory (or runaway sexual selection) that suggests individuals with large sexual ornaments have a higher mating success but lower survival than those with smaller ornaments. The Fisher theory also indicates the relevant traits involved in this selection show heritable genetic variation and that there is a connection between the traits and the preferences. (Fisher 184-192)

The interesting fact about runaway sexual selection is that it is a process in which there appears to be an obvious set of characteristics, which of course, make for it a little more difficult to study. What can be gathered from this process is that choices do seem to favor conditions in which the species will reproduce.

All types of selection ensure the survival of a species and selection also demonstrates how a particular species might evolve according to the choices of the females. For example, humans have less body hair that apes, along with whiter eyes, more expressive faces, more dexterous hands, and more developed pheromones.

Upon reflection, the selection process is quite amazing as well as fascinating to study. Selection must occur in order for survival, whether or not the species is aware of this at all. Sexual selection may prove to be a more complicated issue, but just as interesting nevertheless. The human element involved in selection, as in most cases of everything else, adds even more complication to the matter, definitely qualifying the need for more research.

Works Cited

Burley, N. "Wild Zebra Finches Have Color-Band Preferences." Animal Behavior. Vol. 36. 1988.

Fisher, R.A. "The Evolution of Sexual Preference." Eugenics Review. Vol.7 1915.

Starr, Cecie. Biology, Concepts and Applications. Belmont: Wadsworth…… [read more]

Oozing, Itchy, Misery-Inducing Rash Term Paper

7 pages (1,894 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… It must be noted again that aerial spraying does of course have its own risks associated with it.

Among the herbicides currently used are the following:

Glyphosate (Round-up Pro)

Auxinic herbicides Triclopyr (Garlon, Ortho Brush-B-Gon)

2,4-D (Spurge & Oxalis Killer)

Dicamba (Banvel, Spurge & Oxalis Killer)

These herbicides can be applied as stump or basal applications, or as a foliar spray.

Glyphosate is one of the most effective herbicides for control of poison oak. Effective control depends on proper timing of the applications. Apply glyphosate late in the growth cycle, after the fruit have formed but before the leaves lose their green color. A 2% solution in a back-pack sprayer works well.

Bio-Control: Bring on the Munching Goats!

One excellent solution for the eradication of poison oak - especially in areas close to houses of schools where herbicides may be contraindicated and there is a high risk of people coming into contact with the poison oak is the control of the plant through other species - primarily goats but also sometimes sheep, both of whom seem to be able the eat the plants without harm.

While parasitic insects (or microorganisms such as bacteria) can be used on some plants, none has been found to be successful against poison oak.


It is unlikely that Canadians and Americans will have to fear the extinction of poison oak in the near future. However, it is possible to control the plant by the means described in this paper - but only if those methods are used consistently and repeatedly.

Works Cited

Guin J.D. And J.H. Beaman "Toxicodendrons of the United States." Clinical Dermatology 4: 137-148, 1986. http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/html/pnw/pnw108/pnw108.html

http://jrm.library.arizona.edu/data/1965/184/6bove.pdf. http://poisonivy.aesir.com/faq.html

Leonard, O.A. And G.E. Carlson. "Killing of blue oak and poison oak by aircraft." Weeds 8: 625-30, 1960.

Parkinson, G. "The Many Faces of Poison Ivy." New England Journal of Medicine 347 (35), July 4, 2002: 347.

A www.cagwin.com/garden/horticulture/hort_poison_oak.htm

Resnick, S.D. "Poison-ivy and poison-oak dermatitis." Clinical Dermatology 4: 208-212, 1986.

Viz. Resnick 206. http://poisonivy.aesir.com/faq.html


Guin & Beaman 1986. http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/html/pnw/pnw108/pnw108.html

Leonard and Carlston 625.

A www.cagwin.com/garden/horticulture/hort_poison_oak.htm… [read more]

Diversity and Organisms Phylogeny Term Paper

3 pages (851 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… They like deuterostomes are bilaterally symmetrical animals. The deuterostomes have a ventral heart and a dorsal (back) nerve cord, spinal and brain (UTM Web site).

Enterocoelous development of the coelom occurs in deuterostomes. The mesoderm, and coelom, initially develops as pouches off the primitive digestive tract (the archenteron).

Schizocoelous development of the coelom occurs in protostomes. The mesoderm, and coelom, initially develops from a solid block of mesoderm tissue that develops a split down the middle (UTM Web site).

8. Determinate cleavage is characteristic of protostomes, where after the initial cell division, the resulting daughter cells can only develop into specific tissues, not the whole organism. Indeterminate cleavage is characteristics of deuterostomes, where after the initial cell division each resulting daughter cell has the potential to develop into an entire organism (UTM Web site).

9. The two characteristics are the body plan is a tube within a tube and the symmetry is bilateral with cephalisation. (South Dakota State University Web site).

10. Kingdom Animalia is one of four kingdoms in the Domain Eukarya, distinct from the other three kingdoms: Plantae, Fungi, and Protista. Animalia are multicellular, while most Protista (excepting the multicellular algae, which are plant-like) are unicellular. Heterotrophism separates the animals and fungi from plants, and the lack of cell walls in animal cells makes them distinct from fungi. Animals also possess several other unique features: interior digestion of food; possession of a digestive tract where hydrolytic enzymes are secreted; special cell junctions in their tissues; a life cycle as diploid cells, with the exception of haploid gametes (Stowell Friend's School Web site).


Alternation of Generations." Kennesaw Web site. URL:


The Animal Kingdom." Chapters 20 & 21. The South Dakota State University Web site. URL: http://biomicro.sdstate.edu/Hutchesh/bio101/Text/Chapt20.htm

Determinate and Indeterminate cleavage." UTM Web site. URL:


Enterocoelous vs. schizocoelous development of the coelom." UTM Web site. URL: http://www.utm.edu/~rirwin/enteroschizo.htm

Glossary. Evolution Library Web site. URL:


Plant Reproduction." Dreamscape Web site. URL:


Plant Evolution and Classification." The World of Biology Web site. URL:


Kingdom Animalia." The Stowell Friend's School Web site. URL:


UCMP Glossary of Natural History Terms, Volume 1, Phylogenetics Terms." UCMP Web site. URL:

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss1phylo.htm… [read more]

Unwanted Pets and Possible Solutions Term Paper

2 pages (528 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… The children and parents soon tire of the responsibility and another animal is sent to the local shelter.


There are many solutions for this huge problem. The main one is to spay or neuter the animals. Since one male and female cat can produce 6,500 kittens in just four years, this would decrease the numbers of animals born each year.

Another is to get your pet from animal shelters instead of breeders or pet stores (which buy from puppy mills). This will reduce the number of animals killed each year, and may also eventually help shut down the mills, since people won't be buying their product.

A final solution is for parents to think before getting a pet for their children. They need to take into consideration the child's age and who will be caring for the animal. They may want to let the child play with animals at a friend or relative first to see how quickly they tire of the pet. They may also want to consider starting with something small, like a fish, and then working up to a cat or dog.


The number of unwanted pets is growing every year. However, this trend doesn't need to continue. It's up to us to eliminate this problem by being responsible pet owners.

We need to keep our pets in a fenced yard or on a leash when walking, and make sure they are spayed or neutered.

These are small, but important steps in stopping the needless deaths of millions of pets.


Unwanted Animals. (accessed 10-15-2002)… [read more]

Lake Is White's Account Term Paper

2 pages (716 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… " In this statement is a suggestion that this return was significant for some reason. At the same time, the fact that we have first heard of the first trip and then how it became a tradition and now that he has returned, puts the reader in the same frame of mind as White, making it a journey for the reader as much as for White.

White then considers how the lake may have changed, "I began to wonder what it would be like. I wondered how time would have marred this unique, this holy spot..." In this simple statement, is a reference also to how he may have changed. This focus on time and change sets the scene for the realization that is to come.

The change then becomes clearer as White looks at his son who is fishing, "I looked at the boy, who was silently watching his fly, and it was my hands that held his rod, my eyes watching. I felt dizzy and didn't know which rod I was at the end of." Here it is seen how White and the boy have changed places. White has memories of his father and of himself as the son, but now realizes that he has become the father.

The fear that is associated with this thought is then described with White saying his "groin felt the chill of death." This concludes White's personal journey and his realization that time and change cannot be escaped. This leads to him recognizing that his own death is approaching. This rather dark and truthful message is not stated outright, however. Instead it is allowed to creep up on the reader, similarly to the way the feeling crept up on White. The final effect is one where the reader appreciates the meaning of the moment without being overwhelmed by the feelings associated with it.

Overall, White's essay is an excellent expression of a moment of realization that every individual will experience. White manages to communicate this message without forcing the point and without making the story only about himself. The reader is allowed to sense the feelings for themselves, making…… [read more]

Congress Term Paper

2 pages (718 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Adams argues for carefully regulated expansion of oil drilling for the economic benefits it will bring to the local natives.

However, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service believes that further gas and oil exploration cannot be done without seriously damaging the environment. They view the area as pristine, and state that development would reduce its value for scientific study by interfering with the area's natural evolution and damage "the biological and ecological integrity of the entire Refuge" (USFWS, 2000).

They note several reasons for believing the risk of substantial ecological damage is high. First, they cite the high demand for fresh water in such an endeavor. Unlike the Prudhoe Bay area, the area targeted for development (called "Area 1002") has limited fresh water resources (USFWS, 2000). Because construction bases could not be made with ice, because of the shortage of water, this area would require extensive, permanent roads and building pads. This is viewed as a significant change to the ecology of the area. (USFWS, 2000). Th3 current North Slope facilities already cover 800 square miles, and they predict that development of Area1002 would be substantially bigger, interfering with animals' migratory routes, disrupting hunting for local residents, contamination of soil and water by depositing chemicals on land surfaces not present before, and changes in the natural water system because of the high demand for water. (USFWS, 2000).

In conclusion, looking at the potential low profit margin for the oil retrieved from Area 1002 compared to the likely ecological impact, the position of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service against oil and gas exploration in Area 1002 makes sense.


Adams, Jacob. June, 1995. "Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Website of the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation. Accessed via the Internet 7/9/02. http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/ANWR/asrcadams.html

Shanahan, John. Oct. 17, 1995. "Time to Permit Oil Drilling in the Arctic Refuge." The Heritage Foundation. Accessed via the Internet 7/9/02. http://www.heritage.org/library/categories/enviro/em432.html

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Oct. 2000. "Potential impacts of proposed oil and gas development on the Arctic Refuge's coastal plain." Web page of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Accessed via the Internet 7/9/02.…… [read more]

Endangered Species Term Paper

10 pages (2,529 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Purple loosestrife -- a European native popular as an ornamental plant in the early 1800s-- has invaded wetlands in 48 states at an estimated cost of $45 million a year for control and loss of forage crops. It is crowding out 44 native plants and endangering the wildlife that depends on them.

A ping off the list are the tiny… [read more]

Childhood Home the House Term Paper

3 pages (1,024 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… I would walk deep into these woods and let my imagination run, thinking about what fort to build next, or could my friends and I have a cookout here? The calmness of the woods didn't solve any problems for me, but the steady back -- and forth motion of the trees rocked them away for the time I was there.

I would listen to the sounds within my trees that I had never noticed before. There were the squirrels a hundred yards away; fighting and squeaking with their tiny feet tramping over last year's dried leaves. There were the robins calling to each other, communicating their bird emotions as surely as you and I communicate our people emotions. I heard a hawk's call down by the river, and I imagined it stretching its wings over all of us and grandly searching for fish in the river. Soon it would fly back home to the safety of my woods.

Some days I would follow the two tracks and go left up the hill. I would have to paw through a tangle of bushes not much taller than myself. I learned to endure the burrs as they collected on my socks. At points along the trail this way I would have to grab onto a tree trunk and pull myself upward.

It was then, lying lazily in my fort for the first time, that I fully appreciated what surrounded me. Not many people had a fort, a climbing tree (as scratchy as it was), a faded two-track path of their own, or even a gravelly old hill. Someday I knew I would outgrow building forts, and climbing trees, but as long as I needed it, I knew the reminders of my childhood home would be there for me.

I would close my eyes and wait for sleep to overcome me. But I was too busy noticing things that I hadn't when I was wide awake. For one thing, the air had become cooler than before, causing goose bumps to form on my bare arms. Trying to catch a little extra warmth, I folded my arms. Another thing was the wind. I had noticed it there before, upon the brilliant green leaves, causing little spots of light to flicker on the few fallen logs around me.

A single cricket started chirping two feet away from me. I would jerk back into consciousness and realized that the sun was almost down. I heard the ring of a telephone a few houses down from mine. The houses all glowed from within now, silhouetting their inhabitants. I sighed and carefully made my way out of the fort.

It was time to go home. I would take a shower and put on my pajamas. I would watch a few hours of sitcoms and then snuggle down in my own warm bed. I was glad to be safe and tucked away in my own home, but the woods always loomed overhead, waiting for my…… [read more]

Lake Erie to the Industrial Term Paper

4 pages (1,378 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… (Martel and Schultheiss).

The steel industry in Ohio is extremely important to the state, and the northern area of the state, which is located near (via shipping on the lake, and the Erie canal) the giant steel capital of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. "Ohio is the second-largest steel-producing state in the nation. More than a dozen companies make steel in the Buckeye State. It follows then that iron ore leads the list of cargos delivered to Lake Erie ports. In recent years, U.S.- and Canadian-Flag lakers have annually delivered more than 18 million tons to the state...Steel's contributions to Ohio's economy are manifold. The mills have a workforce of roughly 30,000 and an annual payroll of $1.4 billion. Each job in the steel industry generates three more in supply industries, so nearly 125,000 Ohioans owe their livelihood to steel." In contrast, most of the raw materials needed to make steel also come to the manufacturers via shipping on the lake (Martel and Schultheiss).

Many other products ship out daily over Lake Erie. They include coal, stone products, salt, cement, sand, grain, and petroleum products. In any given year, about 18 million tons of the 35 million shipped throughout the lakes will ship from ports in Ohio (Martel and Schultheiss).


Without Lake Erie, the Ohio business and industry economy would be far different. The lake supports shipping options that would not be available if Ohio were landlocked. Industries would have located to areas where long-range shipping was more viable, perhaps on the Atlantic coast. Lake Erie also adds to the recreation industry as a tourist attraction, but even more so because local residents use the lake for recreation throughout the year. This creates business for industries as diverse as pleasure boat dealers to fishing suppliers and food vendors.

Lake Erie is most important for shipping, but Ohio's industry uses many of the lake's natural resources, such as sand and gravel. There are also many hydroelectric power plants along the shores of the lake, which also creates more industry. If cheap, plentiful power is available for business, it is also an incentive to locate there. Without the lake, Northern Ohio would be much different, and the goods and services available to the entire country would be more difficult to get, and probably rise in cost because of this difficulty.

Lake Erie plays a critical role in the lives of the people of Northern Ohio, the state, and the entire country. As Dr. Reutter says in an article in the Twine Line newsletter, "When Ohio Sea Grant began in 1977, there were about 50 charter captains on Lake Erie and just over 200 marine-related businesses. Today there are about 1000 charter captains and well over 400 marine-related businesses and Ohio Sea Grant has played a large role in these increases. Tourism, fishing, and boating are very important on Lake Erie, but future development must be well planned and done in a sustainable fashion since over-crowding is becoming a problem."

Reutter sums up the importance… [read more]

Water by David James Duncan Term Paper

4 pages (1,316 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… The debate of 'Is nature worth more than progress' arises and the writing could have become a series of cliches save for one redeeming factor. It has style. Duncan condemns the destruction of Montana's Blackfoot River, where the Snake River was dammed in four places, causing the extinction of the river's wild salmon stocks. He is merciless in his words and succinctly places the blame on the state policies while pleading for their removal. The fact that he does not mince words while doing so suggests that he is more worried for the salmon than of being politically correct.

Duncan writes that the Dams that were built there are really unnecessary. He states that the Snake dams provide only 3.5% of the Northwest's hydropower and "of the same vintage of federal pathology that gave us . . . 3.5 trillion lethal doses of nerve agent released by the Pentagon into Mormon- and Navajo-populated deserts . . . And a present-day epidemic of cancers." Such statistics and analogies cannot but astound the reader and shock their interpretation of the need for dams. The situation is humanized as he presents the salmon not as mere fish but rather as living creatures. He writes, "Wild salmon are not economic units. They are transrational beings whose living bodies bring far-reaching blessings to a watershed." These words bring the formerly simple creatures to life and give them the value they deserve.

At times the authors views do become more emotional and create a feeling of excessive awkwardness as he relates the need for a grasp of the situation. His suggestion that economy does not matter, that the states don't matter and that the people who want progress don't matter is hard to swallow. For as a realistic reader it is a fact that these do matter. People want their comfort and that they will try to achieve it as the expense of others is human nature. To suggest otherwise is a fallacy and tends to at times weaken the argument. Yet, his saving grace is his humor. Even while making arguments that are at the edge of tethering into 'preachiness' he is capable of writing 'the Californians and their air-conditioners don't matter' and with this the reader snorts at the obvious sarcasm and relaxes accepting a rebuke of selfishness as the humor is intended to be.

"I was struck by a boyhood suspicion that rivers and mountains are myself turned inside out," writes David James Duncan. "I'd heard at church that the kingdom of heaven is within us and thought, Yeah, sure. But the first time I walked up a trout stream, fly rod in hand, I didn't feel I was 'outside' at all: I was traveling further and further in."

With these words he manages to summarize his collection of essays. Starting with an explanation of the stream ecology Duncan gathers momentum and gives his readers a lesson in ecology, humor, politics, economics and human nature. He makes a fantastic combination of style and… [read more]

Inscriptiosn of Kamose Essay

4 pages (1,430 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Kamose Stele

The two inscriptions offered by Thebe Pharaoh Kamose offer some insight and perspective as to what led to him pushing for war. In many ways, he was keeping with the general direction started by his father and others before him. However, his two major inscriptions, as will be covered in this brief report, offer some imagery and other… [read more]

Are Known to Inhabit Term Paper

2 pages (592 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… The body of the fish is also covered in scales as protective device to the internal organs even as it swims through various sharp objects. Below the scales is the skin that is covered in slime that is an adaptation to reduce friction between the fish and the water as it swims through effectively making them faster, more slippery for the hunters and also use less energy to swim. The slime is also said to be a protective measure against diseases from the surrounding waters (Texas Aquatic Science, 2014).

The fish also have gills that are formatted to absorb oxygen dissolved in water with efficiency that the lungs would not be able to. The gills help the fish to breathe efficiently as it goes about their business of looking for food and escaping from danger. The location of the eyes also allows these fish to locate potential danger and potential food at a wider angle of almost 360 degrees as opposed to if the eyes were placed at the front. This enhances their accuracy in locating prey hence allowing them have an easier survival. The other outstanding adaptation is the capacity of fish to lay a large number of eggs in water. This is to increase the survival chances as the eggs are swept away by the currents, eaten by other predators and even after hatching the young fish are still at risk of getting decimated hence the large number is their number one line of defense for survival of the species.


Missouri Department of Conservation, (2014). Fish Adaptations. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from http://mdc.mo.gov/fishing/fishing-how-tos/fish-adaptations

Texas Aquatic Science, (2014). Living in Water: Chapter 4. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from http://texasaquaticscience.org/water-aquatic-science-texas/… [read more]

Unusual Ecological Challenges of Our Slippery Friend, the Eel Essay

3 pages (992 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Eels / Conservation

The chief difficulty in evaluating the possible endangered species listing of the American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) is the somewhat bizarre life-cycle of the organism. Although the eel is chiefly a freshwater fish, in order to reproduce it travels from the freshwater waterways where it makes its home, and every eel in America makes its way in the ocean to the Sargasso Sea, a region of the Atlantic Ocean in what is popularly known as the "Bermuda Triangle" (south of the Bahamas and east of Bermuda). From this centralized oceanic spawning-ground, the eggs are fertilized and hatch into miniscule larval eels which then travel back to the freshwater ecosystems where the eels spend most of their adult life apart from this mating ritual.

The possibility of the eel being overexploited by commercial fishing is definitely worth considering, when a host of other factors have conspired to deplete the numbers of American eels, including the destruction of their habitats, changes in their food supply, predation, environmental toxins and contamination, and diseases. However, the ability to measure the population of American eels is made difficult by the strange life cycle described above: the population of the species ranges over the entirety of the continental United States, but is nonetheless a consistent population with a single genetic pool based on the actual mating habits. The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission notes that "from a biological perspective much is still unknown about the species" ("American Eel" 2014). This is because the migratory habits make the species difficult to monitor, and the actual abundance of the species is somewhat obscure; however it is possible to note that the numbers are indeed vastly depleted, significantly enough to warrant possible government intervention to protect the species. But the difficulty would be in how to establish this intervention.

Based on the present status of eel fisheries, there is one obvious and immediate recommendation that could be put into place. Currently eels are harvested at different stages of the life cycle: obviously adult freshwater eels are caught by specific fishing methods, since the adult eel can be used for food. But the greater concern in terms of population depletion is the harvesting of the larval young, known as "glass eels" in their second stage of development after hatching in the Sargasso Sea. The reason for special consideration of the harvesting of the juvenile "glass eels" is that the return of the juveniles from the Atlantic spawning grounds to the freshwater inland North American habitats marks the only time besides the actual oceanic spawning in the Sargasso Sea when the eel population is localized in one place, thus making them easier to harvest on a larger scale. This particular type of fishing, therefore, is arguably capable of doing greater damage to the population dynamics than any commercial fishing of the adult eel, simply because it involves a larger number at a more vulnerable developmental stage. Thus the outright ban on the harvesting of juvenile…… [read more]

Yertle the Turtle This Story Essay

2 pages (578 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Mack eventually burps and causes Yertle to fall into the mud, this eventually removing his authority.

"Gertrude McFuzz" The setting is an outside environment inhabited by several birds.

The story involves several characters: the protagonist is Gertrude McFuzz and she is contrasted by Lolla Lee Lou. Doctor Drake is Gertrude's uncle.

The main theme of the story relates to how one should be careful about what he or she wishes for.

The conflict involves Gertrude's determination to grow more feathers.

The exposition shows Gertrude being unwilling to accept the fact that she only has one feather. The rising action has Gertrude receiving instruction with regard to how to increase her number of feathers. The climax shows the protagonist significantly increasing her number of feathers and being unable to fly as a consequence. The falling action occurs when Gertrude receives help from those close to her. The resolution shows Gertrude satisfied with only having one feather.

The story is told in a third-person point-of-view.

The story's symbolism involves people's tendency to want to be better than others without actually understanding why they want it.

"Gertrude McFuzz" discusses with regard to the protagonist as it wants to have more feathers than Lolle Lee Lou. Her uncle provides her with a way to grow more feathers by eating a particular vine. As she wants as many feathers as possible, she proceeds to consume the vine until she can no longer fly. Her acquaintances then help her by taking her home and removing the additional feathers. Gertrude eventually comes to realize that it needs to appreciate the little things in life


Dr. Seuss. "Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories." (Random House Children's…… [read more]

Tennessee Valley Tva v. Hill Essay

3 pages (1,031 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… As the opinion in the TVA v. Hill case notes, it would seem directly counterintuitive to resist application of the law in the capacity for which it was designed. To the point, Rizzardi (2008) reports, "concluding that enjoining completion of the dam is the proper remedy under the ESA, the Court emphasized that "[t]he plain intent of Congress in enacting this statute was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost." (p. 1)

Applying the phrase 'whatever the cost' here seems to suggest without reservation that a cost-benefit analysis could reveal no possible financial gain that would outweigh the loss of an endangered species.

When should environmental or aesthetic values give way to other values, such as resource development for energy development? Where should the line be drawn?

This is perhaps the most difficult question to confront in dealing with the present case. Though the $100 million dollar investment in a dam whose construction began before the advent of the ESA is a substantial sum to sacrifice, it is far more difficult to place a monetary sum on the survival of a species. This is true not just from the perspective of wildlife preservation but also with consideration to the untold potential impact on the ecology at large. According to the case analysis at CCC (2013), the Supreme Court "cites legislative proceedings foretelling risks that may stem from the 'loss of any endangered species' [original italics]. Habitat destruction, the number one threat to biodiversity, was recognized as such by Congress in its deliberations over the impending law. The ESA ordered that "all methods and procedures which are necessary" should be employed to bring species back from the brink." (CCC, p. 1)

This assessment helps to underscore exactly why the Endangered Species Act was developed from the outset. If a line isn't drawn clearly and immovably, there will always exist a threat that economic priorities will prevail over the survival of individual species and shared habitats. Such is to argue that we have persisted for far too long on the premise that certain resource or energy development priorities should prevail over the survival of species and habitats. The result has been a dangerous disruption of our ecology just as feared in the 1978 decision. Indeed, the Congressional allowances made following this case would set a precedent for loopholing environmental laws in favor of monetary interests. The line protecting endangered species and habitats must be drawn without the potential for movement so that we are forced to innovate new ways of resolving long-standing energy and resource challenges.

Works Cited:

Church, T.W. (2007). Review: The Snail Darter Case: TVA vs. The Endangered Species Act by Kenneth M. Murchison. Law and Politics Book Review, 17(8).

Courts, Cats, and Carbon (CCC). (2013). Special Feature: Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill. Courtscatscarbon.com/

Garrett, E. (2009). The Story of TVA v. Hill: Congress Has the Last Word. Weblaw.usc.edu.

Rizzardi, K. (2008). Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill -- 437 U.S. 153. ESA Blawg.

U.S. Supreme… [read more]

Environmental Problems Caused Essay

2 pages (745 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Timber harvest in this area would be reduced by 80% hence lead to a decrease in timber supply hence an increase in prices. The decline of the number of jobs was already happening due to the dwindling harvest of the old-growth and automating the lumber industry. Environmental scientists brought an argument forward that logging jobs had been declining and therefore environmental protection was not a factor to reckon with in the loss of jobs.

This controversy put individual loggers and environmentalists at loggerheads. There were bumper stickers that read kill a spotted owl -- save a logger and I like spotted owl fried were examples of those in support of the loggers. There were plastic spotted owls that were hung in Oregon sawmills.as a response the logging industry went ahead with bad publicity started the initiative of sustainable forestry. Protecting the owl under National forest management act and endangered species Act brought about significant changes in forest practices (Andre, & Velasquez, 2010). There was a Northwest forest plan by President Clinton in 1994 which was created for the protection of owls as well as other species which were dependent on this habitat and at the same time ensuring that there was still a certain amount of timber that was harvested. There exist general consensus except from those loggers and those allied to them that the breeding of the northern spotted owl should be continued. Even if this meant that there would be less logging, automation of the industry and this new law meant that many jobs would be lost. However there were still some new jobs created such as the conducting of biological surveys for the northern spotted owls as well as other rare occurring organism ( Doak, 2009).


Arringer F., (2007). New Battle of Logging vs. Spotted Owls Looms in West .Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/18/us/18owl.html?_r=0

Doak D., (2009). Spotted owls and old growth logging in the pacific northwest. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/people/doaklab/publications/1989doak.pdf

Andre C., & Velasquez M., (2010). Ethics and the Spotted Owl Controversy. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v4n1/… [read more]

Community Board Meeting Article

2 pages (614 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Hudson Park

Hudson River Park Community Meeting

On Monday, July 15th, roughly 60 assorted representatives of the Hudson River Park Trust, the Friends of Hudson River Park, the Chelsea Land Use (CLU) Committee and the Waterfront, Parks, and Environment Committee (WPE) gathered for a Manhattan Community Board meeting. The primary purpose of the meeting was to discuss the distribution and boundaries of the five-mile tract known as Hudson River Park. Particularly, the meeting was held in response to Bill A8031-2013, which gives the park the right to sell air rights within the scope of its land.

This right refers to the granting of zoning permission, also with input from surrounding residents and property owners, for the construction of buildings of a certain height and scale. The plan to grant more extensive air rights within the Hudson River Park as a way of raising money for the park's preservation needs is perceived by many as a counterintuitive and potentially destructive strategy. These concerns would be voiced in the Community Board Meeting. Some of the most pressing positions are addressed here after.

For instance, Marcy Benstock of the Clean Air Campaign helps to underscore a primary point of debate at the meeting. The discussion over air rights is, justifiably, being perceived at least in part as an environmental issue. According to Benstock, "Air rights transfer is crucial. Most of the project area is in the water, about 490 acres. Clean air has a lot to do with this. They will say that they have extra air rights, then come up with the idea to build on the pier. So they will say they need to build on the river, this will harm and destroy the habitat." To this perception, there is no manner in which the expansion of 'air rights' for developers won't open to door to wholesale development…… [read more]

Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest Major Structural Term Paper

2 pages (559 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… This has a devastating impact on wildlife. "As a result the oxygen supply in the water depletes, causing fish and other oxygen-dependent organisms to die and bacteria that are not oxygen dependent (anaerobic) to take over" (Matter cycles and pollution, 2012, Lenntech). This can interfere with the natural phosphate cycle critical to environmental homeostasis. Maintaining adequate forestland will also hopefully influence the carbon cycle in a positive fashion, given that plants provide a vital function absorbing the carbon dioxide released by industrialization (Matter cycles and pollution, 2012, Lenntech).

Plans for management and restoration

Sustainable timber production is an important part of forest management, once again affirming the goal of allowing human beings to use the forest in a manner that does not deplete natural resources and honors rather than exploits the environment (Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, 2013, Virginia Department of Forestry).

The implication of species interactions in ecosystem management and restoration

The management of Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest demonstrates how forestland can be used for the benefit of humanity. It is a safe and healthy place to engage in outdoor recreational activities that is managed in a sustainable fashion. It is a historical site that has been rehabilitated from overuse, and careful regulation of forestry and human's use of its natural spaces has made it one of the most pleasurable places to visit in Virginia.


Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest. (2013). Virginia Department of Forestry. Retrieved:


Matter cycles and pollution. (2012). Lenntech. Retrieved:

http://www.lenntech.com/matter-cycles-pollution.htm… [read more]

Ernest Hemingway's "Big Two-Hearted River Creative Writing

2 pages (475 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Yet he was comforted by the fact that, despite his inability to reel it in, the fish would bear the mark of his hook, bitten through the snell by its teeth, on its face for some time to come.

A wry smile gently overtook his face. Of all the luck. There, before his eyes alone, was the biggest trout he had ever seen, probably the biggest one anybody had ever seen, and he was powerless to keep it. In just a short matter of time, the fish's teet would sever the hook from the line, leaving a permanent reminder of his experience with Nick in the form of the hook in its face. For all the fish's apparent anger, as things of that size were won't to express, there was no way Nick could tell anyone about it, and have them believe him.

At that moment, he suddenly saw this experience through Hop-Head's eyes. He heard his voice, as clear as he heard the rushing water. Almost, Nick, he chided him. Almost. You found the biggest rout virtually any body has ever seen, bigger than anything anyone's ever heard about, and what do you do? You lose him. Sure, you got your hook indelibly in him -- there's no way that's getting out once the fish cuts the line with his teeth. But all you really did was succeed in making him mad, and coming up empty.… [read more]

Yellow River's Flooding History Essay

3 pages (938 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… The paleoflood deposits indicated that much of the flood comprised of muddy flow with sediment concentration of over 200 kilograms per meters cubic. A shocking revelation reveals that the distance between the levees on both sides of the bank spanned to a distance of 25 kilometers during this same period. The broad flood plain was a suitable site for cultivation due to the fertile accumulation of silt. Large-scale reclamation and irrigation diversions in the river basin reduced the rate of water flow to the lower river. When this was happening, siltation of Lower River gradually increased and rose above the surrounding flood plain.

In view of the events that orchestrated much of the flooding, it is evidently clear that the alluvial channel morphodynamics can be altered considerably by embankment. For instance, when the river was allowed to flood naturally without restriction of artificial levees a negative feedback loop existed. This implied that an unstable avulsion channel develops thus causing the river to fluctuate within its avulsion threshold. On the other hand, artificial levees serve to prevent avulsion as human consistently repair the breaches. However, the success of this strategy as observed by WU et al. (2008) (Chen 693) is dependent on the strength of the levees and water flux. For example, stronger dykes that prevented breaches ensured increased water flux, hence promoting further deepening of the riverbed. On the other hand, if breaches occur, the water flux is reduced thus increasing siltation and further promoting the breaches of the levees.

In conclusion, human interaction with the Grand River has contributed immensely to its long history of flooding. It is undeniable that Yellow River formed a key natural feature that influenced the settlement of various ancient dynasties in China. Majority of the nomadic people preferred to concentrate their agricultural activities within the middle section of the river. Deforestation rates increased significantly: much of the soil and silt were eroded into the riverbed. The eventual implication of this is that the lower riverbed experienced massive siltation, which gradually raised the river channel and broadened the river. The region attracted more settlement and agricultural activities due to the accumulation of fertile loess deposits. As a result, flooding increased. Attempts to control flooding were also done by the river management agencies through construction of artificial levees to confine the waters within the natural channel. Their efforts were temporary successful because the river continually burst its dykes causing further flooding. Therefore, much of the historical flooding along Yellow River was human induced.

Work Cited

Chen, Yunzhen et al. Socio-economic Impacts on Flooding: A 4000-Year History of the Yellow

River, China. Beijing: Springer. 2012. Print.

Keith, Smith, and Petley, David. Environmental Hazards; Assessing Risks…… [read more]

Geography the Site Term Paper

2 pages (616 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… S. industrialization in the 20th century. With the automation of steel and automobile factories, and the rise of the industrial south, the industrial capacity of the rust belt over the last half of the 20th century became greatly diminished. Demographic flows show that many Americans have left the rust belt for the American South and West. This has had a deleterious effect on major cities such as Detroit and Flint Michigan and Allentown Pennsylvania, cities who've seen their citizens leave in droves for other areas of the United States. These cities are currently suffering industrial decline, and cities such as Flint are having formerly thriving housing areas razed to the ground. Cities in decline and urban decay are currently the norm for much of the Continental Core, but it seems that the inner city revitalization movement of the late 20th century and the development of modern technological industries such as nanotechnology and biotechnology may turn the tide of immigration flight and reinvigorate the region's economic base. For example, Cleveland Ohio has a burgeoning biomedical industry and Buffalo New York's growing health care and educational industries. Cities such as Pittsburgh are witnessing the redevelopment of former industrial areas into prosperous entertainment and restaurant districts and many localities (with the exception of Illinois) offer low tax incentives for business development. In fact, Indiana is witnessing growth for its low tax business environment.

All in all, the rust belt's geography and resources offer plenty for economic, political and cultural life, and the judicious use of sound environmental and economic policy can help lead this somewhat neglected area into the 21st century and restore the area its former quality of life.… [read more]

Resource Economics and Management Essay

2 pages (737 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Buongiono, J., Gilless, J. (2003). Decision Methods for Forest Resource Management. San Diego: Academic Press.

Modern sustainable forestry is also investigating other related issues of ecosystem management. To create and maintain the diversity of trees with a region (i.e. Hardwood and softwood), landowners leave several stands of both young and old growth within natural forest stands to enhance the biodiversity and health of the forest site. Normally clear-cutting results in the re-planting of tree seedlings, however some species (spruce, pine) overpower the growth of the hardwood trees. This minimizes the level of specie diversity among a timber stand. By allowing these older sections of stands to remain aids to the natural growth and development of hardwood species. Also, the wood debris, a remnant of old forest growth is essential to the survival of many forest species and also acts as a recycler of nutrients back into the soil. During forest harvesting it is not always necessary to remove all the wood from the lot. Rotten or older growth can be left to contribute to the nourishment of natural forests.

However, the complexity and manner in which ecosystems are tied together so inexorably requires that more modern techniques be used to understand, develop, and assist in prediction and conservation of forests. Quantitative analysis and forecasting of forest products began after World War II and the boom in wood needs for suburbia. This initial analysis was based, primarily, on prime time-series analysis. However, with technological advances in computing, considerable improvements have been made in the way we theoretically view, develop, and utilize statistical models of estimation. For example, we now use panel data in the analysis of demand for final products, as well as activity analysis and econometrics. Panel data refers to multi-dimensional data streams; for instance, observations on multiple phenomena observed over multiple time periods for the same issue; looking at forests over time and analyzing the same sets of data in a balanced manner. Activity analysis is a statistical measure of the types of activities in the system, how many resources are consumed, given, what the performance of the biome is, and how, through observation and tracking, our data set changes over time. Econometrics tends to…… [read more]

Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho Research Paper

2 pages (655 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Reintroduction of Wolves Designated as Experimental

Section 10 j suggests that an experimental population of wolves be introduced to certain parts and under certain conditions and that this population be carefully regulated. They are seen as 'threatened' rather than 'endangered'.

This experimental population rule has been implemented successfully in other states such as in North Carolina and Wyoming. In this scenario, two experimental population areas will be established in parts of Montana and Idaho as well as through all of Wyoming and another in most of central Idaho and in parts of Montana.

Natural Recovery (No action)

No action to control or regulate wolf population would be implemented. Instead wolves (currently 65 wolves) that occupy Montana would be adjudged endangered and they would be encouraged to proliferate naturally and to spread to other areas including central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park.

There would be some restrictions in place, although the focus would be on encouraging the wolves to freely procreate and expand. To that end there would be land use restrictions that include motorized vehicles and livestock grazing.2

No Wolves

No wolves would be allowed whatsoever.

Wolf Management Committee Recommendations

The states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho would congregate and accomplish wolf recovery as a nonessential experimental population under state law and special regulation that would be more liberal than those currently allowed under the ESA.

Congress would be moved to appeal the ESA. The joint states would implement only a few land use restrictions. There would be federal compensation. Wolves would be naturally recovered in Central Idaho and parts of Wyoming and reintroduced to Yellowstone. Wolves would be controlled 3

Reintroduction of Wolves Designated as Nonexperimental.

10 breeding pairs of Wolves would be moved as a nonexperimental entity to Yellowstone and parts of central Idaho. There would be no regulation even if livestock are killed and all focus would be on regeneration of wolves. Livestock, inf act, would be moved to make way for wolves. If…… [read more]

Mono Lake California Case Study

4 pages (1,394 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Mono Lake California

Mono Lake, California

Summary of the crisis

Mono Lake is located near the city of Los Angeles and has been in the spot light for the extensive damage done to it in the past few decades. As the population of Los Angeles soared, there was a shortage of water for its residents. This semi-arid area did not have a lot of options to cater to the growing water needs of its residents. So, Mono Basin became a prospective source of water and by 1941, water was diverted from four of the five feeders from the Mono Lake to the LA Aqueduct (Kahrl, 1983).

This water diversion helped the LADWP as well as the LA water consumers because water was available at a cheaper rate than water from other sources such as the Colorado river. The economics and availability of water created more demand and as a result, more water was taken from the Mono Basin. Soon, the water levels started falling down and the amount of salinity began to increase. This led to a disruption of the local ecosystem. The algae present in the lake provide food for the brine shrimp and this in turn, attracts California Gulls that use this as a resting spot in its journey of migration. The increased salinity affected the algae in a big way because they were unable to perform photosynthesis for the production of food and this in turn, led to a disruption in the reproduction cycles of the brine shrimp. Also, the reduced water exposed the lake bed and this made it easy for predators like raccoons to attack the California Gulls. All this led to vast ecological damage in the surrounding areas.

As residents and environmental groups began to understand the implications of the problem, legal battles began to ensue. The Mono Lake Committee was formed in 1976 and they fought long legal battles to restore the water levels in this lake. Finally, the California Water Resources Control Board ruled on August 22, 1989 that the city of LA should allow the water levels of Mono Lake to rise to 17 feet at an elevation of 6,391 feet above sea level (Strong-Aufhauser, 1995). This put an end to large scale diversions from this lake and the water levels have since risen in this lake.

Summary of the scientific data

The scientific data clearly states that the rate of evaporation in Mono Lake was one foot a year before the water diversions started taking place and when a second aqueduct was opened, the rate shot up to 1.6 feet per year. It is estimated that the amount of water in Mono Lake from the 1970's to the 1990's was roughly about 83,000 acre per year and the overall volume of the lake reduced by about 22 miles (Monolake.org, 2012). This doubled the amount of salt present in the water and led to the destruction of the local ecosystem. In addition, the alkali lake bed of Mono Lake was exposed… [read more]

Italian Watersheds All Rivers Run Essay

6 pages (1,501 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… This leads to water that is very low in oxygen and very high levels of phosphorous and Italian environmental groups call the lake "chronically sick" (Belfast Telegraph, 2007)

Lakes are always fragile in terms of long-term maintenance of watershed health. With less free-flowing water than rivers or stream and a much smaller volume (and so a more delicate biochemical balance) than oceans, lakes are always shifting back and forth across a narrow tolerance for indigenous life forms. When this already delicate balance is affected in dramatically negative ways by agricultural and industrial run-off as well as human's ever increasing demand for freshwater (a demand pushed by increasing human population and exacerbated by climate change) the future health of lakes seems like a fool's dream.


Belfast Telegraph. (2007). Italy's lakes have sick water.

EPA. (2012). What is a watershed? http://water.epa.gov/type/watersheds/whatis.cfm http://italianlakes.com/images/site/lake_lugano_giro_map.gif http://www.iabmas2012.org/Map_LakeComo.jpg

Popham, E. (2007). http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/world-news/feeling-blue-italys-lakes-have-sick-water-13462633.html#ixzz1oVGPeu9u… [read more]

Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho Annotated Bibliography

2 pages (454 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho

Annotated Bibliography

(1) Schmidt, PM & Peterson, MJ (2008) Biodiversity Conservation and Indigenous Land Management in the Era of Self-Determination. Conservation Biology. Paper submitted October 9, 2008; revised manuscript accepted March 9, 2009. Conservation Biology, Volume 23, No. 6, 1458 -- 1466

Biodiversity and cultural preservation are both addressed from the perspective of self-determination in the indigenous groups of Indians as related to the Gray wolf in Idaho, western Montana, Washington State and western Wyoming. The research reported in the work of Schmidt and Peterson ( 2008) states "Indigenous peoples and their lands in the United States provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the relationship among self-determination by indigenous peoples, biodiversity conservation, and governmental statutes, regulations, and policies."

(2) Ohlson, DL and Trulio, L (2006) Tribal Sovereignty and the Endangered Species Act; Recovering the Idaho Wolves. Masters Abstracts International. Wildlife & Ecology Studies Worldwide. Vol. 44 Issue 1. P.300.

Ohlson and Trulio relate the partnership between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service with the Nez Perce Tribe in an initiative to recover gray wolves in Central Idaho and report the Federal Endangered Species Act.

(3) Bradley, EH and Pletscher, DH (2005) Assessing factors related to wolf depredation of cattle in fenced pastures in Montana and Idaho. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33(4):1256-1265. 2005.

Bradley and Pletscher examine the depredation on livestock related to managing…… [read more]

Landscape Data Interpretation the Presentation Essay

2 pages (540 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… The changes that occurred in the landscape of the Fort Bennington, GA area do not appear to be as extreme as they potentially could have been, though there has certainly been a significant change over the past two centuries of human involvement and development in the area. The map estimating forest coverage in the region in 1827 shows dense pine forests covering most of the area, with a moderate amount of mixed forest (deciduous and pine mixes or more sparsely forested areas) speckled throughout along with a few patches of deciduous forest, and two very small areas of cleared land approximating the placement of Native American settlements. By 1974, pine forests are still speckled throughout the region yet are arranged in very small clusters rather than a large continuous swath; bare land and buildings are dotted throughout most of the region and are surrounded by larger patches of cleared land, and deciduous forests have crept in amongst the pine forests to a considerable degree. Later maps indicate a more complete takeover of the region by deciduous trees, to the point that clusters of pine forest have all but disappeared, while bare land and buildings have grown to fill the areas of cleared land that existed in 1974.

Understanding the data that is being presented is almost as essential as having accurate data presented in the first place. This article's authors do an excellent job of explaining the data being presented, its collection and presentation, and any potential problems therein. The ecological data provided, when properly understood, provide compelling evidence for human impact…… [read more]

Humans Benefit From Their Pets? Article Review

2 pages (673 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… "

There was a third study that is reported in this Time magazine article, and it was conducted by McConnell at Miami University. The professor and his colleagues surveyed college students and asked them to think about a time in their lives when they felt "socially excluded or rejected"; and after they recounted that unpleasant experience, the students were asked "either to write a passage about a best friend, to write about a close pet, or to draw a map of their campus" (Blue).

The result of the survey was that students who wrote about their friends or their pets "felt better afterwards" and were able to recover their sense of "self-worth and happiness" following the exercise in which they were required to recall rejection and isolation in their lives. The group of students at Miami University that decided to write about map drawing "remained a little glum," Blue explains.

What also came out in this third research project was that pet owners were as excited to write about their pets as they were to write about a best friend. McConnell wrote: "One's pet was ever bit as effective as one's best friend in staving off social needs deficits" (Blue).

Conclusion: The upshot of these three reports on the value of pets in the lives of humans is that people can certainly derive pleasure and joy from pets even though they already have very normal, balanced lives and lots of friends and loving family members. A dog will always come to the door to greet you, long after everyone else is gone from your life, Blue concludes. And moreover, when people are psychologically close to their pets, those people will received well-being benefits just the same as they receive from their human friends.

Works Cited

Blue, Laura. (2011). Study: Pets Give Us the Same Warm Fuzzies That Friends Do. Time.

Retrieved September 11, 2011,…… [read more]

Existence, Lives, and Eventual Extinction of Dinosaurs Essay

3 pages (959 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … existence, lives, and eventual extinction of dinosaurs have intrigued scientists and public alike for many years. Because of the vast periods of time between when dinosaurs walked the earth and the present time, the development of precise arguments regarding each of these issues has been a taunting task. Reliance upon fossil and bone evidence has been the standard measuring device and it has been only recently, with the improvements in x-ray, DNA, and carbon dating technology that any real support has been found for developing theories about dinosaurs.

There is little doubt as to the existence of dinosaurs. There is a considerable body of physical evidence including nearly complete skeletal remains of various different species of dinosaurs that categorically establish not only that dinosaur lived but also where they lived. Fossilized remains from the area around where the dinosaur skeletons were retrieved have provided scientists with information regarding their diet and environment but the big mystery remains: what caused the dinosaur to become extinct?

A variety of theories exist that offer an explanation for the extinction of the dinosaur population. None of the offered theories have been established as controlling among all scientists in the field but support for several is stronger.

The first such theory suggests that a giant asteroid or other heavenly object such as a comet struck the earth as some point causing not only traumatic damage to the dinosaur but also caused climatic changes that endangered the dinosaur's environment. The impact of the heavenly object on the earth's surface resulted in large masses of dust to develop which blocked the sun's rays causing the plant life to die and for temperatures to fall below comfort levels for the dinosaur. A large portion of the dinosaur population was decimated by this process and when the dust finally cleared and temperatures began rising quickly in the opposite direction the remainder of the population died as well. According to this theory, in just a brief period of time, perhaps as short as two or three years, the entire dinosaur population was eliminated as well as most of the plant life that supported them.

The evidence for this theory is considerable. A large crater lies just off the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico that scientists speculate was caused by the collision of an asteroid or comet. The timing of the creation of this crater corresponds with the estimate of when dinosaur would have occupied the world and so the existence corroborates the collision theory. Also, scientists have found a more concentrated amount of a rare earthly metal known as iridium in areas around where dinosaur fossil and skeletal remains have also been found. Iridium is more commonly found deeper within the earth's surface and on other planets and scientists believe that is being concentrated near dinosaur remains supports the collision theory as well.

The fossil records of dinosaur…… [read more]

Grand Canyon Was Formed Lab Report

5 pages (1,802 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… One of the more interesting topics that lends itself to more research is the Great Unconformity, shown at stop 6c. The Great Unconformity is a fascinating topic because it represents a time from which no rocks are preserved. The scientific community does not know if no rocks were formed during this period, or if they were formed but then eroded away. The fact that this unconformity which spans almost a billion years is found nearly everywhere across the globe makes the geological mystery that much more fascinating (Treiman n.pag.)

To sum up, not all evidence encountered during the field trip supports the overflow mechanism, nor does it explain all the geomorphic processes that were discussed. For example, superimposition provides a better explanation for transverse drainage incision associated with a regional drop in base level and prolonged denudation evidence at stops 2f and 5d. A piracy mechanism is a better fit for explaining possible different paleo-flow direction for the transverse drainage upstream of the bedrock high. As this and other papers and research have shown, there are still many unanswered questions about Grand Canyon formation.

2f, 5d, 8a

1e, 1c, 2c




5d, 6a, 7c, 9c

10a, 10c

4d, 4a, 4b


5b, 6d


3c, 3a, 7a, 5c

2e, 6a

9d, 10a, 10c

Works Cited

Holm, Richard. "Pliocene-Pleistocene Incision on the Mogollon Slope, Northern Arizona: Response to the Developing Grand Canyon." (n.d.) 24 June 2011.

Spencer, Jon, and Philip Pearthree. "Abrupt Initiation of the Colorado River and Initial Incision of the Grand Canyon." Arizona Geology 35 (2005): 1-6.

Treiman, Allan. "Grand Canyon -- The Great Unconformity." 23 Sept. 2003. Lunar and Planetary Institute. 24 June 2011. [read more]

Mass Extinction the Earth's Biodiversity Mass Extinctions Term Paper

2 pages (579 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Mass Extinction

The Earth's Biodiversity

Mass extinctions are definitely not common; however, if the earth's biodiversity is threatened at a similar rate to pass mass extinctions (such as the one that destroyed the dinosaurs -- except for the birds), there are a number of probable losers, according to McKinney and Lockwood (1999), and one need only look at a list of threatened species. "However," they note, "this almost certainly underestimates the true number of losers as many (probably most) species are in decline but their abundance is not yet low enough to warrant current listing" (1999).

Many of the "global losers" will include threatened birds such as parrots and pheasants and threatened mammals such as apes and rhinoceroses. There will be "local losers" like the babbler bird of the Sumatran forest; parrots of the Brazilian forest; birds in urban areas of the United States; frogs in the Amazon forest; insects of the Boreal forest; and salamanders in the forests of Maine to name a few (McKinney & Lockwood 1999).

In the article entitled "Biologists say planet is undergoing mass species extinction," Daily Galaxy (2009) reports that, "for over 300 million years frogs, salamanders, newts and toads were hardy enough to precede and outlive the dinosaurs up until the present time," but now, within twenty years, many amphibians are becoming extinct. "Scientists are alarmed at how one seemingly robust species of amphibians will suddenly disappear within a few months" (2009).

We can never regain the lost biodiversity, but scientists claim that we can at least work to prevent a "worldwide bio collapse" (Daily Galaxy 2009), but they would all require that immediate action be initiated. Experts say that at least half of the world's present species will be entirely gone…… [read more]

Berberis Nevinii Research Paper

2 pages (779 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Berberis nevinii is a shrub found in California alone. It has been declared endangered and is in list 1B.of the endangered species of the State of California from 1987 and later the Federal Government declared it 'endangered' in 1998. (Calflora. Taxon Report 1074) Berberis Nevinii can grow to 6 feet in height, and has grey foliage. The leaves may be upto 3 inches long with lateral or ovalate leaves and the terminal leaflet is lanceolate. (McMinn, 127) It has bristles on the margines and flowers in March to May. It is a rare species that occur in San Fernando Canyon and parts of California. It has yellow flowers and juicy colored berry all of which makes it an ideal candidate for group cultivation as ornamental plants, hedges and other landscape uses, apart from its medicinal properties. (McMinn, 129) The plants are collected and cultivated for ornamental purpose at private residences in gardens and as hedges. The plant assumes importance owing to being endemic to California alone and also being depleted because of alternate land use encroaching on its habitat.

(a) Care of Berberis Nevinii

The plant is an ornamental and medicinal plant but there has not been a systematic study of its cultivation although it is cultivated as an ornamental plant and to make fences and hedges. The plant tolerates all climatic and soil conditions of its native place -- California. The requirements for the cultivation, borders on the climate of the state. However as of now, there is no concrete information about the present situation of the shrub, either on its population or life history. Little has been divided of the breeding and other aspects like pollination biology. It is indicated that the shrub grows from a fertile seed is never observed. (Fedde, CPC National Collection Plant Profile: Berberis nevinii)

The current need for protection arises from the fact that the habitat of Berberis nevinii is now taken over by farming development and other urbanization activities. It can be cultivated and is tolerant to many types of soils and different cultivation practices. The growth and cultivation is done by private owners now, and only about a few plants exist in federal land and thus under federal protection. Since the researches are inconclusive there is a greater need to research further into the reproduction and seeding requirements of Berberis…… [read more]

Fire Dynamics Research Paper

4 pages (1,443 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … Basin Complex Fire in California

Introduction and Fire Facts

California is a big, beautiful state, featuring mountains, deserts, beaches, and vast forested areas. Much of California is rural and wilderness. But California it is known for some serious problems due to natural hazards, such as frequent earthquake activity; it is also known for wildfires and for flooding in… [read more]

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