"Animals / Nature / Zoology" Essays 351-420

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Build a Fire by Jack Essay

… .. " (London). He is not kind to the dog, and so, he turns the dog against him when the dog could have become an ally and a friend. As the dog becomes more sympathetic to the reader, the man becomes less so. London notes that he did not listen to people who tried to tell him the dangers of what he was doing. "That man from Sulphur Creek has spoken the truth when telling how cold it sometimes got in the country. And he had laughed at him at the time!" (London). Yet, continually through the story, the dog's instinct tells it they are in danger, and that he should prepare himself for the worst.

The lessons in this story are many, and another interesting factor in the story is the dog, who turns out to be much smarter than the man is. The dog knows how to survive in the wilderness, and the man could have learned from him, but chose not to. The dog is cunning and experienced, while the man is not, and the dog is really the main character in the story. The man is secondary, and that is why it is not surprising when he dies. London has led up to that moment from the very beginning of the story, when he paints the man as an inexperience newcomer who is not very intelligent. The dog, however, is intelligent, and London shows that from the beginning, too. He writes, "The animal was depressed by the tremendous cold. It knew that it was no time for traveling" (London). Throughout the story, London uses the dog to indicate just how difficult the situation is, and just how stupid the man is for ignoring it. He is the exact opposite of the man, and he is more sympathetic than the man is, and so, when the man dies but the dog lives, the story end satisfactorily. The man has never become sympathetic to the reader; so to have it end any other way would not have made sense, particularly when London used the entire story to build up to the ending that he creates as inevitable (and unavoidable, if the man had listened to those who knew better). Showing the dog trotting up the trail also shows that man may not be able to beat the elements, but animals can, and that is why the animals can survive in the forest, while man often cannot.

In conclusion, the traveler dies because he is human. He is arrogant to believe that he can travel when others would never think of traveling. He even thinks to himself, "All a man had to do was to keep his head, and he was all right" (London). He is even more arrogant to travel with only a lunch, and no supplies in case of accident or storm. He is stupid because he ignores the signs around him, even the clues that his dog gives him -- that it is too cold to… [read more]


Manatees the Endangered Term Paper

… Naturally, human beings cannot protect manatees from everything that is dangerous to them and their efforts must be focused on protecting manatees from the things that can be avoided.

Efforts must be focused on protecting these manatees from human intervention and much of this has already been done by ensuring that boats must slow down in protected areas and by keeping some areas completely off-limits to recreational boaters (Verdon, 91). This does not mean that boats will always stay out of these areas or always obey the speed limit, however, and therefore it seems that there would be other things that could be done to protect these slow-moving and gentle creatures. If there is more that can be done, however, most researchers and scientists have not yet found it. It appears that the manatees in general must be left to deal with things in their own way and can only be protected to a certain extent. Some protection for these creatures is certainly better than no protection at all but they are still in extreme danger of extinction if their population numbers do not begin to increase.

As has been mentioned, some of the individuals that are actively involved in the protection of manatees are extremely concerned about the possibility of downgrading their status from endangered to threatened because they feel that this will allow for complacency in the public. In general, the difference between the two statuses is only a matter of how things are worded and therefore semantics can cause these manatees a great deal of problem. Studies that have been done into the manatee problem indicate that over the next forty-five years the manatee population could be reduced by over 50% (Verdon, 92). If this is the case then there will only be approximately 1500 manatees left fifty years from now.

Naturally, these estimates may be somewhat off but the alarming number of manatees that are being killed by recreational boats each year indicate that it is likely that the manatee population will be reduced quite strongly (Gerstein, 156). This is especially true if the manatees are taken off of the endangered species list because there are possibilities that some of the protections that the manatees currently enjoy will no longer be available to them. Those that talk about taking the manatees off the list say that the protections will remain in place and that may be true for the time being but for how long will these protections remain in place for the manatees?

This is the real issue that must be addressed by those that are looking at removing these creatures from the endangered species list and listing them only as threatened. These individuals must look at what they are doing and what kind of effect this reduction in status may have on the manatee. It is also likely that these individuals should look at what has happened to other species when their status has been changed to see if there are any patterns that… [read more]


Phylum Arthropoda Term Paper

… ¶ … Phylum of arthropoda [...] this phylum to the reader, including general characteristics of the phylum, an overview of the taxonomy within the phylum, the number of organisms within the phylum, were these organisms live, their ecological or economic importance and any interesting facts about organisms within the phylum. Arthropoda are some of the most diverse and interesting organics on our planet and just about everyone knows what they are. This phylum is made up of spiders, insects, crustaceans, scorpions, and centipedes.

A phylum is a family of organisms that are somehow related, and this phylum is made up of animals with multiple legs, like spiders, crustaceans, scorpions, and such. There are more of this family than any other on Earth, and many of them are still waiting to be discovered. Some of this diverse group helps us live by containing (eating) other insects and phylum, while other members of this group have caused some of the most devastating diseases on earth, such as the fleas that caused the Black Death (Plague) in Europe in earlier centuries (Myers).

These organisms all share some general characteristics. Arthropods have segmented bodies that are proportioned and equal. This segmentation shapes outward and internal formation. Some segments show different patterns and are joined to form specific body regions called tagmata; these sections of the body include the head, thorax (main body) and abdomen (stomach area), and this kind of joining is called tagmosis. Their bodies are covered with a hard shell or "cuticle," that is usually made up of proteins and chitin, which is a very hard, protective surface (the cuticle is called an exoskeleton). This hard outer shell protects the softer segmented bodies underneath. A good example of this type of hard outer shell is on many beetles, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters, who are a subspecies of this phylum (Myers and Waggoner). This chitin "body armor" is jointed so the animals can move underneath it, and this jointed body, and their jointed legs, gives the phylum its name: arthropod means "jointed feet" (Waggoner). Their muscles are joined to the shell, which helps the animals move more easily. Interestingly, the arthropoda do not have internal spines, their shell is their skeleton (exoskeleton) on the outside. This skeleton is generated (secreted) by the animal, and is replaced as the animal grows larger, because the skeleton cannot grow with the animal. So, the animal sheds the old exoskeleton, and makes a new one when it is necessary.

Internally, the arthropods have a circulatory system of blood vessels and a heart, they have a nervous system, and they have a brain, respiratory (breathing) system, and digestive system (Ramel). Their bodies are not as advanced as those of humans are, but they are more advanced than fossils that have been found of similar animals in ancient times (Ramel).

The arrangement of animals in this phylum is quite varied. These creatures are usually divided into four classes: Trilobita (trilobites, which are now extinct, but the… [read more]


Ecology of Easter Island Term Paper

… Gradually they began cutting trees down faster than the trees could regenerate, aggravated at least some by both the action of rats eating or damaging seeds and by the decline in the bird population, which decreased cross-pollination. Forests were also… [read more]


Hominids in the African Region Term Paper

… ¶ … hominids in the African region 4.5 to 5.5 million years ago in terms of survival relative to the environment of Africa at that time. Further to provide a reason why a species of the bipedal would have advantages over a quadruped and to name those advantages. Finally to discuss whether there was only one or possibly many advantages to this feature.

In the African region approximately 4.5 to 5.5 million years ago two type individuals existed in the increasingly arid grassland environment of Africa. One of the individual types had larger canines and smaller molars with thinner enamel while the other had smaller canines and molars with thicker enamel. The individual with smaller canines and smaller molars with thicker enamel had the advantage in that as the arid grasslands grew and the forest shrank this individual would have adapted to eating green things such as grass like substances. The individual, with the larger canines and molars, would be a meat-eater. The meat-eater would have a harder time locating sustenance as many of the animals would move away from the dryer grasslands to where moisture was easier found as well as the lack…… [read more]


Dogs Verses Cats Term Paper

… Companionship is equally important to both cat and dog owners, however, there are differences regarding behavior and health issues (State pp). Dog owners are nearly twice as likely, 2.3 compared to 1.6, to visit the veterinarian than cat owners (State pp). The top three behavior problems experienced with dogs are barking and growling, 17%, jumping on people, 13%, and begging for food, 11% (State pp). The top three behavior problems with cars are clawing the furniture, 20%, climbing on furniture or counters, 16%, and eliminating in the house outside the litter box, 10% (State pp).

The top method of handling their pet's behavior problem for both cat and dog owners use disciplining or scolding their pet (State pp).

Health problems vary regarding health issues of dogs and cats (State pp). The three greatest health problems for dog owners are fleas and ticks, ear infections and allergies (State pp). The three single greatest health problems for cat owners are hairballs, fleas and ticks and urinary tract infections (State pp).

Perhaps the issue of elimination is one of the largest differences regarding maintenance between dogs and cats. Dogs must have accessibility to the outdoors, either a backyard or routine walks by the owner several times a day (State pp). Cats on the other hand are generally inside creatures and therefore must be provided with a litter box, which by the way must be kept clean and sanitary (State pp).

Both dogs and cats must be groomed regularly, including bathing, brushing, and nail clipping. And both pets require access to water and food at all times and a cautious eye for health problems (State pp).

More than 90% of both dog and cat owners report hugging and playing with their pet daily (State pp). It seems that no matter whether one owns a dog or a cat, it is the companionship and unconditional love that pets provide that is important.

Works Cited

Health Benefits of Pet Ownership." http://www.rctc.edu/program/btec/pub/spring2001/lotteson-1/

The Health Benefits of Owning Pets." http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/text2-18-2002-11780.asp

The State of the American Pet Highlights." http://www.purina.com/institute/survey_highlights.asp… [read more]


Lifestyle of the Ichthyosaurs Term Paper

… Locomotion

Fish-shaped ichthyosaurs resemble mackerel sharks and these characteristics suggest thunniform or tuna-like swimming.

Mackerel sharks, of which the Great White is an example, swim by holding the body still and moving the tail. Some fish undulate the entire body… [read more]


Conservation Value of Semi-Natural Oak Term Paper

… In addition by being conservation-worthy, these woodlands are also valuable as recreational and tourist areas. The value of these areas has increased in relation to their scarcity in the face of increased urbanization

As wooded areas have become scarcer in relation to numbers of people in the country, and the relative rarity of large blocks of undeveloped natural land has increased, the value of existing woodlands to provide recreational opportunities has increased. Such areas are especially critical near cities where opportunities to experience natural landscapes are so limited. (ibid)

Other aspects that make these areas so important for conservation are the utilization of the woodlands for "hiking, hunting, and wildlife viewing; the presence of these areas can improve the quality of life for nearby residents by providing a desirable visual landscape. Trees enhance the beauty of the countryside and can screen housing developments or industrial complexes. " (Ibid) These woodland areas also help filter out pollution in the environment. Another important aspect that affects conservation is employment in the areas.

While the value of the actual wood products that are extracted from woodlands is often relatively small compared to the other values these areas provide, ensuring a continual supply of wood products through planting programs also provides employment and helps sustain rural economies." (ibid)

However, one essential aspect from a conservation point-of-view is the fact that the woodlands are a critical wildlife habitat. Many animals are dependent for their existence on the shelter and food that the woodlands provide. This means that change in the habitat has a subsequent affect on the presence and abundance of the various species of animals in that area. Another important factor is that, unlike agricultural areas, woodlands have wide structure diversity and provide a wide variety of "habitual elements" that can provide for and support a greater number of species. (ibid)

There are a number of areas that require urgent conservation efforts. One of the areas that have declined in recent years is the Greater Manchester area, which is not classified as a scarce habitat; and another area of concern is the semi-natural oak woodlands of the Quantocks, These are nationally important wildlife habitats and rich in species, including Red Deer. Grazing has declined over the years. (The countryside Agency) An area that has great conservation value is the Glentrool Oakwoods, which is a complex mix of ancient and semi-natural oak woodland. This area has recorded "36 breeding bird species... And a nest box scheme was established in the early 1970s to encourage the breeding of the Pied Flycatcher. Red squirrel is well established. Pine Martin was re-introduced into the Caldons in 198081. Bat box monitoring has taken place since 1991 and four species of bat have been recorded." (Glentrool)

Continued conservation in these areas is important as the conservation value is high and the nurturing and resuscitation of some of the area has become an important necessity. The measures that are being taken include strategies for developing mixed woodland or reversion to open… [read more]


Mammals Cloning to Preserve Term Paper

… While the Act supports laboratory methodology to a strong degree, better criteria needs to be provided for controlled propagation under the Act. Genetic cloning is a means of maintaining genetic variability. It is a useful method of reintroducing lost numbers of a species like the giant panda, or an extinct species like the wooly mammoth, to the population with no adverse affect on the current population. However, habitat conservation efforts must also accommodate for the new arrivals, and the ethics of individual animal loss to save a species must still be evaluated and overseen by the Fish and Wildlife Service. But if the end result is that cloning can save an entire species from extinction, even if some negative affects may be incurred as cloning is perfected, should it not be considered and implemented if the overall results are favorable for conservation of endangered animals like the giant panda?

According to the World Wildlife Fund, it is estimated that about 20% of all present day species could be extinct by the year 2025. While conservation efforts under the Endangered Species Act aimed at captive breeding programs, reintroduction, and habitat management are being conducted, new methods of species preservation must be supported. Scientific methods like genetic cloning through interspecies transfer to produce viable young should be considered in the overall endangered animal protection plan, and the broad sense of the term "risk" (as applied to limiting the use of presently endangered individuals to save their entire species) needs to be reconsidered and explained to allow advances in scientific technology that may possibly recover entire animal populations.

Bibliography

Endangered Species Act of 1973." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. June 1994. http://endangered.fws.gov/policy/pol003.html

Hawes, A. & M. Huy. "Giant Pandas." Smithsonian National Zoological Park. 2001. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/GiantPandas/

Lanza, Robert P., Dresser, Betsy L. & Philip Damiani. "Cloning Noah's Ark." Scientific

American. 19 Nov. 2000.

Stewart, Melissa. "Cloning Hit or Miss? (First attempt at cloning to preserve an endangered species fails as the wild Asian ox calf died in two days)." Science World. 26,…… [read more]


Domestication of Dogs Over Ten Term Paper

… " (Steinman) People who previously traveled extensively or spent most of their free time away from the home will need to adapt to the dog or cat at home that needs attention. Cleaning the home may take more time and labor due to pet hair and paw prints. Owners that become frustrated with the effort of animal-care may become resentful of the pet.

Perhaps the most important obligation of a pet-owner is that they love and respect their companion animal. "The sad truth is, not everyone loves animals. Ask any animal control officer about the animals found bruised, bloodied, and emaciated; the litters of puppies and kittens rescued from taped-up boxes alongside highways, or from sealed plastic garbage bags thrown into lakes and rivers; the animals abandoned because they "bark too much," or because they are aging, or because the family is moving." (PETA) The mindset that animals are possessions instead of family members leads to the abuse and neglect of domesticated animals. People should not own animals to be guard-dogs or status symbols. "In almost every rescue we have done, from puppies abandoned on the side of the road, to dogs emancipated from fighting rings, to cats subjected to physical torture, the core problem has been traced back to this: the person who inflicted this abuse did not respect the animal as an individual. Those who truly love an animal will overcome all other odds to provide for them." (Steinman) Even a person who goes through the proper motions to care for their pet may wind up with an anti-social or depressed animal if that animal has not been shown proper love and affection.

Companion animals have shown humans unmeasurable amounts of loyalty and dedication over the centuries, and in turn it has become common practice among most people in our society to have a pet. However, as rewarding as pet ownership can be, people must be willing and able to dedicate themselves to properly providing for their pet's every physical and emotional need. There are people who are not able to make the often selfless decisions necessary when caring for an animal due to circumstances beyond their control, as well as people who will consistently make the most selfish decision possible due to their personal disrespectful view of animals. Those individuals who would not provide a safe, secure, and healthy home for an animal should not become pet owners.

Bibliography

PETA. "Companion Animals: Doing What's Best for Them." Fact Sheet. 2003. Accessed Online 25 November 2003. Available at http://www.peta.org/mc/facts/fsc19.html

Pet adoption"

City of Pasadena, Texas. 29 Apr 1999. Accessed Online 25 November 2003. Available at http://www.ci.pasadena.tx.us/pet.htm

Steinman, Moco. Personal Interview. 25 November 2003.… [read more]


1988 Fire at Yellow Stone Term Paper

… The flames cleared the way for regrowth. In the springs and summers after the fires, wildflowers have bloomed in new meadows. New bushes and shrubs have sprung up, and tree seedlings have begun to grow. Animals are feasting on their new bounty of food. Eventually, lodgepole forests will carpet the landscape. Despite human intervention, great fires probably will return again to Yellowstone and the cycle of flames and regrowth will repeat itself.

One of the lessons of 1988 was that fires help nourish a healthy park for plants and animals. Since 1989, authorities have been setting small controlled burns to clear away undergrowth. They also have been stressing the inevitability and necessity of fire. Today, bare trees still stand like burned matchsticks waiting to be blown over, but Yellowstone has bounced back. Green saplings sprout from the forest floor and the volcanic soil bursts forth with a heavy growth of lodgepole pine, aster, elk sedge, lupine and other plant life. In another 10 years, vegetation may be 10 times as diverse as it was in 1988. (Hanson, Brooks, Atmospheres: Not so fired up. Science, 03-24-2000)

The Yellowstone National Park was on the road to recovery soon after the fire across the entire Yellowstone National Park; tens of millions of trees have sprung from the ashes of what America and the world assumed was an ecological disaster. A decade after walls of flame roared through more than one-third of the park's 2.2 million acres, Yellowstone's rebirth, swift and vigorous, continues to impress scientists and amaze near-record throngs of tourists. Yellowstone today is a gigantic laboratory of scientific study and public education about the beneficial effects of wildfire on the land and its inhabitants. Park officials even are studying whether to set controlled burns to clear out more deadwoods and other volatile "fuel" in areas missed by the 1988 blazes. Intentionally lighting such "prescribed" fires inside the park would be a Yellowstone first. Biologists, ecologists and scientists from across the country are conducting at least 150 different studies related to the fires' aftermath. They monitor insects, plants and animals. They examine swamps, streams, meadows and forests. They even study the lowly lichen, growing slowly in blotches on forest rocks. (E.N. SMITH Associated Press Writer, Ten years after fires, Yellowstone National Park prospers, AP Online, 06-20-1998)

Park managers are low-key today about the fires. No anniversary observance is planned. They were angry in 1988 by alarming news accounts of vast devastation. They endured fiery criticism from national politicians and residents and businesses in nearby tourist towns threatened by the fires. Tourism suffered, but no homes were lost. Over time, Yellowstone officials felt vindicated by the landscape's quick healing and a boom in tourist traffic. But they're also required to be more cautious now about how and how long to let fire burn. Like geysers, earthquakes, bears and bison, the fires have become just another part of Yellowstone's natural history. A few roadside plaques discuss the blazes. And an exhibit and film at the… [read more]


Extinction Theory and Its Impact Term Paper

… Human beings today differ in that they are much more technologically advanced. What has set the human population apart from other forms of life is the ability to manipulate and build tools against the difficulties presented by the environment.

This ability has however also had some catastrophic consequences. Inherent in human intelligence is also the ability to destroy itself. Many of the environmental crises faced by all life on earth today are the result of the human effort to simplify life. Pollution and global warming are for example effects directly related to technological advances. These in themselves predict future tragedy and the possibility of extinction without the help of natural killing mechanisms or indeed extraterrestrial projectiles.

It can be argued that mass extinction is possible, even today, as it was during the time of the dinosaurs. There are three possibilities, if the above is taken into account. First, it is possible that an asteroid of vast proportions can collide with the earth, resulting in the mass extinction of several life forms, including human beings. The exact consequences listed by Alvarez have however proved to be inconclusive by further scientific study. A second possibility is of course the fact that changing dynamics on earth and the consequent bioevolution could prove fatal to the human race. Human beings are however very advanced technologically. Passively waiting for slow earth-induced extinction is a somewhat fantastic notion. Much more realistic is the third possibility - that human greed and ignorance may prove fatal to a race that is much too clever for its own well being.

There is however hope. While mass extinction on earth is certainly possible, one can say that it is not very likely. The reason for this is the very intelligence inherent in the human mind that can be so destructive. This intelligence can also be extremely beneficial. This can be considered in terms of all three extinction possibilities mentioned above.

In terms of Alvarez's theory, programs are implemented at NASA to scan outer space for possible threats to life on earth in the form of meteors or asteroids. In this way preparations can be made when this possibility makes itself known to NASA's instruments. In terms of the dynamics on earth, new ways are constantly implemented to make the environment more habitable to men and women. In this way also biological science can be used to manipulate the environment to the benefit of mankind rather than its demise. Finally, in terms of self-destruction, there is an increasing awareness of human activity and its adverse consequences for the environment. There is also an increasing awareness of the interaction between the environment and the life lived by human beings. Thus, technology is applied not only to simplify life, but also to help in rehabilitating the environment. Human beings are realizing the possibility of extinction in this way and thus are implementing strategies to make life more sustainable.

Combined with the will to survive therefore, human technology enables at least a lesser possibility… [read more]


Humans on Ecology- Deforestation Term Paper

… This prevents flooding or drought conditions. The rainforests play the role of tropical watersheds as they save all the water for later. The trees also form canopies to prevent the soil from being desiccated and provide a good cover. Water is conserved due to the shade cover provided by the trees which reduces the chances of evaporation. The roots of the trees reduce the chances of compaction, erosion and desiccating. Deforestation contributes to erosion, floods, shortage of rainfall and water supplies. When forests are cleared they are exposed to the intense heat of the tropical sun and sometimes by the force of the torrential rains. The soil starts to degrade and is no longer fit to grow trees. Once a forest has been denuded it ruins the environment forever. There are a lot of chances that the forest might not re-grow to its former glory, thus destroying the ecosystem. Erosion also occurs due to deforestation as rains wash away the topsoil which had been protected by the canopy.

The watersheds are destroyed as they no longer have a grip on the soil and it can no longer absorb rainwater in the soil. This creates a shortage of water. With a shortage of rainwater, there is a fluctuation in drinking water. It creates a drought like situation and can also put the health of communities at risk as the other sources of water carry diseases. Sometimes it can backfire and create huge floods after a series of torrential rains. With the loss of topsoil due to erosion, water can't be stored within the soil and its let loose. When the forests are destroyed it contributes to the shortage of rainfall as more carbon dioxide is released into the air. Due to the scarcity of clean water a lot of epidemics occur in the area. With water lying stagnant, it attracts major epidemics such as malaria. The malaria epidemics in the Amazon rainforest are very deadly and fatal in some cases. This is due to the fact that there are no forests to prevent such epidemics. The rainforests contains plants which either feed on insects or prevent them from spreading out. Due to the destruction of a food chain, such problems are hard to prevent.

Strip mining is a factor which contributes to the deforestation in the Amazon. Thousands of acres of land are lost to mining every year. This results in pollution of the lands and water supplies. This is because there the rainforest is next to the Amazon River which runs for hundreds of miles. Polluting elements such as oil and mercury contaminate the water and are carried off to long distances. This contributes to mercury poisoning of animals and human beings.

Epilogue

The rainforests should not be denuded and should be preserved for the future of our planet. The more we destroy it the more we are ruining the future for our future generations. The government of Brazil should take steps to prevent this problem from accelerating into a… [read more]


Primates Are More Cognitively Advanced Term Paper

… Vocalizations of apes contain semantic detail about social relations as well as external threats. Chimpanzees give food-calls in the wild that attract others; in captivity they can lead others to hidden food, and convey its quality. Apes deliberately deceive others,… [read more]


Cod Written by Mark Kurlansky Term Paper

… It's no fish ye're buying: it's men's lives." -- Walter Scott, The Antiquary (1816) - quoted in "Cod" by Mark Kurlansky

In Cod, Kurlansky blends political and economic history with small highlights into cultural and cooking traditions with so many cooking recipes. This book is politically and culturally a very good source of information.

Once the population of codfish was abundant that explorers use to dip baskets into the ocean to catch them. But the fact is that for hundreds of years people did not value their presence thinking that the millions of eggs laid by female cod would mean millions of fish for man to eat -- and make money out of. The good population of cod and the fact that they could be easily dried and preserved was a source of encouragement for the Vikings to cross the cold Atlantic Ocean to America. In fact Christopher Columbus and the other explorers were dependant on this staple diet. Once the source of the invention of frozen food, and an inspiration of the modern efficient fishing systems, is now threatening the laws of the seas. This is just a reminder of the distressing effect man has had on our earth.

Fishiest of all fishy places was the try pots, which well deserves its name; or the pots there were always boiling chowders. Chowder for breakfast, and chowder for dinner, and chowder for supper, till you begin to look for fish-bones coming through your clothes... There was a fishy flavor to the milk too, which I could not account for, till one morning happening to take a stroll along the beach among some fishermen's boats, I saw Hosea's brindled cow feeding on fish remnants, and marching along the sand with each foot in a cod's decapitated head." -- Herman Melville, "Moby Dick" (1851) - quoted in "Cod" by Mark Kurlansky (1997)

Kurlansky made brilliant use of the collections of quotations by other people. The book itself is very interesting because of the incorporation of maps, old photos of fishing activity, quotes concerning codfish from literary personalities like Cervantes, Melville, W.B. Yeats, Thoreau, Daniel Webster, and others. The recipes that have been sprinkled throughout the book from the 1300s to the present from various countries around the world along with occasional original points-of-view make…… [read more]


Beagle Firstly Named Term Paper

… Beagles, when in 2001 made on fifth position climbed slightly into fourth most popular pick, with 44,610 registrations. Beagle was also registered as the most popular in hound category (Lieber, 2002. pars. 2-5).

American Kennel Club set two major varieties for good beagle breed: the 13-inch and 13-15 inches height. Beagles exceeding the number will not be qualified for ranking. In England, beagles are categorized in one class of maximum height of 16 inches. Basically, beagles are short, weighing between 18 to 30 pounds, with ears on the sides of the head (Dawn, 2002). They come in various assorted colors, from white, brown to black, and shorthaired coat with convenience in daily care.

A beagle breed quality is justified upon several factors, based on the American Kennel Club standard:

a. Head: Good beagle has elongated head, large and full cranium. The ears should be large, low, long as reaching the nose, skull is flat, nose turning up and open, eyes sharp and lovable, the front part of ears turns into cheeks, no flews.

b. Body: Neck straight up, clean, no folds of skin, some additional wrinkles at the jaws, short and thick neck. Shoulders should be muscular, not too fatty and not too much bones, chest broad but should not mixed up with shoulder broadness. Back should also look strong; body slightly curved backward with adequate lungs room and flat ribs.

c. Feet: Feet should be proportional to the body, with strong and firm pad, strong muscles.

d. Coat: medium length, hard coat like common hound. Soft coat and thin hair are not accepted.

e. Tail: Should be high, little arched. Long tail is not accepted.

Beagle is potential for pure breeding business, as long as the breeder always keeps the original positive characteristics of the bred. The better quality the pure breed is, the more the dog shows its potential. The dog is a good friend for children and family, as well as for inspection functions and ability to help the disabled. Beagle is ideal for a pet, since it meets the requirement to be cooperative with people, intelligent enough to be trained, only requires simple care and not sophisticated grooming, quite beautiful and well-mannered (after purposeful training) for contest performance.

Works Cited

American Kennel Club. Beagle Hound Group Breed Standard. 2003. American Kennel Club. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://www.akc.org/breeds/recbreeds/beagle.cfm

Dupris, Malcolm. A History of The Beagle. BarkBytes.com. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://www.barkbytes.com/history/beagle.htm

Hubrecht, Robert C. Enrichment In Puppyhood and Its Effect on Later Behavior of Dogs. Laboratory Animal Science 45 (1995): 70-75.

Lieber, Alex. The Most Popular Dog Breeds of 2002. (2002). Pet Place.com. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://petplace.netscape.com/articles/artShow.asp?artID=5103

Parr, Ellen and Sharon Reid. Beagles. May 15, 1998. K9 Web. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://www.k9web.com/dog-faqs/breeds/beagles.html#history

Rice, Dan. The Beagle Handbook (Barron's Pet Handbooks). Barrons Educational Series. 2000. pp. 1-4.

Ruben, Dawn. Choosing a Beagle. (2002). Pet Place.com. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://petplace.netscape.com/articles/artShow.asp?artID=2383… [read more]


River Runs Term Paper

… Because Jacobs emphasizes that degredation is the worst aspect of slavery by printing this on the cover of her narrative, the river offers the only means to escape this psychological torture. The river is also a means to escape physical… [read more]


Sexual Selection Is a Form Term Paper

… Examples of intersexual selection refers to displays of courtship and plumage. (Starr 184-185)

Animals respond to color, form, pheromones, and touch; all elements that can be shaped by a personal bias. One theory that deserves attention is Fisher theory (or runaway sexual selection) that suggests individuals with large sexual ornaments have a higher mating success but lower survival than those with smaller ornaments. The Fisher theory also indicates the relevant traits involved in this selection show heritable genetic variation and that there is a connection between the traits and the preferences. (Fisher 184-192)

The interesting fact about runaway sexual selection is that it is a process in which there appears to be an obvious set of characteristics, which of course, make for it a little more difficult to study. What can be gathered from this process is that choices do seem to favor conditions in which the species will reproduce.

All types of selection ensure the survival of a species and selection also demonstrates how a particular species might evolve according to the choices of the females. For example, humans have less body hair that apes, along with whiter eyes, more expressive faces, more dexterous hands, and more developed pheromones.

Upon reflection, the selection process is quite amazing as well as fascinating to study. Selection must occur in order for survival, whether or not the species is aware of this at all. Sexual selection may prove to be a more complicated issue, but just as interesting nevertheless. The human element involved in selection, as in most cases of everything else, adds even more complication to the matter, definitely qualifying the need for more research.

Works Cited

Burley, N. "Wild Zebra Finches Have Color-Band Preferences." Animal Behavior. Vol. 36. 1988.

Fisher, R.A. "The Evolution of Sexual Preference." Eugenics Review. Vol.7 1915.

Starr, Cecie. Biology, Concepts and Applications. Belmont: Wadsworth…… [read more]


Oozing, Itchy, Misery-Inducing Rash Term Paper

… It must be noted again that aerial spraying does of course have its own risks associated with it.

Among the herbicides currently used are the following:

Glyphosate (Round-up Pro)

Auxinic herbicides Triclopyr (Garlon, Ortho Brush-B-Gon)

2,4-D (Spurge & Oxalis Killer)

Dicamba (Banvel, Spurge & Oxalis Killer)

These herbicides can be applied as stump or basal applications, or as a foliar spray.

Glyphosate is one of the most effective herbicides for control of poison oak. Effective control depends on proper timing of the applications. Apply glyphosate late in the growth cycle, after the fruit have formed but before the leaves lose their green color. A 2% solution in a back-pack sprayer works well.

Bio-Control: Bring on the Munching Goats!

One excellent solution for the eradication of poison oak - especially in areas close to houses of schools where herbicides may be contraindicated and there is a high risk of people coming into contact with the poison oak is the control of the plant through other species - primarily goats but also sometimes sheep, both of whom seem to be able the eat the plants without harm.

While parasitic insects (or microorganisms such as bacteria) can be used on some plants, none has been found to be successful against poison oak.

Conclusion

It is unlikely that Canadians and Americans will have to fear the extinction of poison oak in the near future. However, it is possible to control the plant by the means described in this paper - but only if those methods are used consistently and repeatedly.

Works Cited

Guin J.D. And J.H. Beaman "Toxicodendrons of the United States." Clinical Dermatology 4: 137-148, 1986. http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/html/pnw/pnw108/pnw108.html

http://jrm.library.arizona.edu/data/1965/184/6bove.pdf. http://poisonivy.aesir.com/faq.html

Leonard, O.A. And G.E. Carlson. "Killing of blue oak and poison oak by aircraft." Weeds 8: 625-30, 1960.

Parkinson, G. "The Many Faces of Poison Ivy." New England Journal of Medicine 347 (35), July 4, 2002: 347.

A www.cagwin.com/garden/horticulture/hort_poison_oak.htm

Resnick, S.D. "Poison-ivy and poison-oak dermatitis." Clinical Dermatology 4: 208-212, 1986.

Viz. Resnick 206. http://poisonivy.aesir.com/faq.html

http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/html/pnw/pnw108/pnw108.html

Guin & Beaman 1986. http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/html/pnw/pnw108/pnw108.html

Leonard and Carlston 625.

A www.cagwin.com/garden/horticulture/hort_poison_oak.htm… [read more]


Diversity and Organisms Phylogeny Term Paper

… They like deuterostomes are bilaterally symmetrical animals. The deuterostomes have a ventral heart and a dorsal (back) nerve cord, spinal and brain (UTM Web site).

Enterocoelous development of the coelom occurs in deuterostomes. The mesoderm, and coelom, initially develops as pouches off the primitive digestive tract (the archenteron).

Schizocoelous development of the coelom occurs in protostomes. The mesoderm, and coelom, initially develops from a solid block of mesoderm tissue that develops a split down the middle (UTM Web site).

8. Determinate cleavage is characteristic of protostomes, where after the initial cell division, the resulting daughter cells can only develop into specific tissues, not the whole organism. Indeterminate cleavage is characteristics of deuterostomes, where after the initial cell division each resulting daughter cell has the potential to develop into an entire organism (UTM Web site).

9. The two characteristics are the body plan is a tube within a tube and the symmetry is bilateral with cephalisation. (South Dakota State University Web site).

10. Kingdom Animalia is one of four kingdoms in the Domain Eukarya, distinct from the other three kingdoms: Plantae, Fungi, and Protista. Animalia are multicellular, while most Protista (excepting the multicellular algae, which are plant-like) are unicellular. Heterotrophism separates the animals and fungi from plants, and the lack of cell walls in animal cells makes them distinct from fungi. Animals also possess several other unique features: interior digestion of food; possession of a digestive tract where hydrolytic enzymes are secreted; special cell junctions in their tissues; a life cycle as diploid cells, with the exception of haploid gametes (Stowell Friend's School Web site).

Bibliography

Alternation of Generations." Kennesaw Web site. URL:

http://science.kennesaw.edu/biophys/biodiversity/plants/plaltgen2.htm

The Animal Kingdom." Chapters 20 & 21. The South Dakota State University Web site. URL: http://biomicro.sdstate.edu/Hutchesh/bio101/Text/Chapt20.htm

Determinate and Indeterminate cleavage." UTM Web site. URL:

http://www.utm.edu/~rirwin/detindetcleave.htm

Enterocoelous vs. schizocoelous development of the coelom." UTM Web site. URL: http://www.utm.edu/~rirwin/enteroschizo.htm

Glossary. Evolution Library Web site. URL:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/glossary/glossary.html

Plant Reproduction." Dreamscape Web site. URL:

http://www.dreamscape.com/biology/ApWeb/plantrepro/plantrepro.html

Plant Evolution and Classification." The World of Biology Web site. URL:

http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/plant.html

Kingdom Animalia." The Stowell Friend's School Web site. URL:

http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Animalia/

UCMP Glossary of Natural History Terms, Volume 1, Phylogenetics Terms." UCMP Web site. URL:

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss1phylo.htm… [read more]


Unwanted Pets and Possible Solutions Term Paper

… The children and parents soon tire of the responsibility and another animal is sent to the local shelter.

Solutions

There are many solutions for this huge problem. The main one is to spay or neuter the animals. Since one male and female cat can produce 6,500 kittens in just four years, this would decrease the numbers of animals born each year.

Another is to get your pet from animal shelters instead of breeders or pet stores (which buy from puppy mills). This will reduce the number of animals killed each year, and may also eventually help shut down the mills, since people won't be buying their product.

A final solution is for parents to think before getting a pet for their children. They need to take into consideration the child's age and who will be caring for the animal. They may want to let the child play with animals at a friend or relative first to see how quickly they tire of the pet. They may also want to consider starting with something small, like a fish, and then working up to a cat or dog.

Conclusion

The number of unwanted pets is growing every year. However, this trend doesn't need to continue. It's up to us to eliminate this problem by being responsible pet owners.

We need to keep our pets in a fenced yard or on a leash when walking, and make sure they are spayed or neutered.

These are small, but important steps in stopping the needless deaths of millions of pets.

References

Unwanted Animals. (accessed 10-15-2002)… [read more]


Lake Is White's Account Term Paper

… " In this statement is a suggestion that this return was significant for some reason. At the same time, the fact that we have first heard of the first trip and then how it became a tradition and now that he has returned, puts the reader in the same frame of mind as White, making it a journey for the reader as much as for White.

White then considers how the lake may have changed, "I began to wonder what it would be like. I wondered how time would have marred this unique, this holy spot..." In this simple statement, is a reference also to how he may have changed. This focus on time and change sets the scene for the realization that is to come.

The change then becomes clearer as White looks at his son who is fishing, "I looked at the boy, who was silently watching his fly, and it was my hands that held his rod, my eyes watching. I felt dizzy and didn't know which rod I was at the end of." Here it is seen how White and the boy have changed places. White has memories of his father and of himself as the son, but now realizes that he has become the father.

The fear that is associated with this thought is then described with White saying his "groin felt the chill of death." This concludes White's personal journey and his realization that time and change cannot be escaped. This leads to him recognizing that his own death is approaching. This rather dark and truthful message is not stated outright, however. Instead it is allowed to creep up on the reader, similarly to the way the feeling crept up on White. The final effect is one where the reader appreciates the meaning of the moment without being overwhelmed by the feelings associated with it.

Overall, White's essay is an excellent expression of a moment of realization that every individual will experience. White manages to communicate this message without forcing the point and without making the story only about himself. The reader is allowed to sense the feelings for themselves, making…… [read more]


Congress Term Paper

… Adams argues for carefully regulated expansion of oil drilling for the economic benefits it will bring to the local natives.

However, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service believes that further gas and oil exploration cannot be done without seriously damaging the environment. They view the area as pristine, and state that development would reduce its value for scientific study by interfering with the area's natural evolution and damage "the biological and ecological integrity of the entire Refuge" (USFWS, 2000).

They note several reasons for believing the risk of substantial ecological damage is high. First, they cite the high demand for fresh water in such an endeavor. Unlike the Prudhoe Bay area, the area targeted for development (called "Area 1002") has limited fresh water resources (USFWS, 2000). Because construction bases could not be made with ice, because of the shortage of water, this area would require extensive, permanent roads and building pads. This is viewed as a significant change to the ecology of the area. (USFWS, 2000). Th3 current North Slope facilities already cover 800 square miles, and they predict that development of Area1002 would be substantially bigger, interfering with animals' migratory routes, disrupting hunting for local residents, contamination of soil and water by depositing chemicals on land surfaces not present before, and changes in the natural water system because of the high demand for water. (USFWS, 2000).

In conclusion, looking at the potential low profit margin for the oil retrieved from Area 1002 compared to the likely ecological impact, the position of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service against oil and gas exploration in Area 1002 makes sense.

Bibliography

Adams, Jacob. June, 1995. "Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Website of the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation. Accessed via the Internet 7/9/02. http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/ANWR/asrcadams.html

Shanahan, John. Oct. 17, 1995. "Time to Permit Oil Drilling in the Arctic Refuge." The Heritage Foundation. Accessed via the Internet 7/9/02. http://www.heritage.org/library/categories/enviro/em432.html

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Oct. 2000. "Potential impacts of proposed oil and gas development on the Arctic Refuge's coastal plain." Web page of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Accessed via the Internet 7/9/02.…… [read more]


Endangered Species Term Paper

… Purple loosestrife -- a European native popular as an ornamental plant in the early 1800s-- has invaded wetlands in 48 states at an estimated cost of $45 million a year for control and loss of forage crops. It is crowding… [read more]


Childhood Home the House Term Paper

… I would walk deep into these woods and let my imagination run, thinking about what fort to build next, or could my friends and I have a cookout here? The calmness of the woods didn't solve any problems for me, but the steady back -- and forth motion of the trees rocked them away for the time I was there.

I would listen to the sounds within my trees that I had never noticed before. There were the squirrels a hundred yards away; fighting and squeaking with their tiny feet tramping over last year's dried leaves. There were the robins calling to each other, communicating their bird emotions as surely as you and I communicate our people emotions. I heard a hawk's call down by the river, and I imagined it stretching its wings over all of us and grandly searching for fish in the river. Soon it would fly back home to the safety of my woods.

Some days I would follow the two tracks and go left up the hill. I would have to paw through a tangle of bushes not much taller than myself. I learned to endure the burrs as they collected on my socks. At points along the trail this way I would have to grab onto a tree trunk and pull myself upward.

It was then, lying lazily in my fort for the first time, that I fully appreciated what surrounded me. Not many people had a fort, a climbing tree (as scratchy as it was), a faded two-track path of their own, or even a gravelly old hill. Someday I knew I would outgrow building forts, and climbing trees, but as long as I needed it, I knew the reminders of my childhood home would be there for me.

I would close my eyes and wait for sleep to overcome me. But I was too busy noticing things that I hadn't when I was wide awake. For one thing, the air had become cooler than before, causing goose bumps to form on my bare arms. Trying to catch a little extra warmth, I folded my arms. Another thing was the wind. I had noticed it there before, upon the brilliant green leaves, causing little spots of light to flicker on the few fallen logs around me.

A single cricket started chirping two feet away from me. I would jerk back into consciousness and realized that the sun was almost down. I heard the ring of a telephone a few houses down from mine. The houses all glowed from within now, silhouetting their inhabitants. I sighed and carefully made my way out of the fort.

It was time to go home. I would take a shower and put on my pajamas. I would watch a few hours of sitcoms and then snuggle down in my own warm bed. I was glad to be safe and tucked away in my own home, but the woods always loomed overhead, waiting for my…… [read more]


Lake Erie to the Industrial Term Paper

… (Martel and Schultheiss).

The steel industry in Ohio is extremely important to the state, and the northern area of the state, which is located near (via shipping on the lake, and the Erie canal) the giant steel capital of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. "Ohio is the second-largest steel-producing state in the nation. More than a dozen companies make steel in the Buckeye State. It follows then that iron ore leads the list of cargos delivered to Lake Erie ports. In recent years, U.S.- and Canadian-Flag lakers have annually delivered more than 18 million tons to the state...Steel's contributions to Ohio's economy are manifold. The mills have a workforce of roughly 30,000 and an annual payroll of $1.4 billion. Each job in the steel industry generates three more in supply industries, so nearly 125,000 Ohioans owe their livelihood to steel." In contrast, most of the raw materials needed to make steel also come to the manufacturers via shipping on the lake (Martel and Schultheiss).

Many other products ship out daily over Lake Erie. They include coal, stone products, salt, cement, sand, grain, and petroleum products. In any given year, about 18 million tons of the 35 million shipped throughout the lakes will ship from ports in Ohio (Martel and Schultheiss).

CONCLUSION

Without Lake Erie, the Ohio business and industry economy would be far different. The lake supports shipping options that would not be available if Ohio were landlocked. Industries would have located to areas where long-range shipping was more viable, perhaps on the Atlantic coast. Lake Erie also adds to the recreation industry as a tourist attraction, but even more so because local residents use the lake for recreation throughout the year. This creates business for industries as diverse as pleasure boat dealers to fishing suppliers and food vendors.

Lake Erie is most important for shipping, but Ohio's industry uses many of the lake's natural resources, such as sand and gravel. There are also many hydroelectric power plants along the shores of the lake, which also creates more industry. If cheap, plentiful power is available for business, it is also an incentive to locate there. Without the lake, Northern Ohio would be much different, and the goods and services available to the entire country would be more difficult to get, and probably rise in cost because of this difficulty.

Lake Erie plays a critical role in the lives of the people of Northern Ohio, the state, and the entire country. As Dr. Reutter says in an article in the Twine Line newsletter, "When Ohio Sea Grant began in 1977, there were about 50 charter captains on Lake Erie and just over 200 marine-related businesses. Today there are about 1000 charter captains and well over 400 marine-related businesses and Ohio Sea Grant has played a large role in these increases. Tourism, fishing, and boating are very important on Lake Erie, but future development must be well planned and done in a sustainable fashion since over-crowding is becoming a problem."

Reutter sums up the importance… [read more]


Water by David James Duncan Term Paper

… The debate of 'Is nature worth more than progress' arises and the writing could have become a series of cliches save for one redeeming factor. It has style. Duncan condemns the destruction of Montana's Blackfoot River, where the Snake River was dammed in four places, causing the extinction of the river's wild salmon stocks. He is merciless in his words and succinctly places the blame on the state policies while pleading for their removal. The fact that he does not mince words while doing so suggests that he is more worried for the salmon than of being politically correct.

Duncan writes that the Dams that were built there are really unnecessary. He states that the Snake dams provide only 3.5% of the Northwest's hydropower and "of the same vintage of federal pathology that gave us . . . 3.5 trillion lethal doses of nerve agent released by the Pentagon into Mormon- and Navajo-populated deserts . . . And a present-day epidemic of cancers." Such statistics and analogies cannot but astound the reader and shock their interpretation of the need for dams. The situation is humanized as he presents the salmon not as mere fish but rather as living creatures. He writes, "Wild salmon are not economic units. They are transrational beings whose living bodies bring far-reaching blessings to a watershed." These words bring the formerly simple creatures to life and give them the value they deserve.

At times the authors views do become more emotional and create a feeling of excessive awkwardness as he relates the need for a grasp of the situation. His suggestion that economy does not matter, that the states don't matter and that the people who want progress don't matter is hard to swallow. For as a realistic reader it is a fact that these do matter. People want their comfort and that they will try to achieve it as the expense of others is human nature. To suggest otherwise is a fallacy and tends to at times weaken the argument. Yet, his saving grace is his humor. Even while making arguments that are at the edge of tethering into 'preachiness' he is capable of writing 'the Californians and their air-conditioners don't matter' and with this the reader snorts at the obvious sarcasm and relaxes accepting a rebuke of selfishness as the humor is intended to be.

"I was struck by a boyhood suspicion that rivers and mountains are myself turned inside out," writes David James Duncan. "I'd heard at church that the kingdom of heaven is within us and thought, Yeah, sure. But the first time I walked up a trout stream, fly rod in hand, I didn't feel I was 'outside' at all: I was traveling further and further in."

With these words he manages to summarize his collection of essays. Starting with an explanation of the stream ecology Duncan gathers momentum and gives his readers a lesson in ecology, humor, politics, economics and human nature. He makes a fantastic combination of style and… [read more]


Inscriptiosn of Kamose Essay

… Kamose Stele

The two inscriptions offered by Thebe Pharaoh Kamose offer some insight and perspective as to what led to him pushing for war. In many ways, he was keeping with the general direction started by his father and others… [read more]


Are Known to Inhabit Term Paper

… The body of the fish is also covered in scales as protective device to the internal organs even as it swims through various sharp objects. Below the scales is the skin that is covered in slime that is an adaptation to reduce friction between the fish and the water as it swims through effectively making them faster, more slippery for the hunters and also use less energy to swim. The slime is also said to be a protective measure against diseases from the surrounding waters (Texas Aquatic Science, 2014).

The fish also have gills that are formatted to absorb oxygen dissolved in water with efficiency that the lungs would not be able to. The gills help the fish to breathe efficiently as it goes about their business of looking for food and escaping from danger. The location of the eyes also allows these fish to locate potential danger and potential food at a wider angle of almost 360 degrees as opposed to if the eyes were placed at the front. This enhances their accuracy in locating prey hence allowing them have an easier survival. The other outstanding adaptation is the capacity of fish to lay a large number of eggs in water. This is to increase the survival chances as the eggs are swept away by the currents, eaten by other predators and even after hatching the young fish are still at risk of getting decimated hence the large number is their number one line of defense for survival of the species.

References

Missouri Department of Conservation, (2014). Fish Adaptations. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from http://mdc.mo.gov/fishing/fishing-how-tos/fish-adaptations

Texas Aquatic Science, (2014). Living in Water: Chapter 4. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from http://texasaquaticscience.org/water-aquatic-science-texas/… [read more]


Unusual Ecological Challenges of Our Slippery Friend, the Eel Essay

… Eels / Conservation

The chief difficulty in evaluating the possible endangered species listing of the American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) is the somewhat bizarre life-cycle of the organism. Although the eel is chiefly a freshwater fish, in order to reproduce it travels from the freshwater waterways where it makes its home, and every eel in America makes its way in the ocean to the Sargasso Sea, a region of the Atlantic Ocean in what is popularly known as the "Bermuda Triangle" (south of the Bahamas and east of Bermuda). From this centralized oceanic spawning-ground, the eggs are fertilized and hatch into miniscule larval eels which then travel back to the freshwater ecosystems where the eels spend most of their adult life apart from this mating ritual.

The possibility of the eel being overexploited by commercial fishing is definitely worth considering, when a host of other factors have conspired to deplete the numbers of American eels, including the destruction of their habitats, changes in their food supply, predation, environmental toxins and contamination, and diseases. However, the ability to measure the population of American eels is made difficult by the strange life cycle described above: the population of the species ranges over the entirety of the continental United States, but is nonetheless a consistent population with a single genetic pool based on the actual mating habits. The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission notes that "from a biological perspective much is still unknown about the species" ("American Eel" 2014). This is because the migratory habits make the species difficult to monitor, and the actual abundance of the species is somewhat obscure; however it is possible to note that the numbers are indeed vastly depleted, significantly enough to warrant possible government intervention to protect the species. But the difficulty would be in how to establish this intervention.

Based on the present status of eel fisheries, there is one obvious and immediate recommendation that could be put into place. Currently eels are harvested at different stages of the life cycle: obviously adult freshwater eels are caught by specific fishing methods, since the adult eel can be used for food. But the greater concern in terms of population depletion is the harvesting of the larval young, known as "glass eels" in their second stage of development after hatching in the Sargasso Sea. The reason for special consideration of the harvesting of the juvenile "glass eels" is that the return of the juveniles from the Atlantic spawning grounds to the freshwater inland North American habitats marks the only time besides the actual oceanic spawning in the Sargasso Sea when the eel population is localized in one place, thus making them easier to harvest on a larger scale. This particular type of fishing, therefore, is arguably capable of doing greater damage to the population dynamics than any commercial fishing of the adult eel, simply because it involves a larger number at a more vulnerable developmental stage. Thus the outright ban on the harvesting of juvenile…… [read more]


Yertle the Turtle This Story Essay

… Mack eventually burps and causes Yertle to fall into the mud, this eventually removing his authority.

"Gertrude McFuzz" The setting is an outside environment inhabited by several birds.

The story involves several characters: the protagonist is Gertrude McFuzz and she is contrasted by Lolla Lee Lou. Doctor Drake is Gertrude's uncle.

The main theme of the story relates to how one should be careful about what he or she wishes for.

The conflict involves Gertrude's determination to grow more feathers.

The exposition shows Gertrude being unwilling to accept the fact that she only has one feather. The rising action has Gertrude receiving instruction with regard to how to increase her number of feathers. The climax shows the protagonist significantly increasing her number of feathers and being unable to fly as a consequence. The falling action occurs when Gertrude receives help from those close to her. The resolution shows Gertrude satisfied with only having one feather.

The story is told in a third-person point-of-view.

The story's symbolism involves people's tendency to want to be better than others without actually understanding why they want it.

"Gertrude McFuzz" discusses with regard to the protagonist as it wants to have more feathers than Lolle Lee Lou. Her uncle provides her with a way to grow more feathers by eating a particular vine. As she wants as many feathers as possible, she proceeds to consume the vine until she can no longer fly. Her acquaintances then help her by taking her home and removing the additional feathers. Gertrude eventually comes to realize that it needs to appreciate the little things in life

Bibliography:

Dr. Seuss. "Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories." (Random House Children's…… [read more]


Tennessee Valley Tva v. Hill Essay

… As the opinion in the TVA v. Hill case notes, it would seem directly counterintuitive to resist application of the law in the capacity for which it was designed. To the point, Rizzardi (2008) reports, "concluding that enjoining completion of the dam is the proper remedy under the ESA, the Court emphasized that "[t]he plain intent of Congress in enacting this statute was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost." (p. 1)

Applying the phrase 'whatever the cost' here seems to suggest without reservation that a cost-benefit analysis could reveal no possible financial gain that would outweigh the loss of an endangered species.

When should environmental or aesthetic values give way to other values, such as resource development for energy development? Where should the line be drawn?

This is perhaps the most difficult question to confront in dealing with the present case. Though the $100 million dollar investment in a dam whose construction began before the advent of the ESA is a substantial sum to sacrifice, it is far more difficult to place a monetary sum on the survival of a species. This is true not just from the perspective of wildlife preservation but also with consideration to the untold potential impact on the ecology at large. According to the case analysis at CCC (2013), the Supreme Court "cites legislative proceedings foretelling risks that may stem from the 'loss of any endangered species' [original italics]. Habitat destruction, the number one threat to biodiversity, was recognized as such by Congress in its deliberations over the impending law. The ESA ordered that "all methods and procedures which are necessary" should be employed to bring species back from the brink." (CCC, p. 1)

This assessment helps to underscore exactly why the Endangered Species Act was developed from the outset. If a line isn't drawn clearly and immovably, there will always exist a threat that economic priorities will prevail over the survival of individual species and shared habitats. Such is to argue that we have persisted for far too long on the premise that certain resource or energy development priorities should prevail over the survival of species and habitats. The result has been a dangerous disruption of our ecology just as feared in the 1978 decision. Indeed, the Congressional allowances made following this case would set a precedent for loopholing environmental laws in favor of monetary interests. The line protecting endangered species and habitats must be drawn without the potential for movement so that we are forced to innovate new ways of resolving long-standing energy and resource challenges.

Works Cited:

Church, T.W. (2007). Review: The Snail Darter Case: TVA vs. The Endangered Species Act by Kenneth M. Murchison. Law and Politics Book Review, 17(8).

Courts, Cats, and Carbon (CCC). (2013). Special Feature: Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill. Courtscatscarbon.com/

Garrett, E. (2009). The Story of TVA v. Hill: Congress Has the Last Word. Weblaw.usc.edu.

Rizzardi, K. (2008). Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill -- 437 U.S. 153. ESA Blawg.

U.S. Supreme… [read more]


Environmental Problems Caused Essay

… Timber harvest in this area would be reduced by 80% hence lead to a decrease in timber supply hence an increase in prices. The decline of the number of jobs was already happening due to the dwindling harvest of the old-growth and automating the lumber industry. Environmental scientists brought an argument forward that logging jobs had been declining and therefore environmental protection was not a factor to reckon with in the loss of jobs.

This controversy put individual loggers and environmentalists at loggerheads. There were bumper stickers that read kill a spotted owl -- save a logger and I like spotted owl fried were examples of those in support of the loggers. There were plastic spotted owls that were hung in Oregon sawmills.as a response the logging industry went ahead with bad publicity started the initiative of sustainable forestry. Protecting the owl under National forest management act and endangered species Act brought about significant changes in forest practices (Andre, & Velasquez, 2010). There was a Northwest forest plan by President Clinton in 1994 which was created for the protection of owls as well as other species which were dependent on this habitat and at the same time ensuring that there was still a certain amount of timber that was harvested. There exist general consensus except from those loggers and those allied to them that the breeding of the northern spotted owl should be continued. Even if this meant that there would be less logging, automation of the industry and this new law meant that many jobs would be lost. However there were still some new jobs created such as the conducting of biological surveys for the northern spotted owls as well as other rare occurring organism ( Doak, 2009).

References

Arringer F., (2007). New Battle of Logging vs. Spotted Owls Looms in West .Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/18/us/18owl.html?_r=0

Doak D., (2009). Spotted owls and old growth logging in the pacific northwest. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/people/doaklab/publications/1989doak.pdf

Andre C., & Velasquez M., (2010). Ethics and the Spotted Owl Controversy. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v4n1/… [read more]


Community Board Meeting Article

… Hudson Park

Hudson River Park Community Meeting

On Monday, July 15th, roughly 60 assorted representatives of the Hudson River Park Trust, the Friends of Hudson River Park, the Chelsea Land Use (CLU) Committee and the Waterfront, Parks, and Environment Committee (WPE) gathered for a Manhattan Community Board meeting. The primary purpose of the meeting was to discuss the distribution and boundaries of the five-mile tract known as Hudson River Park. Particularly, the meeting was held in response to Bill A8031-2013, which gives the park the right to sell air rights within the scope of its land.

This right refers to the granting of zoning permission, also with input from surrounding residents and property owners, for the construction of buildings of a certain height and scale. The plan to grant more extensive air rights within the Hudson River Park as a way of raising money for the park's preservation needs is perceived by many as a counterintuitive and potentially destructive strategy. These concerns would be voiced in the Community Board Meeting. Some of the most pressing positions are addressed here after.

For instance, Marcy Benstock of the Clean Air Campaign helps to underscore a primary point of debate at the meeting. The discussion over air rights is, justifiably, being perceived at least in part as an environmental issue. According to Benstock, "Air rights transfer is crucial. Most of the project area is in the water, about 490 acres. Clean air has a lot to do with this. They will say that they have extra air rights, then come up with the idea to build on the pier. So they will say they need to build on the river, this will harm and destroy the habitat." To this perception, there is no manner in which the expansion of 'air rights' for developers won't open to door to wholesale development…… [read more]


Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest Major Structural Term Paper

… This has a devastating impact on wildlife. "As a result the oxygen supply in the water depletes, causing fish and other oxygen-dependent organisms to die and bacteria that are not oxygen dependent (anaerobic) to take over" (Matter cycles and pollution, 2012, Lenntech). This can interfere with the natural phosphate cycle critical to environmental homeostasis. Maintaining adequate forestland will also hopefully influence the carbon cycle in a positive fashion, given that plants provide a vital function absorbing the carbon dioxide released by industrialization (Matter cycles and pollution, 2012, Lenntech).

Plans for management and restoration

Sustainable timber production is an important part of forest management, once again affirming the goal of allowing human beings to use the forest in a manner that does not deplete natural resources and honors rather than exploits the environment (Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, 2013, Virginia Department of Forestry).

The implication of species interactions in ecosystem management and restoration

The management of Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest demonstrates how forestland can be used for the benefit of humanity. It is a safe and healthy place to engage in outdoor recreational activities that is managed in a sustainable fashion. It is a historical site that has been rehabilitated from overuse, and careful regulation of forestry and human's use of its natural spaces has made it one of the most pleasurable places to visit in Virginia.

References

Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest. (2013). Virginia Department of Forestry. Retrieved:

http://www.dof.virginia.gov/stforest/list/absf.htm

Matter cycles and pollution. (2012). Lenntech. Retrieved:

http://www.lenntech.com/matter-cycles-pollution.htm… [read more]


Ernest Hemingway's "Big Two-Hearted River Creative Writing

… Yet he was comforted by the fact that, despite his inability to reel it in, the fish would bear the mark of his hook, bitten through the snell by its teeth, on its face for some time to come.

A wry smile gently overtook his face. Of all the luck. There, before his eyes alone, was the biggest trout he had ever seen, probably the biggest one anybody had ever seen, and he was powerless to keep it. In just a short matter of time, the fish's teet would sever the hook from the line, leaving a permanent reminder of his experience with Nick in the form of the hook in its face. For all the fish's apparent anger, as things of that size were won't to express, there was no way Nick could tell anyone about it, and have them believe him.

At that moment, he suddenly saw this experience through Hop-Head's eyes. He heard his voice, as clear as he heard the rushing water. Almost, Nick, he chided him. Almost. You found the biggest rout virtually any body has ever seen, bigger than anything anyone's ever heard about, and what do you do? You lose him. Sure, you got your hook indelibly in him -- there's no way that's getting out once the fish cuts the line with his teeth. But all you really did was succeed in making him mad, and coming up empty.… [read more]


Yellow River's Flooding History Essay

… The paleoflood deposits indicated that much of the flood comprised of muddy flow with sediment concentration of over 200 kilograms per meters cubic. A shocking revelation reveals that the distance between the levees on both sides of the bank spanned to a distance of 25 kilometers during this same period. The broad flood plain was a suitable site for cultivation due to the fertile accumulation of silt. Large-scale reclamation and irrigation diversions in the river basin reduced the rate of water flow to the lower river. When this was happening, siltation of Lower River gradually increased and rose above the surrounding flood plain.

In view of the events that orchestrated much of the flooding, it is evidently clear that the alluvial channel morphodynamics can be altered considerably by embankment. For instance, when the river was allowed to flood naturally without restriction of artificial levees a negative feedback loop existed. This implied that an unstable avulsion channel develops thus causing the river to fluctuate within its avulsion threshold. On the other hand, artificial levees serve to prevent avulsion as human consistently repair the breaches. However, the success of this strategy as observed by WU et al. (2008) (Chen 693) is dependent on the strength of the levees and water flux. For example, stronger dykes that prevented breaches ensured increased water flux, hence promoting further deepening of the riverbed. On the other hand, if breaches occur, the water flux is reduced thus increasing siltation and further promoting the breaches of the levees.

In conclusion, human interaction with the Grand River has contributed immensely to its long history of flooding. It is undeniable that Yellow River formed a key natural feature that influenced the settlement of various ancient dynasties in China. Majority of the nomadic people preferred to concentrate their agricultural activities within the middle section of the river. Deforestation rates increased significantly: much of the soil and silt were eroded into the riverbed. The eventual implication of this is that the lower riverbed experienced massive siltation, which gradually raised the river channel and broadened the river. The region attracted more settlement and agricultural activities due to the accumulation of fertile loess deposits. As a result, flooding increased. Attempts to control flooding were also done by the river management agencies through construction of artificial levees to confine the waters within the natural channel. Their efforts were temporary successful because the river continually burst its dykes causing further flooding. Therefore, much of the historical flooding along Yellow River was human induced.

Work Cited

Chen, Yunzhen et al. Socio-economic Impacts on Flooding: A 4000-Year History of the Yellow

River, China. Beijing: Springer. 2012. Print.

Keith, Smith, and Petley, David. Environmental Hazards; Assessing Risks…… [read more]


Geography the Site Term Paper

… S. industrialization in the 20th century. With the automation of steel and automobile factories, and the rise of the industrial south, the industrial capacity of the rust belt over the last half of the 20th century became greatly diminished. Demographic flows show that many Americans have left the rust belt for the American South and West. This has had a deleterious effect on major cities such as Detroit and Flint Michigan and Allentown Pennsylvania, cities who've seen their citizens leave in droves for other areas of the United States. These cities are currently suffering industrial decline, and cities such as Flint are having formerly thriving housing areas razed to the ground. Cities in decline and urban decay are currently the norm for much of the Continental Core, but it seems that the inner city revitalization movement of the late 20th century and the development of modern technological industries such as nanotechnology and biotechnology may turn the tide of immigration flight and reinvigorate the region's economic base. For example, Cleveland Ohio has a burgeoning biomedical industry and Buffalo New York's growing health care and educational industries. Cities such as Pittsburgh are witnessing the redevelopment of former industrial areas into prosperous entertainment and restaurant districts and many localities (with the exception of Illinois) offer low tax incentives for business development. In fact, Indiana is witnessing growth for its low tax business environment.

All in all, the rust belt's geography and resources offer plenty for economic, political and cultural life, and the judicious use of sound environmental and economic policy can help lead this somewhat neglected area into the 21st century and restore the area its former quality of life.… [read more]


Resource Economics and Management Essay

… ¶ … Buongiono, J., Gilless, J. (2003). Decision Methods for Forest Resource Management. San Diego: Academic Press.

Modern sustainable forestry is also investigating other related issues of ecosystem management. To create and maintain the diversity of trees with a region (i.e. Hardwood and softwood), landowners leave several stands of both young and old growth within natural forest stands to enhance the biodiversity and health of the forest site. Normally clear-cutting results in the re-planting of tree seedlings, however some species (spruce, pine) overpower the growth of the hardwood trees. This minimizes the level of specie diversity among a timber stand. By allowing these older sections of stands to remain aids to the natural growth and development of hardwood species. Also, the wood debris, a remnant of old forest growth is essential to the survival of many forest species and also acts as a recycler of nutrients back into the soil. During forest harvesting it is not always necessary to remove all the wood from the lot. Rotten or older growth can be left to contribute to the nourishment of natural forests.

However, the complexity and manner in which ecosystems are tied together so inexorably requires that more modern techniques be used to understand, develop, and assist in prediction and conservation of forests. Quantitative analysis and forecasting of forest products began after World War II and the boom in wood needs for suburbia. This initial analysis was based, primarily, on prime time-series analysis. However, with technological advances in computing, considerable improvements have been made in the way we theoretically view, develop, and utilize statistical models of estimation. For example, we now use panel data in the analysis of demand for final products, as well as activity analysis and econometrics. Panel data refers to multi-dimensional data streams; for instance, observations on multiple phenomena observed over multiple time periods for the same issue; looking at forests over time and analyzing the same sets of data in a balanced manner. Activity analysis is a statistical measure of the types of activities in the system, how many resources are consumed, given, what the performance of the biome is, and how, through observation and tracking, our data set changes over time. Econometrics tends to…… [read more]


Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho Research Paper

… Reintroduction of Wolves Designated as Experimental

Section 10 j suggests that an experimental population of wolves be introduced to certain parts and under certain conditions and that this population be carefully regulated. They are seen as 'threatened' rather than 'endangered'.

This experimental population rule has been implemented successfully in other states such as in North Carolina and Wyoming. In this scenario, two experimental population areas will be established in parts of Montana and Idaho as well as through all of Wyoming and another in most of central Idaho and in parts of Montana.

Natural Recovery (No action)

No action to control or regulate wolf population would be implemented. Instead wolves (currently 65 wolves) that occupy Montana would be adjudged endangered and they would be encouraged to proliferate naturally and to spread to other areas including central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park.

There would be some restrictions in place, although the focus would be on encouraging the wolves to freely procreate and expand. To that end there would be land use restrictions that include motorized vehicles and livestock grazing.2

No Wolves

No wolves would be allowed whatsoever.

Wolf Management Committee Recommendations

The states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho would congregate and accomplish wolf recovery as a nonessential experimental population under state law and special regulation that would be more liberal than those currently allowed under the ESA.

Congress would be moved to appeal the ESA. The joint states would implement only a few land use restrictions. There would be federal compensation. Wolves would be naturally recovered in Central Idaho and parts of Wyoming and reintroduced to Yellowstone. Wolves would be controlled 3

Reintroduction of Wolves Designated as Nonexperimental.

10 breeding pairs of Wolves would be moved as a nonexperimental entity to Yellowstone and parts of central Idaho. There would be no regulation even if livestock are killed and all focus would be on regeneration of wolves. Livestock, inf act, would be moved to make way for wolves. If…… [read more]


Mono Lake California Case Study

… Mono Lake California

Mono Lake, California

Summary of the crisis

Mono Lake is located near the city of Los Angeles and has been in the spot light for the extensive damage done to it in the past few decades. As the population of Los Angeles soared, there was a shortage of water for its residents. This semi-arid area did not have a lot of options to cater to the growing water needs of its residents. So, Mono Basin became a prospective source of water and by 1941, water was diverted from four of the five feeders from the Mono Lake to the LA Aqueduct (Kahrl, 1983).

This water diversion helped the LADWP as well as the LA water consumers because water was available at a cheaper rate than water from other sources such as the Colorado river. The economics and availability of water created more demand and as a result, more water was taken from the Mono Basin. Soon, the water levels started falling down and the amount of salinity began to increase. This led to a disruption of the local ecosystem. The algae present in the lake provide food for the brine shrimp and this in turn, attracts California Gulls that use this as a resting spot in its journey of migration. The increased salinity affected the algae in a big way because they were unable to perform photosynthesis for the production of food and this in turn, led to a disruption in the reproduction cycles of the brine shrimp. Also, the reduced water exposed the lake bed and this made it easy for predators like raccoons to attack the California Gulls. All this led to vast ecological damage in the surrounding areas.

As residents and environmental groups began to understand the implications of the problem, legal battles began to ensue. The Mono Lake Committee was formed in 1976 and they fought long legal battles to restore the water levels in this lake. Finally, the California Water Resources Control Board ruled on August 22, 1989 that the city of LA should allow the water levels of Mono Lake to rise to 17 feet at an elevation of 6,391 feet above sea level (Strong-Aufhauser, 1995). This put an end to large scale diversions from this lake and the water levels have since risen in this lake.

Summary of the scientific data

The scientific data clearly states that the rate of evaporation in Mono Lake was one foot a year before the water diversions started taking place and when a second aqueduct was opened, the rate shot up to 1.6 feet per year. It is estimated that the amount of water in Mono Lake from the 1970's to the 1990's was roughly about 83,000 acre per year and the overall volume of the lake reduced by about 22 miles (Monolake.org, 2012). This doubled the amount of salt present in the water and led to the destruction of the local ecosystem. In addition, the alkali lake bed of Mono Lake was exposed… [read more]


Italian Watersheds All Rivers Run Essay

… This leads to water that is very low in oxygen and very high levels of phosphorous and Italian environmental groups call the lake "chronically sick" (Belfast Telegraph, 2007)

Lakes are always fragile in terms of long-term maintenance of watershed health. With less free-flowing water than rivers or stream and a much smaller volume (and so a more delicate biochemical balance) than oceans, lakes are always shifting back and forth across a narrow tolerance for indigenous life forms. When this already delicate balance is affected in dramatically negative ways by agricultural and industrial run-off as well as human's ever increasing demand for freshwater (a demand pushed by increasing human population and exacerbated by climate change) the future health of lakes seems like a fool's dream.

References

Belfast Telegraph. (2007). Italy's lakes have sick water.

EPA. (2012). What is a watershed? http://water.epa.gov/type/watersheds/whatis.cfm http://italianlakes.com/images/site/lake_lugano_giro_map.gif http://www.iabmas2012.org/Map_LakeComo.jpg

Popham, E. (2007). http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/world-news/feeling-blue-italys-lakes-have-sick-water-13462633.html#ixzz1oVGPeu9u… [read more]


Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho Annotated Bibliography

… Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho

Annotated Bibliography

(1) Schmidt, PM & Peterson, MJ (2008) Biodiversity Conservation and Indigenous Land Management in the Era of Self-Determination. Conservation Biology. Paper submitted October 9, 2008; revised manuscript accepted March 9, 2009. Conservation Biology, Volume 23, No. 6, 1458 -- 1466

Biodiversity and cultural preservation are both addressed from the perspective of self-determination in the indigenous groups of Indians as related to the Gray wolf in Idaho, western Montana, Washington State and western Wyoming. The research reported in the work of Schmidt and Peterson ( 2008) states "Indigenous peoples and their lands in the United States provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the relationship among self-determination by indigenous peoples, biodiversity conservation, and governmental statutes, regulations, and policies."

(2) Ohlson, DL and Trulio, L (2006) Tribal Sovereignty and the Endangered Species Act; Recovering the Idaho Wolves. Masters Abstracts International. Wildlife & Ecology Studies Worldwide. Vol. 44 Issue 1. P.300.

Ohlson and Trulio relate the partnership between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service with the Nez Perce Tribe in an initiative to recover gray wolves in Central Idaho and report the Federal Endangered Species Act.

(3) Bradley, EH and Pletscher, DH (2005) Assessing factors related to wolf depredation of cattle in fenced pastures in Montana and Idaho. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33(4):1256-1265. 2005.

Bradley and Pletscher examine the depredation on livestock related to managing…… [read more]


Landscape Data Interpretation the Presentation Essay

… The changes that occurred in the landscape of the Fort Bennington, GA area do not appear to be as extreme as they potentially could have been, though there has certainly been a significant change over the past two centuries of human involvement and development in the area. The map estimating forest coverage in the region in 1827 shows dense pine forests covering most of the area, with a moderate amount of mixed forest (deciduous and pine mixes or more sparsely forested areas) speckled throughout along with a few patches of deciduous forest, and two very small areas of cleared land approximating the placement of Native American settlements. By 1974, pine forests are still speckled throughout the region yet are arranged in very small clusters rather than a large continuous swath; bare land and buildings are dotted throughout most of the region and are surrounded by larger patches of cleared land, and deciduous forests have crept in amongst the pine forests to a considerable degree. Later maps indicate a more complete takeover of the region by deciduous trees, to the point that clusters of pine forest have all but disappeared, while bare land and buildings have grown to fill the areas of cleared land that existed in 1974.

Understanding the data that is being presented is almost as essential as having accurate data presented in the first place. This article's authors do an excellent job of explaining the data being presented, its collection and presentation, and any potential problems therein. The ecological data provided, when properly understood, provide compelling evidence for human impact…… [read more]


Humans Benefit From Their Pets? Article Review

… "

There was a third study that is reported in this Time magazine article, and it was conducted by McConnell at Miami University. The professor and his colleagues surveyed college students and asked them to think about a time in their lives when they felt "socially excluded or rejected"; and after they recounted that unpleasant experience, the students were asked "either to write a passage about a best friend, to write about a close pet, or to draw a map of their campus" (Blue).

The result of the survey was that students who wrote about their friends or their pets "felt better afterwards" and were able to recover their sense of "self-worth and happiness" following the exercise in which they were required to recall rejection and isolation in their lives. The group of students at Miami University that decided to write about map drawing "remained a little glum," Blue explains.

What also came out in this third research project was that pet owners were as excited to write about their pets as they were to write about a best friend. McConnell wrote: "One's pet was ever bit as effective as one's best friend in staving off social needs deficits" (Blue).

Conclusion: The upshot of these three reports on the value of pets in the lives of humans is that people can certainly derive pleasure and joy from pets even though they already have very normal, balanced lives and lots of friends and loving family members. A dog will always come to the door to greet you, long after everyone else is gone from your life, Blue concludes. And moreover, when people are psychologically close to their pets, those people will received well-being benefits just the same as they receive from their human friends.

Works Cited

Blue, Laura. (2011). Study: Pets Give Us the Same Warm Fuzzies That Friends Do. Time.

Retrieved September 11, 2011,…… [read more]


Existence, Lives, and Eventual Extinction of Dinosaurs Essay

… ¶ … existence, lives, and eventual extinction of dinosaurs have intrigued scientists and public alike for many years. Because of the vast periods of time between when dinosaurs walked the earth and the present time, the development of precise arguments regarding each of these issues has been a taunting task. Reliance upon fossil and bone evidence has been the standard measuring device and it has been only recently, with the improvements in x-ray, DNA, and carbon dating technology that any real support has been found for developing theories about dinosaurs.

There is little doubt as to the existence of dinosaurs. There is a considerable body of physical evidence including nearly complete skeletal remains of various different species of dinosaurs that categorically establish not only that dinosaur lived but also where they lived. Fossilized remains from the area around where the dinosaur skeletons were retrieved have provided scientists with information regarding their diet and environment but the big mystery remains: what caused the dinosaur to become extinct?

A variety of theories exist that offer an explanation for the extinction of the dinosaur population. None of the offered theories have been established as controlling among all scientists in the field but support for several is stronger.

The first such theory suggests that a giant asteroid or other heavenly object such as a comet struck the earth as some point causing not only traumatic damage to the dinosaur but also caused climatic changes that endangered the dinosaur's environment. The impact of the heavenly object on the earth's surface resulted in large masses of dust to develop which blocked the sun's rays causing the plant life to die and for temperatures to fall below comfort levels for the dinosaur. A large portion of the dinosaur population was decimated by this process and when the dust finally cleared and temperatures began rising quickly in the opposite direction the remainder of the population died as well. According to this theory, in just a brief period of time, perhaps as short as two or three years, the entire dinosaur population was eliminated as well as most of the plant life that supported them.

The evidence for this theory is considerable. A large crater lies just off the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico that scientists speculate was caused by the collision of an asteroid or comet. The timing of the creation of this crater corresponds with the estimate of when dinosaur would have occupied the world and so the existence corroborates the collision theory. Also, scientists have found a more concentrated amount of a rare earthly metal known as iridium in areas around where dinosaur fossil and skeletal remains have also been found. Iridium is more commonly found deeper within the earth's surface and on other planets and scientists believe that is being concentrated near dinosaur remains supports the collision theory as well.

The fossil records of dinosaur…… [read more]


Grand Canyon Was Formed Lab Report

… One of the more interesting topics that lends itself to more research is the Great Unconformity, shown at stop 6c. The Great Unconformity is a fascinating topic because it represents a time from which no rocks are preserved. The scientific community does not know if no rocks were formed during this period, or if they were formed but then eroded away. The fact that this unconformity which spans almost a billion years is found nearly everywhere across the globe makes the geological mystery that much more fascinating (Treiman n.pag.)

To sum up, not all evidence encountered during the field trip supports the overflow mechanism, nor does it explain all the geomorphic processes that were discussed. For example, superimposition provides a better explanation for transverse drainage incision associated with a regional drop in base level and prolonged denudation evidence at stops 2f and 5d. A piracy mechanism is a better fit for explaining possible different paleo-flow direction for the transverse drainage upstream of the bedrock high. As this and other papers and research have shown, there are still many unanswered questions about Grand Canyon formation.

2f, 5d, 8a

1e, 1c, 2c

1b

6d

5b

5d, 6a, 7c, 9c

10a, 10c

4d, 4a, 4b

4a

5b, 6d

5b

3c, 3a, 7a, 5c

2e, 6a

9d, 10a, 10c

Works Cited

Holm, Richard. "Pliocene-Pleistocene Incision on the Mogollon Slope, Northern Arizona: Response to the Developing Grand Canyon." (n.d.) 24 June 2011.

Spencer, Jon, and Philip Pearthree. "Abrupt Initiation of the Colorado River and Initial Incision of the Grand Canyon." Arizona Geology 35 (2005): 1-6.

Treiman, Allan. "Grand Canyon -- The Great Unconformity." 23 Sept. 2003. Lunar and Planetary Institute. 24 June 2011. [read more]


Mass Extinction the Earth's Biodiversity Mass Extinctions Term Paper

… Mass Extinction

The Earth's Biodiversity

Mass extinctions are definitely not common; however, if the earth's biodiversity is threatened at a similar rate to pass mass extinctions (such as the one that destroyed the dinosaurs -- except for the birds), there are a number of probable losers, according to McKinney and Lockwood (1999), and one need only look at a list of threatened species. "However," they note, "this almost certainly underestimates the true number of losers as many (probably most) species are in decline but their abundance is not yet low enough to warrant current listing" (1999).

Many of the "global losers" will include threatened birds such as parrots and pheasants and threatened mammals such as apes and rhinoceroses. There will be "local losers" like the babbler bird of the Sumatran forest; parrots of the Brazilian forest; birds in urban areas of the United States; frogs in the Amazon forest; insects of the Boreal forest; and salamanders in the forests of Maine to name a few (McKinney & Lockwood 1999).

In the article entitled "Biologists say planet is undergoing mass species extinction," Daily Galaxy (2009) reports that, "for over 300 million years frogs, salamanders, newts and toads were hardy enough to precede and outlive the dinosaurs up until the present time," but now, within twenty years, many amphibians are becoming extinct. "Scientists are alarmed at how one seemingly robust species of amphibians will suddenly disappear within a few months" (2009).

We can never regain the lost biodiversity, but scientists claim that we can at least work to prevent a "worldwide bio collapse" (Daily Galaxy 2009), but they would all require that immediate action be initiated. Experts say that at least half of the world's present species will be entirely gone…… [read more]


Berberis Nevinii Research Paper

… Berberis nevinii is a shrub found in California alone. It has been declared endangered and is in list 1B.of the endangered species of the State of California from 1987 and later the Federal Government declared it 'endangered' in 1998. (Calflora. Taxon Report 1074) Berberis Nevinii can grow to 6 feet in height, and has grey foliage. The leaves may be upto 3 inches long with lateral or ovalate leaves and the terminal leaflet is lanceolate. (McMinn, 127) It has bristles on the margines and flowers in March to May. It is a rare species that occur in San Fernando Canyon and parts of California. It has yellow flowers and juicy colored berry all of which makes it an ideal candidate for group cultivation as ornamental plants, hedges and other landscape uses, apart from its medicinal properties. (McMinn, 129) The plants are collected and cultivated for ornamental purpose at private residences in gardens and as hedges. The plant assumes importance owing to being endemic to California alone and also being depleted because of alternate land use encroaching on its habitat.

(a) Care of Berberis Nevinii

The plant is an ornamental and medicinal plant but there has not been a systematic study of its cultivation although it is cultivated as an ornamental plant and to make fences and hedges. The plant tolerates all climatic and soil conditions of its native place -- California. The requirements for the cultivation, borders on the climate of the state. However as of now, there is no concrete information about the present situation of the shrub, either on its population or life history. Little has been divided of the breeding and other aspects like pollination biology. It is indicated that the shrub grows from a fertile seed is never observed. (Fedde, CPC National Collection Plant Profile: Berberis nevinii)

The current need for protection arises from the fact that the habitat of Berberis nevinii is now taken over by farming development and other urbanization activities. It can be cultivated and is tolerant to many types of soils and different cultivation practices. The growth and cultivation is done by private owners now, and only about a few plants exist in federal land and thus under federal protection. Since the researches are inconclusive there is a greater need to research further into the reproduction and seeding requirements of Berberis…… [read more]


Fire Dynamics Research Paper

… ¶ … Basin Complex Fire in California

Introduction and Fire Facts

California is a big, beautiful state, featuring mountains, deserts, beaches, and vast forested areas. Much of California is rural and wilderness. But California it is known for some serious… [read more]


Lake Tahoe Relate to Nevada History Research Paper

… ¶ … History of Lake Tahoe

Lake Tahoe has contributed much in terms of Nevada history. It has been the epicenter for both political, social, and environmental debate for a century and a half. It's first settlers preempted a massive migration spurred on by the promise of gold and other natural resources. These settlements grew and became part of the landscape and history of the area, continuing to inspire and influence the current development of the Lake Tahoe basin. Before white explorers discovered it, Lake Tahoe has been a gathering place for the Washoe Indians for hundreds of years. According to Lyndall Baker Landauer and her book, The Mountain Sea: a History of Lake Tahoe (Flying Cloud Press, 1996), the Indians conducted regular spiritual ceremonies on its southern shores, specifically around the Emerald Bay area. Landauer explores the aspects of Lake Tahoe's Native American history quite thoroughly in her book, and provides the reader with quite a large breadth of information on the subject. The lake was first discovered in 1844 by explorers Kitt Carson and John Fremont. These explorers described the lake as having crystal clear water and as possessing special meaning to the local Native American tribes. The book entitled, Destination Lake Tahoe: the Story behind the Scenery (Stanley W. Paher, KC Publications, 1994) is a book that describes many of the exploits of these and other early explorers. It's strength is that it is a very easy read and caters to the casual tourist. It does not however go into much detail about the explorers and tries to accomplish too much in too few pages. It is an interesting read however as comprehensive books about the history of Lake Tahoe are tough to find.

The Tahoe basin was settled extensively during the gold rush of 1849, as a byproduct of the settlers and prospectors looking to discover gold in the hills and streams of the Sierra Nevada's. The discovery of gold in the Sierra's not only increased human traffic around the lake but also stretched to natural resources in the area quite thin. The forests around the lake were nearly stripped bare, and if not for the waning interest in the Sierra gold, they would have certainly become completely depleted by the early 1900's. Once interest died down in prospecting activities around this time, Tahoe became a resort area…… [read more]


Saving Brazilian Amazon Through Sustainable Development Essay

… ¶ … saving the Brazilian Amazon through sustainable development. The Brazilian Amazon rain forest is one of the largest rain forests in the world, and it is being systematically destroyed due to overgrazing, logging, and slash and burn agriculture. Sustainable development is the practicing of utilizing resources sustainably and reasonably so they are not destroyed, and can be enjoyed by future generations. The Amazon rainforest is vital to the globe in many different ways. Protecting it through sustainable development is not only Brazil's concern, it should be the concern of the world, because of the rich environment and the numerous products it provides the peoples of the world.

The Amazon rainforest in Brazil is a treasure trove of wildlife and natural wonders, like the Amazon River the many plants and insects, and the environment. "The Brazilian Amazon contains about 40% of the world's remaining tropical rainforest and plays vital roles in maintaining biodiversity, regional hydrology and climate, and terrestrial carbon storage. It also has the world's highest absolute rate of forest destruction, currently averaging nearly 2 million hectares per year" (Laurence, et al. 1). This devastation comes from many sources, but much of it comes from the slash and burn type of agriculture that natives have practiced for centuries. Another writer notes, "Where the trees once stood, slash and burn techniques had converted the land to pastures" (Tatum 1). Another expert states, "Large-scale cattle ranching operations are moving into the area, only adding to the problem. Historically a large portion of deforestation in Brazil can be attributed to land clearing for pastureland by commercial and speculative interests" (Butler). In addition, many local residents do not understand the danger to the Amazon, and exploit the forest for its resources, like trees and plants, and the government does not have enough money or workforce to arrest these operators and stop their operations. There are also massive paper, hardwood, and logging operations in the Amazon that eat up thousands of acres each year, and very little replanting is done in many of these operations. To save the Amazon rainforest, more sustainable techniques have to be developed that will use the land more effectively instead of destroying it for today and future generations. It takes many generations for the forest to return to normal, so sustainability needs to start now.

The rainforest is also an ecological necessity. Another writer notes, "The Amazon Rainforest has been described as the 'Lungs of our Planet' because it provides the essential environmental world service of continuously recycling carbon dioxide into oxygen. More than 20% of the world oxygen is produced in the Amazon rainforest" (Editors). The loss of this oxygen if the rainforest fails could be devastating to the entire planet, and it could help speed up climate change at an even more rapid rate. That is a frightening thought, which is another reason why sustainable development is vital for the rainforest's future.

Many nations of the world understand the problems the Amazon faces, and understand that many… [read more]


Extinction Risk and the Future Battlegrounds Article Review

… ¶ … Extinction Risk and the Future Battlegrounds of Mammal Conservation.

Cardillo M, Mace GM, Gittleman JL, and Purvis a. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103 (11); 2006: 4152-4161.

The research involved testing a specific hypothesis through predictive modeling techniques in conjunction with existing factual knowledge. That hypothesis was that current perceptions about which species are in the greatest danger of extinction are somewhat inaccurate. More particularly, the identification of endangered or threatened species is largely based on the degree to which those species have already suffered and begun to exhibit substantially declining numbers.

However, the research actually demonstrated that this approach to identifying endangered species is too exclusive because it does not account for any species that have not already been adversely affected by the principal causes of species endangerment (namely, human encroachment). Instead, conservation perspectives and conservation efforts should include those species that have not yet been threatened only because their natural habitats have not yet been harmed by human activity. Some of those species are especially vulnerable to disturbances in their habitat and are just as likely to be threatened once human activity affects them.

Relevance to Conservation Objectives

The principal relevance of the study is that it demonstrates that current beliefs about which mammalian species are at risk of extinction in the near future are inaccurate. In addition to those currently identified as being at greatest risk, there are other species that are equally at risk of extinction within the same time frame but they are still unrecognized and not considered in conservation philosophy and plans. To the extent conservation objectives relate to improving the survivability of threatened species,…… [read more]


Geomorphology of the Guadalupe River Thesis

… ¶ … geomorphologic information available on the Guadalupe River in Texas. The Guadalupe River is located in central Texas and is comprised by a mixed alluvial-bedrock channel with limestone bedrock "slightly incised and covered with a spatially discontinuous veneer of fine and coarse alluvial deposits that varies in thickness. (Keen-Zebert, 2007) the underlying geologic units of the Guadalupe river channel are stated to be "Pleistocene fluvial deposits and Cretaceous limestone." (Keen-Zebert, 2007) there are variations of geomorphologic evidence in the Guadalupe river channel region.

Geomorphology of the Guadalupe River

Geomorphology of the Guadalupe River

The Upper Guadalupe River

Observational Reports

Upper Guadalupe River Bar

The Guadalupe River region

Bibliography

Geomorphology of the Guadalupe River

INTRODUCTION

The Guadalupe River in Texas is 25,231 square kilometers in size in the drainage basin area. This is much shallower than the majority of U.S. rivers although there are a few smaller and approximately the same size. Land-use in terms of forest cover is 0% as compared to most rivers in the U.S. most of which are to a great extent forest-use area. Reports state that the geomorphology of the river floodplain systems can be altered in terms of "magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and sediment loads of floods known to shape floodplain as well as its features and functions. (Keen-Zebert, 2007, paraphrased) by regulated streamflow.

The Guadalupe River, in central Texas is comprised by a mixed alluvial-bedrock channel with limestone bedrock slightly incised and covered with a spatially discontinuous veneer of fine and coarse alluvial deposits that varies in thickness." This area of the Guadalupe River is pictured in the following illustration labeled Figure 2 in this study.

Figure 1

Shaded Relief of Upper Guadalupe River Watershed

Keen-Zebert, 2007

It is reported that the underlying geologic units of the Guadalupe river channel are "Pleistocene fluvial deposits and Cretaceous limestone." (Keen-Zebert, 2007) Five primary geologic units appear in the surficial geology of the Guadalupe River and from youngest to oldest are stated to include the Fluvaiatile Terrace Deposits Formation (comprised of gravel, sand, silt and clay ranging from 9 to 15 m thick).

Also included is the Trinity Aquifer group which contains all limestones. The Glenn Rose Limestone (upper and lower members) are inclusive with the upper members comprised of alternating beds of thicker, more cemented hardened limestone and thicker soft, marley slightly clayey limestone; (5) Lower member -- massive fossilferous limestone with thin beds of limestone, dolomite, marl and shale. (Keen-Zebert, 2007, paraphrased) it is reported that the Hensell Sand and Cow Creek limestone are "both members of the Travis Peak Formation." The Hensell Sand Member is a red to gray clay, silt, sand conglomerate with thin beds of limestone. The Cow Creek limestone is a fossilferous dolomitic limestone with thinly bedded layers of shale, sand, and lignite. Several locations on the river have two lithologies in cross section where the river flows on a naturally boundary between the two units." (Keen-Zebert, 2007) the following illustration labeled Figure 1 in this study lists the 'Channel… [read more]


Salt Creek Tiger Beetle -- Endangered Species Essay

… Salt Creek Tiger Beetle -- Endangered Species Act

The Salt Creek Tiger Beetle (Cicindela nevadica lincolniana) is a half-inch long, dark brown / dark olive insect that is struggling for its survival in areas of Saunders County and Lancaster County, Nebraska. The Nebraska Ecological Services Field Office (NESFO) in February, 2009, outlined a potential recovery plan for this endangered subspecies, which is found to have "one of the most restricted ranges of any insect in the United States" (NESFO). Indeed, the report asserts that the Salt Creek Tiger Beetle -- which requires saline wetlands on exposed saline mud flats or along the muddy banks of streams that contain salt deposits -- is found in only 13 sites in those Nebraska counties. The NESFO report claims that since the late 1800s more than 90% of the saline wetlands (required by the Salt Creek Tiger Beetle for survival) have been "destroyed or severely degraded."

Issues Pertaining to Endangered Status: Pros & Cons: Should the federal government be involved in an expensive program that sets aside "critical habitat" for a subspecies that numbers only three or four hundred beetles? This question can best be answered by referring to the statute, the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (amended in 1978). According to the Department of the Interior, the law states that "…any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants and any other group of fish or wildlife of the same species or smaller taxa in common spatial arrangement that interbreed when mature" may be designated as endangered (www.fws.gov). Nothing in the law restricts the possibility of a subspecies becoming an endangered species due to limited population or reduced habitat, hence, the beetle is eligible.

Moreover, when the Secretary of the Interior is giving consideration to a species or subspecies being placed on the Endangered Species List (ESL), the secretary must take into account the "distinct population segment" -- section 4(a)(1) -- which in the case of the beetle was justified. Indeed, the beetle was listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as an endangered species in 2005, and was listed as endangered under Nebraska's endangered species act in 2000. Further, the law passed by Congress implores the Interior Secretary to designate species as endangered only "…sparingly and only when the biological evidence indicates that such action is warranted" (www.fws.gov).

When considering the pros and cons of placing a species (or subspecies) on the endangered list, the economic ramifications of such a move must be taken into account. In July 2007, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contracted with Northwest Economic Associates to determine what the cost would be to the Nebraska community if the government indeed declares certain areas in Nebraska as "critical habitat." Should the economic impact report indicate that the designation of certain habitat off-limits to development (to protect the beetle) "might unduly burden a particular group or economic sector," then a legitimate rebuttal to the proposed designation can be made (through litigation or legislative mitigation).

That report takes into account "likely… [read more]


River the Area Term Paper

… The railyards would have to be relocated, or at least hidden from view, and in-channel water treatment facilities could be included to help improve water quality throughout the area.

I envision layered terraces that are attractive and function, and still protect the neighborhoods from extensive flooding. Above the terraces, there are green strips, trees, and plants that encourage wildlife, and walking paths so people can get out and enjoy more than a big cement aqueduct. Perhaps a wall could be constructed to hide the railyards, and a mural could be added to the wall to help beautify the area, too. The vision could be accomplished if the Army Corps of Engineers approved, and decided it was necessary. The biggest challenges would probably be funding, and moving the railyards if that was agreed upon.

References

Editors. "Los Angeles River Revitalization." LARiver.org. 2009. 23 Oct. 2009.

.… [read more]


Rapid Population Growth... Though I Am Impressed Essay

… ¶ … Rapid Population Growth...

Though I am impressed and elated at the black-footed ferret's proven ability to come back from the brink of extinction and repopulate its natural habitat after captive breeding, something in the first paragraph of this article caught my eye and deserves, I believe some measure of reaction. What attracted my attention and caused me to bristle slightly is the fact that many endangered species bred in captivity and then re-released to their natural habitats "fail to produce self-sustaining populations" due in part to the "persistence of the environmental factors that caused the species to become endangered." Now, it does not particularly raise my wrath that the authors include this seemingly obvious statement in the first two sentences of their article, but the fact that this fact needs to be included is somewhat maddening. If the same environmental pressures that caused a species to become endangered still exist after a captive population has been bred,…… [read more]


Water Resource Issues Essay

… Environmental Science

Overfishing

Fish were once a healthy and reliable source of protein for communities living by the sea. However, the increase in the overall population of the world combined with the popularity of certain species of fish for consumption in the developed world has lead to a devastating problem: overfishing. Simply put, "overfishing means catching fish faster than they can reproduce" (Monterey Bay Aquarium, 2008). Without addressing the problem of overfishing, future generations will not be able to enjoy the nutritional bounty of the sea, fishermen will face the loss of their livelihoods, and the delicate balance of the ecosystem of the ocean will be destroyed, as entire species are eliminated. Today, "almost 80% of the world's fisheries are fully- to over-exploited, depleted, or in a state of collapse" (Koster, 2007, Chapter 3)

Action Plan

Action Item 1: Research and identify the effects of overfishing.

Action Step 1: Go onto websites such as the Monterey Bay Aquarium site. Identify what fish are endangered and which are recommended for consumption because they are not endangered. Learn more about the problem of overfishing. Find human examples of how people have been harmed by its effects. Look at local restaurants, supermarkets, and fishmongers to see what they offer, and make a list of which establishments sell sustainable fish, and which sell endangered fish like Chilean Sea Bass.

Month 1)

Action Item 2: Educate the public

Action Step 2: Create educational literature, such as a brochure listing species of fish that can be consumed without harming the environment. Make the brochure interesting and informative. Include recipes for sustainable species of fish. Advertise restaurants that serve these species. Also include examples of how overfishing hurts fishermen and ultimately all of us, because of the way it hurts the local economy and our health due to the harm done to the ecosystem of the ocean.

Months 2-3)

Action Item 3: Get local businesses and restaurants involved

Action Step 3: Encourage local restaurants to serve more sustainable species and to include educational literature on their menu about why such species are being served. The same can be done at local fishmongers and supermarkets. Fishermen can also be contacted and asked to speak about the dangers of overfishing they have personally experienced to schools and local environmental groups.

Months 4-5).

Action Item 4: Get local, national, and international politicians involved.

Action Step 4: Organize a letter-writing campaign to U.S. Senators and Representatives, urging them to take action to end overfishing. Lobby them to raise "catch limits," the "constantly reassessed, scientifically determined, limit on the total number of fish caught and landed by a fishery" and to strengthen the controls on by-catch, or the amount of fish that can be destroyed because it is not part of the target catch (Koster, 2007, Chapter 3) Conduct a fundraiser for organizations committed to ending overfishing based in the community or striving to do so…… [read more]


New Bacterium Scientists in Japan, Mohammad Abdul Term Paper

… New Bacterium

Scientists in Japan, Mohammad Abdul Bakir, Takuji Kudo and Yoshimi Benno, have discovered a new species of bacteria named Microbacterium hatanonis sp. Nov. that can live in the cosmetic product hairspray (New species of bacteria contaminates hairspray, 2008). The scientists reported this discovery in the March, 2008 issue of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. They named Microbacterium hatanonis in honor of Dr. Kazunori Hatano, a well-known Microbacterium expert (Contaminated hairspray, 2008).

Uniqueness

The scientists looked at the appearance and diet of the bacterium and then analysed its genome to show that it is a new species (New species of bacteria contaminates hairspray, 2008). Although the bacteria belonged to the previously known genus Microbacterium, the scientists determined that it had a distinct, evolutionary lineage on the basis of the morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data and the results of the comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (Bakir, Kudo and Benno, 2008).

Taxonomy

Bakir, Kudo and Benno (2008) report that Microbacterium hatanonis is an aerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive, oxidase-ngative, catalase-positive bacterial isolate. The cell wall of Microbacterium hatanonis contained ornithine and the cell-wall sugars consisted of rhamnose and galactose. The main respiratory quinones were MK-12 (38%) and MK-11 (35%). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (48%), anteiso-C17: 0 (35%) and iso-C16: 0 (11%). The DNA G+C content was 69 mol%. The isolate showed <98 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to all other known Microbacterium species. The type strain is FCC-01T…… [read more]


Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Term Paper

… ¶ … Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (LADWP) and the Colorado River Aqueduct. The city and county of Los Angeles' water needs are changing, and reliance on the Colorado River Aqueduct for a major portion of the region's water needs is shortsighted and could lead to water shortages in the future. The flow and amount of water is the Colorado River is decreasing, and managing this decreasing supply will take skill, new technologies, and other solutions to make sure Los Angeles has enough water to supply its needs in the future.

The water management issue discussed here includes the LADWP built the Colorado River Aqueduct, and today, the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) manages the aqueduct, and it is their responsibility to distribute the water to member water agencies throughout the region. The problem is that more water is going out of the Colorado River to the seven member states that receive water from the Colorado River Compact than is being replenished by rain and snowmelt, and so, the river is on its way to drying up, along with Lake Mead, the major storage facility for the lower Colorado. One water district manager says, "The problem is simple, with nine million acre-feet a year [going] in and 10 million acre-feet a year out, the system will ultimately go bankrupt or, in our case, Lake Mead will empty'" (Hofer, 2008, p. 1). In addition, as the water level in the river goes down, the delta at the termination of the river is rapidly disappearing, and the river itself is just a trickle where it used to be a wide, flourishing river and delta system (Warrick, 2002). Thus, the river is running out of time, and people who rely on it need to find alternative sources of water and water management.

Historically, the Colorado River Aqueduct came to being in 1922 with the 1922 Colorado River Compact that allocated water rights to the seven states that share Colorado River drainage. A journalist notes, "The 1922 Compact, forged by the states and stamped by the U.S. Congress, remains the foundation for the river's operations. It divides the use of the waters of the river on a 50-50 basis between the upper four and the lower three basin states, allotting 7.5 million acre-feet to each basin" (Hofer, 2007, p. 2). The Compact is the first historical milestone in the story of the Colorado River Aqueduct. It apportions the river "between two groups of states -- the Upper Basin, comprising Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico, and the Lower Basin, comprising Arizona, Nevada, and California" (Schulte, 2002, p. 14). This was necessary to ensure that California did not appropriate nearly all the water from the river, as it had a history of doing.

The next milestone is the construction of the aqueduct itself. The LADWP Web site notes, "In 1925 the Department of Water and Power (DWP) was established and the voters of Los Angeles approved a $2 million bond issue to perform the… [read more]


Metamorphosis Gregor, a Traveling Textile Salesman Living Term Paper

… ¶ … Metamorphosis

Gregor, a traveling textile salesman living with his parents and sister, Grete, finds himself burdened by the responsibilities of providing for his family and his monotonous and tiring profession "O God," he thought, "what a demanding job I've chosen! Day in, day out, on the road... If I didn't hold back for my parents' sake, I'd have quit ages ago. (Metamorphosis: 2). One day, Gregor turns into to a giant bug; his transformation is deeply metaphorical symbolizing personal alienation from a life of hardships and unhappiness. Nonetheless, his metamorphosis also alters his middle class family's dynamics as Gregor is rendered helpless and thus useless in the eyes of his demanding family.

Metaphors are used throughout the story to illustrate the lack of communication among the members of a middle class family. Gregor's transformation is the only way he can be free from his demanding family. He is released from the responsibility of having to provide for his parents and sister but this also means that he is impaired from having a life of any kind leaving him to depend upon his family. The roles here are reversed: before the metamorphosis, his family depended on him for financial support but now, Gregor finds himself in the position to be completely dependant on his parents and sister. Communication becomes absolutely impossible as humans cannot communicate with insects; this total lack of communication between two species is, in fact, a metaphor of the difficult relationship that Gregor Samsa had always had with his father: "No request of Gregor's was of any use; no request would even be understood. No matter how willing he was to turn his head respectfully, his father just stomped all the harder with his feet" (Metamorphosis: 8). The rest of Gregor's family also rejects him. However, despite the fact that his family's initial reaction is hatred and resentment, in time they manage to adjust their lives accordingly in the sense that they are forced to learn how to provide and take care of themselves in the absence of Gregor.

Nonetheless, the metaphor of the bug can also be interpreted from a different perspective. Gregor's transformation could in fact be strictly spiritual in the sense that his physical shape might not change. His deadening job and demanding family could be the factors leading to his inner metamorphosis as one can lead the life of a bug without actually being one. We see Gregor through his family's eyes. He does not need to actually transform as his family already sees him as a bug. Communication is scarce; so is emotional connection between Gregor and his parents and sister who regard him as a mere source of income, and not as a human being. Kafka's central metaphor is thus two-sided in the sense that on one hand, Gregor could actually turn into a bug; on the other hand, he might just be made to feel like one by his family and job. This ambiguity is launched in the very… [read more]


Endangered Species and Habitat Conservation Plan Term Paper

… Endangered Species & Habitat Conservation Plan

Endangered Aquatic Species

The Shortnose Sturgeon, formally referred to as Acipenser brevirostrum, is among the federally endangered aquatic species, which are protected by federal government (SOCNFWR, 2007). The Shortnose Sturgeon is commonly found along the Connecticut River from Turners Falls, Massachusetts to the Long Island Sound. It is the smallest of three sturgeon species known to inhabit North America. These fish are known for their long life spans - known to exceed 65 years for females, and nearly 30 for males (Dadswell, 1984).

The Shortnose Sturgeon was listed as an endangered species throughout its entire range on March 11, 1967. This was part of the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1996 (Dadswell, 1984). The Shortnose Sturgeon became the first federally endangered freshwater fish in New England, and remains the only to this day. In the 1890's, sturgeon themselves became the most valuable fisheries in the Bay and along the East Coast. They were collected to add up to nearly 725,000 pounds per landing average during this particular decade. As these fish tend to have slow reproduction cycles, their population plummeted and by the 1920's, they yielded catches that had fallen to an average of only 22,000 pounds (Blankenship, 2007). As civilization progressed and spread in the areas of the Shortnose Sturgeon's habitat, many of their spawning areas were overcome by damns, bridges and other man-made objects. These factors are considered the most evident and prominent influences in the Shortnose Sturgeon's decline.

When the Shortnose Sturgeon was listed as and endangered aquatic species, conservation plans began and studies were conducted in how its population could be maintained. The fishing and trapping of the Shortnose Sturgeon became illegal and was imposed by a fine of $20,000 for even tampering with the fish (SOCNFWR, 2007). A Federal critical habitat plan was completed in 1998, where many ordinances were set in place to reach a full recovery of the Shortnose Sturgeon by 2024 (U.S.D.O.F., 1998). The recovery plan was drafted by a seven-member recovery team made up of Federal, state and private institutions with both fishery and management backgrounds (U.S.D.O.F., 1998). The plan consists of an updated synopsis of the biology and distribution of the Shortnose Sturgeon, a description of factors affecting species recovery, an outline of actions needed to recover the species, and a detailed implementation schedule for completing specific recovery tasks (U.S.D.O.F., 1998).

Populations of the Shortnose Sturgeon have been protected in populations through a joint NMFS/FWS policy that recognizes distinct vertebrate population segments. These population segments are under rigorous study and assisted reproduction operation. Each population segment is under high priority of maintaining the population size threshold in order to sustain the needed size for recovery success (U.S.D.O.F., 1998). Restrictions are currently in affect to avoid placing roads, houses, and other developments within 250 feet of waterways providing habitat for the Shortnose Sturgeon.

Neither a Safe Harbor Agreement nor a Candidate Conservation Agreement exists for the Shortnose Sturgeon (U.S.F.W.S., 2007). The main purpose of a… [read more]


Wilderness Bill Act 1964 Term Paper

… Wilderness Bill or Wilderness Act, developed out of the work of the Wilderness Society, led by Howard Zahniser. The bill came about as a response to the rapid urbanization and sprawl of the nation, which resulted in a rapid decline in the amount of protected wilderness space. At its core, the act created a legal definition for "wilderness" and, when enacted on September 3, 1964, protected over nine million acres of federal wilderness area.

Although prior to the act many wilderness areas were protected by administrative orders, the enactment of the Wilderness Act ensured that all federal land that qualified under the know clearly defined meaning of wilderness would be forever protected through the National Wilderness Preservation System. (Gorte, et. al.).

The Wilderness Society was founded in 1935 with the purpose of creating a "systematic protection of this nation's special wild places." (the Wilderness Society, et. al.). When Zahniser became president of the organization in 1955, he was disillusioned with the up-to-then piecemeal attempts to preserve these areas. Zahniser said:

Let us be done with a wilderness preservation program made up of a sequence of overlapping emergencies, threats and defense campaigns." (Harvey, p. 83).

From this statement the Wilderness Act was drafted. Eight years, eighteen hearings and sixty-six versions later, the Wilderness Act was passed several months after Zahniser's death. However, his definition of wilderness remained powerful:

An area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain." (the Wilderness Act, 1964).

Today this definition includes all lands managed by the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the Bureau of Land Management.

One of the key provisions of the act was its requirement that every wilderness area designated by Congress be given a specific boundary line, which was included in the statutory law. Once the wilderness area was added to the Wilderness Area Protection System, it was set in stone as the only way to alter the boundary was through another Congressional act.

The parameters of the Wilderness Act are aimed at ensuring real protection to federal lands for the preservation for future generations. According to the Wilderness Act, all land that is protected under its jurisdiction became areas of public land. Further, a designation as being a wilderness is an additional protection given to the land that supersedes any less protection granted by the administrative agency overseeing the national forest, national park, wildlife refuges and other forms of public land. The Wilderness Act also places an emphasis on conservation instead of tourism or public use. According to Doug Scott,

We strive to restrain human influences so that ecosystems can change over time in their own way, free, as much as possible, from human manipulation...the earth and…… [read more]


Black Fly Larvae Term Paper

… Black Fly Larvae

According to William F. Lyon at Ohio State University the scientific name for the black fly is "Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt, Simulium venustum Say, Simulium jenningsi, or Prosimulium sp." According to Lyon there are species of the adult black female fly that are "fierce biters, whereas others are strictly a nuisance by their presence around one's nostrils, ears, arms, hands, and other exposed skin areas." (2000)

TRANSMISSION of DISEASES

When the black fly bites the area will appear "as a small, red, central sport surrounded by a slightly reddened, swollen area." The bite will then become "itchy, swollen and irritating..." (Lyon, 2000) These flies are known to transmit a disease of "filarial worms, onchocerciasis" which can cause blindness and as well may transmit encephalitis. The following labeled Figure 1 is an illustration of the black fly larva (top) and the Pupa (bottom)

Black Fly Larvae and Pupa

Source: William F. Lyons (2000)

SPECIES: HABITS and LIFE-CYCLE

The different species of the black fly have life cycles and habits that are somewhat different from one another. The Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt species is known for pestering horses and cattle and can be found on a wide basis in North America. The second species or the Simulium venustum Say is one that bites fiercely and is distributed throughout New England and Canada. The third species or the Similium jenningsi is one that breeds in large rivers. The states of Pennsylvania and New England along with other states in the area are involved in a "biological larvicide" initiative to control the larvae's spread into the river and streams. The fourth species or the Prosimulium sp is one that is a bother in early spring and both swarms and bites with the larvae being found in smaller woodland streams. (Lyon, 2000) the following labeled Figure 2 illustrates the lifecycle of the black fly.

Lifecycle of the Black Fly

Source: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (2003)

III. LARVAE: SUSTENANCE and HABITAT

The young larvae "attach themselves to submerged objects" and molt six times while in the growth process. These larvae are "elongate with the hind part of their bodies swollen" and eat through use of a "head fan [which] sweeps food material into the mouth." (Lyon, 2000) These larvae stabilize their position in the water with…… [read more]


What Is the Role of Herring in the Fish Industry? Term Paper

… ¶ … Herring in the fish Industry

There is a lot of research today on the role of the herring, as in the fishing industry. One of the most important aspects being studied is the way in which scientists and… [read more]


Biology a Computer Term Paper

… Computers do not have any of the five levels of organization of life, so they cannot be "alive" even though they react to our input.

There are five levels in the organization of life. The first is cells, which are the basic structural unit in all living things. Cells can be very different, such as blood cells, bone cells, skin cells, etc. Next is tissue and all living things have tissue, too. Tissue is made up of cells that are alike, like bone tissue and muscle tissue. Third are organs, and they are a vital part of the organization of life. They give life to many objects, and are made up of groups of tissues that work together, like the heart, the lungs, the liver, and so on. Fourth are organ systems, which are made up of groups of two or more tissues. Examples of these include digestive, circulatory, skeletal, reproductive, etc. Finally are the organisms. These are fully alive and can grow, reproduce, take in food and excrete it, etc. They are usually made up of organ systems, but they can be single celled.… [read more]


Ecology / Biology Term Paper

… In fact, they engaged in fewer staggered dashes, engaged in more slow swims, and re-emerged from cover more frequently than the non-infected fish (Barber, et. al., 1431-1438). Because their findings were so similar to those found by Foster and Ness… [read more]


Imitate Poe's Style Term Paper

… Poe Style

River's Dusk

It was just at the moments of dusk, when the swallows begin to circle, temporarily blocking the sky from view, and the balm of night begins to penetrate the senses giving way to imagination of sinisterly events to come with the darkness, it was just at these moments that Laura spotted it, just across the bank, on the wooded side of the river, water black with red about it.

She had been sitting at the water's edge since sunset, wrapped snug in her brother's old army blanket, warm against the chill of the autumn air. It was exactly two weeks before the winter solstice, and soon much of river's banks would be frozen solid, trapping all beneath in a coffin of ice. This was one of Laura's favorite times of year, trees bared, allowing her to peer into the woods, glimpsing deer, hooves crunching along the dried leaves as they made their way deeper into the woods.

As Laura sat, still and quiet except for the sound and motion of her own breath, she began to hear leaves snapping just up-river. Without moving her head, her eyes moved left, following the echo. Laura had spent so many evenings, years of evenings actually, right here, at this spot, nestled between the willow and the oak, that she recognized each sound as one familiar with the creeks and cracks of his own house. This was not deer, and it was not Mr. Larson's dog, Ginger, who often spent afternoons sharpening her skills for prey. No, Laura knew immediately that this was a human, and from the rhythm of deliberate steps, it was certain…… [read more]


San Antonio River Tunnel Term Paper

… A recent example illustrates the tunnel's practical usefulness. San Antonio endured tremendous rains and flooding in 1998. The tunnel diverted much of the rain runoff, thus preventing the downtown district from being submerged in an estimated 6 feet of water. Thus, it has been proposed that the tunnel has already paid for itself regarding the damage prevention from this episode.

Not only will the tunnel lessen flood risk in San Antonio, but the city is currently focused on ecosystem restoration, which will reduce erosion and create an environment more suitable for recreation and wildlife. Restorative efforts include planting of trees and vegetation and the creation of wildlife habitat areas. These collaborative efforts will likely further lessen the risk of flood in San Antonio in the future.

In summary, the San Antonio River Tunnel is a recent addition to the city that has already proven its effectiveness. Furthermore, the tunnel will remain a benefit to the…… [read more]


Lord of the Rings: Fellowship Term Paper

… Hobbits were attacked by trees, with trees shifting their way to block the route of the group. One time in their journey, two hobbits were trapped by a tree. However, fortunately, the hobbits was saved by Tom Bombadil, a man who was just in time passing in the place. Tom Bombadil rescued the group and offered his residence for the group to stay for some time.

That night, the group was welcomed in Tom Bombadil's house. They were served with foods and a place to rest. Tom was a happy guy. He told a lot of stories to Frodo and the hobbits. The group was surprised to realize that they were very happy in Tom and Goldberry's, Tom's wife, company. The next day was also spent by Frodo and the hobbits in Tom's house. This is because of the hard rain that fell. Again, with the Bombadil's company, Frodo and the group were able to learn things about the place. Tom told them stories of the place and informed that he had been there even before the river and the trees. Later in the day, the hobbits made Frodo wear the ring. After which, they realized that the disappearing power of the ring does not work to Frodo. Frodo did not disappear.

The next morning, Frodo and the group continued their travel in the forest, finding the Old Forest's exit. Along their travel, they encountered weird experiences like sleeping unintentionally. Frodo also encountered falling into darkness, waking up later, and finding out the he was trapped in a barrow. Fortunately, with a cry for help, Tom Bombadil appeared to help them. Frodo and the hobbits were once again saved. Tom accompanied the group in finding the exit from Old Forest.

Frodo and the group encountered more experiences of danger in their next destinations. This includes the Black Riders and the scouts of Sauron and Gollum. Frodo and the hobbits traveled from Breeland, to the Ford of Bruinen, to the Misty Mountains, to Caradhras, to Khazad-dum, to Lorien, to the Anduin River, until the place where Frodo has to decide whether to continue their travel to Orodruin. When Boromir, another travel, tried to get the ring from Frodo, Frodo wore the ring in his finger to escape from Boromir. Frodo was able to see all evils.

Frodo only took off the ring from his finger after a long time of wearing it. This is because he felt the evil eye of Sauron from the ring. Frodo decided to continue on the travel by himself, without his hobbit friends because he did not want to put them in danger. However, Sam, a very loyal friend refused to let Frodo alone.

The Fellowship of the Ring concluded with Frodo and Sam continuing on with their travel to the evil land of Mordor to finish their mission of destroying the magic ring.… [read more]

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